AN ANALYSIS OF CERTAIN FACTORS WHICH AFFECT PROFICIENCY
IN SCIENCE AMONG STUDENTS IN THE SEVENTH GRADE
IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA
the Faculty of the Graduate School
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science in Education
Gerald Oliver Thomas
AN ANALYSIS OF CERTAIN FACTORS WHICH AFFECT PROFICIENCY
IN SCIENCE AMONG STUDENTS IN THE SEVENTH GRADE
IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS IN FLORIDA
the Faculty of the Graduate School
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
C(ommi t e.ha airman
Dean, Graduate Scho
AC KNOW LEDGMENT S
The writer wishes to express his appreciation for
the assistance extended him by Mr. N. H. Clarke of
the Graduate Florida Agricultural and Mechanical Uni-
versity whose assistance, encouragement, critical and
constructive criticisms made this study possible.
The writer wishes to thank Mr. A. J. Polk and
Mrs. L. W. Sewell for their continuous interest, guidance
and valuable suggestions dealing with the writer's field
of study and manuscript. He also wishes to thank
Mrs. Lola N. Reed for the typing of the manuscript.
Most of all, the writer wishes to thank his wife,
Nell, whose patient understanding and appreciation of
the whole study played no small part in this scientific
G. 0. T.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED 1
The problem .. * * 1
Statement of the problem * *
Basic Assumptions * * 1
Delimitations. * * * 2
Purpose of the study * * 2
Definition of terms used * 2
II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE .. . 8
Point of view of others ........ 8
Research Studies . 1 4
III. PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF 25
DATA . . . 25
Comparison of Science Achievement According
to Teacher Training . .. 25
Comparison of Science Achievement According
to Types of Schools .. 41
IV. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 52
Summary . . . *. 52
Conclusions . . . . 55
Recommendations .* * * * 56
LIST OF TABLES
I. Number and Training of Teachers and
Number of Pupils Involved in the
Study Classified on Basis of Types
of Schools . . 27
II. Distribution of Intelligence Quotient
of Students Classified on the Basis
of Teacher Training .. ... 29
III. Distribution of Mental Ages of Students
Classified on the Basis of Teacher
Training . . .. *52
IV. Distribution of Equated Science Scores on
the Basis of Teacher Training . *
V. Distribution of Grade Equivalents on the
Basis of Teacher Training * 7
VI. Distribution of Intelligence Quotient
from California Mental Maturity Test 4a
VII. Distribution of Mental Ages Classified
on the Basi of Types of Schools 44
VIII. Distributed' of Eequated Science Scores on
the Basis cf Typc of Schools l6.
IX. Distribution of Gra"o Equivalents on the
Basis of Science Test Results Classified
According to Types of Schools . J
LIST OF GRAPHS
Io Grade Equivalent and Grade Placement
Based Upon Means of Science Scores
and Mental Ages Distribution and
Classified in Terms of the Training
of Teachers * * * 40
II. Grade Equivalent and Grade Placement
Based Upon Means of Science Scores
and Mental Age Distribution and Classi-
fied in Terms of Types of Schools .50
THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED
I. THE PROBLEM
Statement of the problem. The problem in this
piece of research is centered around proficiency in
science of certain seventh grade pupils in Polk and
Hardee County, Florida, and the extent to which their
achievement is affected by training of teachers and the
type of school organization.
Basic Assumptions. Science is a field which the
tea cher is a guide to the pupils in their activities.
The ages of these students are ages of curiosity, sensi-
tivity, and activity. It is therefore assumed that:
.1. All teachers are prepared to some extent to
teach a certain amount of science.
2. Young children can develop an appreciation
3. The same teaching aids are available to all
teachers of science in this area.
4. Acquisition of additional teaching aids is
dependent upon the resourcefulness of the
Delimitation. A total of one hundred seventy-
three pupils in nine seventh grade science classes on
the subject of this study. These classes are located
in eight different schools in Polk and Hardee County,
The schools vary in organization. Three of the
science classes studied are in schools in which one
teacher teaches seven grades. Three are in schools in
which one teacher teaches a single grade.
Purpose of the study. The purpose of this study
is to (1) ascertain the knowledge of science possessed
by the seventh grade pupils in Polk and Hardee County
schools as revealed by the Stanford Elementary Test;
(2) comparee the pupils achievement in science in certain
seventh grade counties with each other and with the
national norm; (3) ascertain whether or the amount and
kind of training of the teacher appear to influence the
proficiency in science; (4) determine whether or not the
type of school and the extent of facilities affect the
pupils' proficiency in science; and (5) stimulate an
interest in the teaching of science.
II. DEFINITION OF TERMS USED
Elementary Science. Elementary science is the
facts and concepts of science that are understandable
Elementary science is work in the area dealing
with natural and physical phenomena.
Polk County. Polk County is located in cen-
tral Florida, its 1,274,880 acres are bordered by Pasco,
Sumter, Lake, Osceola, Highlands, Hardee and Hillsbo-
rough Counties. One of the state's largest counties in
area, 40 miles in width and 50 miles in length. It is
situated almost in the center of the Peninsula. Bartow
is the county seat which is 14 miles south of Lakeland,
the leading city of the county and 46 miles east of Tampa.
The total population is 123,997 as of 1954, of this the
Negro population was estimated to be approximately 24,994.
The highest recorded elevation in the State is
here, at Bok Tower in Lake Wales, 325 feet above sea level.
The average annual rainfall at Bartow is 55.31 inches,
at Lakeland, 49.21 inches and the heaviest rainfall is in
Miller, Dorothy, "Place of Elementary Science in
the Curriculum", School Science and Mathematics, Vol. 48:
May 194.9, p. 380.
Heavitt, Jerome, "Science in the Elementary School"
School Science and Mathematics, Vol. 44s December 1949,
p B ---
June, July, August and September. The annual average
temperature is 72.2 degrees at the county seat with an
average high of 81.8 degrees in August and an average
low of 61.1 degrees in January. At Lakeland the annual
average temperature is 75*1 degrees, from an average
high of 82.0 degrees in July to an average low of 62.1
degrees in January.
The diversified sources of income are citrus growing,
cattle raising and tourists. The center of the citrus
growing section is in Polk County and Winter Haven, where
the Florida Citrus Exposition is found. Oranges and other
citrus products are grown, processed, canned, concentrated
and shipped; citrus candy is manufactured here for sale
throughout the nation. In addition to oranges, the major
citrus crops, grapefruit, tangarines, lemons, limes,
Japanese persimmons, strawberries, and other fruit are
grown extensively here. Bananas, avacardos, guavas and
mangoes grow here also, but not commercially.
Lakeland is the largest city and is the retail
and whole sale center for prosperous mining section. About
sixty-nine per cent of the world's supply of phosphate is
mined in Polk County. Phosphate is used largely as ferti-
lizer containing phosphoric acid. Sand mining for building
purposes and the manufacture of concrete and cement products,
is also an important industry. Other mineral resources are
peat and clay.
The principle vegetables are peppers, cabbage,
lettuce, tomatoes, string beans, eggplants and cu-
cumbers. Leading staple crops are corn, Irish potatoes,
sweet potatoes, field peas, velvet beans and forage crops.
Cattle and poultry raising are also major sources of in-
come and conditions are very favorable for both indus-
tries. The income from timber, sawmills, and allied enter-
prises is important to the county's economy.
A year-round tourist trade is enjoyed. Some 5,000
tourists visit lakeland each year, providing about one
million dollars. There are three hundred accessible lakes
that are noted for fishing.
Many varieties of fresh water fish are caught in
the three hundred lakes in the county and the hunters
find quails, turkeys, rabbits, fox, racoon, dove deer,
squirrel and duck here.
There are forty-one elementary and twenty-seven
secondary schools in the county. Of these numbers,
there are fifteen elementary and five secondary schools
for Negroes. The enrollment is thirty thousand fifty-four
students of which ten thousand are Negroes. There are
approximately three hundred teachers.
