• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Title Page
 Half Title
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 List of Figures
 Introduction
 Analysis of the literature relating...
 Analysis and interpretation of...
 Summary and conclusions with...
 Bibliography
 Appendix A
 Appendix B
 Appendix C






Title: Analysis of the Factors Influencing the Attitudes of Teachers Toward Supervision
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 Material Information
Title: Analysis of the Factors Influencing the Attitudes of Teachers Toward Supervision
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Greene, Arnett Roger
Affiliation: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
Publisher: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
Publication Date: 1954
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Bibliographic ID: AM00000039
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notis - ABV5643

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
    Half Title
        Page ii
    Acknowledgement
        Page iii
    Table of Contents
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    List of Figures
        Page vii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Analysis of the literature relating to the attitudes of employees toward supervisory practices
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Analysis and interpretation of data
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Summary and conclusions with recommendations
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Bibliography
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Appendix A
        Page 60
    Appendix B
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Appendix C
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
Full Text



AN ANALYSIS OF FACTORS TIFLUENCING THE ATTITUDES
OF TEACHERS TC OARD SUPERVISION








A Thesis
Presented to
The Faculty of the Onduate Cabool

Florida Aricultural and Mechanical University






In Partial fulfillment
of The Requirements for the Degree
Master of Selee in Education







by

Anett Roger Greene

August 19.5







AN ANALYSIS OF FACTORS INFLUENCING THE ATTITUDES
OF TEACHERS TOWARD SUPERVISION

A Thesia
Presented to
the Graduate Cemittee of
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University

In Partial Fulfillaent
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Seieneo in Bducation
by
Arnett Roger Oreene
August 19




Approved -7


M-'N








rneor, DiTl n
Graduate Studima


a-









ACKEEWLNK3HMTS


The witr r is mot granmtf to all io
assisted in this study* Special acknoledpent
is given to the Tbhels Cw ttee, compoed of
iCse lly A. Copland, Mr. s3a uel Russell,
and Mr. MSO Thoas, Chaitan. With the aid ud
motivation from ooaittee members, this study w
made possible.
Aoknovledgent is alo given to principals,
teachers ad friends who assisted in collection of
data.
The writer is espially grateful to his
children for their ncowuragent and understanding,
all of which aided in the ooapletion of this study.
Aoknowledset is given to instructors
through the yar to whom the investigator is deeply
grateful.


AM







TABLE OF COMDTNTS

CHiPT7ZR PAGE

I, I'1T'iz:sUCTION . . 1
statement :)f problem . 2
ProbleI analysel, . . 2

Sub-problSm.a . 3
Hypotheses and basic assumption 6 6

Dellmitatlon@ of investigation . 7
Definition* of terms. *. 7

II. AAL,Y51S OF THM LITLnATUti fCLArIKG TO
TiHE ATTITUDSS OF SiPLOYEK- TOWARD
:UP RVI.1ORT P:MCTICL; . ,

II.p ANALLTI2 AUDl IXT.A-PiaTATON LO i)ATA 27
IV. SMUz'AR ANC NCLUSION; .-IITH

RECO;:-'NDATXIOJ . @ 52

BIBLIO0RAPHY . . . 57

APPEK ICES .. *. * 59






LIST OF TABLES


TABLE PAGE
I, Distribution of 217 Florida Megro School
Teachers by Type of Supervision Experienced,
OGade Taught, Sex and Marital Status . )0
II. Age Distribution of 217 Floridn Nlgro School
Teachers # m m e e @ 32
III. Educational Status of 217 Florida Negro School
Teachers 33
IT. Teaching Experience of 217 Florida Negro School
Teachers and Pessible Number of Tears Left
to Teach . a 35
V, Distribution of 217 Florida Negro School
Teachers by Type of Teaching Certificates
Held in 1953 . 37
VI. Distribution of 217 Florida Negro School
Tracher According to Salary Rank . .
VII, Rank of supervisory Practices by Total Number
of Rating Points . . . 40
VIII. Frequency Scores of Best Liked d ad Most Dia
liked Zualities in Supervisory Practices 43
IX, Mean Scale Score Rating of Supernvison by 217
Florida Negro School Teachers by Type of
Supervision Experienced, Gradea Taught, Sex
and Marital StatuS, s ,* 45







LIST OF TABLES


TABLE PA .E
X. Mean Scal e Scor Ratirn of Superviaion by 217
Florida Negro School Teachera by 'ge Groups 47
XI. Mean Scale Score Rating of Superviolon by 217
Florida Negro School Teachers in Relation
to Their Kduoitltonal Statua . 4
XII. Mean Scale Score Rating of Superrlsion by 217
Florida Ne ro School Teachers in ;Relation
to Their Tears of Teachrig Experience 49
XIII, Mean Scale Score Rating of Supervlaion of 217
Florida Negro School Teachers in Relation
to Their Salary Br-cket r 50
XIV* Mean Scale Score lRting of Gupervision of 217
Florida Negro School Teachers in Relation
to Thoir Certificate Rank . 51






LIST OP FIGURES


FIGURE PAGE

1. Location of Teaclher Partic~lpttLg In Study
by aountoes. . * 9






CHAPTER I


INTRODUCTION

Supervision has come to be associated with educational
leadership to such an extent that it ls increasingly becoming
a subject of research, Such studies as those dealing with
functions, duties, and responaibilities of supervisors,
principals, and superintendents are numerous in the litera-
ture of the field of education. A few studies have been
made on characteristics, abilities, and competencies of ad-
ministrative personnel. In the field of industry employee-

employer relationships re considered to be so important
that much money has been spent in training supervisor, in
testing for those elements conducive to ja~ij Al Sa and
in conducting studies on the attitudes of workers toward
management, Although studies have been made in the field of
industry and in educational administration to evaluate the
effectiveness of supervisory practices and that experienmta
have been conducted to determine criteria by whieh supervi-
sion may be appraised, the investigator feels that evaluation
is a continuous process and that the general worth of a pro-
gram in supervision may be judged by its results. This
study should contribute to the general body of studies de-
signed to evaluate educational policies and practices.



44833





StAtement nf b
The investigator aims to examine studies in the
fields of industry and education and to evaluate criteria
which have been used in those areas to measure attitudes of
employees. The criteria which have been developed in these
fields will serve as bases for constructing an item analysis
to be used in a checklist for distribution to teachers to
determine their attitudes toward supervisory practices. The
investigator believes that a checklist combining the techni-
cal know-how of industry and educational administration will
yield sufficient evidence to determine factors which influ-
ence the attitudes of teachers toward supervisory practices.

Pout&e AnalZisa
This problem is concerned with the relationship of
certain select factors to the attitudes of teachers toward
supervisory practices. It aims (1) to examine such per-
sonal data as age, educational status, rank of certification,
grades taught, years of experience, previous supervisory ex-
perience and see whether there is a relationship between
these factors and attitudes toward supervision and (2) to
examine the best liked and most disliked qualities listed
by teachers to determine the frequency of occurrence and
thereby determine their relative value in influencing the
attitudes of teachers toward supervisory practices.






The primary problem of the study is, what are the
relative factors which influence the attitudes of teachers
toward supervisory practices?
A specific analysis of the problem into its component
parts involves the following sub-problems:



1. What is the relationship between the ages of
teachers and their attitudes toward supervisory prac-
tices?

a. Needed data
Items in the checklist which will give
approximate age levels of teachers.
b, Method of securing data
Checklist is so organized that partici-

pants are able to check their individual ages.
c. Method of treating data
Analysis of data by comparison of age
groups with select factors relating to
attitudes.
2, Is educational status a relative factor in deter-
mining the attitudes of teachers toward supervisory
practices?
a. Beeded data
Items In checklist which will show the

educational training of teachers.






b. Method of securing data
Educational training of the participants
is sought by allowing a space for four
level of educational training: less than
two years of college, four years of college,
Master's degree, and above the Masterts de-

gree.
c. Method of treating data
Data were analysed by comaring educa-

tional status with each level of educational
achievement.

3. To what extent does rank of certificate influence
attitudes of teachers toward supervisory practices?
a. Needed data

Items in checklist seekingg information
on types of certificates held,
b. Method of securing data
Arrange checklist to allow participants
to indicate by check marks the rank of his

(her) certificate.
a. Method of treating data
Data were analysed by comparing each
certificate rank with factors that may be re-

lated to attitudes toward supervisory practices







4. Do teachers with previous supervisory experience

reflect attitudes toward supervision which show that there

is relationship between their experience and the attitudes.

a, Needed data

Checklist to seek information on type of

educational experience and years of supervisory

experience.

b. Method of securing data

Checklist so organized that participants

may indicate the type, amount, and number of

years of previous experience including

supervision.

