• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Title Page
 Half Title
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Acknowledgement
 Introduction
 Review of literature
 Procedure
 Presentation and analysis...
 Summary, conclusion, and recom...
 Bibliography
 Symbols used
 Sims score card
 Anderson chemistry test
 OTS self-administering tests of...
 Standord achievement test






Title: Comparative Study of the Outcomes of Two Methods in Teaching Chemistry to Senior High School Students at the Booker T. Washington High School of Miami
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Title: Comparative Study of the Outcomes of Two Methods in Teaching Chemistry to Senior High School Students at the Booker T. Washington High School of Miami
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Duncombe, Wilfred Eugene
Affiliation: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
Publisher: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
Publication Date: 1955
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
    Half Title
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    Acknowledgement
        Page vii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Review of literature
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Procedure
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Presentation and analysis of data
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Summary, conclusion, and recommendations
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Bibliography
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Symbols used
        Page 49
    Sims score card
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Anderson chemistry test
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    OTS self-administering tests of mental ability
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Standord achievement test
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
Full Text






A COMiPARA..'I STUDY OT C O 1UTCOiEJS OR T'O :E-;.IS I' TEACHING

CHER1TISTRY TO 7 TO:IOR HIGH SCKHO L STUD;',.'" AT THE ,OOKER T. WAS-'I "1'J')N

HIGH SCHOOL OF NIAlI, FLORIDA











A Thesis

Presented to the

Graduate Coi-imittee of

Florida Agricultural end Miechanicsl University












In Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirerments for the Degree

Master of ocieece





)y

Wilfred Eugene Duncombe

August, 1955













A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE OUTCOMES OF TWO METHODS IN TEACHING

CHEMISTRY TO SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS AT THE BOOKER T. WASHINGTON

HIGH SCHOOL OF MIAMI, FLORIDA








Approved:




Cha r



Committee Membe



Committee Member



Dean r /







. / 7


TABLE OF CONTENTS


CHAPTER

I. INTRODUCTION ........


The problem


**t *****..**..*.t**. **.*e..**.*.


Scope and limitation ....

Sub-problems ...........

Definitions .............

Learning outcomes ....

Experimental group ...

Control group ........

Reading comprehension

Intelligence .........

Academic achievement

Inductive-deductive

Illustrative experiment

Deductive-descriptive

Illustrative experiment


.e.. e...e............. 3


.. ........o.. ..... 4


..........e.......... 5


S.. .. ... .... ... 5

.................... 5


* .. *.. ............. 5
......... ........... 5

..... *.............. 5


.................... 6

.................. 6

.................... 8

....e.. .... ....... 8
0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0* 0

& 0& 0 0 0 0 *0 a 00 0


Basic assumptions ..........................

Source of data ..............................

II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE ..................

III. PROCEDURE .................... ........ .

The population ............................

Teaching procedure ........................

Testing procedure ........................

Statistical techniques ....................

Testing the null hypotheses ..............


PA(

1

3


eeoeoeee................


:E







CHAPTER PAGE

IV. PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA .......... 24

Significance of mean intelligence

difference ........ ................ ...... 24

Implication of variability ................. 24

Significance of coefficient of correlation .. 26

Significance of mean reading difference .... 29

Significance of mean level of socio-

economic status ......................... 31

Significance of mean achievement difference

on Part A of Anderson Chemistry test,

Form Am ................. ............... 33

Significance of mean achievement difference

on Part C of Anderson Chemistry test,

Form Am ...... ........... ............... 35

Significance of mean achievement difference

on Part A of Anderson Chemistry test,

Form Bm ............................. 37

Significance of mean achievement difference

on Part C of Anderson Chemistry test,

Form Bm ................................. 39

V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS .... 40

Summary ................................. ... 40

Conclusion ................................. 43

Recommendations ............ ................ 44

BIBLIOGRAPHY ........................... ........ 45

APPENDIX ................... .................. 48







LIST OF TABLES


TABLE PAGE

I. The Results of an Experiment to Determine

whether or not Chemical Reactions go to

an End through Volatility ................ 9

II. I. Q. Scores for the Experimental and

Control Groups Enrolled in General

High School, Miami, Florida, during

the 1953-54 School Term ................... 25

III. Correlation between Intelligence and

Achievement of the Experimental and

Control Group Enrolled in General

Chemistry at the Booker T. Washington

High School, Miami, Florida, during

1953-54 ............... .................... 26
IV. Reading Scores for the Experimental and

Control Group Enrolled in General

Chemistry at the Booker T. Washington

High School, Miami, Florida, during

the 1953-54 School Term ................... 28

V. Socio-Economic Status Scores for the

Experimental and Control Groups Enrolled

in General Chemistry at the Booker T.

Washington High School, Miami, Florida,

during the 1953-54 School Term ............ 30








LIST OF TABLES


TABLE PAGE

VI. Differences between Initial Test Scores and

Final Test Scores on Part A, Understanding

of Functional Facts and Concepts of

Chemistry, of the Anderson Chemistry

Test, Form Am ....... .............. 32

VII. Differences between Initial Test Scores and

Final Test Scores on Part C, Understanding

and Application of the Scientific Method

and Its Associated Attitudes in Chemical

Situations of the Anderson Chemistry

Test ............. ................... 34

VIII. Scores for the Experimental and Control

Groups on the Understanding Facts and

Concepts of Chemistry, Anderson Chemistry

Test, Form Bm ................ ....... 36

IX. Scores for the Experimental and Control

Groups on the Understanding of Part C,

Understanding and Application of the

Scientific Method and Its Associated

Attitudes in Chemicals, on Form Bm of

the Anderson Chemistry Test ............ 38
















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The writer is greatly indebted to Dr. W. L.

Johnson, Dr. Irvin W. Elliott, Mr. John Tinner, and

Dr. Melvin 0. Alston for the advice, suggestions,

and guidance which made the completion of this study

possible.

For encouragement and assistance, the author is

indeed grateful to his family and his wife, Albertha

Duncombe.


W. E. D.







CHAPTER I


INTRODUCTION

Several of the recent studies in science education

have dealt with the nonfactual objectives or outcomes.1
Such research has considered such outcomes as attitudes,

appreciations, habits, and problem-solving abilities. A

number of these studies have been concerned with one of
the commonly accepted outcomes of science, namely the

ability of students to employ the elements of the
scientific method in problematic situations.2
According to Keeslar the following problem-solving

behaviors are involved when one organizes and carries out
an attack upon a problem:
1. SensI a a problem and deciding ja fond tj answer
to it
2. Defining heait Problem
Stating the problem in words and analyzing the problem
into its essential factors

3. Studying the situation fr all facts and clues
bearing upon the Droblem
4. Making h best tentative explanations o hypotheses
as to the possible solution of the problem

5. Selectigr the most likely hypothesis


1
Louis Teichman, "The Ability of Science Students to
Make Conclusions", Science Education, 28:5, December, 1944.
2 Ibid., p. 269.

Oreon Keeslar, "The Elements of Scientific Method
as Objectives', Science Education, 29:4, October, 1944.


48062








6. Inventing and carefully planning one or more x .r1-
ments to test the hypothesis: isolating the experi-
mental factor when ever Dossible b, jsin a_ control
Deciding upon the kinds of evidence which should
be collected

Choosing reliable methods of collecting the evidence

Refining measuring instruments to the degree warranted
by the nature of the problem

Practicing to gain skill in manipulation of apparatus
in order to secure accurate results

7. Testing the hypothesis y. carrying out the experiment
wih great care and accuracy

Preventing as far as possible all maoontrolled
variations in the conditions which might affect the
results

Making quantitative measurements of experimental
results and estimating the probable error of such
measurements

It has been said that the laboratory should be a

place for students to do original inductive thinking, but
the laboratory of the secondary school continues to be used

to observe facts and to verify data and principles that are

already known to the students.4
6 7 and Cahoon8
Boeck, Curtis, Richardson and Cahoon in reporting


John S. Richardson, "Experimental Science", The
Science Teacher, 27:4, November, 1950.
5Clarence Boeck, "Try the Inductive Approach",
The Science Teacher, 30:5, October, 1953.
6
Francis D. Curtis, "Plea for Inductive Teaching",
The. Science Teacher, 27:5, November, 1950.
7
Richardson, op. cit., p. 164.
8 G. P. Cahoon, "Providing Pupil Experiences in
Thinking", Science Education, 30:4, October, 1946.






3

the results of several studies have urged teachers of secondary

school science to use the inductive method inr teaching.

The Problem.

The purpose of this study is to cc.',,!are, statistically,

the learning outcomes achieved by an experimental group of

students taught by the use of the inductive-deductive method

with the learning outcomes achieved by a control group

instructed by the use of the deductive-descriptive method in

the General Chenistry Laboratory.

Essentially the problem is reduced to that of testing

the following null hypothesis:

"There is no significant difference in the
achievement of learning outcomes in General
Chemistry by the experimental group of students
who are taught by the inductive-deductive
method and in the achievement of learning out-
comes by pupils taught by the deductive-
descriptive."

Scooe and Limitation.

SThe comparisons made are between the experimental and

the control groups enrolled in General Chemistry at the

Booker T. WashingtonHigh School of Miami, Florida for the

1953-54 school term. The comparison involves the following

aspects of learning when measured by the Anderson Chemistry

Test, Forms Am and Bm:

(a) functional understanding of facts aend concepts
in General Chemistry

(b) the ability, to do logical (scientific thinking)
thinking in situations involving a knowledge of
General Chemistry






4

The study is not a comparison of the academic achievement

of individual pupils in the two groups; rather, it is

concerned primarily with the statistical comparison of the

total academic achievement of the experimental and the

control groups. The study is limited further in that it

involves senior high school pupils of a given race, in one

high school of one county during one school year.

Sub-Problems.

Pertinent to the study were the following sub-problems:

1. Is there a significantdifference between the mean
intelligence quotients of the two experimental
groups?

2. What is the relationship between the intelligence
quotient and the achievement of each group?

3. Is there a significant difference between the
mean reading ability of the two groups?

4. Is there a significant difference between the
mean level of socio-economic status for the two
groups?

5. Are there any significant differences between the
mean achievement of the two groups in the following:

(a) functional understanding of facts and
concepts of chemistry

(b) ability to do logical thinking in
situations involving a knowledge of
chemistry

Is it possible that such differences are real or due

to chance?

The above sub-problems were assumed to be non-operative

and were reduced to null hypotheses in the section, Testing

the N ~ul Hypotheses.






5

Definitions.

In this study, the following definitions are used:
Leaning Outcomes. The term learning outcomes refers to

acquired conduct controls that determine and guide the

individual's action from day to day. These acquired

controls may express themselves as abilities, attitudes,

appreciations, habits, skills, or understandings.

Experimental Group. The class which was taught by the

inductive-deductive method.

Control Group. The class in General Chemistry which was

instructed by the deductive-descriptive method.

Reading Comprehension. The term reading comprehension

means a form of interpretation which involves putting

to one's individual use and one's habitual modes of

thought and expression, the meaning gained from reading.

Intelligence. This attribute refers to the general mental

adaptability of the organism to new problems and conditions

in life.

Academic Achievement. General scholastic attainment, more

specifically, the term refers to the level of accomplishment

reached in school by the experimental and the control groups

as indicated by the mean achievement scores attained on the

Stanford Achievement Test, Advanced Form H and the Anderson

Chemistry Test, Forms Am and Bm.







Inductive-Deductive. A method of teaching through which data

are obtained by the inductive approach which progresses from

the particular to the general. The conclusion or generaliza-

tion is then checked in a deductive manner to determine it's

validity.

An illustration of a problems2 treated by the inductive-

deductive method was as follows:

In reading an advertisement from a monthly magazine

about Listerine Antiseptic mouth wash, we challenged the

statement of not only Listerine's advertising but that of

all the antiseptic mouth washes we could secure.

The following steps or elements were employed by the

students:

I. Formulate the Problem.

Do antiseptic mouth washes destroy bacteria?

II- Give Possible Answers to the Question.

1. Antiseptics contain alcohol and alcohol kills
germs.

2. Antiseptics kill some bacteria.

3. Germicides destroy all bacteria.

4. Antiseptics prevent the growth of bacteria.


12
1Some of the problems that were undertaken by the
Experimental group using the inductive-deductive method were:
1. The effect of Vitamin Bl on pepper plants.
2. The effect of acids and bases on indicators.
3. Factors that influence solubility.
4. Determining the per cent of acid in several
different brands of vinegar.
5. The effect of manganese dioxide on potassium or
sodium chlorate in the preparation of oxygen.
6. The determination of the activity series of the halogens.
7. Determination of the percentage composition of Cu S.
8. Detecting the presence of coal tar dyes in soda pop.








III. Select the hypothesis from these possible answers.

Antiseptic mouth washes kill some bacteria.

IV. Devise an experiment to find out whether the hypothesis
selected is the correct one.

This experiment was designed to see whether antiseptic

mouth washes destroyed or prevented the growth of bacteria.

Seven different kinds of mouth washes were obtained for the

experiment.

Enough nutrient agar was prepared in the laboratory and

equal amounts were placed into eight sterile petri-dishes.

To run seven experiments, eight dishes were used so as to

have one dish for a control.

Five drops of saliva were placed in each dish to supply

bacteria. Small equal amounts from each one of the seven

mouth washes were placed in its respective dish and each

dish was labeled according to the brand. They were placed

in an incubator for several days.

V. Gather data.

From time to time, these cultures were closely

examined without opening the petri-dishes to see what was

occurring. By counting the number of bacterial colonies in

the control dish and by comparing these with the treated

colonies, it was determined whether or not the antiseptic

mouth wash retarded the growth of bacteria. The control

dish contained many colonies. The dishes containing mouth

washes with the highest percentages of alcohol did not







show colonies. The ones containing a low percentage of alcohol

showed some colonies of bacteria.
VI Draw Conclusion.

Antiseptic mouth washes containing less than 25 per

cent alcohol did not effectively retard the growth of bacteria.

VII. Check Results.

1. Does the conclusion answer the problem?

2. Does the conclusion agree with the facts of the
experiment?

3. Are there enough facts to make the conclusion
valid?

4.. Are the data obtained by proper control in
the experiment?

5. Is the conclusion clearly expressed?

VIII. Repeat the experiment as a check.

Deductive-Descriptive. The term deductive-descriptive

pertains to a method which involves essentially the

reading and discussion of a concept, generalization, or

principle by the class and is followed by the verification

of the principle or concept in the laboratory.

The following experiment, "Actions Go to an End Through

Valatility" serves as an illustration of the deductive-

descriptive approach.



9
Brownlee et al., Laboratory Experiments in Chemistry,
(New York: Allyn and Bacon, 1944) pp. 88-89.







TABLE I

The Results of an Experiment to Determine
whether or not Chemical Reaction go
to an End through Volatility


Complete the following sentence in your notebook:

Two substances will react if one of the possible products is








Purpose of Experiment.

This experiment was designed to illustrate the conditions

under which, on mixing two substances, a reaction goes to

an end.

Directions.

The procedure for this experiment which illustrated

the deductive-descfiptive method was as follows: Substances

were paired from information which was presented in Table I.

Observations were recorded and are also presented in Table I.

Students were asked to fill in the last column after

finishing the work on each particular pair of substances.

It was found from this experiment that reactions go

to an end if one of the products leave the field of action.

If water was formed in an action, it should be considered

outside the field of action.

Basic Assumptions.

1. A comparative study of the learning outcomes of the
groups taught by these two methods has great
educational significance. The results may prove
valuable in providing objective evidence of the re-
lative effectiveness of the two techniques in teaching
chemistry at the Booker T. Washington High School,
Miami, Florida.

2. If the methods used by teachers of General Chemistry
affect the quality of learning outcomes, instructors
should be able to approximate the extent and
direction of the effect.

3. A student's performance under skilled guidance on
a valid and reliable test is an acceptable index
of the trait being measured.









Source of Data.

The instruments listed below were used in the study:

Sims Socio-Economic Score Card, Form C.

Otis Self-Administering Test of Mental Ability,
Higher Examination: Form A.

Stanford Achievement Test, Advanced Form H.

Anderson Chemistry Test, Forms Am and Bm.

The following resume indicates the reliability and

validity of the measuring instruments used in this study.

Socio-Economic Status Score Card.

In any attempt to determine the socio-economic status

of pupils, there is always a possibility of error. The

objectivity is increased by the use of a measuring instru-

ment as the Sims Socio-Economic Score Card. A quantitative

value is assigned to each item ofthe score card and as a

result of the extensive use of this measuring device,

provisional levels of socio-economic status are designated.

A score of 5.1 is considered low while a score of 17.6 is

high. Levels of socio-economic status are set for rural

areas as well as urban areas.

Otis Self-Administering Test of Mental Ability.

The validity of this test was based upon the method of

its standardization. The coefficient of correlation between

the Higher Examination Form and the Advanced Examination

Form was 0.889.









Stanford Achievement Test.

The content of the Stanford Achievement Test was selected

after a throughgoing analysis of representative courses of

study from the entire country. Experts in various subject

have statistically evaluated the Stanford Achievement Test.

The test has a reliability of .90 in the skilled areas and

a range of .71 to .84 in the content areas.

Anderson Chemistry Test.

This test was constructed to measure the extent to

which students have achieved the important objectives of

a high school course in Chemistry. The test items were

selected on the basis of curricular validity and statistical

requirements. The test has a corrected split-half reliability

coefficient of 0.90 and 0.94. On Forms Am and Ba, there

was an alternate-form reliability of 0.87.








CHAPTER II *


REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2
Experimental studies which involve the testing of the

efficiency of teaching techniques in the development of

abilities and skills in the use of the scientific method are

very few inrumber. A careful study of the available litera-

ture indicates that there is some doubt as to the effectiveness

of special emphasis on teaching procedures devised to develop

critical thinking on the part of secondary school pupils

in science.

In 1933, Weller experimented with 230 sixth-grade

pupils who were divided into six classes, three control

groups and three experimental groups. Her purpose was to

determine whether desirable scientific attitudes and skills

in problem solving could be effected through instructional

procedures. Three pairs of tests were constructed so that

the first question of each set tried to measure an observation;

the second, a drawn conclusion; and the third, a proof or

possible verification of the conclusion drawn. The control

and experimental groups composed of thirty pupils each were

equated on the basis of intelligence quotients and reading

abilities. In the experimental classes, observation of

data, interpretation of data, and the formulation of con-

clusions based on the data observed were practiced with simple


10
SFlorence Weller, "Attitudes and Skills in Elementary
Science", Science Education, 17:90-97, April, 1933.








problems proposed by the pupils in the group. Only factual

items were discussed in the control classes.

After a statistical comparison of test results, the

investigators concluded that the materials of elementary

school science provided the means of achieving desirable

attitudes and skills in problem solving if attention was

focused on that objective.

Blair and Goodson11 reported an experimental study in

1939 on the use of special methods for developing scientific
thinking.

Thirty-two pupils comprised the experimental group at

the University of Illinois High School, while the control

group consisted of forty-nine pupils divided into two groups,

one at the University High School and one at the Champaign

Public High School.

Experiences involving the definition of problems; the

suggestion of hypothesis; the testing of hypotheses; the

interpretation of data; and the formulation of conclusions,

were presented to the experimental groups. The control

groups were instructed by the usual method employed by their

instructors.

The control groups were unaware of the experiment, but

cooperated in the administration of tests designed to measure


11
G. M. Blair and M. R. Goodson, "Development of
Scientific Thinking Through General Science", School Review,
65:696-700, November, 1939.








the relative effectiveness of the methods used in teaching

the control and experimental groups.

The test results obtained indicated that there was a

significant difference in the attainment of problem solving

skills by the use of instruction stressing scientific method.

Thelenl2 in 1944 reported the results of a study in

scientific methodology using chemistry at the first year

college level. He concluded that the groups using methods

devised for the attainment of skills in the use of the

scientific method made a greater achievement than the control

groups which used different methods.

