THE AD aINISTRATION AND SUPERVISORY PROBLEMS INVOLVED IN
THE CONSOLIDATION OF RURAL SCHOOLS OF JACKSON COUNTY
Presented to the
Graduate Committee of
the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science in Education
Lee Cleveland Herring, Jr.
THE ADMINISTRATIVE AND SUPERVISORY PROBLIErLS
INVOLVED IN THE CONSOLIDATION OF RURAL SCHOOLS
OF JACKSON COUNTY
Presented t t the Graduate Committee of the Florida Agri-
cultural and Mechanical University in Partial Fulfillnent
of the Requirements for the Degree Master of
Science in Education
ea, Graduate choo
The writer wishes to express his appreciation to
I-Ir. A. J. Polk, Dr. Charles J. Stanley and Mrs. L. W.
Sewell for their constructive criticisms. Acknowledg-
ments are also due IMrs. Lola N. Reed for her efficient
service in typing the manuscript. Special acknowledg-
ments are for Dr. W. S. Maize, Dean of the Graduate
School, without whose constant encouragement the thesis
would not have been possible.
L. C. H.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. INTRODUCTION .. . 1
Statement of Problem . 2
Basic Assumptions . 3
Delimitation add Scope of
Investigation . . 3
Definition of Terms 4
II. PROCEDURE .......... 9
Problems in Administration . 9
Jackson County's Consolidation
Program o & . 9
Ways and ideans of Collecting
Information . . 10
Problems Facing the Supervisor
of Instruction ... 14.
Program to Improve Instruction
in Jackson County 14
Techniques to Improve Instruction
in the Consolidated Schools of
Jackson County .. 17
SURVEY OF RELATED LITERATURE .
TABLE 0. COUTEN'TS (Conit)
Promoting Consolidation 19
Types of Consolidation .. *. 20
Sore 1-oney Better Spent . 20
Large Units of Support and Control 22
Reorganization of School Administration
Areas . . 24
Cooperation Between Units . 27
Consolidation Areas . 28
Community Schools . . 29
Regional School . . 30
Transportation . . 30
Varied Experiences and Wider Social
Contact for the Pupil in Consolidated
Schools s % p 34
School Sites, Building and Equipment 38
Building Programs . . 39
School Building Needs . . 39
Long Term Building Programs . 40
Educational Plan . . 41
Expenditure Program .. 41
The Consolidated School Building. 41
The School . . . 42
Reorganization in South Carolina 43
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont)
The Consolidation Program, Weld
County, Colorado .. . 44
Buildings . . . 44
Obstacles to Consolidation . 44
Open Country Versus Village Consoli-
dation . 45
IV. ANALYSIS OF THE DATA .. % 47
V. SUIMIARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOiKE.2NATIONS 61
LIST OF TABLES
I. School Center, 1944-1954; Negro
Jackson County ...... ...... 50
II. Teacher Certification and Rank, 1944-
1954: regro Jackson County . 52
III, Expenditures: Capital Outlay -
Support and maintenance Funds, 1944-
1954: Negro Jackson County .. 5
IV. Expenditures: Capital Outlay -Support
and Maintenance Funds, 1944-54 Negro
Jackson County . .. 56
V. Enrollment by Grades and Grade Groups
1944-54: Jackson County, ... 58
VI. Full-time Positions of Instructional
Staff, 1944-1954: Negro Jackson County. 60
According to historical records, Jackson County was
formulated from the old Spanish Provinces; the Chipola
Region, August 12, 1822, after Florida had been in the
possession of the United States for approximately one year.
It was named for Andrew Jackson who was thcn an important
contemporary historical figure and one who played a major
role in the development of Florida. It is located in the
northwest section of Florida, bounded on the north and north-
west by the states of Georgia and Alabama.
At present, Jackson County is the largest agricultural
county in Florida, covering 620,000 acres, of which 240,000
acres are farm land. Due to the fertility of the soil
Jackson County has many large farms where a variety cf crops
are grown. Cattle ranches and milk dairies are prevalent
there. ',ith an area of 939 square miles, Jackson County's
population statistics reveal the following: Total Popu-
lation as of 1950 34,500; Rural Pupulation 27,595, and the
density of population 36.7.
The future reveal the struggle between the old guards
who want no changes and the new generation who wants to
modernize the communities for better living for its citizens.
Randall J. Stanley, E history of Jackson County
i-arianna, Jackson County Historical Society, 1951, p. 1.
Rural America is changing everywhere. The impact of urban
ways exert influence on rural life. The impact of the out-
side jorld is ever at the doorsteps of most rural conmmuni-
ties. The inflow of new ideas, social foriis, and moral
codes are the topics of todayts discussion and action.
Changes for uhe better have been accelerated during the
past decade and 1.ill undoubtedly continue if present indi-
cations are correct.
The Ceepest meaning of democracy is equality of
opportunity. NIo real progress and no lasting improvement
in any line of life is possible except through better edu-
cation of the people. Some of the best minds s of our nation
and others have attacked the problem of h;ow to best improve
rural education. The consolidation of rural schools is
one tentative solution for this great problem of how to
secure more effective rural education and thus, a higher
type of rural life.
Statement of the Qroblem. It is the purpose of
this study to discuss and point up the various problems
relative to the consolidation of rural schools in Jackson
County, and as these problems relate to Administration and
Supervision, r;d suggested ways of alleviating or completely
3asic Assumptions. That Lhe consolidation of rural
schools will provide:
1. Improved educational facilities.
2. lore varied educational experiences for the
3. 'ider social contact for che child.
4. Improved teaching procedures.
Importance of the study, 'le investi;;.:tor is not
aware of any research as such which points up the .'roble:i.s
of consolidation pertaining oo ti.e area of supervision and
administration in Jackson County. It is the belief of the
investigator th.t such information would be invaluable to
supervisors, administrators, and school staff j;iembers. If
the lay public iLas some understanding of the problems in-
volved in the consolidation of rural schools, their many
attitudes and concepts Loward consolidation would, perhaps,
be positive rather than, in ::Iany instances, negative.
Delimitation or Sconfe of Investitation. This study
is limited to poiingin. up the ,any and wvried proble;.is
which accrue or is contingent upon consolidation of rural
schools of Jackson County as they relate to ad:linistzr.-'i.tion
Definition of Terms
Facilitating Function. 'o facilitate means to
help others do the things they cannot do for themselves.
Co-ordinating Function. Lake it possible for
individuals to share with one another, help each other,
and work as a group or groups in the improvement of the
school, or any project.
Evaluating Function. -What has been accomplished
in terms of vhat one started out toodo how far has this
effort helped us to progress.
Expression. Giving children opportunity to learn
through self-expression and doing things rather than being
mere passive listeners and manipulators of second hand
Practice. Encouraging children to perfect them-
selves by repeated efforts in the various skills which
thcy must obtain.
Objectification. iMaing the learning of children
concrete in the sense of being objective, t object-teachin g,
laboratory apparatus, demnonstr-,tion, excursions, use of
material things, pictures, etc., for illustrations.
Induction. Helping children to do their own
thinking through the discovery of principles from par-
ticular facts, finding similarities which embrace many
experiences, learning through the use of typed studies,
following the five formal steps of Herbart as refined by
Dewey in his "How We Think".
Deduction. Giving children ability to select the
principles which govern particular cases which are
problematic to them, to apply general principles to par-
ticular problems, and to gain power in guiding conduct
in the light of generalized experiences, and reciting by
topics certain conditions.
