• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 List of Figures
 The problem and definitions of...
 Review of related literature
 Presentation, analysis and interpretation...
 Summary, conclusions and recom...
 Bibliography
 Appendix






Title: Analysis of Certain Factors which affect Proficiency in Science Among Students in the Seventh Grade in the Elementary Schools of Florida
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Title: Analysis of Certain Factors which affect Proficiency in Science Among Students in the Seventh Grade in the Elementary Schools of Florida
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Language: English
Creator: Thomas, Gerald Oliver
Affiliation: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
Publisher: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
Publication Date: 1955
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notis - ABV5552

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
    Title Page
        Page ii
    Acknowledgement
        Page iii
    Table of Contents
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
    List of Figures
        Page vi
    The problem and definitions of terms used
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Review of related literature
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Presentation, analysis and interpretation of data
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Summary, conclusions and recommendations
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Bibliography
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Appendix
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
Full Text






AN ANALYSIS OF CERTAIN FACTORS WHICH AFFECT PROFICIENCY

IN SCIENCE AMONG STUDENTS IN THE SEVENTH GRADE

IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA









.A Thesis

Presented to

the Faculty of the Graduate School

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University









In Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements for the Degree

Master of Science in Education


by

Gerald Oliver Thomas

August 1955










AN ANALYSIS OF CERTAIN FACTORS WHICH AFFECT PROFICIENCY

IN SCIENCE AMONG STUDENTS IN THE SEVENTH GRADE

IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS IN FLORIDA











A Thesis

Presented to

the Faculty of the Graduate School

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University








Approved:


C(ommi t e.ha airman











Dean, Graduate Scho










AC KNOW LEDGMENT S


The writer wishes to express his appreciation for

the assistance extended him by Mr. N. H. Clarke of

the Graduate Florida Agricultural and Mechanical Uni-

versity whose assistance, encouragement, critical and

constructive criticisms made this study possible.

The writer wishes to thank Mr. A. J. Polk and

Mrs. L. W. Sewell for their continuous interest, guidance

and valuable suggestions dealing with the writer's field

of study and manuscript. He also wishes to thank

Mrs. Lola N. Reed for the typing of the manuscript.

Most of all, the writer wishes to thank his wife,

Nell, whose patient understanding and appreciation of

the whole study played no small part in this scientific

endeavor.


G. 0. T.








TABLE OF CONTENTS


CHAPTER PAGE


I. THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED 1

The problem .. * * 1

Statement of the problem * *

Basic Assumptions * * 1

Delimitations. * * * 2

Purpose of the study * * 2

Definition of terms used * 2

II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE .. . 8

Point of view of others ........ 8

Research Studies . 1 4

III. PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF 25

DATA . . . 25

Part I.

Comparison of Science Achievement According

to Teacher Training . .. 25

Part II.

Comparison of Science Achievement According

to Types of Schools .. 41

IV. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 52

Summary . . . *. 52

Conclusions . . . . 55

Recommendations .* * * * 56

BIBLIOGRAPHY











LIST OF TABLES


TABLE PAGE

I. Number and Training of Teachers and

Number of Pupils Involved in the

Study Classified on Basis of Types

of Schools . . 27

II. Distribution of Intelligence Quotient

of Students Classified on the Basis

of Teacher Training .. ... 29

III. Distribution of Mental Ages of Students

Classified on the Basis of Teacher

Training . . .. *52

IV. Distribution of Equated Science Scores on

the Basis of Teacher Training . *

V. Distribution of Grade Equivalents on the

Basis of Teacher Training * 7

VI. Distribution of Intelligence Quotient

from California Mental Maturity Test 4a

VII. Distribution of Mental Ages Classified

on the Basi of Types of Schools 44

VIII. Distributed' of Eequated Science Scores on

the Basis cf Typc of Schools l6.

IX. Distribution of Gra"o Equivalents on the

Basis of Science Test Results Classified

According to Types of Schools . J










LIST OF GRAPHS


GRAPHS PAGE


Io Grade Equivalent and Grade Placement

Based Upon Means of Science Scores

and Mental Ages Distribution and

Classified in Terms of the Training

of Teachers * * * 40


II. Grade Equivalent and Grade Placement

Based Upon Means of Science Scores

and Mental Age Distribution and Classi-

fied in Terms of Types of Schools .50










CHAPTER I


THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED


I. THE PROBLEM


Statement of the problem. The problem in this

piece of research is centered around proficiency in

science of certain seventh grade pupils in Polk and

Hardee County, Florida, and the extent to which their

achievement is affected by training of teachers and the

type of school organization.


Basic Assumptions. Science is a field which the

tea cher is a guide to the pupils in their activities.

The ages of these students are ages of curiosity, sensi-

tivity, and activity. It is therefore assumed that:

.1. All teachers are prepared to some extent to

teach a certain amount of science.


2. Young children can develop an appreciation

for science.


3. The same teaching aids are available to all

teachers of science in this area.


4. Acquisition of additional teaching aids is

dependent upon the resourcefulness of the

individual teacher.


V905







2


Delimitation. A total of one hundred seventy-

three pupils in nine seventh grade science classes on

the subject of this study. These classes are located

in eight different schools in Polk and Hardee County,

Florida.

The schools vary in organization. Three of the

science classes studied are in schools in which one

teacher teaches seven grades. Three are in schools in

which one teacher teaches a single grade.


Purpose of the study. The purpose of this study

is to (1) ascertain the knowledge of science possessed

by the seventh grade pupils in Polk and Hardee County

schools as revealed by the Stanford Elementary Test;

(2) comparee the pupils achievement in science in certain

seventh grade counties with each other and with the

national norm; (3) ascertain whether or the amount and

kind of training of the teacher appear to influence the

proficiency in science; (4) determine whether or not the

type of school and the extent of facilities affect the

pupils' proficiency in science; and (5) stimulate an

interest in the teaching of science.


II. DEFINITION OF TERMS USED


Elementary Science. Elementary science is the

facts and concepts of science that are understandable







3


1
by children.

Elementary science is work in the area dealing
2
with natural and physical phenomena.

The Situation

Polk County. Polk County is located in cen-

tral Florida, its 1,274,880 acres are bordered by Pasco,

Sumter, Lake, Osceola, Highlands, Hardee and Hillsbo-

rough Counties. One of the state's largest counties in
area, 40 miles in width and 50 miles in length. It is

situated almost in the center of the Peninsula. Bartow

is the county seat which is 14 miles south of Lakeland,

the leading city of the county and 46 miles east of Tampa.

The total population is 123,997 as of 1954, of this the

Negro population was estimated to be approximately 24,994.
The highest recorded elevation in the State is

here, at Bok Tower in Lake Wales, 325 feet above sea level.

The average annual rainfall at Bartow is 55.31 inches,

at Lakeland, 49.21 inches and the heaviest rainfall is in


1
Miller, Dorothy, "Place of Elementary Science in
the Curriculum", School Science and Mathematics, Vol. 48:
May 194.9, p. 380.
2
Heavitt, Jerome, "Science in the Elementary School"
School Science and Mathematics, Vol. 44s December 1949,
p B ---









June, July, August and September. The annual average

temperature is 72.2 degrees at the county seat with an

average high of 81.8 degrees in August and an average

low of 61.1 degrees in January. At Lakeland the annual

average temperature is 75*1 degrees, from an average

high of 82.0 degrees in July to an average low of 62.1

degrees in January.

The diversified sources of income are citrus growing,

cattle raising and tourists. The center of the citrus

growing section is in Polk County and Winter Haven, where

the Florida Citrus Exposition is found. Oranges and other

citrus products are grown, processed, canned, concentrated

and shipped; citrus candy is manufactured here for sale

throughout the nation. In addition to oranges, the major

citrus crops, grapefruit, tangarines, lemons, limes,

Japanese persimmons, strawberries, and other fruit are

grown extensively here. Bananas, avacardos, guavas and

mangoes grow here also, but not commercially.

Lakeland is the largest city and is the retail

and whole sale center for prosperous mining section. About

sixty-nine per cent of the world's supply of phosphate is

mined in Polk County. Phosphate is used largely as ferti-

lizer containing phosphoric acid. Sand mining for building

purposes and the manufacture of concrete and cement products,

is also an important industry. Other mineral resources are

peat and clay.





5


The principle vegetables are peppers, cabbage,

lettuce, tomatoes, string beans, eggplants and cu-

cumbers. Leading staple crops are corn, Irish potatoes,

sweet potatoes, field peas, velvet beans and forage crops.

Cattle and poultry raising are also major sources of in-

come and conditions are very favorable for both indus-

tries. The income from timber, sawmills, and allied enter-

prises is important to the county's economy.

A year-round tourist trade is enjoyed. Some 5,000

tourists visit lakeland each year, providing about one

million dollars. There are three hundred accessible lakes

that are noted for fishing.