Hardee County. Hardee county located in south
Florida, is a rectangular shaped county with an area
of 406,400 acres, bounded on the north by Polk County,
on the west by Manatee County, on the south by DeSota
County, and on the east by Highland County. Wachaula,
the county seat, is 40 miles from Lakeland and 67 miles
The weather is temperate, with an annual average
temperature of 73.0 degrees, an average low of 63.0
degrees in January and an average high of 82.* degrees
in August. The average annual rainfall is 58.07 inches,
the heaviest rain following in June, July, August and
The county is primarily agricultural and is known
as the "Cucumber Capital of the World" because of the
large cucumber crops in the county. Other major crops
are tomatoes, eggplants, strawberries, squash and peppers.
In addition, all types of truck crops and citrus fruits
are grown. The strawberries are considerable important
in the county.
The fine pasture lands of 341,685 acres have de-
veloped into a cattle center of importance. Thousands
heads of pure bred cattle, including Brahman, Angus, Here-
ford, as well as better grade Florida range cattle, are
raised on Hardee County ranges. Purebred hogs, poultry,
and dairy cattle are also raised here.
Hardee's two principle crops, cucumbers and straw-
berries are subject to annual festivals which attract
visitors from throughout the state. These are the Straw-
berry Festival at Bowling Green and the Cucumber Festival
Quails, dove, squirrel and rabbit are plentiful
in the county and unposted hunting grounds are available.
Fresh water bass, perch and bream are caught in Lake Ar-
bukle and the many streams in the county, all of which
abound in fresh water of all kind.
There are five elementary and one secondary schools
in the county with a school enrollment of thirty-two
thousand for the term of 1951-1955- Of this number, there
are two hundred Negro pupils. There are nine Negro teachers
and one hundred white teachers. The Negro population in
this county was estimated to be 591*
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
The literature related to this problem will be
organized around four basic pointe in the teaching of
science in the elementary school (1) the function of
science, (2) the objectives of science, (3) the value of
science, (4) the preparation of elementary science tea-
chers. It will present a brief summary of some of the
studies that have been made relative to the feasibility
of science in the elementary school.
Point of View of Others. Authorities in education
agree that science plays a tremendous part in present
day living. The limits of its possible contributions to
human welfare and the advancement of civilization are not
yet in sight.
The control of its great forces in meeting human
needs is a fundamental social problem. Science in the
elementary school is not designed to develop scientists
or to present children with complex problems beyond their
ability to comprehend. Science -makes up his environment.
The functions of science in the elementary schools are to
make the world more intelligible to the child and to equip
Florida State Bulletin, A Guide to Teaching Science
in the Elementary School.
him with a way of thinking and a method of problem
solving. Authorities further point up the fact that
science is among the newest offerings to be added to
the elementary schools and that few systems have as yet
a comprehensive program for science education.
However, certain objectives for science education
have been formulated.
Authorities are quite definite in their opinion of
the major aims relative to the teaching of science in the
elementary schools. They all agree that the aims of
science teaching should be to encourage individuals to
seek evidence, to consider the evidence carefully, and
withhold judgment until the conclusion is evident; to
achieve broader concepts and wider outlooks; to enrich
leisure hours by growing plants, rearing animals, and
observing and exploring collections; to develop habits and
skills necessary for maintaining health and for meeting
Croxton expresses his ideas on the aims of science
1. To cultivate scientific attitudes and methods
2. To lead to broader concepts, generalizations,
Croxton, Walter Clyde, Science in the Elementary
School. New York: McGraw-Hill Company, 19B3. p. 338.
3. To open new avenues of interest and satis-
4. To enable the individual to meet the problem
of existence with the available scientific
knowledge and requisite skills
5. To develop social attitudes and appreciations
In order that these objectives be met certain de-
sirable habits, skills, and attitudes must be developed.
Science instruction helps a child develop skills in the
techniques of testing thought and collecting evidence
from a variety of sources. It also develops skills neces-
sary to construct and use objects he needs.
Science teaching should also enable the individual
to meet the problems of existence with the available
scientific knowledge. The child needs habits and knowledge
for preserving his health and insuring his own safety.
He should be trained to grow plants and care for pets.
The elementary school should likewise develop social
attitudes toward and appreciation for the things of
nature. Cooperation through group activities should re-
quire group responsibility that will extend to promote
happiness and cooperation. The destruction of many of
the beautiful flowers, trees, birds, and other harmless
animals might be prevented if children had gained an
understanding of and appreciation for the beauty of nature.
Burroughs calls attention to the fundamental
purpose of teaching elementary science. He states that
scientific habits and skills are emphasized most among
the outcomes of the science education program for the
elementary school. Burroughs says, "I should not try
directly to teach young people to love nature so much as
I should aim to bring nature and them together and let
an intimacy and understanding spring up between them."
Craig, in discussing the value of science in the
elementary school, points up the potentialities that the
elementary school has as the school of all the people.
Craig states as follows:
We have in our elementary classrooms both to-
morrow's laymen and tomorrow's scientists. Tra-
ditionally our content subjects have been organized
for the purpose of developing specialists and pre-
serving the logical order within the specialized
content fields, to the neglect of the great majority
who will never become specialists in the fields in-
volved. We can no longer afford to neglect the
needs of all the people of the democracy. There
is evidence that they have certain needs which only
science can fulfill .
"It would seem that the destiny of society is de-
pendent to no small extent upon giving to all the people
a speaking acquaintance with science, the subject whose
latent power can be used to benefit or to destroy civili-
'Craig, Gerald, Science for the Elementary School
Teacher. New York: GinnCompany, 19't7. p. 3.
Educators are agreed in their view relative to the
role the teacher plays in the elementary school science
program. Indeed, they agree that she is the guide to the
Craig states that the traditional point of view in
reference to the content field in the elementary school
was aimed at the mastery of the subject matter.
Gradually the traditional practice of thinking of
a subject matter field such as science in the elementary
school, in terms of subject mastery is being eliminated
in favor of think of an area as contributing to the child's
growth in useful directions. Science, therefore, emerges
in the element ry schools not so much as small content to
be learned as large outcomes which may be emerging con-
stantly in one's life as a result of the interaction of
the individual with his environment in the age of science.
In order that the teacher might be able to do a
successful job of science teaching, authorities advocate
special training in this area. It is agreed that most
elementary teachers are not prepared to teach elementary
In this connection, Thuber says, "Our elementary
school teachers and most of those in teacher training
institutions are not qualified to teach a program which
Thurber, Walter, "Elementary Science: Where Is
It Going?" School Science and Mathematics. Vol 42,1942,p.198.
deals with generalities in many varied fields."
Authorities agree that the status of science
in the elementary school is low.
Weller and a committee of investigators on a
questionnaire study of science teaching in the elementary
school in eight widely scattered states revealed some
interesting data on the status of elementary science.
She reports that in 18.6 per cent of these schools no
science is ta ught by a regular classroom teacher and
in 41.1 per cent of these schools there is a special
science teacher, 20.4 per cent of these had science class-
rooms, and 22.1 per cent have science museums.
Palmer's survey of the status of science training
in the schools and of the provision for the preparation
of teachers in this field suggests needed changes. He
secured information concerning the science work in schools
from state departments of education and from a large
number of city superintendents. He also analyzed the
offerings of higher institutions with respect to the
training of science teachers. He found that requirements
Weller. Florance, "A Survey of the Present Status
of Elementary Science" Science Education, Vol. 17:
October, 19533. pp.195-198
Palmer, Lawrence E., "The Nature Almanac" Washing-
ton, D. C.: The American Nature Association, 1930. pp. 48-
of the teaching of science work by state departments
of education does not guarantee general teaching of the
work. He also found that although courses of science in
higher institutions of learning are not uniform they are
demanding respect and support.
Research in science teaching is a recent develop-
ment. The researches at present are limited in scope and
the findings are to be regarded as tentative. However,
these findings are markedly influencing science teaching.
The purpose here is to consider the progress that
has been made through research in the teaching of ele-
mentary schools in order that we may see what basis for
teaching practice the findings offer. The writer, in her
study of research problems, examined studies of (1)
childrends science interest, (2) status of science in the
elementary school, (3) studies concerned with curriculum
construction, (4) methods of teaching science in the ele-
mentary field and (5) pupils' achievement in science.
