• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Title Page
 Half Title
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Introduction
 Related literature
 Interpretation and analysis of...
 Summary, conclusions and sugge...
 Bibliography
 Appendix A
 Appendix B
 Appendix C






Title: Survey of the Status of Preschool Education in the Negro Public Schools of Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AM00000034/00001
 Material Information
Title: Survey of the Status of Preschool Education in the Negro Public Schools of Florida
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Humphrey, Lillie Muse
Affiliation: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College
Publisher: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College
Publication Date: 1951
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: AM00000034
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Florida A&M University (FAMU)
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAA0930
notis - ABV5551

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title page
    Half Title
        Page i
    Acknowledgement
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page vi
        Page vii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Related literature
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46-a
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Interpretation and analysis of data
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Summary, conclusions and suggestions
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Bibliography
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
    Appendix A
        Page 74
    Appendix B
        Page 75
    Appendix C
        Page 76
        Page 77
Full Text








A SUVJHY OF TIfi STATUS OF Pi30WOLOL JIXDUATION
IN Ti N2EGAO PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF FLORIDa








A Thesis

P"esonted to
The Graduate Commit ee of th
Florida Agrioulturl "ad Meehaln iel College








In Partial ulf ilmDnt
of the aRquiror nts for the Degree

Master of Soion in Education






by
Lille Muse Humphiy
August 1951











A SURvSY OF THI StATUS OF PRiSUQCij2L WDU ATION
IN T5 N3GRO PUBLIC SCHO0-1 OF PLOLAID





A Tbhstia
Presented to
Thi OGraduate Commiat of tbh
Florida Agrionlturl and moehahnal Colleg

In partial ?lfllment of
the* Zquirementm for the Degrn
jaftr of Stcinoe in duoatioon





I .









br
Lillie Muse I3uphr
August 1961







RaOc3
2ZZ
R20 C3




ACCMOB LSD;rSENTS

The writer is deeply indebted to lms G. Ji.

Wheoler for the guidance and Simasurable assmistano

given her. as her major advisor.
Shi almo wishes to acknowledge the aid given

hbar by Dootor Le Steele nid Urs hI. 3 L. CmIxmgie

the. other meberas of her cozaittee.

Aeknowledgeant is made to the Director of

the Graduate Division, Doot0 9t* U.3., Uai










TABLO OF OONTBTS


1. INTRODUGTIO. + + a

The Problae * *

StaLtemnt of t h Ptblem +.

Baklgrund of the Sttady *

Definitions of the Tems Uaed

Puppos of the study . *

Ned for the Study ** ,

method of Reseah .. .

Baie Assumptions *

rumnarLy e* *, ,+ *

U. BBLATED LITKRATURE .

lutrodton t * *


me...


*eee*

eec..

* Cu


mm...


tem

46*


S*.


* *e

C *


History of Presabool fdunitSo. in
Florida& *

Aeoepted Trends in Presohool Sduoetion

Provisions Made for Preschool aduction
Under the Mlnlm Foundastion Prosgram

Education of T*ahPers and Aldinlstrators
Who Work with Praehool OCildrsn *

GOprative. Aalyisa of Provisions fbr
Negts and Whites In tohe lld oa Pre-
shool 4ues tion in Florida *

Spesitl RItneaEnations for Isprovement
of Posehools for Negroes in 7lorida

Buls Beoe tahe 1981 lorida State
i aegllture onelerning Prosehool Bdu-
alS O a* + 0 6 *
Sinszry S S me S emeeuesee ** **


PAGQ

1









TABLU 0? 0 .Xf


=n PAs
III* ZrltRITriXAf "I Am AKALY.SI P DA F ** 84
lZue.o ** .* ** ** 4
%aults a f QnLtio=I ea aat to
itaslr nsfa aod S 3~wsy ahoea

baatIs ot wtcimLes amnt to
VTIVObah * * Gsf
same" **** **t*****ee e 0
IVr 'satJr, c MOLL L3 ALD 3S i Ua 0O

aaL3'IUrtrO l e e * ***
APPMno **************** mi


Iv









LIST OF TABLES


TABDL PAGI

I. Kinder~art n Enrollnt am Units in
194701943 Uabde the uvla i Pbundation

Program ... + .... 14
II EAindtergarten Enro3 nt and U'nLit in

1948-1949 Und*r the Sinimi Foundation

Programs S e S Q S ** 1e
III. LUndrgarten Enirola* t and Units in

1949-1950D e the Minimm Paondation

Program s, q a % 17
IV. Kidergeartn nrollm2nt and Unite in
1980-19 loder the Minaimn Fouodation

PFrogram *0 0 0 4 19+
V. Kindergarten Enrollnt and Units in

1946-1947 Before the kinimm Poundation


.V* Kindergsrtn OErollment aid Units in

1947-194 Not undr the Minimn Founda.

tion Program t & v a e 25
I. andtergarten Jnrollent and Units in

1948-1949 Not Under the MinLimu Pbunk.
tloun e grmz g o* *$ s 4
MIII Klasdergarat Erol"2jnt and Unait in
1949-1980 Not UIPer the Minimum Pounda-

tion Program * *, 96

vi









TABLE


IU. aCrtifiaetion of Kindergartn Teachers
From1947-1951. ** ,* s 44
X. The Number of Teacheor iarking Toward

Certifioation Requiremnts from 1947-1961 4

XI. Results of C*stionbnalrt ent to Kindor-

garten and Harsery School Teach rs n
Different 3cstlona of the State of Florida 6

XII. Rtsults of Qunstionnaires Sent to First

Grade Teaheors in Different Sections of

Plorida by the Stte Department of

Sdueatlon .* .* . * 88


Tvil


PAOV








CHAPrSR I


INTHODUOTIO1

ADuring th fall of 1947, a ugional meeting was held
in Tallahassee, Florida, to discuss problems pertinent to

the Presehool duration Program with preschool tsaohers,

princmpals, supervisor, and county superIntandentas As
an outgrowth of this meetig and in response to the nmIer

o u requests fro administrator and teahehrs in the state,
a eamittem was designated to develop ugeastions for orgas-
1snlg and equipping prsehaol to i nth Stte of f;oridas
This oomittee agreed that preschool education is pertinent
to the development of the formative years (froa birth to six)
of th young chlde It is one of the most fundsmntal things
that abould be included in every young hildf* life.

Current history is making us increasingly aware of the
faut that those foundations which are laid in early htild
hood are the bulwavr not only of the individual but of thb

ataion and the world as well, Sinse the peopX who are

oonoerned with the education of the young child are guar

di&as of future eneration of world oltilsame it is their
responsibility to n that th*e hildrm have opportunities
to build for thbmselvs foundations that will help them to
meet the present and build for a good future.








In her book, Idueation in the Xindauazt*n; PFoster
states that
The Amerlasn kindergarten of today attempts
to give the child of five an education which is
approprisat to his stage of development, which
will be satiLfying to his Ja the present, ad
which v1'1 prepare h1i for the years Imediately
fallowing.1

In her boak, bureau sabool duotion. Foster
state s that:
Any good arsery saohol sateguaf the health
of the ahild and should pronote his phystalj,
amntl, social, and emotional developmnto With
the help of sp*oLAllts, the nursey uahool pro-
teots the child from physleal danger and from
aentaet with ontagious disease.r It protests
hia froa .magrging In dangerous physical asetvities,.
Through te provliion of laterestiag, vared, nd
stimlattinsg la t material, the mrnwry school
assists in the promotion of special interests.
Always tbh ideal is a happ hild who has plenty
to do, fee to follow the dictates of his own
tanzyf one who gets along with others without
being wholly dep"ndnt upon thm and in Ivery way
grows more mature asJ the years progress
What is being done about the Nero pesohool ohild
in the State of Floridat Ba he boen provided with an

educational opportunity for hib formatjve years Does
he have separate but equal facilities Dos bhe has the
*sa type of buildings that istxt for white prosahool
children? What financial provisions hav been nade for
education of the Ngro prohomeol shild by the Stats of
Ploridat


1 JosephIas 0 FoPster, Edueation in t indasetena,
Amerioan Book C apany New YorTa p.-7p ..
2 JosephinL G0 Poster, ANurR School _du.a.ton*
D, Applebon Century CoBpaiy, NPeW Yok, 193w, p. i8,









I. THE PROBLEM

A Survey of the Status of Presohool Edusation
in the egro Publie Schools of Florida

Stateaont of the Problea The problem of this paper
is to atudy the status of PneahoD l Ud oation in the Negro

Public Schools of lorida and the provisions that are being
mado for future development of such progress in counties
throughout the state


IMAQkg roun t the ftogn. A. Making a urvey of the
Plorida Counties by means of questionnaire to determine
formal preschool ed t tion training for Negro children La
the state supported azd aoM-stato supported preschools.
B. Studying the Hitory of Preoabool iduoation in
the State of Florida.

0. Making a mWvey to determIne how adquately the
Florida Publie Schools are moting the needs of preadbool

aildroea.

De Visiting praschools to observe taoher end
children activities.

IIU DEFINITIONS OF THE T'ReS USBD

Surlyo, I this studa the word "surey" shall be
deemed to mean the manner or method of finding out the
typo of fonrml education that is being given to the
preschool children in the Negro Publio Schools of Floridas








The word "survey" shall also be dead to mean a
manner of flding out the kind of program that exists il
the Negro preschools, and what is being done toward setting
up other prosohools i counties of the State of ilorida.
Preschool adu-aptign. In this study the words
preschooll education shall b* deemed to mean the formal
training of children before entering the first grade.
TM Nortv.e .y In this study the words
%the normative survey* shall be doesed to mean the metLod
used to find out the formationn pertinent to writer'
problem.

llI. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of thi study is to assslt administrator,
toacherm and personal to plan and provide proohool pro
grams in wbish each boy mad girl will have an opportunity
to practio* desOrable health habits, live, work and play
with other is a program of learning aotlvlties, use

materials freely and onastruottvelfy to develop motor

skills and oo0rdi'aton through play with apparatus, to
express hbaself frL ly, have experience with books, pioe
tures, stories and amsi on his level, ad develop a. ense
of security and well-being tn a school situation.

It is aso the purpose of this study to find out the
type of training that is provided for Negro preschool
children by the State of florida.









IV. NEED FOR THE STUDY

The writer feels that there i a great need for a
smrvey of pronabol education in the begro Publio 3chooli
of Plarida for the following reamonms

A.J To find out the types of prorIas now extsting
for egroes In the Staeo of Florida.

