• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Acknowledgement
 The problem and methods of...
 Review of related literature
 Socio-economic setting of Dade...
 Development and administration...
 Analysis and interpretation of...
 Summary and recommendations
 Bibliography
 Appendix






Title: Study of the Employment Patterns of Negroes in Selected Occupations in Dade County, Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AM00000027/00001
 Material Information
Title: Study of the Employment Patterns of Negroes in Selected Occupations in Dade County, Florida
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Cherry, James Learon
Affiliation: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
Publisher: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
Publication Date: 1956
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: AM00000027
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Florida A&M University (FAMU)
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAA0896
notis - ABV5549

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
    Title Page
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
    Acknowledgement
        Page vi
    The problem and methods of procedure
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Review of related literature
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Socio-economic setting of Dade County, Florida
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Development and administration of the questionnaire
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Analysis and interpretation of data
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Summary and recommendations
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Bibliography
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Appendix
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
Full Text






A ST.UVY OP FT IMHXPEiMEN OF
NOhosiS Oa CsCACLD OCPxTAT OIM
U1 DA COua G, P ATAMDA








A Th sis
Presented to
the r.oulty of the Gruduate Sohool
Flortida Agrioultural and eehantoal University








In Partial Fulf'll e ,
of tihe s qulremmts for the Degree
Rester of SolenoI in Industrial MFucattio







JmsAu Letaro C19 ry
August 1956










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409


TABLE OF CONTENTS


CHAPTER

I. THE PROBLEM AND METHODS OF PROCEDURE


The Problem . . .

Statement of the problem.,, .

Analysis of the problem .

Need for the study . .

Delimitations . . .

Methods ad Procedures .

Sources of data .. *.

Definition of tears .

BRVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE .

SOCIO-ECONOMIC SETTING OF DADE COUNT

History abd Location. . .

Population .

Amusement and Recreation .

Lodging Services . .

Eating and Beverage Services ...

Personal Service Workers .

Protective Services . .

Domestic Services . .

Transportation, Communication, and

Public Utilities . .

Manufacturing . . .


PAGE


. 9 9 9 0


* 9 0 0 0 1

* 9 9 9 2

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. 15

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. . 16

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. 0 17

Other


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17

18


U16
III.
III.











TIABL~ OF CONTENTS (continued)


CHAPTER PAGE

Building Construction. .... .. 19

Finance, Real Estate and Insurance . 20

Trade and Industrial Educ&tion . 20
IV. DEVELOPMENT AND ADMINISTRATION OF THE

QUESTIONNAIRE . . . 23

Development of the Questionnaire . 23

Administration of the questionnaire . 28
V. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATiON OF DATA . 30

General Employment Patterns in Selected

Occupations in Dade County, Florida . 30

Employment Patterns of Negroes in Selected

Occupations in Dade County, Florida . 40
VI. SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . 44

Summary . . . . 44

Recommendations .. . . .
BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . 46

APPEDIX . . 46











LIST OF TABLES

TABLE PAGE

I. Methods Used by Employers to Acquire

Employees .... .. .,..... 33
II. Essential Traits Required of Employees
and Order of Their Importance . 36
III. Abilities to be Developed . . 38















Tho writer acknowledges, with appreointiaon, the

as =stiaMnoe grlvt to him by moaQesa of the Miaml-eiDade

County Clamber of ComRaerose Nmational Saleo ;x7cutive,



Publio Instruction, City of Hiai,55 and the State Diep;F-

vwnt of Li.uoation.

I an deeply I Iy ide t ttetothe representative of th

proft~olonial and indutrinl rvWts for taeir ooperoiatlon

in jvins vanltzable inf ornation that uade this study

possible.

The*a Swgestitons and asS atance ofa ean V. S, ThomIa

and ir. Wmrrell ianiter of the School of Engineering and

iMechanio Arts, ard dr. S, b. Dujalle of the hooxl of

Education. florida A and l university, have boin invalum

able.

I am deeply grateful to mr wtfe, Johnnme, for

pnt.tenf e and meeu agemett during ths study,


a. r"L~B"etr'~~~~ ''r ~''I yr-l n
~1 '2~ k\~~ p~.3f
6~4s~~r.e~pr i~*~*~~~ii~i










CHAPTER I


THE PROBLEM AND METHODS OF PROCEDURE

In recent years, advances have been scored in reduc-
ing barriers that limit opportunities of members of minority
groups in securing employment in lower paying and less skill-
ed occupations. The problem of adequate employment of
Negroes is by no means a local one, it is state and national.
A statement from the United States Department of Labor Bulle-
tin is worthy of note:
Although appreciable gains up the occupational ladder
have been made during the last decade, in comparison
with white workers Negroes are predominantly employed
in lower paying anw less skilled occupations such as
operatives, laborers, and service workers.1
In an effort to determine the extent to which Negroes
in Dade County, Florida, have taken advantage of expanding
employment opportunities, the writer has undertaken this
study.

I. Bt PROBLEM

The study is devoted to the collection, analysis,
and interpretation of data necessary to determine the employ-
ment patterns of Negroes in Dade County, Florida, during 1955.


0United States Department of Labor, Negroes Jj j
Uni ted fta ~s~ r loQent ja Econoie Status, Bulle-
tin 1i9 (Washing on Un ed States Covernment Printing
Office, 1952), p. 15.

63418







2


Statement l ht Aroblea. What occupations were
Negroes of Dade County, Florida engaged in during 1955?

AnalsiS u gt robleS. Upon analyzing the problem,
it was found that it presented several subordinate problems
that had to be considered, The subordinate problems were
as follows
1. What is the general employment pattern in
Dade County in terms of the followings
a. Number of persons employed.
b. Selection practices.
c Employee services.
d. Ages of workers.
e. Salaries.
f, Educational and experience requirements.
g. Character traits and abilities expected of
employees.
2. &Wat is the employment pattern with respect to
Negroes in Dade County?
3. What recommendations can be made for improving
the employment patterns of Negroes in Dade County?

Sei for t.e study. Occupational surveys on wages and
related data have been conducted in Dade County, Florida, but
no studies have been made recently on the employment of Ne-
groes. An investigation of occupations in which Negroes are
working would show the pattern of employment as of 1955.
The nature of toe findings might be used to improve the types








3


and levels of employment now engaged in by a majority of
Negro workers in the county.

Delimitations. The study was limited to selected
industries and businesses in Dade County, Florida. Also,
to employment patterns durinE 1955.

II. METHODS AN) PROCEDURES

The classificationsof industries and occupations used
by the United States Bureau of the Census2 and the Dictionary
of Occupational Titles3 of the United States Employment Ser-
vice were reviewed, However, variations were made to bring
the actual picture of the Dade County, Florida area into
sharper focus.
After formulating the objectives of the occupational
study, a questionnaire was developed and mailed to all per-
sons representing firms considered pertinent to the study.
An explanation of the purpose of the study and instructions
for filling out the questionnaire were included. The develop-
ment and administration of the questionnaire will be discussed



2United States Office of iLducation, Occu nations: A
Basic Course for Couaselors (Washington: Superintendent if
boeuaents) 1 ,5 pp. 9-51
Caroll L. Shartle, OQeupational Informations
Development ad Alicatio (New York: Prentice-all, Inc.),
1946, pp. 116-16.








