• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Half Title
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Introduction
 Review of related literature
 The professional status of...
 General summary and conclusion...
 Bibliography
 Appendix
 Back Cover






Title: Professional Status of Counselors in Senior High Schools for Negroes in Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AM00000033/00001
 Material Information
Title: Professional Status of Counselors in Senior High Schools for Negroes in Florida
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Butler, Eva Sims
Affiliation: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
Publisher: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
Publication Date: 1958
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: AM00000033
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Florida A&M University (FAMU)
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAA0872
notis - ABV5428

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Title Page
        Page i
    Half Title
        Page ii
    Acknowledgement
        Page iii
    Table of Contents
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    List of Tables
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Review of related literature
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    The professional status of conclusions
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
    General summary and conclusions
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
    Bibliography
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
    Appendix
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
    Back Cover
        Back cover
Full Text















































i'l 5, 1,41 ktV -Alf'









JI" m A










THE OF SI $NAL ST.tS (f C.UErNiLORS ;
IN SrVIiOP HIGH SOUCOLS FUR
N.-fROl. IN FLORIDA








A Thesis
Presented to

the Faculty of the Graduate Sc.ehool

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University








In Partial Fulfillment

of the Requiresenfts for the Dgree
Master of Science






by
rva~ Sis Dutl9 r

August 1958










THE PGH:OF SIQONAL SrTr TSO r O-C.-UN:i.wS
IN SVliP HIGH SCt{JOLS FOR
NWTrOrS IN FLORIJ.A






A Thesis
Presented to
the F*culty of the Graduate School
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
In Partiel Fulfil~aent
of th.e lRequirements for the ekd ree
iMaster of Science

by
Eva Sims Butler
August 1958


Approved 1
C(1.-!,/ 1v I

O^^gy^^ gy ^


f re h oradate
of the aAduate School













This study was made a reality by the conftributHion$
of innumerable persons to v.iom gratitude is tendered,
Grateful acknowleds~ gdentt is expressed to
Dr. Victor Rf. Johnson, Consultant of Guidance and Pu il
Personnel, Florida State Department of Eduction, for
his endorsement of the study, ApCcittioni is extended
to Dr, A. A. Abraham Faculty Chairman, for his helpful
suggestions and worthwhile criticisms, An indebtedness
is ackno-ledged to Mrs. C, B. Bridwell and Mr. P. W, 1Rutler9
Faculty Personnel, for serving on the comnRttee,
Gratitude is expressed to principals and head counselors
of participation schools for thtir cooperation.
Finally, thanks are given to Wr, V, D0 Hamilton, and
Mr,* W, L* Wiltliams, principal and assistant principal
respectively, anrd several other members of the faculty of
CatrParterParrarore Hith School, Qu3incy, Florida for the
assistance givcn by them.


E. S. B,


.~ ~~3-*i er.~f~C~d~~ ~f~S

















Si ****** *******

Satomi$nt Of the Problern:'0,-~1, *

1rvortanct of thc tudy.*,,..*,*,,*,,,..***

Iourcci nI IurG of -t:Lord WtucT ofr*.M

,,..3 s iC. A p f D **.-** *. ._




0llRit?., Iit.ns *, on ,.,- ,,** *, .'.*
v1fnlt.ion of f TmrOi,,,,**, 4 4**9******9*4

Method of Ptocc Tn,,...,,,,..****.. ...

Graniz tion of t.he t ,udy,.,,,.,,,*,.*****



Iteview of uJijq on ^raininf of unwexous

review of tudis on )uti-s of C n-etlors,,

rtevi..w of 7tulies on P>rsznl Charac4er-





11. TV O ,I x.L r-0 (t{F C trw ,0^ ,,,,,,,



ACt ii;mic tr ninng,,.,...**,** *, ****4 94
!lrc ;L 9i-Jr'^ i iPT iit i^
I3L~T~~Z~l f r~~SU:P-~. $ i1~ ii~~~ t~f ~-8,1f) 4b5*


19
41
















44
6
8
10











:4G









4Em









V



'ours earned y7..nd the bacc.laur*' .t

doSree *o****r**,,. +e***,*0*4***oe*0 r-5

Institution attended .,,,.,,.., ,, eon. 51

Requir-temnts for 4ranuAte decrees,004094, 54
Technical c5urs5es ....**^*. S

Chertification of cou.nslors,.,,,,,,,,,,,. 57

Experiences of Counselorsa, ,,,.. .....*,. 59

Teaching experience,,. *..,.49* .... ....* 59

CWork znJ community icaders ip expcri-

enceGS, ,.*0* 0*# *- #*4**04#*< ** 00*0 004 60

Cr. tive writing. ***,,*o **.,,,,,,*.,,. 62

Duties and Probloms of Counselors,<..,,*o ... 64

i)UtieS. 44* 44004004400 4 49S4, 49'0*9404 64

Time allotted to Cuidance duties..,,,...+ 66

Needed assistance., 4,a ..... o.. *. .o.. 67

Personal Cheract-ristics of Counselorso,.,. 70

Family status.t ,. *. *****,* ** o .***4*** 4 70

Pare thood,,. .. o *e **** 71
74

S4L-ry r7ar30 iC*4** 444m 409*00*400*40494***4 74

Affiliations .4th .aduci;tional, social

and honor societies.*,,,.,,,..,,,,o,,,. 75










'vi


Jdinr hakits of counselors
Cuenoryil Stxxmiry.. ;s*^a*4te**w*********

(:ronc01 .i rY U e i C f S 6 e *e eo ee**



,.- o Yu ionsa,, ** ..e s* l p ,




. I. S,.*', .. *,y, a^.rb ** ******* **I** 104









!J2 g: ajjI~


I* Percentaso Distr4ebut.ion of Head Counselors
According to "ex,,*,,., .. ..* 42

IX. Percentage distribution of IHead (Counselors
0Accordinn to Official uLidance Titltes,,,,,, 43

XII. Percentage Oistribution of Head (Counselors
According to U ndr:a.;radu.-te and Graduate

Majors**** ******* *B**4*#** 0 ********* 45

IV. Percentage Distribution of oead Counsclors
According to the turabeor of Son:ea;ter Yours
rned at the Undlerrad uate Level in

Cortain related CouraG f ... ,,,** ,.....** *..*. 47

V, Parcentage Distribuition of Head Counselors
according to Type::- of accalaurelte oand

-i4sters* dtoegreies warned *...**.**********, 49

VI, Porcentage Distribution of earned d s5era.s.ter
Hours Reyond the ~accalaureate oCgr.0e by
IHlad Counseloro Wh o Aid ;.ot Hold the


VII. Percentage Distribution of VHead Counselors
by Institutions Attcndcd,,,, ,,,,.,*..,,*.., 52
V111, Percentaeg Distribution of 26 Head, Counselors
Acor-Jine to rnequir':nents for (;radute

0974. '$ S ** **** *** @ ** *: ** **** ** **^* e ..











TA L
IX. Percentage Distribution of Head Counselors
According to Technical Guidance Courses
Taken, sa., *qaorl** *a**.,**e- s*.eee#*ee*e

X. Percontge Distribution of Head Counselors
by Certification Status..**.,******,,,*** r,
XI, Pcrcentage Distribution of Head Counselors
According to Years of Teaching -xp .rience,,,

XII. Percentage Distribution of Hend Counselors
According to Work Experiences,.*.,*.,9,,...

XIII. Percentage Distribution of Head Counselors

by Cr..ative Writings Experience,.,,.*.,s.,,,
XIV, Percentage Distribution of Head Counselors
According to Dutics. ,,**,,**, ***.,**** ,***

XV# Percentage Distribution of Head Counselors
According to Hours Allotted for Guidance

ServicOS*****e******s* *******i*a*****
XVI, Percenta.ge Distribution of Head Counselors

According to Extent of Need for Assistance


XVII. Percentage Distribution of Head Counselors
According to Marital StatuS,****,,*,,***,,,
XVIII, Percentage Distribution of HWad Counselors

by lumber of Children.,,.....,,.,.....***..,,


viii

PAGE


56


58


60


61


63


65




66




68


71


72







ix


TABLU PI E
XIX Percentage Distribution of Head Counselors
by A(7e,,,,o,, e*e*****.***e***** ** ,., 73
XX Porcntage Oistribution of Head Counselors
According i t"o talnary e**.*+,,..,.w.,,,**. 74

XXI* Percent-ge distribution of Head Counselors
According to .ocietal Afftit tions .. .,,, 76
XXII, Percintag Distrihution of -Head Counselors
According to Number of Blooks purchasedd
During the Past 12 months. *..,*......... 77
XXIII, Percentage Distribution of Head Counselors
by Subscriptions to 'Periodical s,,**,,***,, 78










CHAlw R I


IW&ROJ IETIUN

In recent years there has b-er rapid increase in
the student population at the secondary school level
throughout the nation This -henonenon hMs been accompa-
nied by numerous factors which have pointed up the
necessity of guidance swrvics., Aong the factors trre
well-defined differences ins (1) student aptitutdes

(2) personal and social intrivests, and (3) econoc4t
resources. Most educators, consequently, have acknow:l edt
the need for teachers whIose training and experience will
. nable t+heia to promote .the general wellalocin9 of :ach
student, To meet successfully this problem, several
schools have broadened the curriculum tn include personnel
serviccs8, -it.h the initiation of ths ,( sc.:rviccs, couns.-
lors have emerged as guidance functionaries.
When the counselor is added to the staff some
oncern should be given to the nature and extent of his
training and personal chaonrct;...ristices as ell .as his
duties, This is an irnrortant considesr7dtion because ist~ori-
cally many persons lacking technical training in guida.ince
have b-en found attermting to perform complex functions,


2~; 7







2
1 2
Many investigators including Kitch and WPndorf have
reported findings of this nature, Kitch, Mafthewson,
5
and Williamson expr.,ssed the conviction that the
effoctiven .'ss of guidance services in the school depends
largely upon nin ividuals whose training in uildance and
related disciplines has been expensive*
CGuidnce and personnel services ae re ntively
recent curricular innovantons in the schools of Florida,
particularly, ltgro schools One of the fev formal
studies done on the problem in Florida viws com pleted by
Comba in 1948, In that study he found- that. of a total


Donald P. Kitch, The School Counselors His Work
and Training,* Cnu f Qaiona I
a ^^t io Xe t u.y, t. 1tp,.* 3

2C.Ohert i A. rendorf, "*ualificAtions of Gui.dance
Counselors in Ohio High School," h PeirsofJnel a
fridJMe Jmnal, XXX, IV (4ay, 1) p 57

3Kitch, oR c ppP 17-18,
4
Robert P. PMathr-wson, Cge ---- j ft +
(New Yorksc Harper and Brothers, 1 ), pp. 434~s4.

Williason Cu Students
(New York l cGraweuill Boo company, nc,1 ,, pp, 37-38.
6
V'lie +. Co bsi, "A Proposed Plan for Developing
a Guidance Program in the ;Negro Sec~ndiary Schools in
Flori.." a* Unpublished Mst : of education Xnv'st.iw:tion,
School of .:ducmtion, Atlrnta ..'nivrs .sitfry, 1948, p. 6.







3


of 79 secondary schools for Negroos, just seven had
organized guidance programs.
It has already been pointed out that the
*ffectiveness of the guidance services depends lFrgely
upon the training of those functioning in the program.
With certain limitations, therefore, this study was
designed to provide some insight into the relative
effectiveness of counselors in senior high schools for
Negroes in Florida.








4


Stnt~tnt of the rb h:,Im

The primary 'urpose of the investigation was to

determine the professional status of counselors in senior
high schools for Negroos in Florida, The prof';ss.,ona
status of the counselor is important mainly in terms of

the problems he encountPers and the duties he performs
therefore, a secondary -ur- one of the invest igation -n^s
to delineate the problems .n:i specialized duties of the

population studied, A tertiary .urpoi~ wos to determine
some of the personal chnr.cteristics of the group.