Mau carried on an investigation in Chicago schools
in kindergarten and in grades 1, 2, and 3. The purpose
of this investigation was to discover the kind subjects
Mau, Laura E., "Some Experiments with Regard to the
Relative Interest of Childrenfin Physical & Biological
Nature Materials in the Kindergarten and Primary Grades,"
Nature Study Review 8: 285-291, November, 1912.
preferred by children with regard to age and sex. She
used a pepper plant with red peppers on it, a gray cat,
and a toy engine with complete works; the children were
allowed to choose whichever they preferred. Her experi-
ment indicated that these children were interested in
physical phenomena as well as plant and animal life, and
that younger children were especially motor sensory.
Trofton found in a study made in grades 4-8 in-
volving almost 1000 children in New Jersey that children's
acquaintance with nature is limited; that younger children
are impressed by the appearance of animals, and that acti-
vities of animals are most impressive in the upper grades.
Haupt, made a study of instructional material.
He organized instructional material around the concepts
of light as a type of energy and the importance of energy
as exemplified in the use of light by plants. The instruc-
tional materials were based in part upon children's ans-
wers to questions and their writing on the topic, but most
of the ideas were obtained from books by reputable authors.
Tests were constructed on the concepts of light
and energy and given in grades one to six orally in the first
Trofton, Gilbert H., "Childrens' Interest in Nature
Material," Nature Study Review, Sept., 1913. pp. 150-160.
Haupt, G. W., nExperimental Application of a Phi-
losophy of Science Teaching in an Elementary School",
Contributions to Education No. 633, New York Teachers'
College, Columbia University.
three grades. Each grade was taught 4-10 lessons 20-50
minutes per week on the concepts of light and energy
change. Following this instruction the test was given
again. He found that children at all ages can and do
generalize, that true understandings of the generali-
zations was approached at all levels.
Croxton carried on a series of experiments in an
attempt to find out whether children generalize readily
without explanation by the teacher. Period of eight
minutes was devoted to demonstrations designed to provide
a series of experiences each of which manifested the
same principle. At the close of the experiment period
one question was asked which called forth a principle
common to all experiences. Later at least one concrete
question was asked. The results indicated that many
children in the upper primary, intermediate, and junior
high school grades are capable of generalizing on basis
provided in the experiment.
Many of the courses offered in higher institutions
for training science teachers are inadequate and in-
Curtis states that elementary teachers as a group
have not been trained to teach science; he says, "they have
Croxton, W. C., "Pupils Ability to Generalize",
School of Education Bulletin, University of Michigan, 19335
lacked an adequate grounding in its subject matter and
Weller on her survey blanks sent to elementary
school supervisors asked what professional courses were
available for in-service science teachers. Of the
schools reporting 40.0 per cent indicated that some such
courses were available. Miss Weller concluded that it
is in this aspect of elementary science that much needs
to be done to strengthen the field.
S. R. Powers, reporting on the education for
science teachers, says, "the typical offering in science
in normal schools and state teachers colleges consists of
relatively few courses, uniquely named, with a decided
tendency to make a unit into itself, with few or no pre-
requisites, and with little or no recognition of sequence
Curtis, Francis D., "The Emergence of Elementary
School," School of Education Bulletin, University of
Michigan k; 86088, March, 19355
Powers, S. R., Chairman-Thirty-First Yearbook,
National Society for the Study of Education, Chapter XVIII
Bloomington, p. 270.
Croxton states that, "It is only recently in
this country that elementary school teachers generally
have been required to r-epare for science teaching."
Brochbill studied the courses in the teaching of
science offered in a number of large colleges and uni-
versities. He found that 78 per cent offer courses in
this field; that three-fourth of the courses were devoted
to the teaching of science in the secondary schools.
Bagley and Kyte analyzed county and city cor ses
of study in California and also surveyed the literature
of the field to discover the instructional status of
elementary science. They found little agreement either
as to methods of teaching and an almost total lack of
investigation regarding the essentials in elementary science.
Few textbooks in elementary science have been avail-
able until recently. Strange analyzed samples of elem-
enta ry health textbooks as well as courses of study in
her attempt to find out the status of this phase of science
Croxton, W. C., Science in the Elementar School
McGraw-Hill Co. New York: 1937, Ch. 7, p. T11.
Breechhill, Henry, "Status of College & University
Offering in Teaching of Science,"Science Education, Vol. 18
pp. 221-225, December, 1934.
Bagley, William C., & George C. Kyte,"The Cali-
Curriculum S udy, university of California Printing Office
Berkley, California, pp. 203-2553
Strange, Euth, "Subject-matter in Health Education"
Contributions to Education. New York; Columbia U., 1926.
work in the schools. She found diversity in health
material and inadequate meaningless types of statements.
Few method studies have appeared in the elemen-
tary science field, probably because of the incidental
place that the subject has held in school programs, and
the lack of established contents and objectives. The
failure of the subject to fulfill any important role
has tended to direct the attention of research toward a
study of objectives and content
Meister's made a study of the relative value of
science units and classroom teaching. He used four g
groups of approximately equal mental age and intelligence
quotients. Group I had both lesson and play, Group II
had only lessons, Group III was given play only and
Group IV had neither play nor lessons. He found that
the group having experience with play units but no in-
dividual instruction showed gains in knowledge almost
equal to those made by the group receiving instruction.
He concluded that the play unit group showed superior
gain in originality and problem-solving. He further con-
cluded that children who have the benefit of both the
play unit and the classroom teaching excelled all others.
Robertson carried on an investigation for the
Meister, Morris, "The Educational Values of
Scientific Toys," Science & Mathematics, 1922, pp. 32956.
purpose of comparing the relative effectiveness of two
methods of teaching elementary science in the fifth
grade. He selected six units from Craigls "Tenative
Course of Student in Elementary Science." The subjects
were two closely equated groups of fifth grade pupils
in the Oxford school at Dearborn, Michigan. He taught
as nearly as possible the same content to both groups of
fifth grade children. One used the story prepared by
the experimenter converting the subject matter on the unit
and a guidance outline for study. The other group was
taught by the developmental discussion method. He gave
a test to both groups. Robertson concluded that the
extra work entailed in preparing the study guides was not
justified by the results obtained.
Few studies, related to pupil achievement in science
prior to the secondary school level, have been made.
These studies seem to indicate that teaching science to
pupils in the grades prior to high school results in
higher science grades for these pupils when they are in
Robertson, Martin L., $An Investigation of the
Relative Effectiveness of the Two Methods of Teaching Ele-
mentary Science" Science Education 16: 182-187.
Carpenter made a study to determine the extent to
which, if any, pupils who receive five or six semesters of
general science instruction in grades seven, eight, and
nine, made better gains than general science pupils who,
for one reason or another had been forced to omit some
of the earlier grades of work. All the pupils involved
in the study completed a year of general science in the
ninth year. Not all, however, had the full work in the
preceding seventh and eighth grades.
The time schedule for science in the seventh,
eighth and ninth grades calls for two fifty minutes
periods per week throughout the eighth grade, and five
fifty minute periods per week throughout the ninth grade.
The pupils who had not received science below the
ninth grade had received five fifty minute periods per
week in the ninth grade.
He concluded that the median score of pupils who
had science in the seventh, eighth, and ninth grades was
higher than the median score of those pupils who had less
science prior to the ninth grade.
Carpenter, H. A., "Results of a Three Year Se-
quence in Junior High Schools", Science Education. Vol. 17
October, 1955, pp. 183-192.
Problems in the Teaching of Science
Science in the elementary school is comparatively
a new area and the teaching of science has been hampered
by many problems. Many teachers who would enjoy an
activity program of science are faced with the lack of
space. The schools are far from ideal and the material
with which to work is insufficient.
Another great problem for many teachers is in
dealing with many children. Teachers admit that the
creative activity program has more educational value
attached to it but find it difficult to employ anything b
but routine techniques.