Formal Association. Helping children to learn the
meaning of words of language and formal linguistic symbols
in their concrete life settings rather than in a highly
Study. Giving children ability and opportunity to
get knowledge, develop habits, gain ideas, and establish
interests, attitudes, and appreciations through their
own independent efforts, training in the techniques of
the learning process, including, for example, memorizing
in the quickest and most economical manner, and getting
command of the various tools of study such as the dictionary,
encyclopedias, references, etc., teaching, as the super-
vision of learning.
Discipline. So guarding the life of the school as
to promote the best working spirit on the -part of all and
as to avoid disorder and the breaking down of the value,
and purpose of conformity to the social order of the school
and community, and by expressive control, such as, giving
opportunity to act out, to work out,w-ayward emotions in
desirable ways, rewarding desirable actions and expressions
neglecting undesirable actions and robbing them of their
stimuli, surrounding children with incentives and stimuli
bo worthy efforts, and removing temptations to undesirable
actions, putting the stamp of disapproval of school and
teacher upon unworthy action, and by substituting channels
of desirable response for those which are offensive.
Appreciation. Cultivating the esthetic feelings and
responses of children, such as, sense of humor, love of
the beautiful, spirit of sportsmanship, taste in dress,
love of good music, love of desirable forms of recreation
and harmless enjoyment, etc., and furnishing ways to pro-
vide ethical expression along the various lines these
responses are to be cultivated; also, used to cover interests,
taste, prejudices, point of view, etc.
Instruction. Saving information to children directly
by short talks, reading, etc., in which the children take
the part principally of listeners and the teacher that of
the story-teller, the lecturer, the instructor; the prin-
cipal method in German and French schools.
Investigation, Encouraging children to learn things
for themselves; to get to sources and facts and interpret
them for themselves; to gain power in independent study.
Examination. Testing rather large units of subject
matter in more or less a formal manner, frequently by
having pupil write on what they have learned and have been
taught; desirable as an incentive and review, especially
for older pupils; gives pupil educative opportunity inde-
pendently to organize and clarify their knowledge or
improve their habits.
review. Fixing learning by repeating, applying and
reorganizing it at less frequent intervals than the brief
recall of related, apperceptive knowledge at the daily
recitation or lesson.
Assignment. Helping children when left to themselves
to take up new work or to drill on old work in an effective
and economical way without, however, robbing them of their
own opportunity to grow unaided; usually slighted as a
phase or type of teaching.
Consolidated Rural School. May be defined tenta-
tively as a school produced by bringing together the pupil
of two or more single-room or other schools in a graded
school of at least two rooms and two teachers for the pur-
pose of better educational advantages.
Complete Territorial and Grade Consolidation. This
is a condition wherein all of the grades.of all of the
schools within a given unit of organization are brought to-
gether into one or more multiple teacher school units.
Complete Territorial and Complete Grade Consplidation.
This type of consolidation is frequently found. In some
cases all the elementary pupils are left in the small school
and the four-year high school, In other cases only six
elementary grades are left in small schools and the junior
and senior high school students are transported.
Partial Territorial and complete Grade Consolidation.
This type of consolidation is often objectionable, as it
frequently loaves certain areas so stranded that it would
be impossible even to get complete territorial consolidation
without a re-locating of district.
Partial Te.ritorial and Partial Grade Consoli dation.
This form of consolidation frequently arises fromi the high
school r .aintained by a rural village drawing tuition stu-
dents from surrounding tICritory,
Democracy. A theory of government which, in its
purest fonrm, loldcs that the state should be controlled
by all the people, each sharing ecq-ually in privileges,
duties, and responsibilities and each participating in
person in the govermnent,
Problems of Administration. Those who a re active
in the promotion of consolidation in Jackson County are
faced with the following existing problems: (1) the
conservation and prejudices of the people, (2) the trans-
portation problem, (3) the added expense, (4) the character
of the teaching in the consolidated schools.
Jackson County's Consolidation Program
Jackson County's consolidation program is planned
from the consolidation program on the County-Unit system,
Many factors were taken in consideration in Jackson County
in planning consolidation of rural schools. The most im-
portant among those were:
1. Expenditures for consolidated schools
2. Location of centers
3. Highway development
4. Density of population
5. Probable population changes
6. Trends in normal population for various areas
7. Historical background of community
8. Prejudices of the people and public indifference
9. Bus transportation
10, School physical facilities
Ways and i'eans of Collecting Information
In planning or formulating the program of consoli-
dation, a county map was obtained showing landmarks,
sections, community sites, school sites, streams, hard-
surfaced roads, rivers, bridges and primitive roads.
ILaps ..ere studied by state experts on consolidation,
county officials and personnel, who were to gather per-
tinent information. 'his information was gathered from
such sources as: records, interviews, photographs, bus
routes and surveys, The following surveys were made:
1. Surveys revealing the least distant of bus routes.
2. Spotting of pupils for a given bus route.
3. Surveys to reflect the community's attitude toward
discontinuing the school in a given community.
4. Surveys to determine possible future aspects as
to number of pupils who will be in attendance at
a given school.
5. Surveys to determine pupil's needs.
6. Surveys of Attendance Records kept in one and
two teacher schools.
7. Surveys to show pupil's attendance during very
8. Conferences with parents and other interested
persons in the community.
9. Surveys showing the longest distance any pupil
would have to walk to bus stop.
10. Surveys to determine attitudes and thinking
where consolidation took place.
11. Conferences with community representatives con-
cerning partial and total consolidation.
12. Interviews with individual parents about the
little community school as to its effectiveness
in the community.
13. Interviews with the administration's choice of
certain citizens of any given community as to
their attitudes toward consolidation.
14. Informal discussions with high school students
in the attempt to have them reveal their atti-
tudes toward being transported to larger con-
15. Interviews with teachers of schools that were to
be discontinued, to secure their attitudes toward
i6. Surveys revealing land owners, and number of
also tenant farmers
and the number of
school a ge,
17, Community maps
nation of the community as
18. Photographs of
the school buildings
to be dis-
showing pupils and teachers working
together in one and two teacher schools.
the tVpes and kinds
equipment and teaching tools
in the school
20. Informal talks with
citizens at random,
cerning the new consolidated
21. surveys to show the formal training of the
teachers in the new
22. Surveys to show the
teachers in the new
23. Interviews with
individuals to secure suitable
Problems Facing the Supervisor of Instruction
Problems facing the supervisor of instruction were
many and varied. Aside from attempting to use what
might be called the objective method in placing teachers
where they might serve the school and the community in
light of their formal training, in the consolidated
schools, one could easily observe undue hate and fear
among at least 90% of the teachers. Almost 95% of the
teachers of Jackson County were born and reared there.
Obviously, this condition creates many problems.
Since it is well-known that teachers and principals
carried with them their past experiences to the consoli-
dated school, the grave problem is how can we, the
supervisor, teacher, and principal develop a program to
improve instruction so that nieaningful learning is pro-
vided for the pupil in the consolidated school.
Program to Improve Instruction in Jackson County
The first organized effort to improve or to indicate
better teaching in the consolidated schools was held
during the Post Planning Period of 1950.. A stimulating
program was developed with real direction toward the
improvement of instruction. The entire teacher personnel
of the county was organized based on their certification,
1. Special teachers
b. Physical Education
c. Trade and Vocational Education
a. Grades 1-3
3. Intermediate Grades
a. Grades 4-6
4, Junior High School
a. Grades 7-9
5. Senior High School
For ten days the various groups worked on the problem
of "The Role of the Teacher". Great differences of opinion
have existed regarding the role of the teacher in the class-
room. In the traditional program, she was the autocratic
dispenser of the program handed dovm from the administration
in the form of courses of texts. In extreme cases in the new
program, she has appeared to be only an observer of a class.
The teacher personnel of Jackson County attacked the program
of instruction in the light of Deweyss interpretation of the
teacher. He points out that the teacher:
1. ust have that sympathetic understanding of indi-
viduals which gives him an idea of what is actually
going on in the mind of those who are learning.