The specific factors investigated were
A. Acadenic training

1. t'ndergQ r mu. and graduate majors
2. o1m- ster hours in the rlate.i fi-,. ds of
economics, psychology anli sociology

3. Types of baccalauro+,+ nd vm.~- trs
,Jegrees earned
4, Sem .t-tr hours earned beyond the
baccalaur-tate and (or) r m;t rs' de r.rs

5. Institutions of higher I warning attended
6. rec.ncy of cr.iits in id:.nce courses

7, .Sta.tus of certification as :ui..anc-








Bg Experience

1. T acning experience

2. Work dmJ caoiunity lnSo4raip exrsrienc s

3, Cr0Mtive vritings

C.^ Outiog

X1. utis counselors prforn

2. Titles of counse:lors


1. Problems vitih rhich c runsrlors wed
assiV9rnce

C. Personal ohtract4 rtstics

1 ?-ex

2. kaCily t. tus


3, Atsc ieI
4. hlr.ry

5. Affiliations vith social scholfastic rnd
educational societies

6* neinQg hmbits


5








6


Im-or.tance of the Study

Th* rapid growth and the continuous expansion
of the modern secondary school have pointed up the nneed
for effective guidance services for all students.
Research on the professional status of c:mnselors has
shown that there is general ~greoment among authorities
regarding the kinds of training, experience and p rsonal
qualities counselors should possess to assure success on
the job. It h s been reveled that cowam'Otent counelors
(1) are usually extensively trained in qui;d-nce and
related disciplines, (2) possess related nonsechool work
experience, and (3) exhibit certain desirable p :rsional
traits. Proinent raong the authorities who hold this
7 8 C
view areas Cox Hamrin and Paulson and Kinker and Fox.



!D4ach1l D. Cox1 Couns ea C. WTh r
(Harrisburg: Archieves ubls j o;pny, 1 pp. 134 -
172.

h-irley Hmarin and Blanche Paulson, ,onselif
,OAPaC aAt!& (Chicagot Science teseuarch Associ tes, onc.,
PS), p. 218-334,

9, Robert Kink.?r and I'illiam T. Fox, *A Study of
High School Gui.dance Srvicr s in a Six.,State Area,"
a1n a vs, x (Rloointon"1 a",n
alnla !iivor~fjjXXWI vsnm"r, 1%.02) pp"L 7O79I








7
10 11
Kitch, n d Sim .rs and .Iavil possess this point of
vi w to.O
Inasmuch ns the q lity of the guiu.-nce program
will bi di.ter-ined principally by the prof ssional tr-aining
andl personal charact : rintics of the yi-tJance functionarie8s,
it is, therefore, conceivable that the counselors hio can
meet certification rcquiretcnts ;outldJ be orTc able, to
render effective servic-s. Since formal g uitiance is a
relatively recent cur-ricular innovation in Negro high
schools in Florida, an st.rliy evaluation of the personnel
may leaJ to an inprovetrnt In the :, rvices to admr-InistrT.tor
aup:-rvisors, teachers, students, parents and the aoJn.uifty
at lwrgFe
The Flori.: Acgricultural 'nad Mechanicl thniversity
is currently in the process of developing -J d gQrte grantincg
pnro.ra m In guidance. The State Departcnt of f.ducation and


10
onald i., Kitch, *The School Counselort His ;%ork
and Trainings," o4tt o 14t& >l' Th
M Ld9t x p b19
11
Lylah M. Simvwrs arnd Rob rt A. Davis, "Training
and xpcrience of Counselors in North Central Schools,'
Th School4 wb^y, LVII (Novembcr, 1949) pp. 478-484,






8


other agencies are also responsible for developing
programs for the training of counselors. All of these
agencies may benefit by this study because agency
sponsored programs should take into consideration the
preparation, duties, experiences, and problems of the
counselors on the Job. This investigation attempted to
Sake a contribution to that end.


Sources and Nature of tData

The sources and nature of data for the investi-
gation of the professional status of counselors in
-enior high schools for Negroes in Florida mwre as
follow t
V1 nid& E6uc tt o r l ircgtorY 1-S 9-t5Edio.
The names and addresses of the principals were obtained
from this bulletin,
2* ,MationarD~a. A questionnaire was developed
to survey the group studied. Responses were sought to
questions regarding (1) academic training, (2) experi.
fences, (3) duties and problems, and (4) personal
character stics.







9


3S Uate tt.,Pty-.re* Poriodicals, bulletins,
brochures, and hooks tr.,,?tinag guidance and pxrsonnfl
services revealed pertinent literature which had a
direct relationship to the study,


nasic Assumptions

In a study of the professional status of the
training of counselors, careful consi dration should b
given to assumptions which are basic to such an invest.
gatlon. RSor of theos assumptions areas
*1 The training and qualiti.s os f the head
counselor in the school should be an exc.Q.lent index to
th* type of training and qualities possessed by the
other personnel in the guidance program,
2, Competent counselors should possess aompre*
heneive traininQg nd experience in Gcuidance as well as
Certain desirableX personal traits.
3, Krnowle.cdge of the professional sPttus of the
training of counselors may prove beneficiall to those
responsible for providing services to improvhethe corspe
tenctL-s of counselors.

4, In t ht ap:ointmfnt of counselors at least
formal training should be an important Consid:ratiiion.







10


5. The quality of the training of counselors,
the procedures used in problem solvingS end the pro-
visions for counseling sre tiportant aspects of the
professional status of counselors; yet, these ~spccts
wefe not included in this investigation. It wP~
assud that they were the main problems of other inv';sti.
nations.


Deliritations

This investigation of the st. tus of counselors
ita senior high schools for Negroes in Florida suggested
vusral delimitatlons. The first was the professional
StatUs of the training of the counselors, In the second
place, it woa delirdt.ed to objective evidences of the
SOope oft (1) training, (2) experiences. (3) duties and
problems, and (4) certain personal charametrilstics as
reported by the counselors in a questionnaire developed
for this purpose. Another delimitation was the use of the
Normative*eurvey method of res arch, One principal cone
Saon of normative survey research is to point up the
Status quo of prevailing conditions within a population
studied. This method, in the main, reveals a quantitative
description of the general charsct.-ristics of the subjects
Surveyed.






11


Finally, the methods of problem solving, the
quality of the training of counselors, budgetary provisions
for counseling are of paramount importance, however, as
Important as they are, this study was not concerned with
these factors,


Definition of Terms

Among educators the terms 'counselor" and *guidance"
are frequently used in a generic sense, For this study,
however, they have been given the germane connotations
aidicated below,
Counselor. In this investigation the term "counselor"
was interpreted as the highly trained, mature adult who
esists students in the solution of problemsa- personal,
neotional, social, vocational as well as educational.
cida nc. Throughout this study "guidance" was
interpreted as the process by which the student is aided to
r(eater stability, insight and understanding so that he is
amre capable of operating as a free and creative citizen in
* democratic society.






12


Methods of Procedure

Several steps 'oreo pursuedd in the study of
the professional status of counselors. The steps vire
as follows I


C-6F3~;b


Step 2:




Stop 3:


During the initial stages of the investi-
gation, it was felt that the value and
effectiveness of the study xiould be enhanced
if the endorsement of the Florida State
Department of Education were obtained. A
personal conference, therefore, was held with
Dr, Victor B9 Johnson, Consultant of Guidance
and P Pul Personnel, Florida State Department
of !Education, at 4hich time the endorse atent
of the study was received.
The names and v addresses of the principals ;:ere
secured from l a Liu aati- liectoXA


Since it vras extremely inconvenient to make
personal contacts wth all the subjects
surveyed, a relatively comprehensive question-
naire was constructed to meet this need. This
instruaant, in the sain, was the principal data
collecting device used.










Step 4$

























Step 53


13


Three copies of the questionnaire were
distributed for "try-out* purposes, They
w tre ailed to a counselor in a typical
smallasized school, a redium-sized school
and a lanrge-sted school. The counselors
sere asked to supd.'-ly the answers and to
retain the questionnaires. These instru-
monts were kicked up p.EarsonEally by the
researcher. Df,;ring the interview~ the
respondents were requested to criticizes
(1) the csoprehensiveness of covera)e
(2) the adequacy of the covraae, and (3)
the organization of the instrument, (Ot the
basis of the criticisms from these counse-
lors, certain revisions of the qu stionnaire
toere made.
A copy of the rev(i&~ d questionnaire (tee
Appendix A), a cove: eitter (Sne App"ndix B),
and a stamped, self *a dressed envelope were
mailed to each principal of the senior high
schools. It mwas thought that by sending the
questionnaires to the principals, in st

instances, mere im mediate resiionses would
assured. A technique similar to this








14
12
procedure was reported in a study by See.
He observed that by sending questionnaires
to presidents of educational institutions a
higher percentage of returns was received.
It was pointed out that of a total of 202
questionnaires mailed to presidents. 191, or
95 per cent, were returned. See, therefore,
concluded that the person who receives a
questionnaire to be executed from his adminis-
trator feels more keenly his obligation to
perform the task than he would otherwise,
The data obtained by the questionnaires were
tabulated on work sheets. The findings were

presented in descriptive, statistical and
tabular foans
All of the data were analyzed in the light of
the E*1rid. H.S.uIref.i nIImit n Taa( duc at Ion


P1. A-d1iB


leg2,


'2Harold IW See Send It to the President*,
Ka po XXVIII (January, 1957), pp, 129-131,


----~L---.----.~- --~LL~-I -Y---L--- --^~- ~- -*~ --~.- I--r~-r-- -- --y -L ~I--_IY--I_-Y.~C___~--_I --r_----l"l- -------~~--~ ---~1~1~ r -YY .--Y-WYYIYIL-~LLYLii~L










Wad CertifiuatiRD/ These standards formed the basis
for the investigation and indicated th;At to serve as a
counselor in Florida, the following conditions maust be
met t
Thirty semeater hours or required. Of the 30
semester hours, a mcninm of 15 smester hours. must be
on the graduate level. The experience requireaxnt below
must also be met. This certification may be given on a
regular certificate only. The specific requirements
follow:
A. Guidan -ce
An applicant must complete a minirmumy of 15
semwster hours (eight in psycholotfly or
education) from the areas listed, with
approximately 2.3 sweaterr h Iur s In t:ach
areas
1. principles of guidance
2. analysis of the individual (tests, records,
scales, etc.)
3, counseling procedures
4. occupational information
5. administration of guiJ.anCe services


13i (Te~Jl (Tatlahassciet State DepSartment of Education,
July 21, ,. .pp. 259-260,







16


BR Related Fieldss
An applicant ymust co plete Oa rinimcum of 15
asmester hours, ell distributed in the
areas listed tbelo, with at least three
somstewr hours in each area,
1, Psychologys educational psychology,
psychology of individual differences,
abfnoral ps.yhology, mental hygiene,
psychometries, applied psychology,
psychology of aUjusatmnt, child
pAychology, adolescent psychology,
2. education pupill rsomnnl orga dtAtion,
diagnostic and corrective instruction,
p~Rinciples of vocational education,
extra curricular activities, educ national
rese~Bph, curriculum, school suporvi.7ion.
3. ;conomic6eociolowsgya lbor and in ustrial
probloa, personnel mtanaorment., ocu-
pational economics, cosinity resources,
famiy adjustment problem n, social case
work, sociology, economics.
C, Experiences
An applicant for a guidance certificate aust
h !ve completed two yenara of successful








17


teaching in the public schools.



Notes If the applicant hans arned a mIastr's
degree with special emphasis on
guidance and counseling from an institution
with a well planneWd major in this field, the
pattern may vary from th~st described above,
A m jor is generally interpreted as at least
s20 asster hours. A statr~ent to the effect
that the major was in p iui-dnce imust be shown
on the transcript or must be verified by a
proipr school official.


Organization of the Study

This study of the professional status of the
training of counselors contains four chapters$, within
Chapter I the introduction to the investigation was
given. A statement of the problem has .b.,en expressed.
The importance of the study has ben pointed up. Dis*
cussions hnve been presented in this chvapt+.,r also onw
(1) The Sources and Niatur of Data, (2) The 9asic
Assunptions of the Study, (3) The Delimitations of the
Investigation, (4) Definition of Tens, (5) Method-s of
Procedure, and (6) The Organisztion of the study,
Chapt; IOr I gives a brief re-~ort on the related literature,
cov,;riwjn the (1) training, (2) duties and (3) personal








18

characteristics of counselors. In Chapter III, a
treatment of the findings of the study is reported.
Finally, Chapter IV concludes the study with the pre*
sentation of a general summary and conclusions.