4


in Chapter IV. Following the collection of data an analy-
sis was made with interpretations. As questionnaires were
received, the responses were tabulated.
Telephone calls and personal visits were made to
establishments whose personnel failed to complete the
questionnaire. However, these efforts only resulted in
securing a total of seventy-four instruments after which
the writer analyzed and interpreted the data.
The nature of this study in light of the writer's
knowledge of the research methods suggested the use of the
descriptive method of research,


Sources o dat~a. The writer utilized several methods
and techniques in the study. A questionnaire was developed
and sent to 140 industries and businesses. Seventy-four, or
52.9 per cent, of the questionnaires were completed and re-
turned,
The items of information included in the questionnaire
were also used as an interview guile in contacts with repre-
sentatives of the Chamber of Co meree, United States saploy-
ment Service, National Sales Executives, Central Labor Union,
City Manager's Office, County School Board, Greater Miaal
Urban League, and Frontiers of America in the Miami area.



See Appendix.








5

State representatives of the Department of Education (Trade
and Industrial Section) and (Adult and Veteran Section),
Department of Commeree, Apprentice Training and the State
Board of Beauty Culture were contacted in Tallahassee. Dur-
ing the interviews, additional questions were asked and re-
corded. Printed matter pertinent to the study and other
suggestive sources of data were given by representatives
of these organizations.
Some of the historical information included in Chapter

III was secured through a review of local newspaper articles.

Definition of terms. No terms have been defined as
peculiar to this study.

This chapter has presented the problem, statement of
the problem, its analysis, need for the study, sources of
data, the delimitation, methods and procedures, and definition
of terms. Chapter II, which follows, is devoted to related
literature that has a bearing on some phase of the study.











CHAPTER II


REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

The writer was unable to find any previous studies

related specifically to occupational opportunities and

vocational training nee6s for Negroes in Dade County,

Florida. However, a review of the literature discussed

in this chapter is related to some phase of the study.

In January, 147, Maxwell S. Thomas conducted a
survey of industrial education needs of fegroes in Greater

Miami, Florida. The purposes of his investigation were as

follows:

(1) To investigate the opportunities and facilities
for vocational education and guidance of Negroes in

Miami.

(2) To investigate the business and industrial
activities of the community for determining employment

opportunities and vocational training for Negroes.

(3) To analyze the vocational offerings of Negro

schools to determine the extent to which they are

meeting the training needs of the students.

(4) To determine the most effective program of

vocational training for Negroes in Miami.








7


(5) To ascertain the attitudes of students,
educational and civic leaders, and civic and indus-
trial organizations toward the vocational traiinng of
NegroesP

From theo ata collected by Thomas, the following
statements were prepared and presented:
(1) There has been a gradual increase in the enroll-
ment of each of the three Negro nigh schools during the
past four years.
(2) A small percentage of the students drop out of
school before graduation.

(3) A general estimate is that 50 per cent of those
graduating from high school go away to college.
(4) The student mortality rate is higher among boys
than girls.
(5) Presently, there are six courses having a definite
vocational objective, with a total enrollment of approxi-
mately 195 students, being offered as a part of the public
school program for Negroes.
(6) Each high school offers courses in industrial
arts. None of these exploratory courses are offered in
shops designed for this purpose. Floor space is


lMaxvell S. Thomas, "Proposed Program of Industrial
Arts Vocational Education for Negroes of Miami, Florida,"
(Miami: 1947), p. 1. (Miaeographed.)








8


inadequate and supplies are meager, thus minimizing the
effectiveness of the work.

(7) No effectively organized vocational guidance
program is in operation.

(8) A large percentage of the girls take courses in
home economics and commercial education.

(9) No training in the field of agriculture is
provided.

(10) No state or federal vocational funds are being
spent for the promotion of vocational education for
Negroes.
(11) There is a large number of day school students,
veterans, and adults needing vocational training of one
type or another.
(12) There exists a favorable attitude on the part
of students, teachers, school and civic leaders toward
6
vocational training.

The study presented the following conclusions
(1) Thexe was a need for marked improvement in the
educational program of Negroes in Miami for effective
occupational adjustment.
(2) The present vocational training program for Ne-

groes in Miami as provided by the public schools is
inadequate.


Ibid., p. 12.








9


(3) There should be an immediate expansion of
buildings and equipment for the trade program recently
begun at the Dorsey High School for veterans.
(4) Specialized skills, together with related or
technical knowledge, usually emphasized in industrial
courses are today not enough to insure vocational
success. Attitudes, perseverance, creative imagination,
and other personality traits are equally essential and
should be developed.
(5) Vocational training should be provided for the
following groups:

a. In-school youth on a day school basis.
b. Part-time training for youth.
c. Supplementary training for employed persons.7

Warren M. banner, in 1953, made a survey of Miami under
the auspices of -the National Urban League. Seven factors in
Banner's report of significance to this study are:
(1) Non-whites, who were 12.5 per cent of the county
population b1 years of age and over1 were 15.9 per cent
of the employed workers. Thus, a greater proportion of
the Negro population was gainfully employed than of the
white population. However, the non-white group received
a much lower average family income ($1,567) than the
white population ($2,500).


pd 13.








10


(2) The occupational pattern for non-white workers
in the City of Miami was similar to the pattern in the
county. Here, the average income to non-white families
was $1,918, while it was $2,348 for white families.

(3) White workers were employed mainly as skilled,
white-collar, and professional workers, while non-white
workers were employed mainly as laborers and service
workers.
(4) About 6 per cent of the workers on the county
payroll, other than in the Board of Public Instruction,
are Negroes. Considering the fact that Negroes hold
none of the top Jobs and but a few of even the better
jobs, they receive far from a fair share of county
employment. This under-representation is, however,
considerable improvement over the job opportunities
available to them a decade ago.

(5) In the City of Miami, Negro workers constitute
less than 10 per cent of the regular employees on the
city payroll. The major gain in the past decade has
been their employment as law enforcement personnel.
The police force, which had no colored officers in 1943,
now has over fifty. There is a Negro judge with staff
assistants. Too many of the larger departments with
budgets of hundreds of thousands of dollars a year
still do not offer job opportunities to Negro workers.









n


Outstanding among these is the fire department which
spends over two million dollars annually.
(6) Negro workers comprised 8 per cent of the 12,000
industrial firms providing data used in this report.
The overwhelming majority of Negro workers, as reflect-
ed in this sample, are in unskilled jobs. Among the
exceptions were one supervisor and a few persons with
various amounts a skill. Employers found that Negro
workers did not differ in their performance and
punctuality from other workers in similar jobs.