2. Must understand the needs and capacities of the
individuals who are learning at a given time.
It is not enough that certain materials and
methods have proved effective with other indi-
viduals at other times. There must be reasons
for thinking that they will function in generating
an experience that has an educative quality with
particular individuals at a particular time.
3. Is responsible for the knowledge of individuals
and for a knowledge of subject matter that will
enable activities to be selected which lend them-
selves social organization, and organization in
which the activity in which all participate, are
the chief carrier of control.
4. Must survey the capacities and needs of the par-
ticular set of individuals with whom he is dealing
and must at the same time, provide experiences
that satisfy these needs and develop these capa-
cities. The plans must be flexible enough to
permit free play for individuality of experience
and yet, finn enough to give direction toward
continuous development of power.
5. Must be able to judge what attitudes are actually
conducive to continued growth and to what is
6. Must not only be aware of the general principles
of the shaping of actual experiences by environ-
mental conditions, but they must recognize in
the concrete what surroundings are conducive to
having experiences that lead to growth.
7. Must select those things within the range of
existing experience that have the promise and po-
tentiality of presenting new problems which, by
stimulating new ways of observation and judgment
will expand the area of further experience.
8. Should allow his suggestion to develop into a
plan and project by means of further suggestions
and organized into a whole by the members of the
TECHNIQUES TO IMP,-OVE INSTRUCTIONt IN THE CO SOLTDATED SCHOOLS
The county supervisor employed Lo give expert, tech-
nical service to teachers, pupils, principals and superinten-
dents inn an organized program calculated to bring about
improvement in classroom teaching procedures was generally
concerned in introducing the following types of teaching to
bring about improvement of teaching in the consolidated
6. Formal Association
SURVEY OF RELATED LITERATURE
Promoting Consolidation. According to Charles D.
Lewis, every person interested in the improvement of
rural life, and in making education contribute to this
end in the largest possible degree should be a promoter
of consolidation. Teachers, school officials, parents,
and taxpaying citizens have their part to play in
The consolidated school of any type is a better
institution for the training of citizens than is any form
of small unit school. The money value of education has
been sadly over-emphasized during the past three decades,
but there seem to be no doubt that the caoiunity which
develops a good school of the consolidated type will gain
in both spiritual and material values. America today is
in need of a consistent and persistent educational camp-
aign to convince the general public that good education
and schools are of the most vital importance to society
as a moans of securing a permanent prosperity for its
citizenship, and that type of cultural development which
will give the fullest measure of satisfaction froa the
leisure time which modern science has not only made possible
but necessary. The one and two teacher school can do a fair
service sofar as training in the formal tools pf learning and
expression are concerned, but such an institution cannot
province adequately tlat broader and richer training which
ministers to the 3i'.or needs of humanity and which must
be neither incidental nor cheap. Consolidation must cone
as tie: results of careful planning and liberal spending.
Types of Consolidation
T.ere are for general tys of consolidation as
ex.pressed in tr fs of com.pleteness cr martial nature of
thic .rocess. Te ese types are: (1) -Completo territorial
and v;r.de consclid;tti on, (2) Complete territorial and
partial ar-de consolidation, () ?:irtial. territori-l and
co:;;plcta ;rado consolidation, and (4) Partial territorial
Iad ;art i r con solid : on.
.o.010 .cf! mc e J le11,t
.:.pter St.tcG s : Kirc Loov: on t coo
r=:P:,1 scholS 'b.: tor lo.0;2 school tr.:: -t :2 a nearer
approach o 7\ ac:Looln c.vi ; t:.t wz::,e nr-:':-:r of ..:onthz
in: tl. met col yc--:?, l'.r; --r 1..- .i,:.t:: l.r : .; crt n:d .d-
*,:1 .;' _.:
.. .-t : Ao:.1 *a b o-; -i s.'.: ry 'I o.5
1 1 ,;k I%
as compared with taxes and expenditures for other less
important purposes. ,le are yet far fr'n Dr. Eliotts ideal,
of expenditure for education of the child equal to that for
its food or clothing. In 1912 the total expenditures for
all public school purposes in the United States averaged
the amount of .;5.05 per capital of the total population.
In that year the total expenditure for public schools was
approxiratcly ,483,000,000 but only 3235,000,000 less
than 59 per cent of the whole was for techler's salaries.
Teaciher''s salaries, the ,nost important item in the
lengthening of thiC school tena, could, therefore, be doubled
with an increase of less than 60 per cent in the total ex-
penditures. The substantial amount uould increase monthlyly
salaries of teachers and, at tl'e sa:e time, lengthen the
school tenn to an average of 180 or 200 days. Even if no
additions were made to the monthly salary of the teacher,
tie longer annual salary that would cole with a longer school
term would increase the efficiency of the schools in other
ways and especially by placing and keeping in the schools
better teachers and giving them more opportunity for ex-
perience and enabling them to concentrate t:oeir energies
to a greater e:'te;t on the ':ork of the school. It is the
salary for the year rather than tho salary for T'ih :month
L. i'Lapcer, The Consolidated 7ural School, Jev; York:
Scribners aid Sons. 1920, p. 31.
that counts. Rapeer believed that no thinking man or
woman with any knowledge of economic causes and con-
ditions will deny that this increase in school funds might
be made both easily and profitably. It would be easy to
show where much more than this amount could be saved in
public or private expenditures without injury to any
Large Units of Support and Control
Per capital wealth varies sharply from one section
to another and from one local community to another, and
the variation is not always due to the industry or other
virtues of the people or to the lack of them. Fertile
lands, mines and convenience of waterways, highways, and
railways, with regard to natural routes of commerce, might
enable the people of one community to obtain larger results
from their investments of labor and capital than those of
another. Therefore, while one community may levy taxes
for better schools, another community might find it diffi-
cult to do so. The larger part of the school funds should
be raised by taxes levied on all the taxable property, rural
and urban alike, of both county and state. Some of the
school fund should be set apart to help counties in propor-
tion to their needs. This part should be apportioned
Ibid, p. 33.
to ihe several counties of 'he state in :roortion to
school population or agregate attendance, and inversely
as the ratio of taxable property to school population.
The idea that the federal government, through some modi-
fication of its earlier policy by which it gave millions
of acres of public lands for the support of public school,
should conserve and promote all its most important interest,
by devoting so-i e parts of its revenues to public education.
It should apportion its appropriations for the purpose of
equalizing school facilities caused by difference in tax
paying ability in the several states, and at the same time,
give the largest possible encouragement to the states to
help themselves, leaving to the states full freedom in the
development and control of their school system.
With the larger units of support must, of course,
come larger units of control and more efficient agencies
of administration and supervision. It is seldom wise to
give to small communities funds from what appears to them
foreign treasury without making at least some suitable
provision for the expenditure. Examples of lhe bad effects
of such a policy are too numerous to require specification.
In all those states in which the county is the unit for
other governmental purposes, it should be the unt also for
Ibid, p. 33
school ad.. inistration. In the New England States where
the town is the.governmental unit, the town is the unit
of school administration. In the state of New York,
with its strongly centralized system, supervision may
well be under the immediate direction of the state with
its district superintendent as its agent.
Reorganization of School Administration Areas
DeYoung states that public education is directly
the responsibility of almost 120,000 school districts
in the United States. This unnecessarily large number
of administrative units may be reduced through elimi-
nation and consolidation. The elimination of schools
with few pupils and the combining of small districts
should be a part of the state wide program for reform.