C3' ss UR~


MtVlW OF R L N'D LIT 4;1T E

During recent yearrs the sco-e of litrfnture con*
cerning counselors has broadened considerably, In this
chapter, however, only a portion of the literature wAvhich
has a direct relationship to (1) the training of counse-
lore. (2) duties of counselors, and (3) personal
characteristics of counselors will be presented.

Ediddb~r lsj & T ,MaiMadI SEljinina Qt U..ast
Much data on the training of counselors are available*
These data point up the fact that the r.ancne of tronininw
for counselors is difficult to define and to measure,
Yet, training has h to do h to the success achieved by
individuals .ho are counselors, It appears that
Edgerton pioneered in the area of investigations of the
training of counselors, As erly as 1926, he found that
the training program, for counselors wis not very compre-
hensive, Nevertheless, the inclusion of training in
psychology, economics, sociology, occupational informatiSon



Alanson H( idt gerton, .At. ri on l C -G
Conee tlinr (New Yorks MI-c4illan Copay, pp. 183-l4,.








20
Pjr~o
4 -


and courses dealing .ith special problems of guidance
did contribute to the foundation training of counselors*
He placed a premium on background :.xpesrionces ins
(1) nursing, (2) classroom teiachin9, and (3) social work.
2
Likewise, most of thec cz-tunselors that !Bailey
studied had training in sociology, psychology of ado-
lescenQe, principles of education and guidance, oJco.;omics,
and tests and sP asureionts. He also Ulitedl teaching,
social and civic affiliations as very vital exp lriences
for c;.unselors illiamsons3 discussion of the psyc:ho-
locical backgrAund of the counselor was similar to
Taileyy's. Howev.Er, Williamson added that knowledge of
mental hygiene is an indispernsble part of the background
training of counselors
Cox4 found that the counselors whom she irvestiated
had mastery of courses ins principles of education,



Richard J. Bailey, *Prepnring, Cortifyin and
Selecting Public School Counselors,* o
Andmin.tratlQ io m su, r;na(19", xxV 0PP. 415w422.

E* G, williamston,C 3j4 C a St s-, (Nw Yorks
McGrawH4ill nrook Company, ne,, X p. 7
4
nachel U Cox, C T v
(Harrisburiss Mchioeves t i 'i ng company, 1 pp. 170-
172.








21


administration and supervision, educational psychology,
and techniques of guidance, diagnosis, organization and
administration of the procr. a, vocational Qgifiance,
intcrviewinr and related courses. Nearly half thte group
had a course in general psycliolo3ty and :-ental hy~jlene.
Tw-enty per cent had naol;escent psychology., psychology of
education, physiology, the psychology of adjustmrent, and
secondary education. The consensus ,:s that experience
gained through teaching, and 'orkiny with youth organi
nations enabled the subjects to becomee vrv ry ctompetent ms
guiid anc t workers,
Foilctr, too, acknowled:ed the importance of
extensive training for counselors, Consequently, he
affirmed the fact that counselors should have mxas- ry of
a considerable body of technical information, consisting
of -rinciples, techniques and skills. Similarly, Jones
obs..rved that courses in statistics, clinical inc~*ruction


5
Fred M. Fowler, uag e Mar ok (ralt
Lake City Ut.ah I)epartment of ub c nstruc on, 19t8),
pp. 13*1;,
6
Arthur Jones, "Preparation of Guidance and
Prs48onnel worker* g f ia o, XV 205
(1948) pp. 0213.








22


and counseling techniques were primary needs in the
training of counselors.
In discussing the courses of study needed by
those persons who are interested in becoming counselors,
7
Chapman recommended (1) a Liberal Arts background,
(2) a minimum of about 18 semester hours in courses such
as principles of guidance, tests and rmasurements, counse-
ling, the interview, occupational information and organi-
zation and administration of guidance, and (3) electives
to be selected to coincide with the field in which a

person desires to specialize, In Brown's study of 465
counselors, 76 or 16 per cent, of the counselors investi-
gated had either the Doctor of Philosophy or the Doctor
of Lducrtion degree, while 365, or 78 per cent, had a
master's degree,
A survey by Gravor of 91 counselors in educational



Leland H. Chapman, "Guidance Counselor,' 4A=c.
QM;bU naMi No. 1 (1949), pp. 16-.7,

Ruby E. Bronm, cited by Hamrin, (pp. 334.335)
Co ,elino Aolacntfe> Science Research Associntes, Inc.,
Chicago.
9
Palmer Grav.:r, cited by Hamrin, (p. 335) aougefla.nn
AdfolSe^n_,* Science Research Associates, Inc., Chicago.







23


institutions showed that only one did not hold a
bachelor's degree, Sixty-seven, or 74 per cent, held
a master's degree and five, or five per cent, had a
doctor's degree. Other findings revealed the need for
training in statistics, psychology, occupational infor-
mation, counseling, clinical experiences, psychoth'ra.py
psychiatric information and industrial experiences.
In most instances, all the counselors recommended more
training in psychology, guidance, personnel :ork and
education in both the undergraduate and graduate areas
of training.
10
WIendell did not attempt to blueprint the
training specifications for counselors in secondary
schools, yet he was of the opinion that this training
should embrace courses which should yield competencies ins
(1) interviewing students who come to counselors with their
problems, (2) collecting and disseminating occupational
information, (3) giving and interpreting tests, (4) working
with parents, and (5) using community resources.


1%endell C. Allen, W sh~n n
Jouat(l (lmiasl ashington parnten f u
Instruction, 949), p 22.







24

Usinr! a ch ck list S ri4ers and Davis mnde a
study of the traiinui; and backgrounr exp.eritences of 406
counselors, Three hundred and forty-four of the 406
counselor referred to classroom teaching as an asset to
efficiency in counseling.
Burleyl2 wade a study of counselor c,rti;ictiOon
in New IamjP ire, XIn a Lition to ame*tin9) the ryquire-
ments for a teacher. h1w concXuded that the counselor
should (1) complete a minimumS of 15 semester hWurs of
technical training i n guidance courses and (2) have 12
months of work experience for w-,itmes in either busin-ss,
industry, agriculture or hoanakingt The finsJings in
a study by Cunliffe13 vere similar to nurley*,. Cunliffe
concluded that mastery of the techniques of counseling
and individual diagnosis i indispensable preparation for
counselors.


1Lylah Simmrs and Robert A. Dvis, *Training
and experience e of Counselors in North Central Schools,"
3lt *sLav LW1iVU XXL ( emazber, 1949), pp. 476-4U4.
12
Hilton C, Burley, H j a|t~ ;mpJs
-Dep~t mient of st'ca n, p., 61. p....

s t3, aCrunleaiffe, T C P"
Sest w aW nWffsw E, Jersey, l ) pp Z?4e40,








25


In reviewing a study by Larson which dealt with
the training and qualifications of counselors in second-
14
ary schools in California, Kitch noted that 50 per cent
of the 189 full-time counselors reported having taken one
or more courses in psychology, tests and measurements,
principles of guidance, counseling techniques, sociology,
mental hygiene, occupational analysis and trends, and
organization and administration of guidance. All of the
counselors seemingly were cognizant of the importance
of training in the use and interpretation of standardized
tests and other Judgment making devices,
During May, 1951, Kremen reported the results of
an investigation concerned with the certification
requirements for counselors throughout the United States.



Donald E, Kitch, "The School Counselort His Work
and Training,'* .1if a -ni-M c VL My-M-w- ArMmP n
atP

15Benamin G( Kremen, *Counselor Certific tion in
the United States*, Ocuations. XXIX (May 1951)
pp. 584-*586.







26


These conditions ~w-re found to obtains (1) Only ,iZ
states had counselor certification plans in operation.
(2) A teaching certificate cove ring two years of experi-
ence wns risquired. (2) Smew work experience other than
tcachiner or counseling was required. (4) wide differences
existed in the semester hours of specialized study
rtmquired. (5) Undergraduate study wv;s accepted toward
satisfaction of certification requirements; howev'r,
nearly oneehalf of the states required a mastrr's d-,ree
or its equivalent for top-l:vel certification, (6) Nirly
every state r. quired philosophy and technical guidance
courses.
An invc stiyation by Kinker and Fox of the hi.jh
school cui.dance services in a six-satte area disclosed
that nearly half of the counselors in those localities had
20 or more yars, of teaching expc-rience. More than hnlf
of the counselors had a course in advanced educational
psychology; ab:ut half of them had a course in psychology


16
H4. Robert Kinker and willia.m ,H Fox, "A' Study of
HiGh School guidance e r rvices in a fix*S ate Ar' a,
vorsi fM ij o chc oo (Rlooirgl4onst Indiana
UtyJ I II (Tbovombr, 41 pp. 9e5<97,






27


of individual differences. Only 40 per cent listed a
course in the psychology of personality development
nevertheless, some 42 per cent listed a mental hygiene
course. They concluded (1) that guidance personnel
were selected more frequently from those who held a major
teaching certificate in the social sciences and language
arts fields. (2) that the number of those who had special
courses pertinent to the development of efficiency in
guidance activities held a master's degree, and (4) that
very few guidance workers had had experience or intern-
ship in guidance organizations outside of the school.
17
Regarding counseling techniques, Tyler found the
tendency on the part of teachers and administrators readily
to assume (1) that mastery of specific counseling tech-
niques becomes a reality as soon as a p rson is designated
"counselors, and (2) that mastery of specific counseling
techniques is a by-product of teaching skills.
An investigation by Jones and others of counselor


17laona E, Tyler, 1 Wor2k ^ th Co2nsele 2
(New York Apple ton-Century rots, 3

8Arthur Jones, gat., The National Picture of
r^.=& r _^_t t..- < ---. .A Y = t i S i P- &.a


Pupl Prsoneland udoeevcsi 93


e








Z8
cerrtification and prerepnrrtion revealed thCt approximknuly
175 institutions of higher le]rnmin did offer cr~duate
tr.ininn for ad vanced dTegres in the field of counselor
preparation, They declared that if a count t:et .Iaken,
there would found ovor 100O colleges and universities
vtich offer one or more c"urssL n rAidnce. in a
reln+ed discussion of counselor training, YKilteSl h Id
the conviction t+ht itis just as ncesG6S ry for ctunse-
lors to h.?ve ecftensive 1 traifnin, in order to qualified
for their positions, as it is for teche:rs to be compe-
tent in their fields, Closely allied to the findings on
counselor training cited earlier w s the d isc.ourse by
20
;Mat.he1wson'1 i'~AoQV.!r, he went a bit further ~nd recomi-
mernded a two-y '~r tyraini.n9 proir a for the matter's degr',e,
According to him, the program should includes (1) twenty
four sar mestcr l-urs of undergraduate p.rpt-pration in



Floyd H, Kilmr r,* experiences in GuidanceP,
Yn at- er4ta i 0
pp^ -Ia gat ^^
ONc s, Oecbrr ppc -A',
20
Robert H, Mathbewson, .^Cs f C Jc Prctif e
(Nw Yorks Harper ind 'rothers, ,5i. pp^. 47o 34







29


psychology; (2) twentyefour semes.ter h urs of vr:iduatte
work in psychology, i:;vntal hy'iene, sociology, cultural
anthrooiolooy and education; (3) sixteen setanr r h.'urs
in technical guidance courses (4) f,9ur serneafter hoEurs of
group work an-i social r-ations, conditions and oppor-
tuniti.s, aind (5) eiL ht semester h urs in internship and
21
field work. 4Srith2 was in a.:dbrdJ with Mathewson, H e,
therefore, rtcovmtendecd the followintJ as optional ar-as of
acaderiic preparations (1) statistics, (2) school adidnis-
trat.ion, (s) curriculum, (4) school cnse .'orks (5) soci*
ology, (6) economics, (7) personnel management, and
(8) labor snd industrial relations.
A vw:ry recent study of 1,139 public secowndar-y school
counselors in Ohio was reort.~ed by ei'endorf. The
investigation wai concerned primarily w';itha (1) length of
service in a particular school system, (2) teaching and
counseling experience, (3) acade-ric st-atus, (4) .:i.iance


21
^, Glt(enn T., !C.taith, CgM t ^ ibg ,
2 (h ., (hew York; The M c i on rompanyI 5i pp. 249

22
.osb-:rt A, "endorf, "Qualific-tions of Guidance
Counselors in Ohio 'High 'chools,' 7 eP^Syai an
Guidance Jornp l, XXXIV (M1ay, 1956p>