E. Method of treating data

Analysis and comparison of scores of

groups with and without previous supervisory

and other experiences to determine the extent

of difference in attitudes,

5, What are the most influential factors in determin-

ing the attitudes of teachers toward supervisory practices?

a. Needed data

Information in checklist regarding best

liked and most disliked qualities in super-
visory practices.






b. Method of securing data


Space in checklist with direction for
teachers to li It by rank order most desir-
able and undesirable qualities in super-
visory practices.
c. Method of treating data
Analysis and comparison of disliked and

liked qualities in supervisory practices by
age, sex, marital status, and experience.

Hpothnea and Aasn&mtioM
Certain hypotheses and assumptions forr the basis for

this study: (1) that the human element in supervision is a
relative factor in determining the attitudes of teachers
toward supervisory practices; (2) that recognition of basic

psychological drives on the part of supervisors relates to
the types of attitudes of teacher toward supervisory prac-
tices; (3) that a knowledge of the attitudes of teachers
toward supervision is basic in evaluating supervisory pro-
grams; (4) that much can 'e learned from industry by educa
tore in the study of employwee*mployer relations and in the
study of attitude of employees toward management; and.(5)
that criteria used by industry in studying the attitudes of
employees toward management are applicable in understanding
the attitudes of teachers toward supervisory practices.






plaiarionS aft Ium-leti&tilon
This ctudy ti liitrC (1) to 217 cle-:Cnt.ry and
secondary Echool techorn of Florida who cooprr:tc-d by
parttoipAting in the study, (2) to the m~ay wc.tnrrnee
iusuilly prccont n aocst drtr u^rthrrin devicco, (3) to
the teo;tnlique used in analytei. od ifteCr'Cetrtion. The
items included in the checkllst vcre .sremble.d by studying
slilaCr dit Catherine devices ueed in incustrial :-anatge-
Ment .nd in thC field of nductional adAInietration,. Al-
thourih sev"rr.l books, artilolrr, mn. rtu.le h.rve been re.-A

tince the ctudy, the related l1tcr'tu:-e ic llUltcdt to
those itc-cs cexamin nc rior to complection of the rtudy.



The majority or the wo~r. uecdC in tVl. study are of
oommon ueage. However, for o~arlflcation it seocc necessary
to define tvo vords. The ter.% supervisor In ucod to denote
ny pereon: in poaltion of leaIer-hip .xd those functions are
to direct the aCtivitlier of others In industry the superr-
vinor a;y bc orll2cd foreman, oversoor, mr.ntcer, superintecnd-

ent, c1roup f1cler. In duCEctlon, the fuprvlOOor Imy be
county cupervisor, p-rncipal, anirlst.nt przInlcpal hrad
teacher, aupcrlntendent, or suprvieor of a sproOin field.
Bupervlaory prnoticcn refer to the process of oupcrviclon
during transfer of informations demonstration of 1esona,






conferences with teachers, or giving technical advice of any
kind. Practices should not be interpreted as being related
to policies developed outside of the realm of the supervisor.

tnt UL Ppda a t abk Followed LJ& fnlUf4c Inufl-

The study involves the reactions of 217 teachers
representing seventeen counties and twenty-one schools to
sixty-three possible factors which might influence their
attitudes toward supervisory practices. This study would of
necessity involve the "noruative-survoy" method of research,
In selecting persons to participate in the study, the investi-
gator decided to use the teachers in attendance at the Florida
State Teachers Association during the annual meeting, March
19 21, 1953. No effort was made to select the group of
participants for any reason other than their interest in and
willingness to participate. Three group meetings were attend-
ed, the principals group and two floor meetings. Although
contacts for getting replies to the checklist were establish.
ed, few completed data sheet were filled in and returned
during the meeting as the writer expected* Since the two
floor meetings did not yield enough completed returns,
principals were contacted at their meeting and asked to diae
tribute the checklists to their teachers when they returned
to their respective schools, supervise their completion, and
return them to the investigator. Three hundred checklists




STATE ROAD DEPARTMENT OF FLORIDA
DIVISION OF TRAFFIC AND PLANNING

TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA


FIGURE 1,

LOCATION OF TEACHERS PARTICIPATING II STUDT BT COUNTIES


L nd The figures indicate
the number of persons from the
county who participated in the
study.


~dQ~~lC


A Source Map





10


were distributed, and two hundred and seventeen were return-
ed. Figure 1. shows the location of teachers by counties.
An alphabetical listing of counties with else of population
is found in the appendix.

ha CUnati atd tskha
The schools and counties represented in the atudy are
some of the largest and some of the smallest in the State.
The largest school participating in the study is Booker T.
Wqshington with seventy-two teachers and 1700 students. The
smallest school is Ceoilia F, Klibell Elementary School with
four teachers and 122 students. The largest county is Dade
with a population of 495,0t4 and smallest is Franklin with
a population of 5,814. Alphabetical listings of schools
with enroluments and anuber of teachers and counties with
population statistics are in Appendices A and B. The com-
munities in which the schools are located are both urban and
rural with all types of supervision in action.



In selecting the items to be used in the checklist,
several studies in the field of industry, education, and
supervision were consulted. By combining the items used
in industry with those used in education a total of sixty.
three factors were selected. These factors were divided
into two groups. Group I, constituted forty-four itea in







which teachers were asked to rate supervisory practices.
All items in this group were positive factors. Group II,
constituted nineteen factors which were negative items.
Realizing that a checklist of items might not be inclusive
enough to allow teachers to express themselves fully in re-
gard to the qualities which they liked beat and which they

disliked most, a third section of the checklist constituted
a summary of qualities in which individuals were asked to
summarize their attitudes toward supervision by listing
(1) five qualities in supervision which they admired most;
and (2) five qualities they disliked moBt. The first part
of the checklist consisted of personal data, including such
information as school, (name, address, sise, and location),
type of supervision to which the participants were accus-
tomed, grades taught, age, sex, educational statue, experi-
ence, type of certificate, and salary rank,

Wieaicha Jhl Quaslililm
In order to give an objective treatment to the data
a ~yatem of scoring the qualities was devised by giving
numerical values to the qualities listed in the checklist.
In the first section five qualities very good, good, fair,
poor, and failure were assigned numerical values of 4,3,2
1, and 0 respectively, and in the second section; strongly
agree, agree, strongly disagree, disagree, and undecided







were assigned numbers 4,3,2,1, And 0 respectively. It

should be noted here that since the second action con-
slated of ne naiv ualititit nnd the first section of
positive factors, a low score in the first section rates a

practice low and in the second section a high score rates
a practice low. The highest possible core a factor could

receive was 868 points and the lowest possible score was
217 votes. In the summarizing section the qualities were
arranged according to their frequency. Although many

teachers failed to anpwer this section, returns were great
enough to point ur the qualities liked most and those which

were most distasteful.

Limitations 2L Techniaues
A study of this type is subject to certain limita-

tions which are noted in this section. The first weakness

lies in the selection of items listed in the checklist.

No effort was made to make an exhaustive list of factors,

such an instrument might be so lonp that teachers would be-
come discouraged from participating, A second weakness may

rest in the selection of personnel to participate in the
study. No attempt was made to get representation -: Tvery

county in the State, and no attempt was m:sde to see that all

classifications of teachers would be included. Although
some of the largest counties in the State constituted a





portion of the sampling, no effort was made to see that
representation of teachers would be in proportion to the

siae of the county or of the school. In rnalysing the data
several types of comparisons could have been made, such as

comparisons by educational status, comparisons by sex, and
by marital status. A third weakness may be attributed to

distribution of the checklist. Since the devices were
distributed, collected, and returned by the principals,

teachers might have been apprehensive about giving frank
information, less the principals take notice of their in*
dividual attitudes. If the questionnaires had been re-

turned by teachers directly, the information given might
have represented more adequately the true attitudes of the

teachers. The proportion of men to women was not great
enough to allow for an analysis of data in terms of sex.
Analysis of the data by site of school and by size of
county might yield significant data, but in order to keep

the study within reasonable siae no such analysis was
attempted.

Oranisatfion at Soagg
This study is reported in four chapters. Following
the introductory portion of the thesis a chapter is devoted

to an analysis of the literature related to the study.
Chapter III includes the analysis and interpretation of the






14


materials in the returns from the checklists. Tabular

statistical methods are used in presenting the findings.
Sumrarisatlons, concluesone, and reeoma nations are made
in Chapter IV. The appendicer Include samples of the
checklists, alphabetical lintitnr of sehools and of the
counties, and sample of the letter ser.t to officials of
the State Teachers Association rsQuestinr their cooperation
in the study.