8. To find out if the preo sools of Florida are
providing adequate training for children to meet th

needs of futun education.

0. To find out it children who attend presohbool

in te State of Florida appear to be better adjusted to

the programs from obervatioUn made by there teachers.

D. To find out the finanoai provisions made for

preschool education by the State of Plorida

.* To field out if equal facilities ar provided
for Wegro and white children.

V. MBTHOD OF REaARCOH

Tb MoiSmatve 3Srvy* TLb nomative survey method
of reearh finds ezprmsion through a variety of teehniques.

In this studt the writer used tre types of the

normtive aurey method, znely the questiomnire iaquiries,

the intervit studies, and the observational studiosa
therefore, whenever the nomativ survey s unod in this

study, It refers to one of these teoobniqus.








TI. BASIC ASSUMPTIONS

A. That @in" the early years are the formative

years, adaui strative officials and tesacers should be
ooonored wi th e dsatlon of the preahool child.
B. A publicly supported prachool should exit

in eery Negro Public Sahool in Florida.

C0 The n tate supported presebools should

provide instruoton equal t t hat of stato upported
prOeshoole.
D. The persons who work with preschool children
in these no-state supported preschools should become

certified.

SUIMARY

The problem of this paper is to study the status

of prenoahol eduatlon n the Negro Publio Schools of

Florida and the provision that are belg made for fturt

development of auch progr s in counties throughout the


Pour things are to be found out here. y means of

questlonialre, the writer will find out the fonxml training
for preschool children in the state supportedd and non-state

supported presmhools. The writer will study the History of
reshbool aduention in the State of Florida. The writer
will Izad out how adequately the Florlda Publei Schools










are netig the aetds of preschool children. The writer

shall also visit prsmehools to observe the kind of aatlvi-
ties the children and the teachers carry out in the class-


Thb purpose of this study is to assist administra.

tore, teaohera and persorel who or.. with preschool

children in in the State of Florida.

The writer feels that there is a great nmd fto a

survey of pre shool education n the 5egro Pubio Sohools

of Florida to se If equal facilities are provided for

Negro and white children, and to see if children tho

attend p~ehools appear to be better adjusted to the

program in schools fro observation made by their teachers.

Sine the early yearar e r the formative years of
the child, ldmniustrative officials and teachers should be

noerned with the education of the young ohild.








O1HAPtR Ii


RELATED LITSFRATURR

A. Introduoeton.
In esrryiLS through this investigation It is
important to sho'- what hsa been done in the field of

preschool education In the Sta& of Plorida for Negrles

and whiteso It s iLportant to know how long preschool

*duostion has existed in the State of Florida. It is

important to know the Luamz ate needs which led to the
establiwbMent of preaohools in Florida. It should be

shown in this study the gpoth and development of klo-

dergartens in the Stit* of Florida, sine the Minimum
Pobudation Program

uast as the trends have changed in all fields of

eduoetion, they have changed in the field of preschool
education. Trhe trMtd have nbanged in the arohit*e-

tural design of the building, as wll as the kinds of

*xperieoee provided for the children*

In this study the writer will be interested Lt

knowing Florida* legal provisions for kindergarten

and nursry scbhols, as well as the eduoetion of teachers,

and administrators who work with preschool children.








B. History of Pmrchofl Dduoatiou in Florida.
1. oaw long has Presahool Edueation existed in
th State of Floridas
2. What wers the Zamediate Needs whioh led to the
Establishment of presohools in toh State of Florida4
3S Tables showIng the Growth of Publie Kindergartens
in the State ot Florida for the Past F~iv Years.
4. Interpretation of Tables.2

14w h Has PIres hool qduqtion Sxisted in the
jgt of Florida? As the year opened in 1942, there were In
xiltenne in the State of Florida ma institutions for the
organized o e of preschool children outside their hoes.
TItese wfr variously allied nursery schools, play S nters,

play gr."upsu day areeries, ehild development groups, and
shild oars centers. These wore operated three to twenty-
four hours, five or seven days a k. Some were staffed
by college graduates with prf*ssional training, The
Ohildon were drawn fro the home of indigent parent ,
working mothers, fflaui si in aigrant amps, housing

projeos, orovded urban areas, or families in the higher


1 State Dopartmnt of Mdueation Kinderg~tea
ga i Tallahassee, Florida, 1951, p. 3.
2 Ibid.. p. 11.









Incoe groups who had only one or two children, and no

neighborhood facilities for their active play and
aasoolation with other achldren* The servioas these

institutions offered were eaiter free or at a fee so

bhig that only a aall percentage of parents could

taford to pay.5
A questio~nmir to county auperintendents reveals
the fact that prior to 1946, ouatie having kiadergarten
programs did not rquire proper ertifleation In order to

teaoh at this level Teachers holding earttisfatn cover-*
lng Bamentary school Courase had been permitted to teach

in the kLndergarten. In order to protect the quality of
the kindergarten program, the State rDpartm nt of dunoa
tion ha3 set up ortiflioaton requirements for the teachers.

Teachers holding elementary oartifioates and havin pre*

vious experi ono in kindergarOtn work, could contl'i
t*eaoing on aeuh eertifiOatea until July first, niWeteen

fifty-one, provided that at least aiz semester hours were

earned toward eortifloatiton each su r,

The State Department of Education worked with theer
teachers in evaluating their work and determwntng what

ournes were neo*ssary in order for them to meet certified
tion requirements.


S tate Department of idueation, Florida d Oisen
Oomnittee, Eduagtio and the NPtur* of Plrida1 l47 p. B.







11


*hat Wlre the Immediate Woods a geL Lod to the
Stablishannt of Presohools In th9e Stfte o F loridat
In l47/, a mtudy of a e-grade progress of children in the
elementeay saciool of the State of Plorida was .;ad*e* a.-
inationn of Ulis tuWi by the Florida Uitiae r asitte o

shows that nearly thirty peront of allU white pulls ad
nearly fifty peroont of all Negir pupils required two or
more years to omplete the first grade This large per.
oentage of failure say be partially e*xoli nd by the early
entranoa of many pupils. Kny pupila we r siooSlly,
mentally, physloally and emotionally Imnature for first
grade work. In order to develop this maturity and readied
noes for resting these children were being failed so they

would have another year for growth and dovelopmeat.4
Due to current trends in education, there JL a wide*
apread and desirable interest in the development and
welfare of the young cild. Part of this interest doubtless

is due to the progress of oane for the ahtildn of working
parents. uHowevr there is a fundametal reason for dust-
tore a >noern for the young ohild. This is based on a
Io)gnition of the importanC of the early years of Child's
growth and development ,


4 3ta Dep~rtment of duration, Florida C1itizns
Owauattt.e BEda on d the utu o Florida Tallahassee
0lorida, 1 p. 3





12


Recent researchers have pointed to the fat that

the c4ildl' basis personality patterns are ahaped during
the farmatliv years of his life and that the efforts of
the school are in a large measure oonditioned by the
quality of his experelnaes during tbhs oarly ywers
Various sootal problems ntensifled by unsettled
conditions prevalent in the United states, have served
to emphasis tb groat need for an educational program
suited to the early years of childhood. Thousands of
hoes have boon broken as parents answered the osf. for
workers Ia industry or when fatbhrs entered the arod

servioos 3tirain and unoart2tnty bave beooo the daily
lot of noountd boys and girls throughout the country

A go4d school program in the kindergarten and
Anrasoy ehooolu is one mans of meeting some of the needs
of young children. However, in the past, relatively few

pre shool children have been abl to attend kizndxg~tart
and nursery schools in the State of PloridA,
Here in the State of Florida, interest in preschool
ed ation has increased to an appretaable degree* ThiW
trend has given rise to the netd for an examination of th
kind of school living which should be planed for ahlldroe
before they enter the first gradeS


5 tatse Departent of IEduation, Florida Citisens
Conlt tee, duo atio and 0t uuLf l~ ori. Tallahassee,
florida 147, pp.t &. -






15


In the S ulettin published by the Ohio State

Department of iduestion Is found thets statements
Aa in any new departure from established
programs, work with children of these ages, fro
birth to seventy*two months, deonndta uoh study
and experlmentation. Inflexible rules and pre*
soriptions for the experienoes of ohilden can-ot
b made at any grad4 level. This is partiaularly
true of the abhtlds first experiences in school.
Each learning situation is in so way unique and
different roam very other learning situation*
General pr~J opls. for work with young children
have enlarged froa recent studies of child develop.
mat and every teaoher Abould be familiar with
implioations of these reamroahea for her work with
young hlldren.6

Tables bowina tl Growtl ot Publio Ui&der.grtene
ta the r oEr Rt Florida for the Prt Fiv Years.7
The follovinw tables ahow the i:lndergarten enroll-
meat and units under the F.aiu w 7'wndatton Prog'ram from
1947-1948 to 1950*1951, which inoludoes &l ounties with

unlit reogatered with the state Departiaont of Education.
Tbh purpose of Table I is to show the number of
ehite children and he amber of Ne! o children enrolled

in publio kiWnrgartens raoeiving funda from the Minimum
Fotndatlon Prograzo It also shows the number :f unit
for Negro and white children rooelving fnda from the

MiDw.a Foundation Progrma


6
Ohio State Department of Edusction, Buletta
Muaber 5, Worksa~ Wih the Chld from Two to S ix J. He ar
Printing Gompftny, ILu957, oe, 107
7 tAte D+partent of Education, Ki ner~ a tn P.rogas
Tallahasses, Florida, 1951, pp. 6, 7, 8, 9. I1







14


TABLb I

KIfDEI1AATlNS IWOLLUM2T AND UNI73 IN 1947e1948
UIDYiR Tl6 MIUIifJUM EUIDATZON PROGRAM


COUNTY LRRJLLiM9T ~UTs
Foundation Progra Poundation PFrogr

White Negxp Total Wbte Negro Total

Alachus 540 0 340 10I 0 10a
Oalhoun l5 06 1 0 1
Oolumbla 146 0 146 4 2 6
Manatee 8 116o 344 7 3 10
fimllas Bo9 0 98 19 0 19
Folk 65 0 86 2 0 2

Total 1,729 116 1,844 4Sk B 48j
.. .- .... .. . im nnp nun _q u,.u, ,,.... .. .. .. --- nm





1i


Table I* page 14, shows that in 1947w19498 1,728

white ohlden were enrolled in public kindergArten and
ely 116 ONero Childrem It ~WhNs that their were 14
units for white children and only 6 units for Negro
Children.