Some teachers feel that parents will consider the
time spent in activities necessary to carry on a meaning-
ful science program a waste of time that could be more
profitably spent otherwise. Others think that the ac-
tivities required for profitable science teaching would
be fine for brighter children but believe that the slower
pupils would be lost.
The fixed programs of work which are sometimes
passed out to teachers by some boards of education with
instructions which they must follow play no minor part in
hindering a creative program of science teaching.
Probably the greatest problem involved in put-
ting the science program into effect is the preparation
of the teachers. This preparation may be a lack of
knowledge or of professional point of view or both. In
either case, the elimination of these lacks is an over-
The foregoing points of view and studies have
emphasized the objectives and importance of science in
the elementary schools.
The studies definitely indicate that there is a
need for science in the elementary schools, that this
area is neglected in most teacher-training institutions,
and that elementary children have the ability to
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
Comparison of Pupil's Achievement In Science
According to Teacher Training
The procedure involved in this study includes (a)
compilation of data pertaining to the environmental
background of pupils, facilities of the school and quali-
fication of teachers obtained by visitations, and study
of records, observation, and personal conferences, (b)
administration of the Stanford Intermediate and Advanced
Science Test Form J. M. (c) computation of measures of
central tendency (d) comparison of test results of
seventh grade pupils from three types of schools taught
by three certification levels of teachers with each
other and with the National Norm, (e) comparison of test
score results from each type of school with one another.
Stanford Achievement Test; Intermediate
And Advanced Test, Form J M
The Form J M Test was selected for use in this
study because reliability for Stanford Science Test has
been computed by the split-half method for each grade
level. The split-half coefficients were corrected by
the Spearman Brown formula.
Stanford Norm. The norms of the Stanford Ac-
hievement Test were established on the basis of most
comprehensive standardization program ever undertaken
in connection with an achievement battery.
Data Concerned With Teacher Training
The qualifications of the nine teachers involved
in this study varied. Of the three teachers in the
schools where one teacher teaches seven grades, one had
had two years of training in elementary education and
the other two had three years each.
Table I shows the placement of teachers and
pupils classified according to teacher training and
types of schools.
NUMBER AND TRAINING OF TEACHERS AND NUMBER OF PUPILS
INVOLVED IN STUDY CLASSIFIED ON BASIS OF
TYPES OF SCHOOL
,- -- .... :-"'-~ --C ,, ,', ... i ,, ,,,, 1 it, ...
Training of Teachers
Teaching Fifth Grade
Science in Schools
Less Than 4 4 yrs.
yrs. College in fields
One Teacher for
Seven Grades 3 5 0 0 25
for 2 grades 3 1 0 2 61
for I grade 3 0 2 1 87
Totals 9 4 2 5 173
From Table I it was seen that 25 pupils were taught
in one teacher schools by teachers with less than four
yea rs college training. Sixty-one pupils were taught in
schools where one teacher teaches two grades. One teacher
teaching in this type of school had less than four years
college training and two had four years college training
in elementary education. There were 87 pupils taught in
schools where one teacher teaches one grade. Two of the
I~ --t- -- ---~ --- rr --~- --
--- --- -I
schools where one teacher teaches one grade. Two of
the teachers teaching in the schools where one teacher
teaches one grade had four years training in fields
other than Elementary Education. One had four years
training in Elementary Education.
The three teachers teaching in the school where
one teacher teaches two grades had also been trained in
Elementary Education. Two of them hold four year certi-
ficates and one holds a two year certificate.
In the schools where one teacher teaches one grade
all three of the teachers teaching the seventh grade had
received four year college degrees, though only one of
those teachers was trained in Elementary Education. Of
the other two, one was trained as a teacher of Social
Science and the other as a teacher of English.
The range of teaching experiences for the holder
of Element ry Certificates with less than four years
college training is twelve to eighteen years while that
of holders of four years certificates in fields other
than elementary education is eight to twelve years. The
range of experience for holders of four year elementary
certificates is eight to thirteen years.
Since a pupil's achievement in science is dependent
in part upon his general ability, the results of the Cali-
fvrnia Mental Maturity Test were employed to indicate the
probably mental age level of the pupils studied.
Table II shows the distribution of Intelli-
gence Quotients of fifth grade pupils taught by
teachers with less than four years of training in
fields other than elementary education, and those
taught by teachers with four years training in ele-
DISTRIBUTION OF INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS OF STUDENTS
CLASSIFIED ON THE BASIS OF TEACHER TRAINING
Less than 4yrs.
4 years other
in 4 yrs. in
fields Elem. Edu.
- ---- __-- -- --
From Table II, it was seen that the highest
and lowest intelligence quotient were found in the group
taught by teachers with four years training in fields
other than element ry education. The range of in-
telligence quotients of pupils taught by teachers with
less than four years of college training was 67 to 112,
that for pupils of teachers with four years training in
fields other than elementary education was 42 to 127,
that for pupils under teachers with four years of college
training in elementary education was 62 to 117. The
intelligence quotient range of 42 to 127 for pupils under
teachers with four years training in fields other than
elementary education represents the highest and lowest
intelligence scores and also the widest range of the
When the intelligence quotients of the three groups
are compared with the national norm, it is found that of
the 37 pupils under teachers with less than four years of
college training, 18.9 rated in the high average range,
54.1 per cent fell in the low average range, while 24.2
per cent and 2.8 per cent fell in the inferior and very
inferior ra nges, respectively.
The 55 pupils under teachers with four years
training in fields other than elementary education have
5.4 per cent of their cases in the superior intelligence
range, 16.4 per cent in the high average range, 35*5
per cent in the low average range, 32.6 per cent in the
inferior range, and 11.1 per cent in the very inferior
Of the 75 cases under teachers with four years
training in elementary education, 2.6 per cent rated
superior, 253. per cent rated high average, 45.5 per
cent rated low average, 18.6 per cent rated inferior,
while 8.2 per cent rated average or above when compared
with the intelligence norm.
A comparison of the three groups shows no sig-
nificant difference in measures of central tendencies
of the intelligence quotients for the three groups.
The medians for the three groups were 89.25, 85.63,
and 87.91, while their means were 89.97, 87.37, and 89.12.
All of these represent low averages.
In order to compare levels of achievement with the
norm, a study of mental ages was carried out. This
distribution of mental ages is shown in Ta ble III.
DISTRIBUTION OF MENTAL AGES OF STUDENTS CLASSIFIED
ON THE BASIS OF TEACHER TRAINING
Mental Ages Teacher Training
Less than 4 yrs.in 4 yrs. Elem.
yrs. other fields Edu.
Number of cases
- II-- '- I ----~-
From this table, it was seen that the mental
ages ranged from 85 to 193 among seventh grade pupils
taught by teachers with less than four years training
in elementary education and among those taught by
teachers with four years training in elementary education.
The mental ages range of those taught by teachers with
four years training in fields other than elementary edu-
cation ranged from 58 to 175. There is 4.42 difference
in the mental age means of columns 1 and 2, 1*57 dif-
ference in that of columns 1 and 3. The critical ratio
of these differences are not considered significant.
Tables II and III tell the same story relative to
the abilities of the groups, that is, the range of mental
ability and the median and mean ability of the groups
are able to achieve on at least a 1.8 grade level.
A study of the mental age table reveals that the
pupils under teachers with less than four years training
are capable of achieving on a 4.8 grade level, which
corresponds to the mean mental age of 123543. Cases
under teachers with four years training in fields other
than elementary education are also capable of achieving
on a -.8 grade level. The mean mental age of the pupils
taught by teachers with four years training in elementary
education shows that they are capable of achieving on a 4.9
To determine the extent to which the achievement
levels corresponding to the mental ages are being realized
an examination of the science scores was made.
The raw science scores were translated into equated
scored so that grade equivalents could be obtained. A
distribution of the equated science scores, classified on
the basis of teacher preparation is shown in Table IV.
DISTRIBUTION OF EQUATED SCIENCE SCORES ON BASIS OF TEACHER
Number of cases
fields Elem. Edu.