It must be constantly borne in mind that t is reorgani-
zation involves not only land, but people also, particu-
larly children. A child-centered administrative unit
places the welfare of the pupil first and the administra-
tion of the unit second. In consolidation, education is
not to be subordinated to economy. The reconstruction of
small units is necessary for the richer program of edu-
cation and for the equalization of educational opportunity
and financial burden.
Chris DeYoung, Introduction to American Edation.
New York: The McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1942, p. 85.
Listed here are some criteria for the establishment
of larger administrative units prepared by the Educational
Policies Commission. The Regentrs Inquiry in New York
State recommends that every school district should:
1. Contain enough children to provide a well-bal-
anced elementary and high school program tlat
can be maintained economically.
2. Be so planned geographically that the school can
be conveniently located and transportation, where
necessary, easily arranged without requiring
3. Contain sufficient assessed valuation and tax-
paying capacity to carry the greater part of
the school program.
4. Coincide as far as possible with the natural com-
munity boundaries and, where possible, with local
government units so that cooperative services
may be arranged, particularly in connection with
health, traffic control, planning, recreation,
the joint use of plant, and proper management of
the public debt.
5. Keep the school and the government of the school
close to the people so that the citizens generally,
including the parents and the taxpayers, may know
what their schools are doin,:-, may have an ef-
fective voice in the school programT, .ind partici-
pate in the coi:lUunity use of the school building.
In connection with the last recommendation, it is
stated that if the relation of b.: school to the natur'?l
comM.unity, and the closeness of the school to the people
are sacrificed in the na:-ie of efficiency, then something
which money cannot buy will be destroyed.
Structur-rl remodeling will no; perform miracles.
Too ;.1any educators and laymen cherish hopes as to what it
In considering The administrative structure, wv.ich
is essentin.lly the legal structure, it must be clearly
recognized that the be'st possible framework will not
guarantee either an efficient educational pro-rae or the
oporanion of Cermocritic processes. i':.e steel framework
of a skyscraper is not expected to guarantee that the
rooms it supports will be tastefully decorated or properly
used. It can only provide favorable conditions, T-e
actual operation of tho school will depend upon Lie re-
sources of both citizenry a.nc! professional staff. Further-
more, Lhe larger school unit alone cannot solve the problem
of reor.gnizing districts. In lar;.cr cities like Hew York
and Chicago bcLtcr education miJhlt r:.sult fro: smaller
administrative areas. Although the immediate danger is
remote, the creation of larger school units may be carried
so far that centralization produces more evils than de-
Some specific ways of effecting changes in school
administrative units are:
(1) Voluntary cooperation between school districts
(2) Legal consolidation of areas closely justaposed
(3) State-wide coordination of school districts
through a higher agency, via the state depart-
ment of education in each of the forty-eight
The latter step should be a part of a broader movement for
reorganizing all governmental units within a state. State
planning commissions may well join hands in a national
organization in which ideas and experiences are pooled.
Co-operation Between Units
People are likely to postmone working for larger
school units until legal consolidation can be effected,
but active voluntary cooperation between districts will
produce immediate benefits. Even where actual consoli-
dation may be remote to impossible, boards of education can
join in common tasks without changing district boundary lines.
Rapeer, op. cit., pp. 95-~6.
Examples of cooperative racasLa_ t- Sometimes
two or more districts together employ a music teacher
or school superintendent. A specific example of co-
ope ration is the union of three separate districts in
Caruthers, California. Another instance is the coopera-
tive buying of books and supplies on a county-wide basis
in Hennspin County, Minnesota.
Consolidation of Areas
The combining of two districts in Massachusetts
in 1838 was the beginning of legal consolidation of
school areas. Although more than one hundred years have
elapsed since then, progress in this direction is very
slow. Almost 120,000 separate and independent school
districts still exist. Opposition to the elimination of
districts is evident in the following Associated Press
Sheldon, Missouri, October 11, a rural school
district near here reports a teacher on hand every
day in its school with no enrolled pupils to teach.
Families residing in the district want the school
to be left open in order tg make sure the dis-
trict is not consolidated.
DeYoung, op. cit., pp. 85-86.
Substantial savings, greater efficiency, and better
opportunities for children will result and have resulted
from combining attendance units within a single school
district. A consolidated district may result from the
union of two or more administrative districts. Two types
of consolidated districts are here considered briefly, vis
(1) community schools, (2) regional schools.
Community Schools These schools may be effected
through voluntary cooperation or through legal consoli-
dation. The community school concept is well described in
the following paragraph:
"Community school" may be considered as a descrip-
tive term applying to that type of institutional organization
which recognizes the partnership in American public edu-
cation and the continuity of the educational process on the
adults as well as the child's level and which is well inte-
grated with the community it serves. It may exist in large
as well as small urban centers although the most rapid
development is taking place in the smaller, more flexible
and intimate communities, and in those places in which
sound structural reorganization is changing the obsolete
districts system into a grouping of natural, educational,
economic and social interests based upon related urban and
rural land usage. As indicated, sound structural reorgani-
nation of school districts promote the development of
community schools, in which educational, social and
economic considerations predominate, arbitrary or aca-
demic concepts of size, numbers, and financial ability
are contributing but distinctly recessive and secondary
factors. An example of several forces in the county
joining to produce community schools is found in Polk
County, Texas where farmers and farm women have banded
together under the cooperative leadership of extension
and vocational agricultural workers to form a "~ew School
of Good Neigbors". This points to new possibilities in
rural education and development. Community cooperation
for human improvement is an inescapable challenge.
Regional School. The first regional high school
in New England was opened at Falls Valley in the town of
Canaan, Connecticut in 1939. This school, called the
Houstatonic Valley Regional Hih School, serves six towns,
embracing an area of about 277 miles. Instead of four
weak and inefficient high schools in four towns, one high
school offers many opportunities to the youth of four towns.
A serious problem that often develops in connec-
tion with a consolidation program is that of pupil transportation.
School boards are inclined to feel that bus-driving
positions off.--r .n opportunity Lo- t.ke care of personal
friends or politicall associates. Frequently, buses are
privately owied, giving an added opportunity for comi-
mercializing b;ci services.
Best jud~icnt approves publicly owned buses of a
standard type operated by men of good character .a-nd -er-
sonality wvho are competent and- safe drivers. Privately
owned and operated buses are frequently old trucks or cars
equipped with homse-built bodies and uncomfortable seats.
Administrative officers should watch carefully the cost
of transportation. i-.any states snow a wide range of cost
amj-ong counties. Tennessee in 1933-3-, had an -ivora e
cost, .er puil of 1,.42, and a range of from, 52 cents to
as :ruch as, .,3.25. Out of eighty counties reporting,
twelve paid less Uhan ..1.00 per ,month per pupil and nine
paid ;more than ..2.25. Any marked deviation fro:-ei a 3 tace
average cost should be carefully scrutinized to determine
whether inefficiency or waste, or both enter as f,-,tors
in this variable cost.
In a discussion of consolidation a.nd the state mini-
inui prougrali of education for all children, one cannot
Charles JD. Lewis, The "ural Cor:"-unity and Its
Schools (Atlanta: Americn look C company, 1937), p. 190
ignore the important factors of the availability of
The transportation of pupils Lo and from schools
is a necessary service if educational opportunities are
to -:e r.ade available to all pupils in the state. No
matter ho;i far a state go in financing educational enter-
prises in the local communities, there .ill be instances
where the program w-ill be unprofitable unless transporta-
tion is included.