(7) Officials in the Fmployment Service had evidence
of an ever widening range of jobs for Negro workers, but
their records show that these additional jobs are open-
ing slowly. The Employment Service fel ht that it was
limited in the amount of work that it could do to lift
barriers erected by prejudice against Negro job seekers.
It was the responsibility of the staff of the sub-office
to find time to make employer contacts. However, feeling
short-handed, this had been left undone. Much of the
activity of the sub-office is short-term placements.
Unfortunately this unit has been neglected both in
staff and physical equipment. At present there is no
working relationship for job placements between the new
office of the Employment servicee for professional,








12
clerical, and sales people, and the Negro coaunity.

Reinhold P. Wolff summarized the general economy of
Dade County in 1956 and reported it in the form of an almanac.
His findings included the status of the (1) population, (2)
schools and vital statistics, (3) employment and wages, (4)
trades, (5) banking, (6) transportation, (7) utilities and
services, (8) agriculture, (9) tourism, (10) housing and
construction, (11) real estate, (12) public finance, (13)
consumer expenditure, and (14) climate.
The literature discussed in this chapter was related
to some phase of the study. The next chapter (Chapter III)
will be concerned with the socio-economic setting of Dade
County, Florida.













8
Warren M. Banner, "An Appraisal of Progress" (Miamil
National Urban League, 1953), pp. 88-91. (Mimeographed.)

9Reinhold P. Wclff, "Economic Almanac of Dade County,"
Miaai Economic ResearchL IX (January, 1956), pp. 1-56.










CHAPTER III


SOCIO-ECONOMIC SETTING OF DADE COUNTY, FLORIDA

The major purpose of this chapter is to present informa-

tion relative to socio-economic factors which have, and are
influencing the growth and development of Dade County.

Particular reference will be made to the present status of
industrial activities.
Most of the facts and figures treated are approxi-

mates and were secured through interviews with members of

the Chamber of Commerce, United States Employment Service,
National Sales Executives, Central Labor Union, City of

Miami, City Manager's Office, County School Board, Greater
Miami Urban League, and Frontiers of America, State Depart-
ment of Agriculture. Much of the historical information was
secured through a review of local newspaper articles.

History ad Location. Dade County was formed in 1836
with a few isolated settlers living on farms. It was not

until 1894, however, when a Mrs. Tuttle sent a bouquet of
fresh orange blossoms to industrialist Henry M. Flagler, then

freezing in the cold north, that the major portion of the
county was opened up to the world. In 1896 Flagler's rail-
road reached Miai and the boom was on which was to turn
Dade County into one of the richest areas in the country.





14

The county was named for Major Francis L. Jade?, -O was mas-
sacred with his command at the start of the Second Seminole
War. Once Seminole Indian territory, many of the county
10
names are Indian in origin.0
Dade County is located on the southeast coast of

Florida. It is bounded on the east by the Atlantic Ocean,
on the south by Monroe County and the Florida Bay, on the
west by Monroe and Collier Counties, and on the north by
Broward County. The county comprises 557,440 acres, the
largest land area of any county in the State of Florida.

Population. The population of Dade County in 1940
was 207,739. Of this total, 49,518 were Negroes. In 1950,
the population was 495t,054 with 64,947 Negroes, and in

1955 the total population was 703,777 with 96,501 Negroes
included in this total. Just as the number of Negroes has
been increasing with the population, placement in the in-
lustries for Negroes has increased at about the same rate.

Industrial Patterns and Employment. Thirteen


oFlorida State Bureau of Immigration, Know lorida
(Tallahassee: 1955), p. 195.

ldarren M. Banner, "An Appraisal of Progress" (Miami:
National Urban League, 1953), p. 1. (Mimeographed.)
12
Economic Development and Research Department, "Key
Facts For Metropolitoa r Mami Area" (Miami: Miami-Dade County
Chamber of Commerc, 19956), p. 2. (Mimeographed.)








15
classifications of occupational groups exist in Dade County.
The groups which will be discussed have been classified
according to the United States Bureau of the Census and the
United States Employment Service as indicated in Chapter I.

Amusement iand Recreation. Dade County is one of the
most cosmopolitan counties in the State. Its reputation is
world-wide and catering to vacationists is its main source
of income, (tourism). Modern hotels, aausement and reere-
ation centers, public and private beaches and parks, and
other tourist and vacationist attractions are in great
abundance. Tourists come from over the nation to enjoy
the pleasures of swimming, golf, tennis, polo, fishing,
boating, yachting, cruising, bathing, horseback riding,
and other sports. There are commercial and sight-seeing
attractions. The Miami-Nassau Yacht Race, the Lipton Cup
Sailing Race, and other boat races held annually draw many
thousands of people. Horse racing is held at both Tropical
and Hialeah Race Tracks, while dog racing is held at the
Miami and Miami Beach Stadiums. The Intertntional Tennis
Tournament is held annually also. The Orange Blossom
Classic and the Orange Bowl Football Games are annual winter
attractions.

A large portion of the newly established. Everglades
National Park is located in Dade County. Through the
assistance of the federal government, the Everglades area
is being opened to the public, with the stipulation that the








16

natural beauty, that makes the park one of America's only
reumaininL swamp-jungles, not be touched -- another attrac-
tion which will draw visitors to the border of Dade County

from all over the nation.
Groups recorded urnder this classification are as

follows: theatres, fishing, sightseeing, swimming, boating,

golf courses, baseball facilities, football facilities,
racing, fresh and salt water bathing pools, water skiing,
polo facilities, and watching.

The number of persons employed as directors, secre-
taries, clerks, typists, landscape architects, park super-
visors, dock masters, lifeguards, boat, cabana, and amuse-
ment attendants, and waiters was 2,400.

Lodgig Services. The job classification for persons
in this category, except proprietors and managers, has been
or will be classified under other headings. There are

6,013 proprietors and managers available to the hotels,
apartments, rooming houses, motor courts, and trailer camps
in Dade County.

_ating and Beverage Services. The classification of
jobs and the number of persons under each job title are as

follows: bakers, 410; cooks, 2,775; waiters, bartenders, and

other counter workers, 8,200; janitors and porters, 3,230.
Total workers in this industrial proup were 15,370.








17
Persona Service Workers. Occupational groups in this
type of work were as follows: barbers, beauticians, and
manicurists, 2,210; laundry and dry cleaning operators, 2,519;
practical nursing and midwives, 670; shoe repairmen, 45. A
total of 5,525 workers were engaged in personal service
activities.

Protective Services. Job classifications and the
number of persons under each classification were established
as 2,710.

Domestic Servi es. Job classifications for domestic
service workers have been characterized as private, house-
hold workers. There were 10,250 persons listed under this
grouping.

Transport~tio, Cdoam icaQtion, and Other Publig
Utilities. United States Highways 1 and 94,,and Florida
Highways 7, 25, 27, A1A, and 828 cross the county. Both the
Florida East Coast Railroad and the Seaboard Airline Railway
provide rail services. Bus services are provided by the
Greyhound Lines, Tamamir Trail Tours, Glades Motor Lines, and
National American Trailway.
Included in this category were: telephone operators,

1,798; linemen and service men, 1,110; locomotive engineers,
100, brake-men and switchmen, 130; locomotive firemen, 125;
railroad and railway expressmen, 500; truck drivers, 5,550;








18


longshoremen, 315; telecommunication, utilities, and sani-
tary service men, 420; bus drivers, 675. Total workers list-
ed under this industrial group were 10,980.