__ _____ __
---- o r -- d --r -m__ -mmm I
From Table IV, it was seen that the range of
science scores for those taught by teachers with less
than four years college training was 24 to 45, while
that of pupils taught by teachers with four years
training in fields other than elementary education
was 24 to 66 and that of those taught by teachers with
four years training in elementary education is 24 to 66.
The median score of those taught by teachers with less than
four years college training is 36.5, for those taught by
teachers with four years training in other fields the
median is 57.8, for those taught by teachers with four
years training in elementary education the median is
The mean 35.5 for pupils under teachers with less
than four years college training is 4.8 lower than the
mean score of those taught by teachers with four years
training in other fields. This difference is significant.
There is also a significant difference of 4.9 in the means
of the equated scores of the cases taught by teachers with
four years training in elementary education and those
taught by teachers with less than four years training.
The mean of 40.4 for students trained by teachers with
four years training in elementary is .1 higher than that
of those taught by teachers with four years training in
other fields. This difference is insignificant.
In order that proper grade placement in science
might be made of the samples studied, the equated
science scores were analyzed in relation to the corre-
sponding grade equivalents.
Table V shows the distribution of grade equiva-
lents of pupils taught by teachers with less than four
years of college training in fields other than elemen-
tary education, and pupils taught by teachers with four
years of college training in fields other than elementary
education, and pupils taught by teachers with four years
training in elementary education.
DISTRIBUTION OF GRADE EQUIVALENTS ON THE BASIS OF
Number of cases
Range 2.7 -
1 2 3
Less than 4 yrs. in Four years
4 yrs. other fields Elem. Edu.
0 1 1
0 1 1
0 0 1
0 0 1
0 0 1
0 1 2
O 7 6
7 11 16
12 15 13
37 55 75
4.7 2.7 8.2 2.7 8.2
4.0 4.0 4.1
3.1 4.1 4.*
From Table V it was seen that the grade equivalents
ranged from 2.7 to 4.7 for pupils under teachers with less
than four years training. The ranges for the pupils under
teachers with four years training in other fields and for
the pupils under teachers with four years training in
other fields and for those under teachers with four years
in elementary education is 2.7 to 8.2.. The median score
of pupils taught by teachers with less than four years
training was the same as that of those taught by teachers
having four years training in other fields, both being
1.0. The median of the pupils under teachers with four
years training in elementary education is 4.1 which is .1
higher than the medians of the other two groups. When
comparing the means of these groups, the mean 4.5 of
pupils taught by teachers with four years training in
elementary education is significantly higher than those
of the other two groups. The 4.5 grade equivalent mean
of the pupils 1.2 grade levels above the 5.1 grade equi-
valent mean of the pupils taught by teachers with four
years training in other fields. The test was given on
May 5, 1951 at which time all the pupils were actually
placed on a 5.8 grade level, having been in the seventh
grade eight months. Though they were placed on a 5.8 grade
level, the grade equivalent means show that they were
achieving on lower levels.
According to the grade placement corresponding to
the mean of the mental age in Table III the seventh grade
pupils ta ught by teachers with less than four years
college training is 4.8, or 1.7 grade levels higher than
the 3.1 grade equivalent of this group.
The mental age mean of the pupils taught by teachers
with four years training in other fields places that group
at the 4.8 grade level. The grade equivalent in
Table IV shows that this group was achieving in science
on a .1 grade level, or .7 grade levels below the mean
When the grade equivalent of the pupils under
teachers with four years training in elementary edu-
cation is compared with the grade placement 4.9
corresponding to the mental age mean, this group's
grade equivalent mean of 4.3 shows that its achievement
level is .6 below its mental age grade placement.
The comparison of grade equvalents as indicated
by the mean of the science scores and the grade place-
ment as indicated by the mean mental ages is perhaps
more vividly shown in Graph I which presents grade equi-
valents and grade placement grouped according to the
training of the teachers.
0 Less than
Four years in
Four years in
GRADE EQUIVALENTS AND GRADE PLACEMENT BASED UPON MEANS
OF SCIENCE SCORE AND MENTAL AGE DISTRIBUTION
AND CLASSIFIED IN TERMS OF THE TRAINING OF
Comparison of Pupil Achievement in Science According
to the Type of School
In order to ascertain the level of achievement
in science of the students in the various types of
schools, and to compare their achievement with a National
Norm and with each other, the data previously discussed
was arranged on the basis of types of schools. In
keeping with the above problems, the intelligence quo-
tients and mental ages previously presented were
arranged on the basis of types of schools as shown in
Tables VI and VII which follow:
DISTRIBUTION OF INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS FROM CALIFORNIA
.EiPTAL MATURITY TEST*
One teacher One teacher One teacher
Quotients for seven for two for one
grades grades grade
125 129 o 0
120 12 0 0 0
115 119 4
110 1 1 64
105 109 2 5
oo 10 1 8 6
95 9 2 7 8
90 4 7 6
85 12 22
0- 84 3 3 9
75 79 26 7
70- 74 2 4 7
65 -69 0 4
66- 64 2 0
55 59 O 0 0
0- 400 1
O 0 2
40 0 0 1
Number of cases 25 61 87
* On basis of types of schools.
-- ----~- ----~ __~~_1~ ._1~1~1~_ __- --I ~I --- -
YIIYIYrlllrrllllllIllkPc- ~~~~-- I I-. -~1._ ----- ., __~__
Table VI shows the widest range of intelligence
scores to be in the schools where one teacher teaches
one grade. The range for this group was 42 to 127.
The range for the one teacher for seven grades and the
one teacher for two grades were 72 to 112 and 62 to 112,
respectively. Of the 25 cases from the one teacher for
seven grades schools, 16 per cent rated high average,
56 per cent rated low average, and 28 per cent rated
inferior. The cases in the one teacher for two grades
schools had 27.9 per cent of the sixty-one cases in the
high average bracket, 42.6 per cent in the low average
bracket, 21.5 per cent in the inferior bracket, while the
87 cases in the one teacher for one grade schools had 5.7
per cent of the cases in the superior range, 17.3 per
cent in the high average range, 41.4 per cent in the low
average range, and 26.4 per cent and 9.2 per cent in the
inferior and very inferior ranges respectively. More
than 75 per cent of the cases in each group rated low
average or above in intelligence when compared with the
A comparison of the three groups showed no signi-
ficant difference in the measures of central tendencies
of their intelligence quotients. The cases in the one
teacher for seven grades schools had a median of 884. and
a mean of 90.4. The cases in the one teacher for two
grades schools had a median of 90.2 and a mean of 89.9.
The cases in the one teacher for one grade schools
had a median of 90.0 and a mean of 88.1. These measures
of central tendencies all fall within the low average
range and are not considered significantly different.
The mental ages of the cases were used as a means
of ascertaining the possible levels of achievements.
The distribution of mental ages was as shown in Table VII.
DISTRIBUTION OF MENTAL AGES CLASSIFIED ON THE BASIS OF
TYPES OF SCHOOLS
L Ages 1
r of cases 25
__ ..._ I -- --
_ ._.-. -. ..---I I-; -- --- -- --- -~Y._ _. I,
__ __-_. ,_ -_.-_I_ -_.,--_ _,, _., _._. ___
The mental ages of the cases in the one teacher
for seven grades schools ranged from 94 to 211 with a
median mental age of 121.5 and a mean mental age of 127.8.
The cases in the one teacher for two grades schools
ranged from 85 to 166 with a median mental age of 121,5
and a mean mental age of 122.2. The cases in the one
teacher for one grade schools ranged from 58 to 193
with a median mental age of 119.3 and a mean mental of
122.1. These measures seem to indicate that each group
is able to achieve on at least a 4.7 grade level, and
that their differences are not significant in this study.
The mental age means show that the possible levels of
achievements are 5*1 grades level for cases in the one
teacher for seven grades schools and 4.7 grade levels
for those in the one teacher for two grades and the one
teacher for one grade schools. To determine the extent
to which the above levels were approached, the science
scores were studied.
