• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Introduction
 Review of related literature
 Presentation and interpretation...
 Summary and conclusions
 Bibliography






Title: Comparative Study of retardation in the Negro and White Elementary Schools of Columbia County, Florida 1947-48, 1951-52
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 Material Information
Title: Comparative Study of retardation in the Negro and White Elementary Schools of Columbia County, Florida 1947-48, 1951-52
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Lawson, Wilber Benson
Affiliation: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College (FAMU)
Publisher: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College
Publication Date: 1952
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Bibliographic ID: AM00000028
Volume ID: VID00001
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
    Title Page
        Page ii
    Acknowledgement
        Page iii
    Table of Contents
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Review of related literature
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Presentation and interpretation of data
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Bibliography
        Page 40
        Page 41
Full Text


273
10805




A OMkiPRATIVE 3TOIY OF RETIRDATION IN 11.. 1,GCRO
1N 1wI TsREI SL2ITUNr CCHOOLtt OF CQOLUM!UI
COUXNT, FLOCrIDA 1947448, 1951-52






A T'heat
Presntod to

the o*ra nte CmiUtt- of

Florida Agrioultural rnd Mechnnitcl College







in Partial Fulfilltint of
the Requlwiments for the .Degre

Master of oloeae in duration





Sustast 2952












.A COttrtvTtV.$ stUYt ov fuTRB *Ttit >4 In f ACU 0:0e o
-HITE *.>L. i.TaoiY TiSL 0 CLUMt 1
tUW' t$flSY t i
G0iut I, P -IIX L, 1947-48, 1951.52










Presented to the OrAdtrate Com-ritte of the Floridn
srioeultual V Mcfchnitld CaollCo in PIarti1l FulL
tirlawnt of the Prtuirementa for the PDgree Manters
of Sentence in duo~ntUone


Approved


Cocm-it wee rl'~







ny u^ ^ ^$^^,N
Ccaftop~e t ^atwl J




^^fy~A 00A





















(lteful acknowledg ent ise ade to thone whoa by
their Mdvice and eancdeour.emnt, helped thias work to
its completion.

To ~4, Irene ChCrietenl General Supervisor of
GShools, Columbin County, Florida %,nd Mrs, e'hoebe
Qunrterman, ~ osistant StttLetical Clerk, State xeprrt.
easat of 2duoation, T2lhaRIpesii Floridt, thi writer
wishes to exreosa his ; ppr.oia.tlon for their Seasista
ane in asking these data available,

He is especially indebted to :'.r L. D rrtoote,
GChirman, Mits kily CZopeland, Committee Mretber, andr

Dr, V1 S Itstso Director, A;lvislon of Gradunte Study,
Florida .nd M. College for wny vrluablo suggestions
in the preparation of thle ranuecrtpt.


W, B. L,.weon









T TBLE OF CO :z0Tt


OH'.PTE' 1, I NiROaUCTIOI,, I ,

The Problem a a * * 3

Sts.,.t:-nent of the Problem* ,* *,* 3

Derinition of Teo s. , , 3

DeSlimilttion of the hProblem# * 4

-ources of r-tnr *4 * A

IethWod rn d Proedure *. 5

Siganfioanen of toh study. 5 *
CHlS PFR Ii REVIZE OF ORZLt'. ifEUCIES * 7
CHAPTER III 2Pra STTO toN INT-W .4IM? OF DTr. 15

Percentage of Rletard Atton by Orndeps 16
Percentage o)f -- trrdation of Totel Enrollrent, a 24
CH iT IV SU .ARY oND CONLUSIOUS, a ,* 36

Impli.tions of the Study* t 3 ,* * 39








LIS T OF TABLS


I



II






V


VII

VIII


IX


xI


UfT


Neouo and White ieentary cDhools
Columba MCounty, 1947-52.* * 15
Percentage of Retardption By Sohools
and radee 194748 17
Peroentr.ge of fletardation by nohools
and Oradea 194849. * 18
Peroentwe of Retardntion by Schoolt.
" km rad.es 194959,5 * 20

Percentage of REtard :ion "^haoole'
arnd Or d6 1950-51.I * *, 22
Peroent.ge of Retardation by Schools
and Omrd~ s 1951*52 ,* #.23
Pereentge of Retardation by Qr.Sdes
For "Lech Yer 1947*48, 1951-52. 25
Peroent~ge of Retardation of Total
4nrollment (1*6) For Each School 1947-48.26
Peroenta e of itardation of Totel
enrollment (1-6) For ~aoh School
1948E49, # * * * 27
Percentage of RletPrdltion of Total
rlSnrollment (1-6) oFr zaoh Sohool
1949-*50 2 9 * 29
Peroentoge of Retardrtion of Total
Enrollment (1-6) For Each School
1950*51 0 # *. .*30


t











XXI PeroentaV of ReUtrdr tion of Totril
*rwollreant (16S) For >aIobh rehool
1951*52 *** 32
XII Peroent~ae of Retardation of otro?1
enrollment (14X) For a ch School For
r 33
XXV Peroentn e of Retp.rdr.tton of 'ota0l
1nrolla~ent (146) For oah Yeftar 34







CHAPTER '
INTRaoOTIr

The history of education clearly reflects the principle
that the school has been n all ages and societies a social
institution deriving its form, functions and shape from
the prevailing social system of which it is a part. It
is understandable that no society would support schools
which worked at aross purposes with wider society. In
America historically, our schools have been designed to
support Chrisitian and demoetaie living. For centuries
we relied upon the content of the school as the major
medtu through which an individual grew toward the pattern
of deaeeratei living. Such doouments as the Declaration
of Indepnddence, Bill of Rights, the Constitution of the
United States and other writings pertaining to our deaoo
ratio heritage were a part of the materials for instrue-
tion. aeeently educators have oase to the oonolusion that
democracy is not only learned through the stody of ideas,
but also through the medium of democratic experiences.
Attention has been focused upon the organisation and adain.
ittation of the school as well as the materials studied
by youth. Such factors as demooratio administration,
teaoher-pupil planning the equalization of eduoaeldiaAl
opportunities, and promotional policies of the school
have been viewed a the functional approach to deaocratie
living.





2
Daring the early part of this century educators beeme
alarmed at the high rate of retardation in our schools.
Many studies were conducted to determine the degree of re-
tardation, causes of retardation and more recently the
relationship between retardation and intellectual ability.
As they turned their creative genius toward finding a
solution to the problem of retardation, it appeared as
though the policy of promoting all children in the elemen-
tary school who attended school regularly was a partial
answer. Certainly this policy was consistent with the
concept of equalization of eduti l opportunities. At
present some school systems are following this policy,
but many school systems still follow the policy of pro*
otaing pupils from one grade to the next on the basis on
meeting acadeaie standards. This policy creates a problem
in some areas where a high rate of non-promotion exists.
For soae pupila who attend these school failure is
inevitable. Soe of the consequences of failure are
truaany, delinquency and social saladjustaent. In
Columbia County, Plorida, progress from one grade to the
next is based upon meeting standards of achievement.