The county is increasing in importance as an air trans-
portation center and planes take off from Miami Airport to

all parts of the world every day. It has been estimated that
payrolls and local purchases of airlines and their affili-
ates and expenditures by passengers in transit amount to
between $75 and $100,000,000. The importance of Miami as an
air terminal and shipping point received impetus during
World War II when the city was used as an embarkation point
for thousands of troops and is now widely recognized.
Eastern Airlines, National Airlines, Delta Airlines,
Pan-American World Airways, KIM Royal Dutch Airways, Ex-
presso-Aereo Inter-Aerricano, and British South American
Airways all provide commercial scheduled air transportation
from Miami International Airport.

Manufacturing. The county has a growing variety of
industries in manufacturing of products such as clothing,
mattresses, tents, awnings, sails, baskets, crates, veneer,
furniture, wagons, automobile and truck bodies, boats, paving
blocks, brooms, septic tanks, caskets, fertilizer, lamp-

shades, chemicals, radios, medicine, paint, Losiery, window
shades, and steel products. Many of the souvenirs taken home








19

by visitors are manufactured and distributed in the county
including some of the articles listed above. Food products
manufactured and distributed in the county include mayon-
naise, potato chips, and candy.
Occupations in this industrial area and the number of
persons for each were as follows lumber and woodl products,
1,340c food and kindred products, 655; processing of paper
products, j50 textile, weaving and wearing apparel, 2,855;
fabrication of metal, 460; production of furniture and fix-
tures, 370; construction of ships and small water crafts,
162; prefabricated buildings and transportation products,
185; laborers, 3,805. The number of workers found under this
industrial classification by job titles was 9,882.

Building Construction. Job classifications of this
industrial group and the number of persons under each classi-
fication were established as follcwst carpenters and cabinet
makers 6,315; brick, stone and tile setters, 1,6?0; construe-
tion machinery operators, 1,500; electricians, 1,425;
painters, glaziers, and paper hangers, 3,585; plasterers and
cement finishers, 1,675; roof and sheetmetal workerst 1,215;
structural iron workers, 725; plumbers and pipe fitters, 1,120;
laborers, 5,065. The total number of persons under the
various job classifications in building construction was
2k,445,









20


Finance, f Estate an Insurance. Job classifica-
tions of this industrial group and the number of persons
under each classification are as follows: accountants and
auditors, 1,670; insurance agents and brokers, 1,575; real
estate agents and brokers, 1,675. The total workers in
this classification were 4,820.
Dade County has the highest assessed valuation in the
State and in 1955 the county valuation was set at 42,200,849,
687, Retail sales in the year amounted to $995,923v,00 and
bank resources were estimated at $1,233,238,000. Effective
buying income was $11,221,558,000 and per capital buying
income was $5,789 in 1955.13

Trade a industrial Bducation. The Dade County
School Board provides and operates two of the largest voca-
tional schools in our nation -- Northwestern Senior High
School for Negroes and Lindsey Hopkins Vocational School for
whites. The county can boast of one of the most imdern
school systems in the State. In 1955, there were 124 school
centers with 3,410 classrooms. The school term of 1955-56
had 117,370 students enrolled in tho 13 senior high, 25 Jun-
ior high, and 111 elementary public schools of the county.4



hIbid., p. 3.

Ibid.








21
Trade and Industrial Education classes i'n Dade County
were of four general types: Trade Preparatory, Evening Trade
Extension, Distributive Education, and Diversified Coopera-
tive Training.
Day Trade Preparatory was offered only at Northwestern
Senior High School and was operated in accordance with the
Smith-Hughes Federal Vocational Act.15 Programs were operat-
ed during the day and also in the evenings as "Evening Trade
Training." Instructions were given in general automobile
service and repair, cabinet making and millwork, cooking and
baking, dry cleaning and laundry services, practical nursing,
radio and television service, and custom tailoring. Students
that were enrolled in trade classes also attended regular
academic classes of social studies and English two periods of
the school day and one hour in related mathematics, science,
or drawing Two hundred and seventy-nine students were enroll-
16
ed in shop classes during the term of 1955-56.1
Evening Trade Extension classes provided instructions
in power sewing and cosmetology.
Part-time Cooperative classes offered instructions in
typing, shorthand, and bookkeeping. Five hundred and seventy-
nine of the 1,029 adult students enrolled in the evening


1Federal Security Agency, Al&inistration of Vocational
icai Bjl tin. No. I (Washington:s Overnment Printing

Data received from the Office of the Registrar.








22


division were attending Trade and Industrial classes.
17
The Diversified Cooperative Training Program, often
referred to as on-the-Job training, was offered at North-
western Senior High School, Booker T. Washington High School,
and George Washington Carver High School. There were 94
eleventh and twelfth grade students enrolled in D.C.T.
classes at the three high schools. Occupational choices in
which the pupils were training were file clerri, cashiers,
cooks, stock clerks, shipping clerks, Jewelers, pantry
service, funeral attendants, dental attendants, sales
ladies, and hospital attendants.

This chapter has discussed information relative to
socio- -onomic factors which influence the employment pattern
in Dade County, Florida. The methods and techniques employ-
ed in the development and administration of the questionnaire
will be discussed in Chapter IV.












17
1State Department of E~ducation, A Handbook for
Coordinators and Administrators (Diversified Cooperative
Training program, Salgahassees State Department of Education,
1955), p. 1.











CHAPTER IV


DEVELOPMENT AND ADMINISTRATION OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE

The writer, aware of some of the limitations of the
questionnaire for collecting data, nevertheless, decided to
utilize this technique. Some of the limitations are: (1)

benefits seldom accrue to every person answering, (2) the
respondents may not feel free to release the requested
information, and (3) there is a lack of demonstrable fair-
ness in the sample. The questionnaire was used because it
appeared to be the most useful device for contacting the
large number of industrial and professional concerns selected

for inclusion in the study.
The development and administration of the questionnaire
employed in this study will be discussed in this chapter.

DEVELOPMENT OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE

Eight major areas of information consisting of twenty-
three questions were included in the questionnaire as follows:
1. The Working Force

2. Employment Recruitment Sources

3. Selection Practices
4. Employee Services
5. Basic Physical Disqualifications










6. Essential Traits Fequired

7. Abilities to be Developed in School
8. Payroll titles
Information regarding the number of persons employed

in the various firms or offices was item number one of the
questionnaire. This was considered significant because the

writer was concerned with finding out the total labor force
of the firms participating in the study.

SEmloyers' Recruitment Sources. Question two was

designed to secure information regarding the recruitment

sources often usel by the employers. The writer was con-

cerned with finding the methods and places or firms from

which employers obtained employees. This information will
be helpful in the development of counseling and conference
techniques for use of school and employment agencies.