During 1942, Louis Teichman 3 conducted an experimental

study at the Christopher Columbus High School, Bronx, New

York, using five hundred fifty ninth grade pupils enrolled

in general science. The investigator taught five classes

while another instructor instructed three. These eight classes

were designated as experimental groups and the remaining

twelve classes, taught by five other general science teachers,

were called the control groups. The two groups were taught

by different methods.

Teichman constructed his own battery of tests designed


12 Herbert A. Thelen, "A Methodological Study of the
Learning of Chemical Concepts and of Certain Abilities to
Think Critically in Freshman Chemistry", Journal of Experi-
mental Education, 13:53-75, September, 1944.
13
Louis Teichman, "The Ability of Science Students to
make Conclusions", Science Education, 28:208, December, 1944.









to measure the following:

(a) the ability of the pupil to make a
conclusion from data in a paragraph

(b) the ability to select the best
conclusion from four proposed conclusions

(c) the ability to choose the correct listed
reason for a faulty conclusion.

These tests were validated by a jury of three prominent

educators. The battery of tests was administered during

the first week in September along with the Henmon-Nelson

Test of Mental Maturity, Form A. The reading abilities

of the pupils were secured from permanent record cards.

All pupils in both groups were again tested in

January, 1943 as to their abilities to make conclusions

as stated earlier.

The investigator concluded that teaching procedures

that emphasized the abilities to make conclusions, to

judge conclusions, and to state why conclusions were

faulty produced significantly greater achievement in the

use of the scientific method than techniques that did

not stress these abilities.

Boeck14 conducted an experimental study at the laboratory

high school of the University of Minnesota on the relative

effectiveness of the inductive and the deductive method in the


14
Clarence H. Boeck, "Teaching Chemistry for Scientific
Method and attitudee Development", Science Education, 37:81-83,
March, 1953.









acquisition of the problem solving skills in secondary

school chemistry.

Two classes at the University High School ranging in

number from 19 to 30 pupils, were designated as an ex-

perimental and a control groups respectively. Seven other

classes outside of the University High School were used for

controls and were taught by the deductive methods by their

usual teachers.

The investigator administered tests that he had con-

structed and which had been validated by a jury of educators.

Boeck15 concluded that the achievement of the use of the

scientific method, as measured by the test, was significantly

greater in the experimental group than in the control group.

He also concluded that there was no significant difference

in the achievement of the knowledge of facts and the applica-

tion of principles by either groups.

The National Association for Research in Science

Teaching In a recent roundtable discussion has listed the

methodology of the scientific method in science as one of

the areas of needed research.



15 p. 83
Ibi ., p. 83







CHAPTER III


PROCEDURE

The Population.

This study was made using two classes from the

1953-54 Chemistry enrollment at the Booker T. Washington
High School, Miami, Florida. Each class had 24 pupils

enrolled when the study began but two pupils out of the

control group transferred to another high school in the

county.

Teaching Procedure.

Considerable differences occurred in the laboratory

between the teaching methods employed in the in-

struction of the experimental and the control groups in

this study. The plan of attack used by the experimental

group was pupil-teacher planned.6 The pupil started with

a problem, the answer to which he was unaware. He

gathered by observation or experiment, or both, evidence

from which he arrived at a tentative answer to the problem.

The teaching progressed from the particular to the general

of from facts to concepts and principles.17

The pupils were encouraged to raise and define

problems, to learn the meaning and use of controls, and


16
G. D. McGrath, "Some Experiences with Teacher-
Pupil Planning of Laboratory Work in Chemistry*, School
Science a Mathematics, 44:7, pp. 793-797.
17
N. S. S. E., Science Education j American Schools,
46th Yearbook, University of Chicago Press, 1947.








to test hypotheses and interpret data. Good laboratory

techniques and careful observation were stressed in each

experiment performed.

In the deductive-descriptive class the laboratory

experiences were selected from Laboratory Experiments
18
Chemistry by Brownlee et al. The experiments were per-

formed after a thorough discussion of the generalization,

principle or concept involved in class recitation. The

experiences were used merely to describe or demonstrate

the application of generalizations, principles, or concepts.

There were no provisions made for the pupils to plan or

devise experiments. There was little or no need for the

pupils to use their abilities to generalize or form

conclusions.

Sources o_ Data.

The Stanford Achievement Test, Advanced Form H

was administered at the beginning of the school term to

determine the mean achievement of each group. The mean

intelligence quotient of each group was secured by the

use of the Otis Self-Administering Test of Mental Ability,

Higher Examination, Form A. The Sim. Socio-Economic

Score Card was administered to determine the mean socio-

economic status of each group. The initial status and

the attainment of the desired outcomes in Chemistry were


18
Brownlee t al., Laboratory ExDeriments in Chemistry,
(New York: Allyn and Bacon, 1935)







determine by administering the Anderson Chemistry Test,

Forms Am and Bm.

Form Am ofthe Anderson Chemistry Test was administered

during the second week of September in order to measure

the initial status of the pupils on sections A and C of

the test. The test was again administered during the

first week in May as the final test. The mean achievement

of each group was obtained from the differences between

the initial test scores and the final test scores on

parts A and C.

Form Bm of the Anderson Chemistry Test was administered

during the third week in May as the follow-up test.

Statistical Techniques.

The arithmetic mean and the standard deviation for

each group were computed on each test administered by

the following formulas:

(a) M = M' / fd i
N

(b) = Zd2 -C2

In these formulas

M = true mean,

M' = assumed mean,

ifd = sum of frequencies multiplied by their re-
spective deviations,

N = total number of frequencies,

i = class interval,

0 = sigma, standard deviation,

9fd2 = sum of frequencies multiplied by the square
of their respective deviations,
C = correction.









In order to test the significance of the difference
19
between the means of the two groups, the "t-test",9 a

critical ratio in which a more exact estimate of the O,
is used, was computed for the difference between the mean

achievement of the groups compared by the following tests:
a. Sims Socio-Economic Score Card, Form C
b. Otis Self-Administering Test of Mental
Ability, Advanced Form A
c. Anderson Chemistry Test, Forms Am and Bm.

Testing The Null Hypotheses.
In testing the significance of the difference be-

tween the mean intelligence quotients of the experimental
group and the control group, the null hypothesis was
stated as follows: There is no significant difference
between the mean I. Q. of the experimental group and the
mean I. Q. of the control group. The "t" was obtained by
the following formulas:20

S (x, M i) (X2 M2 )2
SD =- -
(Nl 1) (N2 1)

SE = SDl N17 N2
N N12
X2 SD2 x (N-l)
MD
t= =ED


19 Henry E. Garrett, Statistics i Phychology and
Education, (New York: Longmans, Green and Co., 1953) p. 223.
20 224-22
Ibid., pp. 224-225







(.1 1M )2 = X12 was the sum of the squared devia-

tions around the mean of one group while (X M2 )2

= X2 was the sum of the squared deviations around the

mean of the other group. The sums of the squares were

combined to give a single SD. These formulas were also

used to determine the significance between the mean level

of socio-economic status of the two groups and the

significance of the mean difference between the mean

achievement of the control and the experimental groups.

The null hypothesis for the significance of difference

between the mean level of socio-economic status was stated

as follows: There was no significant difference between

the mean levels of socio-economic status of the experimental

and control groups. For the significance of difference

between the mean reading ability of the two groups the

following hypothesis was made: There was no significant

difference between the mean reading scores of the

experimental and control groups. The following null

hypothesis was made for the significance of difference

between the mean achievement in general chemistry between

both groups: There was no significant difference between

the achievement of the two groups in the following:

(a) functional understanding of facts and
concepts of chemistry

(b) ability to do logical thinking in chemical
situations.









The coefficient of correlations between achievement

and intelligence of the control and the experimental

groups were determined through computation using the

Pearson "r" method when deviations are taken from the

assumed means. The following formula was employed:

zX 'Y' C x Cy
r x


The symbol 1X 'Y' equals the sum of the product

of the deviation from the means.

The 5 per cent level was selected for the rejection

of null hypotheses concerning the comparisons between

the control and the experimental groups.







CHAPTER IV

PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA


Significance L Mean Intellience Difference.

An inspection of table II would reveal that the mean

intelligence quotient of the experimental group was 84.89

and 87.38 for the control group. From these measures

there was a mean difference of 2.49 which was in favor

of the control group. The t-test which was shown to be

1.09, as presented in table II was not significant at

the 5 per cent level.

For a hypothesis to be rejected, it must equal or
21
exceed the t-ratio of 2.02.21 The null hypothesis, "There

is no significant difference between mean intelligence

quotients of the two groups", was retained.

Implication of Variability.
The I. Q.'s of the control group deviated less

from the mean I. Q. than those of the experimental group.

This fact showed that the control group was more

homogeneous than the experimental group in mental ability.






21
Henry E. Garrett, Statistics in Psychology and
Education, New York: Longmans, Green, and Company,
1953, p. 427.







TABLE II

I. Q. scores for the Experimental and the Control

Groups enrolled in General Chemistry at the Booker T.
Washington High School, Miami, Florida, during the 1953-

54 school term.


Interval Experimental Control

106 108 1 0
103 105 0 0
100 102 1 0
97 99 0 1
94- 96 3 4
91 93 3 5
88 90 1 2
85 87 2 3
82 84 2 5
79 81 2 1
76 78 5 2
73 75 4 1

Totals 24 24


Mean I. Q.


84.89


87.38


. 9.27 6.48
A statistical analysis of the mean I. Q. scores of the

Experimental and the Control groups and the significance of
the difference between the mean scores.

Control Experimental

Mean Score 87.38 84.89
SD 6.48 9.27


SE
Md
t-ratio
df 45
N


2.29
2.49
1.09
2.02 (5% level)
24








Significance of Correlation.

It is shown in table III that the coefficient of

correlation between intelligence and achievement for the

control group was .56 and between intelligence and achieve-

ment for the experimental group was .85. These measures

indicated that there was a marked correlation between

achievement and intelligence in the control group and a

very high correlation between achievement and intelligence

in the experimental group.
TABLE III

Correlation between Intelligence and Achievement of

the Experimental and Control Group Enrolled in General

Chemistry at the Booker T. Washington High School, Miami,

Florida During 1953-54.


Statistics Control Experimental


r .56 .85
PEr .11 .04



The following classification may serve as an index to

the interpretation of r:

r from .00 to t.20 denotes neglible relationship;

r from t.20 to *.40 denotes low correlation; present
but slight

r from j.40 to t.70 denotes substantial or marked
relationship;

r from *.70 t 1.00 denotes high or very high re-
lationship.


22Ibi p. 173.





27


If the probable errors for both groups were noted,

they were found to be relatively small, especially the

probable error of the experimental group*







TABLE IV

Reading Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups
Enrolled in General Chemistry at the Booker T. Washington
High School, Miami, Florida, during the 1953-54 School
Term.

Interval Experimental Control
f f


81 82 2 0
79 -80 0 0
77 78 o 1
75 76 o 0
73 74 3 0
71 72 1 0
69 70 3 2
67 68 1 3
65 66 1 4
63 64 2 3
61 62 5 2
59 60 3 3
57 58 2 3
55 56 1 1
Totals 24 22

Mean Reading Score 65.8 63.7
S7.o8 5.04

A statistical analysis of the Mean Reading scores of
the Experimental and Control groups and the significance
of the difference between the Mean scores.
Control Experimental

Mean Score 63.7 65.8
SD 5.04 7.08
SED 1.71
M 2.1
ND 22 24
t-ratio 1.2
df 4 2.02 (5% level)
45








Significancecf Mean Reading Difference.

Table IV indicates that there was a small mean

difference of 2.1 between the two groups. This difference

was in favor of the experimental group. The application

of the t-test resulted in a t-ratio of 1.2 which was not

significant at the 5 per cent level.

The standard deviation of the experimental group was

greater than that of the control group. This difference

again pointed to the greater individual differences which

occurred in that group. The deviation of the reading

scores from the mean reading score of the control group

was less than the experimental group.







TABLE V

Socio-Economic Status Scores for the Experimental and

Control Groups Enrolled in General Chemistry at the Booker
T. Washington High School, Miami, Florida, during the

1953-54 School Term.

Interval Experimental Control
f f

23 24 1 2
21 22 0 1
19 20 4 2
17 18 3 4
15 16 5 6
13 14 8 3
11 12 0 1
9 10 0 2
7- 8 3 0
5- 6 0 1
Totals 24 22
Mean Socio-Economic
Status Score 15.08 15.68
o 3.88 3.94

A statistical analysis of the Mean Socio-Economic status

scores of the Experimental and Control groups and the signifi-

cance of the difference between the mean scores.

Control Experimental
Mean Score 15.68 15.08
N 22 24
SD 3.94 3.88
MD .60
SED 1.17
t-ratio .51
df 45 2.02 (5% level)






31

Significance of Mean Level Socio-Economic Status.

Table V showed that there was a very slight difference

of .60 in the mean level of socio-economic status. The

t-ratio was .51 which was not significant.

The standard deviation of 3.88 for the experimental

group and 3.94 for the control group also pointed out the

similarity of the socio-economic status of the two groups.








TABLE VI

Differences between Initial Test Scores and Final

Test Scores on Part A, Understanding of Functional Facts

and Concepts of Chemistry, of the Anderson Chemistry Test,
Form Am.

Interval Experimental Control
Group
f f

16 17 1 0
14 15 0 2
12 13 0 1
10 11 2 8
8- 9 2 1
6 -7 3 3
4- 5 2 4
2 3 6 2
0 -1 4 1
-2 (-1) 3 0
-4 (-3) 1 0

Totals 24 22

Mean 3.84 8.04

0 4.4 3.86

A statistical analysis of the mean scores of the

experimental --" the control groups on Part A, "Understanding

of Functional Facts and Concepts of Chemistry", and the

significance of the difference between the mean scores.
Experimental Control
Mean Score 3.84 8.04
SD 4.4 3.86
MD 4.20
SED 1.22
t-ratio 3.4
df 45 2.02 (5% level)
N 24 22









Significance of Difference. Part A.
The null hypothesis, "There is no significant difference

between the mean achievement of the two groups*, was rejected.

Table VI revealed that the experimental group had a

mean score of 3.84 and that the control group had a mean

score of 8.04 for the difference between the initial

scores and the final scores on Part A, "Understanding of

Functional Facts and Concepts of Chemistry", of the

Anderson Chemistry Test, Form Am. The mean difference

between these two means was 4.2. The t-ratio for this

part of the test was 3.4 which indicated that there was

a significant difference between the mean score of the

experimental group and the mean score of the control group.

An analysis of the data in table VI showed a standard

deviation of 4.4 for the experimental group and a standard

deviation of 3.86 for the control group. Thus there was

more variability of abilities in the experimental group

than in the control group.







TABLE VII

Differences between Initial Test Scores and Final

Test Scores on Part C, Understanding and Application of

the Scientific Method and Its Associated Attitudes in Chemical

Situations of the Anderson Chemistry Test, Form Am.

Interval Experimental Control
f f


1
1
0
1
1
6
5
0
4
3
1
1
0

24
2.84


0
0
0
1
5
1
5
5
3
1
0
0
1

22

2.73


0' 2.61 2.03

A statistical analysis of the mean scores of the

experimental and control groups on Part C, "Understanding

and application of the scientific method and its associated

attitudes in chemical situations", and the significance

of the difference between the means.

Experimental Control

Mean Score 2.84 2.73
SD 2.61 2.03


SED
MD
t-ratio
df 45
N


2.37
.11
.15
2.02 (5% level)


9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
Total

Mean









Significance of Difference, Part C.

A study of the measure in table VII showed a mean of

2.84 for the experimental group and a mean of 2.73 for

the control group. The mean difference between the initial

scores and the final scores on Part C of the Anderson

Chemistry Test, Form Am was .11. This difference was

highly insignificant.

The sigma scores of 2.61 and 2.03 for the experimental

and control groups respectively, showed that the control

group had more homogeneity than the experimental group

because the scores tended to center around the mean.








Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups on the

Understanding of Pacts and Concepts of Chemistry, Anderson

Chemistry Test, Form Bm.


Interval Experimental Control
f f


26 27 1 0
24 25 0 0
22 23 0 0
20 21 0 1
18 19 1 2
16 17 1 0
14 15 3 1
12 13 3 2
10 11 4 10
8- 9 3 2
6- 7 4 4
4- 5 3 0
2- 3 1 0
Total 24 22
Mean 10. 6 1.14

o- 6.28 3.70


Statistical Analysis of Data.

A statistical analysis of the mean scores of the

experimental and control groups on Part A, "Understanding

of functional facts and concepts of chemistry*, and the

significance of the difference between the means. (Anderson

Chemistry Test, Form Bm)

Experimental Control

Mean Score 10.66 11.14
SD 6.28 3.7
SED 1.59









Experimental Control

MD .48
t-ratio .31
df 45 2.02 (5% level)
N 24 22

Significance of Part A on Form Bm of Chemistry Test.

Data in table VIII showed that there was a mean

achievement of 10.66 for the experimental group and 11.14

for the control group. However, this mean achievement

difference of .48 in favor of the control group was not

significant at the 5 per cent level as the t-ratio was

only .31.

Individual differences as indicated the standard

deviation were greater in the experimental group than in

the control group.








TABLE IX

Scores for the Experimental and Control Groups on the

Understanding of Part C, Understanding and Application of

the Scientific Method and Its Associated Attitudes in

Chemical Situations, on Form Bm of the Anderson Chemistry

Test.

Interval Experimental Control
f f


10
0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

Totals

Mean

0.


0

2
6
4
7
0
0
0

24

5.83

1.57


0
0
2
1
2
3
6
3
3
2

22

4.14

1.96


A statistical analysis of the mean achievement scores

of both groups on Part C of Form Bm of the Anderson

Chemistry test.


Experimental

Mean Score 5.83
SD 1.57
SED
t-ratio
df 45
MD
N 24


Control

4.14
1.96
0.456
3.67
2.02 (5% level)
1.69
22








Significance of Part C on Form Bm of Chemistry Test.

An inspection of table IX showed a mean achievement

score of 5.83 for the experimental group and a mean

achievement score of 4.14 for the control group on

Part C, "Understanding of the Scientific Method and

its Associated Attitudes in Chemical Situations", of

the Anderson Chemistry Test. This test was given as a

follow up test. The difference between the mean

achievement scores of the experimental group and the

control group was 1.69 which was significant in favor of

the experimental group.

The standard deviation or variability of the control

group was greater than that of the experimental group

by .39.







CHAPTER V

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS


Summary .

In the comparison of the two groups in this study,

each subproblem will be reviewed and summarized.

1. Sub-problem 1: Isa there significant difference

between the mean intelligence quotient go the two

groups? The statistical analysis of the difference

between the mean intelligence quotients of the two

groups resulted in a t-score of 1.09 which is insignificant

at the 5 per cent level. The null hypothesis was re-

tained.

2. Sub-problem 2: hat I. the relationship between

the intelligence And achievement of each group? By use

of the Pearson r method coefficients of correlation of

.85 and .56 were obtained for the experimental group

and the control group respectively. These coefficients

of correlation are considered high. Thus, there was a

high correlation between intelligence and achievement of

the two groups.

3. Sub-problem 3: Is there significant difference

between the ability oL the twq rous? By statistical

analysis of the mean reading difference of 2.1, a t-score

of 1.2 was obtained. The null hypothesis for this sub-

problem was retained as the value of the t-test did not

reach significance.








4. Sub-problem 4: Is there a significant difference

between mean level Qf socio-economic status r the two

groups? The null hypothesis: "There is no significant

difference between the mean level of socio-economic

status for the two groups", was retained because the

statistical comparison resulted in a t-ratio of 0.15.

This test indicated the homogeneity of the two groups

in socio-economic status.

5. Sub-problem 5: If there aUn significant difference
between ~e mean achievement af he Jl t groups in jth

following:

(a) functional understanding facts and concepts in
general chemistry, and

(b) ability la la logical thing =in chemical situations.