STATEMENT OF TEE PROBLEM
The purpose of this study was to compare the degree
of retardation in the Negro and white elementary schools
of Columbia County, Plorida from 1947-M8, 1951-52. Cer-
tain sub-problems which emerged were as follows:
1. Is there a higher amount of retardation ai
the Negro schools or in the white schools
of Columbia County?
2. What schools reflect a hig degree of retard-
ation?
3. What schools reflect a low degree of retard-
ation?
j, In what grade or grades is retardation
highest?
5. In what grade or grades is retardation
lowest?
6. What trends can be identified during the five
year period?


DEPINITIOx Ot TERMS

ardatio^nt as used in this study refers to a 8 situation in
which a child does not pass to the next grade at the end
of the school year, but is retained in his present grade.
Non-promotion and retardation will be used interchangeably
throughout this study.
Bsleanrl r slhols refers to only those school in Columbia
which include grades one through six.
.ear1 acho0la .refers to those schools which enroll only
Negro pupils.

M So oanorla refers to those schools which enroll only


white pupils.









DELIKITATION OF THE PROBLEM
This investigation was limited in its scope to a fre
queney count of the number of students retained in each
grade in each of the elementary schools during the five
year period. No attempt was made to Identify causes for
retardation or its relationship to measured intellectual
ability. The seventeen elementary sohoola which is the
total number for the county are involved. The study way
mialted to the five year period 1947-48, 1951-52 because
comparable data could be obtained.


SOUr'CCS Oi DATA


Data for this study were secured from the following
souroea: (1) teacher registers, (2) State Department of
Education and (3) County Bord of Public Instruction,
Columbia County, Fiort a. The feet that the teacher's
register is considered a most beaie record is itdieted
by the statement in the law that any register kept in
coaplianoe with the rules and regulations of the State
Board shell be prima faole evidence of the f ot which it
is required to show.1


lliorid School Code State Department of Education,
Tallahassee, Plorlast 1945 Section 619 (4)






5


METHOD AD PROCEB
In this study the normative survey method described in
Good, Barr and Seates2 was used. The documentary frequency

technique was employed. A form was developed upon which
the aber of students promoted end the number retained in
each grade in eaoh of the seventeen schools for the five
year period wa recorded. The percentage of retardation
for the grades one through sx in each of the schools for
oeah year was also computed. Appropriate tables were
developed to present the picture of retardation and to
enable the writer to answer the major problem of this
investigation and the sub problems.


SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

It is safe to say that the child's future as well as
his presence is affected by failure in school. Probably
few teachers realize the potency of this practice of
retardation which they so frequently and so many times
carelessly impose upon developing youth. Pew understand
either the theoretical basis of non-promotion, or the way
it operates on a total bases in a school system. It is
safe also to s ay that until we find out the magnitude of
the problem no one can speak with any measure of certainty
concerning ways of improving the situation in this parti-
aular county. Hence, the importance of this study is that
.-,-.G-oodA.r----r-, P0 -S Scates......


C, V. Good A S. Baeorr, D. ESeatena P ntryt mlanr
f 9|nt iaiffl Researeh. Mew York, D. Appletons entur CoaaIW,






6


it gathers objective data concerning retardation which
few individuals see in its totality whereas all are
ocnseoous of its effects in their local situation. The
writer believes that once we have gathered objective
data concerning the rate of non-promotion in the schools,
both Negro and White, for a long enough period of time,
we can explore ways to reduce pupil failure and achieve
the democratization of education consistent with out
prevailing educational philosophy.


ORGANIZATION OP THE STUDY

Chapter two is a digest of some related studies on
retardation. Chapter three includes the presentation
and interpretation of data on retardation in the Negro
and White elementary schools of Columbif County, Florida.
Chapter four is a suamary of the study and also contains
the majot conclusions reached and the implications of the
study for theory and practice.






7


CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES
There has been a wide variety of studies regarding the
prevalence of non-promotion, the incidence end causes of
retardation and the practices in regard to promotional
problems. Cursory overview of some of the closely related
studies is presented.
No doubt the role played by related factors explains
in part why Kytel found large percentages of non-promoted
pupils who rated average or above in the factors listed
by teachers as the causes for non-promotion.
His study included 1,485 pupils who during a 12 year
period had experienced non-promotion in either low-first
or high-first grade in a given school system. The school
record showed that at the time each child was retained
each teacher had recorded her reason for not promoting the
child. The reasons were really the causes for non-promotion.
Although these teachers had recorded 2,379 cause for non-
promotion for 933 low first grade and 552 high first grade
pupils, Kyte grouped these causes into 28 categories. When
all the causes of the entire group 1,485 pupils had been
classified it was found that 52% of the pupils had IQ's
between 90 and 109 and 9.6% between 110 and 119, 2% between
120 and 129, and .53 130 or over.


k. C. Kyte, *Causes of First-Orade Non-Promotion in
the Light of Measured Intelligence Elementary School
General, Vol. 38, February, 1937, p. 415-28.





8


Some of Kyte's conclusions are as follows:

1. The rate at which each child learns must be given
careful attention early in the school year, in
fact, throughout a considerable period of his
schooling.
2. The maturity of many children must be considered
in order that careful planning may be made to
meet the particular needs of the children espeo-
ially those of immature type.

3. Absence from school including irregular attendance
and absence due to illness, should be compensated
for by the instructional program in order to reduce
non-promotions.
4. Children who continue to attend school though
handicapped by poor health also need special
attention.

5. Many children are challenged by the instructional
program. They become non-promoted pupils because
of (a) lack of application and attention, (b) lack
of effort, and (c) in some instances behavior
problems.
6. Mobility over which neither the children who
change schools nor the teachers who receive them
have control, creates an instructional problem
in a sufficient number of eases to warrant the
formation of plans to meet it*

7. Non-promotion among children of superior mental
ability furnishes a special challenge.

8. Since the largest proportion of non-promoted pupils
were children possessing average intelligence,
particular attention must be given to the problem
of why normal children fail to make progress.
Promotion policies vary widely in the schools of
this country.

A survey2of non-promotion of pupils of 49 selected

elementary schools in the State of New York, showed, for

example, that the percentage of non-promotion for the

system varied from 1.8% to 21%, with a median for all

schools of 8.5%. The variation was much greater for


SLeo J. Brueckner,g 7f C01R lnta ~ds l0tr- .. h.l,
New York, Xnor Publishing Company, 1939.