30


training, and (5) certification status, As a result of
the investigation, he concluded (1) thrtt it wns appnroent
that the counselor a appointments tended to be qiven to
teachers qan-i administrators wYith a considerable amount of
educational excirience, but with little consideration for
their professional preparation or knoledge of 9 ;id.nce
p'rinciplee or practices, (2) that. the majority of counse-
lors possessed little or no professional training in the
field of 9idance, and (3) that only a small proportion of
the counselors, at laast in thio, have felt compelled to
me..t certification requirements in their field, and only
an equally small proportion h.ve the intention of doing
so,

fVlidtl7 e 9a S 3 *its Data
on the duties of counselors have been compiled by sev -.ral
persons and organizitionse Cox2 reported that the chief
svirvice of the counselor to individual students is the
giving of Guidance in th, educntionalovocitional and the
socianlemotional areas, According to her, ,-ork with groups
of pupils inclwlest (1) subject teaching, (2) running
~ret acquainted" f'.rups, (v) teaching group iguidance



Cox, 5g. g4*,, pp. 62*64.







classes, (4) conducting life relations groups, (5) oryano
izing and supervising groups for discussions on choice of
next school or vocation, (6) supirvisin. the homeroom and
extra-curricula activities, atnd (7) chaperoning social
24
events., Likewise, trickbon and S Fith2 sta-ted that the
duties of counselors should fall within the following cate
goriest (1) assisting in orjetnizincj and supervising the
guidance proiram, (2) assisting staff members to carry out
their functions in the program., (3) c.rrryinyg on follow-up
studies; and (4) making coaarounity occupqtionel surveys.
25
Cha~p n pointed out that the duties of the counse-
lor are to hbe found in the followinV areas of guideantes
(1) The Information Areea, (2) The Counseling Arcsa, (3) The
26
Placement Arca, and (4) The Followo-up ,Area. urley
reported too that counselors have such duties ast (1) rain*
training records, (2) aiding in providing info .ation


24
Clifford 5rickson and Glenn Snith, "raftino
5 Y r (ew Yaor ra
hCompany, c, t, p.. Th, pp 557



26
Eurloy, .g0. Lc, pp. 86-87.







32
concerning vocations, education, personal adjustments and
social relationships; (3) helping teachers utilize and
contribute to guidance services; (4) aidin understanding students and inte rpretir date on individu*
al inventory, and (5) assisting teachWers in securing and
utilizing occupational, educational and other information
relating to their subject fields,
aartinsons27 investigation of 100 elrn tary
school counselors revealed th th he duties Aerformed by
the counselors were no rous and varied. Of this group,
34 par cent wrIe actively engageId in teaching, 32 per
cent were responsible for the investigation of causes of
absence from school. It V also pointed out that all
the counselors indicated that the study of individual
problems w .s o one of their primary resptnsibilities.
Froehlich 28 xpres ed the conviction that the
counselor's work with individual students must include
tstinlj, making anecdotal records, kLcpingj persornal.iata


27
Ruth A, Martinson, cited by Kitch, og$. ,i,*
pp. 21*22,

liffo ord Fro'hichn e
ichalsa, (New YorfkL MScr Book ompany, I *
P. 14,






33


blanks, and usint: other techniques available for dise
29
cov&:Wriny aptitudes, int.re.sts or attitudes, Frickson
listed (1) instructional y.Jid~$ nce, (,) f:taculty counseling
and professional cvuns ling as essential functions of
30
counselors oaterr$ declared too that the counselor's
duties sho-uld bk those oft (1) maintainin M special
relations with pa rticular students, (2) studying data
gaathred on students, (3) informing other faculty rvembers
of the special strengths end needs of students, and (4)
placing the cases of particular students before the entire
31
faicalty for special consid .ration. Matlhewson listed
the following functions of the school counselors (1)
identification of needs and problemsin in individual pupils,
(2) referral to specialized school services or to outside
services, (3) coordination of pupil personnel activities,
(4) helping teachers understand personal ani family problems
and situations of pupils, (5) uptrading teachers in uses of


29
Clffford2 I:kricsonx I AD
Nw. (Na York: PIrs(ntief4?a t J

0Jane alterss, Comp ne CounyseYq (Qw York;
AcGrah4?ill fook Comipany, nc., p.IW.

M1atahewson, g.* .., p. :0n.






24
classroom guidance techniques applicable to individuals
and to groups, and (6) orientation of pupils to new
experiences.


CounQlmsr A vast .mount of pertinent literature on the
personal charact.: ristics of counselors is available in
innum rablc. pblications. ;rickson and Smith32 argued
that there are specific personal charnectcristics common
awiong successful counselors, According to them, some of
the characteristics are that counselors areas (I) sympa-
thOtically and objectively interested in the success of
boys andJ girls beyond the point of acadeaac achicverenntO
(2) successful, hut not glanorous persons-- those who
command personal and professional respect, (3) possessed
with a keen insight into human nature, and (4) mature,
experienced, alert and patient. In keoein--n with this
argument, Chapnian pointed out that any individual vho
desires to become a counselor should be convinced thorcwu.h*
ly of his admiration for people and his unselfish int:.rest


32
ricksson and Smith, 9'Rs s, pp. .197-198.
33
Chapmnan, gP. at p. 16.










in their problems. In accord with this point of view
,w"s a reu.ort on the p rsonal chnractyristics of the
efficient ct:un.selor ma de by the New York t4nte Counselors
Association. 4 It w's pointed out tha& the countelor
a:ould bet (I) an individual with special ,qualifilc.,tions,

(2) a person with .better than average mental alertfness,
and onev who enjoys dea-lins with pmrsln -i problems, (2)
one wto is ablc to analyze and a rrge ideas and mratrisal
syste.Fmtically, end (4) a p4rs- n .ith a 0ood education,
special trn inin; and broad ox::rifnces,
In making .a compFrative suricary of studies on the
personal character sticks of counselors by 'wverinl authors,
Jonic:s observed that of a total of 24 d.iefinite personal
characteristics listed, vith only rcrc( exceptions, it
apprwored thit the-e w-s significant nfre-tent among all
the invcsti.a.tors on the value of spxccific tr.its t o the
successful counselor. H~rever, he e rned, 'I.o clearly
defined patterns have ppc- reoQ that will nat Ie us to



New York state Counselors Association, cited by
H!Trin,, (pp. .20.321) Counni MdoJv,-C nt, cince
PRessarch Associites, Inc,, n C cago

"Arthur Joners-, Pnrcp, 4 ,o (v ow Yark
Mc^rtawill Book Corapony, Inc., 1 ), pp. %58$460,









36


state that, to be successful, a counselor must have this,
that, or the other pattern.0
In viLw of the fact th. t personal charact rlitics
do play such an important role in the success of counse-
lors, Kitch36 made the following recom:indationst (1)
The counselor should have ability to ork cooperatively
with others. (2) The counselor should possess mature
personal adjustment. (3) The counselor should have abili-
ty to maintain objectivity in human relationships. (4)
The counselor should have a capacity for ric.dily inspiring
confidence and establishing r-)p,)ort, (5) The counselor
should have a high intr..st in continuous professional
improvements (6) The counselor si-ould be willing to v:ork
beyond the "call of duty."
27
Hartely and Hudland studied the charact. ristics
of counselors by getting the reactions of high school
seniors to the counselors, One a0:ong thr many pertinent



3Kitch, g i.. pp. 15-17.
37
Davis Hartely and Paul Hudlind, "Reactions of
Hi9h School Seniors to their Guidance Programs," e _etin
lep ^r, a te UMrsS+ i Xse tZ a ,41
*Pte.. a r7 pp + t f "If407 -1w%








37


factors rev aPled wns the sincere desire expressed by the
seniors for friendly and undrstA nding counselors.
-8
waterss held a point of view similar to the one discussed
above, Nevertheless, she did place a considerable mnoufnt
of emphasis upon the counselor's appearance in terns of
9
his attire. Similar i.eas ,tre expressed by Yeo," He,
however, listed; (1) cooperative attitude, (2) integrity,
(3) good character, and (4) discretion as personal attri*
40
hutts of the c.:unselor Froehlich, too, acknowledged
the vital importance of the personal char-cteristics of
counselors. He contended thnt: (1) The counselor's
emotional maturity is evidenced by his ability to live in
a social order andi to participate in community affairs,
(2) The counselor's attitude tow Ird the use of narcotics
or alcohol and teord a1&e violations rny reveal such tthinse
as civic le&dersl-ip, or ability to work cooperatively others. (3) The counselor* appearance, h':alth, pl as.ng


38
Waters, Of, g p. 301.
39
J. t '-ndell Yte, "Standards and Certification
Requirements for Counselors in %elected City School System,v
Occup ns, XXX (Noveibwer, 1951) p, 113.
40
Froehlich, go. i-, pp, 54, 55,








Sr38
voicc, frcu nJ frat^ aoyin mAnnvrisr contribute
cre 'tly to is conpetuency.









Stiummary

In this ,hp t ri.r a, tt t wos ade to review
so n related literature tr-. tin prirnrily (1) t
professional tatus of the training of c:unjnelors, (2)
:duties of c::-unrc-lors, atnd (3) personal characteristics of
counselors, Thda e a o th raini of the cgOuns. lor
were.c rcviet',ed in the first part of the chapter. it s:
pointed up that as early s 19V 6t, the trend n t the train

ing of counslcors w;is toward coursrs in psychology,
socioloJY, Feconomics, occupy tons .an special guidance
problems, I In most int4nc..s, ll t au1h thoriis cited
expressed opinions in agrFemwnt that, couns;or. s s hotui e
well-,t:roundied in oth r courses 4lich have ;T.,i:ince imtpli.


The s 'con division of the chapt .- revealed

sicni'icnt opinions r..lative to dutit-s of c:unselorBs In
9gneral, the duties of counselors re re* orted as crm2 -- n.
such functions, ass (1) counseling individuals, (2)

assistinng t acLhrs, (t) crkinQ contributions towrd hole
school program, (4) ri4in the .:p l.t .en t-he school ,nd
the community, oan (5) giving tui:.nc.. to varied student

grouyas.









40
The concluding division of the ch:er tmi
concerned tith the? rSviewin of literature on personal

choract,:risticf of counselors o uch traits ans
4.aottonal rmaturity of counselors, attitudes interests,
degree of objectivity, "tone" of voice, appt:.--,rance, a~nd

types of clothing selected app on re d to be important natria
butes of the coomptnit counselor*









nI~ liiT


THP,.. Pr J 033.AL 3T .m tF AC. Nlt:A P

This investi;ationf wn,,s focused upon the profcsion-
al status of the training of head counselors in senior

high schools for ;.groes in Florida. This chapter,
therefore, pres-.nts the findings of the study, Such
factors ass (1) academic trA.ining, (2) experiences, (3)
duties and problem*, and (4) personal characteristics of
the population studied constituted the scope of the
inv;,:- tfigation. The results wTre pre9a noted in descriptive,
statistical and tabular form. It should he soinred out
here that the d wata were procured fronm questionnaires exe-
cuted by 80, or 79 per cent, of the 101 subjects in the
study. It should be obsotrvd, howev v-r,- that 12 schools
reported no Counstlors for the 1996-57 term. These
schools had not become accredited by the Southern Associ-
ation of Colleges -In Secondary Schools, No resr-onses
were received from eight schools. The instruction31l
personnel of each of theCse schools included fewer than
10 rmbe rs. r:ven t-,nuh one counselor hnd access to the
original letter andt two follow-up letters, this individu-
al did not feel inclined to pirticipane in the study.







42


It his been stated already that thhe population

of the investigation wnm made up of 80 counselors,

Male and f .male counselors were surveyed. A distri-

bution of the participants by sex is presented in Table

it


T ABU I
P TCINTAIGrE LjST7 j Uflt OF H+ AD
CGJNREvLOrs X4-m;)I TIA IX


Male

Female
t-4n*P


21

58

1


Total 80

Throughout, thts study *Y~NR means


26

73

XA


100

no response.


ACCording to Table I, 58 or 73 per cent,of the

counselors were female, towentynone, or 26 per cent, were

male, One c,-unselor failed to rcact to this item.


-~mawr







43


Off ial dance utitls110 it hIats been found
that guidance workers have been designated by a multi-

plicity of titles, An atitectpt was made to dreterrine
the prevalence of this trend as;mon{; the subjc cts studied,
Table II sumarizes the results.