CHAPTER XX


ANALYSIS OF THE LITERATURE RELATINO TO THE ATTITUDES OF
V~ELOTES TOWARD SUPERVISORY PRACTICES

The qualities and practices which constitute good
leadership have been questions of interest to both industry
and education for sometime. There is something compelling
about the issue, as it has entertained the thinking of
philosophers and has inspired extensive research by sociol-
ogista, psychologists, and experimenters of various types.
Both industry and education, because of the complexity of
their organizational structures have been impelled to re-

sort to the practice of employing supervisory personnel to
interpret policies and transport information to widely
scattered employees. A good method of determining the
effect of a product is to evaluate its services, thus the
process and effect of supervision are constant subjects of
scrutiny. The literature of this study will be discussed
in the following order: (1) supervisory practices in educa-
tion, (2) supervision in management, and (3) teacher-
attitudes and supervision.

Sumervisary Practicesn J Education
Although educational literature is replete' with
articles on the subject of supervision, there is a dearth





16
of scientific studies or experimental articles on the topic.
In this section, consequently, consideration will be given
to a select group of articles and books pertinent to super-
visory practices in education. Bartky attempted to point
out the function of supervision by stating that
In some school systems the curriculum is centered
and all teacher must conform regardless of training,
abilities or individual differences. Whatever the
supervisor has to offer, the teacher must agree in
principles instead of detail. The teacher can fur-
nish know-how in the classroom but look to the super-
visor for constant help in the iteme which she doesn't
have on hand.

Murray2 believes supervilon to be a highly person-
alised business. According to him it considers all the
individual differences that exist among teachers and ad*
Just itself proportionately. The author poses several
criteria for the evaluation of supervisory programs
supervision requires a high type of well trained individ*
ual; supervisory program should be a cooperative venture;
there should be group appraisal of supervisory practices;
and respect for individuals should be exercised.
In another article by Murray,3 he points out that


1Adolph John Bartky "Helping Teachers to Teach,"
Schoo aa SIejYp 66t241. 24, September 27, 1947.

2 Thomas Murray, "Group Centered Supervision,"
Hation'a Schoola 46:6.-64, September, 195 ,

"The A B C's of Supervision," Nation's
ahoola, 48iT-32, Aurust, 1952.







administrators and supervisor should learn all they can
about modern supervision. Teachers should know as much an
needs to be known about a supervisory program. He further
listed some qualities to be employed in selecting super-
visors, such as, "beat qualified", delegate responsibility
to the person chosen, and ability to share authority.
"In recent years the conception of supervision
has greatly changedA according to Saitter. "To
begin with supervision was simply inspection of
public property and direction of an educational
program. Today supervision in an aid given by
management to help carry out thr fundamental aime
in educational or industrial programs .
The supervisor must understand well the thorough
business of puman relationships .nd classroom in-
structions.T"

In the field of library service, Fay snphaaised the
human element in supervision by saying that "The human
element in supervision means getting along with people.
If supervision is good, persona concerned will be clearly
defined and all responsibilities properly placed.", The

quality of leadership according to this writer, can be
good or poor. In the event of good leadership, the super-
visor will instill in her subordinates a spirit of en-
thusiasm toward work. Undesirable traits of the supervisor



Faith Smitter WChanging Concepts Affect Super-
vision," Educationa~I eaderghi, 1101375-380, March, 1953.

5 M. Andra Fay, Spervising Library Personanl
(Chicago: The American Library Associatton, 1950), p. 8.






16


are kept at a minimum because several problems will arise,
if the supervisor fails to recognize workers as social

beings. There must be good staff relationship, if high
morale and pride in work is shown.

Fay points out some criteria for training supervi-
sors i

Supervision is a rowingr process, which involves
skill in handling people. Most supervisors have not
been properly trained for their position. Too many
have learned supervision through the "pick up" method
which involves little or no training for supervisory
duties. Trial and error can be a costly experiment,
which requires a good deal of time from management
for the coaching process that offers training to many
of our present supervisors . Before a person
can be a rood supervisor, he should be a rood teacher.
Supervision is usually poor when it is blind.
In describing the democratic form of supervision,
Wiles contraats the laisss fire type with the authori-
tative method. In emphasizing the group process in solving
problems he states
Leadership is any contribution to the establish-
ment and attainment of group purposes. It any be
exercised by the supervisor or amy member of the
staff. A definition that restricts leadership to
persons in official positions is a denial of life
situations. Real leadership in a rroup may or may
not be exercised by the officially designated leader,
Any person may make a contribution to the access of
the group. Unity must be established, otherwise the
group remains a collection of individuals. Leader-
ship is a crucial quality that someone mumt exert if
a group is to come into being and continue to exist.
Supervisors are official leaders who are almost always


Fay, 0. eJt., p. 10.






appointed by an authority outside the group in which
th superTvsor works.
In the approach toward supervision front the angle of
the superintendent, Bens states that
A present day school superintendent must b b by the
nature of his work, a wvel balanced person. The school
superintendent must administer educational affairs to
thousands of humans engaged in the process of super-
vislng, teaching, learning, end working,
The problem of human relations as this author points
out, will sffeot the role of the school superintendent from
his office down to the nursery school. The author of this
article considers it very important to know where people
place their values. He listed as the values which he be-
lieved most necessary for superintendents to know in order
to secure cooperation of people: (1) need for feeling of
prestige, (2) need for status, (3) need for security, (4)
recognizing vested interest, (5) ma inintin integrity of
the ego, and (6) being listened t: by their superiors,
Story9 was interested in revealing the evils existing
in autocratic administration. He complained that teachers


7 Kiball Wiles jna aion tl o st fhollL
(New Torki Prentice-Hall 1T950), p. 2Tf

Henry E. Boens "Human Relations in School Admini-
stration," SL-emntarv shIal Joural, 502135-43 (September,
1949)'
SM. L. Story, "Undeocratic Practices in Admini-
stration U du Matnal Administration 5a Superviaion.
37:223-2 33






are dissatisfied with the fact that they are non-partici-
patorm in policy making, and are required to adhere to
orders handed down to them by their superior in which they
had no part in making or voting*
Dictatorship in education is tra tadto Buropean
countries by Punke10 who states that, "Dictatorship is a
personal matter," Evidence of autoer&tic rule in school
program is shown by the author to be seen in failure of
school systems to allow community participation in school
planning activities a practice which lessen the
interest of communities in sharing in the responsibilities
of schools.
Wellbank11 and Unsicker12 express the belief that
successful administration may be attributed to an under-
standinr on the part of supervisory per~ondel of problems of
teachers. The former deals with the problem of administra-
tive support of disciplinary measures, while the latter


Harold H, Punke, "Authoritarianism in School Ad-
ministration AmerlQan ASc~~h Ba d Journal, 126t27-9
(March, 19531

H. L. Wellbank, "Teacher and His Problems,
duatfonal AdmInitratian ad Suprflinioa, 3S:4914
Igeemebr, 1952)
12
Samuel P. Unsicker, "Ends and Means in Supervision,"
Educational Administra.iAion aA. Supervision. 36385-95
(November, 1950).





"The development of each gan to 'isa reateat
efficiency and prosperity,13i
The great responsibility of the supervisor in acientfic
management is that of indoctrination and of making all work-
men feel that they are a necessary part of management's
great acheme of things,
In discussing the purpose of his book, Ordway Tead
states a basic factor in supervision, "Tha purpose of this
book is to set forth the meaning and methods of leadership
as contrasted with the concept and methods of command which
have so long prevailed in organized human affairs."14

Qualities of leadership suggested in this book could be
adopted by educational leaders: physical and nervous energy;
a sense of Purpose and direction; enthusiasm; friendliness
and affection, ; integrity; technical mastery; decisiveness;
intelligence; teaching skill; and faith.
Another significant feature of management's method
of improving supervision lies in its extensive training
program. Broaded15 outlined principles, procedures, and

techniques used in training industrial supervisors. He


13 Frederick W. Taylor ScintifiC Kana emnt (N{O
Yorki Harper a nd Brothers, 1947)I p, UO

1 Ordway Tead Th At pt Leaderahit (New Torks
Whittlesey House, 193) p. 9 ..

15 Charles K. .Broadpdr Ea Gntiaol Ao anas f=s
auRervifraa (New Yorki Harper and Broth era, Y1952J p. 2u,




23
divided his work into four phases: 1. organization; 2. leader-
ship's way of handling grievances, developing initiative,
building confidence, reprimanding, and getting cooperation;
3. simplification of production in order to secure the
maximum of production with the minimum amount of expendi-
tures; and 4. new skills and technical information are taught
to workers.
Recent writers in the field of labor relations have
such experiments as those conducted by the Mayo Brothersl6
and of the JapaneseBAmerican work camps during World War
II17 upon which to build their programs in human relations
of employer and employees. In illuatrating the need for
developing understanding among workers and foremen,
Orimshaw suggests "The careful driver who knows his horses
will be able to control them under adverse circumstances
better than if he does not know their temperaments and

capabilities.",18
Two most recent books which need consideration in
any up-to-date discussion on problems of leadership and


Stuart Chase, The Proper Stud of Mankind.