9


individual grades, ranging for instance in israde four
from school with no failures a tll to another school of
54% failure at this grede level. These differences are
typical for the country as a whole, Dr. Bhln-in hie study

of *Incidence of iietardation,' found that of those now in
8th grade, a larger ercentage repeated in 5th than in 4th,
a larger percentage in 6th then in 5th, a larger percentage
in the 7th then in te 6bth, while in the 8th there were
fewer repetitions than in the 7th. Prom this and other
data based upon cumulative records of the pupils studied,
he argued correctly that tht e grades from 4th through 7th
are increasingly difficult. The smallerr nmber of repeti-
tions is due to a tendency to graduate pupils who have
reached the lest grade of the elementary school.
In view of the control which principals have over
promotions it seemed pertinent t to f sk what general policies
or theories they hold regarding non-promotion and which
they use as a guide in the exercise of their authirt+ .
In one study all were asked, ,Do you as a principal have
a general policy or theory regard ag failure and non-
promotion which you convey to ter-chers through the teachers'
meeting or bulletins and which you expect teech-ers to bear
in mind and to follow as fears s possible in deciding upon
promotions at the end of the term?" All replied in the

Sucar. o As n M ia gria Coyolopedia of
Education 3s 170 New Yoar, M lan pany. 1


Aa ry J. Otto, Bmentar h, nanzation
Adaa~mt p g. Seod Eit ion (New Yor Appleton-Century
rofts, Ino 1944) pp, 248-9.






10


affirmative and then pr eded to explain their policies
Their statements may be Isamarsed as follows:
1. Sixteen per cent of the thirty-eight principals believed
that subjecat-atter standards should prevail. Some principals
interpreted this to meal an average of seventy-flve per cent
as measured teachers' marks; others said that they retained
the pupil if he fails in two subjects, while still other
said thathey past the pupil after he had spent two year
in the -rd.
2 Towenty-six per cent believed that one-hundred per cent
promotion is desirable and feasible*
3. Forty-seven per sent believed that the adjustment of the
individual child should be made the aia*. explanatory omoment
such as the following were sadet "Promote him if he can get
more out of the next grade's work, Promotion would mean
the beat adjustment of the individual pupil;*" and "adjust
aoeording to social age."
4. Eleven per cent believed that promotion should be made
ar the basis of effort: "He who works passes.*
5. Three per eont believed that rigid standards should be
applied n the primary grades so that there will be no
need for subsequent failures.
An investigation of the effects of non-promotion in
comparison with trial promotion was reported by Cook in 1940.

SW, cook, tItfenta JM ti of Man.Promoli
Stt a ot nileant. m ffect QfAdmin}israt







11


He concluded th't so far as achibwement it concerned the
eruioal iaue) o appears to be not whether the slow learning
pupil is passed or filled, but how adequately his needs ar
set wherever he is placed. Cook indicates that the vital
instructional problem is to furnish a teacher with adequate
instructional material and teaching methods so that he may
come with n range of ability.
The achievement of children who *hve beoSn regularly pro-
omted as contrasted with thsne Irre"ultrly promoted in the
elementary schools has been imnestigated by Akridge.
Akridge concluded that the average level of c-chievement
and ability probably would not h7ve been significantly
effected by a permanent policy of regular progress of al
pupils.
Sander~ 7 drew the following eoncluicons whioh aumaarise

very effectively modern views on the undesirability of a
policy of non-proeotion of the traditional k -ndt
1. Non-promotion of pupils in order to assure mastery of
the subject matter t not a justifiable procedure. Many
children who are not promoted learn less than they would have
learned had they been advanced to the next grade*
2. Non-pprootion doe, nt result in homogeneity of achieves
aent within 6 grade.
G.H. Akridge Sroare Pdfu haie.
N. T. Teachers' Colege, oluta nveraityJ, 1937

C1 S an'ers, Prationa at t4ilure fFa tr Eleaentr
l ea w York P ublication, wechere College
Coluabtt Univeraity, 141, P 1







12


3. Wnelprolotion aamot be justified in terms of disipline
adaieaistered to the child or to his parents.
4. Non-promotion usually intensifies emotional instability
of children.
3. Won-promotion because of inadequate mentality, insufficient
attendance, imperfect health or lack of emotional stability
is not based on valid causes or reasons.
6. Mon-promotion is an admission of ineffiient teaching n
appropriate administrative practloes, and inadequate eduoac
tional planning.
?. Kon-promotion has no place in a shoool in which children
are properly motivated and work to the level of their individ-
ual eapeatles.
The effect of higher rates of progress on the variability
of aehlevement n the grade as compard with schools with
lower rates of progress has been studied by Caswell. A
study of 820 pupils in grade SA in twenty-four schools was
made. The eono.;aions reached are as follows
I. Grade groups in oshool with high rates of slow progress
are just as variable ln achievement as grade groups in school
with lower rates of progress.
2. Schools in which a large amount of retardation exists
oould be reorganized at ~noe to eliminate all retardation
without effetting in any considerable way the average ahhieve-

%lollis L. Caswell, Iaef*Pr ofltea i en E mntart Sahpal-.
Nashville Tennesee; George Peabo4y College for Tuohers,
1933 PP.6t-7.







13


seat or variability or instructional groups.
3. Schools in which large amounts of retardation was found
could to reorganized an*e to eliminate all retardation without
materially inora inor in instructional adjustments, nor would
the difficulty of waking these adjustmwnts be increased.
Caswell suggests thAt, in these schofls, teachers tnd
princip- Is shind embark on a program which anticipated the
elilinatlon of ln"ge peroentcge of non-promotion.
Ayer9 reported In 1934 that of a group of 12,000 elelmen
school pupils, 56% had not made normal progress. Some edu-
eators heve questioned. the value of failing children, who
are th.n required to repeat the years work. A number of
school systems hrve 100% promotion of children frm grade
to grade* In other oho4 l systems pupils are promoted aon*
ditionally at the end of each year or semester. Of more
thea 500 superintendents who answered questlonwnares, 63
favored promoton t' the Junior High School of r11 the
children who had spent six years In the elementary school.
10
ilehrist1 reports a simple experiment with a college

elass thrt demonstrates the tendency for belief in the
success of pnes efforts to lead to greater sueces. A class
P1P C. Ayer. 'The Progress of Pupils in the School of
Texas" 1932-33, Bulletin of the Section of Superintendent
(Austin, Texas. Texas State Teachers Association. 1933) P. 36
10BEward P. Oilohrist, The Extent to Which Praise ead
R epoof Effeets A Pupils Work." S~hool and Society li 872-
874. December 2, 1916.







14


of fifty members was given a test. The cls was e then divided
by chance into two groups which were pli~ed in separate rooms.
The students in one group were told that they did very poorly
and were asked to take the test over to see if they could do
better the second time.
Those In the other group were told thnt they htrd done
very well (nd. were asked to take the test eiA.ln to aees if
they could improve their scores. The first group made no
improvement while the second improved ma.rkedly.
The studied thft have been reviewed, Ithough few In
number, seem to have implications. The purposes, techniques,
and findings of these studies were helpful in structuring
this investigation.





15


CHAPTER THREE

PRESEiTATION AND INTERPETATAION OF DATA

In scouring data for this study the actual number of

pupils retained in each grade in each of the elementary

schools for the five year period, 1947-48, 1951-52 wa
secured* In Columbia County there ware seventeen eagro and

white elementary schools. Table I shows the Negro and whito

elementary schools involved.