TNtIU I
P 4c> T 4 DiSRJ IfnTfIJN O(F P AJ Cz.rr2 lOP.S
CC. ..,I .TO O FF r.. ^I.i. mI Vy t .S



Guidance Titles N.iumbicr Per cent

Acting Principal 3 4
Assistant Principal 2 1
Chairman of Guidance Comittee 9 11
Coordlintor of Guidance 2 3
Counselor 18 22
Counselor for Boys and Girls 2 3
Counselor for foys 4 4
Counselor for Girls 2 3
Dean 4 4
Dean of Boys7 9
Dean of Girls 10 12
Director of Guidance 4 5
Pnrt-time Counselor 1 1
Superintendent-Principal 1 1
Tea fcherCouns< lor 5 6
No "rsponse 7 9

Total .0 100








44


Table 11 shows that of the group of 80, 18, or

22 per cent, were called #counselor,* The next most
common title wvs that of 'dean of girls.* Ten, or 12
per cent, of the counselors bore that title, The iti.tes
of "assistant principal," 'prt-*time counselor" and

"superintend ,nt-principal" were -cach designated by one,
or one per ccnt, of the counselors.


Academic Training

Guidance research, in recent years, has produced

many studies pertaining to the numerous charact ristics

of the counselor, Seemingly, th. crux of most of these
investigations has been the academic training of the

counselor. The research has shown ov-*r and over th-t
the counselor's training has many implications for cozpe-
tency in his work. It is generally agreed that the

counselor should have extensive formal training both at
the undergraduate and the graduate level to attain

mast::ery in his ,-.'ork, The undergraduate and graduate

majors of the 80 counselors, consequently, were analyzed
with this idea in mind, A sunmnry of the inv.stigo: ion

is presented in Table III.







45


TABLE III
P!.RCETl"AGE JISrTRIBUTION OF A:AD CaUNSU.(RS ACCORDING
TO UND.)RGCRAUATE AVD GRADUATL IAJ3RS




SUndergraduate Graduate
Areas of Majors Numel _er flume Per
NuM- Per Nukr- Per
her cent her cent

Administration and Supervision 'i 1 18 22
Agricultural Education 5 6 3 4
Biological and Physical Sciences 8 10
Business Education 2 3
Elementary Education 21 26 6 8

English 14 17 4 5
Guidane 37 46
Health and Physical Lducation 1 1 3 4
Industrial educ tion 2 3

Mathematics 4 5
Psychology 1 I
Romance Langua.,s 2 3
Social Sciences 15 19
No Response 1 1 9 11


Total 80 100 80 100
VIM.. .... . . .l .. .. . ... ... ..u .


From Table III, it may be observed that at the
undergraduate level most of the counselors majored in Ele*

mentery Education, Of the group, 21, or 26 per cent,

specialized in that area, Fift..en, or 19 per cent, of the







46


total gqr;up had und'-rgraduate majors in Social Sciences,
Thirre were no majors in C^uidance at the uwjer .rdtate
level, because this is normally a rsa~duait area of
specialization. DTisclosed also w-s the fac tt that the
undergraduate areas of Administration and Supervision,
Health and Physical F ducbtion, ~nd Psychology were each
majored in by one, or one pcr cent, of the counselors,
rPegrding majors at th pleaduate level 37, or 46
per crnt, of the group indicated a major in uitdance.
[ighteen or 22 per cent, of the counselors chose a gradu-
ate major in Administr;.tion and Supz--rvision Nine, or 11
per cent, did not indicate their majors at the gra-.iduate
level.
^underraduisn toerai. It is a widely hJld
opinion a-ong aut: orities in guidance that the undeJrrraduap
ate training of ctnselors should include such C.ourses as
econovics, psychology, and sociology Certification for
c:urnselors in Florida requires students to have at lVst
three semester hours in eacth of these areas, It is felt
that such courses o;uld contribute -.r-'- rn.tly to the back*
ground training of counselors, Vith this idea in mind
the undergraduate training of the counselors investigated
was analyzed. Tablef IV throws sow light on the scope of
training of the group in subject matter thought to be
roelnted to Guidiance.






47


TABLE IV
PEEUJflAGRl DIlSTRIBUTICN OF HI. AD COUN'IrLORS ACcOD5NG 4TO
THE NI B .R OF 3UMrTLER H GRADUATE Le.:VEfL IN C RTAIN rELATED CU-SES


Economics Psychology Sociology
Hours _
Number Per cent Niumber Per cent Number Per cent


19-plus 3 4 3 4 4 5
15-18 1 1 10 12 2 3
10-14 3 4 9 11 14 18
5-9 21 26 54 68 37 46
0-4 52 65 4 5 23 28


Total S a 100 80 100 80 100




It may be seen from Table IV that the credits earned
in economics ranged from four hours for 52, or 65 per cent,
of the group to more than 19 hours for three, or four per
cent, of the population. The mean number of hours ca;rned
was seven,
Four persons earned as little as four hours of credit
in psychology, while three earned 19 or more hours. The
avera-.e number of hours earned in psychology was seven.
As for sociology, the credits ranged from four hours









credit for 23, or 28 per cent, of the res-ond tnts, to :sre
than 19 hour for four or r o five prr cent, of the gropo
The mean number of hour earned in sociology by the t-roup
was seven.
cad. *| The concept of higher education
has several int.res;ting aspects. One of the aspects is tlh
granting of acacde4ic degrees in recognitSon of achi:v(rrnt
at specified leveIs, An a.ttemwpt, therefore, wavs made to
learn the typsi $ of baccalureote and m:,stt:rs' degrees Aich
had been t:-.e by the subjects surveyed, The results are
summarized in Table V.







49


TA7L[ V

P P'y <*:: d1TRFUJMTI OF H' A, CR .?:.
2X,;:Xi:;x TO TYK' P ( R' yC 5i;. T<
.D 4' 7 RS* ) .lD
,, .~ -, .T i.
n~~4* P1 Y 5 .Irr$^c90?- S~s At
wry sr '


Undorgradua*e Graduate

Typus of Degrees
Typu~ of Number Per cent Numaber Per cent


bachelorr of Arts 31 38
1. achelor of science 47 59
r`che lor of aciLnce in
Fu4ucation 2 3
Master of Arts 13 16
IA-tf.r of 7ducatlIn 9 11
.m-ster of rc.Cence 4 5
NO f';radiua+e i.)egrre: 54 68


Tota1 80 100 80 100




The s ouary of reos -ones in Table V reveals that 31,

or 38 per cent, of thb counselors had enrnetd th.e 3chelor

of Arts degree while 47, or 59 per cent, of the group had

received the Bachelor of Scince degree. Just two, or three

per cent, had bheen granted the Bachelor of coience in

Erducntion degree

According to t the typ-"s of aster's' deree ea:4rned,

Tabl V sahows th-it S or 16 per cent, of the groui had s1rned







50


the MWster of Arts degree. Nine, or 11 p.r cGent of the
counselors had been granted the .Mster of Educa.tion degree.

Only four, or five er cent, of the population held the
Master of sciencee degree, None of the group held the
Master of Science in education degree. It should be
observed also that 54, or 68 per cent, of the group did
not hold graduate degrees at all.

iaR ^zdB b iyond the baccrleaucato aje. It
is a popular opinion that the training of the counselor
should extend beyond the academic requirements for the
baccalaureate degree, The basis for this argument appears
to be the contention that the dynamic nature of educ;titon,

and th.e v..orld of work demand th, continuous training of
the counoslor if he expects to improve his competence in
his 1w5ork, In the light of the above view, in effort was
mwde to determine the number of hours the group studied had
earned beyond the bachelor's degr-s, In order to do that,

it was neCossary to equate quarter hours to semester hours.
A quart-ur hour, therefore, was considered to be two-thirds
of a senmsts.r hour, This analysis involved 54 counselors.
The remainder of the croup had earned the master's decree.
Table VI gives a tabulation of the responses,







51


TMU., VI

piRC WrefV :IUTP'rrIUN OF MNiOD s$AVT URoYS Bt-
Y(kND TH!E r.CCALA'. AT: D$ih i.f; BY H .AD CW;:CI.~ LOS
WO0 i)10 .:T HOLD THE r-.TS:T f' ;EGrE



Hours Number Per cent


36-40 2 4
31-35 2 4
26-30 3 6
21-25 4 7
16-20 4 7
11-15 5 9
6-10 34 63


Total 54 100
--I-- --I'll lp---r --Y-aft--1~ -L- MON-- --~I---- ~~ -Y-l-_~lr -I_-- ~ -LIL~--~L- --- Y--~-C -~L----I


From Tnble VI it may be observed that the seitester

hours earned beyond the baccalaureate degree ranged from

six to 10 hours for 34, or 63 per cent, of the g group to 36-

40 hours for two, or four per cent, of the counselors, The

mean number of semester hours earnedd beyond the baccalnure-

ite degree vwas 14

Institut$oj tten at ee. Various reasons may be

expressed for ones choice of an institution of higher

learning. The counselors, however wi-re not requested to









react t t this hasne of the issue. They erke asked, novcr-
thelesa, to indicate the nonss of institutions attended,
Table VII reveals a summary of the responses


T.3AYL. VIX
PWTtG. VT tM G )ISThlt tIn o( t: AD {A Vt. 3GS
BY It T ITUT IC ri ATT: Q



Underorewuwte Graduate
Names of Instituti one
NUOM* Per AM- f Per
boe' c nt her cent

Alabam.ea .A and M College 1 1
Atlant a university 12 15
Rthurn Cookan College 12 15
Bost.on Univeraity 1
Clark Colleg 2
Co.lmbia University 15 19
Florida A nd M Aniverity 36 45 27 34
Florida N and I Colleqe 4 5
WHapton Inatitute 2 3 1 1
I'oward hUniversity I I
Indiana University 1 1
New York University 22 28
Northwestern University 1 1
Spellman College 3 3
Tal1ad.ga College 3 3
Tuskgs'ee Institute 10 12
Virginia Union College 2 3
aest Virglnia State College 2 3
wilbkrforce tUniversity 2 3

Total 80 oo 80 00









53


According to Table VII, the counselors chose the
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University in the
main for matriculation at the undcrSraduate level. Of
the yroup, 36, or 45 per cent, attended this institution.

The next largest number attended fethune Cookman College.
Twelve, or 15 per cent matriculated there Matriculation
by the re~sMining 32 counselors was among 11 other colleges
and univu.-rsitir, s The attendance ranged from one each at
Alabama A and M Colle:je and a Howard Univcrsity to four at

Florida N and I College, The average number of matricu-
lants in these institutions was three,
Table VII disclosed that the counselors chose
mainly the Florida AgNricultural and Mechanical University

for graduate training. Twenty-seven, or 34 p...r cent, of
the population indicated attendfance at this institution.
N-w York University ranked second in attendance by the

group, Twenty-two, or 28 per cent, matriculated there,
several other institutions were attended by the remiainddr
of the r:.spondents.
Forty, or 50 rpr c-_nt, of the counselors matriculated
at southern universities at the graduate level, The other
40, or 50 per cent, attended northern univ-"rslties. The
largest nunbr attending a northern university ws 22, or or28
p.r cent, at New York University, The next largest number









54


attended Columbia t.ni.versity 15, or 19 per cento One
counselor each attended Boston University, Indiana
University and KorthW'estern Univcrsity.
_ybAM'irIt. t0 Sme^ti ,mage Traditionally,
candidates seekirvj graduate dereces have been re'~ uird to
write thesr.s in partial fulfillment of the r quiremsnts
for said degrees4 In recent y'lrs, a new trend in this
ar;.a has gained prssltenoe.t Pmrwtntly, caknidates for
advanced dderes, in many tnst.nces, have oth-e..r choices in
addition to writing theses from. wh.tich to choose. Some of
the alternatives aret (1) dointi; additional hours, (2)
writintn inv.sticationst and projects, or (3) taking pre-
scribed oxarinatiorns An effort woo ta ade to find out the
requirertents met by the population studied for graduate
de-grees Table VIIX discloses the distribution of the
counselors accordnln to the requirements for graduate
degrees. It should be pointed out, however, that the analy-
sis was Jliiited to the 2C counselors t.ho held gradunte
degrees*











TAfl VIV X
R-C NTr L 4iQ't1tn 1. OF 26 H. c: r.U.. 4,X, rLI'







Theses $ 31
Project 4 15
Prescri.-d 'fours 14 54


Total 26 100




From Table VIII It may he seen that of th 26
counselors who had eArned the .mrsterts degree, diht or 31
per ccnt, wrote the.ises, Fours or 15 per ce.nt,) wrote
projects; while 14, or 54 per ceant of the roup did pre-

scribed hours to mee-t the requirements for the QraJdu.ate


Tec~h!ica c Isef gs, Theoretically, thc counselor
should :.e more informed abut the ,disciplinrs of guidrce

than th, Nvr;e person, Hen1, thfereorc, t1ust of necessity

acquire xt-nsive andw continuous tr innq in echnnjicAl
guidance ciursaes, A:'th this idea in aind d'ta on the

technical guidance training off the group surveyed .,ere

srou9ht, TBle IX presents a summary of the tidiance c.urs.6a









56


taken.
.V,




Tu T r 1 AL C"i C UR" T:'-r^



Courses Nurmer Per cent
~__~ ~ _low, Amm "Pm .N ... .... .. .-.- am
History or Principles of Guidance 70 88
Individual Diagnosis 20 25
Occupational Information 48 60
Organization rtnd .Nadinistrlnt&A on
of Guidance 35 44
Theories of Counsling 50 63
Use and Interpretat.ion of Tests 42 S3




The findiny in TAble IX rev al tha* 70, or 88 per

cent, of the counselors had received credit in at l a.st one

basic guidance course, ''ile 10, or 12 p:-sr cun.,t, had not

received any creditS Fifty, or 63 per cent, of the group

had earned credit in a c-urs.e prtaftning to theories in

c)unsr1ing. ixty, or 75 per cent, of the popuatio. n had
had no technical traini:nM in testing and diSnyosin the

individual st d .nt or tr.Eoups: of students.