17


SRobert rimshaw, h Mor Foremaa. (New York
The Gr -g Publishing Company, 195 p. 22,







employee-seployer relations are Hatman19 and Maler.20
Ha4 an approaches the subject from the point of view of
group planann- and group action. His main contribution to
modern supervision was the construction of a Leader Rating

Seale to be used in judging educational leaders. Norman
Mater explained the complexities of training in human

relations. He especially indicated that:
the whole problem of human relations training
is complicated by the fact that conflicts in attitudes
are involved. Attitudes are always loaded with feel-
ings, and the logic of feeling is different from the
lodo of thinking Until these two kinds of loic are
treated for what they are, misundnderstandin cannot be
corrected.

Attti e and SuerTiaion
A basic requirement for 'ood human relations is
attitudes, therefore, a study of reactions is necessary in
supervision. It is the attitude aspect of supervision
which Is most often overlooked. Although research on atti-
tude studies has recently come into focus, it is good to
note the recent flux of writing on this phase of super-
vision. Only select, pertinent books and articles will
appear in this section, covering attitudes in industry and


19
Franklyn S. Haiman, Oroup Leadership And 45
&aInu. ALt^^n (Now York t Hough on mirr1n company, p 50 )
pp. 237-40.

0 Norman H. Mater, Pri cin Hpaa Rielationa
(New Yorks John Wiley and Sons, 1953 p. viii.







in education.
According to Richard A, Lester,
Both unions and employers are concerned alike about
their respective ri hts, privileges, and opportunities.
If these are seriously challenged, or the balance is
shifted or changed, feelings of innecurity are aroused
which may affect and greatly influence attitudes and
actions,a

Another book by Lester explains attitudes and tells how they
are developed, for example, "The extent to which individuals
in a group achieve expectations which they consider reason-
able, helps to determine the group structure of attitudes
and beliefs."22
It seems that education has contributed sparingly to
attitude studies as they relate to teacher. and supervision.
Many articles reflect the opinion expressed by Gllet.23
This writer feels thet because of certain reasons; job in-
security, apprehension of supervision by teachers, fear of
showing. her feelings, there in a decided difficulty in
adequately studying teacher attitudes,


21
Richard A. Lester, l htn labor aggga
(New Yorkt The Maemillan Coapany, 91), p 14.
22 atAtiudes, Reactiaon A
tl Jt (Nhew T i e T Macm ln oipany 1I9)( p. wn

2 yrtle iargaret Mann "What Teachers Don't Like,"
utionk Schoolns 4026 (July, 1947.





26
Those who are interested in trying to understand the
sources from which leadership spring are justified in
pointing to literary, research and exprtaental studies
which seem to account for the phenomenon. One must be
constantly aware of the differences existing in varying
situation. If one knows aat the scientists have dUis
covered and what axperimenters have learned in industry and
in education, it is reasonable to believe that applications
of solutions in human rteations may be transferred from one
field of endeavor to another v- from manageent and labor,
to teaching and supervision, and vice veras.







CHAPTER III


ANALYSIS AND INTIRPRETATION OF DATA

The data presented in this chapter attempt to show by
analysis and deductive reasoning the following interpretations
of the problem. The purpose of the study is to analyse cer-
tain factors cowon to both industry and the field of edu-
cational administration and to see if there is any relation
ship between those factors and the attitudes of teachers
toward supervision. The basic question to the problem is:
What is the relationship between certain select factors and
the attitudes of teachers toward supervisory practices?
Several sub.questions are proposed, the answers to whioh will
allow the investigator to determine by the way of deduetive
reasoning the extent to whieh supervisory praotlies are in-
fluenced by these factors. The sub-problems related to the
study ares (1) What are the relative factors which influence
the attitudes of teachers toward supervisory practices?
(2) What is the relationship between the age of teachers and
their attitudes toward supervision? (3) Is educational status
a relative factor in determining the attitudes of teachers
(4) To wh., extent does rank of certificate influence
teachers' attitudes? (5) Do teachers with previous super-
visory experience reflect attitudes toward supervision which
show that there is relationship between this factor and







teachers attitudes? (6) What factors do teachers consider
to be the most influential in determining their attitudes
toward supervisory practices?

Charaateritcs p g Parti Clatin Teachers
Before discssing teachers' attitudes toward super-
vision, it seems fitting to analyse the teachers in terms
of their personal characteristics. There is reason to be-
lieve that all factors that relate to attitudes are not
external; that some attitudes may be the result of factors
which lie outside the control of either teachers or super-
visors; that in an attempt to "scape goat", blame is often
shifted from one action or person to another. With the
belief that personal qualifications may have bearing upon
the type of attitudes formed by individuals, the investi-
gator aims to present and analyse data relative to such
personal characteristics as: (1) types of supervriory ex-
periences with which teachers are acquainted, (2) grades
taught by teachers, (3) sex, (4) marital status, (5) age,
(6) educational status, (7) salary rank, (8) certificate
rank, and (9) previous supervisory experience. Sometimes
personal qualities and characteristics may be the center of
dissatisfaction and, consequently, may constitute reasons
for attitude formation.







M o f SSuervalory ix.erence
Since the term supervisors in this study refers to
principals, county or city supervisors, and school superin-

tendents, there seems to be relationship between the type
of supervisory experience to which an individual is

accustomed and his attitude toward the type of position
which the person of favor or disfavor holds, The section of

the questionnaire was answered by all 217 participants. No

person indicated that he had had more than one of the three
kinds of supervisory experiences suggested in the form.
Four indicated that they had had supervisory experience

with the superintendent; 202, or about 94 per cent, had ex-
perience with principals; and eleven, constituting over

five and one-half per cent, with eupurvisors. Since the
great majority of the participants had had experience with
the principal type of supervision, the interpretation here
relates primarily to practices common to teacher-principal
relationships. Very little inference is sugge-tive to the

supervisory practices existing between teachers and city or

county supervisors.







TABLE I


DI:THIBUTION OF 217 FLORIDA NEGRO SCHOOL TLACKFRS
BT TTPE OF .UPERVISION E.P(RI E:CD, GRADES
TAUGHT, EX, .IAU )AKRITAL STAT3

-1 m . 1 . . .


lumber


Type of Supervtsion Exptrianc*d
Superintendent
Principal
Other Indicating county super-
visors)

Grades Taught


High School
Elementary School


4
202
11


138*
114*


Per Cinft


93.87
5.58


63.59*
52.53*


Sex


Male
Female
No anawir


42
173
2


54
159
4


19.35
79,72
.92


Marital Status


Single
Married
No answer


24.88
73.27
1.74


The total number in high school and elementary
school is more than 217 and the total per cent is nore
than 100 because 25 teachers indicated that they taught
in both high school r.nd elementary school,


' '-~'~----'------ ~-~-~-~-~----~
-~' -- --- -'-- ~L




31


Inasmuch as the grades which are taught by teachers
may reflect in their attitudes it was believed to be
significant enough to the problem to consider types of
teaching positions as to grades taught. The participants
represented in the study included 138 high school and 114
elementary school teachers. The total number is greater
than 217, or the total number of subjects, because twenty-
five are both high and elementary school teachers.

2a saiM miEal nStant at uThskan
Sex and marital status may or may not have bearing
upon the attitudes of teachers toward supervisory practices.
Of the 217 persons returning questionnaires, forty-two, or
19 per cent, were wAle; two gave no answers as to nex; and
17), or relatively 80 per cent, were female. The mber of
men as compared with the number of women in the study is so
small that sex as a factor may not be significant in this
study. Nevertheless the findings will be reported and
further research should bear the investigator out in this
respect. Fifty-four of the teachers in the study were
single; 159 were married; and four gave no answer indicating
their marital status.

^. L an ha t Zlsklan
Table II shows the age distribution of the participant
The greatest number of teachers is between the ages of 26







and thirty-five. Fewer teachers fall in the below 21 and
above 51 groups represented by three and seven respectively.
The age groups of 22-25 and 46-50 were represented by a low

percentage of persons. Inasmuch as 149 of the 217 teachers

are in the age groups ranging between 26 and 45 years, the
217 teachers participating in this study represent a

relatively youns group. No effort was made to discover to
what extent this grouping follows a general pattern of age
grouping of teachers therefore no statement can be made as
to whether or not the age pattern in thick study is a npre-
sentative sampling.