TABLE I

NEGRO AND WHITE ELEMI NTAR SCHOOLS
COWNBIA COUNTY
1947 1952

-- .- ----; : -, ,.e,- -- / -- ---i ---- !+ -- -- .... ... ---- ... -- ,- --- ........ .. ...-


algro


White


Bethelhea

FairviewL

Port White,

Xta oelooe

Maw Ufy4

Riohardson

Springri+le

St. James
Truevine


Central

Port White
Lake Lona
Lulu






wVatrtwn


---- --- -- -- ------ --- --- ------- ------ ~--~------ ----- -------- ------------- ----------- -~ --~------- ------- --------~- --------~ ----------~-------


-- --- ------ -- --~--- -- --- ---- --~i--- --- ----- -~--------- ----------- --------- --- -~-- --TI- ,~--- -- -----~.- ------ ------ --- --





16


It is to be noted that there were nine Negro elementary
oshools ad 8 white elementary schools in Columbit County.
A Negro and a white elementary school is named Port White.
One approach in the study of retardation is to compare
the amount of retardation by grades in the Negro and white
elementary schools. Table I reveals the percentage of
retardation by grades in each of the schools for the school
year 1947-48* There is a wide range in the percentage of
retardation in each grmde for both the Negro an, white
schools. The percentage of retardation is higher in the
Negro schools in grades I through 6 Fairview is the only
Negro school in which there was no retardation in any of
the grade during the year. When one views the average
percentage for all schools for each trade, the averages for
the Negro schools are higher than those of the white schools.
The highest average in the Negro schools 1i found in grade
one and the aoe tisrue for thc white schools. The lowest
average for the Negro schools is found in grade four, while
in the white school the lowest average is found in grade three.
Table XII presents a picture of the retardation by
schools and grades for the school year 1948-49. The range
in the percentage of retardation for all grades in the
Negro and white shcoAl is from 0 to as high as 50 in th
sixth grade of one of the Negro schools. A Negro school
has the highest percentage of retardation in grades 1, 2, 3,
5, and 6. A white school has a higher percentage of











PECiWJTAGE OP


TABLE II

RETAATION BY SCHOOLS AND GRADES 1947-48


Negro Vhite


Orade Grade
School School
1 2 3 5 6 1 2 3 5 6

Bet)hlhea 30 25 20 0 0 28 Central 11 7 4 7 2 13

Pairiewr 0 0 0 0 0 0 ?ort White 10 3 16 17 18 10

Pot Vhite 6 23 15 44t 20 Lake Lcan 13 0 0 0 13 7

K lagmelooe 27 0 0 0 25 25 uu 20 17 0 20 2 20

w Hope 41 11 25 5 37 15 Rsan a4 0 0 4

Rihardson 25 22 3 7 13 29 Relrose Park 5 7 4 5 2 12

Springrs ll 6 39 50 6 21 17 Murray Hill 5 7 4 5 5 8

St. James 0 14 6 0 11 20 Watertown 20 6 25 13 10 0

Truet e 50 18 20 -13 20 0


Avere 20 17 15 8 19 17 11 6 8 10 9


m,
ow


ow


.4






TABLE III

PERICETAGE O RETARDATION BY SCHO 3LS AND GRADES 1948-49


N. 7 Vhlt
Id~I~bI~aihi


Grade
1 2


3 4 5 6


School


Grsde

1 2 3


4 5 6


Bethlebes
Pairview
Port White





SpRsrlarllo

St J ms
tpprueprirae


21
0
12
12

3


33


47


0
0
0
14

5
13
22

25
29


0
0

17
0

7
0

43
8
42


0
0
0
20

17

3
17

13
15


0
0
0
10

36
2

23
0

17


0 Central 2
0 Port Whit 0

50 zke Las 0
0 lal 13

50 aho 4
27 Relrom Parkll
14 -urray B111 13
0 Watertom 10
8


7 4 7 6 2 2


2

12

13
0
0

2
2
0


7
6
0

13
0

9
7
13


6
4

0

0


6

6
25


4

7
0
0
0

4
4
0


4
0

0
0

5
4
4

0


ow


___ .__, ._ .,.. ....,__,_ .~._.c. ___. __


_._. _~ I


,__ ...I_.


I-~.I ---- I-~_ -- ~..~- -__. --. I -- -_. ---~- --I


-- -- ---_ _~ --- -I I----- .--~ c~ -- ---- 15-.- -----~lr -_- ~--- Now.


__ ___~__ _~__ C------~---1- --------- ~ --------- -- -- --I--- ------- -C--- _-- -_ -- __-- .-- -_-- ~ _~--I---'mom _


mI


Av-*"ge1 16 222


13~ 9 10 21





19


retardation In the fourth grade. The highest percentage
s the segro ohoole was in grade 6 while the highest
percentage of retardation in a white school was in gra e
four. In comparing the average percentage of retardation
for each grade for all of the schools, we note that the
amount of retardation is higher in the Negro schools for
grades 1-6. The highest average percentage of retardatict
In the Negro schools tcwa in grvde 6 while the highest
average perointage in the white schools was found in grades
I and 3. The lowest percentage of retardation was found
in the fourth grade for the Negro school while the lowest
percentage was found in the 5th ath h grades of the
white schools.
Table IV presents a picture of the retardation by schools
and grade for the school year 1949-50. The range in the
percentage of retardation for each grCde in both school*
is from 0 to as high as *4 in a Negro school. A high per*
Oentage of retardattin si found in grade I of the Negro*
school while a high percentage of retardation is found in
grades 3 end 4 for the white hool. In comparing the
average percentage of retardation for each grade in both
schools, we note that in grade one of the tNegro shools,
there was a high degree of retardation while the highest
degree of retardation inthe white schools was found~ in
grades 3 and 4. The lowest percentage of retardation in
the Negro schools was found in grae 2 and the lowest
percentage of retardation was found in grades 1 sad $ of


the white oshools.







TAUZ ZIT

PHRCERTAO3 OP !iETAnDAflV)?IBY SX)1M AND G-taDES 19i"u.50


Negro Whit


Orad Grade

1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6


BthbXe6 5 18 0 0 0 20 Cetral 9 12 3 3 10 7

?airlevl 35 0 0 0 0 0 PortWhte 18 2 3 12 31 22

Port Vhte 9 13 8 2 5 18 Leke Lcm 0 0 0 0 0 0

nlagImlr1 7 0 25 10 25 11 Ita 13 14 1 25 0o

w Hop 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 a 11 3 0 0 7

Rietareson 2 12 2 18 i 9 PlelRsow Park 1 12 2 3 10 7

Springrill 24 0 0 0 29 0 Rurray f11 0 0 14 37 0 0

St. Jaew 0 17 13 0 8 0 Watertow 0 0 23 20 40 0

TruF lu 48 0 7 33 20 8

Averi 16 6 7 10 7 5 8 12 12 11 5

---- ------- ------ -- -- ----y-- I-llY----__ __---_ 1. C~_-I)..~-L. -\_~ -L-- ~ -~-~--N- -- M-