The statistical comparison of the mean initial

achievement of the two groups, as based on the arithmetic

mean of the differences between the initial test scores

and the final test scores of the Am form of the Anderson

Chemistry Test, indicated a significant difference in favor

of the control group on Part A, "The Functional Understanding

of Facts and Concepts in general chemistry" of the

Anderson Chemistry Tests: Form Am.

On Part C which measured the ability to do logical

thinking in chemical situations, the statistical analysis

showed that the experimental group made more growth in this

ability than the control group. However, this growth was

not statistically significant at the 5 per cent level.









A statistical comparison of the mean scores on Part A

of the Anderson Chemistry Test Bm, "Functional Understanding

of Facts and Concepts in General Chemistry", showed a small

mean difference of .48 in favor of the control group, The

t-test gave a value of 0.31,, which was not significant at

the 5 per cent level.

Form Bm of the Anderson Chemistry Test was used as a

follow-up test to determine the reliability of the initial

test findings of the study. On Part C of the Bm form of

the Anderson Chemistry Test which measures the ability

to do logical thinking in chemical situations the

experimental group showed a mean achievement difference

of 1.69. By statistical analysis, a t-test score of 3.6

was secured at the 5 per cent level. This score was

significant.

The statistical comparison of the results of the two

groups on Parts A and C of forms Am and Bm of the Anderson

Chemistry Test indicated the probability that the teaching

method involved affected the mean achievement of the two

groups in the following:

(a) functional understanding of facts and concepts in
general chemistry
(b) ability to do logical thinking in chemical situations








Conclusions.

The following conclusions have been drawn from this

study:

1. There was no significant difference between
the mean intelligence quotients of the
experimental and control groups.

2. The relationship between the intelligence and
the achievement of e'-ch group was high.

3. There was no significant difference between the
mean readi-g ability of the experimental and control
groups.

4. There was no significant dif erence between the
mean level of socio-economic status for the two
groups.

5. There was a significant difference (in favor of
the control group) between the initial mean
achievement of the two groups in the functional
understanding of facts and concepts in general
chemistry.

6. There was no significant difference between the
initial mean achievement of the two groups on
the ability to do logical thinking in chemical
situations. However, a significant difference
between the mean achievement of the two groups
was indicated by Form Bm of the Anderson
Chemistry Test.

7. The inductive-deductive method seemed to be
superior to the deductive-descriptive method in
the teaching of the ability to do logical
thinking in chemical situations and in the
teaching of the fu ctional understanding offacts
and concepts in general chemistry as the mean
difference between the experimental and the
control groups, as shown by the Anderson Chemistry
Test, Form Bm, had no significance. In spite of
this fact, it is the considered opinion of the
investigator that considerable care should be
exercised in generalizing from the very limited
data available in this one study.









Recommendation.

Because the inductive-deductive class was superior in

the attainment of the ability to do logical thinking in

chemical situations, the chemistry teachers of Booker T.

Washington High School, Miami, Florida should accept it

as a method of laboratory instruction.

More research on this problem is needed in order

to give substantial support and direction in teaching

for the ability to do logical thinking in chemistry.

The follow-up study should involve probably larger groups,

another high school, and a period of more than one year.
















BIBLIOGRAPHY








BIBLIOGRAPHY

Blair, G. M. and Goodson, M. R., "Development of Scientific
Thinking Through General Science', School Review,
65:969-700, November, 1939.
Boeck, Clarence H., "Teaching Chemistry for Scientific and
Attitude Development", Science Education, 37:81-84,
March, 1953.

Brownlee, Raymond B. et al, Laboratory Experiences in
Chemistry, New York: Allyn and Bacon, 1944.

Burmester, Mary A., "Behavior Involved in the Critical
Aspects of Scientific Thinking", Science Education,
36:259-263, December, 1952.
Cahoon, G. P. "Providing Pupil Experiences in Thinking",
Science education 30:4, October, 1946.
Curtis, Francis D., "A Plea for Inductive Teaching",
The Science Teacher, 17:222-224, December, 1950.

Dewey, John, How We Think, Boston: D. C. Heath and
Company, 1933.
Dunning, Gordon, "Using the Laboratory to Develop
Critical Thinking The Science Teacher, 18:85-87,
March, 1951.
Garrett, Henry E., Statistics in Psychology an Education,
New York: Longmans, Green, and Company, 1953.
459 PP.
Hoff, Arthur C., Secondary School Teaching, Philadelphia:
The Blakiston Company, 1949.

Keeslar, Oreon, "A Survey of Research Studies Dealing With
the Elements of Scientific Method as Objectives of
Instruction in Science", Science Education,
29:212-216, May, 1945.

"The Elements of Scientific Method", Science
Education, 29:273-278, December, 1945.
Lowenstein, Norman, "What is Scientific Method?",
School Science and Mathematics, 48:388-398, May, 1948.









National Society for the Study of Education, Forty-Sixth
Yearbook, Part I, "Science Education in American
Schools", Chicago: University of Chicago Press,
1947. 300 pp.

Obourn, Ellsworth S., "Making the Most of Experimental
Exercises", The Science Teacher, 17:170-171,
November, 1950.

Progressive Education Association, Science in General
Education, New York: D. Appleton-Century Company,
1938.
Richardson, John S., "Experimental Science Brief
History and Present Outlook', The Science Teacher,
17:164-166, November, 1950.
Teichman, Louis, "The Ability of Science Students to
Make Conclusions", Science Education, 28:268-279,
December, 1944.
Weaver, Elbert C., "Teaching Pupils to Think in
Science", School Science and Mathematics, 49:191-
196, May, 1949.
























APPENDIX









APPENDIX


Symbols Used.

M = assumed mean.

t = t-ratio, a critical ratio.

d = deviation of each score from the arithmetic mean.

MD = difference between two means.

f = frequency of a class interval.

M arithmetic mean.

S= sigma, standard deviation.

i class interval.

N total number of students in a sample.

P. E. = probable error.

SED = standard error of the standard deviation.

r = coefficient of correlation.

c = correction of assumed mean.

"D = standard error of the difference between two
uncorrelated means.

-= sum of, summation.

SD standard deviation.

df = degrees of freedom.








im, Score C Joonished byon Cpyright by the
For PChlihl In Public Scold Publishin Co.
111: IIITEW *4 IL
Printed in U. S. A.


SIMS SCORE CARD FOR SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS
Form C

Score....... .............-

1. Name......................................................................................

2. Age........................................ Years and.............................Months

3. Grade........................... ... Date .. ................................

4. Have you spent two years in any grade?........If so, what grades?

5. Have you skipped any grades?........................If so, what grades?......

6. Home address: City............................... ... State ...........................-

7. How many years have you lived in this town?................................

8 Have you attended schools in any other towns?...............If so, name

them............. ................... ........................ ................................

9. Name of your School................... .......................................... ...................

Don't answer any of the questions below until you are told what to do.
If you have brothers or sisters in this school, write their names and
grades on these lines:

Name..... ...................... Grade .........................

Name......................... Grade ..............................

In the Following Questi6ns Underline the Correct Answer:
Are you a Boy? a Girl? (Underline correct answer)
Are you living at home with your parents? .................................Yes No
Are you living in the home of someone else, such as a rela-
tive, adopted parent, guardian, etc. ?...................................Yes No
Are you living in an institution, such as an orphan asylum
or a home for children ?........................ .................Yes No
78-4p








Underline the Right Answer


1. Have you a telephone in your home?........................... Ye No
2. Is your home heated by a furnace in the basement ..........Yes No
3. Do you have a bathroom that is used by your family
alone ................................................................. ........ ......... Yes No
4. Do you have a bank account in your own name ?..........Yes No
S. Did your father go to college?................................................Yes No
6. Did your mother go to college?................................... Yes No
7. Did your father go to high school?................... .............Yes No
8. Did your mother go to high school?.....................................Yes No
9. Does your mother (or the lady of the home in which you
live) regularly attend any lecture courses of which you
know ? ................................................ ............................... ...Ye No
10. Do you have your own room in which to study?................Yes No
11. Do you take private lessons in music.............................Yes No
12. Do you take private lessons in dancing? ............................Yes No
13. Does your mother belong to any clubs or organizations
of which you know ? .............................................Yes No
If you know of any, write the name of one of them on
this line (................................... ..................... ....)
14. Do you belong to any organizations or clubs where you
have to pay dues ?.......................................... ...... ...Ye No
If you do, write the names of the organizations that you
belong to on these lines (...........................................



15. Does your family attend concerts?
Never Occasionally Frequently
16. Where do you regularly spend your summers?
At Home Away from Home
17. How often do you have dental work done? (Underline only one)
Never When Needed Once a Year Oftener







18. How many servants, such as a cook, a housekeeper, a chauffeur,
or a maid, do you have in your home?
None One Part Time One or More All the Time

19. Does your family own an auto which is not a truck?
None One Two or More

If your family does own an auto, write the make of the auto on
this line (................................................................................................)

20. How many magazines are regularly taken in your home?
None One Two Three or More
If any are taken, write the names of three of them-or as many
as are taken--on these lines (.................................... .....
.............................................. oooooo.o.oo ........................................................... )

21. About how many books are in your home? (Be very careful with
this one. A row of books three feet long would not have more
than twenty-five books in it.)
None 1 to 25 26 to 125 126 to 500 More

22. How many rooms does your family occupy?
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 More

How many persons occupy these rooms?
2 3 4 5 6 7 S 9 10 11 12 More

23. Write your father's occupation on this line (..................................)
Does he own Part All None of his business? (Underline)
Does he have any title, such as president, manager, fore-
man, boss, etc. ?.......................................................................Yes No

If he does have such a title, write it on this line (.........................)

How many persons work for him? (Underline the right number)
None 1 to 5 5 to 10 More than 10



Total Credits.................. -.- No. Answered.................. = Score .................







I E V L A T O A N A D U T M N S E I E I


GENERAL EDITOR. WALTER N. DUROST, SCHOOL OF EDUCATION, BOSTON UNIVERSITY
COORDINATOR FOR SCIENCE TESTS: VICTOR H. NOLL, MICHIGAN STATE COLLEGE


ANDERSON CHEMISTRY TEST

BY KENNETH E. ANDERSON
SCHOOL OF EDUCATION, UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS FORM mV




DIRECTIONS:
Do not open this booklet until you are told to do so.
This is a test of your knowledge of chemistry. For each question there are five possible answers. You
are to decide which answer is the best one. You may answer a question even when you are not perfectly sure
that your answer is correct, but you should avoid wild guessing. Do not spend too much time on any one
question.
Study the sample questions below, and notice how the answers are marked on the separate answer sheet.

Sample A. H20 is the formula for -
1. hydrogen.
2. carbon.
3. oxygen.
4. water.
5. salt.

For Sample A the answer, of course, is "water," which is answer 4. Now look at your answer sheet. At
the top of the page in the left-hand column is a box marked SAMPLES. In the five answer spaces after
Sample A, a heavy black mark has been made filling the space (the pair of dotted lines) marked 4.

Sample B. Which one of the following terms does not belong with the other four?
6. NaCI
7. H20
8. Fe
9. KOH
10. H2S04

The correct answer for Sample B is "Fe," because "Fe" is an element while the other four are compounds.
"Fe" is answer 8, so you would answer Sample B by making a heavy black mark that fills the space under the
number 8. Do this now.
Read each question carefully and decide which one of the answers is best. Notice what number your choice
is. Then, on the separate answer sheet, make a heavy black mark in the space under that number. In marking
your answers, always be sure that the question number in the test booklet is the same as the question number on
the answer sheet. Erase completely any answer you wish to change, and be careful not to make stray marks of
any kind on your answer sheetrQ on your test booklet. When you finish a page, go on to the next page.
If you finish the entire test before tt time is up, go back and check your answers. Work as rapidly and as
accurately as you can.
When you are told to do so, open your booklet to page 2 and begin. The working time for this test is
40 minutes.



Issued 1951 by World Book Company, Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York, and Chicago, Illinois
Copyright 1950 by World Book Company. Copyright in Great Britain. All rights reserved
b
PRINTED IN U.S.A. AC: AM--4






Anderson: Chem.-


Part A
1. The valence of an element tells -
1. its atomic weight.
2. the solubility of its compounds.
3. its stability.
4. how many electrons its atom lends, borrows, or
shares.
5. how many compounds can be formed.

2. One way in which compounds differ from mixtures is that
compounds have -
6. more elements.
7. fewer elements.
8. greater activity.
9. a definite composition.
10. physical properties.


3. Sugar is a compound because it -
1. is granular.
2. gives off water when heated.
3. blackens when heated.
4. has a definite composition.
5. is sweet.

4. Argon and neon are inert elements
have -
6. complete outermost rings.
7. no electrons.
8. chemical reactivity.
9. no protons.
10. no neutrons.


because their atoms


5. Any solution which conducts an electric current is called -
1. an ion.
2. an electrolyte.
3. a non-electrolyte.
4. an electrode.
5. a catalyst.

6. Hydrogen is contained in all -
6. liquids.
7. oxides.
8. salts.
9. compounds.
10. acids.

7. Plants give off oxygen during the day because -
1. the body of the plant needs to breathe oxygen to
live.
2. oxygen is one of the products.of photosynthesis.
3. oxygen is one of the products of respiration.
4. burning of food produces energy.
5. the extra warmth acts as a catalytic agent.

8. A manufacturing city is relatively free from smoke. This
is often due to -
6. the use of acids in manufacturing.
7. an inventor who has found a new use of by-products.
8. the process of collecting carbon by charged elec-
trodes.
9. the exclusive use of steam boilers in all manu-
facturing establishments.
10. the fact that the city is in a region of high-pressure
areas.
[ 2


9. The substance used in etching glass is -
1. sulfuric acid.
2. tincture of iodine.
3. hydrobromic acid.
4. aqua regia.
5. hydrofluoric acid.


10. Burning of wood is an example of -
6. an endothermic reaction.
7. reduction.
8. chemical change.
9. physical change.
10. catalysis.


11. A gas collected in a bottle was allowed to mix with a small
amount of air. A burning splint applied to the mouth of
the bottle caused a sharp explosion. The gas collected
was -
1. oxygen.
2. chlorine.
3. hydrogen.
4. nitrogen.
5. sulfur dioxide.

12. Diamond is -
6. an alloy.
7. a metal.
8. a crystal.
9. an ore.
10. an inorganic compound.


13. If water is saturated with salt (sodium chloride), the freez-
ing point is -
1. the same as for distilled water.
2. lower than for pure water.
3. higher than for pure water.
4. zero degrees Centigrade.
5. plus four degrees Centigrade.


14. If a relatively small amount of solute is dissolved in a rela-
tively large amount of solvent, the solution is called -
6. dilute.
7. saturated.
8. ionic.
9. concentrated.
10. none of the above.


15. In a Bunsen burner luminous flames result when the -
1. gas is turned too low.
2. gas carbon dioxide is formed.
3. barrel of the burner is too long.
4. spud is closed.
5. air openings are closed.


16. Sodium hydroxide is -


6. an acid.
7. a salt.
8. an oxide.
9. a base.
10. a carbohydrate.


Go on to the next page.







17. Which of the following molecules contains five atoms?
1. Ca3 (P04)2
2..NaCOs0
3. A1203
4. CaS04
5. NHIOH

18. Neutralization reactions usually form water and -
6. acids.
7. bases.
8. oxides.
9. salts.
10. absorbing agents.

19. Why do chemical reactions of the body take place so much
faster within the body than they do outside the body?
1. because the body is active
2. because the reactions are those of the body and
designed to go on in the body
3. because the reactions of the body are organic reac-
tions
4. because there are enzymes in the body which speed
up reactions
5. because the blood is a good solvent

20. The study of carbon compounds is known as -
6. inorganic chemistry.
7. organic chemistry.
8. qualitative chemistry.
9. analytical chemistry.
10. physical chemistry.

'1. Sodium compounds when heated in a flame produce the
color -
1. red.
2. yellow.
3. green.
4. violet.
5. pink.

,22. Substances which dissociate into ions when in solution are
called -
6. electrolytes.
7. non-electrolytes.
8. hydrates.
9. aqueous.
10. catalysts.

23. A hydrocarbon with the formula CIH is -
1. methylene.
2. acetylene.
3. ethane.
4. propane.
5. methane.

24. Cotton is most often bleached by use of -


6. ozone.
7. hydrogen peroxide.
8. chlorine.
9. sulfur dioxide.
10. hydrochloric acid.


x:'P


?S. The formula for milk of magnesia is -
1. Mg(OH)2
2. MgO
3. MgSO4
4. MgCl2
5. Mg3(P04)2


Anderson: Chem.-A
26. Natural gas is composed mainly of -
6. methane.
7. carbon monoxide.
8. hydrogen.
9. acetylene.
10. carbon dioxide.

27. What gas in the atmosphere is necessary for the operation
of an automobile engine?
1. carbon dioxide
2. hydrogen
3. helium
4. carbon monoxide
5. oxygen

28. An element has an atomic weight of 20 and its atomic num-
ber is 10. The number of planetary electrons about the
nucleus of the element is -
6. 0
7. 10
8. 20
9. 30
10. 40

29. Concentrated sulfuric acid is used in the preparation of
hydrogen chloride because it -
1. reacts slowly.
2. is very concentrated.
3. is a heavy acid.
4. is a dehydrating agent.
5. has a high boiling point.


30. A hydrocarbon with the formula C2H2 is -
6. methyl chloride.
7. methylene.
8. chloroform.
9. iodoform.
10. acetylene.

31. When iron rusts, it -
1. gains in weight.
2. remains chemically unchanged.
3. loses weight.
4. combines with hydrogen.
5. is reduced.


32. Equations are balanced by -
6. the use of exponents.
7. the use of subscripts.
8. the use of coefficients.
9. placing parentheses around radicals.
10. placing all products on the right side of the equa-
tion.

33. Chlorine is obtained commercially chiefly by -
1. action of acids on metals.
2. heating sodium chloride.
3. electrolysis of hydrochloric acid.
4. electrolysis of brine.
5. heating chlorides.

34. Slow oxidation differs from burning in that -


no heat is given off.
more time is required.
oxides are formed.
dioxides are formed.
compounds areformed.


Go on to the next page.


[ 3 ]


I






35. Which one of the following does NOT produce a high
degree of ionization when in solution?
1. HC1
2. H2S04
3. NaOH
4. KC1
5. CH30H

36. The anhydride of H2S03 is -
6. SOs
7. SO2
8. SO4
9. H20
10. S203

37. Acids whose names end in -ous have salts with names end-
ing in -
1. -ide
2. -ate
3. -ite
4. -ine
5. -ous

38. The general formula for organic acids is -
6. RCOOH
7. ROH
8. RCHO
9. ROR
10. RCOOR




Part B

There are 7 sets of 2 questions each in this part of the test. The
first question in each set is an information question and the sec-
ond is a question on the chemical principle that best explains the
answer to the preceding question. In each case, on your answer
sheet make a heavy mark in the space under the number of your
answer.

39. A storekeeper placed some calcium chloride between his
sash and storm window during a severe cold spell. What
happened?
1. The windows became more heavily frosted than the
near-by windows.
2. The substance became dry and powder-like.
3. The calcium chloride evaporated.
4. The windows remained almost free of frost.
5. Nothing happened.

40. Which one of the following statements gives the principle
that best explains the answer to question 39?
6. Many gases such as water vapor and carbon dioxide
can be solidified.
7. Many chemical reactions depend upon the lack of or
presence of moisture.
8. Many solids such as dry ice and iodine pass directly
from a solid to a gaseous state.
9. Many substances readily lose their water of hydra-
tion or crystallization on exposure to air.
10. Many substances have the property of absorbing or
adsorbing moisture from air or other substances:


Anderson: Chem.-A
41. If a positive and a negative electrode are introduced into a
solution of copper chloride, the copper will be deposited on
the negative electrode. This indicates -

1. that the copper particles in the solution had a posi-
tive charge.
2. that the copper particles had acquired a negative
charge from the negative electrode.
3. that the copper particles were electrically neutral.
4. that the chloride particles were repelled by the cop-
per particles.
5. nothing at all.