At present, many rural youth are denied high school
education because they cannot reach bhe school,
Tile transporting of children is not a new edu-
cational undertaking. Beginning in a ilassachusetts district
in 1840, it continued wibhlout legal authorization until 1869
when idassachusetts passed the nation's first transportation
This provided that any town in that comri-onwealth
might raise, by taxation or otherwise appropriate money
to ue expended by the school committee at their dis-
crotion for bihe conveyance of pupils to and froli public
schools. Dy 1920, pupils ;cro being carried to school in
all states, with or without legal sanction. Today, the
provision of transportation facilities for school children
DeYoung, op. cit., p. 93.
is generally mandatoryy under certain conditions. Approxi-
mately 5,000,000 pupils are transported daily at public
expense in so.ac 150,000 buses. Although automobiles are
usual neans of conveyance, "the old gray mare" and the
railroads still serve in some communities, especially
during Ilhe v:intor months.
The problem of transportation is not of equal im-
portance in all the states. within n states, wide vari-
ations exist in lte population of pupils carried by bus.
Although the average for Tcxas is less than 15 per cent
in one district of the state, nearly half the school popu-
lation is carried by buses.
The transportation of pupils is more than a local
problem. ilny state treasuries provide financial
assistance in defraying the cost of pupil's travel as a
:icans of equalizing educational opportunities, ome state
departments lend technical assistance in the mapping of
school c.us routes, as in Alabana. becausee otf %'e close
relationship between Lte transportation of pupils and the
consolidation o.f districts, each sLal. should m ke con-
tinuous analysis of both matters.
DeYoung, op. cit., pp. 93-94.
Varied Experiences and \'ider Social Contact for the
Pupil in Consolidated Schools
Instead of continuing the old process of carrying
a poor school nearer to the child, the consolidation
movement proposes to reverse the process and carry the
child some distance to a good school, and usually one
where at least partial high school advantages may also
be attained. It takes himr from his home in the morning
and lands him safely and dry at the school, on time each
day, and then takes him back home each evening, and in
the same condition*
The Benefits of the Consolidated Plan. The bene-
fits may be summwarized as follows:
1. Both the enrollment and the attendance for
the consolidated area are materially increased.
The gain in attendance in the sixth, seventh
and eighth grades is usually marked. The pro-
vision of sole high school advantages brings
in the older pupils who are now absent from
the district schools.
2. The elimination of tardiness and the reduction
of absences to a minimum. The driver should
be authorized to act as an attendance officer,
Ellwood P. Cubberley, Rural Life and Education,
New York: Houghon hiifflin Company, 1920, pp. 241-2Y0/
also, to report reasons for all failures to
attend. In consolidated districts, the o:r-
centiage of attendance is about as good as the
3. Pupils arrive dlry a nd w ar.l eac h day. here are
no wVet clotliing to be dried an.'K colds and other
troubles due to exposure are materially reduced.
4. The **uiils are under the care of a responsible
personn to and fro, and o.iarrelin, smoking,
profi.nity, vulrity, andC improper language and
conduct arc rev.::.nted. In some localities the
protection afforded girls is very desirable
5. :;otter -ra; dinc.; and cla:sifica.tion of "uip ils is
posi le>, classes are l3rge enough ;o sti:a-ulate
enchusias-i and intellectual riv:.lry, and pupils
can b- placed '..here they Tco.n work to beat ad-
Sntae. nt rest enthusia sm, i confidence
co:.e f' romn contact uith number .
6. TLe -nuz-:ber of .:raCes whichh each teacher rmus
-wiandle is reduced frooi eiLht or nine ;o one or
two with larger recitation periods in consequence.
7. opportunityy is provided for the introduction of
good instruction in drawing, usic nature study,
manual training, domestic science, and agri-
culture as well as for enrichment of other
subjects of study. It is the one great means
for introducing these newer subjects into the
SThe pupils have the advantages of better schools
buildings and school sites, better schoolhouse
equipment .in heating, lighting, ventilation,
and sanitation; better teaching apparatus, books,
maps, etc. All of these follow a concentration
of wealth in school advantages and often cost
less per capital than the much inferior equip-
ment novw costs for small, scattered schools,
9. It leads to school te.rm of eight oP nine months
instead of the five or siix commonly provided
by the district schools; to the employment and
retention of better teachers; to supervision
for the school, and to a higher grade of instruc-
tion. Instead of passing the teacher around
from district to district, she is retained, and
the pupils are passed from grade to grade.
10. Community interest in education is quickened, and
Cubberley, op. cit., pp. 244-245.
community pride is awakened in the school and
maintained. This leads to community interest
as opposed to district interest; tends to
break dov-n the isolation and the stagnation of
rural communities; and leads to deeper sympathy
and better fello.-ship among the people. It
improves the community as well as the school,
and opens the wvay for such consolidated schools
to become centers for the higher life of the
11. It brings enough pupils together at one place
to permit the organization of group games and
thus, provide for wholesome and stimulating
play. The educative value of play is largely
lost in the little district school because there
are not enough pupils to play any games.
12. It is much more economical in administration
and often holds true even after longer terns
and better teachers have been provided. iuch
depends upon the economy rith which the trans-
portation can be arranged. If a wagon is
required for eac ch school the expenses vill be
about the same; if fewer wagons are required the
expenses will be less. In the relative effic-
iency of the two kinds of schools there is no
13. It offers to the rural boy and girl, and hence
to country parents, all of the desirable edu-
cational advantages which the city boy and
girl now obtains, and without having to go to
the city to obtain them.
14. The transportation feature indirectly aids in
the building of better roads, which in turn
makes rural life more attractive and help to
break up the isolation.
15. In reducing the number of teachers needed, it
eliminates many of the poorest and the weakest
and it also reduces from 65 to 80 per cent the
number of district trustees.
School Sites, Building and Equipment
The influence of environment in the life of a
child is appropriately expressed in the following lines
from West ;Jhitman:
There was a child went forth every day
And the first object he looked upon
That object he became, and that became part
of him for the day or a certain part of the day,17
Or for many years or stretching cycles of years,.
Cubberley, op. cit., p. 245.
DeYoung, op. cit., pp. 553-555.
School sites, buildings, and equipment are a material
part of the daily scene of the child. The building
should be intimately fitted to human needs practical,
psychological and aesthetic. The building ought to
be planned as a unified collection of functional re'
lationships, erected in such close sympathy with its
surroundings, and so fittingly furnished that its beauty
charms the students who breathe into the architect's
creation the breath of life.
Records and reports are becoming more numerous
as activity increases in the field of child and teacher
accounting. The classroom furniture, desk, files and
cupboards should be arranged economically, for many
useless steps can be eliminated through an alert analysis
of arrangements within the room.
School Building Needa. If pupils are to be housed
properly, then several thousand new school buildings
are needed. According to conservative estimates, a half
million children attend school in temporary portable,
or rented school buildings; and a million or more pupils
are housed in buildings that are unsafe and unsanitary.
Several thousand school buildings are over seventy years
old. This national overview is supplemental by the
following statement from the superintendent of Georgia.
The majority of our 2595 one-teacher schools for 'iegroes
are housed in dwellings, lodges, churches and log cabins
thai are terrible beyond description in regards to struc-
ture, equipment, lights and sanitation. Although the fed-
eral program aiding. school construction has improved
conditions tbrougicutt the United SL2tes, much new construc-
tion is still needed. In addition to replacement of un-
desirable building s, new facilities are necessary .o take
care of the increases in all schools.
Lo. Tcrm iuildin Prog.ra.s. Tlhe erection of edu-
cational buildings is a long-span proposition. Inasmuch
as a new structure involves bonded indebtedness, iL is
ncccssary to project the estiated cost 15 to 20 years irto
t.hie fut-re, This is net unv arrerCtd since the building :-lay
be used for 50 years or more,
Vreq-tenbly a building s-rvey i-ade for thie local dis-
trict by educational specialists is the basis for tile
forward-looking plan. Its relationship to co.nruunriuy zoning
necessitates total coo 2nity planning. Obviously the local
plan is directly connected with the building program of tie
state and with siate aid for school construction. 2..ith the
iurease lendi. :o pay at least 'part of .ichool. construction
'"u c io ......... "U V1 V o T W" ..'.. 1 .