No












map


kl





21


Table V presents a picture of the retardation by schoft
and grades for the school year 1950-51. The range ln the
percentage of retardation for each grade in both schools
is fro a 0 to as high as 35 in grade 1 of a Nep school
The highest degree of retardation in the Negro and white
school wee foumd in grade 1. In ooaplrag the average
percentage of retardation for each grade, we find that the
Negro schools had a higher degree of retar tion than the
white schools in each grade except grade 6. Both schools
had the highest deree of retardation n grade 1.
Table VI presents a ploture of the retardation by schools
sad grades for the school year 1951-52. The Mrang in the
percentage of retardation for each grade io fro 0 to as
high as 35 ln grade I of a Negro school. It appears that
in grades X, 2, 3, 4, and 5, Negro school had a higher
percentage of retardation than any white school. In ooa-
paring the average percentage of retardation the Negro
ohools are higher than the white schools In all grdes.
Orades 1 and 5 in the Negro schools had the highest average
of retardation while the highest average of retardation
was found in grae X of the white Lshools. The lowest
ave rge was found in grade 6 of the Negro s*cholas and
grade 5 of the white schools.
Another way to analyse these data regarding retardatlim
is to note the perodatage of retardation by lgraes through
the five year period for all of the Megro s schools ant all






TABIS 1
fPEliCNTAGE 0? flETLTDATIfN El SCH3-3LZ AD) G4A1ES 1950-51


Negro White


School


Grade

1 2


Bethlehbaa

Fainters

Port White

Kl~nswelooa e
New Hope

tichardson
Springrille

St. James
Truevime


0

0

10

27
0

9

31

5
35


0

0

0

10

0

2
0

13
22


3 5 6


0

0

7
14
18

0
4

18

$


0

0

0

0


0

4

11

13


0

0
0

12

0

2

12

21
0


0

0

0

0

11

0

0

9


School


Grade

1 2 3


Central 20

Port White 10

Lake Lana 14

Lulu 0

Mason 15

Melrose Park 2

Murray Hill 9

Watertown 12


15
14

0
0
8

2

0

0


6
0

0
0

0

2

7
0


1









]


4 5 6

L6 6 12
4 0 16

0 0 0

0 0 0

o 0 0

2 3 12

LO 0 12

o 0 0


5


Average 13


5 8 4 5 3 1


5 2 4 1 6


WI


a


- ----- -- ----- L-_-.~--- --.-I ~e ...-..~. .-~_~~ I


-- -.~--~,J ,~.~. ,---n- -- ---- ----~- --,----I,-.- ---- mlllVCIIIIIlowI


--- ---. --- -._I II--~ ~-~ -- I -- -----


I ~s -- ------ ----l--~-e -I-~I Y- -- ~~-- --~--


- '---- -~ -- ~~-- I' I-----~ -~~)--Y-l -- -L1--- l--C ~~- -----~------- -~.-----r---- ------- -


I I' .. ... .... I I] J _lL r-- II- -- -~- I. .


-- ~- -- ---' -L- ~ -- -- -~ --~-- -- ----C---l--.L--. ~- I~-- -----.---~-- ~ --~~---- --L_ I ~ IWoman% L


n, 98101 -







T:.LZE VI
PERCENTAGE OP .TDA.TICON BT SCHOOL- AND 0( ADES 1951-52


sBea~O White


Grade Grade
1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6

Bethlehea 21 40 30 22 20 0 Central 14 6 7 2 3 4

Parisr 0 0 0 0 0 0 Port Whlte 3 7 7 U 4 12
Port VWhte 23 0 23 14 7 6 Iake Loaa 11 0 0 0 0 20
Kixnwe ooma 0 0 0 0 0 0 Lulu 0 0 0 0 0 0
Xw ope 15 8 0 0 22 20 lason 18 0 0 0 0 0
ftRch4erta 3 6 0 7 0 10 Ralrose Park 2 10 4 8 10
Spri-ngvin 35 0 4 2 22 0 wurray Hll O 0 0 0 0 0
St. Jams 25 11 21 33 25 10 WatrtLt or 0 8 0 0 0 0
Tre viae 4 11 0 0 10 14

Avera 3 8 9 9 3 7 6 4 2 2 1 5


ItJr


ko





24


of the white schools. Table VII presents these findings.
It is to be noted that the average percentage of retard-
ation in each grade for the five year period was higher
in the Negro schools than in the white schools. The high-
set average of retardation existed in grade 1 in the Negro
and white schools.
A picture of the percentage of retardation for all of
the grades (1-6) in eadh school for the year 1947-48 is
presented in Table VIII. The range of the percentage of
retardation for the Negro schools was from 0 to 42. The
range for the white schools was from 1 to 19. Spring-
field, Port White, New Hope, and Bethlehem were the Negro
schools with a high degree of retardation. Pairview had
no retardation during 194?7-48. Lulu, Fort White and
Watertown were the white elementary schools with a high
degree of retardation. Mason had a low degree of retard-
ation. The average percentage of retardation for this
year for the Negro schools was 19 while the average per-
centage of retardation for the white schools was 9.
Table IX presents a picture of the percentage of retard-
ation for all of the grades (1-6) for each school during
the year 1948-49. The range of the percentage of retard-
ation in the Negro schools was from 0-30. The range of
retardation in the white schools was from 1-8. Truerine,

Springfield and Bethelhem were the Negro schools with a
high degree of retardation. Watertown was 9the white
school with the highest degree of retardation. Pairview,







~tABE VlU
PF~nntIC]AGE O? !UMTATIDAT'!) BY PADRES fq EACH EA-

1947.,* 19514ow2


Negro White


Orade Grade
Yeao
1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6


27 16


18

21

18

13


13

15

4

6


11


16




6

7


16


7

11

3

9


22 24


9

9

6

9


9 6 6 6 7 n


24

9

2

8


10

10

17

13


9 9 11 13 12


3 6 6 4 3

1 19 6 11 8

2 3 8 3 11

12 5 4 7


9 8 6 6 8


1947w48


1946-49

1949.50

1950-51

1951-52


~-I--_~- ~l~-- L ------1 Now---


-----' -I- '---'~ru---~ -'~-~-~-~- ~-~~~---1 "I-"' -""`-`i"-- ~~ ~-Y -~~~~~~`- -~ --I~~-I--


w---~ --Y------- .- r-----------~-`l-- -1 I11I^ .--XC -1II~-I-LC_I~__ -IL_ __ I--I*I. --- -I-r---~I. ~ -L__ ___LCISl~j(41LII*#LLI*QY~e~


.l--L-~i~l-- ~L- ~------X--l- L1 ------F 1--- -~-~-- -I- -1~--I--- -- li-LIli-


s

]

]


AvemV 19 10g Ic










PERCENTAGE


TABLE VIII

OF RETARDATION OF TOTAL EYOLLMENT (1-6) FOR EACH


Negro


SCHOOL 1947-48


White


Number
Promoted


School


Number
Retarded


Percent
Total Retarded School


number
Promoted


Number
Retarded


Percent
Total Retarded


Bethlhea

Palrview

Fort White

Ki~agieleome

New Hope

RIoharason

Springville

St. James

Truevine


48

8

77
40

73
276

51
65

73


14

0

24

6

22

58

37
4

20


62

8

101

46

95

334
88

29

93


23

0

25

13

23

17
42

6

22


Central

Fort White

Luke Lona
Lulu

Mason

Melrose Park

Murray Hill

Watertown


256

145

70

29

114

266

266

54


20

20

5

7
2

16

17
8


276

165

75

36
116

282

283

62


7
12

6

19

1

5
6

12


'IlOllde3l~l)~ilLCr(~Wrr~lllll~ ~~ --.-:Y-- --- ----T -- --,--- ~-.-- =II -~- ---I- ---~3llllllllllll~LIIICLIIILIIL~eCIIIII


--L- _"- '. .