42. Which one of the following statements gives the principle
that best explains the answer to question 41?
6. Colloidal suspensions of different metals impart
different colors to a solution.
7. When salts ionize, the metal gives up electrons to the
non-metal.
8. In combining with other elements, metals gain elec-
trons.
9. Like charges repel each other and unlike charges
attract.
10. Basic metals are protected from corrosion by plating
them with relatively non-corrosive metals.


43. Sodium chloride and sulfuric acid were placed in a flask and
heated gently. The hydrochloric acid gas was passed
over water and dissolved, thereby making a solution of
hydrochloric acid. Why is HC1 the only product given off
as a gas?
1. The heat produces a chemical reaction.
2. The sodium chloride furnishes the chloride ion.
3. The acid furnishes the hydrogen ion necessary to
make an acid.
4. HC1 is the only product volatile at the temperature
of the reaction.
5. The sodium sulfate is a precipitate.

44. Which one of the following statements gives the principle
that best explains the answer to question 43?
6. Compounds possessing different boiling points may
be separated by destructive distillation.
7. Acids are produced only by double decomposition
reactions.
8. All chemical reactions are speeded up by heat.
9. Acids furnish the hydrogen ion in varying degrees of
concentration.
10. Acids with low boiling points may be prepared by
using an acid with a high boiling point.


Go on to the next page.

.a


[4]






45. A boy placed some zinc in a flask with some dilute hydro-
chloric acid. What happened?
1. Hydrogen was given off.
2. Chlorine was given off.
3. Oxygen was given off.
4. Zinc chloride was precipitated.
5. Nothing happened.

46. Which one of the following statements gives the principle
that best explains the answer to question 45?
6. Metals replace hydrogen from all acids.
7. Gases are produced by simple replacement reactions.
8. Elements are able to replace those below them in the
electrochemical series.
9. Chemical opposites, such as a metal and an acid,
usually unite.
10. Zinc is a very inactive metal.


47. Hydrogen gas was passed into a test tube containing copper
oxide. Heat was then applied to the tube. What prob-
ably happened?
1. An explosion occurred.
2. Water was formed in the tube.
3. A reddish-colored gas was given off.
4. A thin green coating appeared on the copper.
5. Nothing happened.

48. Which one of the following statements gives the principle
that best explains the answer to question 47?
6. Copper is a comparatively inactive metal.
7. Metal oxides often combine with an acid to form a
carbonate.
8. Many oxygen compounds when heated with hydro-
gen will release oxygen.
9. Noticeable heat and light occur in many chemical
reactions.
10. Some chemical compounds are able to absorb water
from air.


49. One series of hydrocarbons contains these compounds:
CH4, C2H6, C3Hs. What is the general formula for finding
the formulas of additional members of this series?
1. CnH2n
2. CnH2n+2
3. CnH2n+4
4. CnH2n-2
5. CnH2n+6

50. Which one of the following statements gives the principle
that best explains the answer to question 49?
6. Unsaturated hydrocarbons ar c able .gf taking on
additional hydrogen.
7. Saturated hydrocarbons are incapable of holding
more hydrogen.
8. Organic compounds are compounds in which the
elements share electrons.
9. Saturated hydrocarbons form what is known as sub-
stitution products.
10. In a homologous series each member differs from the
next by the same group of elements.
I


Anderson: Chem.-A
51. A bottle was filled almost to the top with sulfuric acid and
left unstoppered. What most likely happened?
1. The amount of sulfuric acid was increased.
2. The sulfuric acid became more concentrated.
3. The bottle overflowed.
4. Sulfur dioxide was given off.
5. Nothing happened.

52. Which one of the following statements gives the principle
that best explains the answer to question 51?
6. Evaporation takes place at the surface of the liquid.
7. Unstable compounds often give off gases in decom-
posing.
8. Dissociation or ionization has made possible the
production of new elements.
9. Most acids will expand in volume if exposed to the
air.
10. Some chemical compounds are able to absorb water
from the air.


Part C

Each of questions 53 through 58 consists of five terms, one of which
does NOT belong with the other four. You are to select the term
which does NOT belong. Mark its number in the proper space
on your answer sheet.
53. 1. nitrogen
2. magnesium
3. tin
4. antimony
5. bismuth

54. 6. boiling point
7. inert
8. solubility
9. specific gravity
10. density

55. 1. aldehyde
2. ketone
3. nitride
4. ester
5. ether

56. 6. dissolving
7. evaporating
8. freezing
9. burning
10. solidifying


57.


5


1. Bunsen
2. Cavendish
3. Einstein
4. Frasch
5. Priestley


58. 6..
7.
8.
9.
10.
]


CaC03
CaSO4
Ca3 (P04)2
CaC12
CaSiOa


Go on to the next page.






Questions 59 through 62 are based on the following data:

RESULTS OF THREE EXPERIMENTS TO DETERMINE WHAT
FACTORS, IF ANY, AFFECT THE SOLUBILITY OF SOLIDS
XPERI- KIND AND TEMPER- KIND AMOUNT OF
MENT AMOUNT OF ATURE OF PRESSURE OF SOLUTE
SOLVENT SOLVENT SOLUTE DISSOLVED

I 100 cc CC14 100 C. 600mm Sulfur 15 grams
100 cc CC14 100 C. 700mm Sulfur 15 grams

II 100 cc H20 1000 C. 700 mm Sulfur 15 grams
100 cc H20 500 C. 800 mm Sulfur 1 gram

III 100 cc H20 100 C. 700 mm Sulfur .1 gram
100 cc CC14 10 C. 700 mm Sulfur 15 grams


Constant factors are those which are kept the same in an exper-
iment. Varied factors are those which are not kept the same.
You are to assume that if a factor was found NOT to affect the
solubility of solids in any one experiment, it would not do so
in any other experiment. The number of grams of solute dis-
solved in the given volume of solvent produced saturation.
Read each question and study the table carefully. Decide which
answer is best and mark its number in the proper space on your
answer sheet.


59. What factor or combination of factors was constant in
Experiment I?
1. temperature of solvent
2. kind of solute; pressure
3. temperature of solvent; pressure; kind of solute
4. kind of solvent; pressure; kind of solute
5. kind of solvent; temperature of solvent; kind of
solute


60. What factor or combination of factors was varied in Experi-
ment II?
6. temperature of solvent
7. kind of solute; temperature of solvent
8. pressure; temperature of solvent
9. kind of solvent; pressure
10. kind of solute; kind of solvent


61. What factor in Experiment III produced the observed dif-
ference in the amount of solute dissolved?
1. kind of solvent
2. temperature of solvent
3. pressure
4. kind of solute
5. none of the above


62. In these experiments what factors definitely affect the solu-
bility of solids?
6. kind of solute; pressure
7. kind of solvent; kind of solute
8. temperature of solvent; pressure
9. pressure; temperature of solvent; kind of solvent
10. temperature of solvent; kind of solvent


Anderson: Chem-
Questions 63 through 67 are based on the figure below. Study
the figure and read each question carefully. Then, on your
answer sheet, make a heavy black mark in the space under the
number of the best answer.


63. If this reaction is to work successfully, beaker X should
contain -
1. sodium hydroxide.
2. copper sulfate.
3. hydrochloric acid.
4. carbon tetrachloride.
5. sodium chloride.


64. If this reaction is to work successfully, flask Y should con-
tain -
6. calcium sulfate.
7. calcium hydroxide.
8. zinc sulfate.
9. calcium carbonate.
10. calcium oxide.


65. The most common chemical test for the presence of carbon
dioxide makes use of -
1. sodium hydroxide.
2. hydrochloric acid.
3. ammonium hydroxide.
4. calcium sulfate.
5. calcium hydroxide.


66. The ends of the glass tubing, S and P -

6. are in correct position.
7. should be reversed in their respective positions.
8. should both be just above the liquid.
9. should both be near the top of the flask.
10. should both be in the liquid.


67. Which of the following substances should NOT be used
at Y?


1. limestone
2. coral
3. gypsum
4. chalk
5. marble


Go on to the next pa.j






Part D

Questions 68 and 69 are based on the equation for the prepara-
tion of oxygen by heating potassium chlorate. (Atomic weights:
K = 39, Cl = 35.5, 0 = 16.)


68. To balance the equation, the coefficient
chlorate is -


of the potassium


1. 1
2. 2
3. 3
4. 4
5. 5


69. To obtain 67.2 liters of oxygen, how many grams of potas-
sium chlorate will be required?
6. 74
7. 122.5
8. 200
9. 245
10. 367.5


Questions 70 and 71 are based on the equation for the preparation
of hydrogen using zinc and hydrochloric acid. (Atomic weights:
Zn = 65, H = 1, Cl = 35.5.)

70. What is the equation or reacting weight of zinc chloride?
1. 65
2. 100.5
3. 125
4. 136
5. 165.5


71. If 65 grams of zinc are used, how many grams of hydrogen
will be formed?
6. 1
7. 2
8. 4
9. 6
10. 8


72. What will be one of the ions in the ionic equation for
the formation of CuSO4?


1. Cu+
2. Cu++
3. SO3--
4. SO4-
5. S04---


T3. Which is the correct formula for aluminum oxide?
6. A1203
7. AlO
8. AaO02
9. AlsO1
10. A1205


N'


Anderson: Chem.-A
74. How many electrons will the iron lose when FeC12 is
changed to FeC1a?
1. 1
2. 2
3. 3
4. 4
5. 6



75. Which is the correct formula for silver bromide?
6. AgBr
7. Ag2Br
8. Ag2Br3O
9. Ag2 (Br)3
10. Ag3Br2


76. What is one of the products in the completely balanced
equation Na2SO3 + H2SO4 (dilute)--- ?
1. Na2S03
2. S03
3. Na2SO4
4. NaHS03
5. H2S



77. The electrolysis of water represents which one of the follow-
ing chemical changes?
6. synthesis
7. simple decomposition
8. simple replacement
9. double replacement
10. hydrolysis



78. Which is the correct formula for ammonium sulfate?


NH4S04
NH4SO3
NH4S
(NH4)2S04
(NH4)2S03


79. Which one of the following iron ores contains the greatest
percentage of iron? (Atomic weights: Fe = 56, 0 = 16,
C = 12, S = 32, H = 1.)
6. Fe203(H20)3
7. FeS2
8. FeCOs
9. Fe203
10. Fe0s4



80. Which is the correct formula for magnesium nitride?

1. MgN
2. MgaN2
3. Mg(NO2)2
4. Mg(NOa)2
5. Mg3N


Go back and check your answers.


[ 7.]






























t







I E ALU TO AN AD U TM N SERIES


GENERAL EDITOR WALTER N. DUROST, SCHOOL OF EDUCATION, BOSTON UNIVERSITY
COORDINATOR FOR SCIENCE TESTS: VICTOR H. NOLL, MICHIGAN STATE COLLEGE


ANDERSON CHEMISTRY TEST

vB KENNETH E. ANDERSON R
SCHOOL OF EDUCATION, UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS FORM




DIRECTIONS:
Do not open this booklet until you are told to do so.
This is a test of your knowledge of chemistry. For each question there are five possible answers. You
are to decide which answer is the best one. You may answer a question even when you are not perfectly sure
that your answer is correct, but you should avoid wild guessing. Do not spend too much time on any one
question.
Study the sample questions below, and notice how the answers are marked on the separate answer sheet.

Sample A. H20 is the formula for -
1. hydrogen.
2. carbon.
3. oxygen.
4. water.
5. salt.

For Sample A the answer, of course, is "water," which is answer 4. Now look at your answer sheet. At
the top of the page in the left-hand column is a box marked SAMPLES. In the five answer spaces after
Sample A, a heavy black mark has been made filling the space (the pair of dotted lines) marked 4.

Sample B. Which one of the following terms does not belong with the other four?
; 6. NaC1
7. H20
8. Fe
9. KOH
10. H2SO4

The correct answer for Sample B is "Fe," because "Fe" is an element while the other four are compounds.
"Fe" is answer 8, so you would answer Sample B by making a heavy black mark that fills the space under the
number 8. Do this now.
Read each question carefully and decide which one of the answers is best. Notice what number your choice
is. Then, on the separate answer sheet, make a heavy black mark in the space under that number. In marking
your answers, always be sure that the question number in the test booklet is the same as the question number on
the answer sheet. Erase completely any answer you wish to change, and be careful not to make stray marks of
any kind on your answer sheet or on your test booklet. When you finish a page, go on to the next page.
If you finish the entire test btforthe time is up, go back and check your answers. Work as rapidly and as
accurately as you can. '
When you are told to do so, open your booklet to page 2 and begin. The working time for this test is
40 minutes.



Issued 1952 by World Book Company, Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York, and Chicago, Illinois
Copyright 1950 by World Book Company. Copyright in Great Britain. All rights reserved
a


PRINTED IN U.S.A. AC: BM-2





Anderson: Chem.-B


Part A
1. All acids contain -
1. hydrogen ions.
2. oxygen.
3. a metal.
4. chlorine.
5. the carboxyl radical.


2. The chemical substance making up the cell wall of plants
is-
6. an acetate.
7. cellulose.
8. sugar.
9. a non-carbon compound.
10. similar to coal in composition.


3. When calcium acts on water, the gas given off is -
1. oxygen.
2. chlorine.
3. argon.
4. hydrogen.
5. ozone.


4. A property of hydrogen is that it is -
6. pale green.
7. very soluble in water.
8. heavier than air.
9. a monatomic gas.
10. lighter than air.


5. Hydrogen sulfide solution is a weak acid because it -
1. turns litmus red.
2. tastes sour.
3. forms relatively few hydrogen ions.
4. is a solution.
5. does not contain oxygen.


6. Dry ice is -
6. solid carbon.
7. solid carbon dioxide.
8. solid carbon monoxide.
9. anhydrous ice.
10. an isotope of water.


7. Sulfur dioxide is used in -
1. gas ranges.
2. gas mantles.
3. heating plants.
4. refrigerators.
5. gas lamps.


8. An example of a non-electrolyte is -
6. sugar.
7. hydrochloric acid.
8. sodium hydroxide.
9. sodium chloride.
10. sulfuric acid.


9. The most common halogen salt is -
1. calcium fluoride.
2. barium chloride.
3. sodium chloride.
4. ammonium chloride.
5. potassium iodide.


10. The decaying of fruit is an example of -
6. deoxidation.
7. chemical change.
8. physical change.
9. transmutation.
10. hydrogenation.


11. Water and kerosene are -
1. mutually soluble.
2. a tincture.
3. a "true solution."
4. immiscible.
5. miscible.


12. Soft water is desired for domestic purposes because -
6. it has a better taste.
7. it is pure.
8. it contains fewer bacteria.
9. it boils at a lower temperature.
10. it contains only small amounts oi dissolved salts.


13. The usual laboratory method of preparing hydrogen is by
using -
1. zinc and hydrochloric or sulfuric acid.
2. zinc and acetic acid.
3. water and sending an electric current through it.
4. sodium and hydrochloric acid.
5. calcium and sulfuric acid.


14. Limestone is essentially -
6. calcium oxide.
7. strontium carbonate.
8. calcium sulfate.
9. calcified chalk.
10. calcium carbonate.


15. A physical change occurs when -
1. water is electrolyzed.
2. wood is sandpapered.
3. wood burns.
4. sulfur dioxide unites with water.
5. food is digested.
.. s


16. If a quantity of blue-black smoke issues from the exhaust
pipe of a moving automobile, it means that -
6. no carbon monoxide is being formed.
7. the car has leaky valves.
8. a poor grade of oil is being used.
9. the carburetor is set too lean.
10. there is incomplete combustion in the cylinders.
[ 2 ] Go on to the next page.






17. The reaction between aluminum and hydrochloric acid rep-
resents -
1. synthesis.
2. double displacement.
3. analysis.
4. single (simple) displacement.
5. catalysis.


18. Sulfur dioxide is -
6. an acid.
7. a base.
8. a solid.
9. a salt.
10. an acid anhydride.


19. Substances which do NOT
solution are called -
1. electrolytes.
2. aqueous.
3. hydrates.
4. non-electrolytes.
5. isotopes.


20. Protons are -


break up into ions when in


6. the nucleus of the atom.
7. planetary electrons.
8. particles of positive electricity.
9. particles of negative electricity.
10. neutral.


21. Carborundum is -
1. a boron compound.
2. a colloid.
3. quartz.
4. a silicon compound.
5. diamond.


22. Oxygen is obtained commercially chiefly from -
6. potassium chlorate.
7. liquid air.
8. manganese dioxide.
9. mercuric oxide.
10. sodium hydroxide.


23. The adsorbing material in gas masks is -
1. activated charcoal.
2. calcium chloride.
3. sodium phenylate.
.4. copper sulfate.
5. precipitated chalk.


24. Aluminum resists corrosion chiefly because there is formed
on the surface a layer of -
6. aluminum oxide.
7. aluminum carbonate.
8. aluminum nitride.
9. aluminum sulfide.
10. aluminum sulfate.


Anderson: Chem.-B
25. Sour milk contains -
1. acetic acid.
2. citric acid.
3. lactic acid.
4. tartaric acid.
5. ethyl alcohol.



26. Carbon combines with oxygen to form -
6. peroxides.
7. hydroxides.
8. carbonides.
9. oxides.
10. carbides.



27. The best way of preparing a quantity of oxygen in the
laboratory is by heating -
1. potassium chlorate.
2. iron oxide.
3. hydrogen peroxide.
4. mercuric oxide.
5. water.



28. Hydrogen is used extensively in the production of -
6. solid fats.
7. salad oil.
8. gelatine.
9. ham.
10. olive oil.


29. What happens when zinc is heated in
training hydrogen?
1. An oxide is formed.
2. Water is formed.
3. The zinc gains in weight.
4. Monatomic hydrogen is formed.
5. Nothing happens.


a sealed tube con-


30. The mineral bauxite contains the metallic element -
6. sulfur.
7. nickel.
8. aluminum.
9. copper.
10. silver.



31. Fluorine can displace chlorine, bromine, and iodine from
their compounds; chlorine can displace bromine and iodine
from their compounds; and bromine can displace iodine
from its compounds. The foregoing statement is evidence
that of the four halogen acids -
1. HBr is the most stable.
2. HI is the least stable.
3. HF and HC1 are the least stable.
4. HBr and HI are the most stable.
5. All are equally stable.
] Go on to the next page.






32. The element found in proteins, but not in fats or carbohy-
drates, is -
6. nitrogen.
7. carbon.
8. hydrogen.
9. oxygen.
10. iron.




33. Silver nitrate is -
1. an acid.
2. a base.
3. a salt.
4. a hydride.
5. a mixture.


34. What form of sulfur is stable at room temperature?
6. prismatic
7. monoclinic
8. amorphous
9. rhombic
10. milk-sulfur


35. The electrolyte in a storage battery is -
1. nitric acid.
2. hydrochloric acid.
3. ammonium chloride.
4. sulfuric acid.
5. manganese dioxide.




36. Isotopes of an element have different -
6. numbers of external electrons.
7. atomic weights.
8. chemical properties.
9. symbols.
10. formulas.




37. The weight of one gram-molecular volume of acetylene,
CzH2, is -
1. 14 grams.
2. 25 grams.
3. 26 grams.
4. 28 grams.
5. 30 grams.


38. When a substance is reduced, it -


6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
5*: : (/-


always loses oxygen.
becomes an uncombined element.
loses electrons.
requires'hydrogen as a reducing agent.
gains electrons.


Anderson: Chem.-B
Part B
There are 7 sets of 2 questions each in this part of the test. The
first question in each set is an information question and the
second is a question on the chemical principle that best explains
the answer to the preceding question. In each case, on your
answer sheet, opposite the number of the question, make a heavy
black mark under the number of your answer.