Many varieties of fresh water fish are caught in

the three hundred lakes in the county and the hunters

find quails, turkeys, rabbits, fox, racoon, dove deer,

squirrel and duck here.

There are forty-one elementary and twenty-seven

secondary schools in the county. Of these numbers,

there are fifteen elementary and five secondary schools

for Negroes. The enrollment is thirty thousand fifty-four

students of which ten thousand are Negroes. There are

approximately three hundred teachers.


Hardee County. Hardee county located in south

Florida, is a rectangular shaped county with an area






6


of 406,400 acres, bounded on the north by Polk County,

on the west by Manatee County, on the south by DeSota

County, and on the east by Highland County. Wachaula,

the county seat, is 40 miles from Lakeland and 67 miles

from Sarasota.

The weather is temperate, with an annual average

temperature of 73.0 degrees, an average low of 63.0

degrees in January and an average high of 82.* degrees

in August. The average annual rainfall is 58.07 inches,

the heaviest rain following in June, July, August and

September.

The county is primarily agricultural and is known

as the "Cucumber Capital of the World" because of the

large cucumber crops in the county. Other major crops

are tomatoes, eggplants, strawberries, squash and peppers.

In addition, all types of truck crops and citrus fruits

are grown. The strawberries are considerable important

in the county.

The fine pasture lands of 341,685 acres have de-

veloped into a cattle center of importance. Thousands

heads of pure bred cattle, including Brahman, Angus, Here-

ford, as well as better grade Florida range cattle, are

raised on Hardee County ranges. Purebred hogs, poultry,

and dairy cattle are also raised here.







7


Hardee's two principle crops, cucumbers and straw-

berries are subject to annual festivals which attract

visitors from throughout the state. These are the Straw-

berry Festival at Bowling Green and the Cucumber Festival
at Wauchaula.

Quails, dove, squirrel and rabbit are plentiful

in the county and unposted hunting grounds are available.

Fresh water bass, perch and bream are caught in Lake Ar-

bukle and the many streams in the county, all of which

abound in fresh water of all kind.

There are five elementary and one secondary schools

in the county with a school enrollment of thirty-two

thousand for the term of 1951-1955- Of this number, there

are two hundred Negro pupils. There are nine Negro teachers

and one hundred white teachers. The Negro population in

this county was estimated to be 591*








CHAPTER II


REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


The literature related to this problem will be

organized around four basic pointe in the teaching of

science in the elementary school (1) the function of

science, (2) the objectives of science, (3) the value of

science, (4) the preparation of elementary science tea-

chers. It will present a brief summary of some of the

studies that have been made relative to the feasibility

of science in the elementary school.

Point of View of Others. Authorities in education

agree that science plays a tremendous part in present

day living. The limits of its possible contributions to

human welfare and the advancement of civilization are not

yet in sight.

The control of its great forces in meeting human
1
needs is a fundamental social problem. Science in the

elementary school is not designed to develop scientists

or to present children with complex problems beyond their

ability to comprehend. Science -makes up his environment.

The functions of science in the elementary schools are to

make the world more intelligible to the child and to equip



1
Florida State Bulletin, A Guide to Teaching Science
in the Elementary School.






9


him with a way of thinking and a method of problem

solving. Authorities further point up the fact that

science is among the newest offerings to be added to

the elementary schools and that few systems have as yet

a comprehensive program for science education.

However, certain objectives for science education

have been formulated.

Authorities are quite definite in their opinion of

the major aims relative to the teaching of science in the

elementary schools. They all agree that the aims of

science teaching should be to encourage individuals to

seek evidence, to consider the evidence carefully, and

withhold judgment until the conclusion is evident; to

achieve broader concepts and wider outlooks; to enrich

leisure hours by growing plants, rearing animals, and

observing and exploring collections; to develop habits and

skills necessary for maintaining health and for meeting

life situations.
2
Croxton expresses his ideas on the aims of science

as follows:

1. To cultivate scientific attitudes and methods

of procedure


2. To lead to broader concepts, generalizations,

and outlooks

2
Croxton, Walter Clyde, Science in the Elementary
School. New York: McGraw-Hill Company, 19B3. p. 338.







10


3. To open new avenues of interest and satis-

faction

4. To enable the individual to meet the problem
of existence with the available scientific

knowledge and requisite skills


5. To develop social attitudes and appreciations

In order that these objectives be met certain de-

sirable habits, skills, and attitudes must be developed.

Science instruction helps a child develop skills in the

techniques of testing thought and collecting evidence

from a variety of sources. It also develops skills neces-

sary to construct and use objects he needs.

Science teaching should also enable the individual

to meet the problems of existence with the available

scientific knowledge. The child needs habits and knowledge

for preserving his health and insuring his own safety.

He should be trained to grow plants and care for pets.

The elementary school should likewise develop social

attitudes toward and appreciation for the things of

nature. Cooperation through group activities should re-

quire group responsibility that will extend to promote

happiness and cooperation. The destruction of many of

the beautiful flowers, trees, birds, and other harmless

animals might be prevented if children had gained an

understanding of and appreciation for the beauty of nature.






3
Burroughs calls attention to the fundamental

purpose of teaching elementary science. He states that

scientific habits and skills are emphasized most among

the outcomes of the science education program for the

elementary school. Burroughs says, "I should not try

directly to teach young people to love nature so much as

I should aim to bring nature and them together and let

an intimacy and understanding spring up between them."
4
Craig, in discussing the value of science in the

elementary school, points up the potentialities that the

elementary school has as the school of all the people.

Craig states as follows:

We have in our elementary classrooms both to-
morrow's laymen and tomorrow's scientists. Tra-
ditionally our content subjects have been organized
for the purpose of developing specialists and pre-
serving the logical order within the specialized
content fields, to the neglect of the great majority
who will never become specialists in the fields in-
volved. We can no longer afford to neglect the
needs of all the people of the democracy. There
is evidence that they have certain needs which only
science can fulfill .

"It would seem that the destiny of society is de-

pendent to no small extent upon giving to all the people

a speaking acquaintance with science, the subject whose

latent power can be used to benefit or to destroy civili-

zation."


'Craig, Gerald, Science for the Elementary School
Teacher. New York: GinnCompany, 19't7. p. 3.

5Loc. Cit.








12


Educators are agreed in their view relative to the

role the teacher plays in the elementary school science

program. Indeed, they agree that she is the guide to the

whole program.

Craig states that the traditional point of view in

reference to the content field in the elementary school

was aimed at the mastery of the subject matter.

Gradually the traditional practice of thinking of

a subject matter field such as science in the elementary

school, in terms of subject mastery is being eliminated

in favor of think of an area as contributing to the child's

growth in useful directions. Science, therefore, emerges

in the element ry schools not so much as small content to

be learned as large outcomes which may be emerging con-

stantly in one's life as a result of the interaction of

the individual with his environment in the age of science.

In order that the teacher might be able to do a

successful job of science teaching, authorities advocate

special training in this area. It is agreed that most

elementary teachers are not prepared to teach elementary

science.
6
In this connection, Thuber says, "Our elementary

school teachers and most of those in teacher training

institutions are not qualified to teach a program which
6--
Thurber, Walter, "Elementary Science: Where Is
It Going?" School Science and Mathematics. Vol 42,1942,p.198.






13


deals with generalities in many varied fields."

Authorities agree that the status of science

in the elementary school is low.
7
Weller and a committee of investigators on a

questionnaire study of science teaching in the elementary

school in eight widely scattered states revealed some

interesting data on the status of elementary science.

She reports that in 18.6 per cent of these schools no

science is ta ught by a regular classroom teacher and

in 41.1 per cent of these schools there is a special

science teacher, 20.4 per cent of these had science class-

rooms, and 22.1 per cent have science museums.
8
Palmer's survey of the status of science training
in the schools and of the provision for the preparation

of teachers in this field suggests needed changes. He

secured information concerning the science work in schools

from state departments of education and from a large

number of city superintendents. He also analyzed the

offerings of higher institutions with respect to the

training of science teachers. He found that requirements


7
Weller. Florance, "A Survey of the Present Status
of Elementary Science" Science Education, Vol. 17:
October, 19533. pp.195-198
8
Palmer, Lawrence E., "The Nature Almanac" Washing-
ton, D. C.: The American Nature Association, 1930. pp. 48-
277.










of the teaching of science work by state departments

of education does not guarantee general teaching of the

work. He also found that although courses of science in

higher institutions of learning are not uniform they are

demanding respect and support.


Research Studies

Research in science teaching is a recent develop-

ment. The researches at present are limited in scope and

the findings are to be regarded as tentative. However,

these findings are markedly influencing science teaching.