~ L- ~L..-.--~-.-. -... ~...-. -' ~-- ~---- --'~I- ~-L.-r ..__~._ _- ....~.


~---- --- ---------- -------


-- ------- L' ----- -- -- ---


- -I ~ -- -.--- I ~ --- -- -L- ----- I goo".


L ---I II I--- --I -- ----~- -~- --- ---~-- -t--- -~~- -- --~ ----- -- --r -- -- __


Crllllll311LI







TABLE IX
RCETAGE 0( TARSTAIDATIOP OP TOTAL EWROLTLMNT (1-6) FOR EACH SCHOOL 1948-1


Negro


White


Schael


ethliekes
Patrvliew
Port Whit




Riklm o ara
Spriagrille
St. Jmeis
Tri-Wa -.


Numbs t Number
Promoted Setarde4


48

13
90

38
82

313
65
62
64


14
0

13
4

13

33
28


27
2?


Percent
Total retarded School


62

13
103
42

95
346
93
69

91


23
0

13
10

15
8

30
10

30


Number
Promoted


Central

Port White
Lake Lona
Lulu

hasan
Relrose Park

Murray Bill
Watertown


281

156

52

33
99
285
286

53


number
Retarded


18
8
1

2

5
19
18

5


Percent
Total Retardod

299 6
164 4

53 1

35 5
104 4

304 6

304 5

58 8


~ .~~.. ------~---~-rrcir-- ---r------`--i-l- ----;---------- -- --1--s;l~ ~- -~------C------ ----r--l ----~---~;----L .-_-----_-------------- --- .- ------------- --r~ ~.~ ~I---*----T- -~-


Il Y I, I',"" 'rrII g


- --~-- ---~~~-- --------- I--~ ---~ --- ----- ~- --- ----I- '-- --~~ --------- ~~--~ -- ---- ------ --I ---~ -`-- ~---------- -c.~ -- ---C i- ------- -----I~ ~ ---~----


I --- -


------ ----~-----*--~- -~liy_ r-l-~ -- -I I __.___-~_CLC--1~- ~ ~-CC _-_L-l_-L-- C--- -.i ~ i- I I py._~_l-~ -~I1-1_-~ L)._l ~-I --__.__-~~ -L-- I --II_)-~--_ ~lr .___._-L __ -~ -- --- ~----- ---- ~- -~~ C-2__ I-L_-..~.-- ---


--- ------ ---- -------C---;~--- --r-~---------- ----r-_-ll_ _~-_~-, I~__~.. __~_~-c_~~-,, ~ --____~ __~_~~___ __ __~~~ ~__~ _~~~__ ~___ ~____~_ ~ _~_Pogo"~___


i-- / ___ _-- T_





28


a Negro school, had no retardation in 1948v49. Lake
Lona, a white school, had the lowest perontage of retard-
ation of the white schools. The average percentage of
retardation for the Negro schools was 15 and the average
for the white schools was 5.
Table X presents a picture of the percentage of retard-
ation for all of the grades (1-6) f-r each school during
the year 1949-50. The range of the percentage of retard
action in the Negro schools was from 6 to 26, and the range
in the white schools was from 0 to 15. Kingswelcome,
Bethelhea and Fairview were the Negro schools with a high
degree of retardation. Watertown and Lulu were the white
schools with the highest pereentege of retardation. St.
James and Truevine were the Negro schools with a low
degree of retardation. Lake Lone, a white school, had no
retardation during that year. The average percentage of
retardation for the Negro schools was 13, while the average
of retardation for the white schools was 9.
Table XX presents a picture of the percentage of retard-
ation for all of the grades (106) for each school during
the year 1950-51. The range of the percentage of retard*
action in the Negro schools was from 0 to 21l The range
in the white schools was from 0 to 12. St, James and
Truevine were the Negro schools with the highest degree
of retardation. Central was the white school with the
highest degree of retardation. The average percentage of
retardation for the Negro schools was 7 while the average


for the white schools was 3.






TABLE I

PERCMRTAGE OP RETARDATION OF TOTAL EIROLLENT (1-6) POR EACH SCHOOL 1949"50


Segr| Whlt
Neroa~p W2hite


106mbw RISbea
?z'omote4~j Reltaidr4S41


Seohol


Total aetarded Shohol


urubr NubTr
Promoted *etarded


?reotat
Total Retar4ed


B3thiahm


ForWht hit
Kiagswloooes
- lop.


Sprigpille
St. Jeames
Trrwlne
Amtfar


36
24

89
64
84

312

89

72
72


10
6
112
22
4


8

5
5


46

30
100
86
88

345
97
77
77


22
20
11
26

5
10
8

6

7


Ceatr4e
Fort White
Leke Lona


Rason
Melrose Park
furray Hill
Watertown


462

139
36
28
84
462

47
51


53
30
0
4
4

54
4

9


515
169

36
32
88

518

51
60


10
11
0
12
4
o10

7
15


4)


... ..-. ~ .-.- ---__--~TL~ L I.I~.--- -i~ -- .--_ ---- -- -- I-'~'`~u- -~'-- ------- ----------------- ---- -' ~ ---------- -


r -I I -C ---- I- ~L ~.C-----~_------ --- -~- ----- ----- ~ --- ~-~--'-- L-I L


- ~--- ----- ~..- -L.~ -- t~ -~' L ----.~ ----1- I --- --~--LT -- .








ABLE Xl

OF' MEMARDAfTI3) 11V '7~Y7X L f,*LLMENT (1 4) i'o EACH


SCHooL 1950-51


White


Retarded 'Tota~l


?ez'omhgat
etFtarded School


lwumber
Promoted


Number
Retarded


Percent
'Total Retarded


Pairvi~a

Port White

Kiniweleome

Ner wope

Rieharson

Spriwgillle

St. James

Truevle


48

31

91

100

79

341

130

57
72


0

0

2

12

5
6

13

15
14


48

31

93
112

84

347

143
72

86


0

0

2

11

6

2

9
21

16


Central

Port White

Lake Lopa


Wassot

relroee Park

urray Hill
Watertown


lwaber
Promoted


634

169

27
28

71

335

55
67


92

12

1

0

3
28

4

2


762

181

28

28

74

363

59

69


12

6

3
0

4

7
6

2


0


II,------ --- -~ I ~.__. .. ~_.~L.__. ..._, ~


_I__- --_- -. ICI ---~-- ---^--- -il --__~--I__ -II~-_~ 1. ~--- -I
~LI*CCP.lnsRIIIYYII*h rlbeWllk~,~Y(U~lr.~-' I"'"-l-L ~~~ -'`-- --