-,-~ C -.5 01_, ; &. : I-. ..-, ., .. -0'-,:'.[ .' ~ r } /.,. ."]
costs fro-,; the suate treasury1, more interest in building
plans is being shown by state departments. In some states,
for example, Virginia, a general state planning board co-
op.erates with educational authorities in schoolhouse
Educational Plan. .School build dirngs u U si es ar
merely facilitating mediums for the instructional process.
If a school buildit is to be planned functionally, the
ed..ca.icnal ai>is and methods of '.he school must be brans-
lated into an actual, workable p}-rogram for the architect.
Expenditure Progran. O: ts flucuaLe with the price
of i--aterials and LaLbor, and the purchasing power of the
dolla-r It is no.: improbable that building cost will in-
crease, especially if beauty as well as utility is to be
consider dered. Certain, ther should be a diffi ence in the
appicarance of a manufactvring plant and a school building.
T-e Consolidated School Duildinu, ThiLi building-
should possess enough space and rooms; ce fitted wit' all
the facilities necessary to enable it to become the center
of the coni.munity life. 'he initial cost for bui Icings and
equipment, hen sp-read over the large area, is relatively
smiiall, as is also tei annual maintenance charsc, while the
educaLioi;al a.nd social -.*enefi-s are very 3lage
Ellwood P. Cubberley, Rural Life and Educabion
Boston: Hougliton iifl'lin Comniany, 1922, pp. 252-256.
The lSchool. It Is grtifyi; to. see how- the Southern
^Stra-tes haviT takn to cosolidtion, eecially when one con-
siders the Lany difficulbios this section has lo conLbend
with an drifficulics t;Lt arc; pr^ticly unknown in the
north. Soc.h of .he .1] Son-Dixon Line, -aryl.and is carrying
on an active c.niairgn of consolidation, the sole aim being
to give the children better teachers and betber school
facilities. In Virginia tho number of consolidated schools
is on the increase.
State Su )orintendent J. Y. Joyner of N]I th Carolina
declares that consolidation is rapidly driving the old log
schoolhouse out of his state. South Carolina and Georgia
are mIaking progress. The former by actual figures that
the system is cheaper to the taxpayers; lengthens the school
term, and enriches the course of study. The latter found
progress rather slow, but has, inspite of thi2, aLLained
good results. Florida too, iLmus be reckoned with. Its record
is consolidaLed schools in 17 ot ot 44 counties, and other
counties ready and favorable Lo consolidation. Louisiana
has nide ::;arked advance in this respect under State Superin-
tendent James I. Aswellts administration.
Under conmlete consolidation the gross cost is un-
deniable greater; but virhen we consider the added effective-
ness of the new schools in the matter of increase regularity
of attendance, general economy, and ultimate educational
effectiveness, the net individual cost is far less than
the passing regime.
Reorganizatio n South Carolina. Many states have
in recent years, undertaken fundamental reorganization of
the local units of school administration. The legislature
of South Carolina in 1951 enacted a statute which abolished
county boards of less than seven members, and established
seven member boards with authority to consolidate schools
and school districts.
A recent issue of South Carolina Education News
reports that the elimination of school districts is proceeding
rapidly. In one county, the number of districts was re-
duced from eighty-two to one; in another from fifty-seven to
nine; and in still another from thirty-four to three. Ap-
parently, a good many county boards are adopting the county
as a single unit. It is estimated that the total number
of school districts will be reduced from 1,600 to 130.
Harold Waldstein Foght, The American Rural School.
New York: The MlacMillan Company,-7918, pp. 312-313.
Newton Edward, The Elementary School Journal.
September-May 1951-1952, pp. 319-320.
The Consolidation Progra J Wld County clorado.
The public schools of Weld County are organized on the dis-
trict system. Each school district is a body corporate,
with a board of education of three or more districts, and
are entirely independent of all other districts in all
matters relating to the administration of the schools.
Consolidation is brought about by local initiative, through,
the rr ocess of petition and election.
Buildings. Eighty-five old schoolhouses of the one-
room variety have been abandoned and new modern school
buildings, complete in every respect, including modern motor
bus transportation, have already replaced them, or will re-
place them just as soon as the plans now pending are carried
to completion. The present value of the new school plants
and other equipment is $1,578,450. This is at least one
hundred tines greater than the combined value of eighty-five
abandoned buildings. Most of them have been in use many
years. Many of them were utterly unfit for any purpose.
This comparison in cash value of the old and new schools
speaks volume for the efficiency*
Obstacles to Consolidation. Public inertia and the
district system are the major obstacles to consolidation
of schools. It is little wonder that rural school has humor-
ously been characterized as "a little house on a little piece
of ground, with a little equipment, where a little teacher
for a little vdhile at a little salary teaches little children
little things", and that it is located in a little dis-
trict with a little assessed valuation, where people
with little vision do little for themselves and their
0pen Country Versus Village Consolidation. In
most sections of the country the best consolidation
can be effected by including the natural trade and com-
munity center; the village in the consolidation district
by erecting the new central building here most of the
taxable wealth of the community will be centered in the
village, and it is only fair that this wealth which is
created by the community should help educate children
of the community. Little apprehension need be felt that
the village center will spoil t[e country child for the
farn. In the age of automobiles he will mingle with
much wider circles than his im.nediate neighborhood, and
if farm life is not made more attractive to him than city
life, he willleave the farm inspite of a rural school.
The problem is not so much one of location as it is
one of stimulation. The country boy and girl must be
filled with enthusiasm for country life by having all its
possibilities revealed to them. The village center is
sufficiently rural in its makeup to make it possible to
offer rural life courses together with other courses.
A. D. M1ueller, Proressive Trends in Rural Education.
New York: The Century Book Company, 192&6 p.- G-64-, -
It will be a splendid thing to create a consolidated
school which will break down the social barriers between
country folk and village folk. Each will profit by ming-
ling with the other.
From objective research, it was revealed that equa-
lity of opportunity does not exist for the rural youth in
Jackson County, except in theory, The farm youth has not
had a square deal, and the fundamental cause of it all is
that our rural population does not spend enough on the
education of their boys and girls, nor does it spend this
money to the best advantage. Much of what is invested in
rural education by school boards and communities is spent
to poor advantage in feeble, poorly constructed schools
which might as well be abandoned or consolidated.
A. D. lMueller, Progressive Trends in Rural Edu cat .
New York: The Century Book Company, 1926, pp. 235-236
Harold Waldstein Foght, The er~canI ural SdQol.
New York: The MacWlillan Company, 918, pp. 313; 331.
ANALYSIS OF DATA
The analysis of data, which is shown in table form,
pages 49 through 54 tell a fascinating story of Jackson
County's school system, covering a period of ten years.
They illustrate main points made in Chapters II and III.
They reveal new insights into Jackson Countyrs educational
progress and problems from the viewpoint of administration
and supervision, It would have taken a hundred pages or
more of narrative to do giving a oornunity-by-community
picture of the complex problems which school administra-
tors and supervisors were faced with. However, the gap
between the one-teacher school and the consolidated school
has been slowly closing.
The progress which Jackson County has been making
in recent years, and the dimensions of the job that still
lies ahead are also illustrated in these tables.
The data in the tables is subject to two important
1. For the most part, they were compiled from
records and reports of the State Department
of Education and the county school system of
education in Jackson County.
2. The latest figures are for the school
year 1953-1954, so the tables do not
reflect the schools recently discon-
tinued as of August 16, 1954.