Selection Practices. The writer, realizing that

industries are employing a variety of evaluating and test-

ing techniques for measuring the achievement, performance,
and other desirable aspects of employees or prospective
employees, included question number three of the question-

naire. Information regarding the types of tests used will

assist the personnel of the various agencies engaged in pre-
paring the individual for entrance into employment, It is
the opinion of the writer that if the prospective worker is








25

familiar with the type of tests that he will be expected to
take he will be able to adjust himself to the situation and
use his time more profitably,

EU1loee Services. The problem of health and physi-
cal fitness for a given job or operation has become a grow-

ing concern among workers and prospective employees. Know-

ledge of the fact that one will be expected to report to the
firm's dispensary for a physical examination .when he is in

school or waiting for a job assignment will assist in main-

taining high morale among employees. This question was in-

,eluded to obtain such information so that all persons concern-

ed might be acquainted with these practices.
To ascertain the degree the marital status of a woman

affected her employment status was the purpose of question

number six. The writer was desirous of obtaining the picture
as it applied to the firms reporting in the study.
Information regarding insurance was item number seven

of the questionnaire. This information was considered perti-
nent in providing counselors with some of the various services
provided by the industrial and professional firms participat-
ing in the study.

Physical Disqualifications. Question number eight was

designed to find the amount and types of industrial and

professional firms employing physically handicapped persons.









26
These data would be used by employment and placement agencies
as a means of placing handicapped personnel in future occupa-
tions.

Ane at ployees. The approximate age of employees of
firms represented in the study was the purpose of question

number nine. This information was considered significant

because it would give the age of the working force represent-
ed in the study.

The minimum and maximum ages employers considered work-
ers as useful or employable was requested in questions number

ten and eleven. Such information will be used to compile a
listing of Job categories for workers of a certain age group.

Previous Xperience of Employees. Various occupa-

tional areas have certain basic requirements, and to be able
to determine the status of required experience, question

number twelve was included in the questionnaire.

Salaries of aployees. Knowledge of the various salary
schedules, weekly, monthly, and annual, will provide employ-
ment and other agencies engaged in supplying workers to the

industrial and prtfeaslonal establishments, Questions number
thirteen and fourteen were included to secure this information.

Unsatisfactory Wcrkers, To ascertain information re-

garding the policies and procedure employed by employers to








27

care for abnormal or unfavorable situations was the concern
of question number fifteen. Guidance personnel in the
schools and employment agencies, utilizing the results of
the questionnaire, would be able to utilize this type of
.information in their aily work.

Essentiqi Traitsa required, Characteristics essential
for successful job performance is the concern of question
number sixteen, The writer was of the opinion that this type

of information could be used for making recommendations to
training agencies,

Abilities I Developd Jg~ School. The schools may
be able to concentrate certain aspects of the curriculum for
the development of those specific abilities provided the need
for such is in evidence. Question number seventeen was
developed and employed in the questionnaire to ascertain this
information.

Question number eighteen was used to acquire the dis-

tribution of the minia educational background that an

employee would be expected to achieve before he would be
considered for a position. Knowledge of these facts would be
given to students and prospective employees along with other

information pertinent to their planning or training for a

given job.








28

Principals of schools would be in a position to pro-

vide training experiences and acitvities desired by in-

dustrial and professional firms participating in the study
with the information received through question number nine-

teen.

Availability .f Jobsp The writer was concerned with

finding out if there were jobs available in the firms report-

ing in the study. Recommendations as to how these positions

might be filled was the purpose of this question.
There are industrial and professional firms who pre-

fer to train their own employees some who cannot afford

to train employees and would prefer to have them trained in

a vocational school. The writer, being aware of this fact,
enclosed questions twenty-one and twenty-two to ascertain

the extent to which the vocational school would be expected
to train employees for the firms reporting in the study.
The distribution of job titles represented in labor

forces reportin- in the study was the purpose of question
number twenty-three.

ADMINISTRATION OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE

After the questionnaire was developed, a list of firms

was secured from the Chamber of Commerce and approximately

ten establishments in each of the industrial and professional






































I


classifications were selected.
In October, 1955, questionnaires were mailed to one

hundred and forty industrial and professional firms located

in Dade County, Florida. The purpose of the study vith in-

structions for filling the questionnaire and a self address-

ed and stamped envelope were attached. In an effort to in-

sure a reasonable percentage of returns, personal visits or

telephone calls were made to the participating firms.

By December 31, 1995, seventy-four, or 52.8 per cent,

of the total questionnaires had been returned to the writer.

Data for this study were obtained fr~m the seventy-four .om-

pleted questionnaires.
This chapter has presented the development and ad-

ministration of the questionnaire employed in this study.

Chapter V vill be devoted to the analysis and interpretation

of lata.


29












CHAPTER V


ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA


The data presented in this chapter will be discussed

vnder two categories. "General Employment Pattern in Select-

ed Occupations in Dade County, Florida," will be concerned

with a presentation of employment factors during 1955, in

seventy-four establishments which furnished data for this

study. Topics discussed will be: workingg Force, Methods of

Acquiring employees, Selection Practices Tests, Physical

Examinations, Employee Services, Ates of Employees, Salaries,

Unsatisfactory Workers, Essential Traits Required, Abilities

to be Developed in School, Hlucational Requirements, and

Experience Required.

"Employment Patterns of Negroes in Selected Occupations

Ai Dade County, Florida," will deal specifically with types

/of employment in which Negroes were engaged within the frame

work of the general employment pattern which existed in the

county during 1955,


:P GENERAL WPLOYMCET PATTERNS IN SELECTiD
i OCCUPATIONS IN DADE COUTY, FLORIDA


SThe data presented under this heading apply in general

to all workers who were employed by the establishments who
/ ph
Participated in this study,




4..
i i


'_, .


L _









31


Working FopIs* The working force of establishments
included in this study was 3,063 employees of which 595, or
12.4 per cent, were Negroes. It was significant to note
that 11.2 per cent of the total population were Negroes and
12.4 per cent of the working force represented in this study
were Negroes.
Fixty-six, or 72 per cent, of the respondents reported

that they employed married women and eleven, or 14 per cent,
did not consider married women as employable.

Physically Handicaped Employees. Regarding physically
handicapped employees, the following data were secured: Three

employers utilized workers with one arm. Seven employed
workers with ne leg. Three hal workers wiho were near-sighted
or color-bline. Five establishments employed people who
coul.. not hear.

Methods of Eflloyian E ~lyees. Sixty-four, or 68
per cent, of the total employers participating in the stidy
acquired their employees through personal applic tons. The
major percentage of employers using this technique felt that
through personal contacts with prospective employees, they
would be able to observe those personal and physical charac-

teristics th.t woulV be conducive to the kind of workers
desired. These observations were peculiar to the retail
wearing apparel trades.