In the attot.ept to JeeTeri;ne the recency of credit$

e.rnnd in the? courses described in Tbl IzX, X+h cGtn:t slors








57


tre rEqu'sted to inlicite the Jptrs the c- urs- s -re
taken. It was found that the majority of the counselors
listed f.rom 194,5 ,o 1955 as the dates of their having
taken thev c.:,urses.,

QotifitiS j jt o Csnse s The rapid adivance-
mrent of gui:.nce and personnel servicess towrd a pro*
fessioralized status his mnny raMifica ions MonJg them
is the concept of certification of workers in this field
of sg.ecialization. Much data I.wve nppes-r-'d em:hasizing
the inherent values of ce-rtification to g.tuida.nce workers,
Several authorities in the field of .uifl.nce have the
conviction that certification of guidance '-,rk.rs is an
indispon hble factor in the proere;szion to'- rdJ imn-,rovemnt
in the whole guiAdnnce movement, It Bhould not be di.fij
cult then to ascertain the reason why the subjects inv- s0ti*
gated in the study were requested to indicate their
Certification status as cu9tidance v orkor. rbahle X gives a
summary of the replies.









58


p IIt r I TT Y TICU I OF I AC C(UN LOPS
BY C TIFrIICAT;i'N r'rts


Status JNumber Per cent


Certified 20 2
Uncertified 59 74
No Response I 1


Total 0 100


According to Table X. 20, or 25 per Cent, of the
resp'.ondents had become certified in guidance. rifty-nine,
or 74 per cent, of the group were uncertified. One counse-
lor failed to react to ttthis itea.
Since recency is an aspect of the problem of cErtifi*
cAtion, the subjects were requested to indicate the dates
when they ere certified. It was found that the 20 certified
counselors had attained that status during the l-st 10 years.









59


SxperiCnce3 of Counelors

There .rc: m uch daa aovilble to suhst;ntiate the

frct that cxp riences of counselors other than t.ose
obttin(edduring :th crurse of their academic trl niinr re

inv&alua'le to thas functionaries,* ith this xoint of
vi
were analyzed.

Topchip n &o. o Presumaly, thie h ad counsel
lors must *:ork principally with problems orisginSting

generally in the lherning process Tsachirn ecxo;rientc
should facilitate the pv-rformance of thcir tasks. The
counselors surveyed, therefore, were requested, to list

their teaching experienceo Table XI presents a summ-ary of

the res,: ,Osonqes.






/


tABlLn XA

P:trG (NYC U II3ST7P11 ION (OF HW AD CXi.NShL LUC tt:CC
TO Y-E S OF TV : G P? RI NCE



Years Number Per cent

15-plus 30 38
13-15 12 15
10-12 9 11
7-9 8 10
4-6 11 14
1-3 10 12


Total 80 100
. ... . .. .. .. .. . . . . . . .


According to Table XI, the t eacihingt experience of

the group ranged frum three y ars for 10, or 12 per cent.,
of the counselors to :ore than 15 years for 30, 6r 38 per

ccnt, of the respondents. fight, or 10 per cent, of the

subjects had had nine yonrs of tr~aching experiences. The
nodal number of ye'grs of teaching exprcrience was 15 plus.

!$sk Jx ni tXI %; ws adwrr .rLnng
Seve-ral authorities are of the opinion that+ ork and com-

munity leadership experiences of counselors tend to
broaden the scope of the g,.id;nmce point of view. By so









61
doing, the implication's for wuid;ance .a'ire ClS.r. An
endeavor wms mrade to re.trr:ine t,,ht work cxporiercs of the
group invwttigat+ed, Fifty, or 6. p4r, cent, of the coun;ee
lors reported their having had work experiences othnr than
teaching and counseling, Table XII shows the distribution
of the finditnvs.


A;,-L XII
P UC ".';f I Ix TU I:tT .% i F : ,r ..i. i.;'; .q S
.,,c !,)t +;+ i,2 TV "x.jr *i' i is.. ?
p ,g .. : ,. + ,++ ..-


Position Nub Pr Per cent

Aid forces 10 20
Agricultural personnel 2 4
Industrial personnel 9 18
Govcrnm nt employme-,nt 13 26
Social welfare 11 22


To+al 50 100
.L ;- -- 7 -- : ----' --- C -.tC -C -J ---. -'L ..-- .L 7;-; ----T -----?T --:U '.; --''Z --.-L .;;' 2.U. nL -7--7 7 : .-----7-T- T- --; -;T '-- -- -


From Table X11 it may be seen that 13, or 26 p;r
cent, of fthe group had experience in Covrnmernt weployiment,
Of the population, 11 Or 22 per cent, had engaged in
Social t"'lfare work. Just two, or four ;-:r c'nt, of the








counselors had been Agricultural personnel.
Data concerning thi. community leadership experi-
ences of the counselors investigated revealed that 40, or
50 per cent, of the group had been exposed to active com-
munity leadership experiences. amongg these experiences
were (1) Boy and Girl Scouts, (2) civic organizations,
(3) juvenile councils, (4) Parent-Teacher Associations,
(5) Youth Councils, and (6) Young Mon and Young Women's
Christian Associations.
Creative ~1nitnr l With the widespread popularity
of periodical literature, an accumulation of extensive
creative writings has appeared in innumerable sources, The
contributions which these publications make to the intel*
lectural and to the professional growth of both the writer
and the reader have received comendation from several
authorities in the fields of education and guidance, The
subjects in the study, therefore, were requested to indi-
cate their participation in that type of activity. Table
XIII summarizes the responses to this item.









63


P' nCWG. IST.lr. IIoN OF ;, {aD C...irLOS
BY C! ATIV. VRITITES EWV RNCE



Have you had the experience? Number Per cent

Yes 9 II
o 69 86
No fRes;onse 2 3


Total 01 100



From Table XIII it may be observed that nine, or 11
per cent of the group had had experience in cre:ltive
writings. Sixty-nine, or 86 per cent, of the counselors
replied "no to this item. Two, or three per cent, of the
population failed to react to this item.
According to the authors, the cr active writings
cieod above appeared in such periodicals a-s (1) ,Drow,
County Netfa ian S A a. (2) anid- Ud Itaghmcas-Astgo
aItAn BulLetin, and (3) jDg A dttial VacnaYCn.10
~PaInduml '-0~










64


Duties and Problems of Counselors

r t-., Guidance literature conta ins lengthy
discourses relating to the duties of counselors, It has
bWen found that the duties of counselors have a tendency
to very in different school settings. There are, howev .re
specific duties which should be common among most ccunse*
lors. In the light of this convention, the counselors
studied v.ere requested to indicate their duties, Table
XIV presents a distribution of counselors according to
duties.









65


TABLE XIV
P .RC E NTA(GE :)I'TRIBtUTIONC HtAD:OF CLtUNELORS
ACCORODIN T1W iOi S


.............. r ...... ..... C.... .. .. .. -- --_ l--1--T-~--- L- -:-- -- ~-- ./--. L--- .... .... '--I---- -- '-- -~ -- --__ -__ -- = ---- n _-- -- -- -_ -- -- I-: .. .. .. .. .. ......

Guidance Duties Num* Per
---r ---Ce t nt
Administering and interpreting standard*
ized tests 55 69
Assisting in the orientation of students 80 100
Conducting guidance conferences 19 24
Counseling students 80 100
Developing anJ supervising homeroom
activities 47 59
Holding conferences with parents -nd staff
merbers regarding students ith problems 71 89
Providing guidance in-service training 19 24
Selecting tests 65 81
Writing up case data 47 59




From Table XIV, it is obvious that the duties of
assisting in the orientation of students, and counseling
students were engaged in by the whole group. The next
largest number, 71, or 89 per cent, of the counselors
listed the duty of holding conferences with parents and
staff mcm"ers regaroditng students with problems. It si should
be noted also that only 19, or 24 pcr cent., of the group
designated the duties of conducting guidance conferences
and providing guidance in-ss..rvice training.









66


Jime alotti r2 a t.dnce ^Ut, ^ Sevral Authoril"
ties in the area of guidance .;r e that tise a:llotted to

guidance du+ies by tjhe counselor contributes tr rtly to the
effectiveness and to the success of his t.-:ork. The co"unse-

lors in this study 'ere requested to specify the number of

hours allotted to ~guidance duties. Thl, W XV gives a suW.-i.ta

ry of the finJingls.




TO X W AL T.RTT..) FOr flUr1..tCL RVtI1CS


6 6 8
5 2 39
4 9 11
3 6 6
2 20 24
1 31
NR 6 8


Total 80 100
-- --~ ~ N O- lo -O "I --._ __ -- .. __ a mi-.-T : : Z = : -:. /. i _- _" :-- i I :T :- -_-- i .. ... ". . ... .


It can be obs:.rvd .from Table XV th? the hours

allott.ed to gidance duties by the counselors r.ca. ed frm one

li our for C!, or 3 r -er cpent, of the group to six h.urs f'or









67


six, or eiPht per cont, of the counselors surveyed. The
mean ntwnber of houtrs allotte to counseling ws t'vwo, Six,
or cight pc-r cent, of the Sroup failed to ract to this


NcvMd4 ,n*Arl i)SE* Most counselors, no dlubt, have
rOcC:cnizhA thnt laty are not e.ually incot.petent in ail
th:e functions of q i-Aonce. In .l probability, hA u'.-v:r

they ha- c Ulso r4-coiniz d tht they are not equally cIme-i
tont in all the functions of g-ids.nce, But whateverr the
level of comvpetncy, alert arnd professionally minded co;unse
lors are likely to realize tha they cn im.rove upon +heir
proficiency; therefore, they will be in need of t;ore onQ

ring assistance with nil of their functions, Consequently,
the ;o.ulbtiu;n studied :w;.s presented a list of functions
tich ty r norly Ore y xp ctd to carry outi Tho liUt of
functions was d:-veloped na a result of a Criticl a analysis
of the tutios of -counselors as conceived by guidaAnce 'utori
t i F.Fro the list, the subjects rc-re r quested to check
the "extn.nt of need" foras assit.nance in each .rea niric nted,
Tab;lc XVI discloses the .iistribu.tion of responses.