Table I, on page50 represents the number of
Negro School Centers in Jackson County for the ten
year period, 1944-1954. It reveals the r.'radual de-
crease of school centers year by year as consolidation
There are eight Lypes of schools represented in
TA.ble I. TI:ose schools are set up by the State Depart-
Ilent of Education* The Elementar- School is composed
of grades 1-6; Elementary Junior High,,grades 1-6 and
7-9; Elementary Junior-Senior igh, 3.-de 1-6, 7-9,
and 10-12; Ele:Zenatary 4-ycar High, grades 1-8 and 9-12;
Junior High, grades 7-9; Senior High, grades 10-12;
and 4-year High, grades 9-12. Within ten years the
program of consolidation has eliminated nineteen ele-
mientary schools. Of the nineteen, ninety per cent were
one-teacher schools. Over a period of ten years the
Elementary Junior High Las been completely eliminated.
The ElemLentary Junior-Senior High was set up in 1948-49,
and has increased one over a period of six years. There
is only one Junior-Senior High School in Jackson County
for ;;egroes, and no Junior 3igh, Senior High 4-year }High
nor Elementary 4-year High. The Table set forth the
school year 1953-54 as the greatest single year for con-
solidation. The school yeam cf 1950-51, 1951-52 and
1952-53 should be observed also because the program of
consolidation was very slow prior to these years.
SCHOOL CENTS, 1944-54
NE~ O JAGKSO COUNTY
Elementary Elementary Junior
Elementary Junior-Senior 4-Year Junior Senior Senior 4-Year
Year Elementary Junior High High High High High High Hig Total
1944-45 38 6 0 0 0 0 1 0 45
1945-46 35 9 0 0 0 0 1 0 45
1946-47 32 12 0 0 0 0 1 0 45
1947-48 30 13 0 0 0 0 1 0
194-49 34 8 1 0 0 0 1 0 44
1949-50 34 8 1 0 0 0 1 0 44
1950-51 35 4 1 0 0 0 1 0 41
1951-52 32 1 2 0 0 0 1 0 36
1952-53 28 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 31
1953-54 19 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 22
Table II, on page 52 represents Kegro teachers'
certification and rank over a period of ten years -
1944-1954 in the Negro Schools of Jackson County.
The significance of Table II is the gradual in-
crease of teachers wi-ith I'asters and Bachelors degrees
in the Negro Schools of Jackson County, which implicates
better or improved instruction as consolidation is
perfected. From 1944-54, rank three had the greatest
increase in high certification. Significant to note also
are ranks four, five and six, as teachers earned high
certification. No teachers were in rank six in the Negro
schools of Jackson County during the school years of
1951-54. The improvement of teachers' certification is
also pointed out in rank two. There were seven teachers
employed in the Negro schools of Jackson County with
Masters degrees during the school year, 1953-54.
CERTIFICATION AND RANK 1944-54
HRB0 JACKSON COtETY
Rank Rank Rank Rank Rank Rank Total
lear 1 2 3 4 5 6 Teachwe
194445 0 0 35 36 25 15 111
1945-6 0 0 42 38 S2 12 120
1946-7 0 0 40 45 21 14 120
1951-52 0 0 86 41 6 0 133
19 2-53 0 2 9 31 4 0 135
1953-54 0 7 103 20 3 0 133
90 College Crudits and up to 4-bar Dagree
60-89 College Credits
Bhlov 60 College Crdita
.. ..~..... _.._..... _..
- -- -- ---- -- --- -- -- --
Table II on page 54 is an analysis of expendi-
tures, embracing Capital Outlay, Support and Maintenance
funds for Negro Schools in Jackson County over a period
of ten years, 1944-54.
During the first four school years, 1944-48,
very little money was spent for any of the items listed
in Table III. Implications are that less money was
spent on small schools, with one result being poor instruc-
tion. During the school years of 1948-54, the money spent
for school sites, new buildings, additions, alterations
new equipment and transportation increased yearly, ex-
cept for additions. The money spent annually for trans-
portation does not include any expenditures for new buses
for Negro Schools. The expenditures listed under "Trans-
portation Expenses" includes operating expenses and bus
driverst salaries. No funds were spent for new buses,
summer program, adult education, and a very little for
new books for libraries during 1944-54 for Negro Schools
in Jackson County.
ANALYSIS OF XPERDITURES: CAPITAL OUTLAY SUPPORT AND MAITNMANCCE FUMDS 1944-54
ME3OR JACKSON COUtTY
New New Books
'ow Altere- Equip- for School S1aer Adult Transportation
Year Sites Buildingo Additions tioa meent Libraries Busses Program Education Expenses
1944-45 0 5A4.59 0 0 256.75 0 0 0 0 0
1945-4. 0 0 0 0 15.00 0 0 0 0 0
1946-47 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1947-48 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
194849 137.00 235.53 1924.44 0 477.20 0 00 0 3160.00
1949-50 6609.43 7754.77 1268,33 0 299.53 0 0 0 0 2227.50
1950-51 2375,00 38396.43 0 817.70 (2.54 0 0 0 0 7391.60
1951-52 5249.60 71355.03 0 2400.00 7001.59 29.70 0 0 0 10073.80
19532-53 1113.85 59463.24 0 11845.08 9143.59 0 0 0 0 14413.05
1953h5 0 59571.16 0 3685.58 1859,.9 3.50 0 0 0 26347.92
- -- -I
Table IV on page 56 is an analysis of expendi-
tures, embracing support and maintenance funds for Negro
Schools in Jackson County over a period of ten years,
Significant to note in Table IV is the gradual
increase of teachers' salaries. Implications are, as
teachers earned bachelors and masters degrees, salaries
increased. Also, a small salary increase was given to
all teachers annually. The salaries of the principals
are noticeable. There was one principal in the Negro
schools of Jackson County during 1944-52. There were
four Negro principals in Jackson County during 1952-54.
The increase of Negro principals was due to consolidation.
It is interesting to note that no funds were spent for
other instructional staff, such as, clerical help and
guidance counselor. A small amount was spent for Jani-
toral services, as well as library services. Expenditures
for classroom supplies shows a slight increase annually.
The consolidation of schools can account for the amount
spent for classroom supplies and janitoral services.
ANALYSIS OF EXPENDITUflS: SUPPORT AND MAINTENANCE FUNDS 1944-54
NEGRO JACKSET( COUIT
Salaries Salaries Wages
Salaries of of Other Inut. of Library Clasaroam
Tear Health Supv. Principals Teachers Staff Janitors Expense Supplies
1953-54 1623.58 390.E60 14750.05
_ __ __ ..
~~ ~_ ____~~~~_
679.50 31.50 1730.44
Table V on page 58 is an analysis of the en-
rollment by grade and grades groups in the Negro
Schools of Jackson County, covering a period of ten
The decrease in enrollment over the period of
ten years in the first grade is based on two facts
(1) the Negro school population of Jackson County is
decreasing, (2) the lack of adequate transportation*
Significant to note is the increase in the twelfth grade
each year during 1949-54, as well as most of the Junior
High and Senior High grades. In most cases, the ele-
mentary grades show a marked decrease in enrollment
year by year. The increase in the twelfth grade and
other Junior and Senior High School grades is due to
ENROIIEMET BY GRADES ANI GRADE GROUPS 1944-54
Total Total Total Total
Kinder- 3 rde irarte Grade h-ade Grade Grade Grade GQrde Grade Grade Grad. Grade Qrade Grade Grade tradee
Year garten 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1-6 7-9 10-12 1-12
1944-45 0 855 427 386 397 354 319 220 177 121 70 41 33 2738 518 14 3400
1945-46 0 821 434 386 372 358 270 260 170 109 67 47 38 2641 539 152 3332
1946-47 0 748
1947-48 0 668
1948-49 0 699
1949-50 0 601
1950-51 0 612
1951-52 0 551
1953-53 0 499
2549 558 169 3276
2459 612 154 3225
2539 632 220 3391
2465 613 266 3344
2452 630 278 3360
2374 645 273 3292
72 2178 723 320 3221
_ __ __ __
340 344 321
Table VI on page 60 is an analysis of Full-
Time Positions of Instructional Staff in the Negro
Schools of Jackson County during the period, 1944-54.