32

Thirty-five, or 47 per cent, of the total employers

represented in the study used advertisement to obtain their
employees. Representatives of the garment manufacturing in-
dustries used the local newspapers, magazines peculiar to their
trades and posters displayed on their factories to advertise
for workers.
Public employment bureaus were used as a means of

acquiring employees by thirty-five, or 47 per cent, of the
employers who submitted data for the study.
Representatives of the garment cleaning and hotel
industries obtained the majority of their service workers
through public employment agencies.
Eight, or 18 per cent, and ten, or 14 per cent, of

the seventy-four firms responding to the study obtained their
employees from public and private schools.

Methods of Acquiring Emloyees. Table I reveals the

methods most often used to acquire employees as reported by
seventy-four employers.









33


TABLE I
METHODS USED BY EMPLOYERS TO ACQUIRE EMPLOYEES


Number of Per
Times Checked Cent

Personal Application 65 88
Advertisement 3 47
Public employment Bureau 27 35
Written Application 25 33
Private Employment Bureau 18 24
Friends 18 24
Non-public Schools 10 14
Public Schools 8 18
Civil Service Examination 0 0
Merit Examination 0 0









34
Selection Practices Tests. The distribution of types
of tests administered to employees and the number of times
they were checked revealed that tests of ".skill" were used
by forty-three, or 57 per cent, of the employers. "Per-
sonality" was cheeked twenty-seven times, "aptitude" was
checked eighteen times, and "psychological" was checked only
four times. The findings seem to indicate that employers re-
quire workers to possess the necessary skills to perform a
given task upon their entrance into employment, or their
promotion to a higher position in the establishment. Also,
that employers consider personality as second in importance
in their selection practices.

Physical Examination. Fifty-four, or 66 per cent, of
the employers did not require that their employees have period-
ic physical examinations, while thirteen, or 17 per cent, of
the seventy-four establishments requested employees to be
examined, 'ixty-one, or 82 per cent, of the firms reporting
had no special physical requirements,w while eight, or 18 per
cent, required certain outstanding physical features, such
as voice, weight, and height, for switchboard operators.

Employee Service. Group insurance was provided by
twenty-eight, or 37 per cent, of the employers. Twenty-
seven, or 35 per cent, reported that there was a hospitali-
zation plan available for their employees and families.









35


Eighteen establishments, or 24 per cent, required their
employees to i.e bonded.

Af i E6aloyesa. The miaiuum age that employers
considered a person employable was reported as thirty-one. The
age of a majority of the workers engaged in occupations cover-
ed by this study was between 21 and 44 years ol,. The aaxi-
ama age considered for employment as reported by thirty-six,
or 48 per cent, employers was forty-five.

Salaries. The weekly salaries of full-time employees
was reported to be from $30 to $50. Of the seventy-four
employers reporting, an average weekly salary of $30 to 440
was checked by forty-four, or 59 per cent. Salaries of $45,
and over, per week were checked by fifty-four, or 66 per cent
of the employers.
The annual salary Varied from $1,200 to over $3,000
per year. Five firms reported workers in $1,,00 to $2,000
salary bracket. Annual salaries of $2,001 and $3,001 were
checked thirty times, or by 31 per cent of the employers.
Forty-four, or 59 per cert, of the establishments had em-
ployers who received $3,000, or more, annually. The number
of tires a given salary range was checked does not represent
a different professional or industrial group, because some
employers had positions in each of the salary ranges on the
questionnaire .









36
Unsatisfactory Workers. Workers who did not perform
their duties as prescribed by employers were handled
through one of three methods. Sixty-two, or 82 per cent,
of the employers reported that unsatisfactory workers were
dismissed. Twelve employers transferred such persons to
other work within the establishment, and two firms reported
that such persons were retained d and given additional trains
ing.

EsentAil Traits Eequred. Each employer was asked
to check five of the traits list] in Table II that would
be considered as essential for employees.

TABLE II
ESSXETIAL TRAITS REQUIRW3 OF EMPLOYEES AND
ORD.R OF THEIR IMPORTANCE


.umber of Per
Essential Traits Requlred Times Checked Cent
Dependability 71 91
Courtesy 62 63
Cooperativeness 59 79
Accuracy 5 75
Cheerfulness 50 67
Neatness 49 66
Punctuality 45 4
Initiative 37 50
Emotional Stability 22 28
Physical endurance 1 21
Perseverance 13 '1
Industrious 10 13









37
Table II reveals that seventy-one, or 91 per cent, of
the industrial and professional groups considered ~4ependati-
lity" as a characteristic desired of most employees. Sixty-
two, or 83 per cent, considered "courtesy" as essential.
Fifty-nine, or 79 per cent placed cooperativenesss" as the
third characteristic that employers consider significant for
vocational success, "Accuracy" was checked by fifty-five, or

75 per cent, of the establishments and "cheerfulness" re-
ceived fifty, or 67 per cent, of the responses. Forty-nine,
or 66 per cent, recorded workers In their establishments
were requested to display a high cigree of "neatness."
"Punctuality" was checked by forty, or 54 per cent, of the
employers, and "initiative" was checked by thirty-seven, or

%0 per centzof the employers. "Emotional stability" was con-
sidered pertinent by twenty-two, or 26 per cent, and "in-
dnstriousftess" was requested by ten, or 13 per cent, of
seventy-four agencies returning questionnaires as essential

traits for successful employees.

Abilities to b Devyeloed in School. Abilities which
should be the concern of schools, according to employers, are
recorded in Table III.










38


TABLE III

ABILITIES TO BE DEVELOPED


Abilities

Mental Alertness

Arithmetic Pun3amentals

Following Directions

Logical Thinking

Memory

Pleasant Speech

Vocabulary

Penmanship

Spelling

Reading


Number or
Times Checked

60

53

52

45

36

34
20

15


8


It is significant to note that mental alertness received

sixty requests, or 82 per cent, of the seventy-four firms

represented in the study. Logical thinking was suggested

by forty-five, or 68 per cent, and pleasant speech was

indicated by thirty-four, or 47 per cent, of the professional

and industrial establishments participating in the study.

lducatlonal Requirements. High school graduation was

the minimum educational requirement for thirty-six, or 48

per cent, of the employers represented in the study. Sales-

men and sales ladies in retail trades, an3 truck drivers in


-1Per --.. -. --


Per-
Cent

82

71
70

68

48

47

27

22

14
10


-gwin=


GNXW


- '


NrL-?U -M









39


transportation were job categories in this educational re-

quirement. Sixteen, or 21 per cent, of the respondent
stated that they only required an elementary educational

background for beginning employees.

College graduation was requested by four, or $ per
cent, of the group as the minimum required educational back-

ground of their employees. Administrative positions in

lodging, wholesale trades, ani transportation were job cate-

gories demanding completion of college as the minimum educa-
tional requirement.

Seven, or 9 per cent, would not consider applicants
who had not taken preparatory courses in trade school. Power
machine operators in the garment manufacturing industry and

shorthand for stenographers are graduates of preparatory
courses representing areas of the 9 per cent reporting.

Three, or 4 per cent, of the firms reporting requested
rorre college training as minimum requirements for such jobs

as managers of departments in foods and beverage,and adjusters
in finance and real. estate.