The purpose here is to consider the progress that

has been made through research in the teaching of ele-

mentary schools in order that we may see what basis for

teaching practice the findings offer. The writer, in her

study of research problems, examined studies of (1)

childrends science interest, (2) status of science in the

elementary school, (3) studies concerned with curriculum

construction, (4) methods of teaching science in the ele-

mentary field and (5) pupils' achievement in science.
9
Mau carried on an investigation in Chicago schools

in kindergarten and in grades 1, 2, and 3. The purpose

of this investigation was to discover the kind subjects


9 -
Mau, Laura E., "Some Experiments with Regard to the
Relative Interest of Childrenfin Physical & Biological
Nature Materials in the Kindergarten and Primary Grades,"
Nature Study Review 8: 285-291, November, 1912.







15
preferred by children with regard to age and sex. She

used a pepper plant with red peppers on it, a gray cat,

and a toy engine with complete works; the children were

allowed to choose whichever they preferred. Her experi-

ment indicated that these children were interested in

physical phenomena as well as plant and animal life, and

that younger children were especially motor sensory.
10
Trofton found in a study made in grades 4-8 in-

volving almost 1000 children in New Jersey that children's

acquaintance with nature is limited; that younger children

are impressed by the appearance of animals, and that acti-

vities of animals are most impressive in the upper grades.
11
Haupt, made a study of instructional material.

He organized instructional material around the concepts

of light as a type of energy and the importance of energy

as exemplified in the use of light by plants. The instruc-

tional materials were based in part upon children's ans-

wers to questions and their writing on the topic, but most

of the ideas were obtained from books by reputable authors.

Tests were constructed on the concepts of light

and energy and given in grades one to six orally in the first


10
Trofton, Gilbert H., "Childrens' Interest in Nature
Material," Nature Study Review, Sept., 1913. pp. 150-160.
11
Haupt, G. W., nExperimental Application of a Phi-
losophy of Science Teaching in an Elementary School",
Contributions to Education No. 633, New York Teachers'
College, Columbia University.





16


three grades. Each grade was taught 4-10 lessons 20-50

minutes per week on the concepts of light and energy

change. Following this instruction the test was given

again. He found that children at all ages can and do

generalize, that true understandings of the generali-

zations was approached at all levels.
Y2
Croxton carried on a series of experiments in an

attempt to find out whether children generalize readily

without explanation by the teacher. Period of eight

minutes was devoted to demonstrations designed to provide

a series of experiences each of which manifested the

same principle. At the close of the experiment period

one question was asked which called forth a principle

common to all experiences. Later at least one concrete

question was asked. The results indicated that many

children in the upper primary, intermediate, and junior

high school grades are capable of generalizing on basis

provided in the experiment.

Many of the courses offered in higher institutions

for training science teachers are inadequate and in-

appropriate.
15
Curtis states that elementary teachers as a group

have not been trained to teach science; he says, "they have


12
Croxton, W. C., "Pupils Ability to Generalize",
School of Education Bulletin, University of Michigan, 19335







17


lacked an adequate grounding in its subject matter and
13
principles",

Weller on her survey blanks sent to elementary

school supervisors asked what professional courses were

available for in-service science teachers. Of the

schools reporting 40.0 per cent indicated that some such

courses were available. Miss Weller concluded that it

is in this aspect of elementary science that much needs

to be done to strengthen the field.

S. R. Powers, reporting on the education for

science teachers, says, "the typical offering in science

in normal schools and state teachers colleges consists of

relatively few courses, uniquely named, with a decided

tendency to make a unit into itself, with few or no pre-

requisites, and with little or no recognition of sequence
14
between courses."



13
Curtis, Francis D., "The Emergence of Elementary
School," School of Education Bulletin, University of
Michigan k; 86088, March, 19355

14'
Powers, S. R., Chairman-Thirty-First Yearbook,
National Society for the Study of Education, Chapter XVIII
Bloomington, p. 270.








15
Croxton states that, "It is only recently in

this country that elementary school teachers generally

have been required to r-epare for science teaching."
16
Brochbill studied the courses in the teaching of

science offered in a number of large colleges and uni-

versities. He found that 78 per cent offer courses in

this field; that three-fourth of the courses were devoted

to the teaching of science in the secondary schools.
17
Bagley and Kyte analyzed county and city cor ses

of study in California and also surveyed the literature

of the field to discover the instructional status of

elementary science. They found little agreement either

as to methods of teaching and an almost total lack of

investigation regarding the essentials in elementary science.

Few textbooks in elementary science have been avail-
18
able until recently. Strange analyzed samples of elem-

enta ry health textbooks as well as courses of study in

her attempt to find out the status of this phase of science


15
Croxton, W. C., Science in the Elementar School
McGraw-Hill Co. New York: 1937, Ch. 7, p. T11.
16
Breechhill, Henry, "Status of College & University
Offering in Teaching of Science,"Science Education, Vol. 18
pp. 221-225, December, 1934.
17
Bagley, William C., & George C. Kyte,"The Cali-
Curriculum S udy, university of California Printing Office
Berkley, California, pp. 203-2553
18
Strange, Euth, "Subject-matter in Health Education"
Contributions to Education. New York; Columbia U., 1926.





19

work in the schools. She found diversity in health

material and inadequate meaningless types of statements.

Few method studies have appeared in the elemen-

tary science field, probably because of the incidental

place that the subject has held in school programs, and

the lack of established contents and objectives. The

failure of the subject to fulfill any important role

has tended to direct the attention of research toward a

study of objectives and content
19
Meister's made a study of the relative value of

science units and classroom teaching. He used four g

groups of approximately equal mental age and intelligence

quotients. Group I had both lesson and play, Group II

had only lessons, Group III was given play only and

Group IV had neither play nor lessons. He found that

the group having experience with play units but no in-

dividual instruction showed gains in knowledge almost

equal to those made by the group receiving instruction.

He concluded that the play unit group showed superior

gain in originality and problem-solving. He further con-

cluded that children who have the benefit of both the

play unit and the classroom teaching excelled all others.
20
Robertson carried on an investigation for the

19
Meister, Morris, "The Educational Values of
Scientific Toys," Science & Mathematics, 1922, pp. 32956.







20


purpose of comparing the relative effectiveness of two

methods of teaching elementary science in the fifth

grade. He selected six units from Craigls "Tenative

Course of Student in Elementary Science." The subjects

were two closely equated groups of fifth grade pupils

in the Oxford school at Dearborn, Michigan. He taught

as nearly as possible the same content to both groups of

fifth grade children. One used the story prepared by

the experimenter converting the subject matter on the unit

and a guidance outline for study. The other group was

taught by the developmental discussion method. He gave

a test to both groups. Robertson concluded that the

extra work entailed in preparing the study guides was not

justified by the results obtained.

Few studies, related to pupil achievement in science

prior to the secondary school level, have been made.

These studies seem to indicate that teaching science to

pupils in the grades prior to high school results in

higher science grades for these pupils when they are in

high school.



20
Robertson, Martin L., $An Investigation of the
Relative Effectiveness of the Two Methods of Teaching Ele-
mentary Science" Science Education 16: 182-187.
February, 1932.








21


21
Carpenter made a study to determine the extent to

which, if any, pupils who receive five or six semesters of

general science instruction in grades seven, eight, and

nine, made better gains than general science pupils who,

for one reason or another had been forced to omit some

of the earlier grades of work. All the pupils involved

in the study completed a year of general science in the

ninth year. Not all, however, had the full work in the

preceding seventh and eighth grades.

The time schedule for science in the seventh,

eighth and ninth grades calls for two fifty minutes

periods per week throughout the eighth grade, and five

fifty minute periods per week throughout the ninth grade.

The pupils who had not received science below the

ninth grade had received five fifty minute periods per

week in the ninth grade.

He concluded that the median score of pupils who

had science in the seventh, eighth, and ninth grades was

higher than the median score of those pupils who had less

science prior to the ninth grade.



21
Carpenter, H. A., "Results of a Three Year Se-
quence in Junior High Schools", Science Education. Vol. 17
October, 1955, pp. 183-192.







22


Problems in the Teaching of Science


Science in the elementary school is comparatively

a new area and the teaching of science has been hampered

by many problems. Many teachers who would enjoy an

activity program of science are faced with the lack of

space. The schools are far from ideal and the material

with which to work is insufficient.

Another great problem for many teachers is in

dealing with many children. Teachers admit that the

creative activity program has more educational value

attached to it but find it difficult to employ anything b

but routine techniques.

Some teachers feel that parents will consider the

time spent in activities necessary to carry on a meaning-

ful science program a waste of time that could be more

profitably spent otherwise. Others think that the ac-

tivities required for profitable science teaching would

be fine for brighter children but believe that the slower

pupils would be lost.

The fixed programs of work which are sometimes

passed out to teachers by some boards of education with

instructions which they must follow play no minor part in

hindering a creative program of science teaching.








25

Probably the greatest problem involved in put-

ting the science program into effect is the preparation

of the teachers. This preparation may be a lack of

knowledge or of professional point of view or both. In

either case, the elimination of these lacks is an over-

powering need.