DISTRIBUTION OF EQUATED SCIENCE SCORES ON THE BASIS
TO TYPES OF SCHOOLS
Equated Scores Types of Schools
1_ 2 _
One teacher One teacher One teacher
for seven for two for one
grades grades grade
65 67 0 0 2
6 64 0 0 2
59 61 o 0 1
56 58 o o 1
55 55 o 2
50 -2 0 1 4
47 0 5 9
4 46 1' 5
41 4 4 514
58 -40 5 11 14
5 37 4 10 13
52 54 6 15 9
29 31 3 2 5
26 28 2 6
25 25 0 1
Number of cases 25 61 87
27 45 24 51 24- 66
55*8 3574 7.8
35-8 36.1 40.6
In Table VIII it was seen that the range of
equated science scores for the cases in the one teacher
for seven grades schools was 27 to 45, that for cases in
the one teacher for two grades schools was 24 to 51, and
that of cases in the one teacher for one grade school
was 24 to 66.
A comparison of the measures of central tendencies
showed that a difference of 1.6 in the 35.8 median of
cases in the one teacher for seven grades schools and the
374- median of cases in the one teacher for two grades
schools was in favor of the latter. The 37.8 median
score for the cases in the one grade for one teacher
schools was 2.0 higher than that of cases in the one
teacher for seven grades schools. There was a difference
of only .4 in the median equated score of the cases in the
one teacher for two grades and the one teacher for one
The mean of the cases in the one teacher for seven
grades schools was 35.8 which is .3 lower than the 36.1
mean of the cases in the one teacher for two grades
schools. This differences is not considered significant.
The 40.6 mean of the cases in the one teacher for one
grade schools is 4.8 higher than that of cases in the one
teacher for seven grades schools, and 4.5 higher than the
cases in the one teacher for two grades schools. These
differences are considered to be significant.
From the equated science scores the corresponding
grade equivalents were considered in comparison with the
grade placement as determined by the mental ages previously
discussed. A distribution of the grade equivalents corre-
sponding to the equated science scores appear in Table IX .
DISTRIBUTION OF GRADE EQUIVALENTS ON BASIS OF SCIENCE
TEST RESULTS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO TYPES OF SCHOOLS
Grade 1 2 _3.
One teacher One teacher One teacher
Equivalents for seven for two for one grade
8. -8..- 0 0 1
7o5 7.9 0 0 2
6.o 67. o o I
6. 6.4 o o
0 0 5
55 5.9 o o 5
.o ,4 o o 9
*5 4 5 5 9
.o 7 16 26
5.5 5.9 7 1 17
5.0 5.4 8 18 16
2.5 2.9 o 4
Number of cases 25 61 87
Range 3.2 .7 2.7 5.2 2.7- 8.2
Median 3.9 3.8 4.2
Mean 3 8 3.8 4.5
The mean grade equivalents for all three groups
fall below the possible level of achievement as indicated
by the mental age grade placement. The 3.8 grade equiva-
lent mean of the cases in the one teacher for seven grades
schools fell 1.5 grade levels below the 5.1 grade level
corresponding to their mean mental age. The 3.8 mean
grade equivalent of the cases in the one teacher for two
grades schools was .9 grade level below the 4j7 grade
level corresponding to their mental age mean, which the
4.3 grade equivalent mean of the pupils in the one
teacher for one grade schools was .4 grade level below
the grade level corresponding to their mental age mean.
A comparison of the mean grade equivalents of
the three groups showed no difference in the grade equi-
valents means of the cases in the one teacher for seven
grades schools and the one teacher for two grades schools.
There is a difference of .5 grade levels in the means of
the cases in the one teacher for one grade schools and
the other two groups. From the above it can be seen that
though there is a difference in science achievement in
favor of those pupils in schools where one teacher
teaches one grade the difference is not significant.
The mean of the achievement levels of the pupils
in the three schools as compared with the Norm of the
Stanford Elementary Science Test and with each other are
shown in Graph II.
Graph II presents a comparison between grade
equivalent as indicated by science test results and
grade placement as indicated by mental maturity test
ne teacher one r
for seven for two for one
grades grades grade
GRADE EQUIVALENT AND GRADE PLACEMENT BASED UPON MEANS
OF SCIENCE SCORES AND MENTAL AGE DISTRIBUTION AND
CLASSIFIED IN TERMS OF THE TYPES OF SCHOOLS
Summary of Chapter
The preceding data seem to indicate that the
achievement in science of the three groups is below the
Norm as supplied by the Stanford Intermediate and Ad-
vanced Science Test. A comparison of grade equivalents
for science scores and grade placement for their mental
ages indicates that these students are under achieving.
A comparison of the groups with each other reveal
that those pupils taught by teachers with four years
training whether in elementary education or in other fields
have a significantly higher level of achievement than those
pupils taught by teachers with less than four years train-
ing. There seems to be no significant difference in the
level of achievement of the pupils under teachers with
four years training in other fields and those under tea-
chers with four years training in elementary education.
When the groups are compared with each other and
classified according to the types of schools, there appears
to be no significant difference between the achievement of
the pupils taught in the schools where one teacher teaches
seven grades and in those where one teacher teaches two
grades. There is, however, a sigificant dieree in the
achievement of the pupils taught in schools where one tea-
cher teaches one grade and in the achievement of those
taught in the other two types of schools.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary. The purpose of this study was to ascer-
tain the knowledge of science possessed by pupils of the
seventh grades in Polk and Hardee Counties, Florida as
revealed by the Stanford Elementary Science Test; to
compare the science test results among the schools with
each other and with the national norm; to ascertain
whether or not the amount and type of training of the
teacher is a determining factor in the pupils' learning
in elementary science and finally, to stimulate an
interest in the teaching of science.
The study was limited to Polk and Hardee County,
Florida. Nine teachers with different qualifications
constituted the teaching personnel of cases studied.
Nine schools classified into three types previously men-
tioned were included in this study.
The Normative Survey Method involving some statis-
tical procedures was utilized. Direct observation and
visitations were made in order to compare facilities,
and to obtain information concerning the classes, the
teachers' certification, and home background of the pupils.
The results of the California Test of Mental Maturity were
obtained from the office of the principals and the
Stanford Achievement Test Form J M was administered to
the pupils studied.
Information received on visitations was assembled
and classified under the headings utilized in this
discussion. The results of the elementary science test
were compiled and statistically treated.
A comparison of the information received and of
the treatment of the test results revealed that:
(a) There is no significant difference in the
Intelligence Quotients of the samples studied.
(b) The difference in the amount and kind of
science facilities was found to be negligible.
(c) When the equated science scores were compared
with the National Intermediate and Advanced Science Grade
Norm, the mean grade equivalent on the basis of science
achievement of pupils taught by teachers with less than
four years college training is 3.1. The mental age
grade placement for this group is 4.8.
(d) The grade equivalent mean on basis of science
achievement of pupils taught by teachers with four years
college training in fields other than elementary edu-
cation is 4.1. The mental age grade placement of this
group is also 4.8.
(e) The mean grade equivalent of those taught by
teachers with four years training in elementary education
is 4.53 The mean mental age grade placement for this
group is 4.9.
(f) When the means of the equated science scores
were compared with each other, the pupils taught by
teachers with less than four years college training
rated significantly lower than those taught by
teachers with four years training in elementary education.
(g) The difference in the means of the science
scores of those taught by teachers with four years
training in fields other than elementary education and
those taught by teachers with four years traingin in
elementary education is insignificant.
When the equated science scores were arranged and
statistically treated on the basis of the types of
schools, the oldest pupils fell in the school where one
teacher teaches seven grades. The younger children were
left in the schools where one teacher teaches two grades
and where one teacher teaches one grade. The findings
from this classification reveal that*
(a) The grade mean equivalent on the basis of
science test results of the pupils in schools where one
teacher teaches seven grades is 3.8. On the basis of
means mental age the grade placement for this group is 5.1.
(b) The grade mean equivalent for pupils taught
in schools where one teacher teaches two grades is also
3.8. The grade placement for this group is 4.7.
(c) The grade mean equivalent for pupils taught in
schools where one teacher teaches one grade is 4.*3
The grade placement for this group is 4.7.