Experience Required. Forty-two, or 5 per cent, re-
ported that it wss necessary for applicants to have previous
experience before they would be considered for a position,

while twenty-thret employers required no previous experience.

Thirty-rine, or 52 per cent, of the respondents stated that









40


they would prefer training their own employees1 while twenty-

two, or 43 per cent, 'Ii not care to provide training
facilities for their prospective staff.
Other factors considered significant to the study were
that thirty-one, or 41 per cent, preferred to have their
employees trained In vocational schools, while twenty, or 27
per cent, would rather not have their employees trained in a
vocational school.

EMPLOYMENT PATTERNS OF NEGROES IT SELECTED
OCCUPATIQONS IN DADE COUNTY, FLORIDA

This section of the study is concerned specifically

with the types of employment in which iegr*es were employed,

within the frame work of the general employment pattern
previously discussed.

Finance. Two establishments furnished the information
for classification unJer this heading. The establishment -1' s

one consumer finance company. The extent of Negro employment
waste two porters.
These findings are typical of the employment pattern
in a majority of similar finance establislhents in Dade County,
Florida.

Manufacturing. The information furnished for classi-
fication under this heading was secured from the following
establishments: one prin;;ng and publishing plant, two










41

furniture factories, two stone and masonry products companies,
one lead product company, one metal products company, and

eight wearing apparel companies. The extent of Negro employ-

ment was: sixty-three sewing machine operators, three cutters,

twenty-two laborers, two truck drivers, one hundred and ninety

unskilled workers, two maids, one porter, five pressers, one

manager, and two semi-skilled workers.

These findings are typical of the employment pattern

in a majority of similar manufacturing establishments in Dade

County, Florida.


Lodging Services. The information furnished for
classification under this heading was secured from five Negro

operated establishments as follows: two public housing pro-
jects and three hotels. The extent of Negro employment was:

six managers, two cashiers, two secretaries, thirty-six un-
skilled workers, ten maids, eight desk clerks, five porters,

six bartenders, one waitress, one cook, one bellman, eight

waitresses, and cne bookkeeper.

Transportation. The information furnished for classi-

fication under this heading was secured from one transfer

company. The extent of Negro employment was: seven laborers

and three truck drivers.

These findings are typical of the employment pattern

in a majority of similar transportation companies in Dade










County, Florila.


Wholesale Trade. The information furnished for classi-
fication unier this heading was secured from four establish-

ments as follows: two food companies, one precast concrete

products company, and one millwork and supply company. The

extent of Negro employment was: five supply helpers, five

laborers, and five truck drivers.

These findings are typical of the employment pattern
in a majority of similar wholesale trade establishments in

Dade County, Florida.


Personal Services. the information furnished for
classification under this heading was secured from five

Negro establishments as follows: two beauty parlors, one

shoe repair shop, one shoe shine parlor, and one laundry.

The extent of Negro employment was: two beauty parlor

managers, six beauticians (operators), three laundry machine

operators, one shoe maker, and three boot-blacks.

These findings are typical of the employment pattern

in a majority of similar personal service establishments in

Dade County, Florida.


Retail Trade. The information furnished for classi-
fication under this heading was secured from seventeen

establishments as follows: ten automobile sales, services,

and parts companies, two lumber and building materials









+3

companies, one paint and glass company, two dru stores, and
two ladies apparel stores. The extent of Negro employment
was: five managers, three maids, twelve clerks, one cashier,

fifty-three unskilled workers, seventeen laborers, fifty-

eight porters, eight truck drivers, and eight semi-skilled
workers.
These findings are typical of the employment pattern

in a majority of similar retail trade establishments in Dade
County, Florida.

Professional Services. The inrormLtion furnished for

classification under this heading was secured from five
Negro operated establishments as follows: one funeral home,
one social service agency, and three dental surgeons. The
extent of Negro employment was: one mortician, one ambulance
driver, one ambulance attendant, one executive secretary, one
industrial secretary, one receptionist, two dental assistants,

two janitors, and three dentists.
These findings are typical of the employment pattern

in a majority of similar professional firms in Dade County,
Florida.










CHAPTER VI


ONAUiRY AND RECOMUDATIONS

The problem as stated in Chapter One was that of
determining the employment patterns of Negroes in Dade
County, Florida during 1955. Chapter One stated and
analysed the problem. Out of the analyzation evolved two
subordinate problems. These werea
1. What as the general employment pattern in Dade
County in terms of the followings
a. Number of persons employed.r
b. Selection practices,
e. kaployee services.
d. Age of workers.
e. Salaries.
f. Education and experience required.
5. Character traits and abllties expected of
employees?
2. What is the employment pattern with respect to
etroevs in Dade County?
3. What rezeo aiations can be made for improving
the employment patterns of segroes in Dade County?
To help provide some of the answers to these subordi-
nate problems and the major problem, a questionnaire was
developed and ailed to employers. The results are given
in summary form later in this chapter.









45

In Chapter Tro the writer diesussed literature that

was related to some phase of the pr.:leM, Chapter Thre
presented the Boolo-eoonomei setting of Dade County,
Florida. Topics discussed in the chapter were:
1. HistPory and location,

2. Populat ion,

3. Amusement and recreation,
4. Lodging service,
5 Eatingr and beverage service,

6. ~rsonal service workers,

7. Protective service,
8. Domestto service,
9. Transportatlon,i oommunication, and other public

utilities,
10. Manufaoturlng,

11 Building comnsruct on,
12. Finance, real estate, and Insurance,: and

13. Trade and industrial education.
In Chapter IV, the development and administration of

the questionaire was discussed. The questionnaire was
concerned with slgnifloant problems presented in Chapter I%

Chapter V presented the study and the results are
summarized as follows: The total number of employers par-

tloipating in the study was seventy-four. The working
force represented by these employers was 3,083 of which 595,








46


or 12.4
lowing:


per cent were Negroes. The study revealed the fol-


1, Fifty-six, or 72 per cent, of the respondents ea-
ployed married woen.
2. Eighteen, or 24 per cent, of the seventy-four
employers utilized physically handicapped workers,
3. Sixty-four, or 88 per cent, of the total employers
participating in the study acquired their employees
through personal applications.
4. Forty-three, or 57 per cent, employed tests of "skills"
in the selection of new employees.
5. Fifty-four, or 66 per cent, did not require that
their employees have periodic physical examina-
tions.
6. Twenty-eight, or 37 per cent, provided group
insurance for their employees.
7. The ainilma employable age was reported as twenty-
one. The ae of those engaged in occupations
covered by this study was between 21 and 44 years,
and the amxram age considered for employment as
reported by thirty-six, or 48 per cent, of the
employers was 45 years.
8. Weekly salaries were found to be from $30 to $50.
Annual salaries were between $1,200 and $3,000.
9, Unsatisfactory workers were dismissed by sixty-two,









47


or 82 per cent, of the employers.

10. Seventy-one, or 91 per cent, of the employers con-
sodered "dependability" as a characteristic desired
of most employees.

11. Forty-five, or 82 per cent, considered mental alert-
ness as the most desirable ability to be developed
in the school.