TABLE II
AGE DISTRIBUTION OF 217 FLORIDA NEGRO SCHOOL TEACHERS


Approximate Age
Below 21
22-25
26-30

31-35
36-40
41-45
46-50
Above 51
No answer


Number

3
1r


45
34
27
13
7
27


Per Cent

1.38
8.3
19.9
20,7

15.6
12.4

5.9
3.24
12.4


T.thla 217 I100...


"







Jduratiom l Status at Particiantu
In order to determine the relationship between the
educational status of teachers and their attitudes, it was
decided to analyse the participants according to their
educational training. Table II shows the educational status
of the 217 respondents to the iuestionnairs. Only two teach-
ere had as little as two y are or less of college, and only
four had any training beyond the master9' deroe. The bulk
of the participants had four years of college. aster's
dereeos possessed by the group represented 10 per cent, or
twenty-one,of the entire group of 217 participating teachers.

TABLE III
EDUCATIONAL STATUS OF 217 FLORIDA NEGRO -CHOOL TEACHERS


Educational Training hmbir Per Cent

2 Yearn College or Less 2 .43
4 Years College 190 87.5
Master's Degrees 21 10.3
Houra Beyond Master's Degree 4 86

Totels 217 100,00
I II I__ III I __. ... ..- l- .-- .. . p . ... . - - ... .. .







Teaching Zaerienca of Parteiciants
A section of the questionnaire waI planned to ascer.

tain the teaching experience in terms of years of service.
The fact that twenty-eight individuals did not answer this

section is significant because this is the only portion of
the questionnaire left unanswered by such a great number.
Table IV represents a distribution of the participating
teachers according to the number of years of teaching

experience. The largest number of teachers have taught five
or less years and the smallest number have taught twenty-one
or more years. The experience range of the group between
16-20 years composes the second largest number of teachers.
Some significance amy lie in the fact that 133, or more
than one-half, of the teachers in this study have taught
fifteen years or less. Twenty-eioht, or more than 12 per

cent, of the teachers omitted wnswerin. this section of the
questionnaire. Table IV shows the teaching experience of the
217 Florida Negro school teachers by number and per cent

divided according to five year categories. If thirty years
may be used as the teaching life-time of the majority of
teachers, considering the mall number of teachers listing
their number of teaching years as lesa than twenty years,
then the teacher in this study have a good number of years

left to engage in their professional occupation. Sixty of
the group have from 25 to 30 year left to teach and only







TABLE IV
TEACHING EXPEISENCS OF 217 FLORIDA NEGRO SCHOOL TEACHERS
AND PO:' ;IBLF, NUMBuR OF YIAR5 LEFT TO TEACH


Tears of Experience Tears Left Number Per Cent

5 yoara of less 25-30 60 27.6
6-10 years 20-24 35 16.1
11-15 years 15-19 38 17.5
16-20 years 10-14 40 1R.4
21 years or more 0. 9 16 7.83

No answer 28 12.8

Totals 217 100,0


sixteen have 9 or less additional years of service.
With respect to experience other than teaching,
twenty-five, or more than 11 per cent, had ha supervisory
experience and 192, or 9 per cent, were without previous
supervisory experience.

Certi~iaton a Part -ic a ta
Since psychologists support the belief that a feeling
of achievement on the part of an individual is one of the
bnasi drives, there is reason to believe that this factor
contributes to onets morale and helps in teaching, the typ*
of ertificate held by an instructor may be interpreted as




36
an indication of achievement. Table V shows the distribution
of the teacher by type of teaching certificates held. All
217 teachers responded to this section of the questionnaire.
The four possible ranks of certificates were listed, and
each teacher was asked to check the rank of his certificate.
Rank 1, the highest type of certificate, is held by none of
the participants. Rank IV, the lowest possible type of
certificate, is held by four or only one per cent. Attention
should be called to the fact that only four teachers indi-
cated that they held Rank IV certificates, while only two
(see Table III, page 33) indicated that they had two years
or less of college. Perhaps two of the persons involved had
Rank III certificates who claimed they had four years of
college, or two of the persons who held Rank IV certificates
had only two years of college. No further check was made to
compare salary brackets in order to substantiate the status
of these two individuals. Due to the individual pay scales
of counties, such a check might have been futile anyway.
Rank IV was represented by twenty-five of the easesor
11 per cent. The great bulk of individuals participating
in the study held certification te y n Rank III, There does not
seem to be such a difference in the types of certificatet
held to merit any special discussion.






TABLE V
DISTRIBUTION OF 217 WKORO FLORIDA SCHOOL TEACHERS
BT TYPE OF TEACHING CERTIFICATSS HELD IN 1953


Type of Certifiutae Number Per Cent

Rank I 0 0.00
Rank UZ 25 11,5
Rank III 188 86,6
Rank IT 4 1.1


Totals 217 100.0


alan lak ahmr
A sale of salary rank was devised ranging from
2300 or leas to $4100 or more and teachers were asked to
check In the appropriate bracket where their salaires fell
on the sale. Table VI shows the salary distribution of
the 217 teachers. One hundred twenty-eight, or approximate-
ly 59 per cent, of the group received salaries ranging be-
twmen 2400 or less to *3000; and twenty, or 9 per cent,
received salaries ranging between $3700 and $4000. Only
fifty-three, or approximately 24 per cent, received salaries
In the )3100 to $3600 rank, There was no effort made to
find the relationship between salary received rnd education-
al status. Comparison could have bon made, however, between






salaries and educational training to show salary differ-
entiation between counties. Such a comparison would be
irrelevant to the study.

TABLE VI
DISTRIBUTION OP 217 FLORIDA NEGRO SCHOOL TEACHERS
ACCORDING TO SALARY RANK


Salary Rank Number Per Cent

2400 or less 39 17.9
2401-3000 9 1.1
3100-3600 53 24.5
3700-4000 20 9.2
4100 or nore 9 4.1
Ho answer 7 3.2

Totals 217 100.0





39


AMiaiA oL Su2nrvisory Practices Ratm d Teacher
A checklist of supervisory practices was devised by
reading in the field of management, and in the field of
education and supervision. A total of sixty-three factors
were selected. Each participant was asked to rate super*
vision as he knew it by checking the appropriate category
very good, good, fair, poor, and failure. For the purpose
of objective evaluation, the responses were qualified by
the use of a scale ranging from sero to four, thus per-
mitting the determination of mean scale scores on each
factor. The calculation of the scores resulted in a
highest possible score of 868 and a lowest possible score
of 217 for all participants combined. The average aoe*
which a factor could receive was 542.5 points, The die-
cussion in this section relates to the rating of the factors
according to the rank of the factors and the moat liked and
disliked qualities in supervisory practices.
The total score which a factor receives determines
the rank of that factor by the teachers. Table VII show
the rank of supervisory practices by total number of points

received.







TABLE VII
RANK OF SUPERVISORY PRACTICES BY TOTAL NUMBIA
OF RATING POINTS

Rating
Supervisory Practice

Maaitaining friendly and sincere contact with
teachers 697
Planning work for teachers 693
Instructing teachers in specific duties 691
Encouraging team-work amo teachers 690
Ability to carry responBibility 689
Introducing and orientating new teachers 688
Correcting teacher conduct 686
Scheduling work assignments 682
Encouraging staff participation n in school
affairs 681
Ability to met new mitiations 668
Self assurance with dignity 668
Sound judgment in decisions 666
Making decisions about school work 662
Inspiring teachers to like work 657
Supervisory skill and knowledge 656
Opsencindednesr 655
Stimulating individual efforts 654
Treats all teachers like human beings 652
Liking for, interest in, and understanding of
people 647
Just reoonmendations of teachers 66
Looking out for staff welfare 646
Understanding attitudes toward all teachers 61
Integrity 6"
Handling grievance 642
Criticises teachers in privacy 639
Evaluating abilities of teachers 632
Adheres to rules made for teachers 628
Fair and impartial treatment to all teacher 627
Rewarding good work 621
Never flies off at teachers 5?9
Accepts criticism 598
Explanations clear 597
Sanse of humor 587
Takes time to explain to teachers 577
._- ,, .. .