The purcoue of Table IX is to show the kindergarten

enrol2lnt and units ia 194&194, for Negro and white
ehildrsn raoeling funds fro= the Mimniaa FPundation

Program.
In 194S-1949, there were 2,694 white i hildrn and
179 Negr ohildren enrolled in public klnodergtens

fbter were 64J units for whites and only 6 for NeJron
roeiving funde fram the llnima Foundation Program.

The purpose *f Table IIl, pVag 17 is to show the
enrollment and unIts in 1949-1960, receiving funds from
the Minimum Poundation Progrea
In 1949-1950 there ver 2,424 white ohildrn and
only 131 3egro children enrolled In public kindorgsrteona

Thore wer 62j units for white children and only 3 units
for eogro hildran reneiving funds fromz the Minimtn

Foundation Program






16


TAL3LS I


tXNDSRG ARTHf EROLLM NT AND UNITS
UNMDR THE MINIMUM FOUNDATIONi


IN 1948-1949
PROOGUI


COUNTY ENROLuMuN UNITS
Pouadtionm program Pundation Progr

White Jegro Total White TNgro Total

Alaohua 446 0 446 1 0 1
Galhoun 99 0 99 2 0 2
Oltrus 27 0 27 1 0 1
Columbia 14 77 226 5
Da"d 448 0 442 9 0 9
Gladea 27 0 27 1 0 1
Manate 257 102 350 9 5 12
Pinllas 1,247 0 1,847 95 0 25

Total 2.694 179 2,873 64 6 70k



















TABES III


KIIDERGARTEN WiQOLL T AND UNITS
UNDER TH& MIIUMUM FOUNDATION


IN 1949-1950
PROGRAM


OOUNTY ENROLLmlhT UNITS
Foundation Prgram Foundation Progra

"laite Negro Total white Negro Total

Alaokaaa 418 0 418 1* 0 1*
Calhoun 69 0 69 2 0 2
Oltrus 57 0 57 2 0 2
lsade a 50 0 0 1 0 1
Jffersron 69 0 59 2 0 3
umnte 294 131 425 9 3 1s
Okaloosa 176 0 176 0 0 0
Pinellas 1,322 0 132 2 0 3

Total 2,424 131 2,486 695 8 5





38


The purpose of Table IV s to show the enrollment
and units in 1950-ig51s for white ant Nagro children,
receiving funds from the inlmaur Poundation Progrsam
In 2950-1961, 2,0v4 white children nd 95 NePro
children wer enrolled in public kindergartban and there
were 50 units for white aoildren but only 2 unit for
Negro children. This table shovw a denorea in the n bor
of unite due o to limited faolities In the schools.
Som schools eliminated the kindergarten to smake ro-,
for the Lnceased onrollnmnt in the first grade,






19


TABLE IV

KINDERGARTEN EKNOLLMENT AND UNITS IN 1960-1951
UNDER TME MINItMUM FOUNDATION PROGRAM


COUNTY EROLL T UNITS
Foundation Program Foundation Program

hitO Negro Total White Negro Total

AXShba 426 0 426 14 0 14
Oa8lmun 70 0 70 2 0
CItrus 51 0 57 2 0
Glades 2 0 2 1 0 1
Jo-rison 40 0 40 2 0 9
Lanaten 207 95 0 9 2 11
Pinellas 1,147 0 1,147 20 0 20

Total 2,054 98 2,149 50 2 62










Table V shows Kindergarten enrollment and units in

1946-1947 before the Minimum Foundation Progrmp, which
inaludea all counties with kindergartens registerd with
the ta~* Department of duoaftion.
In 1946-1947 there wern only throe counties with

kindergartens registered with the State Demprtment of

Iduoation. There were ,IS14 white children enrolled
i thes o achoAls, and no Negroes. Tharn were 36 units
for white children and no units for egEro children



















TABLE V
KIIND3GARTN SHROLLXMS T AND UNITS Ii 1946-1947
BPFORS THE MINIMUM YoUWOATION PfROGRA


0GW0Y SBROLLMST UNITS

White Negro Total Whit Ne'gr otal

Dtade 551 0 551 11 0 11
Menate. 114 0 114 4 0 4
PIlMlas 669 0 669 21 0 21

Total 1154 0 1,154 38 0 36









The following tables show kindergarten enroXlaent

mad units not under the Minimm Foundation Progra from

1947-1948 to 1950-1961. These tables include all sountles

with units registered with the 3tate Department of Edufa-
tione

The purpose of Table VI Is to show the ktidergartm
nrowllmnt and units in 1947-1948, registered with the

State Departaent of lduoation, but receiving no fundA
frrm the iniam Foundation Program.

In 1947-1948 only one county, Dated had units

for white children and no units for egro children,
registerd with the Florida Stat Departaent of kduoation

and not receiving funds from the Minimnm Foundation
Program.

The purpose of Table VI1, pag 24, is to show the

kindergarten enrollment and units $a 1948-1949, registered
with the Plorida State Department of 5duostion, and not

receiving funds froE the Minimi Poundation Program
In 1948-1949, three counties had 509 white children
enrolled in preschools od no Negr children. Three

ounties had 9 units for white chUdren and no units for

eogro children, registered with the Florida State Depart*

aent of Mduoetion, not rteeivIng funds froa the MJnimum

Foundation Program,






















TABLE VI

IUHDSQAiRTKiE EMiROLLMENT AND UNITS II 1947-1948
MOT RECOIVIINO MINIMUM FiUNDATION PROGRAM
FUNDS


COUNTY BJROLL NT UNITS


hlte Negro Total White Negro Total


Dade 467 0 457 a 0 6


Total 457 0 457 6 0 6























TAiBLS VII

KIIHARGART~EN fNRLIOMT ALD UNITS IN 194810949,
NOT R IVIVG M4I IMUM FOUNDATION P OoRAM
h'D8


00UTJTY MNROlUEMW UNITS


White Negro Total White Negro Total


lMooro* S7 0 27 1 0 1
Okaloosa 050 20 6 0 6
Polk 70 0 70 2 0 2


Total 802 0 302 9 0 9
.. .. . -, ,. n" .. ... ," *- .. ..J..- n| |[






2B


The purpose of Tabl* VIII Is to show the kifdergar-

ton enollment and units in 1949-1050, registered with

the Florida State Depatrtment of duration, not under the
minimum Foundation Program.

In 1949-1950 the was only one county, Dads, with

469 white children and no Negro children enrolled in
public kindergartens, not under the minimum Pouniation

nPogrnm It also shows that Dade County had 10 units

for white children and no units for Negro children for

this year
There s no table ebwing kindergarten enrollment

and units in 1950-1961, for units not under the Minnium

Foundation ProgPam, because there were no school unit

registered with the State Department of riduostion for

that year. The deean s in units is due to the fast that

mome counties feel that they can operate units ahaper
indopendont of Florida State Funds. Another reason for

the decrease in units Is that the schools hve limited
facilities and building apace. There a.e not enough

trained kindergarten teachers to teaoh In these sohoolas






















TABLS VIII

KIiDiG"Atf9N 8BHOLLMENT AND UNITS IN 1949-1950
NOT &LOiMIVIUQ tIlJUM POUUIDAMIOH P;OGOAM
POUNDS


OGOULTY NROLL NT UNITS

White Negro Total White oNego Total

Dade 469 040 10 0 10

Total 469 0 469 10 0 10









INTERPRETATION OF TABLI3

At the time tah Minimu Poundation Program went
into effect only the ooounties in the Stat* of Florlda
bad public kindergartens, mad none of the oountio bad
public nursery schools These counties having public
klndorgartens wre running on double sessions. This

practice has continued in these countless but hba been
discountged in ounaties initiating programs. In oases

where the kidergarten enrollent was so heary that

children could not be taken ea e of in a. single session
Gounties have been encouraged to employ two nets of

teachers in many of the white ahools, so that teahober
would have tie t o adeuaitly prepare for pupils, lear
and mot their individual neds, and work with parents.

In *oe Oases, Osunties have been unable to do this, sin o
te enrollbeant wI. too great for a single se22aon but was

not hoavy enough to earn two units trough the stat pro-

gram.
As tenabers beam qualified and adequate provisions
P*e m@ae the number of unite inoreaed until 1949-1960,
when evral couounti un it neessary to diseontiinn the

entire kindergarten program or eliminate units in the

rowd d oentrs *here the spa s was needed for additional
firt grade classrooms.









Counties that bave beon in a position to InrstaL
only a few units booaue of inadequate housing hbas found

that it would cost them les nomoy to operate kindergar-
tens independent of state fLnds, sinoe the addition of azn
state kindergarten unite in the county would require a
additional five parent tax fro the people. Ddo county
with only nine inits out of a possible two-hundred eighty-
flve xiLts withdrew fram the Minimum foundationn Program in
1949-1960. Small counties with only two or three school
center and a low percentage of county contribution have
had to increase their tx very little, In suoh oases,
returns froCa the MInim'ln Fundation Progra have nore than
balanced the inereasd tax.

Counties have been enouraged to establih konder-
gartens only when they have adequately -at the needs of
pupUil in grade froa one through twelve. This has re-
tarded tUh establishment of new units during the pVat two
years when inlreaed ennollment has put an added burden on
school boards in the counties in providing housing and
Equipment.8
The 190 Florida State Legisla ture refused to
parqpprlate any funds for kindergartens, which means that
there will not be any new kindergartn units in the Florida


8 State Department of B uestion, K lAndgr n gfa Mw,
T ll absse Florida, 1951, pp. 11, 12









sounties before the Legislature oanvenes again

Be Aootepedl T ndlj Fresehool Eduoation
1. The School Say

2. Prinoiplea of Program Plann' i
3, Using 4ooerda in the e ndergarten and Nursery School

4. Trends in school Buildings and Facilities
5. The Freoaool Staff
6. Trends in lurricul.m i Building

Tim jo4ol DMt. Mny preschools in the State of
Florida have been orgmnis on Uth basis of a one-hal

sOhool day* This practice apparently developed oo that
teachers of the children should us the other half of the
day for visiting and conferring with parents. From its
inception, leaders in the presohool movement laid great
stress upon the eduo tlon of young children.

Freachools are moving rapidly toward a ull day

program* This program usually runs fro eight-thirty or
nine o*olook in thl morning until three or thre-thbirt
in the afternoon, for five days a week. If the program

is wll planned, young children sem to profit from the

longer school day. Rural presoool ohildr*n transported to
Oonaolldated schools have been forced to remain at sobool
the whole day. All day programs for such children not
only oeem sensible but dbl beo deabause b of crowded obhool

buildigime This half-day practice should never be allowed









to develop in Florida. teacher rs cannot give the needed

indvidual ear&, guidanoej and eduoatlon to a large
maber of ohildrea, therefore0 they bsould only have
about twenty-five to thirty children to teach.