12. High school graduation was found to be the educa-
tional requirement desired by the majority of
employers.

13. Forty-two, or 53 per cent, preferred that employees
have previous experience.
In regards to the employment pattern of Negroes in

selected occupations, the study revealed the followings
1. Negroes vere employed in finance, manufacturing,
lodging service, transportation, wholesale and
retail trades, personal and professional services.

2. The extent of Negro employment was in the less
skilled and lower paying occupations.

3. Negroes own and operate business establishments
of their own.










ek DAT ION


In liiht of tt findings in this study, these recos-
etndations are made with the hope that they may serve as
bases for broadening the employent pattern of tegoes in
Dade County, Florida and thus improve their e-conoAc status.
the resaamendations are as follows:
1. That the public school syste, through its
vocational schools, assuam the necessary leadership
for broadening the eaploympa t pattern of 5egroes in
Dade County, Florida, by providing training opportkui-
ties leading to employant in snha general areas as
(1) public service occupations, (2) transportation,
(3) nation, (4) lodging, (5) finance, nd (6)
personal services. The study revealed limited employF
seat opportunities in these areas.
2. That additional studies be made to determine
the factors that might influence greater employment
opportunities for Negroes in (1) the Saramet industry,
(2) printing and publication, (3) lumber and wood pro
duets, and (4) building industry.
3. That these findings be made available to schools
and other public social agenotes concerned with the
problem of raising the economic status ao the Negro
through improved employment opportunities.












BIBLIOGRAPHY


Federal Security A. ency. Administration of Vocational
Education. Bulletin No 1. .Washington: united States
Government Printing Office, 1948.
Goldsmith, J. Lymon, and others. School Coaaa
Partnership. Chicago: American Tecnca Soc ey
1954.- t2 pp.
Kelly, Franklin J. le Comprehensive igh School. New York:
Harper and others Publishers, 19!5. 27 pp.
JhnArtle, Caroll L. Occupational Information: Its Develo-
m annd Application. New York: Prentice-7-al-, Inc.

State Department of Education. Stat lan For Vocational
tJucation. Tallahassee: Stat e apartment of TEucation,
1947-1952. 7 sections.
United States Department of Education. Occupations: A
ia.Es COnrSZe for Counselors. 1951.
Urnite-d States Department of Labor. tegroes In The United
StatEs Their F~nloynt and 1 onol .ntatus. Washing-
ton: Government-in ti ng Offlce, 195.
Wolff, Reinhold P., EZcno9mi Almtanac f Oade CGountA Miami:
Miami Leon:mic Research, IX, University of Miami Press, 1956.

Periodicals

Banner, 4.arren M. "An Appraisal of Progress," Miami: National
Urban League, 1953. (Mimeographed)
economic Development and Research Department. "Key Facts For
Metropolitan Miami Area," Miamit Miami-Dale County
Chamber of Commeree, 1956. (Mimeographed)
Florida State Bureau of Immigration# "Know Florida,"
Tallahassee: 1995 (Mireographed)
State Department of Education. bok for Coordinators
j A.d.inistrators. iversified Cooperative Training
Program. Tallahassee; State Department of Lducation,
195.









49
Thn sa, Mxwll S. "PropoeMd Progras of Indu tr al Arts and
Vocational Sducation or Nferoes of ilami, Florida,*
Miari3 1947. (Mieogtra phed.)













































































































































































































































I (







OCCUPATIONAL STUD


TIPE Or SERVICE

A nfl~Rfl~


I. Working P force


Total
Total


ber of aployeesa
ambera Whitse _egro_

Wae snena__ Vmen _


, Methods of acquiring aployes: ( ) a mk source used.


__2.
-a

.


Personal application
Witten application
Private empiloent
Puahlie spleoyeat burea
Civil Service examination


III. Test given applicant:
Cheek those useds
J.. Per~onality
2* Aptitude
.3 Psychological
a.m In florsation
,J. nCi1


,6,
7__
8.
-9.*
10.


Merit amimanation
Advertisment
Public Sohools
Non Public Schools
Friends


1. Age group in which most employee
frlt G en ( )
16-19 N XAM .P

l29-44
.. er5 and .
over


I. Physical examination required? heck ( ) Tw INo


V. Do you have special physical require

otu Tcas N _, Bo o .



a n-- ---,-, -- .. . .
VI. Harried wn aployed?
Qaeck- Xes._. b.o

VII. Do aployeea have group insurance?
Ceka ( ) Ye No__
Grp Bhopitalisation? Yes. NE
Bond required? As o B


VIII. Physical difficulties among oployees..
Cack z


1. Amputated ara
2. Amputated leg
.. ... Lesft-banded
4 R. sight-haned
.. ... Qorblind


S. X i.imua age of aployees
Check ( )
........16-19 M .

j29-44 -
45 and -
over
XI. Maxim age of employees:


SO a-
-- ~-r a----

cwmu.uuinin s a
over


6. Glasses


_,..9. Hernia
10. Othwr


XI. Experience required for
entrances Yes .... ..


---- .. -I


I







XIII Beginning salary:
-abArVSeekM JbEnth
,1900 and =uder
SaO t aee


t50 mad over

XII, Present annal salary of
amplo-eesa
$300 and belov
.._ 301(4600
61n-fl4Z00

$tX1adI ovew

XV. Procedure ordinarily used i
handling unamtisfaotery a rkers:
heekfve
Distasend
SChanged to other work
Retained or given addi-
tional training

XTI, Iasetial traits required of employee
Ceek fin:s

-Cheertainesa
,Dependability
jesraytsa
Gjoperativeness


jndusta m1 ry
Epaotional fataillty

.PhSysical aendtrare

XVII. Abilities to be developed in school
Check fives
Aritaetio tioandentsle
ofllowing direction
Jghial thinking

antal alertness


Pleasaat apeek

spealiM 1,
Vcabalary 24
'A


XVIII. inimm educational require-
tents: OChetk
... lmenta7ry
_ash School
asiness School
Trade School
e.....1oege C e
Col.lge Qrkdsate


XXI. att basic machines and tool
experiences can be given in
school that would be help-
ful to inoa ing employees?


2
1.


I


4 .. ..


6*,
7.
1-


10.
0 . .. . . . .. . . .. .


"L


XX. No you need additional
trained employees nor or in the
future Check Ies. o, ,
In what apaeidtes?

2,
3.
4;._ ,,_
5.
6.

2XI. No you prefer training your
own employees? Check TeX
No

XXII. Do you prefer having them
trained in a voestional
sehoel? Cheek TYes_ 0eo__

XXIII. am all positions on your
payroll including your ovn
)ach as: Manager, Seere-
tary, Maid, sCrpenter,
Salesman, etc.


No. of Persons


Position Male Female


I __________________________ ____ __ nmrnan~- ~ ma'-- a-- .I-a.-
,.. -ffi -osli,

1S40 pmsuimnpmm.mMW -mfl-sMSSI WinU. flIn _


- ----'--`-- '--- --- --




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