When the mean of the equated science scores were
arranged according to the types of schools and compared
with each other, the findings revealed that:
(a). The science achievement of the seventh grade
pupils in schools where one teacher teaches seven grades
is lower than that of the pupils in schools where one
teacher teaches two grades and where one teacher teaches
(b) Pupils taught in schools where one teacher
teaches two grades rate lower than those taught in schools
where one teacher teaches one grade.
Conclusions. The findings of this study reveal
1. Proficiency in science of the seventh grade
pupils of Polk and Hardee County, Florida is
below the national norm of the Stanford Ele-
mentary Science Test, Form Dm.
2. The seventh grade pupils in these counties are
under-achieving in science.
3. Science teaching is affected by the number of
classes the teacher has to teach. The achieve-
ment of pupils in classes in which one teacher
teaches more than one grade is lower than that
of those where one teacher teaches one grade.
4. The achievement of the seventh grade in science
is affected by the amount and the kind of training
possessed by the teacher. Achievement was higher
for pupils under teachers with four years of
training in elementary education than for those
under teachers with less than four years of elementary
training and those under teachers wtih four years in
Insofar as the results of this study are valid,
the following recommendations are made:
1, That parents of thepupils in communities where
one teacher teaches one grade organize to encourage the
Board of Educa tion and others responsible for the
training of children to abandon the one teacher for seven
grades schools and the one teacher for two grades schools
and provide sufficient personnel to have one teacher
teach one grade so that the children might have a better
opportunity of developing to the extent of their capacities.
2. That school boards provide additional facilities
for the teaching of elementary science.
5* That elementary teachers exercise greater in-
genuity in utilizing possibilities in the surroundings.
4. Most of all that (a) classes in science be not
as crowded as they usually are, because students
in the least crowded classrooms tend to do better
on science tests, and (b) teachers in science be
adequately prepared, that is have a minimum number
of four years' training, as the children of least
trained teachers tended to have poorer grades than
those under the best trained teachers.
Burroughs, John, "Purpose of Teaching Science" School
and Mathematics 46 : 433, May, 1946
Craig, Gerald S., Science for the Elementary School
Teacher. New York: Ginn & Company, 1947. pp. 6-20
Croxton, Walter Clyde, Science in the Elementary School.
New York: McGraw Hill Company, 19538 p. 53
Curtis, Frances D., "The Emergence School of Education
Bulletin, University of Michigan, Vol. 4: 860. p.
Florida State Department of Education, Guide to Teaching
Science in the Elementary School, Tallahassee,
Florida, December, 1947. No. 7 pp. 15-15
Maupt, C. W., "Experimental Application of a Philosophy
of Science Teaching in an Elementary School,"
Contribution to Education, No. 653, New York:
Teachers College, Columbia University.
Mau, Laura Emily, "Some Experiments With Regard to the
Relative Interest of Children in Physical and
Biological Nature Materials in the Kindergarten
and Primary Grades", Nature Study Review, 1912
Meister, Morris, "The Educational Value of Scientific
Toys" Schcol Science and Mathematics, December,
1922, pp. 32-36.-
mrner, Lawrence E., "The Nature Almanac" Washington Do C.
The American Nature Association, 1930. p. 14
Powers, Samuel Ralph, Science in General Education, New
York: D. Appleton Century Co., 1958. pp. 135-41
Robertson, Martin L. "An Investigation of the Relative
Effectiveness of the Two Methods of Teaching -
Elementary Science" Science Education 16: 182-187
Strange, Ruth, "Subject Matter in Health Education," Contri-
bution to Education, No. 222 New York: Teachers
College, Columbia University, 1926
Thurber, Walter A., "Elementary Science Where Is It
Going? School Science and Mathematics, Vol. 12,
No. 7, pp. T62, October, 1942
Trafton, Gilbert H. "Children's Interest in Nature
Material", Nature Study Review, September 1913
Intermediate and Advanced FORM
TANFORD Science Test JM
'RUMAN L. KELLEY RICHARD MADDEN ERIC F. GARDNER LEWIS M. TERMAN GILES M. RUCH
intermediate and Advanced
for Use with Separate Answer Sheet
Published by World Book Company, Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York, and Chicago, Illinois
Copyright 1952 by World Book Company. Copyright in Great Britain. All rights reserved
PRINTED IN U.S.A. BAT : INTER. & ADV. SCI. : JM-1
This test is copyrighted. The reproduction of any part of it by mimeograph, hectograph, or in any other
way, whether the reproductions are sold or are furnished free for use, is a violation of the copyright law.
Science Test Stanford Inter. & Adv. Sci.:
DIRECTIONS: Choose the best answer for each exercise and mark the answer space that
numbered the same as your choice.
1 Our daylight comes from 1 the stars 2 the sun 3 Mars 4 the earth...
2 Farmers most often kill insects on trees by 5 pruning 6 smoking
7 cultivating 8 spraying ...................................................
3 The roots of plants take in 1 sand 2 water 3 air 4 worms..........
4 An animal with a very good sense of smell is a 5 chicken 6 cow 7 cat 8 dog
6 The best thing to do if one's clothes catch on fire is to 1 call the fire department
2 run outdoors 3 roll up in a rug or blanket 4 take the clothes off........
6 A kite stays up because 5 the air pushes it 6 the string is long
7 electricity draws it 8 magnetism holds it ..............................
7 A bird that builds its nest on the ground is the 1 robin 2 wren 3 bluebird 4 quail
8 Before fresh berries are eaten, they should be 5 sliced 6 quartered 7 washed
8 b o ile d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...
9 The majority of bicycle accidents are caused by 1 careless children
2 wet pavements 3 faulty brakes 4 thoughtless automobile drivers........
10 The heart acts much like a 5 gate 6 filter 7 pump 8 sieve...........
11 Soil is made mostly of small pieces of 1 grass 2 branches 3 metal 4 rock
12 A big mass of ice is called a 5 flood 6 typhoon 7 tornado 8 glacier....
13 Temperature is measured by 1 thermometers 2 barometers
3 anemometers 4 hygrometers .. .... ...... .............................1
14 An evergreen tree is the 5 walnut 6 pine 7 peach 8 maple............
15 We find the North Star with the help of the 1 clouds 2 Big Dipper 3 sun 4 moon
16 Woodpeckers make holes in trees to 5 find insects 6 eat the tender bark
7 sharpen their beaks 8 get water ........... . .. ................. .1
17 Most fish protect themselves by 1 swimming away 2 biting
3 coloring the water 4 fighting ........................ ..................1
18 A plant whose seeds are spread mainly by the wind is the 5 rose 6 violet
7 geranium 8 dandelion .................................... ............1
19 The earth moves completely around the sun in about 1 a week 2 30 days
3 180 days 4 365 days............ ......... 1
20 It is dangerous to let a car engine run in a closed garage because 5 air is used up
6 the car may start 7 carbon monoxide is formed 8 the battery may run dry
21 A plant that often grows from a bulb is the 1 carrot 2 tomato 3 lettuce 4 onion 2
22 Which of the following travels fastest? 5 a bullet 6 a raindrop 7 an airplane 8 light
23 Dew on the grass comes from 1 water rising from the ground
2 rain during the night 3 moisture in the air 4 the grass itself.............a
24 A "closed season" protects-- 5 wild life 6 swimmers 7 hunters 8 travelers
25 Insect larvae are the chief food of some 1 bees 2 flies 3 birds 4 worms 2
[ 2 ] Go on to the next page.
neral Class Record
BOY -- -- -- -- -- -- -- B ,
UPILS' NAMS OR Aver Aver. MDN
GIRL Yrs. os. Par. Word Aead. Spell. Lang. Arith. Arith. Aver. Soc. Sei. Stud. MD
Mean. Mean. ReadReas. Comp. St. Sk.