?rinaPles a Pgo! BSM5 lJaMiM

1. A good presohol program provides many opportune
ties for social adjustment.

2. A good pr ehool education program develops tfr
the irediate onvTiroment of the children,

3, A good preaohool education program allows plenty
of tim and adequate opportunities for children to express
teanslvs though many medis.

4I A good preschool education program utilises
the experienoss of ohildrn, espeeollly in a readines
program which meets their neds, and at the s ie tine
builds firmly for the experience of being their age.

5, A good preschool education program provides
for planning by teachers, administrators aad parents
out ao the experiences of the children.

The program Is not a pattern* It is not intended
to be used as suoh. Therefore, teachers are wared
against making such use of the program, Programs depend

upon so many factors that a program to fit all situations
is not possible, The peronazlties of the children and
the teachers will ina long meamur, dteraine how the

arrangement of the program is made* Ti. allota~nta









should ohanga during the year as te teacher understands
better the noeds of her aoildren as they matu. Tbh
past experience of tha group wll determle the points
whre i aphasis will ooma Teachers should work for a day
whioh has wtytia in it. The day should salays inoluds
periods for rest, play and to ettng. Thenr should be a

playground period* Programs should include conferences
with the parents of the children.9
U Roord in the PsrespolU Information about
ehil4ren is necessary in order to evaluate growth tffee-
tively. M i education vas Ooneorned mainly with Lcd~emi

progress the report heard wa sufficient to record this
progress. Thes rooords are built of and by all who am
oonoerned. The typed amber of rooords are det mined
by te purpose for which they re to be used.
oecorda belp to acquaint the come and the sabool
witn areas of the child's 11ie which may not be easily
observed. Hoorda also help to insure knowledge of
individual nods of children. They may erve as a cheek
on pupil # growth in behavior habits, health habits,
knowledge and data to hand to the next toeaohrn narent,
or srpeoalist to assure a continuity of development, Snme


State DOeprtaunt of Bducation, Qid for 0o u
In& nrT ~wwp l4?in W7WP"'raase
Prorldoc ML110M WUQ ^uttr 4aA/lB4p 7 I s, sP, E60










types of reoorda that ae desirable for prsehools are
group reoords, current individual record, and permanent

ouiulatTiv records 0

Trends in Schbol Buildins and Faollities. Thb

preschool has undergone ~any changes in the past deoade.

As the philosophy of odLoation has changed from classical

education to functional teaohlng, or education for social

living, so has the aroitectural design chanted to 4eet

the nen and enlarged edoatlonal Coala. Sinoe kindergar-

tone and nursery eobools are the place where young child-

ran spend ost of the day, there must be -lans to make

the building a place whore they will want to pond their
time.

I, Accepted Trends in the Exterior of the aiildinit

A. Type of building

1. A one story bulldin~

2. Shape resemble the letter 'HI, IL*, 'T', f',

or t

3, 2uili with a view to expansibility

4. The building should be a result of cooperative

effort of tho school board, areLiteats,

teachers and pupils.


10 State Departaent of Education, A Guide for

OTallroM*ridsBIytin rber 53u, 4948f p7 4#&






33


65 The school is fiuntionaUly design
to be used by oomunity and school

3B Landsoape and PF y Areas
Is More aoreage per school including a
largr stbaok for the building
2. Greater utiliition of sittO including
a Dattur ar&
3. The rest room should have cots and an
adjoining lavatory

G. TrendM in ths Interior of the Building
1. Natural lighting
a. Bilateral and multilateral fenestra-

tion

b. Clear glass used witl diffusing

devices to distribute llft

s. Glase priamatio block used to elve

distributed light
2. Artifiaial lighting planned as a eper te

system and not *a a partial help fo.
natural lighting

3* Pastel shades on the wlls belp to make
lighting better
D. Clara-am Floor Plan

1. SquaW n shape for flexibility (30 X 30)
2. Rooms home-like in appearance





34


Asphalt tile or camnt floors it radiant
beat is used

4. Loee chalkboard space, more bulletin board
space
g. Porniture and arrangement of furniture in the

olsesrom

1. Movable furniture of natural wood or blonde

finish
2. Arrangement of furniture is govened by the

eirousatanems or the use to whieh it is being
put at the time

FP Trends in Ventilation and beating

1. Natural ventilation and heating

2, aSab room should have automatic, mehanical

control of heat and ventilation

0, Plumbing

Fixture in graduated lases

2. Drinking fountains should be in the olasaroo
B, Cafeteria or Luneh Rom

1. Locationkin building where deliveries can

be made easily
2. Kitchen equipped adequately with an office

adjoining for dietician

3. Oolor of walls, floor and lnmh room should
have decoration pleasing to the eye






38


I Library
1. A central library in the school for ooamnity
and school use
2S ESah classroom should have its own library

J, BHalth Paoflitles
I Helalth roasr should be located aoording

to the scope and policy of the health ervioe
2. waiting room should adoin the examining
and the rest room
S. The rest room should have eots and an ad-
Joining lavatory.
K. There should be sufficient storage span for all
of the children an the teachers?11


SP0PIEoThoo4 aias The nature and function of the
particular school determine the staff needed. In a large
preschool assooeated with a research insutituton or
univeratty department, speOial sed services in addition
to thoao of teachers may be given by a physician, parent,
*ducator and sWre. In aaller schools, a well trained
presahool &pacher aay assume responsibility for all, sav

medical servloe given to the children md the parents.
The number of teachers nedoe to staff a preschool
adequately depends on the ise and arranpent of the


SLee and Ie, 2M qObild WWI His curriulumA D.
Appleton Century, Oompan~r, B r ok, IT pp 143,
144.






58


buildings and rounds, on the *quipent in the school,
on the typ of program, and on the training nd experience
of the teachers themselves

Trends i Qurriaulum Buildings. The ourrtoulut should
be based on children a needs. There are certain experienees
more appropriate for children o one age than on another.
lMorally th eye muscles have not developed suffi*

elently to focus at near points until are about six and

on-hlf years old. Proschool children do not possess
the musoular developnt ivolvinol in fily ooordinated

finger movement, but need opportunities for lkrge muasol
activity.
All good teachers are laterLeted in finding out if
the experiences they are providing and the things they are
teaching are really appropriate for the age group. The
learalag experieaes should be properly tl e with reference
to the attention and energy span of the children.
The curriculum includes all of the leaning experienees
provided for the children under school auspices. It Is far
more inlusive than a written course of study, Sinco

children learn what they live, every aspect of the school
beomos part of the content of Othe crriculum. The teacher


12 Catherine Landreth, duoaion the Yo
John Wiley and Son, YNw York 44, pj 4r






"8


herself, her emotional poise, her standards of values her
waath and und ratandiing all onstltute a vital part of
the ourriaulum The physltal environment, the equipment,
the tim-sobhdullng serv either to enriAh or impoverish
the learning opportunities of the obidren and are aspeest
of the mwUrioulum. Oumulative recordo home oontaets,
special guidan wservloe are significant in helping
ohlldren lan the things which sa related to their
problems of living.1

D, PROVISIONS MADS FOR PRESCHOOL EDUCATION UNDER THE
MINIMUM. POUNJATIOI PROG-RA
1. Florida't Legal Provisions for ladergartons
ad Nursery Sohools
2. Reoomendations for Preschools by the Florida
gItiSana Ocmittn on aduaUtion

Plorida'a ~l rovisions t"oa inergae eas sad
aWX t AFd ToIm 0bool law 0"Oted
S147 -i of the Ltatalature, counties in
orida are authorized to use state fund for the
support and mintenone of ktndergar Ln which
conform t tthe provisions of the lea and the regulW
tionu of the State Board of uatduaoni Seotion 2861e6,
Florida Statute, 1941, was ameaded to road thusl
P g o Pli Sohools The public schools shall
be support*ead SM r o as prescribed below and i
Chapter 238 and 237 Provided, that no matriculation
or tu~t on feo shall be charged pupil whose parents
ma boa fide residents of Florida, except as pre
aeribed baiin.


L5 Eisoonsin State Department of Edueation, guides
O&a ozLSBul MMia"aons Wisconain, 1947, pal'=






98


euryr 3ftoo1si Niwu ry Sobaolo, wh rs organized
as pubile ao ol aaieSIp shall be support and
maint&aed from county taxes or frm funds from
PFedral other lawful souress, exolusiv of state
souroea"
Kindvrg M Ktidesrgrtens, when organized as
publise mae is or public school olasseo oomprtsing
children ho attained the age of four years and nine
months on or before the first day of the salenad
month within which oshools aopn in any county during
the yer, shall be oonsiderd as part of theo olemea
tary school organisation and ball be supported and
maintained by funds from the states *oonty8 district,
federal PR other lawful source or oozbinations of


RlcomandationS ror Yohacoolsg j V ?orli
Ct1a ons oanaittte of Bducation: In 1947 th report of the
Florida Gltiseas OCaittee on Eduoation reoommaded that
in order to provide a dirooted period of growth and
deelorment in the early llfe of the child, kindergarten
should be established d maintained as an ntegral part
of th t State educational System asnd sported in the ame
mannr as other parts of the .ublio school program in
those counties that add one-fourth to oa-half mitl
additional tax aup-ort to their MiniLum Foundation Program*
Such programs should be established for a halBtday of in
struction with a lunoh-ro,: progr' for children
Aooording to the ScMho law naaoted by the 1947
sesason of the Legislaatur, counties in Florida which


14 tate Departamnt of duration, A Guide for Otrp
LOrMia efln tl, wer 5p4 1487 pp 4
1i Pbii.6 p, 4o









oonform to the provisions of the law and the regulations
of the State Board of Eduoation are authorized to use

state funds for the support and maintenance of kinergar-

tena. one unit for each tweny-five pupils or a major

fraction thereof in average dally attendance is allowed

with one unit for *eah olass of twenty or more pupils in

isolated centers.