- ----- ---- -- --------~ Ic*rr*mn


I- -.ly~ --- ~ -L~__. -- ~- __-__L ~L. --- -I -L -~.-C -


I- L--~ ---- -- -


- --------- ---- -~~ --- -'c- '- ~-I---- -~--~ ~f


I ----u.; -- -- ~-L-- ~ L-- ----~. .-----i ~iC-- -- --lCI -- -- ~~--- ~r -- --- I~~ -I~. -----I --


~_.rUI--~'^'^-~ I-~-~-~ ~--~---~'I- -~ -- --- ---I ~ ~-'-~----- I-r -------I--- -----~--. -- --------------- -- ---- -~ ------------


-_-- --~- II1( -L1 -~~-LL --_-1-~-I.~-- -- -IYn )_i~BW*sWUr~W(J~IIIl~lhlW~)
ICIO





31


Table XII presents a picture of the pero4ntage of retard-
ation for all of the grades (1-6) for each school during
the year 1951-52. The range of the percentage of retard-
ation in the Negro schools was from 0 to 20. The range
in the white schools was from 0 to 9. Bethlehem and St.
James were the Negro schools with the highest degree of
retardation. Melrose Park was the white school with the
highest percentage of retardation. Pairview and Kingswelcome
were the Negro ashools with no retardation during that
year. Lulu and Hurry Hill were the white elementary sohools
with no retardation. The average percentage of retardation
for the Negro schools was 10, while the average for the
White schools was 4.

After having viewed the percentage of retardation by
years foreaCh of the elementary schools, it would be well
to see the total picture by schools for each of the five
years involved. Table XIX shows the percentage of retaik-
tion of the total school population for each school for
each of the years 1947048, 1951*52. It also shows the
average percentage for each school over the five year period
and theaverage for till of the schools during each year.
It is to be noted that the average percentage of
retardation was higher in the Negro schools for each year
in the five yeab spen. There has been a decrease in the

average percentage of retardation in the Negro eohools frao








TABLE XII
PERCE STAE OP ETA iDATION OF TOTAL BNROLL4ENT (1-6) POa EACH SCHOOL 1951-52


Nogro White


uuber Number Percent Number Number
Sebeel Preenoto Rotared Total Retar4a School Proeto Retaried Total


Percent
Retar-l4


Bethlbhea
Pailviw
Fwot White
KIagnwoleses
Ner Hope
RibehrTson
Sprlagjllle
St. James
TuevsleW
st boomI L., S f


38
36
77
107
92

334
119
56
57


11
0
12
0
11
14
16
17
8


49
36

89
107
103
348
135
73
65


22
0

13
0
11
4
12
20
11


Central
Pert White
Lake Lona


Mason
Relrose Park
Murray Bill
Watertown


690
167.

31
13
67
324


59


62

15
2
0
2

35
0
1


752
182

35
13
69
359


60


8
8

5
0
2

9
0
1


- ----- ~---- ~- ~- ----~-- -. -- -----~----~---~- -- -- -- ~------ --


-h "~ --- '--'-I---- ---- --- ------ ----- --- -- ----- -------- -








TABLE XIII
RPEfCENTAE OP RETALIATION OP TOTAL EROLLENTX (1-6) FOR EACH SCHOOL POR EACH YEAR


Negro White


Year Year
Seh8ol School
47-48 48-49 49-50 50-51 51-52 Av. 47-48 48-49 49-50 50-51

Betlblebi 23 23 22 0 22 18 Central 7 6 10 12
Patlimw 0 0 20 0 0 4 Fort White 12 4 11 6
Fort White 25 13 11 2 13 13 Lake Lona 6 1 0 3
KinAgseleoe 13 10 26 11 0 12 Lul 19 5 12 0
xBv Hope 23 15 5 6 11 12 Mason 1 4 4 4
RiAhard on 17 8 10 2 4 8 elrose Park 5 6 10 7
$Spriagll,* 42 30 8 9 12 20 riurry Hill 6 5 7 6
St. Juen 6 10 20 21 20 15 Watertown 12 8 15 2
Truevaie 22 30 7 16 11 17

Average 19 5 14 7 10 9 5 9 5
.. .. ..0 -0. .. .., i.. ti_ m : T T + T+T JL I .T. .. .. l r I $ .+ . '+' .. . ... . .. ... .. . . . + -mo m m .L +. .+ + : t .


51-52 AV

8 8
8 8

5 3
0 7
2 3
9 7
o 5
1 ?



4











TABLE XIV

PERCENTAGE OF RETARDATION OF TOT..L ENROLU4ENT (1-6) PFO EACH YEAR

__m -4-- a-,


-n-rn-


Negro


White


-ar


1947-48


1948-49


1949-50


1950-51


1951-52


------ -----~ Number-------


Number
Promoted


611


775


831


949


916


Number Percent Number Number Percent


Number
Retarded


185


139


114


67


89


Total


796


914


945


1016


1005


Percent
Retarded


23


15


12


7


8


Number
Promoted


1200


1245


1309


1386


1398


Number
retarded


95


76


158


142


117


Total


1295


1321


1467


1528


1515


Percent
Retarded


7


5


10


9


8


mopomqwj


_ -WAN


_ oma,


bumpowasm


wwau"Iswam


I i ......


---Wmwwwm


MWAVOWNWOM


--


~--'~~- ~- --".~~--- ~ ~ C- ~ --I-~--.- -- i NO- 0~- -~--_ --_


I- ~- --~





35

1947-48 to 1950-51. As1iht increase was a+speriened I 1951-
52 PFr the five yar period the segro schools with the
highest avewrae percentage of retardation wers Springville
Bethelhms and Truevine. The white ahoole with the high-
e*t average were Central, Lalu, Nelose Park and Watetowm.
Their average, however, was lower than most of the Negro
schools. In fact only two Negro schools had an average
percentage lower than eight (8) which was the haihest
average percentage n the white schools.
In order to identify a trend with respect to retarda-
tion Table XXV was developed. It shows the percentage of
retardation for all of the graes (1-6) for each year
urineg the ftwo year span.
It is obvious that the range of the percentage of
retardation n the Negro schools wa from 8 in 1951-52 to
23 in 1947-48. There has been a steady decrease in the
percentage of retardation in the Negro school during the
five yeer period. During four of the five year the per.
entage of retardation in the Negro eshools was greater or
equal to that of the white schools. The average for the
Negro schools over the five year span was 13 ed the average
for the white schools was 8.