24


Summary



The foregoing points of view and studies have

emphasized the objectives and importance of science in

the elementary schools.

The studies definitely indicate that there is a

need for science in the elementary schools, that this

area is neglected in most teacher-training institutions,

and that elementary children have the ability to

generalized











CHAPTER III


PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA


PART I


Comparison of Pupil's Achievement In Science

According to Teacher Training


The procedure involved in this study includes (a)

compilation of data pertaining to the environmental

background of pupils, facilities of the school and quali-

fication of teachers obtained by visitations, and study

of records, observation, and personal conferences, (b)

administration of the Stanford Intermediate and Advanced

Science Test Form J. M. (c) computation of measures of

central tendency (d) comparison of test results of

seventh grade pupils from three types of schools taught

by three certification levels of teachers with each

other and with the National Norm, (e) comparison of test

score results from each type of school with one another.


Stanford Achievement Test; Intermediate

And Advanced Test, Form J M


The Form J M Test was selected for use in this

study because reliability for Stanford Science Test has







26


been computed by the split-half method for each grade

level. The split-half coefficients were corrected by

the Spearman Brown formula.

Stanford Norm. The norms of the Stanford Ac-

hievement Test were established on the basis of most

comprehensive standardization program ever undertaken

in connection with an achievement battery.



Data Concerned With Teacher Training


The qualifications of the nine teachers involved

in this study varied. Of the three teachers in the

schools where one teacher teaches seven grades, one had

had two years of training in elementary education and

the other two had three years each.






27


Table I shows the placement of teachers and

pupils classified according to teacher training and

types of schools.


TABLE I

NUMBER AND TRAINING OF TEACHERS AND NUMBER OF PUPILS
INVOLVED IN STUDY CLASSIFIED ON BASIS OF
TYPES OF SCHOOL

,- -- .... :-"'-~ --C ,, ,', ... i ,, ,,,, 1 it, ...


Types of
Schools


INO. or
Teachers


Training of Teachers
Teaching Fifth Grade
Science in Schools
Studied
Less Than 4 4 yrs.
yrs. College in fields
Training other
than Ele.
Edu.


Fifth Grade


4yrs.
Elem.
Edu.


No.
Pupils
Science e
Classes


One Teacher for
Seven Grades 3 5 0 0 25

One Teacher
for 2 grades 3 1 0 2 61
One Teacher
for I grade 3 0 2 1 87

Totals 9 4 2 5 173


From Table I it was seen that 25 pupils were taught

in one teacher schools by teachers with less than four

yea rs college training. Sixty-one pupils were taught in

schools where one teacher teaches two grades. One teacher

teaching in this type of school had less than four years

college training and two had four years college training

in elementary education. There were 87 pupils taught in

schools where one teacher teaches one grade. Two of the


I~ --t- -- ---~ --- rr --~- --


--- --- -I







28


schools where one teacher teaches one grade. Two of

the teachers teaching in the schools where one teacher

teaches one grade had four years training in fields

other than Elementary Education. One had four years

training in Elementary Education.

The three teachers teaching in the school where

one teacher teaches two grades had also been trained in

Elementary Education. Two of them hold four year certi-

ficates and one holds a two year certificate.

In the schools where one teacher teaches one grade

all three of the teachers teaching the seventh grade had

received four year college degrees, though only one of

those teachers was trained in Elementary Education. Of

the other two, one was trained as a teacher of Social

Science and the other as a teacher of English.

The range of teaching experiences for the holder

of Element ry Certificates with less than four years

college training is twelve to eighteen years while that

of holders of four years certificates in fields other

than elementary education is eight to twelve years. The

range of experience for holders of four year elementary

certificates is eight to thirteen years.

Since a pupil's achievement in science is dependent

in part upon his general ability, the results of the Cali-

fvrnia Mental Maturity Test were employed to indicate the





29

probably mental age level of the pupils studied.

Table II shows the distribution of Intelli-
gence Quotients of fifth grade pupils taught by

teachers with less than four years of training in

fields other than elementary education, and those

taught by teachers with four years training in ele-

mentary education.

TABLE II

DISTRIBUTION OF INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS OF STUDENTS
CLASSIFIED ON THE BASIS OF TEACHER TRAINING


Intelligence Quo-
tients


125 -
120 -
115 -
110 -
105 -
100
95 -
90 -
5o :
75 -
70 -
65

55 -
50 -
45 -

Number
Range
Median
Mean


129
112

109
104
9

8z
7
6


?
4

of cases


Teacher Training


1 2
Less than 4yrs.
4 years other

0 1
0 0
0 2
2 2
2
3
3 4
10 1
5 7
3 5
1 6
1 2
o 0
0 0
0 1
0 2
0 1
37 55
67-112 42-127
89.25 85.63
89.97 87*37


in 4 yrs. in
fields Elem. Edu.

0
0
2
6


9





0
2
0
0
0
75
62-117
87.91
89.12


- -


mmm-m


WON


vmmmvmmmm


- ---- __-- -- --


-- --







30


From Table II, it was seen that the highest

and lowest intelligence quotient were found in the group

taught by teachers with four years training in fields

other than element ry education. The range of in-

telligence quotients of pupils taught by teachers with

less than four years of college training was 67 to 112,

that for pupils of teachers with four years training in

fields other than elementary education was 42 to 127,

that for pupils under teachers with four years of college

training in elementary education was 62 to 117. The

intelligence quotient range of 42 to 127 for pupils under

teachers with four years training in fields other than

elementary education represents the highest and lowest

intelligence scores and also the widest range of the

three groups.
When the intelligence quotients of the three groups

are compared with the national norm, it is found that of

the 37 pupils under teachers with less than four years of

college training, 18.9 rated in the high average range,

54.1 per cent fell in the low average range, while 24.2
per cent and 2.8 per cent fell in the inferior and very

inferior ra nges, respectively.

The 55 pupils under teachers with four years

training in fields other than elementary education have

5.4 per cent of their cases in the superior intelligence







51


range, 16.4 per cent in the high average range, 35*5

per cent in the low average range, 32.6 per cent in the

inferior range, and 11.1 per cent in the very inferior

range.

Of the 75 cases under teachers with four years

training in elementary education, 2.6 per cent rated

superior, 253. per cent rated high average, 45.5 per

cent rated low average, 18.6 per cent rated inferior,

while 8.2 per cent rated average or above when compared

with the intelligence norm.

A comparison of the three groups shows no sig-

nificant difference in measures of central tendencies

of the intelligence quotients for the three groups.

The medians for the three groups were 89.25, 85.63,

and 87.91, while their means were 89.97, 87.37, and 89.12.

All of these represent low averages.

In order to compare levels of achievement with the

norm, a study of mental ages was carried out. This

distribution of mental ages is shown in Ta ble III.






32


TABLE III


DISTRIBUTION OF MENTAL AGES OF STUDENTS CLASSIFIED
ON THE BASIS OF TEACHER TRAINING



Mental Ages Teacher Training
in Months
Less than 4 yrs.in 4 yrs. Elem.
yrs. other fields Edu.


207

i8o
171
162


135
126
117
108
99
90
81
72
6
54


215
206
197
188
179
170
161
13 2

125
116
10
9b
89
80
71
62


Number of cases


Range

Median


0
0
1
0
0

2
5
2
4
10
5
5
5
0
0
0


57


85-193
121.05


0
0
0
0
I
3
3
I
5
12
12
7
4
0
2
2
2


55


58-175
116.65


125.45 123.40


0
0
1
1
3
5
3
2
7
13
12
15
13
9
2
0
0
0


75


85-193
112.62

125.32


- II-- '- I ----~-


-- ~-
- I


4m


4m


MeaN







33


From this table, it was seen that the mental

ages ranged from 85 to 193 among seventh grade pupils

taught by teachers with less than four years training

in elementary education and among those taught by

teachers with four years training in elementary education.

The mental ages range of those taught by teachers with

four years training in fields other than elementary edu-

cation ranged from 58 to 175. There is 4.42 difference

in the mental age means of columns 1 and 2, 1*57 dif-

ference in that of columns 1 and 3. The critical ratio

of these differences are not considered significant.

Tables II and III tell the same story relative to

the abilities of the groups, that is, the range of mental

ability and the median and mean ability of the groups

are able to achieve on at least a 1.8 grade level.

A study of the mental age table reveals that the

pupils under teachers with less than four years training

are capable of achieving on a 4.8 grade level, which

corresponds to the mean mental age of 123543. Cases

under teachers with four years training in fields other

than elementary education are also capable of achieving

on a -.8 grade level. The mean mental age of the pupils

taught by teachers with four years training in elementary

education shows that they are capable of achieving on a 4.9

grade level.






34


To determine the extent to which the achievement

levels corresponding to the mental ages are being realized

an examination of the science scores was made.