39. Which one of the following compounds is non-existent?
1. CaO
2. S02
3. A120s
4. NeO
5. Mn02

40. Which one of the following statements gives the principle
that best explains the answer to question 39?
6. Atoms are inert chemically if the outer shell is com-
plete.
7. Some atoms are electrically neutral.
8. Oxygen has an affinity for nearly all other elements.
9. Incomplete outer shells make elements chemically
active.
10. Metals will unite with non-metals.

- - - - - - - - - - - -

41. Almost all explosives contain a compound of the element -
1. fluorine.
2. chlorine.
3. sulfur.
4. nitrogen.
5. hydrogen.

42. Which one of the following statements gives the principle
that best explains the answer to question 41?
6. A large volume of gas is necessary for an effective
explosion.
7. Relatively inactive elements are unstable when
combined with other elements.
8. Very rapid burning results in an explosion.
9. Compounds with high heats of formation are un-
stable.
10. Compounds with low heats of formation are stable.



43. The addition of manganese dioxide to potassium chlorate
with the application of heat will result in -
1. less oxygen per unit of time.
2. more oxygen per unit of time.
3. no change in the rate of production of oxygen.
4. the production of manganese chloride.
5. the production of potassium dioxide.

44. Which one of the following statements gives the principle
that best explains the answer to question 43?
6. Positive elements change pice&with negative ele-
ments in chemical reactions:'
7. Oxidation and reduction take place at the same
time.
8. A catalytic agent may or may not change the speed
of a chemical reaction.
9. Manganese dioxide furnishes oxygen in this and
other chemical reactions.
10. A catalytic agent may speed up or slow down a
chemical reaction.


[ 4 ]


Go on to the next page.






45. What is a chemical compound that has the following char-
acteristics: a gram-molecular weight of 98; a good dehy-
drating agent; a good oxidizing agent; and a high boiling
point?
1. sodium hydroxide
2. calcium chloride
3. plaster of Paris
4. sulfuric acid
5. hydrochloric acid



46. Which one of the following statements gives the principle
that best explains the answer to question 45?
6. Fractional distillation makes use of differences in
boiling points.
7. Substances that lose water are said to be efflores-
cent.
8. Each substance has a definite point above and below
which they absorb or lose water.
9. Some salts absorb water in the formation of crystals.
10. Substances have specific physical and chemical
properties by which they may be identified.


47. Which one of the following is the best conductor of elec-
tricity?
1. iron
2. silver
3. lead
4. nickel
5. tungsten



48. Which one of the following statements gives the principle
that best explains the answer to question 47?
6. Good conductors have low atomic weights.
7. Good conductors have low densities.
8. Good conductors hold their electrons loosely.
9. Good conductors are malleable.
10. Good conductors are ductile.


49. Precipitators are often placed in chimneys of factories to -
1. conserve fuel,
2. reduce fire hazards.
3. reduce smoke and recover metals.
4. increase the draft.
5. increase the heat output per ton of fuel.



50. Which one of the following statements gives the principle
that best explains the answer to question 49?
6. Finely divided particles burn rapidly.
7. Reduced pressure increases the flow of air.
8. Air reduction results in slower burning.
9. Colloidal particles carry electrical charges.
10. Forced drafts increase the supply of oxygen avail-
able for burning fuels.


Anderson: Chem.-B
51. Which one of the following organic compounds is probably
the most active?
1. CH4
2. C4H10
3. C2H6
4. C2H4
5. C2H2

52. Which one of the following statements gives the principle
that best explains the answer to question 51?
6. The greater the number of carbon atoms, the greater
the chemical activity.
7. The less the number of carbon atoms, the greater the
chemical activity.
8. Saturated hydrocarbons are very active chemically.
9. Unsaturated hydrocarbons are more active than sat-
urated hydrocarbons and the degree of activity is
proportional roughly to the degree of unsaturation.
10. Saturated hydrocarbons are chemically inactive.




Part C

Each of questions 53 through 58 consists of five terms, one of
which does NOT belong with the other four. You are to select
the term which does NOT belong. Mark its number in the
proper space on your answer sheet.

53. 1. cesium
2. krypton
3. helium
4. neon
5. argon

54. 6. silica
7. coal
8. graphite
9. lampblack
10. diamond

55. 1. malleable
2. tensile
3. lustrous
4. combustible
5. ductile

56. 6. bauxite
7. cuprite
8. hematite
9. diamond
10. quartz

57. 1. acetic acid
2. lactic acid
3. tartaric acid
4. nitric acid
5. citric acid


58. 6. bronze
7. brass
8. solder
9. nichrome
10. iron


Go on to the next page.






Questions 59 through 62 are based on the following table:
RESULTS OF THREE EXPERIMENT TO DETERMINE WHAT
FACTORS, IF ANY, AFFECT THE SOLUBILITY OF SOLIDS

EXPERI- KIND AND TEMPER- KIND AMOUNT OF
S AMOUNT OF ATURE OF PRESSURE OF SOLUTE
SOLVENT SOLVENT SOLUTE DISSOLVED

I 100 cc H20 20* C. 600 mm CuS04 22 grams
100 cc H20 60 C. 800 mm CuSO4 39 grams

II 100 cc H20 20* C. 700 mm CuSO4 22 grams
100 cc H20 20* C. 700 mm KC1 34 grams

III 100 cc H20 10* C. 700 mm Sulfur .1 gram
100 co CC14 10 C. 700 mm Sulfur 15 grams


Constant factors are those which are kept the same in an exper-
iment. Varied factors are those which are not kept the same
in an experiment. You are to assume that if a factor was found
NOT to affect the solubility of solids in any one experiment,
it would not do so in any other experiment. The number of
grams of solute dissolved in the given volume of solvent produced
saturation.

Read each question and study the table carefully. Decide which
answer is best and mark its number in the proper space on your
answer sheet.


59. What factor or combination of factors in Experiment III
produced the observed difference in the amount of solute
dissolved?
1. temperature of solvent
2. kind of solvent
3. kind of solute
4. pressure; temperature of solvent
5. kind of solute; pressure


60. What factor or combination of factors was varied in Experi-
ment II?
6. kind of solute
7. kind of solvent
8. temperature
9. temperature of solvent; pressure
10. kind of solvent; kind of solute


61. What factor or combination of factors was kept constant
in Experiment I?
1. kind of solute
2. temperature of solvent; pressure
3. kind of solvent; kind of solute
4. kind of solvent; pressure
5. kind of solvent; kind of solute; pressure


62. In these experiments, what factors definitely affect the
solubility of solids?
6. kind of solute; pressure
7. kind of solvent; temperature of solvent
8. pressure; kind of solvent
9. kind of solvent; kind of solute
10. temperature of solvent; pressure; kind of solute
[6


Anderson: Chem.-B
Questions 63 through 67 are based on the figure below. Study
the figure and read each question carefully. Then, on your
answer sheet, make a heavy black mark in the space under the
number of the best answer.


|Laft c


Right


63. The piece of apparatus marked V is called a -
1. funnel.
2. pneumatic trough.
3. thistle tube.
4. graduate.
5. U-tube.

64. The products of the chemical reaction to the left of X will
be -
6. hydrogen and zinc sulfate.
7. hydrogen and sulfur dioxide.
8. sulfur trioxide and zinc sulfate.
9. sulfur dioxide and zinc sulfate.
10. hydrogen sulfide and zinc sulfate.

65. The product of the chemical reaction to the right of X
will be -
1. carbon dioxide.
2. carbon monoxide.
3. hydrogen sulfide.
4. hydrogen.
5. water.

66. To be certain that the substance in beaker Y is a result of
the chemical reaction to the right of X, a substance must
be placed in the tube at X. The substance which would
do the job is -
6. glass wool.
7. calcium chloride.
8. aluminum sulfate. .,-
9. sodium chloride. --
10. water.

67. The glass-tube openings T and R should -
1. be reversed in their relative positions.
2. both be far above the liquid.
3. both be in the liquid.
4. remain as they are.
5. both be just above the liquid.
Go on to the next page.







Part D
Questions 68 and 69 are based on the equation for the prepara-
tion of oxygen by heating potassium chlorate. (Atomic weights:
K = 39, Cl = 85.5, 0 = 16.)

68. To balance the equation, the coefficient of the oxygen is -
1. 1
2. 2
3. 3
4. 4
5. 5

69. If 490 grams of potassium chlorate are used, how many
liters of oxygen will be obtained?
6. 22.4 liters
7. 44.8 liters
8. 67.2 liters
9. 89.6 liters
10. 134.4 liters

Questions 70 and 71 are based on the equation for the prepara-
tion of hydrogen using zinc and hydrochloric acid. (Atomic
weights: Zn = 65, H = 1, Cl = 35.5.)

70. If 65 grams of zinc are used, how many liters of hydrogen
will be formed?
1. 1
2. 2
3. 22.4
4. 44.4
5. 88.8


71. What is the
acid?
6. 35.5
7. 36.5
8. 70
9. 73
10. 146


equation or reacting weight of hydrochloric


72. When CuO is reduced to metallic copper, the copper gains
how many electrons?
1. 1
2. 2
3. 3
4. 4
5. 5

73. Which is the correct formula for aluminum hydroxide?
6. Al(OH)3
7. Al(OH)2
8. Al(OH)4
9. A12(OH)3
10. A13(OH)2 -"


Anderson: Chem.-B
74. Which is the correct formula for potassium sulfite?
1. KSO04
2. KSO4
3. K2(S04)2
4. K2S
5. K2SOa


75. What is one of the products in the completely balanced
equation CaC2 + H20 ? ?
6. C2H5OH
7. CO2
8. C2H2
9. H2
10. H202


76. Which is the correct formula for barium nitrate?
1. Ba2N03
2. BaNOs
3. Ba(N03)2
4. Ba(N02)2
5. BaN02


77. Which is the correct formula for normal calcium phosphate?
6. Ca3(P04)z
7. Ca2(PO4)3
8. CaP04
9. Ca4(P03)2
10. Ca(P04)2


78. The equation Fe + S --- FeS represents which one of
the following chemical changes?
1. synthesis
2. analysis
3. simple replacement
4. double replacement
5. catalysis


79. What will be one of the ions in the ionic equation for
Ca(OH)2?
6. Ca+
7. CaO+
8. OH-
9. OH--
10. Ca+++


80. Which one of the following contains the greatest percent-
age of oxygen by weight? (Atomic weights: K = 39,
Cl = 35.5, Na = 23, O = 16, Ca = 40, Hg = 200.)
1. KCOa3
2. NaC103
3. CaC103
4. CaO
5. HgO


Go back and check your answers.


[71





3
a































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~
1
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i







OTIS SELADMIINISTERING TESTS OF MENTAL ABILITY
By -AnTKa S. OnT
Fomr Dedo~ment Spedialit with advisory Board, General Staf, United States War Deprtment

HIGHER EXAMINATION: FORM A
20 For High Schools and Colleges Score.7,.........


?ead this page. Do what it tells you to do.
Do not open this paper, or turn it over, until you are told to do so. Fill these blanks, giving your
name, age, birthday, etc. Write plainly.

Name........... ......... ..... .........................Age last birthday......years
First name, initial, and last name

Birthday.................... ........ Class ..... ......... Date.............. ..19..
Month Day
School or College.................................City...........................


This is a test to see how well you can think. It contains questions of different kinds. Here is a
sample question already answered correctly. Notice how the question is answered:

Which one of the five words below tells what an apple is?
I flower, 2 tree, 3 vegetable, 4 fruit, 5 animal.......................( 4 )

The right answer, of course, is "fruit"; so the word "fruit" is underlined. And the word "fruit"
is No. 4; so a figure 4 is placed in the parentheses at the end of the dotted line. This is the way you
are to answer the questions.
Try this sample question yourself. Do not write the answer; just draw a line under it and then
put its number in the parentheses:
Which one of the five words below means the opposite of north?
I pole, 2 equator, 3 south, 4 east, 5 west.........................( )

The answer, of course, is "south"; so you should have drawn a line under the word "south" and
put a figure 3 in the parentheses. Try this one:
A foot is to a man and a paw is to a cat the same as a hoof is to a what?
I dog, 2 horse, 3 shoe, 4 blacksmith, 5 saddle......................( )

The answer, of course, is "horse"; so you should have drawn a line under the word "horse" and
put a figure 2 in the parentheses. Try this one.:

At four cents each, how many cents will 6 pencils cost?.............................. ( )
The answer, of course, is 24, and there is nothing to underline; so just put the 24 in the parentheses.
If the answer to any question is a number or a letter, put the number or letter in the parentheses
without underlining anything. Make all letters like printed capitals.
The test contains 75 questions. You are not expected to be able to answer all of them, but do the
best you can. You will,be allowed half an hour after the examiner tells you to begin. Try to
get as many right as possible. Becareful not to go so fast that you make mistakes. Do not spend
too much time on any one question: No questions about the test will be answered by the examiner
after the test begins. Lay your pencil down:
Do not turn this page until you are told to begin.

Published by World Book Company, Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York, and 2126 Prairie Avenue, Chicago
Copyright 1922 by World Book Company. Copyright renewed 195o. Copyright in Great Britain
:: All rights reserd. PRInED IN U.S.A. OSATMA: HE: A-86
ii" This test is copyrighted. The reproduction of any part of it by mimeograph, hectograph, or in any other
way, whether the reproductions are sold or are furnished free for use, is a violation of the copyright law.








S.A. Higher :A
EXAMINATION BEGINS HERE:
z. The opposite of hate is (?)
i enemy, 2 fear, 3 love, 4 friend, 5 joy...................................... ( )
2. If 3 pencils cost 5 cents, how many pencils can be bought for 5o cents?...................( )
3. A bird does not always have (?)
Swings, 2 eyes, 3 feet, 4 a nest, 5 a bill.................................... ( )
4. The opposite of honor is (?)
i glory, 2 disgrace, 3 cowardice, 4 fear, 5 defeat............................ ( )
5. A fox most resembles a (?)
I wolf, 2 goat, 3 pig, 4 tiger, 5 cat.................. ........................ ( )
6. Quiet is related to sound in the same way that darkness is related to (?)
i a cellar, 2 sunlight, 3 noise, 4 stillness, 5 loud................................ ( )
7. A party consisted of a man and his wife, his two sons and their wives, and four children in
each son's family. How many were there in the party?..................................( )
8. A tree always has (?)
i leaves, 2 fruit, 3 buds, 4 roots, 5 a shadow ................................. ( )
9. The opposite of economical is (?)
i cheap, 2 stingy, 3 extravagant, 4 value, 5 rich............................... ( )
zo. Silver is more costly than iron because it is (?)
i heavier, 2 scarcer, 3 whiter, 4 harder, 5 prettier............................. ( )
zz. Which one of the six statements below tells the meaning of the following proverb? "The early
bird catches the worm."......................... ................... ............... ( )
1. Don't do the impossible.
2. Weeping is bad for the eyes.
3. Don't worry over troubles before they come.
4. Early birds like worms best.
5. Prompt persons often secure advantages over tardy ones.
6. It is foolish to fret about things we can't help.
12. Which statement above tells the meaning of this proverb? "Don't cry over spilt milk.".... ( )
13. Which statement above explains this proverb? "Don't cross a bridge till you get to it.".... ( )
14. An electric light is related to a candle as an automobile is to (?)
x a carriage, 2 electricity, 3 a tire, 4 speed, 5 glow ............................ ( )
z5. If a boy can run at the rate of 6 feet in I of a second, how many feet can he run in xo seconds? ( )
x6. A meal always involves (?)
x a table, 2 dishes, 3 hunger, 4 food, 5 water................................. ( )
17. Of the five words below, four are alike in a certain way. Which is the one not like these four?
x bend, 2 shave, 3 chop, 4 whittle, 5 shear.................................... ( )
z8. The opposite of never is (?)
r often, 2 sometimes, 3 occasionally, 4 always, 5 frequently .................... ( )
19. A clock is related to time as a thermometer is to (?)
i a watch, 2 warm, 3 a bulb, 4 mercury, 5 temperature........................ ( )
20. Which word makes the truest sentence? Men are (?) shorter than their wives.
x always, 2 usually, 3 much, 4 rarely, 5 never............................... ( )
2a. One number is wrong in the following series. What should that number be?
S 4 2 5 3 6 4 7 5 9 6 9 ............................................ ( )
22. If the first two statements following are true, the third is (?) All members of this club are
Republicans. Smith is not a Republican. Smith is a member of this club.
x true, 2 false, 3 not certain.................... ............ ...... ..... ... )
23. A contest always has (?)
I an umpire, 2 opponents, 3 spectators, 4 applause, 5 victory................... ( )
24. Which number in this series appears a second time nearest the beginning?
6 4 5 3 7 8 o 9 5 9 8 8 6 5 4 7 3 8 9 1................. ( )
25. The moon is related to the earth as the earth is to (?)
I Mars, 2 the sun, 3 clouds, 4 stars, 5 the universe............................. )
26. Which word makes the truest sentence? Fathers are (?) wiser than their sons.
I always, 2 usually, 3 much, 4 rarely, 5 never....... ........................ ( )
[21








27. The opposite of awkward is (?) s
i strong, 2 pretty, 3 short, 4 graceful, 5 swift................................
28. A mother is always (?) than her daughter.
i wiser, 2 taller, 3 stouter, 4 older, 5 more wrinkled...........................
29. Which one of the six statements below tells the meaning of the following proverb? "The,
burnt child dreads the fire."........... ............... .............................
x. Frivolity flourishes when authority is absent.
2. Unhappy experiences teach us to be careful.
3. A thing must be tried before we know its value.
4. A meal is judged by the dessert.
5. Small animals never play in the presence of large ones.
6. Children suffer more from heat than grown people.
30. Which statement above explains this proverb? "When the cat is away, the mice will play."
31. Which statement above explains this proverb? "The proof of the pudding is in the eating."
32. If the settlement of a difference is made by mutual concession, it is called a (?)
I promise, 2 compromise, 3 injunction, 4 coercion, 5 restoration.................
33. What is related to disease as carefulness is to accident?
i doctor, 2 surgery, 3 medicine, 4 hospital, 5 sanitation............ ...........
34. Of the five things below, four are alike in a certain way. Which is the one not like these four?
i smuggle, 2 steal, 3 bribe, 4 cheat, 5 sell.....................................
35. If io boxes full of apples weigh 400 pounds, and each box when empty weighs 4 pounds, how
many pounds do all the apples weigh?................................................
36. The opposite of hope is (?)
I faith, 2 misery, 3 sorrow, 4 despair, 5 hate..................................
37. If all the odd-numbered letters in the alphabet were crossed out, what would be the tenth
letter not crossed out? Print it. Do not mark the alphabet.
ABCDE F GHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ............... .......
38. What letter in the word SUPERFLUOUS is the same number in the word (counting from the
beginning) as it is in the alphabet? Print it.................... .................
39. What people say about a person constitutes his (?)
i character, 2 gossip, 3 reputation, 4 disposition, 5 personality.. .............
40. If 21'yards of\cloth cost 30 cents, how many cents will io yards cost?............ ........
41. If the words below were arranged to make a good sentence, with what letter would the second
word of the sentence begin? Make it like a printed capital.
same means big large the as..............................................
42. If the first two statements following are true, the third is (?) George is older than Frank.
James is older than George. Frank is younger than James.
i true, 2 false, 3 not certain..................................................
43. Suppose the first and second letters in the word CONSTITUTIONAL were interchanged, also the
third and fourth letters, the fifth and sixth, etc; Print the letter that would then be the twelfth
letter counting to'the right................... ..................... ...........
44. One number is wrong in the following series. What should that number be?
o i 3 6 o1 15 21 28 34................................... ...........
45. If 4J yards of cloth cost go cents, how many cents will 24 yards cost?...................
46. A man's influence in a community should depend upon his (?)
i wealth, 2 dignity, 3 wisdom, 4 ambition, 5 political power ........................
47. What is related to few as ordinary is to exceptional?
I none, 2 some, 3 many, 4 less, 5 more..... ..............................
48. The opposite of treacherous is (?)
z friendly, 2 brave, 3 wise, 4 cowardly, 5 loyal..........................
49. Which one of the five words below is most unlike the other four?
i good, 2 large, 33 red, 4 walk, 5 thick ....................................
50. If the first two statements following are true, the third is (?) Some of Brown's friends are
Baptists. Some of Brown's friends are dentists. Some of Brown's friends are Baptist dentists.
I true, 2 false, 3 not certain.. ............................ ....................
51. How many of the following words can be made from the letters in the word LARGEST, using
any letter any number of times?
great, stagger, grasses, trestle, struggle, rattle, garage, strangle ............
52. The statement that the moon is made of green cheese is (?)
I absurd, 2 misleading, 3 improbable, 4 unfair, 5 wicked...................
[31 Do not stop. Go on with the nx page.
13


tighe :A
( ) '