5_________________ __ __ __ __ __ __ ^
6__________________________ __ ___ __ __ ___ __ __ __ ___ __ __ ___ __
.. ... ..
g_________.. ... ... ... __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ ^
I__________________. ... .....___ __ __ __ __ __ __ _
IQ or other optional information may be recorded in the blank columns. a
Published by World Book Company, Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York, and Chicago, Illinois
Stanford Achievement Test :General Clas Reoq
Form of test used___ Grade____ Grade placement at time of testing (See table below)
Level of test (Circle one): Elem. Inter. Adv.
Date of testing
City and State
Directions for Using the Class Record
This Class Record is intended to serve as a permanent
record of the results on the Stanford Achievement Test for
the teacher or school authorities. It may be used either
when all nine subtests of the Intermediate or Advanced
Battery have been given, or when only certain of the sub-
tests of the Elementary, Intermediate, or Advanced Batteries
have been given as, for example, the two Reading Tests.
In the latter case, the spaces for such tests as are not given
are, of course, simply ignored. The specific directions for
filling out the Class Record are as follows:
1. In the spaces provided at the top of this page, fill out
the information called for. The grade placement of pupils
as at the time of testing may be found from the table below.
If a school year is atypical, this table should not be used, but
the grade norms should be determined by computing the
number of tenths of a school year which have elapsed at the
time the tests are administered.
GRADE PLACEMENT AT TIME OF TESTING
DATE OF TESTING g ( g 1 I s eI
N0 N 6oo2 4 .6 .67 .8 9 s
GRADE PLACEMENT .0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9
2. On page 1 of this Class Record write the names of
pupils, either in alphabetical order or in some other conve
ient order; e.g., chronological age or score.
3. In the column after the pupil's name write "B" or "G
to indicate the sex of the pupil.
4. In the next column record the chronological ages of
pupils, as determined from the school records.
5. Record the grade or age equivalents on the vario
subtests in the appropriate columns.
6. If an average Reading or Arithmetic score is desire
this may be obtained by averaging the grade or age equi
alent on the two Reading or Arithmetic tests, as the ca
may be. These averages may then be entered in the appr
private columns. Battery medians will not be obtained unl
the Partial or the Complete Battery is used.
7. The two columns at the right without headings may b
used for recording optional data, such as IQ's and so forth.
8. To aid in the summarization and interpretation of th'
Stanford Achievement Test results, there has been prepare
a Class Analysis Chart on which provision is made for dis
tributing the scores in each subtest and otherwise expedition
the application of the results. This Class Analysis Chart
which is a four-page folder, must be ordered separately.
St () Stanford Inter. & Adv. Sci.: JM
Science Test (Continued)
26 Levees are built to 5 prevent floods 6 catch animals 3 ,
7 break up snowdrifts 8 stop fires ....... ..... ........................ 2
27 People put oil on water of ponds and pools to get rid of 1 grasshoppers
2 mosquitoes 3 flies 4 beetles......... ..... ........ ...... .27
28 For his bones to harden well, a child needs plenty of 5 sugar 6 starch
7 fat 8 calcium ......... ............................ ... .............. ..28
29 Bees help plants produce seeds by carrying 1 water 2 seeds 3 pollen 4 honey 29
30 The age of a tree may be told from its 5 bark 6 rings 7 leaves 8 limbs......30
31 A disease of the lungs is 1 measles 2 mumps 3 hay fever 4 pneumonia. .31
32 Weather vanes show 5 wind speed 6 wind direction 7 cloudiness
8 the amount of rainfall.................... ........................ .. 32
s An open draft causes fire to burn better because combustion needs
1 oxygen 2 hydrogen 3 nitrogen 4 moist air.................. .......33
4 The muscles are weakened by 5 food 6 exercise 7 fresh air 8 disuse..34
35 In the United States we have the most hours of daylight in 1 June 2 September
3 December 4 March.......... .................................. 35
36 If a child's ankle is sprained, he has 5 bruised skin 6 an injured ligament
7 a broken bone 8 a diseased joint...................................36
37 Digestion is aided most by 1 eating slowly 2 eating spicy foods
3 drinking water 4 chewing gum.............. ... ......................37
38 The moon and the earth both have 5 people 6 many rocks 7 wind 8 trees 38
39 If you tighten a violin string, the sound will become 1 louder 2 higher in pitch
3 lower in pitch 4 softer .............. ................................39
40 Coffee is not recommended for children because it 5 makes them tired
6 overstimulates them 7 contains too much sugar 8 retards digestion.......40
41 The explosion of an atom bomb proves that atoms are 1 a source of energy
2 very small 3 everywhere 4 heavy .................................. .41
42 Chemicals that kill bacteria are called 5 solvents 6 germicides 7 acids
8 laxatives ........... .................. . ...... ................... 42
43 The sun is made of 1 hot metal 2 electricity 3 glowing gases
4 reflecting material....................................................... 43
44 A daily lunch of doughnuts and malted milk is poor because 5 sweets are bad for us
6 they are fattening 7 they lack important food elements 8 doughnuts are greasy 44
45 Water leaves the earth and returns in a pattern called a 1 water table
2 water cycle 3 water wheel 4 watershed.................. ............45
46 A material which does not conduct electricity makes a good 5 fuse 6 circuit
7 insulator 8 magnet .............. . . . . . ......... .46
47 The number of phases, or changes, of the moon shown on most calendars is -
1 two 2 four 3 six 4 eight............ .....................47
48 We know that gravity is not the same as magnetism, because gravity 5 is weaker
6 will attract iron 7 affects all things 8 does not depend upon electricity .. .48
49 Pressure cookers are especially useful because they 1 are not likely to explode
2 hold much food 3 develop high temperatures quickly 4 work well at sea level 49
5o All planets are alike in that they -
5 shine by their own light 6 are of the same size 7 are hot 8 rotate ... 50
[ 3 ] Go on to the next page.
Science Test (Continued) Stanford Inter. & Adv. Sci.: JM
Science Test (Continued)
51 Malaria is best prevented by destroying 1 wood ticks 2 flies 3 mosquitoes 4 lice 51
52 Surgery has been made painless by the use of -
5 vaccines 6 anesthetics 7 serum 8 iodine.......................52
53 To put out a fire in a pan of burning grease, do not use -
1 baking soda 2 water 3 table salt 4 carbon dioxide ................ 53
54 One's body can best resist heat with the help of its -
5 thyroid gland 6 sweat glands 7 lymph vessels 8 pancreas ............54
55 Evaporation is most rapid from a 1 jug 2 flat pan 3 drinking glass 4 bottle 55
56 An electric doorbell works because electricity 5 causes a ringing noise
6 moves fast 7 makes a chemical change 8 produces magnetism..........56
57 Protoplasm is 1 a gas 2 a living substance 3 decayed matter 4 a digestive juice 57
58 Thermos bottles employ the principle of -
5 condensation 6 the siphon 7 evaporation 8 insulation .............58
59 Cumulus clouds become thunderheads as they 1 gather more moisture
2 decrease in size 3 are blown more rapidly 4 settle toward the earth. .... .59
60 Clover and helpful bacteria together furnish soil with -
5 nitrates 6 lime 7 water 8 iron..................................... 60
61 By banding birds, scientists study the birds' habits of -
1 migration 2 hibernation 3 digestion 4 breathing ............... .61
62 As a general rule, crops are grown most successfully in soil composed largely of -
5 lime 6 sand 7 loam 8 clay.................... ..............62
63 Severe blowing away of topsoil is prevented most efficiently by -
1 a hard packing 2 manure 3 a cover crop 4 more plowing............ .63
64 A plant mold used to fight infection is 5 penicillin 6 dodder 7 lichen 8 sassafras 64
65 Your arm is an example of a simple machine known as -
1 an inclined plane 2 a wedge 3 a pulley 4 a lever ................... 65
66 The primary purpose of a transformer is to -
5 change voltage 6 measure current 7 reduce shock hazard 8 reduce costs 66
67 A current of electricity is a flow of 1 atoms 2 molecules 3 electrons 4 volts 67
68 Cakes are baked in order to 5 remove the moisture 6 kill bacteria
7 produce a chemical change 8 mix the ingredients better ................... 68