TABLE VII (continued)
RANK OF aUP9RVIS1RY PRACTICES BY TOTAL NUMBER
OF RATING POINTS


Rating
Supervisory Praotioe
I-.. . .. .. _- .. .. .. ..---- -.-_--. .. ... ... .- -
Meetings well planned 568
Moderate temper 553
Common iense 543
Never betrays teachers' confidences 531
Recognizes good work of teachers 522
Knows each teacher personally 15
Lets teachers know of progress or failure 502
Inform teachers of changes in advance of
actions 496
Boastful of achieveents 486
Wastes teachers' time with nonoessentials 432
Demans teachers to cooperate 430
Sarcastic with teachers 429
Dictates to teachers 425
Gives reasons for diversion 423
Has high temper 420
Inclined to flatter teachers 420
Informs teachers of failure upon notice of dis-
miseal 410
Rules were made for teachers not for supervisors 404
Must have last word 401
Partial to favorites 397
Expects teachers to do favors 390
Indifferent toward teachers 390
Incites fear on part of teacher* when they do
not immediately re pond to respect 387
Jealous of smart teachers 361
Lasy 370
Over-familiarity with teachers 349
Inclined to gossip about teachers 342
Dishonest 322


Passes buck


YY -I I


290






42


It should be noted that a high core in the last
three group of qualities indicates a poor rating and a low
score in the first two groups indicates a low rating. One
exception to this Is in the rating of the quality regarding
dismissals. Supervisors see to rate low in this factor.
If these factor ratings represent the rating of supervisory
practices in Florid&, the conclusion seems to sug-ost itself
that the quality of suprviPsory practices seefs to rDte high
in the might of teacher* participating In th. i study.


ZRiaLLfl0UtaL $al aJ hAfnS $a Lk*d an

In addition to the factor selected for rating the
participants were asked to liot the factors which they liked
beat and the ones thich they disliked most. The results
are presented in Table VI by frequency of occurrence. Al-
though more qualities wore disliked by teacher in this study
the qualities 11ated as liked were mentioned uost by particle
pants Dictatorship, dishonesty, and Jealousy occurred oust
frequently in the disliked gKrup; and goseip, flattery, and
passing the buck ware nost infrequent. In the liked column
good attitudes, democratic leadership, and good ability were
mentioned most frequently; and honesty, informing teachers

about Beuoces or failure, and good staff relations appeared
moet infrequently in this column







TABLE VIII
FRUQUBIYT SCORS OF BBDT LIKED AND Y03T DISLIKED
4UALITIBS IN SUPERVISORS PRACTICES


Liked Qualities


Good attitudes
Democratic leadership
Oood ability
Kindness
Sound judgment

Moderate temper
Cooperation
Honesty
Oood staff relations

Infeor teachers of sueess
or failure


Disliked .Qualitie


122 Dietatorship

102 Dishonesty
64 Jealousy
42 Partiality

34 High tmper
28 Unfairness
26 Boastfulness
20 Lasines
18 Poor ability
Gossip
5
Flattery
Passing buck


Totals 461 33)


0o
41
32

30
30
28
25

23
15
14
12
0


__ __ ___
__ ___ ___


______






naulvai 2L Teaharn' Atsitude ba Mean Scaal Se rA ?et
Mean scores were computed for the 217 teachers and for
various teachers by the usual statistical method of finding
arithmetic means. Since our chief interest is determining the
attitudes in relation to certain factors, a more satisfactory
way of quantitatively measuring results could be obtained in
this manner. If theso criteria may be used to measure re-
lationships, a high mean scale score represents a more

favorable attitude and a low mean scale score represents a
less favorable attitude. The data is this section are present-
ed in relation to types of supervisory experience, groups,
educational statue, years of teaching experience, rank of
teaching certificate, and salary bracket.


AJBIE k LTSupeevigryr GEteriencet 2rador aui, AM, Lad
Mariltal 21amisu
Mean acale scores were computed by groups in order to
measure relationships of attitudes and groups of teachers in
various categories. Two types of supervisory experience were
indicated and apace was allowed for indication of others.
Teachers with superintendent type of euperviaory experiences
have most favorable attitudes and those with principal type
less favorable attitudes. Table 1 shows mean score rating
of supervisory practices by certain factors. No attempt was
made to compare mean scores of the twenty-five teachers who
taught in both elementary and high schools. If sean scale








TABLE II
EAN SCALE SCORE RATING OF SUPERVISION BI 217 PLORIDA
NGQRO SCHOOL TEACHERS Bt TTYP OF SUPERVISION
KIPERIER E GRADES TAUGHT,
SKX AND MRITAL STATUS


Number Mean Score

Type of Supervision Kxprienced
Superintendent 4 16
Princip 20 15
Other indicating county 11 15
supervisors)
Grades Taught
High School 138* 161
Elementary School 114* 111
Sex
Male 42 176
female 173 171
Marital Status
Single 54 180
Married 159 106


thb "total number in high school and elemaatar scoel is more
than 217 because 25 teachers indicated that they taught in
both high school and elementary school.







scores for grades taught, sex,end marital status are
indicative of attitudes, then we may seem safe In conclud-
ing that high school, men and single teachers have more

favorable attitudes than elementary, wamen and married
teeahers, and that types of supervisory experience, grades
taught, sex, and marital status are related to attitudes
of teachers toward supervisory practices.

k tph A n QmM atf shares
Seven age categories were obecked by the participants
Fever participants fell in the two categories of below 21,
and the more unfavorable attitudes were expressed in the
groups below 21 and between )1 and 35 years. Teachers in the
group above 51 possessed the most favorable attitudes
according to their mean scale score rating. The average
mean scale score rating for the entire group was 151.
Table I shows mean scale score rating by age groups.

Rating f ierasaOr Praotoea a i M dusatioml Statua
This section of the problem was concerned with the
relationship between educational status and the attitudes
toward supervisory experience. If the results in Table U1
are criteria for determining the attitudes, the higher
educational training or status the more unfavorable the
attitudes, and the less education the more favorable the





47


TABLE I
MSAN SCALE SCORE RATING OF SUPERVISION OF 217
FLORIDA Ni RO SCHOOL TEACHERS BY AGE GROUPS


Approximate Age umber Mean Score

Below 21 3 141
22-25 10 151
26-30 43 153
31-35 45 12S
36-40 34 161
41-45 27 154
46-50 13 157
Above 51 27 174
No answer 27 147



attitudes. Could this mesa that teachers with 1ss quali-
fications are afraid to express their criticisms or could
it mean that they are Just more really satisfied, and there-
fore less critical?

Asina& hi Yara at TeliMginL kE ttlisa
In order to d eterine the relationship between the
attitudes sod years of teaching experience the mean seale
scores were computed by categories divided Into five groups
of years. It is significant to note that a large number







b8


TABLE II

MEAN SCALE SCORE RATING OF SUPERVISION OF 217 FLORIDA NEGRO
SCHOOL TLACHER3 IN R:,LATION TC THEIR EDUCATIONAL STATUS



Educational Training Number Mean Score

2 Years College or Less 2 138

4 Tears College 190 142
Master's Degree 21 157
Hours Beyond Master'a Degree 4 158



failed to answer this section and that tat t group which
omitted this section had a more unfavorable attitude, or
a mean scale score rating of 182. Table XII shows the

rating of supervisory practices by years of teaching ex-
perience. The teachers with 11 to 15 years of experience
had the lowest mean scale score and were, therefore, judged

to be most unfavorable in their attitudes. The teachers
with fewer years of experience, in this instance, seemed
to have more favorable attitudes,

Rating bT Salar BraCkst
Since salary may become a source of dissatisfaction
and, consequently, a contributing factor toward the develop-

ment of attitudes it was the decision of the investigator
to discover the extent of relationship between the salary




49


TABLE III
MEAN SCALE SCORE RATING OF SUPERVISION OF 217 FLORIDA NEGRO
SCHOOL TEACHERS IN RELATION TO THEIR
TEARS OP TEACHIw KIPERIEBNC


Tear of Experience umber Kean Score

5 Tears or Loe 60 176
6-10 Tears 35 176
11-15 Tears 38 151
16-20 Tears 40 153
21 or more 16 155
No answer 26 182


and the attitude. It should be noted here that a igh mean
seal score indiates a favorable attitude and a low mean
seals score represents an unfavorable attitude. Table XIII
shove rating of supervisory practices according to salary
received. If the mean scale score in this table may be used
an criteria for attitude, it seem safe to may that with
the exception of the 13100 to $3600 salary bracket, the
higher the salary the more favorable the attitude, and the
lower the salary the ore unfavorable the attitude.