'4.," *'







S.A. Higher :A
53. Of the five things following, four are alike in a certain way. Which is the one not like these four?
I tar, 2 snow, 3 soot, 4 ebony, 5 coal........................................ ( )
54. What is related to a cube in the same way in which a circle is related to a square?
i circumference, 2 sphere, 3 covers, 4 solid, 5 thickness........................ (
55. If the following words were seen on a wall by looking in a mirror on an opposite wall, which
word would appear exactly the same as if seen directly?
I omo,, 2 SAW, 3 {OON, 4 MOTOR, 5 OTTO...................................... ( )
56. If a strip of cloth 24 inches long will shrink to 22 inches when washed, how many inches long
will a 36-inch strip be after shrinking?......... ...................................... ( )
57. Which of.the following is a trait of character?
i personality, 2 esteem, 3 love, 4 generosity, 5 health ............... .......... ( )
58.. Find the two letters in the word DOING which have just as many letters between them in the
word as in the alphabet. Print the one of these letters that comes first in the alphabet.
ABCDEFGHIJ'KLMNOPQ RST UVWXYZ............. ........ ( )
59. Revolution is related to evolution as flying is to (?)
z birds, 2 whirling, 3 walking, 4 wings, 5 standing............................ ( )
6o. One number is wrong in the following series. What should that number be?
I 3 9 27 81 Io8............................ .......................... ... ( )
61. If Frank can ride a bicycle 30 feet while George runs 20 feet, how many feet can Frank ride
while George runs 30 feet?. ..................... .............. .................( )
62. Count each N in this series that is followed by an O next to it if the O is not followed by a T
next to it. Tell how many N's you count.
NONTQMNOTMONOONQMNNOQNOTONAMONOM.......( )
63. A man who is averse to change and progress is said to be (?)
i democratic, 2 radical, 3 conservative, 4 anarchistic, 5 liberal................... ( )
64. Print the letter which is the fourth letter to the left of the letter which is midway between O
and S in the alphabet ......................................... .......... ........... ( )
65. What number is'in the space which is in the rectangle and in the triangle but not in the circle? ( )


23, 4


S 8 \ 7 5





66. What number is in the same geometrical figure or figures as the number 8? .............. ( )
67. How many spaces are there that are in any two but only two geometrical figures? ..........( )
68. A surface is related to a line as a line is to (?)
I solid, 2 plane, 3 curve, 4 point, 5 stripg.. ................................. ( )
69. If the first two statements following are true, the third is (?) One cannot become a good vio-
linist without much practice. Charles practices much on the violin. Charles will become
a good violinist.
i true, 2 false, 3 not certain.................................................. (
70o. If the words below were arranged to make the best sentence, with what letter would the last
word of the sentence end? Print the letter as a capital.
sincerity traits courtesy character of desirable. and are......... ...........( )
71. A man who is influenced in making a decision by preconceived opinions is said to be (?)
i influential, 2 prejudiced, 3 hypocritical, 4 decisive, 5 impartial.. .......... ( )
72. A hotel serves a mixture of 2 parts cream and 3 parts milk. How many pints of cream ill it .
take to make i5 pints of the mixture?................. .............................( )
73. What is related to blood as physics is to motion?
i temperature, 2 veins, 3 body, 4 physiology, 5 geography .................... ( )
74. A statement the meaning of which is not definite is said to be (?)
I erroneous, 2 doubtful, 3 ambiguous, 4 distorted, 5 hypothetical............... ( )
75. If a wire 20 inches long is to be cut so that one piece is I as long as the other piece, how many
inches long must the shorter piece be?.............................................( )
[41


* .i* > : I. ''j







STANFORD ACHI

By TRUMAN L. KELLEY, GILES M.


ADVANCED BATTE

FORM


EVEMENT TEST

RUCH, and LEWIS M. TERMAN


Adv.
RY-COMPLETE Comp.

H H I
'*'
*
'~ *^


Name............ ........ ... ............... .......... ... .Age ........ Grade........

Boy or girl........ ... Name of school.......................................


City............................ State................


.....D ate.............. ......


.9 -


Published 1943 by World Book Company, Yonker-on-Hudson, Ne York, and Chicago, Illinois
Copyright 1940 by World Book Company. Copyright in Great Britain. All rights reserved. sAT:AD. ooMN.:S-3
PiMTD i U.S.A.
W B This test is copyright. The reprodctionof any part of it by mimeograph, hectograph. or inoayother
waxy, whether the reproducions are sold or are furnished free for use, is a violation of the copyright law.

,ij:: .. i:.'~:-. 9.: ;


I


.9

9-i



-.9




Z~iltion


AGE GRADE
TEST SCORE EQUIVA- EQUIVA-
LENT LENT
1. Paragraph Meaning
2. Word Meaning
Average Reading
-. Language Usage_
4. Arithmetic Reasoning.
5. Arithmetic Computation
Average Arithaetie
6. Literature
7. Social Studis: I
8. Social Studies: II
Average Social Studies
9. Elementary Sciense
10. Spelling _
Total (Average)







F/


r
.


I


READING LANGJARITHMETILITERSOCIALSTUDI E LEM SPELL SCORE IAGE GPADE
Par.mean. WiQTeanUSAGEReaso Comp. TURE I -II SCIENCE ING -10 EQUIVl EQUIV


100


95-


90:


85


80


75-


70


65


60 -


55-


50-


45 -


40


35


30-


25 -


20


- I






-













-


-



- 1

- -




- -

- -


- -

j--


r -I











Ii












/


Age and grade equivalents above this point are extrapolated values.

w- This Profile Chart is a table of norms for the Intermediate and Advanced Examinations.
Comments:


-100


- 95


- 90


85


s80


- 75


- 70


-65


- 60


- 55


50
r

- 45


- 40


- 35,


- 30


- 25


- 20


-103
-10






74
-72








- 75
- M
-4A





- 43
62
&0




451







-.8
- &7






3A
-47




-344
-43
42:


3.7
3.6
.35
-34

3LI


32A

3.6


'4


S-: -. -- 1'

PRMiLE CHART: STANFORD ACHIEVEMENT TEST, INTERMEDIATE AND ADVAB BAT ERIES COMPLETE

I Test 1 ITest 2 I'Ist3 Test4 ITest5 ITest6 |Test,7 ITest8 ITest9 ITestO8 POTAL I NORMS -


0 4)

Z1


2


,


5-0
15-7
-15-4
-15-0 *-
- 14-9
14-6
--14-3
-14-0
- 13-9
13-6
13-3
-13-1
-12-10
12-8
12-5
12-2
-12-0
11-10
11-7
11-5
11-3
- l-llt ,
- 10-11
10-10
10-8
- 10-6
10-5
10-3
10-2
-10-0
9-11
9-9
9-8
9-7
9-6
9-5
9-3
9-2
9-1
9-0
8-11
8-9
8-8
8-7
8-6
&-5
8-4
8-3
8-3
8-2
8-1
8-0
7-11
7-10
7-9
7-8
7-7
7-6





I


DIRECTIONS. In the paragraphs below, each number shows where a word:
each paragraph carefully, and wherever there is a number decide what
Then write the missing word in the answer column at the right, as shove
JUST ONE WORD on each line. Be sure to write each answer on th
number as the number of the missing word in the paragraph.
SAMPLE.,
A-B Dick and Tom were playing ball in the field. Dick was throwing
Sthe -A- and -B- was trying to catch it.


S1--s All the animals in the world can be divided into two great classes:
those that have backbones and those that do not. The former are
called vertebrates; the latter, invertebrates. There are great differ-
ences between a fish, a cow, and a sparrow, and yet they all have one
thing in common, a backbone; so they are all known as -1-. On
Sthe other hand, it is hard to think of anything less alike than a bee,
an oyster, and a worm, and yet they all belong to the -2- class, since
none of them has a -s-.

4-5- Do you know what the Diet of Worms was? It was not what
the English words might suggest. The word "diet" in this sense is
from the Latin word for "day" and means a general assembly or
meeting of the representative body of the government set for a particu-
lar day. One of the most important of such -4- was held in the city
of Worms on the Rhine around 1520. Because of its location, the
meeting was known as the -5- of -6-.

7--9 Naturalization is the process by which a person becomes a citizen
of a nation other than his native one. Because only citizens may
vote in the United States, a resident of this country who was -7-
elsewhere must be -8- in order to become a -9-.

0-11-12 A homonym is a word having the same pronunciation as another
but differing from it in meaning, origin, and often in spelling. A
synonym is a word that has the same essential meaning as another
word but differs from it in spelling and pronunciation. Antonyms
are words that have opposite meanings. For example, fast and swift
are -10-, high and low are -11-, and bare and bear are -12-.

134-1-5 In the 1840's and 1850's, slavery was the leading question of
the day. To keep the balance between the free states of the North
and the slave states of the South, states were often admitted in pairs,
one slave and one free. The South was very much interested in bring-
ing about the extension of our territory to include the southwestern
lands gained by the war with Mexico. Southern statesmen wished to
have these new territories become -13- states, while the -14-, on
the other hand, worked to keep them -15-.
Go right on to the next page.


has been left out. Read
word has been left out.
vn in the sample. Write
e line that has the same

Answer
A--______.- -------


1------------------


3-------------------



4------------------

5-----------------

6-----------------



7-,-----------------



19-----------------
10------------------

11-----------------

12-




13----------------

14---- -----

15-----------------


4 Ir
tan.Rev.Adv.: Forma- TEST 1. READING: PARAGRMAPH MEANINd 3 3


__ __ __I__~ jil^ I _












Ii

I'1


23-24-25 Militate, mitigate, and instigate are three words that sound
somewhat alike, but whose meanings are quite different. Militate
means to have large weight or effect. Mitigate means to make less
severe. Instigate means to'incite or set going. Thus we would say 2:
that a man's grief at losing his fortune was -23- by the love and de-
votion of his friends; that agitators sometimes -24- a riot; and that 2'
a man's careless use of English often ---- against his getting a good
job. 2

26-27 Artificial languages have been made up to promote communica-
tion among the people of all nations. Many such -26- have been
devised, the best known of modern times being Esperanto. It was
invented in 1887 by Zamenohof, a Pole, and quickly became the lead- 2(
ing system, claiming to establish easy communication between persons
of -27- native speech. 27

28-29 In gardening, annuals are plants that last for only one growing ,
season, while perennials bloom year after year. Jane is quite-con-
servative, and has planned her garden just the way she wishes to
keep it. Ann, however, loves to go to the nursery to buy new plants. 2,
In Ann's garden we might expect to find mostly -28-, but Jane prob-
ably planted more -29-. 2.


16-17 Attainment commonly refers to the higher intellectual acquire-
ments; accomplishment, to the acquired graces of social custom.
Thus of one man it is said that his scientific -16- were beyond those
of his associates and dancing was one of his best --17-.

18 The words antecedent" and preceding both refer to time be-
fore a given event. They differ in that the latter applies to that
which goes immediately before, while an indefinite past interval is
suggested by the word -18-."

1e-20 The two basic methods of wage payment are the time-rate method
and the piece-rate method. Time rates mean paying the workman a
specified amount per hour, or per day, regardless of his output. Under
the piece-rate system, the worker is paid a specified amount per piece
of work completed. The fast worker earns more than the beginner
under the -19--rate method, but under the -20o--rate method the
employer benefits from the fast worker's production.

21-22 Rubber is used in many ways. Coats, erasers, combs, and balls
are examples of its use. Of these, we may say that rubber is used for
-21- chiefly because it is waterproof and for -22- because it is
elastic.


i---------_______.
)---------------------A



5------------------------
-
i


_ ..


'-- - -





S----------------
_---------
9_,,,,,,_,


Go right on to the next page.

S* A.: ,


I' Z


16 -----------_----

17-------------

17_ 7






211



22_
19-------------.-_
,




21------------------
202- - -

21____s___ ~


I''


*'TMST1.1. -READfNG;: PAU0kAKN 'IMEAING (Ctont'de"--


~al.:u.l.,.





stf.' nev.~v.FForni TEST 1. Rl


LEADING: PARAGRAPH MEANING


-31 Hercules, one of the heroes of the early Greeks, was noted far and
wide for his great strength, by which he was able to accomplish many
difficult and dangerous deeds. ,So it is that we have come to apply
the descriptive term "HIerculean" to the -so- of tasks requiring
great -31-.
32-3 The attitude of Americans toward immigration has changed in
recent years. When our population was small and resources seemed
inexhaustible, immigrants were welcomed to this country. With
the passing of the frontier and the scarcity of employment, further
-r32- of population did not seem desirable, and consequently the
barriers to -33- were created.
34-3-36 Objects which are adjacent lie close to each other, but not
necessarily in actual contact, as adjacent fields. They are adjoining
when they meet at a line or a point of junction. Contiguous properly
applies to objects that touch along a considerable part. Thus, -34-
and -35- are most nearly synonymous, because both refer to objects
which -36- each other.
37-38 The Phoenicians invented a superior system of writing. They
borrowed a few pictures from the Egyptians and some of the wedge-
shaped characters of the Sumerians, but the new alphabet was almost
entirely original. Eventually this alphabet was carried to Greece and
Italy, where the figures were somewhat modified and later were taught
to the barbarians of western Europe. Those barbarians were the
ancestors of most Europeans and Americans, and that is why our -37-
is of -38- origin rather than like the picture writing and wedge-shaped
characters of earlier times.
39-0 We speak of a herd of cattle, a drove of horses, a flock of sheep, a
covey of partridges, a bevy of quail, a pack of wolves, a colony of prairie
dogs, a school of fish, a swarm of bees, or an army of ants. Possibly
the term -39- is used in connection with -40- because they devastate
food and property.
41--43 Encomiums are bestowed upon any great work or production
of genius without reference to the performer. We bestow eulogies on
the exploits of a hero. Panegyrics are given either in direct address
or direct reference to the person panegyrized. The -41- springs
from admiration of an individual's accomplishments. The -42- may
arise from sincere admiratio ior may be mere flattery resulting from
servile dependence. The -43- is evoked by the merit of a work.
S4-45The term "beg the question as used by logicians means to
assume the truth of something in question. In a debate, if one
advances as -44- an assumption that has -45- been demonstrated,
that is called begging the question.


31_- - -




32_

33_--- ---_____ -_


34________________

35_- - -
35-----------------









37------------------

38-----------------









41-

42----------------

43-------------- --


44----------------

45----------------


End of Test 1. Look. 6ver your work.
I NuiMBBsEmU rr 0 I 2 ]3 415 6 7 8 10I 111 4 15 16171819 20 21 22 23 2 2526 2728 2 O 32 33 34 36 37 38 3 40 41 4243 44
\Eqedce U\ If 4I A f53 41556 .g666576697871 73 74 75 76 7879 5 1 A 84 7 A 8 N Ji l ..


(Cont'd)


__


., .




. .- ., 7 r% 1

6 TEST 2. FEADING: : WORD MEANING Sta-Rev. Adv.: PormH

DIRECTIONS. In each exercise one of the five numbered words will complete the sentence
correctly. Note the number of this word. Then mark the answer space at
the right which is numbered the same ap the word you have selected.
SAMPLES.
.' 1 2 3 4 5
AA rose is a 1 box 2 flower 3 home 4 month 5 river ................... A
6 7 8 9 10
B A roof is found on a 6 book 7 person 8 rock 9 house 10 word ......... .
1 2 3 4 5
c Bread is something to 1 catch 2 drink 3 throw 4 wear 5 eat......... c
S1 2 3 4 5,
To replace is to 1 accompany 2 avoid 3 restore 4 excuse 5 witness......1
6 7 8 9 10
vil things are 6 good 7 new 8 fine 9 dear 10 bad ............ ..... .. 2
1 2 3 4 5
3 Senior means 1 popular 2 elder 3 dirty 4 polite 5 disgraced.......... 3
6 7 8 9 10
4 To be coarse is to be 6 rough 7 brief 8 eager 9 lazy 10 false..... ..... .
S 1 2 3 4 5
5 A disagreement is a 1 loan 2 misunderstanding 3 motto 4 penance 5 narrative 5
6 7 8 9 10
SA hurricane is a 6 tempest 7 drawer 8 girdle 9 fee 10 warrant.......... ~
S- 1 2 3 4 6 5
7 Harsh means 1 stern 2 sober 3 dull 4 lively 5 steady......... .... .. ..
I 1 6 7 8 9 10
S8A butler is a 6 passenger 7 priest 8 warrior 9 domestic 10 robber......s i
S1 2 3 4 6
S9To thrust means to- 1 track' 2 push 3 chase 4 harvest 5 whisper .......... s

I "


6
0o Defenseless means 6 shaggy 7 handy. 8 degenerate 9 giddy 10 unarmed 10to

Su An ordinance is 1 battle 2 law 3 journey 4 nation 5 ship............11 1

12 To ascend is to 6 agree 7 climb 8 invite 9 permit 10 consent......... 12.
1
1 Politeness suggests 1 refinement 2 indulgence 3 diligence 4 fuss 5 impulse 13
6
14 To appreciate is to 6 scorn 7 shield 8 esteem 9 trifle 10 recall.. 1...... 4

1 Grim means- 1 lively 2 costly 3 modest 4 stern 5 gracious............ 15
6
S16 Exhaustion is great 6 sincerity 7 meekness 8 fatigue '9 caution 10 bitterness 16 i

17 A clamor is a kind of 1 sight 2 ship 3 article 4 sound 5 taste .. ... 17
6
isA peril is a- 6 prize 7 scene 8 quarrel 9 danger 10virtue ..............is j
1
9 Conventional means 1 urgent 2 trivial 3 vague 4 intense 5 customary', 19
S6
20 To procure is to 6 permit 7 approve 8 obtain 9 preserve 10 correct.. 2Q0

21Meek means- 1 active 2 ordinary 3 cunning 4 humble 5 meat..........21

22 Attainment is 6 accomplishment 7 refinement 8 resistance 9 initial 10 succor 22
1 1
m To induce is to 1 offend 2 esteem 3 persuade 4 expose 5 oppose...... 2
S' Go right on to the next page.

4- ,. 4.