36


S~1UMA AWD COc~USIONS
If the eqoaliaUsation of edueatteoal oppor tuaty is
to be achieved in the od4a elementary school, eduaoatrs
should not aly give attentiS o to the oereetie of school
plaat, to tthe neurtS of materials for itstrueten sa
to the bhiria of apwetet teachers, but attentl2n should
be ivre to the internal orgeniasiitl of the school.
The grouping of pupils for instruotlonal purposes eam
preotiaes reulatang pupil propra must be oonsistent
with d retit prFimoples.
At present umy school systems follow policies Ir
lstlag pupil progress whlbh pwotue a high degree of
etaratlton. Although the principal and teabers an
aware of the relatlnship betwn failure to akoe
Ste7d progPeavs ia hool l ad pemrsality development,
msar of the a r et to adopt a new course of a tiea.
Certainly objective data o4oernina the m.UnitudS of
retardation should pr e modtifiation In presEnt pree-
ties. The purpose of this study ws to oompae the
dOE e of retaWdation in the egSro and White elementary
sehotols of Columbia County, Piorida from 1947.48, 1951.52.

In this stuay the normstive survey aethod was used.
A forn was developed upo which the number of students
promoted and the number retained in each prade in each




37


of the seventoae schools for the five year period was
recorded. Tables were developed to present the picture
of retardation and to enable the writer to answer the
major problems of this investigation
Mo attempt was made to Identify the causes for
retardation or the relationship between retardation and
intellectual ability. Seventeen s ehools which were
the total mnuber for Columbia County were involved in
this study.
The major oonelusions for this study say be set
forth in the form of answers to the sixz ub-probleem
which were cited in Chapter One.
1. There was a higher egree of retardation
in the Negro schools than in the white
schools durig the five year period.
(a) The average pernmtas of retardation
for oamh grade was higher in the oegro
schools uria e ah year.
(b) The average per entage of retardation
for each grade over the five year
period was higher in the Negro schools.
e() The range of the pesentage of retardt
ation for all grade 1-6 was greater
in the Negro sChools during eah year
of the five year span.
(4) The average perentage of retardation
higher in the eIgrP schools during
each year.

(e) Sight Negro schools had an average
percentage of retardation for a five
year period higher than the white
schools.





38


(f) The pero ntage of retardation of the
total enrollment was higher each year
in the Negro schools except in 1951452
when the average for the twoe schools
was equal.
2. The Negre elementary schools with a high degree
of retardation wer Springilfle, Bethlehoe,
aen Truevine. the white school with a high
degree of retardation were Central and Port
White however, their average percentage
of reardation was lower than all the Negro
schools except Pairview.
3. Pairtiew ant Richardson were the Negro elea*
entry schools with a low degree of retard-
ation. Lake Lena and ason were the white
8eho-ls with a low degree of retardation.
4. In the Negro elementary schools the high-
eat degr of retardation was found in grades
1 and 6. In the white schools the highest
degree of retardation was found in grates
1 and 20


In the white schools the lowest degree of
retardation was found in grades 4 and 5.
6. There has been a stead decline in the degree
of retardation in the Negro Oshools from
194?.48 to 1951-52. There has been a
slight dlerease in the percentage of retard-
ation i the whites *hools froe 199*o50 whieh
was the year in which the white oshools had
the highest average of retardation during
the five year period.




39


IMPLICATVIWS OP THE STUDIO

the findings in this investigation suggest an
intensive search to ascertain the causes of such a
high degree of retardation in the Negro schools.
Teacher s ay be questioned at to the reasons why many
of their pupils failed to make regular progress. Pupils
may likewise be asked why they think they have failed
to be promoted. Such factors as attendance, discipline,
and intellectual ability should be splored to see if
they are positively correlated with a high degree of
retardation.
If subsequent study shows that the pupils who are
retarded possess normal and above average intelligence
the methods of instruction and the basis for promotion
should be brought under scrutiny. If there is a con-
centration of retardation aaong the slow learners
Ourriculua revision is imperative and teaching teohniques
whioh produce effected learning in this group should be
employed.
The combined efforts of the administration and
the teachers should be focused upon securing valid lnfor-
mat ion concerning the conditions which provoked a high
degree of retardation. These data will enable the staff
tobtvelop promotional policies consistent with the
eoalept of the equalisatio of e educational opportunity.









BIE LI OGRA PHY


BOOKS
Barr, A, S*, William H. Burton, and Leo J. Brueckner,
SuerVilon, New YorkL ppleton-Century-Croftse
Znc, 1947n 879 pp*
Cawelll Hollis L. and A, W. Poshay, fuoatian 1a
Element r Schol. New York: American Book Co,,
1950, 406 pp*
Jacobson, Paul BB, William C, Reavri, and James D, Logsdon,
utis f Shool rinialr~ New York: Prentice-
Hall, Inc,* 1950 791 pp.
Otto, Henry J*0, Elenanter Qig2l rganisatia 21
A niat. +tiAn* n ew York: ppleton-Oentury-Crofts,
Xnc. 19M4 571 PP.

PARTICLES
Ayers F* CL "The Progress of Pupils in the Schools of
Texas" Texas State Teachers Association Bulletin,
1993. 36 pp.
Anflnson, R. D. "School Progress and Pupil Adjustment'*
Elementary School Journal, 41:507-14 March 1941,
Baker, Harry J., "Helping the Slow Learner," a tonal
dushao gasotions 539t178s*79. 1950
Corning, Hobart M,, '"Looking At the Whole Child*" ao1i l
EduneaiAn 1 aviation., 69:705-10 June-July 19Y 1
Francis, E. B., "Follow Up of Non-Promotion" Euduation
Journal, 122:187 June 1939
Gestie, Bermioe Dainard, "Promotion or Placement"
ElementaZ Shoo l Journa, 48:61-65 Sept, June

Gilohrist, Edward P, "'The A extent to Which Prasie and
Reproof Affeot a Pupils Work." ghoog cgag m o~at~Xi
4:872-74 December 1916.




41


Hayton r J4 3 "Guard .gsainot ?RetrrAtilon" 2a.=tf
~tuat an, 34:408a11 Jnnuary 1946
Howoll, J4., "Why of Retardation o Twohora Spo:Vk"
0tUhat altmnta! rtna ials 26 43-201 1946
Kulp, eaniel II,# %hat I4easure For (Iradineg" 1Zduat
.ia.=.. 13t 145-49 Ootober June, 1933*354
Hyte CG. C.o "Cause of PFirt-Grade Non-Promotion in
the Liht of Measured ltnelligene,"
ho.l .our... .38s4 415*28 .tebr ry 193s
Outl nd : ,, 'ocaler tion, -ind Retr.rdbtion nons
Trrnoteont !Boys,'" S Cd g gfotre 471 413X16
March 1938
Penh le, ,. Rf., "hy Do High School Students Fail?"
.U' l Auatal a p Gfindar72 s ,ripnima
BulletUn, 29; 6a. March 1945
Stevens, G. tC., nd *. ,tevens, "Identifying the
mentally Fetarted Ch 1i47d, 7leamenhari S 01 iui
49* 149-54 iovermber 1947
Stroud, 4j *, "How Mapny upils Are Failend,"
Sobiaa Journa. 471 315-22 7Februiry, 1947
Teaplin, R J. W,4 "Choek-up of WonaPriomotion" Eduoa.mana
lawMral= 123s 259-60 Novemrber, 1940
rLallin J4. 2, V, "ZSteetioning ooording to abilityy in
1941-421" a Q BSci__e.., 56. 526-29 July -
Deembea' m




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