TABLE IIII
MEAN SCALE SCORE RATING OF SUPERVISION OF 217 FLORIDA NEGRO
SCHOOL TEACHERS IN RELATION TO THEIR SALARY BRACKET


Salary Bracket Number Mean Score


$ 2400 or less 39 145
2401-3000 89 169
3100-3600 33 149
3700-4000 20 170
4100 or more 9 172
No answer 7


Mati bf M af L Ist hi af C2rtificate
The desire for achievement is recognized to be one of
the psychological needs to be satisfied. Since rank of
certification is bpaed upon academic achievement, the extent
to which one realizes his ambition in this endeavor may be
related to his attitude, Sine* no participant in this study
held the certificate in the highest rank, no deductions were
made regarding the attitudes of persons with that rank of
certificate, Table III show the mean seale score rating
of supervisory practices according to rent of teaching

certificate. The highest mean scale score of 174 is in with






TABLE XIV
MEAN SCALE SORE RATING OF SUPERVISION OF 217 FLORIDA NEGRO
SCHOOL TZACHEflS IN RELATION TO THEIR CERTIFICATE RANK


Type of Certificate Number Mean Score

Rpnk I 0 0
Rank II 25 174

nk III 188 168
Rank IV 4 163


the highest ranking certificate group and the lowest of 163
is with the lowest rank represented. If these data may be
indicative of attitudes, it seems safe to say that the
higher the rank, the more favorable the attitude; and the
lower the rank, the more unfavorable the attitude.


amnC7


The data in this chapter have shown by analysis and
deductive reasoning the relationship between certain factor
and the attitudes of teachers toward supervisory practices.
In addition to the baste question of the problem, six related
questions were stated and the answers sought throughout the
development of the chapter. A summary of findings and


conclusions is presented in the last chapter.






CHAPTER IV


SMART AND CONCLUSIONS WITH RECQO1NDATIOCS

The primary aims of this study were (1) to examine
studies in the fields of industry and education and to
evaluate criteria used in these areas to measure attitudes
of employees (2) to examine criteria developed by managment
mad educational agwies which might serve as bases for con-
structIng rn itea analysis bcheklist to be distributed to
Plorida teachers and, (3) to examine education, age, ex

porilnce, academic achievement, rank of oertifiate, salary,
grades taught, and previous supervisory experience in order
to determine to whtt extent they influenced the attitude of
teachers toward supervisory practices.
Data for this study were collected through use of a
checklist distributed to 217 Florida teachers and by ex-
tesive riding in the fields of industrial mnagetent and
educational supervision The scope of the study was limited
to 217 Florida Negro teachers and twenty-one schools in
seventeen counties.
Certain hypotheses and asumption formed the bases
for the study (1) that the human element in supervision is
a relative factor in determining t attitude of tha hers
toward supervisory practices (2) that recognition of basie
psychological drives on the part of supervisor relates to





53
types of attitudes of teachers; (3) that a knowledge of the
attitudes of teacher toward supervision is base in evalu-
ating supervisory programs (4) that much can be learned
from Industry by education n n the study of employee-
employer relations; and (5) that criteria used by industry
in studying the attitudes of employees toward management
are applicable in understanding the attitudes of teachers
toward supervisory practices.
Upon analysis, the problem presented six sub-problessi
(1) What are the relative factor which influence the atti-
tudes of teachers toward supervisory practices? (2) What is
the relationship between the ages of teachers and their
attitudes toward supervisory practices? (3) Is educational
status a relative factor in determining the attitudes of
teachers toward supervision? (4) To what extent does
teacher-rank of certification influence attitudes? (5) Do
teachers with previous supervisory experience reflect
attitudes toward supervision which show that there is re-
lationship between their experience and their attitudes?
(6) what are the most influential factors in determining the
attitudes of teachers toward supervisory practices?
Significant findings growing out of the study aided
imensely in formulating a solution to the problem. Approxi-
mately 94 per cent of the population had supervisory ex-
perience with principals only, while only 6 per cent







experienmd ether types of aspervision. The largest age
group we from 31 to )5, with 45 per cent of the pepulatie
being in that age range Three teachers were uder 21, and
seven were oer 51 year ef age. The majority of the popu .
tion, or 87 per *ent, had four years of college education,
while only 10 per sen9 had attatled the HMter's degree.
The largest grop of the population, or 28 per oset, had
five years or lesa teaen expefrence, and 86 per aent of
the repondents held Rank 1X1 certificates. The most
signiftant salary range was 2401 3000, with 41 per
sent of the respondents beinr in that range.
ln further analysis, the findings revealed that there
were tn superviry ui~uities *liked by teachers and twelve
"diliked" supervisory qualities.
Conelauslos drawn fro an analysis of data gathered
and interpreted arei
1. Age, as, marital statue, salary rank, rank of
certificate and previous supervisory experience are
the primary relative factors in determining the
attitudes of teachers toward supervisory practices.
2. Teachers in the age group 36 to above 51 had
the int favorable attitude toward supervisory

praatieee, while younger teachers had a less favorable
attitude.







3. Teachers with higher ranks of certficates ad
with higher acadeie degrees are ore favorable in their
attitudes toward superviory praetltee than teacher
with lower ranked efrtfieates and lower seadomia
training.
4. Teoahwe with higher salariee have more
favorable attitude than do those with lwver salaries
The mat influietial factors In determining the
attitudes of teachers war pelitiTe and negative and in-
clude < (1) Singl tfeahers had more favorable attitude
toward supernisery pratices than married teaches, and
(2) Teachers with previous supervisory experience expressed
more favorable attitude toward supervtion than those
without previous supervirsry experisene.

Reomsoadat ions
In light of the findings in this study the following
recommendations seem justiftablol
1. That an effort be made to understand techniques
employed by industry in evaluating supervsonr-employ
relationship i order that theme methods night be used
to implement improvement of auperviarrteacher relation.
ship in education, keeping in mind the differentiating
feetor presented in this study.





56

2, That a follow-up study covering a more equitable
distribution of teachers according to age level, education,
and spread of counties to allov for a more d6talled una-
lysis of the relationship of these factors to attitudes
relative to supervisory practices.








BIBLIOGRAPHY


Bart, Adolph John "Helpirn Teachers Teach," gAuasL ad
5ai t "663214.244, Septkeber, 1947.
Bens, Henry ., "Human Relations in 3Shool Administration
i^ nntrt r dhll JAuMLn 501135-143, September, 1919.
Broaded, Charles H., uAsmkLa -tfr 3Supvai&rg .
New Yorka Harper a tro teh 1952.
Chase, Stuart, Is Lam audz Ma hal2lS.
Fay, i Andra, h rrid a Lbay Pra i Chicagot The
Amerloan L1 F iiM I79 J
p d
GQrlahaw Robort The Modern Foreman. New York: The Gregg
Publishing apy, 1951.
St"an, Franklyn S Oroup Ld hi Am 9maaaaM rlas"D Ains*
Niw York: %ugontou mIffln Gompany, 1950.
Letter Richard A., iMzhtl in Labor ;a Nlr Torka
The Maimilan OCLmany 1949L

- aU Sartmur t A m.it de 3 sactiona. and.hBaliLs.
Nv Tork i The Macmillan Company, 1949
Mann, mr -Margart "What Teachers Dontt Like," EI S
h 40126, July, 1947.
Mater l ormn R. o F.,llaatme New

Murralt Thoa, 9roup CenterSd Supervlicon," EMtAion'a Shalaa.
4l62e64, September, 1950.
S"The A B C's of SupTerrision," Aio a a~I,48 l31*32
AuIgut, 1952.
PunL arold H. "Authoritarianism in SaCoolN Adminigtration,"
Isrm a .ol Brd JurMl 126 27-29, KMreh, 1953.
Sitter, Fait, *Changing Concepts Afft t Supervision,*
educational Leadership, 101375.390, March, 1953.








Story M, L, "Uandemoorati Practices in Administration ,
A dhnlslta tn AlaM uMt,~IPriuion. 37s223-233,

Taylor, Frederick W.. icn Mantem nt. Mew Tork: Harper
and Brothers, 1947<
TeAd, Ordway, T in f ALat Leadrhn. New York i Whittlesey

Unstoker, Samuel P. ",Sda and Means in Supervision.
&u *4atftahl A24" za1aan ad Suarnrlif 3A:3 5-59,

Wellbank H. L., The Teacher and His Problmas"
Adminlntration j a ~ unrvlisina 38 1491-941* Dete r 1952.
Wilts. i ba11, Sunriillo fa Btt~ SM .Ift New Yorki
Prenti:Lee-ftu-, a VjW,


























APPrmDIC







APPMUPI X A


COUNTIES IlHRL PARTICIPANTS ARE LOCATES


Almkbas
Bradford
Celumsbi
Bade*
dkid
meval
sesalbia
FarrmtlS

sadede
*ill bosoegb


Pefteaeem
Levy






Vlusela
***!*
P1legio
PSf
VliII!


ST0eo2


1.4216

495 04O
304,029
112?706
Se314
36e457
2496e94
34, 648
10,413
51, 90
10,637

aO, 1T
23, 61


T4, 29


notes rifges takeh fIm 19m0 uused Istesr Canes *of
Peplaitlen, Plerlds. MNO of th bltlbftefl.