7 8 9 10




7 8 9 10

2 3 4 5

7 8 9 J0Q

2 3 4 5

7 8 9

2 3 4

7 8 9 1*

2 3 4 fH
2 34

7 8 9

2 3 4;

7 8 9

2 3 4





fAar.i,.; bt TEST 2.- READING: WORP MEANING (Cont'd) 1

6 7 6 9 10
To compromise is to 6 loiter 7.loosen 8 adjust 9 unlock 10 wield.. .2.
1 2 3 4 5
To loathe is to- 1 flatter 2 burden 3 relate 4 despise 5 display........ .25 i. ;: ;
6 7 8 9 10
Undaunted means 6 harmless 7 fearless ,8 envious 9 righteous 10 perilous 26 I ."
1 2 3 4 5 -
To heed is to 1 prove 2 hurry 3 escape 4 reply 5 notice ............. _27 :. ;:
S' 6 7 8 9 10
Commotion means 6 restraint 7 stillness 8 conceit 9 tumult 10 pretense 2 .
1 2 3 4 6
To reside is to 1 repair 2 deceive 3 desert 4 avoid 5 dwell ............ 29 :.
6 7 8 9 10
Tremulous means 6 grasping 7 quivering 8 imitating 9 stumbling 10 torturing 30
2 3 4 5
To deface is to 1 mar 2 lure 3 refresh 4 endow 5 cherish .............. 3,! "
6 7 8 9 10
SorCery is a kind of- 6 masquerade 7 rubbish 8 witchcraft 9 nuptial 10 opium a 32.
1 2 3 4 5
Jubilant means- 1 honest 2 patient 3 unhappy 4 valuable 5 joyous. asI 3 :
6 7 8 10
A legacy is an- 6 edifice 7 objection 8 inheritance 9 instinct 10 admission 34
1 2 3 4 a
External means 1 undone 2 unequal 3 vertical 4 thrifty 5 outer ....... as,
S6. 7 8 9 10
To lure is to- 6 wrench 7 replace 8 hover 9 entice 10 ruffle...........2. 3 : :
1 2 3 4 6
Iirth means 1 cunning 2 hunger 3 rage 4 despair 5 laughter ...... ..... 3

7,
6 7 8 9 10
To affirm is to 6 delay 7 declare 8 await 9 excuse 10 proceed........ s i :i
1 2 3 4 5
Atidacity means- 1 boldness 2 enmity remorse 4 treachery 5 sincerity. .so9 i
6 7 8 9 10
Aromatic means- 6 sour 7 duty 8 fragrant 9 rustic 10 visible.......... 40. : 2

heen refers to 1 brightness 2 stillness 3 tenderness 4 wickedness 5 idleness 41
6 7 S 9 10
Assertivemeans 6 bashful 7 vicious 8 adiewd 9 petty 10 positive ...... 42
1 2 3 4 6
elaborate means great- 1 bulk 2 contrast Scontempt 4 detail 5 horror.. a :
6 7 & 9 10
A malady is an 6 inquiry 7 llness 8 alliance 9 extract 10 oracle...... 44
1 2 3 4 5
To impair is to 1 damage 2 serape 2 omnmend 4 mingle 5 brand ......46 :
S6 9 10
trustee is an- 6 admirer 7 astronomer 8 archer 9 economist 10 executor 4 .
1 2 3 4 5
o renounce is to 1 abandon '2 resume impose 4 startle 5 resemble. .. .::
6 7 8 9 10
oncise means 6 chaste 7 difA~e 8 compact 9 profound 10 extensive ...4s : ;.
I 2 3 4 5
et means- 1 parallel 2 permanent 3 perpetual 4 confined 5 clad..... .49: ; :
6 7 8 9 10
laud means to- 6 levy 7 extol 8 gasp 9 lengthen 10 recollect ........ i so: :
End of Test 2. Look over your work.

S 23 4 5 6 7 9 10 121354135o 17 1( 8119 20W 9 2 r 2l 24 25 26 72 28 29 132331341353637 38 39140142 423 4445 46 4748 49 O0
eeds s 46 54416 155i258 ag565 5a5 68|ip l M l Ma 6 0112 ll 1 4 75F 6 n WT 7 I 1 A aI ag g |7 a S9W go 91









S
"^

I,:


1

1

1

1

1

1

S1

2

2

g.

'\ '

(


TEST 3. LANGUAGE USAGE Sian. Rev. Adv.: F

)IRECTIONS. Study the samples below carefully. 25 Is this I they're h e..............
1 h u they're lu . . 5
2 their
SAMPLES 3
.1. 2 26 Tom and Jane 3 comes here often...... 26ii
26 A a 1 is i ::4 come
^ Apples 2 r good.......................A 4 come
"3" 4 27 She was the 5 gratefulest of all 2
He told 6 most grateful. .........
4 telled me ......................B: 1
M28 He is neither rich 1 nr poor............2
2 or ...........
1 2 3
1 She asbeen in this club since July 29 You can find flowers 3 anlaee you look an9
as een 1 .
3 4 5
Shelooked a utiful today.............2 30 I read that rain is expected......... .so
5 6 1
SWho had poken last? .................3 31 am taller than Sam.. ...... 31
6 spoke ..2 omewhata
1 2
3 brought books to ..2 U
SThe teacher gave 1 S girls help......... 32 He t the books to that library... 32
3 4 5
5 He felt the loss 3 keen.. 33 A white and a red hen are lost........33
4 keenly. 6 is
5 6 1
6 The soldier has be the bugle call... .. 4 I think he h ought to apologize....... 34
6The soldier has blown
1 2 3
h walk this morning ......... 7 3 3 Us
7 I an' hardly walk this morning. ....... 3 e women are knitting sweaters...... .
3 4 5
8 This is 3 the longest walk I almost er took... 36 Seeing the parade 5 her work was neglected.
4 almost the longest walkI a l m s 6 she neglected her work. 36
5 6 1
9 53n and I are going together. .. .9 37 Mother is lying down............... .37
6 He 2 laying
1 2 3
rather 3 came
I'll go, but I am a tired.......... o 38 You have c a long distance. ........3
2 sort of 4 come a .......
8"a 8b*-
3 4 5
SHe did all the problems 3 correct..ly. 39 I don't know she likes books
4 correct........ ,6 whether
5 6 1
2 They offered tickets to 5 whoever came.. 40 The club acceptedour offer............. 40 4
6 whomever came..12 2 excepted
1 2 3
1. ms 3 risen
3 My work is 1 ost done..............3 i 41 The water has eight feet .......41
Almost ......4 rose .. .......
3 4 5
4 I am 3 respectfully 42 Sheis 5 really interested in art............42
4 respectively yos. "1 i42Ses6 real
5 6 1
SSally andI ready ............... 15 43 A team of us boys will play. ...........43
L5 Sally and2I w weren't .....
1 2 3
6 I 1 et the hen on a dozen eggs. ........1i, 44 I have an inviting to Helen's party. 44 i
2 sat. 4 invitation
3 4 5
7 The puppy had broke its leg........... 17 4 He was taller than an othboy present. 45
t4 The puppy had 4 broken 6......... .
5 61
5 who can,
8These are the boys 6 who wrestled..... i.i 46 I canot see her only on Sundays. . .4
1 2
f -1 raisi 3 l it?s"ho "
SThe fog is slowly................19 47 To whom will you mil to..........47
2 rising...........19 4 mail it to?
3 4 5
0 Sue, you behaved dy at the party... .20 48 He ran without hardly apy effort........48 i
badly at6 with
5 6 i
S5 But don't forget, however, my warning. .21 49 Sue has en my bicycle. ..........49.
6 Don't forget, 2 -
1 2
2 The woman was almost 2 drowned. .. .22 I 1 50 Joe and were partners ........... 0
3 4 5
3 It was he ho played the piano.. .2 . 51 I insist. You small do it instantly! ....51
5 6 6 will
4 That 5 like either John or Joe...... 24 i 52 The moon and the sun causes tides.. .... 52 2
6 either looks like 2 cause
Go right on to Number 25. Go right on to the next page.,
Drm c 2 3 4 5 6 7.18 9 19TT1112 13141516 171184 19120521 22232425M262 2M293031 32 33134 35 36371381914041424344454647
2tedscore a53 6g54 645 5 aTSoat6S1U6s26 l4 6,4 65^ B 65[ 1868






.a. Rev. Adv.: om H


TEST 3. LANGUAGE USAGE (Cont'd)


I am shorter than ..... ......... 5
5
They 65 lunanim ously voted "No.".. .... 54
6 unanimously
s1 shall
SThe boys swll enjoy those books....... 55
3
Laura re does like me. ............5.
4 surely
r 5 After scolding me, Iwept.
6 When I had been scolded, .........57

I told them whom I wished would come. 58
2 who
3
She has often 3 ung in the choir....... .. .
4 sang
I 5
There 6 we at least a hundred visitors.. .60
6 were

She 1 lay on the bed and slept. . 1

4 them...............62
3
SNobody came but ...... ....... .62
5 g 6
Its speed was equal to 5 an eagle. ..6
6 that of an eagle. .63

They have lan the cornerstone.. ...... ... 64
'3
One of the boys hae fallen. ..... ..65
5
Do you recall 5 m describing it? ..... i6

9"ga
1
The flowers came neary freezing....... 67
2 nearly

SWhom did you try to help? ............68
4 Whom ever

I eldom ever ride to school ............... 69
1
I rang?
Has the burglar alarm r .. 70
3
SWh did you say was coming? ........ 7

Each man and boy had thirtask. ......72
1
You have less letters today. 7
2 fewer .........7.:
3
Tom along with his chums3 sare going .74
5
Neither rain nor snow 6 tps him. ...75
stop

I think it is the poorer of thetwo....... 7
2 poorest

Their guide 3 wre the stars ... .. ..... 77
Go right on to Number 78.


5 10 15 20 30 35 40 45 50
11 ... I .... I .. I .... I n ..I a11n 11111h.1 ,


95


85 80 75 70 65 60


i 3 4 1


N


78 The two dogs have 6 a race. .......

79 Our family has ti new cari.. ......
their new car.........7
3
80 Keep this a secret between you and 4 e. so
5
81 Is your answer different 5 than mine?.... .s

82 I had one of the best pens there wa s8
3
83 Joe is the fast runner of the two.... a3.
5
5 Those sort of trees grows fast. ........ .4.

85 It was1 he.
85 It was.2 him .................... ......
3
86 He, not others, 3 i to blame........... .i
5
87 I believed it was he................ 87
1
88 The horse has drunk his water ...... .ss
2 drank
3
89 Nobody brought 3 thiown lunch. ..... 89
5
90 Do you believe it was ........ 9
6 he?.............90o
1 me1
91 She likes Mary and1 me. ............. 91
9b6


5


93 Did he say it was the ..............
6 1 2
4 I don't care for 2 a kind of dogs.... 9
2 3 4
95 There come father and mother. ..... .-r
T44 comes a

4 5 6
6 He is one of those who es things. .9
6 1 2
97 The class gave 1thr play today. ....... .9 4i
2 3 4
98 Each of the men 3w e present... ... ii
4 5 6
99 Either of these girls w65 e reliable.......9
6 1 2
1 Has either of you seen our dog?..... .1i
2 End of Test 3 Look over your work.

4 No. right( )X2 ( )
No. omitted ( )
Sum ( )
Subtract 100
Difference ( )
55 0 65 7075 80 85 90 5 100
...L1,IJ ete.....fLyouIeenuIrd.lg...U I I.l... .oI


55 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
50 0 01


535455565758596061626364656667686970 71727374757677787980818283848586 878889901 92 93 94-1 95 96 97 98 99 100
7 78S9 88 81 8 88 4 84 85 6 S87 81 BOS 91 1 O 97 9 94 95 F 96 9699 1 100 101 1 f02 18 iii 104 4


9
6

2

4



. 2
-1l


~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~'~'''' ~







CTIOiqS. Fiaad the answer to these problems
as quickly as you can. Write the answers -on
S the dotted lines. Use the margins to figure on.
Answer
1 Eighteen hours are what fraction of a day,
n simplest form? ------
i1' Mary pasted together 4 cards, each 101_ in.
oeng, to make a poster. How many inches
bng was the poster? --

i Helen read 14 pages in her history book in
S42 minutes. That was an average of how
.-many minutes per page? ___ .
4 At the rate of 7j miles in 15 minutes, how
i many miles will a train go in an hour? ------

8 A packing box is 3' X 41' X 6'. What is
its capacity in cubic feet? --

* Mr. Barnes invested $4000 at 4+% interest.
How much interest does this investment
'.earn for him each year? ?--

' Fred ruled a sheet of paper 51 in. wide into
columns I in. wide. How many columns did
he have? --

SA floor plan is marked 1" = 16'. A line
' 2+ inches long on this floor plan represents
S? feet.
SMrs. Stone's bills for the first 4 months of
S.this year were: $145, $174, $162, and $183.
What was the average of her bills for these
.4 months?

. 'The diameter of a circular window is 42
inches. What is the circumference in inches?
'(Use 3+ for r.)

, On January 1 Mary'p savings were $4.18
'and Ann's savings were $5. Mary spent
$1.35 for a ring and Ann spent $2.69 for a
sweater. How much more money did Mary
'have left than Ann? --

1 A factory owner discharged of his
employees, or 115 men. How many men did
he employ before these men were discharged ?- ....
Go right on to Problem 13.'


. A
S Mrs. Roberts has paid $360 of a $480
debt. What per cent of the debt has she
paid?

14 A Model XX-R radio sells for $75.: The ;
cost is .6 of the selling price. What is the
cost?
1i Theheight of a trapezoid is 3 mi. he
bases are 1-, mi and 2'- mi. The area
is ? Sg. mi. (Use the formula
b + b'
A '2 x h.)

16 A factory building was valued at $20,000
for tax purposes., The rate was $42.50 per,
$1000. What'was the amount of the tax? -
17 The day train to Westonleaves at 7:45A.M.:
and arrives at ,4 :15 that afternoon. How
many hours does the trip take? --


18 A side of a barn
rectangular section
painted. How many
be painted?


is 15' X 30'. Qly a
6' X 10' has been,
square feet are yet to


19 The perimeter of a square is 96 feet.
What is the length of a side in feet? --

20 The rainfall this year was 24 in. Last
year it was 30 in. Compare this year's
rainfall with last year's as a decimal fraction. -

21 How much is the annual premium on a.
$6500 life insurance policy based on a j
premium rate of $30 per $1000?

22 Mr. Brown has an investment at 6% that '
pays him'$90 interest per year. How much
money does he have in this investment?

23 A radio costing $60 was sold for $100.
The dealer figured his' overhead at $30.,
What was his per cent fg on
the selling price?
24 If +85 represents a point 85 miles north
of St. Louis and -65 represents a point 65
miles south of St. Louis, how many miles
apart are the two points? -
Go right on to the net pag.


1 .
tih,? .'.
.1 *'
I m ,- ;.;.. ,j


.I I.





Sev. Au : -- ST F IH


25 Mr. Burs bought 5400 sq. ft. of sod. His
. lot is 60 ft. wide. If he starts at the front of
the lot and sods the full width, for how
many feet back can he sod the lot?

26 Mr. Worth had r dollars and then earned
t dollars more. How many dollars did he
have then?

27 The area of a 10-ft. square is how many
square feet greater than the area of a square
containing 10 square feet?

28 A loan of $600 at 6% interest was paid
at the end of 8 months. What was the total
amount paid then?

29 The ratio of the width of a rectangle to its
length is 3 to 12. Write this ratio in decimal
form.

30 Triangle ABC is a right triangle. Angle
A is 40. How many degrees are there in
tlie other acute angle?

81 At the time that a pole 10 ft. high casts
a shadow 5 ft. long, a smokestack casts,
a shadow 36 ft. long. How tall is the
smokestack?

32 One ounce is what decimal fraction of a
pound, correct to the nearest hundredth ?
Go right on to Problem 33.


I.


A.TIC REASONING (Cont'd)

answer


33 A principal said that .64, or 320, of the
pupils in his school have savings accounts.
How many pupils are in the school?

34 Mrs. North paid $415 for a bond of $500
face value, bearing 3% interest. How much
interest should she receive annually ?

38 A building that was valued at $6000 was
insured against fire for 75% of its value at a
rate of $.25 per $100. What was the amount
of the premium?

36 How many degrees of a circle graph should
you shade to show that 40% of all homes now
have refrigerators?


37 An invoice for a $1000 bill of goods was
marked "3-,, 30 days; 60 days, net."
What should have been the actual cost if
payment was made two weeks after receipt ? -

38 Triangles ABC and A'B'C' are similar.
Side AB is 10", side BC is 15", and side
A'B' is 30". How long is side B'C'? .....-

39 The area of a square lot is given as 14,400
sq. ft. What is the length of one side of the
lot in feet? --


40 What does $2000 amount to in 1 y
4% interest, compounded semiannual
End of Test 4. Look over you


- ~


*I


rear at
y? ----
r work.












.I

,"I

317X


5-.4 i,.6


SI MB 1 BFUH IB I 1 tI341 18 1 719 1 10112 1 I 1516|LI 1719 III 2II 21222324 25 26 27 28|29M3031 323 3 11435136 3711
\Emaed score Q A45 U F57 UF9 59618 FO USA64 0 678f 71 718 75 71 73 O91 82 823 4 815 S6 S7 I9 ao 91 9g1o94SI 9 U9111I 9 I


Ans4


'
"




I -*


12 TEST 5. ARITHMETIC COMPUTATION


DIRECTIONS. Get the answers to these examples as quickly as you can without making mistakes. Look
carefully at each example to see what you are to do.
As soon as you have finished an example, write the answer on the line provided at the right.
Be sure to put your answer on the line that has the same number as the number of the example.


Add
864137
529713
800426


Subtract
8
7 W


Answer

1----------

2----------


Subtract
"474051
285622


Add

1
1O


Multiply
S2.478
100


4----------





5 ___ .______
6-----------
6

7---------


SMultiply
.053
.13


12

.06 = %


9-------


Subtract
43 5 6.3 5 6 2
.921.6067


Multiply
257
320


20%of$1 8.00=


IsFind the average
9 lb.
2 4 lb.
1 0lb.
1 7 lb.


17% =


Add
2 6 1.71 9
5.3S~ 4
4 3.756~ .
749.0 2-3
80 0.2 1 4


11......

12-------


13

14 --

15

16 -------





18 l----- b.


19---


Go right on to Example 21 on the next page. 20 --------


Multiply
263
60.0


45)23 8 5


Subtract
5
i-


S, .' .' ,


tanf. Rev. Adv.: Form H
(


1- 4 =





t~a. AM,: 1wt TEST 5. ARITHMETIC COMPUTATION (Cond) 1


22

1 3)23402


S Add
3 yr. 6 mo.
1 yr. 9 mo.
2 yr. 3 mo.


24

x21 =


Add
18j7

156
6^


- + 2-=


.75T5


23)11732


273)153699


selling price =$250
tafe of commission = 4 %
commission = $


.3 2)5.6


Subtract
6 yr. 3 mo.
2 yr. 9 mo.


50% of$12 =












+6=31
b =


3 Principal = $150 34 ME
Rate = 6% Dis
Time = 4 mo. Ne
Interest = $








37Principal = $600
Annual interest =$ 12
Rate otfinterest = %


irked price
count
t price


e =$80 3
= 25% 6c =42
=$-
C=








38

'% of $ 6 0 0 =


W1 ---------
$3._________.






31._








352---------
33$----------

94$----------

35-----------


Turn the page and go right on to Example 39.


Answer

21

22

23 _.yr- mao.

24


25--------_

26----------
-7-__-_-____
27 - - -

-8 - -


'4


36__

37

38$_---





14 TEST 5. ARItHMETIC COMPUTATION (Con t'd) Stan. Rev. Adv.:






0
0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 10


So 1000 500 2000 2500 3000 3500
Miles
FIG. I


Dollars avedper month
FIG. 2


39 What river is about 11 times as long as the Mississippi, according to
Figure 1?

40 According to Figure 2, the number of pupils saving $7 per month was how
many more than the number of pupils saving $5 per month?

41 What is the volume of the room shown in Figure 3 in cubic feet?

42 What is the area of the rug shown in Figure 4 in square yards?


4 Assessed valuation = $1000
Tax rate per $1 00 = $ 1.7 5
Amount of tax = $


44

m -,6 =1 8
m =


4List price =
Discounts =
Net'price =


$600
25%; 1 0%


V144 =


Subtract
-4
+4


48 ,


66b -4=44


5 If 25% of a number is $1.25, 51
.what is the number? 15 % of 3.


m 15
5
'm


.-21
+7


,$75 = 371-%of$,


3:4 =6:


Multiply
+ 3r
-3


Add
1 9
+13


5 m + m 8 mn--


Go right on to Example 58. on the next page.







- / N .


/: ,,j


10.000 O00 10o0 10



KILOWATT-HOURS
FIG., 5


,8 What is the reading of the electric meter shown
Figure 5 in kilowatt-hours?


-'Ans~Persj


in 18 _____


59 Use the formula A = bh to find the area of the
triangle shown in Figure 6.

6o Use the formula A = bh to find the area of the paral-
lelogram shown in Figure 7.