The raw science scores were translated into equated

scored so that grade equivalents could be obtained. A

distribution of the equated science scores, classified on

the basis of teacher preparation is shown in Table IV.


TABLE IV

DISTRIBUTION OF EQUATED SCIENCE SCORES ON BASIS OF TEACHER

TRAINING


Equated Scores


65 67
62 4
59 61
56 58
55 55



38 4o
35 37
52 54
29 31
26-- 28
253 25
Number of cases
Range
Median
Mean


I
Less than
4yrs.

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
4
11

8
4

1
-T--
37
24- 45
56.5
3g.5


Teache
2
4yrs
other

1
0
0
0
1
2
6
0
7
10
9
6
5
6
1
55
24-66
37.8
hG.3


ir Training


fields Elem. Edu.

1
2
I
1
1
1





24-66
8
11
9
13
12
2
2
75
24-66
45.8
4o0.


I


__ _____ __


-- --


MOMIMMM

mwmmftwm


L


mnmmmmmw


loolomm-uv


---- o r -- d --r -m__ -mmm I







35


From Table IV, it was seen that the range of

science scores for those taught by teachers with less

than four years college training was 24 to 45, while

that of pupils taught by teachers with four years

training in fields other than elementary education
was 24 to 66 and that of those taught by teachers with

four years training in elementary education is 24 to 66.

The median score of those taught by teachers with less than
four years college training is 36.5, for those taught by
teachers with four years training in other fields the
median is 57.8, for those taught by teachers with four
years training in elementary education the median is

43.8.

The mean 35.5 for pupils under teachers with less

than four years college training is 4.8 lower than the

mean score of those taught by teachers with four years
training in other fields. This difference is significant.

There is also a significant difference of 4.9 in the means

of the equated scores of the cases taught by teachers with

four years training in elementary education and those

taught by teachers with less than four years training.

The mean of 40.4 for students trained by teachers with

four years training in elementary is .1 higher than that

of those taught by teachers with four years training in

other fields. This difference is insignificant.








36


In order that proper grade placement in science

might be made of the samples studied, the equated

science scores were analyzed in relation to the corre-

sponding grade equivalents.

Table V shows the distribution of grade equiva-

lents of pupils taught by teachers with less than four

years of college training in fields other than elemen-

tary education, and pupils taught by teachers with four

years of college training in fields other than elementary

education, and pupils taught by teachers with four years

training in elementary education.







37


TABLE V


DISTRIBUTION OF GRADE EQUIVALENTS ON THE BASIS OF

TEACHER TRAINING


Grade Equivalent


8.0 8.4
7.5 7

6.5- 5
6.0 6.4
5*5 5*9
.0 5.4
*.5 -4.
4.0 *4.

3.0 5.4
2.5 2*9
Number of cases

Range 2.7 -
Median

Mean


Teacher Training
1 2 3
Less than 4 yrs. in Four years
4 yrs. other fields Elem. Edu.
0 1 1
0 1 1
0 0 1
0 0 1
0 0 1
0 1 2
O 7 6
S2 11
13 17
7 11 16
12 15 13

37 55 75
4.7 2.7 8.2 2.7 8.2
4.0 4.0 4.1

3.1 4.1 4.*


From Table V it was seen that the grade equivalents

ranged from 2.7 to 4.7 for pupils under teachers with less

than four years training. The ranges for the pupils under

teachers with four years training in other fields and for

the pupils under teachers with four years training in

other fields and for those under teachers with four years

in elementary education is 2.7 to 8.2.. The median score


r
;I
i








38


of pupils taught by teachers with less than four years

training was the same as that of those taught by teachers

having four years training in other fields, both being

1.0. The median of the pupils under teachers with four

years training in elementary education is 4.1 which is .1

higher than the medians of the other two groups. When

comparing the means of these groups, the mean 4.5 of

pupils taught by teachers with four years training in

elementary education is significantly higher than those

of the other two groups. The 4.5 grade equivalent mean

of the pupils 1.2 grade levels above the 5.1 grade equi-

valent mean of the pupils taught by teachers with four

years training in other fields. The test was given on

May 5, 1951 at which time all the pupils were actually

placed on a 5.8 grade level, having been in the seventh

grade eight months. Though they were placed on a 5.8 grade

level, the grade equivalent means show that they were

achieving on lower levels.

According to the grade placement corresponding to

the mean of the mental age in Table III the seventh grade

pupils ta ught by teachers with less than four years

college training is 4.8, or 1.7 grade levels higher than

the 3.1 grade equivalent of this group.

The mental age mean of the pupils taught by teachers

with four years training in other fields places that group








59


at the 4.8 grade level. The grade equivalent in

Table IV shows that this group was achieving in science

on a .1 grade level, or .7 grade levels below the mean

mental age.

When the grade equivalent of the pupils under

teachers with four years training in elementary edu-

cation is compared with the grade placement 4.9

corresponding to the mental age mean, this group's

grade equivalent mean of 4.3 shows that its achievement

level is .6 below its mental age grade placement.








40


The comparison of grade equvalents as indicated

by the mean of the science scores and the grade place-

ment as indicated by the mean mental ages is perhaps

more vividly shown in Graph I which presents grade equi-

valents and grade placement grouped according to the

training of the teachers.

Grade
GRAPH I


Grade

7-


6


5




3

2


0 Less than
four years


Four years in
other fields


Four years in
Elem. Education


Grade Equivalent

Grade Placement


GRADE EQUIVALENTS AND GRADE PLACEMENT BASED UPON MEANS
OF SCIENCE SCORE AND MENTAL AGE DISTRIBUTION
AND CLASSIFIED IN TERMS OF THE TRAINING OF
THE TEACHER







41


PART II


Comparison of Pupil Achievement in Science According

to the Type of School


In order to ascertain the level of achievement

in science of the students in the various types of

schools, and to compare their achievement with a National

Norm and with each other, the data previously discussed

was arranged on the basis of types of schools. In

keeping with the above problems, the intelligence quo-

tients and mental ages previously presented were

arranged on the basis of types of schools as shown in

Tables VI and VII which follow:











TABLE VI


DISTRIBUTION OF INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS FROM CALIFORNIA
.EiPTAL MATURITY TEST*



Intelligence
One teacher One teacher One teacher
Quotients for seven for two for one
grades grades grade
125 129 o 0
120 12 0 0 0
115 119 4
110 1 1 64
105 109 2 5
oo 10 1 8 6
95 9 2 7 8
90 4 7 6
85 12 22
0- 84 3 3 9
75 79 26 7
70- 74 2 4 7
65 -69 0 4
66- 64 2 0
55 59 O 0 0
0- 400 1
O 0 2
40 0 0 1
Number of cases 25 61 87


72 112
88.4


90.4


62 112


90.2

89.9


42 127
90.9
88.1


* On basis of types of schools.


Range
Median


Mean


-- ----~- ----~ __~~_1~ ._1~1~1~_ __- --I ~I --- -
YIIYIYrlllrrllllllIllkPc- ~~~~-- I I-. -~1._ ----- ., __~__






45

Table VI shows the widest range of intelligence

scores to be in the schools where one teacher teaches
one grade. The range for this group was 42 to 127.

The range for the one teacher for seven grades and the

one teacher for two grades were 72 to 112 and 62 to 112,

respectively. Of the 25 cases from the one teacher for

seven grades schools, 16 per cent rated high average,

56 per cent rated low average, and 28 per cent rated
inferior. The cases in the one teacher for two grades

schools had 27.9 per cent of the sixty-one cases in the

high average bracket, 42.6 per cent in the low average

bracket, 21.5 per cent in the inferior bracket, while the

87 cases in the one teacher for one grade schools had 5.7
per cent of the cases in the superior range, 17.3 per

cent in the high average range, 41.4 per cent in the low

average range, and 26.4 per cent and 9.2 per cent in the

inferior and very inferior ranges respectively. More

than 75 per cent of the cases in each group rated low

average or above in intelligence when compared with the

National Norm.

A comparison of the three groups showed no signi-

ficant difference in the measures of central tendencies

of their intelligence quotients. The cases in the one

teacher for seven grades schools had a median of 884. and

a mean of 90.4. The cases in the one teacher for two

grades schools had a median of 90.2 and a mean of 89.9.







144


The cases in the one teacher for one grade schools

had a median of 90.0 and a mean of 88.1. These measures

of central tendencies all fall within the low average

range and are not considered significantly different.

The mental ages of the cases were used as a means

of ascertaining the possible levels of achievements.

The distribution of mental ages was as shown in Table VII.