The Florida State Board Regulations state that, the
ainjim number of pupils requited for establishing kinder-

gartena shall be twenty-five pupils, while the number should

not be mor than thirty children for any one toaoher,
The law states that a child must have resaed the

ag of four years, nim months before entering the kinder.

garden. It also provides that the day shall oomprise not

less than there not hours in kiat4srgrtan, while Florida

3tate board Regulations state that the length of the
school day for kindergarten teachers shall be the same as

for any other elementary teacher*. his would make possible

parent eonfsrenoes, home visit and assistance with the

irstrutional program of the school,

In order to roeive funds for kindergarten units
from the state, counties aLr required to subeit an over*

all plan to the State Departomnt of education, in
Tallahasses- Florida, before entering the program. This
plan nOaludes teacher personal, program of activities,

physical facilities and a program for transportation. Each






40


year a repreontative of the tate Department of
Education visits al kindergarten units to holp with
problems and to see that destrable atbndards are being

maLntainUd. ountiem are also nrquired to make five
percent additional local tax and to have adequate fIoili

tis, equipment and qualified teachers o that a good

program is assured1

5. EDUCATION OF TEAOHESR AND ADMINISTRATORS MHO WORK
WITH PRESCHOOL CHILDREN
I. Teacher 0ertitication

II. General FCparation
III. Professional Preparation
IV. Spoeiallsation Rquir s nt for Oeltifioation in
fErly Childhood Edusation
V. Table Sbowing OertitSition of Kid, Tesohers 1947-51

Teachr Gortf ig I Tbe regulation of thU State
Board or dutnon adopted July 3, 1947 the following
teaoher qualifications

L* Beginning preshool teachers shall hold a
Pertifioate in Early Childhood Edunation as set
forth in rtitfcate Bulletin A, Certification of
Instruottonal personnel 1947.
2S Kindergarten teaohors, now in aervitoe holding
-ertifi ates In Elemntrjy Eduation *hall have until
July 1, 1951 to meet requsMrents for eerttfloateio
ia early Childhood Bduoation aS st forth in certi-
tfiLte BWlletin k~ OCrtifioatton of Instructional


16 State Depart8 at of Eduoation, tiAdar tn
nrogsar Tfllahamal #, Florida, 1951$ pp. T o





41


Personnel, 1947 provided tht at least six semester
bours ae earned each maanrs
ertifiete Bullettin A, June 1947, set up the
following Fquirements for oortifloation in ftrly
Ohildhood Iduations
the following oquiremwets for the Graduate
Ortifieate are to be considered only as a minimuza
Institutions of higher learnitg In Florida ae
permtted to develop programs for the education
of teorhrs which may vary in 4 ta i from the
requirmonts liated provided the total umber
Of hours in Oash amt Is not less than the total
naber listed under each heading in this bulletin
and provided sush institutional aprora e
approved in writing by the State Dspartmcnt of
iduoation*

3 rPartnftions A broad general background
is considered essential in the preparation of teachers.

Cmprobnesive courses eoering the area listed below
are most desirable Where suah a plan has not been
followed, the transcript of the applint will be
rovieed to ascertain the extent to which the soope and
purpose of general education have been met. A total of
not less than forty-five seester hours in general pro-

paration is required including not loss than eight semes*
te hours in noh of the five groups listed below

1, Th art of ooEumnteation (Reading, writing
speaking, English, Speeoh)

2, hman adjustment (Health, Physioal Eduoation,

Pfyohology, Religion, Logie, Sthles, Nutrition, Problels


An Boa and family Living, QComnamty Living)





49


5, The Biologioal and Physial Scienoe (Mathema
ties)
4. The Socal Studies ()ography, History,
Political Soeince, S3oo1oogy.j onogatse)
5, Humanities and Applied Arts (Literatur, Fine
Arts, MusPl Apprecia don, eto.)

Pfets* io ls FPrpaati9on Porofetoioal preparation
includes only those ours which are detfiately designed
to aequatt the prospeotivs teacher with the instruotionl
task The requirements for profemsaonal preparation in*
olude Oourse riquiraments ia Ba eatioo' and requirement
regarding *~ P tisal Experlence in Teaching

S3pcialUsation elquirumjntg fgo Coertfiati1t In

r Chbildhood Eduetione This type of aortitioation
that utichb riterry school ad Kindergarten teachers about
have. It is given under two plans.
FP tI th applicant must have comploted a program
in a recognized inatitutlon having a major in early ohild.
hood education approved by the Florida State Department of
bduoation,

PlMa I> To be oertitioated in early ohildbood
eduution, the applicant must present not less than 27
mesater hours credit covering the elementary Sohool Courseg
It is expeted that the required professional courses ad
practical experience in teaching would be semi-early







43


adJusted to dealing with te ges prior to 6.
In order to obtain oerttlioation in iarly Childe
bood Lduo4tion, the applilcnt must present the 27 semester
hours from the foowing areas
Are& I I~ltroduction to materials for use with
children
Area III IX~ploring tho child* Fa ysical anviron*
Mrnt
Area IIZI xplorlng the child' Social and

Mooaacte nfironament
Area IV I Jploring the oabld'* Peraonal-Sooial
Environmnt
Area V Oreative Artb and materials for use
with children.17
Table IX abow the number of teabers meeting all
require t for eertiftoitio n n Peseool Edueation fro
19474-948 to 1960-1951, aoeordinL to the Florida State

Dspartent of Bduoetion.
This table shows that out of the nian counties with
eartifUd kindersgrt;e tesob*ru, there were 15 In 1947-1948g
98 in 1948-19490 40 in s1949"O50 and 45 n 1950d1951*


17
1 3tae Department of duOation, A Ui fo
O9uernalng d Dev*lopifi Udrg~irtSX d
Bualleltin 63 1948, pp, 4, 5, 6, 67






44


mwziasss o smaam woaw eus m9a


-enloM 5 44U 0

*Oe A8 1 3





mat lI W 45
f_ U U ._ _. 4





45


Table Z sheo the number of teachers working
toward certiflotion in Pres hool duration atrf 1947-
1946 to 1950-1961, according to the Florida State
Departmnt of Sducation
This table bhows that out of the eight ootufies

with prokhol teachers working toward oertifiedtion,
there were 34 in 1947*1948,44 Ln 1948-194, 26 in
1949-1950, and only 7 In 19A)-1961. Th decrease is
due to the Ulnited t faIllites and funds for pFsobool
units.

F, COMPARATIVS ANALYSIS OF PROVISIONS FOR NEOROSS
ALD WHITIS IN THE FlLD OF PRSOHOOL WDOCATION
IN THE STATS OF FLORIDA
Tbhre are vry few public kindergarten and nursery
schools in the StttL of Florida for whites and only oan
eountya, Manmt*. hMs unit., two to be exaot, for Negro
children. Honiver, tiare are ay kindergartens and

7 schools scattered throughout the t h tt at an
privately ond and operated There are .till others
that are operated by the county or oity. These hoola
rage ftro very beautiful struouns to fa mnm l a
private hoe, Soam of the schools have ver good taeilitles

wUile others have no ftoiliti s at all. Soe of the teacher
have dgrfes ftr institutions of hipher learning vhi
others harv not oompleto their grade school work. The





46


TABLE X


OF TEACHE S
quXRMs=


WORKING TOiARD CERTIFICATION
PFOM 1947*1948 to 1950-1981


Counties 47-48 48-4& 49-50 50-51


Aleahua 3 9 4 3
Galhoun 0 G 0 1
Oitrua 0 1 1 0
olumbia 6 6 0 0
Dad 0 6 6 0
Narat. 10 10 0 2
Pimilas 13 U 7 1
Polk 2 0 0 0

Total 34 44 26 7
-- I II I --L I I R I I I I. .. .L __ i. .~ i i L _. BI __ L . .. .


u-W









instruction the children receive in o3so of theo schools

s equal to that received in the state supported sobcols~
whleo in other schools taohers are using aouto4ed methods.
The enrollment n all of thse non-state supported amd

stste supported schools ar made up, mostly, of children
who have working mother. Tbereforen there is an ad*
vantage of having these aehoola, nonstate supported, if

the type of irstruotion folzitiea and buildings could
be improved,
The bill 29flS l Wrhich will be described in detail
later, was passed by both houses of the 1951 aonsic of
the Florida State Legislature which xeans that there has
been no provision made for tWe establashaent of additional
state supported ki4ndorgartens and nursery so ol before
tao *tate legislature eonvers again.
In oder to start a kind egarten progrLa counties
ar required to make fie pereat additional tax* Alao

counties mu st have adequate f stlitios, equipment and
qualified teaobers, so that a good program s ass urged

The Florida State Departmnt of Education has taken thi
position that it Is better to hold a high atedard,
nd p Lamt only thoes counties to operate which c n meet
those standards, th n to allow the counties to operate
substandardd units* The problem is, what will or can be

done about the type of training that is being given to
children who attend non xtate supported schools. Would







47


It be better to disoontinue their operation if they do
not meaasu up to the standard set by the florida Stat
Department of Sducationt *hat would happen to theea mothers
with mamll hildren bwo Snab provide for the family ina
oow9, if tbhes non-state supported prsahools were dli-
continmed?
Asoording to the school laws the aus provisions
and* for whit, preschool Wbildrn are mad for HNgroOs.
ioweverT asoording to the Florida State Department of
Sduoation, the school that adds preschool education to
its program must masIur up to the very high standards
that it has set. The school ant have good faolitlies,
plenty of ispae, qualified preshool oduoation teachers,

playground spe and a good building For preahool
education, the supply of trained kind4rgarten school
teachers for legro children is inadequate A great mag
of the buildings are in need of repairs. The schools
have a limited amount of Ips". The faollitiea are liltoedl
they have very little playground sae and little or no

playground equipment. Tbere are not enough teachers nad
the toaohers do not have enough teaching materials. The
bathrooms are equipped with follitles for larger Ohildren.
The Negro Publie schools do not measure up to the high
standards set up by the State Dsptarnmnt of lduetion. &e"a
though theo have been provisions made for preschool odusw
tion for the Negro abild under tb law, it 1 is almost








imposslble to hope for the establishmat of additional
public preschools in the near future.
Most of the white schools in the counties of
Flori4a are in a position to install units for preschool
education. They have adquato housing, their urildings
are in good pair, they bhav adequate flittis and
playground spai, with good playground equipment. Tby
have enough taohers to are qualified to teach presoool
education, and enough teaching materials, The whit
public shboals in ths State of Florid for the most
part, do meaurm up to the standards set up by the Florida
State Department or oduention ooneerning preschool eduoae
tiona
The presoboo2. duealon programs for Negroes sd
wbites are nsparate and ery unequal, *ven tbtugh one law
govern tb both.w











18 Bostwiok, Nell, L. Gowrn, iLgatsl re qunpau
Post Ofioce BoX 303, Tallahassr*, Florfl, 1951. PIpI i
2nd Sheat.





49

Go SPCIPFIO R~O tlMMS~ATON3 FOR IMPROVEMENT OF
PRE~ BOA'LS FOR n~GROSS IN THE STATE OF FLORIDA

Sines the state Departaet of Bdueation has met up
standards wIlbo make It almost impossible for the Negro
Public Schools of Florida to establishh preschool eduea.

tion programs due to their limited faolities and build-
ing spo*acj it s suggested tbht the no-state supported

Negro sohooles ake improvements. It is reomended that t
1. Teachers of non-state supported schools should
beoome qualified to teach preshool education.
2. Taesaher of on-state supported schools should
boon*e certified by the State Department of Eduoation.
S3 Teho.rs should work towasr improving the
school to eet the standard set up by the Plorids State
Department of Bdueation.
4* teaohbras houl# appeal to the omian ty for funds
to buy the tafclites for the pupils.