APPBD1IX 3
LIST OF PARlCIPATImN SCHOOtS


Asheat s
C4o4ut P. Exfebll Ie-
Utiehrdbes High
kuglass Righ
atsker Nigh
tUsealm ifg
Meard Aemdeqr
ooid Junter lghk
Limel*lm nigh
Wilaulot Veslonal lth
Ultl e glVnm-ticai nigh
tUlke. aIlbert High

Ssume wsgh
Li3.laa nlgh
arteoll C*t.en
ChAishetll ogh
A. L. Lowi Nigh
uerd Aadeq
Central Awe 4my
in*ray Mlig
Uinhlftsa nilh
seoln sege ugs.
telan Blob
ltooker Waslozen


a~ *t fa~he


4
1i
14
31



59




a
47


40

46

SO





*1

TT


. of Isaahars


Kaurllmet t. CMgIT
122 Velaseu
Too Ceoliai
mIP Alahube
69?S09e arms
oI,2 Aleiths
Goo Wottefrse
900 Lon
859 Lee*








30 Telesis




144014 fptm
1,900 Seds






1,400 Smeesmbi
350 isUvleti



1.700 sd
UO V errlof







1o -1mad









Post Office Box 116
Florida A & N College
Tallahuaee. Florida
Maroh 10, 1953

Dr, G. To Wiggins
Washington High School
600 StronCg treet
Penaoola, Florida
Dear Dir Viuins
It is my desire to be preemt at the Florida
State Tachers Association MirOh 19*21, 1953. I
would like to distribute a oheklist during one of
the floor meting with the hop* of securing neceso
ary data for my thesis, The study concerns teacher
of Florida who will agre to participate by answring
the checklist.
closed you will find a msaple checklist for
your inspection and approval,
Tour cooperation in thi matter vill be greatly
appreciated.
Very truly your,
/g/ A, a Owree*


A, R. Grem




Telephone ~-930


WASHINTTOSO HIOH SCHOOL
600 W, Strong 3t.
Pensacola, Florida


April 20, 1953





Mr. A. R1 GQrene
Box 116
florida A, s& College
Tallahassee, Florida
Dear Mr. Ornet
This note acknowledges receipt of yor hooklists.
I shall be glad to cooperate with our request. I
shall return them just as the tahers complete
filline them.
Very truly yours,
/*/ O. T.WiVina

G. T, Wi1lin



Gow


P. 0. Box 1748







APPEIDIX C
Suple of Cfheeklkt

FACtSKt INCfENCING THE ATTITfAI S OF TE&ACHEMR TAAt StE VlISAHr

mlew II a list of Items whch will jIeld portlseat data re
grting Sthe evalmatle of tuehrs* $ttitdeS towed sapervwmerl
p+rtlees. Tn *ill help trmeadmnus witah She studr it yes *wll
shek tAsol spaces appropriate It yoSr slatitE.
PE SOfAL AATA

aen of Sckh*l ., .
(*9il~lii ...


Loeettoa of sel l


SW -n


(m~l)


(Gcoetri


Address of Sebeel _-___ .' 0 ------.
Apprlzatfe mime *f seh**e- -.-o-- --. 7 47-- .. f
(enrolles 1m"*293) toot toechwere)


Type of aperstlee


(aperlateldeotI


(pr4mepal I


Oed taught


highb *a )..


(elan Iar I


03e ___e___e_


rtal stat (rrld)
(sl~e.(parried)


Ages Below 21 .. -.-J -t..m0_. 31.4e...a S3. ---_..J
36s40a 41 ......e.4. 4$4O. .m^.J Sl or abovee, ,.


UdasmeSemll Statis


a -~-' -


Sfyjr- eitege r less)


(4 fers sIlle)


taperlemf I


estter'a d~ere)


I pr. .r 19. n


(Bomim keysul muter'

1.1. ampTm.. -pp


or9 them year


others


- -- -- ~CCIC~


mm --


I 0--- -- M. -- P-- a-


"Di -764rs







Nperlesn etherb than tee l )
(itype) -his years)
Supetvi esry euprlleans I _____ ______ (--

Typ Prlsp l r sipal Cnsmty opervo is. _
Mead feestr* ____ ___. City apsrvielW __, _
*ehew ___s _____
type ef Cortflfesaes Raak I asRk i ___. Rank .
mask IV
salery RIaks $2400 or lear ._ 1 410e3000 .___ __j
o3100436 1 37T00o400._... ._.. 4100 or abov..


ateu upeavlasem as ye h ow *xperleafld It In e* o*f tbe
tellerAig Ontegrles TERT 6000 G0OOD, FAIR, POOR FAILDR
Kladly itu Is one etf these ratioeas L the bleak speed pretlded
1. Inte df~elg and orloteuta now e ser .. .
Planifig work ftr Sreasher. .
3. shh llMlag workt as ig nt .... .__ .... .
4@ Im Stimletta teachers In ieaoilflo __dat .s .
so. vevaluating abiltiesm ot teeohvs. .


T. *e0oulrmglg teem-lerl mug *nobes. ______. __
8. Stimlatiug ddlRidusl efetefle. .. ..0
9, andineg flf. -... lees.._i
10. Cornetimg toa oer **ad_ ..._ _____...
11. wmnflAsg gied werk. .._. ___-
12i Lo*fttalg t f ff ilfto. __-ttt e e
IS. ratl and impartial treatest to all tseber. __ _






14. Jt nemadttesl l if let te-a---0e .- .-....
15*. umeenlg staff parti lpatlem io sobol ttl ,e---
16e, ailst!atef friendly mad sm4* enLuast with tesheri s ,
IT. akifg doelales absht o e**@ womrk -..
18. mei4rsmmaimng asttitdes teed .ll te rs ___eahr-_ _._-
19. atg lty -.....
S0. Supervlsra still and knowledge
I1. sot Jadgemet IAs didlmg -
31. h11 IJ.L s 1Rip ne biti -_____ --
1,6 Abilsly t* erIy rpeaspo blllt es
3.e Ability to mot sew ltasetlese .. --
4. LIlag tfer interest me sad sederstmmf4ig of people -
2S. selt asurasee lwth. n ety -
S6. open idetoess ._ .....
27. A4Sptu *rflth 1______-__ -__-
3S. Adhens t*o rules de tor teme. Lhe r ...
9, Crlelae O keSr Lt privacy y ----
So. 1ats aill sesckees like huasn begs
Sladtfte the extent to* Uih fee agree of disgomr stu th
tfelleuig n8*tst ae Weirdl, mspeuvfltole os as tkes ist.
Umdly till SA bMlust spos. with oetf telleleg uategorless
WETOUJM ALRUm AIIt I UMOICIlDt DKISA4EEII STRONGLY D013
ASS

3l1 e***tfel *f aehienmveta -
11o -At = iot -fte ____I

$S. "at bhen lost wold
32. lutes eoe "dot for emaen set 8s*upevtlor .s
34, INeoads ""rkers to **ert _- ....
.l Ilse fte e a par oft teomeheb uo* they do pot landistely
spad to nseepipest






34 Ielbmll*d toe gssp about tenakerso _.-_-- .
3T, ever betrays soeflddeas of eekrs. .....
3 O. ietates o oe te!Or _,---s -
39. gSIs raomas feor divermats.
40, Takes Smi to expltai to teachers.
41. zEplmato t s seal. ,.______
42. Moderate temper. a ....
43. lse bIhig h temper _
44. Never flies *tf at teaer. _
48. Sirvesetis with seachers. --....
46. Reeegales geed work of teesoer. _______., -_
47. Inellaed no flatter seaesen. __
400. Kxpeta teae1era to do fatver. -.
49. Joiltes of f t tIlbs er s- .
S0o. e ats 1tebhers' i&e. with men o nsl -__ -..
1. ee-tlhtgs well plaoed...
52. Sea of hbe l______
53. Co-ne sells. .__ ..


L5. Disheaut _. ___ _-
S.* )Poses .Pa e- bee
ST. over fitalllrlty with teacb rs. ..
18. Idifferent tword Seshelr' problems.
9. Parental to fv.itemf ----. .





Itorm meters of baslgs Is advaee *of ate ______ __
Lets ashooere kow at progress or ftlire. mllr _. ._
Inmfes a*eehern e f elilere apeo eote of d4lolssZ. ._
tmews s***k semhor persemml ly,
Sumerlme year tasitudes toward Supervisor bj
1. Liattin fite qualities s sapervslu you adale met *
1.
2.
3'
4.
S.
2. tiutiug fin qslitles yes dislike west a

8.
2.


ae
fl,




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