TAABLE XVI


PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUnTI(N OF HEAD COUNSELORS ACCORDING
TO EXTENT OF NEED FOR ASSIST*rNC WITH PROBLEMS


Very Much Greatly Some No response Tet
Area of Proble Ms i- 0 i I
mNu- Per NuM- Per NuM* OWu Nw Per Nuar i
ber cInt be cent be: cent r cent he c
Administering tests 19 24 19 24 18 23 24 29 80
Counseling students 18 23 23 29 26 32 13 16 80
Deriving measures of central tendency 30 38 12 15 15 18 23 29 80
Deriving measures of correlation 30 38 16 20 17 21 17 21 80
Deriving measures of variability 28 35 15 18 18 23 19 24 80
In-service training 17 21 37 47 17 21 9 11 80
Organizing guidance programs 20 25 18 23 27 34 15 18 0
Placement and follow-up studies 30 38 17 21 20 25 13 16 80
Selecting tests 25 31 20 25 16 20 19 24 8
Use & interpretation of inventories 19 24 19 24 20 25 22 27 80
Use & interpretation of questionnaires 23 29 7 9 26 32 24 30 80
Using occupational information 17 22 21 26 26 21 26 80
Working with others 19 24 16 20 25 31 20 25 80
Writing case data 21 26 20 25 22 28 17 21 80
-____InininmmuMm a in.0ninu [le-ansa
.ai a a nf-a-i.-su0


11

al

100
ent

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100









69


(nf outstndlinc feAture of Thboe XVI is '*he lnrge
number of counselors who filrd t.o rswond to the various

ites on h questionnaire, It is not known v+y so m;r,?y
of them filled to respond to t.h ito~t s this condition,
h w.ver, my hrve resulted r frx the f.ct that no provision
was made for a resConse indic'tinn that the resnosdee did
not need rny assistancee ith tnh rEpsecUtive i tmsi, utt, s
was stated earlier. in making uvp ,h: questionnair., it wns
assumed thnt lirt end professionlnIy Unde,4 cuns.lors
w uld recognize the need for C-wnsztant a. sist~nce to tihe :r
of ri s n; tho1-,ir lvel- of ;,rofic,: ,ncy,

except for assistance in c,~-ducti rj placemeont ?nd
follQcwfup stuwdics, the lireest rperccnt e of th group ni*
cnted thrt it s very much in necd of help in deflinr Aith
st tistic.:l problems requiring th: Aplicsaton of .w"sures
of cntrl tendency rand correbltion, r-or o chl of these
robfleha, except us^ures of rvrifbilityi .0&, or 8 pr cent.

of the qrouyp ldicnted th-:t they :*ezrc very rtch in need of
resistance, *Ventyeright, or 35 ptr cent, irnicE'tcd thAt

they v-r vcry much in nred of assistance in dJcnlin, 'ith
.prbls of& v.ariabilitya AInother very r ~y't nae, of t4he .r" p
ws9 asis+ ^nee irn ho1x to elc4?t t+ets.







70


Pers.ind Ch'C lerir'kicS of Cuns~elore

V"ny authorities in *h' arr-a of r-idancC have
ffirtmed the faet that curtsin ;.rsonnl ch .ar:-cristics
of cc.aiulorI o, ri to be vey desire I~s.fmts for th -s
iniividurls funcioning ,n c;:vnselors. The d&tta **Khich
foli.os 1 4ive dJe,-cripti ons of peclfitc asp :cts of the person
aX ch:,ar.ct .ristics of the poi-vls tAfln stut ied,
di. y izt Itaa t+o tLtught that Ita on the
f-A ly szt'us of catunr..lors w' ildI yie-d infor ~- ..io on the
ptrs-..:nrtlity .:ualitlaa of the roup This toya of infor-
mnn fi on frei'ucntly r.ovi h.a li* -.1r betterr rit;. r-amrini of
the tvpvs of ;X rtrsns whvo becte c :.:nsvlors It as iwpon
this ;.r-.ml. ;v -ht + his typo of r'i uelt .w ut to the tr.:t.
surveyed Ech of .th c.wune.iorn sk. t- o inic'ieto his
rarit.l stA^t, s. Tl 'VII revels the dis~ritution of
res.oonsts.










71


TA8hT XVII

PEWC.. T7 C: ASTImTlX OF AO CtrUI ILTOPS
ADC )DINGW Th. 2 BlTAi ST AT!.S


StatusNumber Per cent

Single 9 11
Married 6 3 79
Divorced 3 4
Widow 4 5
Widower 1 1



Total 80 100
. .. .. .. _.7 -C :. -7 _: _..--- ---,-- -- -.. 'M.o -.Z .- __ IL F2 __ 3 : Z : _:- -C -..Z Z -. -C __ : ...." -ZL'


According to Table XVII, 6$, or 79 per cent, of the

group were married; nine, or 11 p/-r cent, ,were single, and

four, or five per cent, were ,idows, Only one, or one per

cent, was a widower, Just three, or four per cent, of the

group were divorced, Since the counselors we re not

requested to indicate if they were separated from their smnt.so

it is not known how Rmny of them >-Could f;ll int,. that cate-

gory.

Par~et.hod.* Guidance literature has given much cone

sidert-on to the implications of parenthood for counselors.

Generally, it is felt th,%t such an exptric-nce should niacnce









72
the effectiveness of the work of the counselor t.ithj other
children and parents as well. Using this ,oint of view
as a basis, an endeavor vnas m .t-e to deter~~rine the incl-
dence of parenthood a.ong the I nl-lo.tUlion investigated.
A summary of the reTr.spses is presented in Table XVIII.


TVBLE XVIII
P C SNO R.TRIBwAt jT OF H AD I &IOS
DY MiR n ( .F C1 1 (FN



Children ub ,-r Per cent

5 i !
4 1 1
3 6 8
2 30 38
1 17 21
0 25 31


Total 80 100



From Table XVI it can be seen that the anumbcr of
children possessed by the c.,ounselors studied rane:ed from
none for 25, or 3l rper cE-nt, of the group to five for one,
or one p'r cent, of the ::opubl.tion. The avwrnge nurTler of
children per counselor was three.










73


Sgng,2 The q point of vitC hrs bcen cxpr1esced
that the counselor culd 3 ntu'tely raTurT so th3t

he can establish good reUl sionships bascd on respect fior

and confidence in his role aRs g'4.idance .-orker. The

population KtudiCd, c onsequently#, rs gjivn lni opportunity
to r act to -n itet 4rE::rting r:ls n of age. Thabl XIX

gives a summary of the distribution of the c,:unselors
investic ted by ge.


T.AL. XIX

P X". ti :42Tnirrj(; OF. < H i c: !tC runs
BY A '


YePr$ Npumber Per cent

45-plus 12 15
40-44 24 30
35-39 12 15
0-34 17 21
25-29 11 13
20-24 2 3
A 2 2


Total .1I100


It mry bt observed from Trble ;CX +hJ* the rancw of

s:-Q for the cQ'unwiors Sinvr tiut ed ys front 20 vy-r- for










74


two, or three par ccnt, of thimo a ore than 4 ye rs for

12 or 15 p:,r cKint. rhe nod:l t:{- of the roiu:r a.ns 44

y:irs, nl.y tro or three .er c-nt, of the (ubjr:ects failed
to respond to this ittem

Z. ; A. ny pr0vnlISt diffcrcnces have been
foutrd to ati4 t .son: tht? s-l-ri s of c unztlors frrt

section to s-o' Con of the ctntltry, 4ritiiar vriat.::ons; L"v

been oberved ,.Iithirn sctIonsr, An effort l,; b:dl to find

out the salrys of the po:.l-ti-ton studied for the
1956-57 te-rm. Table XX describe the r isrtriuition of the

res,-oncidernts according to salary




TVB L? XX
>; v ,r :..T. I ,iOF M s) 6:1 .0 .




,lary ?;um be jPer cent

$6CXOeplus 2 3
,oil!A.- IUn 1 1
OOX*X)4499 5 6
4500.4999 7 9
4000-4499 25 :1
0- 99 27 34
3000 4 12 15



Totdl C 100
Sna MUNfll tnms e









75


According to Table XX the range of salaries of
the group studied was from $3000 to 3499 for 12, or 15
per cent, to more than $6000 for two, or three per cent,
of the counselors, It should be observed that no sala-
ries were reported below $3000. The aver-age salary of the
group vas $4000. Only onc counselor failed to respond
to this item.


esocieties. Several mutual opinions have been expressed
attesting to the inherent values of affiliations with
educational, social, and honor societies. It is thought
that such affiliations would be contributing factors to
the competency of the counselor. 4th this idea in mind,
the said affiliations of the counselors studied were ana-
lyzed. Table XXI summarizes the findings.









76


T ~L:. XX
P:TEC: ..rr .f;E DiUTTR:TiTl I.Jt OF H .AD C.U, .OtS
.Xu..,;r.)?, T0 '.Ccr'T AFFILI T.,S


'Societies number Per cont

S cerictan Personnel ancd Guidannce
Association 12 15
Church 78 98
Florida Guidance Association 21 26
Florida State Teachers Associaion 80 100
Fraternity 13 16
National Educ-tion Association 36 45
Sorority 17 21
Honor society s 3 4




Table XXI reveals tht, the en4zire ;roup held
mcnmbership in the Florida Stte Teachers Astsociation. The
next largest number, 78, or 98 per cent, was ass ociated
with the church, O.nly 21, or 26 vr ctnt, of the group
were members of the Flort:ia G0tidnce Associations while,

just 12, or 15 p';r cent, w:re ~mcr;-crs of the aterican
Personnn.4l and Guidance Association. Of the gr.up, three. :
or f-ur pe.r ce Seajdi 2hitj of c5u 0 o s. Since readirnJ has
beeen found to be a re ut.tble source of intellectual and
prof..-.ssional growth for r;ny indivi-iuails in most









77


occupations and pr -ofessons, an atte npt, was rwae to

analyze the r. ading habits of the group as indic:itcd by
books Purchased, Al'though t.he purchase of books m-y not

be the be't index to reading habits, the counselors ase
asked to specify the number of books purchased Juring
the lstt 12 months. Table XXII vives a distribution of
the ro8&s-onsos. It should be ,:oiln*ed out here that cost
books ,:.urch:sed :e;re principally of the professional

type.





ACC' Utt TU tM.t. r..; BCOFf4S -$,R,*IHASFD
UTI?$E2 T!U ?.$T 12 ;'KtkCf


iumxber of Books Numb Per cent

6 1 1
3 I1 19
2 25 31
1 7 9
0 32 40


Tot al 90 100
. ... .. .-na m a w -a n a s. s f_ l a-In: : ...,.: :, !_ _.-- .. ... ._ ... . _: n= :_ .... .. .. ... -I


According +o Ta lI XXII one or one ,:t c.nt, of the









78


counselors haid ;rch:sed six books 15, or 19 per ccnt,
of the group had purchased three books. Thirty-tnoO, or
40 p-r cent, of the subjects h-d not rch-,4sed any books
during the deisign.ted period.
The counselors studied were -also rr-qu~.sted to
indicate magazines for w..hich they held subscriptions,
.,Many of the res.londents liFted several periodicals Talble

XXIII describes the responses to his item.