5. Teacher should appeal to the otmmUnity orgsni*
nations to help s*t up a fund for children of parents who

are unable to pay the weekly or monthly Ses.
8, teachers abould give children tests and compare
the se*es with those of pupils who attend stat supported
schools.
7, Teahober should appeal to the parents to -s
that their hl~dreyn receive the proper medical and dental

Oa4e*








8 Teachers should subcritbe for the preschool
education bulletin published by the State De~~Oartnt of
Education.
9. Tachors Abould have health ortiflcateu and
regular health hebOk*upS&
10. Teachers should have the county health depart*
=met to inspect tbir lunch rooms,
11. Teachers should send for all of the ree
..atrial that i$ available on preshool education pub-
lished by the Florida State Departmant of Mdutation, along
with the material published la other atatesl19

H BILLS BKORE ThE 1951 SKSSIZO Of THE FLORIM STAT!
LEGISLATURE CONOGERING PRESCHOOL EDUOATION
If Hou e 1 BI o 252 Au Armeded and Pa&sed House,
May a2 1951
II* Senate Bill No. 213 As Amended and Passed House,
May 2, 1951

HO 0 252 go k~ d ml4 Passed H ^TI ^ j
BE iAc If SRt
paragraph of asolon 258.04, Florida Statutaes and
repeal suboetion (3) of seotlon 236*04, Florida
Statutes relating to Eduaation, 3Shools and Instrue-
tioual Unitse


State Departmet of Eduoatlon, KnE ergarten
Ppngr Tallahaso*, Florida, 191, p. 1,.





a5


Be it onmatd by the Logislatur of the Stat of
Florida: Seotion ,I The first unawbered paragraph
of 3Setion 236*04, Florida Statutes is wnded to
rdai
238604 M- M w to aterminti MbeM 9L,
inftla94op!!t&Sanber of irrcoion units
ror inUtrul personnel for elementary, Junior
and senior or fouryear high schools in each county,
and for grades thirteon and fourteen n a ountie
which met the requiremnts of law for instruction
for asuh groups, bafll be detemined froa the
avers* daily attendance in the public schools of
the county for the pnoo I year saAd from nporta
on iustruotionl persoml or the ensaing year In
the manner pnrorlbed below, provided the atteno
danoe of students may not be ao'nted mov than
onM nla dttrmitng inatruotion unitsI provided
however, that no Junior oallo.s organIsed or taken
over by the county board after January let 1951
Hall be considered in determining the member of
instruational units under this laws and no units
shall be based on attrndano in kitergartens or
attewdane at drivers instruction classes in
oommotion with any .ohool or otherwl e, or
attendano in ummar rereation classes or Lativi-
ties Seotion 8, Subseoton 256,04 is hereby
repealed.


3at 1t go -thM t *i danttLd P-w got to -mnm
Ps paratph of sootion 2M604, Florida
Statutes, and rpeal subseotten (3 of rotioa
238504, Florida Statutes relating to Education,
Sahools and Xastruotional Units,
Be it nauted by the Log81satur of the State
of Ploridat Seotion 1 The first uwoambrsd
para'raph of Sction 236.04, florida Statutes is
amndod to read:
253804 lg de for determine number 2
tntruction F ober or Trulion units
for iTntruioWi~t l personnel for elementary, Junior
and senior or four year high schools in each county,
and for grade thirteen and fourteen in oountis
which met the requirements of law for instruction
for msuh groups, hall be detemintd from the aver~ g
daily attendane in the public schools of th county
for the prec* ig year and from reports on instruo-
tional personnel for the ensulag year in the mamn r
prsoribed below, provided the attendant of stic
dents may not be county more than ones in









determining tbh number of instruetionl unlit
under this law, and no units shall be based
on attendane at drivers instruction lasseI
in connection with any school or otherwise
Smotion 2. Subseoti9o (3) of Section 253804
is hre by repealeod.'

SUMiARY

Prior to 1942, there worm in exist.ans in the

State of Florida many institutions for the organized

oar of preschool ehildrn of indient parent working
mothkersP families ij migrant camps housing proJeets,

crowded unban areas sad families in the higher income
groups. Acoordiag to tbh Florid Citizens Ooditte,
thirty prtenat of all Neso children remain in the first

grne two or more years. The tables show the growth and
devmlopwent of kindergartens for the past five yoars.

Current oibanlg in history bave changed the trends in
preschool *ducation. Th 1947 e~sion of the PForida

Stato Legislature passed two laws providing funds for pro-

5shool education. Howrevr, the 1981 session of the Florida
State Legislature made no provisions for funds to support

public kindergartens nd w nurry schools. Those pr -
school teachers wo are not qualified to teach in public

kindergarten muat beome certified by 1951.


20 e1 L. Oowan Bostwiok, Logelis.ture B tus
Po 0G Box 303Z Tallahassee, Florida, 191, Two bEats







58

Tbe preschool education programs for r6groem and
white are separate and very unqual, even though one
law governs them. The Nrgro Publio Schools ot Florida

ae unable to establish presohoola beoaue of the
limited facilities and fund.











OWA MPR In


nmW TaRlATIOI AND AWALBIS OF DATA

Iftre~n ties
fte q estinoasri e i Appeaiz 0, page was
4woepet by the riter fNr the purpose of flaming et
the kind tf materials, ftealltltt A, a satlvitt that
ar prev ldo tfo pnhooeel ehiltrf, egno sadA ihie iS
the ftate of nits. It was seat to MNnrry saheol sad
nlaAdrg rtea teshers IS ifferett *eMess of the stte.
The questionaalre *easits of tlfty-th~e qasettias. Of
the filty*hbl queutitfe, an avrag of hirty questolet
was answerd by the teachers. FiftyeS wn quesotit alnr
waet et*. Of the ftyeteveS, fotbaireVW ntursnm
to the writer
k results tf the questieaasai returns are
tabulatde at kewn it Table Xl, pag 56. The tabulatilo
*f the questiwelrs t was lee by obanRinc t questills
maswerd by the tesaeers into statements The amwe are
Ufvied late two s*tiseu. ***m that am sai 4 ent Ye
an tist u1a one, sat these tSat are sam en *eo are La
o61 te. Ir eluSa eos aUd tSe equal fot9r vtfl
is the amber tf questiltsatre rePtumed to19 6 writer










It is stigalfiu nt to not in Table XI that of
the fortyfnin pn ho~3l a whro rspopda d to tho qustio
a ntj fortyftr statSd that they we*re houad In fr..
buidingap and on17 ten ladiatod that they had plans
for improving phyiar al ftatilitt t tw'enty-eight nsponse
ind~oat d that t e i teaching t fr wore* under-sUtaffed
tweatyninT responlei indioated that the available books
and teaching matertlas wer u Lnuufflolent in amount to
moot the noeds of th aobldrvn enrolled in t srobhoAls
Also, of sigtioanaoe is th fraot that all of the
rsponsoe ("4) rixCiv.d, intdoatod that all of the
ohildrsin snrol*e In the ashofls had working mothers
Tbhe rfeots to the writer seom most Sawortant in detenrmni
ing how adquately pres ool*h and kindc1f tlbts in the
State of Florld4 ar* aMting the needs of children






56


TABLE XI
ILSULTS OF QUSTIONIAIHSS 3SSN TO KINDIsRQOART AND
NURSaRY SCHBO'L TSACBERS IN DLFFEREST 3S6C3TIOf
OP THE STATS OP FLORIDA

Schools Sahools
umber Iteas YES NO

1. State supported Sobouls 12 37
2. Brick Building 47
3. Stone Building 3 46
4. Prame Building 44 5
5* Duilding in Good Repair 40 9
64 Plans for improving tb Building 10 39
7. fleatera 41 8
8, ~agb S3ate for All Childrn 42 7
9. Suffioient Windows for Proper
Light 38 11
10, Playground and Playground squip
3mt 33 16
1, Fenes around the PlaygrouMd 30 19
12. ~hough Classronm Spaec and Seat 25 24
15, Enough books and TeaT~ing
Materials o0 29
14. Children Pay Tuitias 43 6
15. Children Given Cod Liver Oil,
Juites 18 31
16. Mnal Serv*d Daily 35 18
17. SaffioLnt Cooking Fotilities 41 8
18* School Purish the Dishes 4 4
19. Special Pood for Underourished
Children 6 43
0* Day Bods for the Childnrn 23 26
21. Children allowed to take Naps 49 0
S22 Lima Purnihsd by the Soahol 10 39
235, Sop Furnished by the S hool 47 2
24. Bathrooms fqdipped with Showers 3 46
2s. aough Teaahere for the Childr*n 21 88
96* Jautor or Janitrss 10 39
27. Children gien Modial Oxre 0 49
28, Childrn given Dental Care 0 49
29, 9lan1 for )ttabliabment or other
Pre "d ools 0 49
30. Childwn have working Mothers 49 0
'MOPE -. up-._ .


Nuabir of uaautionmtalre sent, 97.


NuMbe ReeoelTd, 49,






IT


it INTO, the morida State Departesat f MaCtie
sent tiw-huna d Usad tmhirt questimairne to flnt
rag e teshers is dlffor*et seaties of tho stat* ia at
attlos to dlsTr some finAltgp f the oharstmritire
In shildrs4t a hd b ea klaeisargrta epe eaoe am H*m-
pat vWith tlese who had bad mnt*, T" reumlts of thee
queitilelratFrtftws vt tabulated by the State Dpart-
mrt of nteSatlen sat an t am tia Table xn, p We .
Re Teble amwe, that eut of nee hunSiemd a auinty-five
first rate teashen nettafltl, eat hatred sat seventy-
tfe agret that ehiltaM o have atteate kUtlrsfrto
esnl these %e have not, this stastteal ogitmsoi
frtther nafiv the vrIter's bellter sd ipr ted tlat
tme" is a stod for the proviste s o prosebol *Sasttes
is oreer to help then bomee better adjusted phyLreally
mntally, ewtieaally sad estally before beglinag fterm
6eenl traltiag.