TABLE VII

DISTRIBUTION OF MENTAL AGES CLASSIFIED ON THE BASIS OF

TYPES OF SCHOOLS


Mental


20 -
19 -
189 -
180 -
171
162
155 -
1345 -

126 -
11 -
108 -
99 -
90 -
81 -
72 -

5 -5
Number
Range
Media
Mean


L Ages 1
One teacher
for seven
grades

215 1
206 0
197 1
188 o
I

179 0
170 1
161 1
152 2
3
154 2-

116
125

107 3
9b 3

80 0
71 0
62 0
r of cases 25
94- 211
3 121.5
127.8


2
One teacher
for two
grades

0
0
0
1
0
2


5
11
9
9

6
3
0
0
0
61
85- 166
121.5
122.2


3
One teacher
for one
grade

0
0
1
0
4
14


2
9
21
18
11
5
0
0
2
2
87
58 195
119.5
122.1


II-I~C -


__ ..._ I -- --
_ ._.-. -. ..---I I-; -- --- -- --- -~Y._ _. I,


MMWAWMMIMW


w


m


mw."WWWW4


I"


ow"Murso4o"m


_ ___
__ __-_. ,_ -_.-_I_ -_.,--_ _,, _., _._. ___







45
The mental ages of the cases in the one teacher

for seven grades schools ranged from 94 to 211 with a

median mental age of 121.5 and a mean mental age of 127.8.

The cases in the one teacher for two grades schools

ranged from 85 to 166 with a median mental age of 121,5

and a mean mental age of 122.2. The cases in the one

teacher for one grade schools ranged from 58 to 193

with a median mental age of 119.3 and a mean mental of

122.1. These measures seem to indicate that each group

is able to achieve on at least a 4.7 grade level, and

that their differences are not significant in this study.

The mental age means show that the possible levels of
achievements are 5*1 grades level for cases in the one

teacher for seven grades schools and 4.7 grade levels

for those in the one teacher for two grades and the one

teacher for one grade schools. To determine the extent

to which the above levels were approached, the science

scores were studied.










TABLE VIII


DISTRIBUTION OF EQUATED SCIENCE SCORES ON THE BASIS
TO TYPES OF SCHOOLS



Equated Scores Types of Schools
1_ 2 _
One teacher One teacher One teacher
for seven for two for one
grades grades grade
65 67 0 0 2
6 64 0 0 2
59 61 o 0 1
56 58 o o 1
55 55 o 2
50 -2 0 1 4
47 0 5 9
4 46 1' 5
41 4 4 514
58 -40 5 11 14
5 37 4 10 13
52 54 6 15 9
29 31 3 2 5
26 28 2 6
25 25 0 1
Number of cases 25 61 87
27 45 24 51 24- 66
55*8 3574 7.8
35-8 36.1 40.6


In Table VIII it was seen that the range of
equated science scores for the cases in the one teacher
for seven grades schools was 27 to 45, that for cases in
the one teacher for two grades schools was 24 to 51, and
that of cases in the one teacher for one grade school







47


was 24 to 66.

A comparison of the measures of central tendencies

showed that a difference of 1.6 in the 35.8 median of

cases in the one teacher for seven grades schools and the

374- median of cases in the one teacher for two grades
schools was in favor of the latter. The 37.8 median

score for the cases in the one grade for one teacher

schools was 2.0 higher than that of cases in the one

teacher for seven grades schools. There was a difference

of only .4 in the median equated score of the cases in the

one teacher for two grades and the one teacher for one

grade schools.

The mean of the cases in the one teacher for seven

grades schools was 35.8 which is .3 lower than the 36.1

mean of the cases in the one teacher for two grades

schools. This differences is not considered significant.

The 40.6 mean of the cases in the one teacher for one

grade schools is 4.8 higher than that of cases in the one

teacher for seven grades schools, and 4.5 higher than the

cases in the one teacher for two grades schools. These

differences are considered to be significant.

From the equated science scores the corresponding

grade equivalents were considered in comparison with the

grade placement as determined by the mental ages previously

discussed. A distribution of the grade equivalents corre-

sponding to the equated science scores appear in Table IX .






48


TABLE IX

DISTRIBUTION OF GRADE EQUIVALENTS ON BASIS OF SCIENCE
TEST RESULTS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO TYPES OF SCHOOLS


Grade 1 2 _3.
One teacher One teacher One teacher
Equivalents for seven for two for one grade
grades grades
8. -8..- 0 0 1
7o5 7.9 0 0 2
6.o 67. o o I
6. 6.4 o o
0 0 5
55 5.9 o o 5
.o ,4 o o 9
*5 4 5 5 9
.o 7 16 26
5.5 5.9 7 1 17
5.0 5.4 8 18 16
2.5 2.9 o 4
Number of cases 25 61 87
Range 3.2 .7 2.7 5.2 2.7- 8.2
Median 3.9 3.8 4.2
Mean 3 8 3.8 4.5


The mean grade equivalents for all three groups
fall below the possible level of achievement as indicated
by the mental age grade placement. The 3.8 grade equiva-
lent mean of the cases in the one teacher for seven grades
schools fell 1.5 grade levels below the 5.1 grade level
corresponding to their mean mental age. The 3.8 mean
grade equivalent of the cases in the one teacher for two







49
grades schools was .9 grade level below the 4j7 grade

level corresponding to their mental age mean, which the

4.3 grade equivalent mean of the pupils in the one
teacher for one grade schools was .4 grade level below

the grade level corresponding to their mental age mean.

A comparison of the mean grade equivalents of

the three groups showed no difference in the grade equi-

valents means of the cases in the one teacher for seven

grades schools and the one teacher for two grades schools.

There is a difference of .5 grade levels in the means of

the cases in the one teacher for one grade schools and

the other two groups. From the above it can be seen that

though there is a difference in science achievement in

favor of those pupils in schools where one teacher

teaches one grade the difference is not significant.

The mean of the achievement levels of the pupils

in the three schools as compared with the Norm of the

Stanford Elementary Science Test and with each other are

shown in Graph II.









50


Graph II presents a comparison between grade

equivalent as indicated by science test results and

grade placement as indicated by mental maturity test

results.

GRAPH II


Grade




5 5









2
-Wr





0
ne teacher one r
for seven for two for one
grades grades grade


Grade Equivalent

Grade Placement


GRADE EQUIVALENT AND GRADE PLACEMENT BASED UPON MEANS
OF SCIENCE SCORES AND MENTAL AGE DISTRIBUTION AND
CLASSIFIED IN TERMS OF THE TYPES OF SCHOOLS







51


Summary of Chapter


The preceding data seem to indicate that the

achievement in science of the three groups is below the

Norm as supplied by the Stanford Intermediate and Ad-

vanced Science Test. A comparison of grade equivalents

for science scores and grade placement for their mental

ages indicates that these students are under achieving.

A comparison of the groups with each other reveal

that those pupils taught by teachers with four years

training whether in elementary education or in other fields

have a significantly higher level of achievement than those

pupils taught by teachers with less than four years train-

ing. There seems to be no significant difference in the

level of achievement of the pupils under teachers with

four years training in other fields and those under tea-

chers with four years training in elementary education.

When the groups are compared with each other and

classified according to the types of schools, there appears

to be no significant difference between the achievement of

the pupils taught in the schools where one teacher teaches

seven grades and in those where one teacher teaches two

grades. There is, however, a sigificant dieree in the

achievement of the pupils taught in schools where one tea-

cher teaches one grade and in the achievement of those

taught in the other two types of schools.










CHAPTER IV


SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


Summary. The purpose of this study was to ascer-

tain the knowledge of science possessed by pupils of the

seventh grades in Polk and Hardee Counties, Florida as

revealed by the Stanford Elementary Science Test; to

compare the science test results among the schools with

each other and with the national norm; to ascertain

whether or not the amount and type of training of the

teacher is a determining factor in the pupils' learning

in elementary science and finally, to stimulate an

interest in the teaching of science.

The study was limited to Polk and Hardee County,

Florida. Nine teachers with different qualifications

constituted the teaching personnel of cases studied.

Nine schools classified into three types previously men-

tioned were included in this study.

The Normative Survey Method involving some statis-

tical procedures was utilized. Direct observation and

visitations were made in order to compare facilities,

and to obtain information concerning the classes, the

teachers' certification, and home background of the pupils.

The results of the California Test of Mental Maturity were







55


obtained from the office of the principals and the

Stanford Achievement Test Form J M was administered to

the pupils studied.

Information received on visitations was assembled

and classified under the headings utilized in this

discussion. The results of the elementary science test

were compiled and statistically treated.

A comparison of the information received and of

the treatment of the test results revealed that:

(a) There is no significant difference in the

Intelligence Quotients of the samples studied.

(b) The difference in the amount and kind of

science facilities was found to be negligible.

(c) When the equated science scores were compared

with the National Intermediate and Advanced Science Grade

Norm, the mean grade equivalent on the basis of science

achievement of pupils taught by teachers with less than

four years college training is 3.1. The mental age

grade placement for this group is 4.8.

(d) The grade equivalent mean on basis of science

achievement of pupils taught by teachers with four years

college training in fields other than elementary edu-

cation is 4.1. The mental age grade placement of this

group is also 4.8.