T AMPl XXlIII
p. c RCT 'i IXT riVoU N tOF H. AD% C, UL(s
CY -f J, TIOt TO 10('ALS


aPer.odimCal Numr r Per ccnt

Clearing House 32 40
:bony 26 45
Good Ho usekeeping 17 21
Ladies ome Journal 56 70
Life 72 90
Look 13 16
McCalls 12 15
Personnel and GuitJance JY.urnal 12 15
Header's iMsot 63 79
Time Magazine 78 98

_______________11010=:l I OMM wp I








79
From Table XXIII it may be observed that 78, or 98
per cent, of the group held a subscription to Tiag jgag
jing. Twelve, or 15 per cent, rindicated a subscription
to the a4a1n1ei g Maaor Jan iMe 32, or 40
per cent, listed C.a ig i T selve, or 15 per cent,
of the counselors -rE subscribers to all4 a gggiM-









80


Sumnary

In view of 4,hc f et thct the foremost Ouroe"t of
this investigation ws to detc.mrne the professional
status of the training of counselors, this chapter has
been devoted ;irincxsplly to the task of :'resenting an
analysis of the diata received frccm *0 counselors for 'he
pur-os. stated, ItM his been observed, hcraver, that the
follow.inr factors ,.ere considered in this che l pters (1)
academic tErainingl, (2) experiences, (3) duties and
problems, and (4) personal char,:cteritics of the oopu
nation studied,
In the :.iscussion of the academic training of the
counselors invetigt*ted, the fgct was :ointcds up that 21,
or 26 pir cent, of the group had an und ergrrcau,:uate r jor
in Elementary :duc.tion, The entire popul action studied
held the bachelor's ctgree. Of the ctrup, 37, or 46 per
held. the b the, 1or 's e ,lv, 0: 1. Of th ,, r,, ..
cent, had a graduat mnjor in Guidance, Twcnty-six, or
32 per cent# of the res students hda rned arned the mn-st+r's
degree* Concrning the experiences, dutiie, and problems
of the .Ao.ulation surveyed, data reve nd thAt 30, or 38
per cent, of the counselors h.d norx than 15 ycars of
teaching exp:-rience, Reording their duties9 the .hole









81
group engaged in assisting in the orientation of atudrnts
and counseling students. The :TProblcm areas rention'cd
rmost frequently by thL? group -erls (1) deriving mrnasur-s
of central tendency, (2) conducting fui-ance inse.rvice
training, (3) ortanition guiduthnce programs, and (4)
deriving m&a.unres of correlation.
Saoe of the personal char.ctrTi tics mentioned a-.-twe
th-tls (1) Pifty-*ight, or 72 per cent, of the responding
counselors ;ere ba mnn, and 21, or 26 pt.rc cent, #ere men,
(2) Twelve, or 15 pear cent, of the counselors ,rtc- above
46 years of( nge. (3) Twenty*bseven, or "4 per cent, had a
salary rano;r from $350 to $3 999 (4) Ceventy* uight, or
98 per cent, of the counselors held Church metmbtrsiDs.~
All of the subjects surveyed ware 'soniters of the Florida
Sta:.e T r.ch;,rs Association. Just three, or four per cant,
of th# c'roua p m.,re members of honor societirts.










PTr: E IV




This study concerned itself Aith the professional
t.-tus of the training of counselors in senior hi;h
schools for '-egroes in Florida. A enzC ral sumf;try And
conclusions are oprsented in this chapter.


General Sunuigry

This investigation han ;r threa-fold .uroneo. The
first purpose wa to dctearmine the roftssion3l status of
the training of head counselors,. A decline -tion of
problems .nd specialized duties of the groupp wns the
second -urpose of the study, Finally, the investigntion
attempted to point up some of the pnrsonrl ch:rvct:.ristics
of the population surveyed,
The data for the study were securoeJ frro the
follo2iny sources! (1) h a1 9?:A J d -2catn Direct ory,

95s6 EIVnn (2) rUia .- airemunts TtaC 2L A gSL
action &4 CG .ri..foiatio (3) questionnaires executed by
the group studied, and (4) a r.vi- of relA.4tted literature,
tarploying the .ormative-Survey Metho j an analysis
of: (1) the a.cadenic tralninng, (2) experitncc-s, (3) duties









83


and problems, and (4) prsaon.l chAract ristics of the 80


scripFtive statistical and tbthl.,r fI~rm, enrl con-
clusions follow imnr.ditely,


Conclusions

On the basis of the findings obhain-d by this
invmsti9ation, several conclusions -.ere irirm. They re

presented below,

Acadei' tju .tin V, The conclusions r ached
concernin" the acndeimlc t raining of the 4:.pul;-tion studied

were as follies:

1. It appeared hrAt most of the c,~rnselors studied
chose an undrgraJruate mjror in Ilemntiary Lduc.tion nore
frequently than ,-ny othrn area of sr:eciaii?. -tionl Ntevcrtheo
less, there w s a wide range of majors at that level. At
the graduate level, thsre vts a endEncy on the part of the
subjects to divrco themselves from their undC.rgrduOte

areas of specializAtion and to enter noe fields aronrm w.ich

was gt.idance, It. s would be recalled hWre, hoe.;vcr, that a
shift to gui iance at the graduate ltvrl was to bo cx ted
since this field is fun:lra.ent;lly an ,rrea of graduite
s pcializ.tion, Yet, r:mny of tho subjects on*..ired ui:.ance







84
1
from fairly unrelated areas, Although Edwards did not
treat an identical problem, he found that the authors of
87 theses revealed a tendency to choose graduate majors
which were different from their undergraduate majors.
2. Generally, it is felt that the undergraduate
training of the counselor should be extensive in such
related courses as economics, psychology and sociology,
The majority of the population studied, however, had
earned only a fev rnore hours than the nmnitnium of three
semester hours in each area required by the Florida State
Department of Education for certification as counselors.
A study by Siamers and Davis revealed a similar result.
They observed that about 50 per cent of 406 counselors
studied had had only a basic course in sociology, More
than half of their group had studied a basic course in
psychology. No mention :'as made of their training in


1Farnest W, rdwiArds, 'An Analysis of Theses Sub*
mitted and Accepted in the Graduate Program at Florida
Agricultural and Mechanical University August, 1947 through
August 19530 (Unpublished Master's Thesis, the Florida A.
and M, University, Tallahassee, 1955) p. 71.

tLylah N. Sfmers and Robert A, Davis, "Training
and Experience of Counselors in North Central Schools",
Shood levzb LVII (November, 1949) p. 480.









85


economcs.
3. All of the counselors surveyed had earned at
least a bachelor's degree, Less then one-third of the
group, however, held a mtst:r's degree, Many investi.
oators, including, Simmers and e-vis end Kinker and
Fox4 have tr.atcd the incidence of academic degrees among
counselors. Each of them found that more than 50 per
cent of their subjects held masters' degrees.
4. An analysis of advanced training indicated a
broad range of semester hours earned by the group beyond
the baccalaureate degrees
5. According to institutions of higher learning
attended both at the undergraduate level and the graduate
level, there was an inclination on the part of the group
to choose principally southern institutions, As a matter
of fact 77, or 96 per cent, of the counselors chose
southern institutions for undergraduate training, Hiiq
amonq their choices at this level were such institutions



31il, p. 476-484.

4H. Rob-.rt Kinker and William H. Fox, "A Study of
High School Guidance Services in a Six-State Area,'
veM^fst Mi C t (Bloomingtonl Indiana
Iuivrs XXX~ICbeD 1952~) p^, ~95









86


as Florida A. and V., University, 2Pethune Cookman College
and Tusk cee Institute, Exactly one-hlf of o the group
received qgrfiu.te tradninc) at s :uhern institutions. These
institutions included the Florida 4. I.i'd K 1nivervity,
Atlanta University awndJ Hsampton Instituto in rnnk ordcr of
r:atriculation. The other one-half attended northern insti-
ttions. Those institutions included New York U.niversity,
Columbia University and Inliana Univernsity in rank order of
matricul ti ,on,
6. It is a widely held &fct that. the counselor
sILmuld ;llos ess knol4.dp above an i beyond on-guidance personnel, As a result he
must. constantly strive for professional growth and de.velop-
rment which sloultd assist him in becoming comnpctent in his
-ork. The majority of the subjects surveyed had received
some credit in gu.i-!ance courses within the p.mst decide,
7o As guidance andi personnel services advance
ra-.idly toward profOssionalized status in teduc4*io.nal insti-
tutions, riuch coCncern is -iven to +he issue of certification
Of workers in these ar-ess FrorL tlis :tudy, ho wvtr, it .as
evident that only 20, or 125 pr fnt, of the population had
attained the st--tus of certi fied workers. Of the remaining
60, 51 h4d planned fcr further trainingq in ui-dance while,






87


nine had no plans for further training in the area. In
a similar study, Wendorf concluded that only a small
proportion of the counselors in Ohio had felt compelled to
meet the requirements for certification, and only an
equally small proportion had the intention of becoming
certified in the area of guidance.
To sum up, all of the group had baccalaureate
degrees. Most undergraduate degrees re,;utedly -ere earned
in elementary education. Practically all of the under-
graduate training and baccalaurc te degrees and most of the
graduate training and masters* degrees were received from
southern institutions. All the counselors had earned hours
beyond the baccalaureate degree; however, less than 50 per
cent of them held masters' degrees. The majority of the
counselors had very few hours in economics, psychology and
sociology at the undergraduate level, All of the counse-
lors had had some training in technical guidance courses,
but, only oneefourth of them had had the adequate technical
guidance training needed for certification in the area,


5Robert A. Wendorfe, Qualifications of Guidance
Counselors in Ohio High Schools' th CoQnn7ia g t Guiance
irurnal, XXXiV (May, 1956) p. 571.










88


Fei W Thc folowin cnc ion r>31lt*T
frm a4s analysis of the rrtt Xorte X-ifrilnces of the
Soulr-.tion sudied
~~c frdinef the cnp rinces of the cr, ", it
was cl":r +h.t teaching: h--d bE:n -:e: d .n by orw f
tho c vunselorz- thrn 'h$ other ~:x.rin :s i$ .t d The
nodal nutnber oyofy'.. of t c.hing "xporlr'1ce s more thLn

15&
2. There azre,' mny irnhwrfn4t vlus :Usrovided re uteedm
ly by ork ajl cmunit.y .lead:~rts ip exp ri cnces, y
choice or othe ri :.Si thtv majority of T.h cun;;elors too,~
dvanTrae of the opportunity t :.roQ.:en their cxpeir:rices
by ietqaqins in such reras of 1ork as (1) *wh Aroed
Crces, (2) vwrr.:rnt Imployment, (3) sJ-p i rsoins and
(4) social lf 'rv, The groupp 4lwo Jr icirpted in such
ca m nity activity Is ,st (1) Poy ran C;i cv:uts, (2)
civic orgC lniz.;1~ins, (:.1 Prarnte. Trchr A .octi.ons, arnd
(4) YoUt.n Men .nd YeounT 'o.mn's Chr~list n sszoci '.on'
3, It is* ci Jdi t.hait cr.*tiv. 'ritin:s vr'
c ..d.t.btle u~rCes of prof~:' signal ttth In2 s.i.to of
this fct, ov:- r, f nly a fw, of +h: c.vn? elos r, crt.d
hvwi ing "owe any publish. e or utn bi hed .-t. ;. h rdi s. L:
Of the few A.o toe or*ed E hving d., nw 'or,. .- r s..rch, or.ly








39


one of the group had results ,ublished in a national
.perodical. The other eight were published in r cnty and
st. te educ tonal bulletins.
In conclusion, thc, orn& experiences which ..as most
conimon among all the mw'vpulation surveyed wVt.s t- a.cing.
Several of he -ounselors had ha- r'ited -ork and cotrmae
ity leadership experiences, Only a few of thoE had at-
tempted to improve their compettrencios by yap lyin the
research wetrw od to school problems.

.ASe-*, The conclusions relative to the duties of
counselors follow finoredi.Itely,
1, I 1is usually e1It that the duties of counse-
lors difCfer among various school torul tons, Neverthe-
less, the? pattern of dut.ies rnveRalsed by the rotup studied
hai]d rRany co-non elements, Consequentl.y, the majority of
the p-opulntionr pr-forrmed many of the srine duties such ass
(I) the aJd;ministr ion :and int -rprcttion of sandA'...rdi zed
tests, (2) counseliony students, (3) !olding conferences ith
inr:ants ani staff members r-garding students *ith -.roblems,

(4) providing ciuiJnnce jfen-s -vice@ training, and (5) selectinW
tcsts.







90
6
rart.inson reported almost an identical pattern in her
study, She found that responsibility for school .esting

programs was a comonunctn fncion ronf her subjects. All
members of her group listed the study of individual
problems s as a major ;,s onsibility, It was also pointed

out by I';rtinson that a frequ -nt resp-onsibility of the
counselors ,s work i-.i'4h parents and t rchrs, both indi-

vidutlly and in groups .

2. Historically, guidance workerss in educational
institutions hav- borne many official titles. There was
evidence of this practice amono the Sro5;up studied,
Althou

ly, several other titles v:ere us:d such as: (I) d
girls, (2) chairrn~n of guidance comruittee, (3) dean, and
7
(4) counselor for btys. Cox found exactly the same

practice in h .:r study. The obserrved 15 Ulifferent official
titles a-nong h:r subj>ctt. In her study the nodt cou.on


6
Ruth A. iA rtin-ln, cited by Kith (pp. 21-22) "The
School Counselor His W ork and Training," ulletin of the
California .:2tc eo-rtment of -duc tion, XX (Ju ly 11. ;J

Rachel D). Cox, Coun,;elors and Their sork
(Harrisburg: Archives ThublilshinTg .o any, 1945J, p. 25.




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