TABLE XII

QUSSTI ALIMRE POR PIRST GRADS TaLCAR5S

Please obcak the development of the following
characteristion in children who have had kindergarten
experience as compared with children who have not had
kindergarten anz rioneoe


Poorer See Better Bettor

1. Reading Readinss 0 16 85 104
2. AdjustuMnt to Sahool 0 11 72 124
3. Ability to Get Along
with Cildren 1 23 91 90
4. Ability to work With
others 0 S6 86 102
5# Ability to Follow
Directions 4 16 65 102
6. Motor Skills vad
Ooordination 1 23 99 83
?7 Habit of Neatness
and Ofdxnlinss 1 52 90 61
3. Ability to Take oae.
of Pysioal Needs 1 32 87 79
9. Sleep and Rest
abits 1 79 66 59
10, Sating Practicea 0 72 82 45
U. Self-reliance 0 22 101 85
12, Qod Health Habits 0 46 106 52



1. Ar Kinderoarten Children
Iauntied EarlierT 169 84

2. Do Children who have gon
to kindergarten do Better
Jork in 3ahool? 172 83

Number of Teaobera Reporting 213

State Dopartment of Sducation, Kindergarten !Prowm
Tallahassee, Floridas 1951 p. ,











Iptfrptfltm of a lsultu of the toIonuairea Sent3
SKndergartn, &Ms Saobool ai irst art
Teaoeher in Diffetrnt Snotions the State
of Fl*orl4

The questionnaire revealed the following data
eonoerning Premahool Eduoation in the 3tate of Floridat
1. Thore are seven state supported kIndergartns
operating for white children, and one semi-state imported
white nursery school, looted on thUe campus of Florida

State University, in the State of Florida.
2. Thore are two state supported kind ergrtan

for Negro children and ont seami-tate supported nuriw ry
ehool, located on the eamps of Plorids Agrioulturl and
Meehanical Oollege, in the state of Florida.

68 Most of the kindergartens and mrsery schools
ae housed in fra e buildings and in good repair.

4. Very few kindergartens or nursery schools have
plans for thb improvement of their buildings@
65 Most of the klndergartens and nursery SahOol1
have heaters except a few located in the extrme southern
part of the state of Florida.

6 Most of the schools are equipped with windows
for proper lighting.









7. About one-half of the schools do not have
enough books and teachiAg materials for children.
8. With the exception of sBix all of the children
who attend kindergarten and nursery schools have to pay

a weekly, monthly or yearly tuition,
9 Very few children are served cod liver oil and

fruit juloes in these schools.

10. gost of the schools serve moals to the ehildrm


daily.


11, Most of the oshools have Suffioient cooking
ftaoellties.

12, Very fte schools seor food for undernourished
children.

13. All children who attend kindevgartens and
owursry sahoola are allowed to take naps during the day.
14. Seven though most of the ashools furnish the

liann, some of the children have to bring their lina

tw. home.,

15. About one-half of the kndergartens and nursery
schools are in need of emoub teachers for the enrollment

16. flost of the schools need Janitors or janitresses

to relieve the teachers fro this work.
17. All parents of children who attend kindergarotns
and nursery schools in the State of Florida have to pay
for their medical and dental Oeat*









18. There are no nmmdiSate plao for establish-
ment of state supported kindergarten and nursery sabool

In the state of Florida.
19, A great rna ber f the children who are enrolled
in kindergartens and nurrory scbools in the Stat of Florida

have working motkers.

20* The children who attend kindergartens xcoll

those who have not attended kindergartena, according to

tho responses fro the questionnaire usd in this study.

21* Out of the fifty-sven qusatlonnaires sent to
klndergsatens and msaery school teachers, in different

mstions of the State of Florida, forty-nine were

returned to the writer.









CHAPTER IT


SUMMwA, C~OiLUSIOQN AND sOOGasTIONS

A questionaire to county suporintetents rveals
the faot that Wfter the kindergaren program is belag
carried out parents of five year old avail themselves
of the opportunity provide@ Only ono county in the
State of florida, Manatee, bha been able to ake the
program available to a11 Shdreu, five years of ago* As
yet, the ursery school h a not been added to the public
school system in the State of Florida.
In an effort to ascertain the valu pa1oed on
kltergarten eduneatle by parents, a sapling was taken
by questionnaire in thoee ooutle haMving public kitdte.
gartens. Of the 574 parents rportint, U43 wnt kinder-
gartens for their children, while slx indicated that they
did not want the-m
Prom reports mad by parents firut grafd taoeba s
and superintendents, it was evident that all three groups
realir e the zwd for mad ant kindorgartens as a part of
the pubOli schools of florida,
Since many parents fe*l this need for premasool
edutotion, for thr t children a largs number take


1tate Dpurtlnt tf BaueatiPn,
rin e Tallabaste Florida, 1951, p,


11Msersarbee
11.fffrc










advantage of private kindergartens and nrotar schools.
Florida Law does not empower y State agency to supervise
these institutions or demand training for their teachers
The neult Is that there is a wide diversity In the
quality of their programs. This condition presents a
serious problem throughout the State of Plorldae2
This deire for preschool education is consiastnt
with the thinking all over the State of Mlorida, and
throughout the country. The 1950 session of the id-
Century Whitehouso Confereneo on Children and Yauth passed
the following resolution
That nursery shboola ad kiadergarte as
desirable mupplemnts to ho lite f be included
as a prt of public oducatLonal opportunity
for ahLdrgn provided they oeet I3gh professional
standard.*37

CONCI;USIOE

The first thri to ix years of a child life mr
known aI the formative years The formative period is the
most important years of the child's life. Therefore, It
is the duty of parents, teaches, adainistratoi and
school officials to *ee to it that the ehild ui provided


2 State Uepartment of Mduation, KS~daatES PrOgpn
Ta~l~ahasee, orida 19&1, p, 1e ...

.M g a$;eunr magazinop OPprurbne Ow Gpq ito 14g






64


with those experience swhioh will help him to live today
and whio will help him to maet his iaidlate future.
The young child sAould be provided with exporlences In

preschools which will aid him in adjusting himself in the
first grade.

Very fow young children aro provided with preschool
education in the state of Florida, Negroes or whites Most

shlldren in the State of Florida enter school for the first
tiue when they reach the age of six. A large umber of
thee children ae not ready for the aeaGlerated program

provided for them by their teachers in the first grade.
As a result about thirty percent of all white cfidren,
asd about fifty percent of all Negro children remain in the

first grade two years, It would cost the state about the
saoe a ount of money to o orate public kindergartena, as

it is already payiqn for the ohild*u sooond year in fimt
grade. It would eo sensible to take the money and operate

public kirdergartens for those children who will probably
remain In tah first grade anyway.
Few parents are in a position to make exaet measures

ment and observation of a large number of children. Fw
parents know what habits their children should have forced

at different ages. Therefore, it Ia tbh duty of the
school to see that these children are provided with ex-
perionses which will give the the right behavior patterns
Too often parents set standards for their children by










t selve or by ambitions of their own, Sonmtim the
atndard Is set by the behavior of other oehldron in the
neighborhood, then the child may seou muoh worse or
better than he would In another neighborhood. Therefore,

it is the duty of the school to moe to it that parents

know what to expect frPou their ohildr-that hildan have
individual d4iffrozne-thsy sot like thsel vesa and not

like other ohildrea in the neighborhood.
Soientits who ar inter eted in child development

have gone abut the problem of ob serving and dsaoribing

prcoi ely the saao behavior of a grent amber of children
at different agae, so that they emn estimate the peern

tage of ohildrn who can do a certain thin at a certain
ag level. Untrained p&ents think, for the most part,

that their children should be able to do aqthing that
they vee able to do at a given age. With the aid of

solentifio Imnvutions, the ohild does not need to know t4h

hard taska his parents had to perform at a given age.

Therefore, it is the fty of the school to provide parents

with information about what a preschool child i expected
to do at a given age level.

The young ahild should have the kind of stood that

he needs regularly. He should get enough slp at regular
times. He should be kept olean nd aomafortable Mn pro-

teeted from haards, He should have the proper dental and
med lal ear*e If he gets used to a healthful and










educationl routine~ in a good Rklnderegten or nureary
school when he is young, his exporisnone will iake it

easer for him to havo good habits later on.
The young ohild should be protooted from fear and
worry. He should be taught Sot to worry. He should be
taught to understandg, as nar as possible, why there are
warsm and why. there ar wtr, and why his father, or

other lovd ones has to go away to It. He should be
taught not to ear or worry about the atom bomb, that it
is for our prot etion, if he becomes interested In it.

It is thV duty of the klndergarnn and nursery school to
help the child o quer fear, and give him an opportunity
to be happy.

Zn ki-ndrgsrtns and nursery sobools, parents,
toehers Ind administrators should know as miah about the

children that they teach as it is postrble for the. to
know, in order to provide for their needs They should
have a desorlption of tUs child' personal history, a

description of his behavior, his hyslo*2 condition, per.
formaos, ability and aohivemnt, and living conditions.
They Ibould know the child s past, his birth and infancy,
hbaltho and other expetienoe uand sotivities. They should

know about the childIu family history, his parents, hit

grandparents, aunts, unless and cousins, This information
ii important if the child is to be provided with experiences

to meet him needs










One thing is agreed upon by all prsons who deal
with the young child in the state of Floridat There ar

not enough ppesohools existing to meet the noed of young
children. There are any privately, city and county

operated presebools in the tate, but even those onnot
moet the imn iate need. There are still a great muaber
of ehildrn, both Negro and white, wbo still receive n

formnl tratnin before entering the first grade
There are two public kindergarten operating in

the State of Plorida for Negro children, with a total
enrollment of ninetyfivel A few egro ebhldren, whos

parents are able to pay the ekly fer, are attending
privately Operated kindergartens and nursery schools.
The majority of Negro children of kindegartn and

nursery inhol ae are not in any mohool at all* Some-
thing should be done for the education of those ohiJdren,

by the Florida 3tat. Department of Jduoatlon. Toese

children have a right to experieno, for their formative

yearw4
Due to the limited facil-tioe and ands, and the

standards et up by the Florida State Department of &duoe,
tion soneerning preschool education, the writer feel that


SState Departint of sdusation, Kidergarten
ProFa'j a Tallahassee, lorida, 19-.1, pp."17, J, 1i .