Table VI reveals an increase of men teachers in
the elementary school during the period, 1944-54, This
increase is due to consolidation. The teachers in the
small schools were transferred to the consolidated
school and most of the small schools had a man as head
teacher. Then, there were several one-teacher schools
operated by men. The women teaching personnel of
Jackson County Negro Schools varied slightly each year.
There was a slight decrease of women teachers during
1952-54 in the elementary school, but a slight increase
in women teachers in both the Junior High and Senior
High Schools during 1952-54.
FULL-TiE PORTIONS OF INSTRUCTIONAL STAFF,T 195-5
NEGRO JACKSON COUNTY
PRICIIAL SUCERV. PRINCIPAL m' IN I WOMnEN
Sr, 4 Tol
H. Hi.( I.1 9
Inst. Prin. &
S I O 1 9 7 5 0 19 0 92 7 2 0 101 120 0 1 120
90 j5 4
1947-46 0 1 0 1 15 11 3 0 29 0 75 8 9 0 92 121 0 121
1948-49 0 1 0 1 16 2 4 0 22 0 92 1i 3 0 10. 127 0 128
1949-56 0 0 1 15 4 5 0 24 95 7 8 0 110 134 0 15
190- 1 0 1 19 8 6 0 5 0 87 1 3 0 103 16 0 157
1951- 0o 1 0 1 20 8 6 0 O5 0 03 9 4 0 96 132 0 15O
19 52-5$ 1 1 2 4 27 7 9 0 64 0 82 5 5 0 9 132 0 135
19=3-54 1 1 2 4 36 6 12 0 b. 0 L 8 0 77 15 0
I 1 3 r
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMIENDATIONS
Consolidation brings many educational benefits to
rural communities. The benefits may be summarized by
saying that consolidation makes possible better buildings
and facilities, an enriched curriculum, excellent teaching,
and a rich social life within the school. Local interests .
should not be permitted to determine the locations of con-1
solidated schools. Where the county is the local .nit of
school control, a careful survey should be made to deter-
mine where schools might be located to best serve all the
people of the county.
It is the belief of the investigator, that the
hardest problem is to get a real consolidated school with
complete or fairly complete plant, transportation and staff
established. After that, it is its own best argument.
The teacher is, however, the most important single factor
in education and no consolidated or other school can be a
success with poor teachers. State aid, strong county
superintendents, and good publicity are desirable.
The investigator concludes that the solutions of the
rural areas of Jackson County must be marked out in terms of
the situations found rural life in the county. Recent
basic changes in the present structure of rural life in the
county has important implications, not only for the schools,
but for the whole social structure of which the school is
an integrate part. One single administrative pattern can
not be applied uniformally and mechanically in Jackson
County with the expectation of securing an equally desirable
educational program or equally effective democratic controls.
In the light of the many varied problems involved
in the consolidation of rural schools in Jackson County as
they relate to administration and supervision, the functions
of the administrator and supervisor might be summed up in
four terms; a stimulating function, a facilitating function,
a coordinating function and an evaluating function. These
functions lend themselves to the improvement and consolida-
tion of rural schools in Jackson County.
The writer further concludes that where a consoli-
dation has taken place in Jackson County, the school is
found disappointing, or a little better than the one-room
system. Too few of the very essentials are provided, such
as, complete plants, transportation, teachers who are ef-
fective and efficient in their work. On the other hand, and
in a few cases where consolidation is fairly complete, there
are definite indications of benefits which will prove bene-
ficial to the community.
These indicated benefits are as follows:
1. An increase in enrollment and attendance.
2. Older pupils will remain in school longer,
3. The cost for high school privileges will be reduced.
4. Better trained teachers and other school nprsonnel.
5, More and better grade work.
6. An enrichment of the civic-social life activities
and better school spirit.
7. Better conservation of health and morals of pupils.
8. Adequate supervision.
9. Reduce tardiness and an increase in time for
10. Improvement in industrial conditions in the county.
11. An increase in value of real estate.
12. A greater interest in county life generally.
13. A decrease in the number of pupils drifting to cities
and towns from the rural areas.
14. More and better equipped building s for private and
15. An elimination of the small weak schools and treacers.
16. Creation of a school of greater usefulness, dignity,
17. A more economical school and an increase in equal
Recommended solutions to solve some of the
problems involved in the consolidation of rural
schools in Jackson County:
1. Readjustments and organization at the
county level which will provide a summer
educational program at necessary centers.
2. Increase pupils transportation facilities.
3. Provide new sources for school revenue at
the county level.
4. An approved method of the distribution of
money now being spent for education at the
5. That provisions be made at the county level
for minimum library services and facilities
to meet regulations adopted by the State
Department of Education,
Betts, G. H., New Ideas in Rural Schools, New York:
Indianapol's: B Th s 'lerr -1Company, 1914, p.458.
Bowen, Qcnovieve, Livin anc Learnin;, in a Rural School,
:]ew York: The TacRdian Company, 1946, p. 324.
Bradshaw, i. W., "Consolidation of Schools," The American
School Bulletin, CXV, 1947, pp. 27-31.
Brim, Ornillo Gilart, Rural EdH.cation, New York: Tie
i-laclillan Com-a ny 1947 p. -7
Clarke, C. .I., "Junior High School and Aural Consolidation"
,Hji School Journal, XXXII, 1949, p. 31.
Cubberley, Ellwood P., Aiural Life and Education, New York:
Houghton J.ifflin Company,1T922, p. 324.
DeYoung, Ciiris, Introduction to Axorican Public Education,
New York: -Ic rra'w-Iill Tok Company, 1942, p. 72.
Ellis, Harry L., Ioeller Lugh C., and Swains, C rl 0.
RuLal School I".ana ement, New York: Scribner's Sons,
Foght, Harold Walcistein, 'The American Rur:al School,
-iac.lillan Comn:any, 191-, p. Wl.
Hart, J. K., Educational Resources of Villare and Rural
C ommun i ties, 3New Tork: The a crmillan Con !a ny, 116,
filton, Ernest, Rural School 1.a.. gemient, New York: Ameri-
can Book Company, 1949, p. 78.
Lovis, Cinarles D., Thie Rural Gom .unity and its School,
iexu York: nAerican Book Company, 1937, p. 41.
Lowth, ?rank J., Everyday Problems of the Country Teacher,
New York: 'The .acUil~.ean Company, 1927, p. 56
Rapoer, L. W., Consolidated Rural School, ;New York:
Scribnerrs Sons, 192-, p. 507.
BIBLIOGRAPHY COUNT )
Stanley, Randall J., History f Jackson
Jackson Historicl Society, 1950,
State Depart'mcnt of Education, Biennial Report of theState
Department of Education, T.allahassee: Stace Deiart-
ment of Education, 1946, p. 248.
State Department of Education, Biennial Report of
State Department of Educaton, al lahasse e:
apartment of Education, 1948, p. 283.
State Dep rtment of Education, Biennial Renort of
State Department of Education, Tallahassee:
De-:artjment of Education, 1950, p. 265.
State Department of Education, Biennial Report of
State Denartment of Education, Tallahasse;
apartment of Education, 1952, p. 267.