(e) The mean grade equivalent of those taught by

teachers with four years training in elementary education







54

is 4.53 The mean mental age grade placement for this

group is 4.9.

(f) When the means of the equated science scores

were compared with each other, the pupils taught by

teachers with less than four years college training

rated significantly lower than those taught by

teachers with four years training in elementary education.

(g) The difference in the means of the science

scores of those taught by teachers with four years

training in fields other than elementary education and

those taught by teachers with four years traingin in

elementary education is insignificant.

When the equated science scores were arranged and

statistically treated on the basis of the types of

schools, the oldest pupils fell in the school where one

teacher teaches seven grades. The younger children were

left in the schools where one teacher teaches two grades

and where one teacher teaches one grade. The findings

from this classification reveal that*

(a) The grade mean equivalent on the basis of

science test results of the pupils in schools where one

teacher teaches seven grades is 3.8. On the basis of

means mental age the grade placement for this group is 5.1.

(b) The grade mean equivalent for pupils taught

in schools where one teacher teaches two grades is also

3.8. The grade placement for this group is 4.7.






55

(c) The grade mean equivalent for pupils taught in

schools where one teacher teaches one grade is 4.*3

The grade placement for this group is 4.7.


When the mean of the equated science scores were

arranged according to the types of schools and compared

with each other, the findings revealed that:

(a). The science achievement of the seventh grade

pupils in schools where one teacher teaches seven grades

is lower than that of the pupils in schools where one

teacher teaches two grades and where one teacher teaches

one grade.

(b) Pupils taught in schools where one teacher

teaches two grades rate lower than those taught in schools

where one teacher teaches one grade.

Conclusions. The findings of this study reveal

that:

1. Proficiency in science of the seventh grade

pupils of Polk and Hardee County, Florida is

below the national norm of the Stanford Ele-

mentary Science Test, Form Dm.


2. The seventh grade pupils in these counties are

under-achieving in science.

3. Science teaching is affected by the number of

classes the teacher has to teach. The achieve-

ment of pupils in classes in which one teacher


teaches more than one grade is lower than that






56


of those where one teacher teaches one grade.

4. The achievement of the seventh grade in science

is affected by the amount and the kind of training

possessed by the teacher. Achievement was higher

for pupils under teachers with four years of

training in elementary education than for those

under teachers with less than four years of elementary

training and those under teachers wtih four years in

other fields.


Recommendations


Insofar as the results of this study are valid,

the following recommendations are made:

1, That parents of thepupils in communities where

one teacher teaches one grade organize to encourage the

Board of Educa tion and others responsible for the

training of children to abandon the one teacher for seven

grades schools and the one teacher for two grades schools

and provide sufficient personnel to have one teacher

teach one grade so that the children might have a better

opportunity of developing to the extent of their capacities.

2. That school boards provide additional facilities

for the teaching of elementary science.

5* That elementary teachers exercise greater in-

genuity in utilizing possibilities in the surroundings.





57
4. Most of all that (a) classes in science be not

as crowded as they usually are, because students

in the least crowded classrooms tend to do better

on science tests, and (b) teachers in science be

adequately prepared, that is have a minimum number

of four years' training, as the children of least

trained teachers tended to have poorer grades than

those under the best trained teachers.






BIBLIOGRAPHY


Burroughs, John, "Purpose of Teaching Science" School
and Mathematics 46 : 433, May, 1946

Craig, Gerald S., Science for the Elementary School
Teacher. New York: Ginn & Company, 1947. pp. 6-20

Croxton, Walter Clyde, Science in the Elementary School.
New York: McGraw Hill Company, 19538 p. 53

Curtis, Frances D., "The Emergence School of Education
Bulletin, University of Michigan, Vol. 4: 860. p.
March, 1953.

Florida State Department of Education, Guide to Teaching
Science in the Elementary School, Tallahassee,
Florida, December, 1947. No. 7 pp. 15-15

Maupt, C. W., "Experimental Application of a Philosophy
of Science Teaching in an Elementary School,"
Contribution to Education, No. 653, New York:
Teachers College, Columbia University.

Mau, Laura Emily, "Some Experiments With Regard to the
Relative Interest of Children in Physical and
Biological Nature Materials in the Kindergarten
and Primary Grades", Nature Study Review, 1912

Meister, Morris, "The Educational Value of Scientific
Toys" Schcol Science and Mathematics, December,
1922, pp. 32-36.-

mrner, Lawrence E., "The Nature Almanac" Washington Do C.
The American Nature Association, 1930. p. 14

Powers, Samuel Ralph, Science in General Education, New
York: D. Appleton Century Co., 1958. pp. 135-41

Robertson, Martin L. "An Investigation of the Relative
Effectiveness of the Two Methods of Teaching -
Elementary Science" Science Education 16: 182-187
February, 1952.

Strange, Ruth, "Subject Matter in Health Education," Contri-
bution to Education, No. 222 New York: Teachers
College, Columbia University, 1926








Bibliography


Thurber, Walter A., "Elementary Science Where Is It
Going? School Science and Mathematics, Vol. 12,
No. 7, pp. T62, October, 1942

Trafton, Gilbert H. "Children's Interest in Nature
Material", Nature Study Review, September 1913
pp. 150-160o



































APPENDIX




Intermediate and Advanced FORM
TANFORD Science Test JM

ACHIEVEMENT TEST
'RUMAN L. KELLEY RICHARD MADDEN ERIC F. GARDNER LEWIS M. TERMAN GILES M. RUCH



intermediate and Advanced

Science Test

for Use with Separate Answer Sheet


Published by World Book Company, Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York, and Chicago, Illinois
Copyright 1952 by World Book Company. Copyright in Great Britain. All rights reserved
PRINTED IN U.S.A. BAT : INTER. & ADV. SCI. : JM-1
This test is copyrighted. The reproduction of any part of it by mimeograph, hectograph, or in any other
way, whether the reproductions are sold or are furnished free for use, is a violation of the copyright law.




Science Test Stanford Inter. & Adv. Sci.:
2

DIRECTIONS: Choose the best answer for each exercise and mark the answer space that
numbered the same as your choice.

1 Our daylight comes from 1 the stars 2 the sun 3 Mars 4 the earth...
2 Farmers most often kill insects on trees by 5 pruning 6 smoking
7 cultivating 8 spraying ...................................................

3 The roots of plants take in 1 sand 2 water 3 air 4 worms..........

4 An animal with a very good sense of smell is a 5 chicken 6 cow 7 cat 8 dog
6 The best thing to do if one's clothes catch on fire is to 1 call the fire department
2 run outdoors 3 roll up in a rug or blanket 4 take the clothes off........
6 A kite stays up because 5 the air pushes it 6 the string is long
7 electricity draws it 8 magnetism holds it ..............................

7 A bird that builds its nest on the ground is the 1 robin 2 wren 3 bluebird 4 quail
8 Before fresh berries are eaten, they should be 5 sliced 6 quartered 7 washed
8 b o ile d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...
9 The majority of bicycle accidents are caused by 1 careless children
2 wet pavements 3 faulty brakes 4 thoughtless automobile drivers........

10 The heart acts much like a 5 gate 6 filter 7 pump 8 sieve...........

11 Soil is made mostly of small pieces of 1 grass 2 branches 3 metal 4 rock
12 A big mass of ice is called a 5 flood 6 typhoon 7 tornado 8 glacier....
13 Temperature is measured by 1 thermometers 2 barometers
3 anemometers 4 hygrometers .. .... ...... .............................1
14 An evergreen tree is the 5 walnut 6 pine 7 peach 8 maple............

15 We find the North Star with the help of the 1 clouds 2 Big Dipper 3 sun 4 moon
16 Woodpeckers make holes in trees to 5 find insects 6 eat the tender bark
7 sharpen their beaks 8 get water ........... . .. ................. .1
17 Most fish protect themselves by 1 swimming away 2 biting
3 coloring the water 4 fighting ........................ ..................1
18 A plant whose seeds are spread mainly by the wind is the 5 rose 6 violet
7 geranium 8 dandelion .................................... ............1
19 The earth moves completely around the sun in about 1 a week 2 30 days
3 180 days 4 365 days............ ......... 1
20 It is dangerous to let a car engine run in a closed garage because 5 air is used up
6 the car may start 7 carbon monoxide is formed 8 the battery may run dry
21 A plant that often grows from a bulb is the 1 carrot 2 tomato 3 lettuce 4 onion 2


22 Which of the following travels fastest? 5 a bullet 6 a raindrop 7 an airplane 8 light
23 Dew on the grass comes from 1 water rising from the ground
2 rain during the night 3 moisture in the air 4 the grass itself.............a
24 A "closed season" protects-- 5 wild life 6 swimmers 7 hunters 8 travelers

25 Insect larvae are the chief food of some 1 bees 2 flies 3 birds 4 worms 2
[ 2 ] Go on to the next page.






TANFORD


ACHIEVEMENT TEST

neral Class Record

AGE TESTS
BOY -- -- -- -- -- -- -- B ,
Boy BATT.
UPILS' NAMS OR Aver Aver. MDN
GIRL Yrs. os. Par. Word Aead. Spell. Lang. Arith. Arith. Aver. Soc. Sei. Stud. MD
Mean. Mean. ReadReas. Comp. St. Sk.


























iii-------_









5_________________ __ __ __ __ __ __ ^


6__________________________ __ ___ __ __ ___ __ __ __ ___ __ __ ___ __


.. ... ..

g_________.. ... ... ... __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ ^


I__________________. ... .....___ __ __ __ __ __ __ _

!________________


B



[edian

IQ or other optional information may be recorded in the blank columns. a
Published by World Book Company, Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York, and Chicago, Illinois





Stanford Achievement Test :General Clas Reoq


Form of test used___ Grade____ Grade placement at time of testing (See table below)


Level of test (Circle one): Elem. Inter. Adv.