68


the non-state supported Negro presacoolb should noke

i provnemnts in an effort to =eet the needs of young

dhLldren, The tohbers in thesc schools should beco~

oertifid by the Florida State Department of Education.
Those teachers should work toward the improvement of
instruction and facilities in the schools. They should

give the ohildn n tests and compare the scores with those
of children who attend state supported schools. The

teachers should avail theo3mlves with the materials

published by the Florida State Department of education,

an other State Depart4ents of !dcoation.


































BIBLIOGRAPHY









BtBLIo GEW H

Alabaa State Department of Sduoatlon, Chgdren thte
Niur.ry 9flgal Montgoa ry. Alabaom 1951i 7
Aleohulrs, tos E ftldr n CqrnM Willi MoNarrow and
Co'paMn, Now YorL VY4n 19420.
___o to Sx Y*se of AM. William Morrow








....., do m Vioy c., gilii;dre o .....
Ader aw, BRuth. ri um f*OAE-on f


Asslocatton forn Oildbood duofaton, u lois for





SasiaingtonW D*. s, 19i *




ar4uhP, Dorothy e, fr 19 O d3GM g to 0.School0








le t d yoroioin oymd Aomseaw = a eoo MEb 1
31be r Bha2b*, Id Hto iabfol B.P. Datton uad

Boutlok1 Nfll L Owan, lTh rtni B !u.m. Post Off le
Box 503, Talhhassm, Flor dA7 1ip5
Brofdbury, Dorothy, p fr. Oar. for thidren. D. Apples
ton Oentury omaxp q naowT qyrke N.Y.a Do4A.
2Wldh*d t OWnl J Pou rn&l Yof the Asmooiation for
CMildhood GduetUons 1201 Sixteenth Stnaet, N.M.9
Wauh ingtons Deal. l0OS.
Waldren'm Bureau& United SBttes Departmont of Labor,
CTo' t'u'ton ATe*=s, aM 14th Stftit, Wiasbington, D.C.,
Pamphlet, 190Q,
Child Study Aamoclatimo of Aticsas, $at MaZkes 3ood Sabit
Thjt ABEgJn 2L Doaoixd r ina. it WCLRPAMrWaT)








SAmlbumh, Aline s Tod'









194'/1
o T zoaE'I Wordj ld iwSto D*rA7 2ah44in
Ol ido t the tdy of the CqUd tfe
Tt I.D7Wag t D, Wfen1 Da 0 l9*4
Vtastdxgtoul 7i 4 .944o a..g ?nahTru

Ohtitndun, Irtru4do ., L&Aing withq h fli The
MDxtonn O.wp n y, on a co e Yok,









Unlveri~tyr ew York, N. Y.1r 941
Oitizens Qoatt*n, EBMcAtI gd tha FUtuyr of C I0ompa
Uate PSpsrtes of euoa oni Toinae6, norida0.
1947.
Davist iry D*., gaool r fo alld4 o yUndr Sirx, Supervi-
tenidaetrt or DOWpetmsbt o' aamUson, aton 987.
DiLion c:, Pi :-lU 10d pag, John Day Cot.pany, New York,

DrissalUl pOrtrud*, How to atudy te Bavior tf Gof ldXeo-
Bureau of PubJIlAUToSDuLe T*r 0.fl8,p oo .ajbU
UnTlvttys Nsw Yorki, NY., 1941*
fevnae, osepft, j.fl gC Xan Yau, oUttillamn Cmepion,
N Yorwk, LY471 Y 4e
federal Socurity Agncy, Pt3Ltorro Chfldnran B Sxln
Unitstad te. O.. or Ofufi. l7itngtsi, OfC0.

lAni to r Amr a


*-t Bz ool Serrivn for etWIdap Or warki g
tj it- -NW iretLiifleU Nbi W37n

9 & {449. for Org-fti-pg *ni& DeTologin
AL]^grL^ Ei3LletInN &34,0

Florida Staft Depwtment of Anductt=on, MftEr a Pmasan
Tallahassee Florido 19.
fotetr, Josephine I, jLg.R 3ohA kdueati. A"nrian


Book Company, Nn York, NY., 1943,









*, duOution In t.,e K odergarten ALmerian

farri on, Charlotte, Horace MjM Undergartn for iyqt
Yearo g 9u i ureau of Publicatibonsl
Tealr I Glbage', Colambia University, Nov Yrk,
tE. A,, 1930,
Gos.ll, Arold, a irt Ie lej2f .ot fe, Harper md
Barot&or oiw or, aoYr s I fv 40
Hansen, Howna, RLUJt0l1 .tivities for the You
Qid supeorit Fdent of aumoent a, e~a
ing company, Nw York, N.Y., 1949,
Illwnos Stat DepartmOet of ESduation, Thb Presohol
gepthia 4 C roular Sri.eTuaber 2,
sp isff L0V fXIs,... 1947.
lane, odbert H*M Tha ogyAiE islemsalntn 9hool
Houghton rICITIn company. 7onqay, s tonj l&,
Landreth, Gatherine, adujaIton of the Ye g John
Wiley and 3on, wYrk,.7 1d40.
LTrrigo, Marion Olinv, ChlLldn n Can 14e aMeaMls The
cUUillan Oompany, Hio Yow rr7T." IBW
Lowoanbrg, Airion ., Yo J 4do, oGrau ]iLll Jook Capanoy,
INw Yorkg L.Y!*, t*,
Ohio State Department of Education, Work With the
f&a o E 0. St Bullet in XNu 'rtm57T5S7r
tutbck, Margaret Laeo Our M o D, Ap:>leton Century
Company, New YoEr *Ne 147.,
Shoer, Larranle, Their Pirst V vf Years in Schol, E.A
ilfler oof Copany wr i, rT o .*
WauhbUn, Ruth, 4Toi MTlPAg I G D. Appleton
Century CoBmpajiinyo ow !77fT 19412
Wiseanain State Department of Eduoation, Guides to
QionIua a a uild5ia Mn sTai 8 rson,
'ftsonuia, 1947.
Wolff, i erfwr, a PErsonJPtt 2 thL a ft YU GQruae
and Stratton, VNw York, ,Y.,, 1947,







73


FAPPI'UD1V1





74


APPSEDIX A

A opy of the letter sent to kLndrrgarten and
Nursry School teachers in different sootions of the
State of Florida.


Post OfflQ aox 1661
Hollywo4d, Florida
May 15, 1951

Miss Petoy Jo Ulamer
FPasl Viow $ohoal
tndergarten DpartmSnt
Bradenton, Florida

Dear Matdm
You wilX find enslosd a quebtonnaires Kindly
answer the questioUs, ad retum it to me. It is
Important that I have this information before I
an complete my th e 6i
Respecotfully yours,


Lillif Mause uphtrop










APPKRDIX B

A ample eopy of the letter sent to Oou ty
Superint.ndontm in different soctionj of the State of
florlda.




Pout Offic Bos 1661
Hollywood, Florida
May 9, 1951
Superintendent of Publia Instruetion
Manatee County
Dradenton, Florida

Dear Sir:

I would like to know if 7ou would grant i
pe imislon to send out questionnaires to the
prlmchools in your county? If M, kindly
send ao the nme and location of eath pro*
school in your county,

Respetfully yours,


Lillie Muae Thaepb y








AP. ELDIX 0

A sample copy of tbh questionna re aent to kindergarten
and nursery school teachers.

1. Iy school is looted i, City __ Stat
County ____ group 'w hit _____
Kia.rgartin ....Nurer.. '9yI _____...
Please answr the question Yes or io I
2. Do you have a state supported school __
3. Do you have a briak bulldlngi____._ -
4. Do you have a stonB building? _.________.
5. Do you have a frame b ,llding? __ _
6. Is the Bulding ia good repai ....."- ..
,7 Has tther been any plan to mnak t2mprovi~tnt
in you school .
8. Do you have heat Ir in your s....ao 1__--.
9, Do you hbve oilbo heaters _
10, Do you have gas hbateraT ______
11. Do;, you have *oletrie beatert? .- .........
12, Do you have enough saats for .ll of the pupils
135. D you have surrioent windows for proper l~lghtltr
14. Do you bave ourtains for etch window? ....
15. Do you have a playground?
16. Do ytu have suffiolent sp&e for all
of the children to play?
17. Is the playground well equ iipp e lth rtEoillties
for all of th children?
18. is the equtipet oa the pV -rr altC to
the sgea of the childzrent
19. It there a fene Around the playground?
20* Is the playground sat for ebhldrn to
play without dane of being hurt?
fl. Is there enough spae in the classroom or
Ill of the children
22. Do you have enough sea t ofor all of the childrenT
23. Do you havr enough books for all of the children
24. Are the children given paper and pencils? ____
25. Are the children given art atsrials?
26, Do the ohildrn have e to pay tuitions for tb year?
27. Do the children pay son.hly or weekly fet?
28 Are the children givwe od liver oilt
29. Are the children gien Juites dalyf ....... .
30, Do you serve the children meals dal y .. .









31. Do you havet ufrficient cook aing faoilltUs?
52. Do you rfumish the diabast ___
35a Arn the Clhaes urnihfd ba tth oibldrdn? _
34. Do you have special food for
uadernouriahed child en
3. Do you have day beta for alro f the ohfldr't-e- ...
368 Are the children allowed to take naps
during the dayr
37r Do you furnish th. 'lintt .._...............
38. Do the children bring their In ;rfroma bomet
3B9 Do you furnish the children pajamast
40. Do the children bring their pajaamas roui oist -
4 Are the bathrooms we equipped? __
42. Are the fixtures made for the ae orf-
the children
453 Do the children have individual towels tind
batholothsT
44. Are the batholiiths and tow-eli rumlihd
by the achoolt _____-__
46. Do the children bring their tois mn
batholoths from bomet
46. Is the soap furnished by t-he soToolIT F -" ...
47. Do the children bring soap from hoaT me T
48. Ar the bat~ ooar equipped with shower -- ._
in your school?
50, Do you have encush toacheru for the am...
of obhildrent ________
51* Are the children given free ;;edil1
"md dental eatre
582 Are thapn way plans for the est&bliahm=nt
of othor ursery sbcooli or kindergartens
in yor ashool?
553 Are many of the mothiarm of your children woeik t




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