FIG. 7


61 Water is what per cent of the composition of an egg
according to the circle graph in Figure 8?

62 Use the formula A = ir2 to find the area of the circle
shown in Figure 9. (Use ir = 3.14.)


59 _...... _. .


60 ------- -_ -


62 ----- .--'-


63 Find AC, or the hypotenuse, of the right triangle
shown in Figure 10.

64 Find the volume of the cylinder shown \in Figure 11.
(Use r = 3.14,)


FIG. 11


6 Find the length of side BC in Figure 12, using the
method of similar triangles.


63 ____


4.
65 e- N .


4-A
*1.~ `


End of Test 5. Look over your work.


S 'UM BIrT 0I 4 5 61 I 7 8 91 II1721 i 3 1415 S1617 l1 192021 2123a24 1 2516276 1 ?29 lj 3233t34353633 404 1424
IjS tsco 41 ai l al41 0li 011 5 5i l 56 91 i K63 8 S66 Y 66 a a so To ..1. W a5-t
45 46|47)484950 15||535455565758596061 j 26364 6t 65
83 3 9 87 90|91 9A |8 9S 9 99 MilM1n
B ~i5^A't-L'. ..l.. '^ **.' .-.1 i '. .1..-..r7& '^ ^ l


FIG. 12


__






TEST 6. LITERATURE ta. alnev. Adv.:Foi

RCTIONS. In, each exercise one of the three numbered.answers is the best answer. T ote the
number of this answer. Then mark the answer space at the right which is num-
bered the same as the answer you have selected.
SAMPLES.
,-,The Bible is the name of a.- 1 place 2 book 3 country ........................ A |.

Jack Spratt could eatno- 4 meat 5 bread 6 fat............................. .

"OldIronsides" was a 1 train 2 general 3 battleship ........ .. ... .........
4 5 6
Paul Revere's ride began 4 at seven 5 before midnight 6 at twilight............ 2
7 8 9
I Peter of Holland saved his country from- 7 flood 8 war 9 famine................ 3
.' 1 2 3
4 Mrs. Wiggs and her family lived in 1 Ireland 2 the Cabbage Patch 3 the Greenwood 4
4 5 ,6
5 Hans Brinker was a hero of- 4 Holland 5 Belgium 6 Norway......... .......... i I
7 89
6 Toby Tyler spent ten weeks with a 7 carnival 8 theater 9 circus ....... 6
1 2 3
SBluebeard killed his 1 wives 2 enemies 3 brothers..................... 2
4 5 6
"8 Old Aunt Mary's home was in the 4 city 5 village 6 country .............. ... s
;;"" -. ';, 7 8 9,
Bill Cody was a famous 7 musician 8 scout 9 lawyer...... ................ .

to Booker T. Washington was born a 1 prince 2 slave 3 hunchback ............. 10

4i 16
S 4 5 6
i 1,1The Lady of the Lake gave King Arthur his 4 sword 5 armor 6 shield ........ 11 i
7 8 9
S12 The gingham dog and the calico cat began to fight at 7 half-past twelve 8 noon 9dawn 12
S1 2 3
s3 Troubles came from the box of 1 Arachne 2 Syrinx 3 Pandora.......... .... 13:
S4 5 6
4The girl who went to the land of Oz was 4 Mary 5 Dorothy 6 Wendy,. .... 1l
7 8 9
1'5 The singing animals frightened away the 7 children 8 butchers 9 robbers...... .15
1 2, 3
I 16Sndbadwasa- 1 sailor 2 dwarf 3 knight.................................. 16I
S4 5 6
'17 A twenty-year sleep reminds us of 4UncleTom 5 Sleeping Beauty 6 Rip Van Winkle 17 :
7 8 9
S18 Dete took Heidi to live with her 7 grandfather 8 aunt 9 cousin....... ........ .is
1 2 3
19 Dr. Dolittle doctored 1 people, 2 animals 3 fairies ..........................
.4 5 6B
20 Little Lord Fauntleroy won the heart of his- 4 uncle 5 cousin e6 anfather ..20

S21Tom the chimney sweep became a 7 trout 8 water-baby 9 lobster . .... 21
1 2
I. Harvey Cheyne was washed overboard off the Banks of 1 Florida 2 Alaska 3 Newfoundland 22 |
4 5
2 3Gigi the tumbler ran away from the 4 soldiers 5 gypsies 6 ladies ............ 23
7 8
1:, Little Men" is by the author of 7 "Eight Cousins 8 "Barnaby Lee" 9 "Daniel Boone" 24 |
Go right on to the next page.
fl / i~i 4 i ^ C 7 0.. I n Ii. I. ., ti. 1 7.II, 1 0 6 ( SI ..i .; i ASJr. It..,i '1i 56 5,5. 55 55.Si,, ,.i ,i i.ti.. i.i0i.0i., i..i., i .. an





S.ev. Adv.: Form H i., TEST 6; LITERATURE


O Miles Standish sent his marriage proposal to Priscilla by -


(Cont'd)


1 Alden 2 Smith


3 Raleigh 25


.The little Indian girl Chi-wee lived in a- 4 town 5 forest 6 pueblo............. 26

17 Romulus and Remus were raised by a 7 wolf 8 fairy 9 god............ .... 27
-' ,1
2 Paul Bunyan was a 1 Pilgrim 2 woodsman 3 dwarf ......................... 28

' The Perfect Tribute" is about 4 Abraham Lincoln 5 Sir Pitt 6 Le Dauphin. 29
7
M Schwartz and Hans were turned'into black 7 cows 8 cats 9 stones....... 30o

1 "Skyward" is the story of Admiral 1 Caperton 2 Towers 3 Byrd............ 31
4
2 "The Lance of Kanana" is a story of- 4 France 5 Arabia 6 Russia........... .. 2
7
3 "When Buffalo Ran" is a story of 7 Indians 8 cowboys 9 traders.. .......... 33

M All Baba's brother was 1 generous 2 wealthy 3 brave. ......... ............. 34
4
5 The Jatakas are tales of 4 Iceland 5 Germany 6 India .......................35


SLovey Mary went to live with 7 Cricket 8 1Mrs. Wiggs

7 A person who sought for the golden fleece was 1 Jason

8 The Cobbler who ruled the King was 4 Tim 5 Simon



"Captains Courageous" was written by 7 0. Henry 8


7 8
9 Anne of Green Gables 36
1 2
2 Balder 3 Siegfried.... 3 7
4 5
6 Jean........ .. .... .38

17+


Longfellow


9 Kipling..


7
.39w


10 The Swallow Mail was established by 1 Franklin 2 King Koko 3 Dr. Dolittle... ~0
4
' Christopher Carson is better known as 4 Kit 5 Christie 6 Chris............ 41r
7
SThe Three Musketeers were 7 English 8 French 9 German ................... 42

3 Wendy, John, and Michael flew to Never Never Land with 1 Davy 2 Peter Pan 3 Sindbad 14
4
a Nannette's shoes were made of 4 fur 5 leather 6 wood .............. ....... I44

SPrairie Rose was the name of a 7 girl 8 flower 9 town..... ............. 45
1
SThe three Mulla-Mulgars were 1 dogs 2 donkeys 3 monkeys............... 46
4
7 Katrinka danced for the 4 priest 5 Czar 6 soldier ........................ 47
7
Little Maia went to live at, the 7 farm 8 school 9 pastor's house............. 48

Kim was brought up in 1 Frace 2 India 3 England.......... ............ .


5 The boy who tended the goats was -


4 Moni


....... 4 5


5 Rudi 6 Joe...........


End of Test 6. Look over your work.


No. right ( ) X3 ( )
No. omitted ( ,
Sum ( )'
Sum+ 2 ( )
Subtract ( 25
Difference (. )


'.


5 6 %
8 9
8 i

2 3

56 6

8 9

2 3

ii i:


17 ..
1 2 ",3

4 5 6







i.CtON In each exercise one of th three numbefe -answers iS the best answer. Note the
number of this answer. Then park the answer space at the right which is num-
bered the same as the answer you have selected.
SAMPLES.
SThe number of stripes in our flag is 1 six 2 seven 3 thirteen .................. A: .

a Which of the following was an Indian? 4 Hiawatha 5 Buffalo Bill 6 John Smith. B :.

S1 A French officer who aided Washington was 1 Lafayette 2 Pulaski 3 Kosciusko i .

2 It is not safe to pass another car on 4 a curve 5 the open road 6 wet pavement ... 2 i
7 S
SThe decision of a jury is called 7 a lawsuit 8 a verdict 9 an indictment ..... .... .
1 2
4The number of U. S. Senators from each state is 1 two 2 three 3 four......... 4

5The Quakers are a 4 tribe of Indians 5 political party 6 religious sect .......... 5 :
7 8
One of the original thirteen states was 7 Massachusetts 8 Alabama 9 Tennessee a
I 2
SThe first man to fly across the Atlantic alone was 1 Langley 2 Lindbergh 3 Byrd 7

8 Augustus Caesar was a famous Roman 4 artist 5 singer 6 emperor. ............
7 8
S#The principal Northern general in the Civil War was 7 Grant 8 Sheridan 9 McClellan .

S. Texas was once owned by 1 Portugal 2 Great Britain 3 Mexico................10.

18*

1.Embargo acts deal with 4 mines 5 railroads 6 exports ............. ........

2 Neighborhood grocers buy canned goods by the 7 can 8 case 9 carload....... 12
1 2
'~ The Greek theaters were copied in modified form by the 1 Romans 2 Church 3 Chinese i'
4 5
PU The greatest violin makers were 4 Romans 5 Egyptians 6 Italians ............ : .
7 8
U' 6 The power of levying taxes is reserved to 7 Congress 8 the President 9 the Cabinet ,I..
I 2
1s Sir Walter Raleigh was a favorite of 1 Henry VIII 2 Isabella 3 Elizabeth....... .
4 5
17'Clara Barton is remembered as a 4 writer 5 singer 6 nurse............... 1
.' 7 8
2 Virginia was settled chiefly by the 7 English 8 French 9 Spanish.............. s A
1 2
.,9 The tournaments of the Middle Ages were meetings of 1 monks 2 actors 3 knights Io
4 4 5
: The U. S. Constitution was drawn up at 4 Philadelphia 5 New York, 6 Washington 20 .

2L The Capitol at Washington was onee burned by the 7 French 8 British': 9 airdsard : i
I 2
An Indian who was a friend of the Pilgrims was 1 Massasoit 2 Philip 3 Powhatan 22: I
4 5
-V The Pharaohs were- 4 temples 5 tombs 6 kings.........................23

' eThe Pueblo Indian houses were made of 7 skins 8 wood 9 adobe bricks........ 21
Go right on to the next page.
ca. 0 1 1 2 3 456 7 8 9 1 16 3 11 17 18| 19 2 Jl 22 3 24 26_ 7 30 I 3 34 35 36 37 39 40 4142431)






S'Ad.:'oH TEST 7.' SOCIAL STUDIES:I (Cont'd) 19
I 2 3
firtn believer in the League of Nations was 1 Harding 2 Wilson 3 Lodge..... ;. : ;2

example of an elected officer is a 4 Federal jtidge 5 postmaster. 6, ongressman n6 :
7 8 9
strictly Amerian creation was the '7 printing press 8 loom 9 skyscraper... .27 j
1 2 .
ho sailed around the Cape of Good Hope? 1 Colmqbus 2 Da Gama. 3 Cabot. ... 2s 8
;- 4 5 6 ,
tanbul was formerly called 4 Rome 5 Constantinople 6 Athens ...............29 :
. ** ,' -7 8 9 '"
organizer of the Rough Riders was 7 Paul ever 8 it Carson 9 Theodore Rooseveltzo io
.1 2 3
Vhich kind of writing material probably came first? 1 papyrus 2 skins 3 clay tablets ai | :.
4 5 6
r Federal government is the government of the 4 states 5 nation 6 tie... 32:
7 8 9
city is most likely -to own its 7 electric plant 8 gas plant 9 water system .... .3 i
K 1 2 "
Seward's iceberg" was his 1 steamboat, 2 purchase of Alaska 3 treaty with Canada 34,
.. 4- 5 6 '
Sthe Dark Ages few persons were educated except 4 soldiers 5 priests 6 nobles ias
7 8 a "
axes today are based more and more upon 7 incomes 8 personal property 9 imports so
te h '1 2 S
phe United States entered the World War in 1 1914 2 1917 3 1918 ...........3..7 .| i3 7
'4 5 .6 ,'
ffrage refers to- 4 property rights 5 the right to vote 6 medical science ......8. s: ,

19+
7 8 9 '
Patal falls in the home occur most often in 7 bedrooms 8 kitchens 9 cellars ..... .3 ii | i
-1 2 3
ne of the originators of our postal service was 1 Franklin 2 Jackson 3 Boone.. 40o
4 5 6
|_ '' 4 8' 6., ',
he first wireless message across the Atlantic was sent in 4 1~54 5 1901 6 1923. .41 i

he "Open Door" policy concerned 7 China 8 Hawaii 9 Cuba ......... .. .. .42 I
1 2 3
en currency depreciates, its buying power 1 increases 2 is unchanged 3 decreases 43a

famous artist who was also a great scientist was 4 Da Vinci 5 Rubens 6 Titian 44 f
S7 8
e original stadium was in- 7 Greece 8 Rome -9 Babylonia ................... 45
1 82
e wireless telegraph was invented by 1 Marconi 2 Edison 3 Morse.......... 46
4 6
political" plank" is 4 a slogan 5 a party principle 6 an election. ..... ......47
7 8 9,
heage of any United States Senltkmusbe at least 7 20 8 30 9 35 .. ...... s
S1 2 3
e editor of an antislavery newspaper was 1 Stowe 2 Garrison 3 Douglas .... 49
**4 5 6
Amendment authorizing prohibition was the 4 13th 5 15th 618th ........ 0 :
tid of Test 7. Look over your work. N.O.I ( ) xa ( )
S~t', N amus ( )
S. ( )

SSu Cra ( 25 ) .
.5. 40 3 3 20 1 5 10 5 0 -.w (.
W .^~~~~~~ .....' ; ** .- ,. tZi.,- w2






M, S a m ,
,IRECTIONS. In each exercise one of the three numbered answers is the best answer, Note the
number of ihis answer. Then mark the answer space at the right which is num-
bere the' saime as the answer you.have selected.
S-SAMPLES. A A day of'the week is 1 January 2 Friday 3 summer .......... A

B Which of the following is a city? 4 Europe 5 Texas 6 Detroit .. .- .

STo plow a field means to 1 seed it 2 trn over the soil .3 cut the grain .......... .

PA country protected by many great dikes is'- 4 Norway 5 Holland 6 Greece .....

a The largest bodies of water are called 7 seas 8 oceans 9 lakes ................

4 Pearls are obtained from 1 ivory 2 mines 3 oysters.......... ............ 4

6 Calves are branded with 4 hot irons 5 knives 6 acids ............. ............

Much gold is mined in 7 Ohio 8 Pennsylvania 9 Colorado ....................

7 A popular occupation in Holland is 1 mining 2 dairying 3 watchmaking ...... 7
4
S-Elephants are used extensively in 4 Central America 5 India 6 Russia ......... s
9.
",' 9Tokyo is a city of- 7 Japan 8 Hawaii 9 New Zealand ....................... ..i .a

S0 fertile spot in a desert is called 1 a mirage 2 an oasis 3 a safari.............. .o :.

*20*
V*1 4
S11 The Mississippi flows into the 4 Hudson Bay 5 Gulf of Mexico 6 Pacific Ocean 1 1I

"A wood that must be imported by the United States is 7 maple 8 oak 9 mahogany 12:

Ss At noon in midsummer in the U. S. the sun is 1 in the south 2 in the west 3 overhead 13:

14 One of the great citrus states in the U. S. is 4 Louisiana 5 Colorado 6 Florida... 4 .

Calico is a kind of- 7 grain 8 cloth 9 dye ............ .7................. .. 1

Si Many ships going from Cuba to New York carry 1 steel 2 sugar 3 clothing ... :
4
S17 Old Faithful in Yellowstone Park is a 4 bear 5 waterfall 6 geyser ........ 17::
7
is The earliest form of trade was 7 barter 8 purchase with money 9 by use of credit is

it Weaving of cloth is done on 1 looms 2 spindles 3 carding machines............ 9

2'0 A girl named Olga is likely to be 4 Swedish 5 Spanish. 6 Geia a ........... 20.
21 Buddhism is a common religion in 7 India 8 France 9 the United States ..... ...

22 The seacoast of western Europe is 1 mountainous 2 regular 3 irregular. .......22. 22

i2 New Zealand liesnear 4 India 5 Africa 6 Australia. ..... ..23 :

A country with about the. same latitude as Alaska is -- 7 Norway. 8 Spain. 9- Japan 24
/ .Gorlgh ftiitoena!Jht,4epl
^ ^*- i ** ,., i,* *-- "* *** .-* .' '' .**" i -s-d..I






S dv.aT' J. I'ST 8. SOCIAL STUDIES: II (Cot'd) 21
An n .S 3 2 1
An intensively cultivated farming state is 1 Iowa 2 Maine 3 New Mexico..... .25
4 5 6
Antarctica is the region around the 4 Equator 5 North Pole 6 South Pole..... .2s
7- 8 9
The Congo pygmies are great 7 hunters 8 merchants 9 weavers ............... 27

r In a hot, wet climate we find 1 no vegetation 2 dense vegetation 3 arid plains 28
E 4 6 6
SA country situated on a peninsulais 4 Belgium 5 England 6 Norway .......... 29

Anthracite or "hard" coal 7 burns fast 8 makes much smoke 9 makes.little smoke 30
I 2 8
1 The least-inhabited zone is the 1 torrid 2 frigid 3 temperate ................ 3. l j .
4 6 I
SFishing and fish canning are important industries of-. 4 Washington 5 Utah 6 Texas 32
_ ,' 7 8 9
SThe greatest steel city of America is 7 Chicago 8 Pittsburgh 9 Gary ........... 33.: I

IKoofahs,keleks, andkayaksare all names of- 1 boats 2 tribes '3 animals........ 34:

SThe number of automobiles in the U. S. is about 4 100,000 5 25,000,000 6 130,000,000 35

6A modernfarmer must be a fairly good 7 public speaker 8 mechanic 9 marksman 36
I 2 3
IThe country that has the most people is- 1 India 2 China 3 the United States... 37

A combinewillharvest in one day about 4 5 acres 5 60 acres 6 500 acres ...... 38as

S214
7 8 9
, Two great cities on the Danube River are Vienna and- 7 Berlin 8 Budapest 9 Cologne 39:! i
I 2-8
Which of the following is the most brittle? 1 wrought iron 2 steel 3 cast iron ..... .40.: I :
4 5-
More than half the oilproduced in the U. S. is from the 4 East, 5 West 6 Southwest 4 i


2The chief language of Brazil is 7 Portuguese 8 Spanish 9 English. .. .. ...... 42

8A country that imports nearly half its food is- 1 England 2 France 3 Germany.. 43
4
A crop which enriches the soil is-- 4 clover 5 potatoes 6 tobacco......... .... 44
S7
The first ironworkers were brouglit to America from 7 France 8 Spain 9 England .. 45

Canton is a city in- 1 China 2 France 3 Japan..... .. ..................... 46
4
About half of all railroad cars are used to carry 4 passengers 5 mine products 6 food 47
7
IA lake port of the United States 7 Kansas City 8 Pittburgh 9 Cleveland .... 48

An important export of Chileis 1 nitrates 2 coffee 3 marble................. 49


SThe Giand Canyon of the Colorado River is in -


4 Colorado 5 Arizona


End of Test 8. Look over your work.


5 10 15 20


40 .40
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25 3 3


20


40
I .


10


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L. ....I


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0


4
6 New Mexico 5so
No. right ( ) X (
No. omitted (
Sum
Sum 2 (
,Subtract
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4r


8 9

2 3


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5 6 ''

8 9





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