Teacher


Date of testing


jIAO.J1UmeL


City and State


bJL.L11JVJ


Directions for Using the Class Record
This Class Record is intended to serve as a permanent
record of the results on the Stanford Achievement Test for
the teacher or school authorities. It may be used either
when all nine subtests of the Intermediate or Advanced
Battery have been given, or when only certain of the sub-
tests of the Elementary, Intermediate, or Advanced Batteries
have been given as, for example, the two Reading Tests.
In the latter case, the spaces for such tests as are not given
are, of course, simply ignored. The specific directions for
filling out the Class Record are as follows:
1. In the spaces provided at the top of this page, fill out
the information called for. The grade placement of pupils
as at the time of testing may be found from the table below.
If a school year is atypical, this table should not be used, but
the grade norms should be determined by computing the
number of tenths of a school year which have elapsed at the
time the tests are administered.
GRADE PLACEMENT AT TIME OF TESTING


DATE OF TESTING g ( g 1 I s eI
N0 N 6oo2 4 .6 .67 .8 9 s
GRADE PLACEMENT .0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9


2. On page 1 of this Class Record write the names of
pupils, either in alphabetical order or in some other conve
ient order; e.g., chronological age or score.
3. In the column after the pupil's name write "B" or "G
to indicate the sex of the pupil.
4. In the next column record the chronological ages of
pupils, as determined from the school records.
5. Record the grade or age equivalents on the vario
subtests in the appropriate columns.
6. If an average Reading or Arithmetic score is desire
this may be obtained by averaging the grade or age equi
alent on the two Reading or Arithmetic tests, as the ca
may be. These averages may then be entered in the appr
private columns. Battery medians will not be obtained unl
the Partial or the Complete Battery is used.
7. The two columns at the right without headings may b
used for recording optional data, such as IQ's and so forth.
8. To aid in the summarization and interpretation of th'
Stanford Achievement Test results, there has been prepare
a Class Analysis Chart on which provision is made for dis
tributing the scores in each subtest and otherwise expedition
the application of the results. This Class Analysis Chart
which is a four-page folder, must be ordered separately.


(21




St () Stanford Inter. & Adv. Sci.: JM
Science Test (Continued)

26 Levees are built to 5 prevent floods 6 catch animals 3 ,
7 break up snowdrifts 8 stop fires ....... ..... ........................ 2
27 People put oil on water of ponds and pools to get rid of 1 grasshoppers
2 mosquitoes 3 flies 4 beetles......... ..... ........ ...... .27
28 For his bones to harden well, a child needs plenty of 5 sugar 6 starch
7 fat 8 calcium ......... ............................ ... .............. ..28

29 Bees help plants produce seeds by carrying 1 water 2 seeds 3 pollen 4 honey 29

30 The age of a tree may be told from its 5 bark 6 rings 7 leaves 8 limbs......30

31 A disease of the lungs is 1 measles 2 mumps 3 hay fever 4 pneumonia. .31
32 Weather vanes show 5 wind speed 6 wind direction 7 cloudiness
8 the amount of rainfall.................... ........................ .. 32
s An open draft causes fire to burn better because combustion needs
1 oxygen 2 hydrogen 3 nitrogen 4 moist air.................. .......33

4 The muscles are weakened by 5 food 6 exercise 7 fresh air 8 disuse..34
35 In the United States we have the most hours of daylight in 1 June 2 September
3 December 4 March.......... .................................. 35
36 If a child's ankle is sprained, he has 5 bruised skin 6 an injured ligament
7 a broken bone 8 a diseased joint...................................36
37 Digestion is aided most by 1 eating slowly 2 eating spicy foods
3 drinking water 4 chewing gum.............. ... ......................37
38 The moon and the earth both have 5 people 6 many rocks 7 wind 8 trees 38
39 If you tighten a violin string, the sound will become 1 louder 2 higher in pitch
3 lower in pitch 4 softer .............. ................................39
40 Coffee is not recommended for children because it 5 makes them tired
6 overstimulates them 7 contains too much sugar 8 retards digestion.......40
41 The explosion of an atom bomb proves that atoms are 1 a source of energy
2 very small 3 everywhere 4 heavy .................................. .41
42 Chemicals that kill bacteria are called 5 solvents 6 germicides 7 acids
8 laxatives ........... .................. . ...... ................... 42
43 The sun is made of 1 hot metal 2 electricity 3 glowing gases
4 reflecting material....................................................... 43
44 A daily lunch of doughnuts and malted milk is poor because 5 sweets are bad for us
6 they are fattening 7 they lack important food elements 8 doughnuts are greasy 44
45 Water leaves the earth and returns in a pattern called a 1 water table
2 water cycle 3 water wheel 4 watershed.................. ............45
46 A material which does not conduct electricity makes a good 5 fuse 6 circuit
7 insulator 8 magnet .............. . . . . . ......... .46
47 The number of phases, or changes, of the moon shown on most calendars is -
1 two 2 four 3 six 4 eight............ .....................47
48 We know that gravity is not the same as magnetism, because gravity 5 is weaker


6 will attract iron 7 affects all things 8 does not depend upon electricity .. .48
49 Pressure cookers are especially useful because they 1 are not likely to explode
2 hold much food 3 develop high temperatures quickly 4 work well at sea level 49
5o All planets are alike in that they -
5 shine by their own light 6 are of the same size 7 are hot 8 rotate ... 50
[ 3 ] Go on to the next page.





Science Test (Continued) Stanford Inter. & Adv. Sci.: JM
Science Test (Continued)

51 Malaria is best prevented by destroying 1 wood ticks 2 flies 3 mosquitoes 4 lice 51
52 Surgery has been made painless by the use of -
5 vaccines 6 anesthetics 7 serum 8 iodine.......................52
53 To put out a fire in a pan of burning grease, do not use -
1 baking soda 2 water 3 table salt 4 carbon dioxide ................ 53
54 One's body can best resist heat with the help of its -
5 thyroid gland 6 sweat glands 7 lymph vessels 8 pancreas ............54
55 Evaporation is most rapid from a 1 jug 2 flat pan 3 drinking glass 4 bottle 55
56 An electric doorbell works because electricity 5 causes a ringing noise
6 moves fast 7 makes a chemical change 8 produces magnetism..........56

57 Protoplasm is 1 a gas 2 a living substance 3 decayed matter 4 a digestive juice 57
58 Thermos bottles employ the principle of -
5 condensation 6 the siphon 7 evaporation 8 insulation .............58
59 Cumulus clouds become thunderheads as they 1 gather more moisture
2 decrease in size 3 are blown more rapidly 4 settle toward the earth. .... .59
60 Clover and helpful bacteria together furnish soil with -
5 nitrates 6 lime 7 water 8 iron..................................... 60
61 By banding birds, scientists study the birds' habits of -
1 migration 2 hibernation 3 digestion 4 breathing ............... .61
62 As a general rule, crops are grown most successfully in soil composed largely of -
5 lime 6 sand 7 loam 8 clay.................... ..............62
63 Severe blowing away of topsoil is prevented most efficiently by -
1 a hard packing 2 manure 3 a cover crop 4 more plowing............ .63
64 A plant mold used to fight infection is 5 penicillin 6 dodder 7 lichen 8 sassafras 64
65 Your arm is an example of a simple machine known as -
1 an inclined plane 2 a wedge 3 a pulley 4 a lever ................... 65
66 The primary purpose of a transformer is to -
5 change voltage 6 measure current 7 reduce shock hazard 8 reduce costs 66
67 A current of electricity is a flow of 1 atoms 2 molecules 3 electrons 4 volts 67
68 Cakes are baked in order to 5 remove the moisture 6 kill bacteria
7 produce a chemical change 8 mix the ingredients better ................... 68
Stop.


[4 ]




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