• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Dedication
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Acknowledgement
 Introduction
 Review of related literature
 Presentation and analysis...
 Summary, conclusions, and...
 Bibliography
 Appendix






Title: Analysis of the Qualifications of the Principals of the Accredited Negro High Schools in Florida
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Title: Analysis of the Qualifications of the Principals of the Accredited Negro High Schools in Florida
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Language: English
Creator: Knowles, Christene Ford
Affiliation: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
Publisher: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
Publication Date: 1957
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
    Title Page
        Page ii
    Dedication
        Page iii
    Table of Contents
        Page iv
        Page v
    List of Tables
        Page vi
    Acknowledgement
        Page vii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Review of related literature
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Presentation and analysis of data
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Summary, conclusions, and recommendations
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Bibliography
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Appendix
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
Full Text









AN ANALYSIS OF THE QUALIFICATIONS OF PRINCIPALS OF THE

ACCREDITED NEGRO HIGH SCHOOLS IN FLORIDA









A Thesis

Presented to

The Faculty of the Graduate School

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University









In Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements for the Degree

Master of Science in Education







By

Christene Ford Knowles

August 1957














AN ANALYSIS OF THE QUALIFICATIONS OF PRINCIPALS OF THE

ACCREDITED NEGRO HIGH SCHOOLS IN FLORIDA









A Thesie

Presented to

The Faculty of the Graduate School

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
In Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements for the Degree

Master of Science Bducation


Approved









.- / -----z
































TO MY HUSBAND AND SON

Erelson Woodruff

and

Harold Milton












TABLE OF CONTENTS


CHAPTER PAGE

I. INTRODUCTION ......... ........... 1

The problem . . . 2

Statement of the problem . . 2

Specific problems . . 3

Need for the study ... . 4

Definitions of terms used . .. 4

Analysis. . . .... 4

Accreditation .. . ....... 5

High School . . . 5

Qualifications .. . 5

Principal . .. . ... 5

II. REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE . . 7

History of accreditation. . . 7

Development of high school principalship 8

Qualifications of the principal . 11

Characteristics of the principal . 12

Successful principal .. . 15

Qualities of the principal. .. . 17

Selecting the principal . . 19


Salary of principals . .


. 22












CHAPTER

III. PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA . .

Data collection. . .

Interpretation of questionnaire returns .

Marital status of principals . . .

Principals with children in their families .

Age range of principals .. .... .

Religious affiliation of principals . .


Formal education of principals . .

Teaching experience . . .

Advanced professional training ...

Teaching-principal experience . .

Community participation . .

Salary ranges . . .

Professional meetings .. .. .

Professional societies . . ..

Professional books . . .

Professional periodicals . ...

IV. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS ..

Summary ***** *

Conclusions . .

Recommendations . . .

BIBLIOGRAPHY

APPENDIX


9 9 9

9 9 9 9

. 9 9 9

9 9 9



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25

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28

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30


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34

36

39

41

44

45

46

47

49

51

51

53

54












LIST OF TABLES


TABLE

I. Results of Questionnaires Received from Principals .

II. Marital Status of Principals .......... .

III. Number of Principals with Children in Their Families .

IV. Age Range of Principals . . . .

V. Ibligious Affiliations of Principals . .

VI. Undergraduate Majors and Sources of Formal Education

of Principals. .. . .

VII. Prior Teaching Experience of Principals . .

VIII. Graduate Majors and Sburces of Professional Advanced

Training of Principals . . .....

IX. Prior Teaching-Principal Experience of Principals .

X. Community Participation of Principals . . .

XI. Salary Ranges of Principals . . .

XII. Professional Meetings Attended by Principals . .

XIII. Membership in Professional Societies of Principals .

XIV. Professional Books Bought by Principals During the

Present Year . . . . .

XV. Professional Periodicals Subscribed to by Principals .


PAGE

26

28

28

29

30



31

34


36

39

41

44

45

46



47

49

















ACKNOWLEDGE ENTS


The writer wishes to express her sincere appreciation to her

advisors, Mr. N. R. Dixon, Mr. A. J. Polk, Dr. Samuel T. Scott,

Dr. E. B. Martin, and Dr. M. L. Qre; Mr. Edwin B. Browning, State

Department of Education; Mr. W. E. Combs, Specialist in Secondary

Education; Dr. G. L. Porter, Executive Secretary to the Florida

State Teachers' Association; to her many friends; to the principals

who responded to the questionnaire; and to Mrs. E. Alston, Miss

Thelma Cunningham, and other librarians whose cooperative and

courteous services made this study possible.


C. F. K.













CHAPTER I


INTRODUCTION

"The school principalship is a professional position requiring

specific preparation on the part of the individual who aspires to fill

it successfully. Experienced teachers who have merely acquired the

technique of managing unruly children and irate parents can no longer

be considered adequately prepared for the duties of the principalship,

even though this technique still is an asset to the modern principal-

ship."1

"The high school principalship is the oldest administrative

position in American education. It antedates both the superintenden-

cy and the elementary school principalship. That the early high school

principalship was not a professional position as it is conceived in

progressive school systems today is illustrated by the duties the

early principal was called upon to perform."2

Since it is the inclination of the community, professional leaders,

and local organizations to judge the school by its principal, he should

be well-qualified as a leader in the school and larger community. The

school grows or remains stagnant according to the influence of the

principal. As a result of his training, he should possess the qualities


IPaul B. Jacobson, et. al., Effective col Principal. New
York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1954, p. v.

2i c. p. 567.










2

of leadership, vision, and ability to improve instruction. His in-

terests should be centered around the needs of high school pupils.

With the current demands on modern secondary education, the high

school principalship becomes a position requiring more training than

that supplied through earning a bachelor's degree. The demand is for

specialized and extensive professional training comparable to that of

the legal or the medical profession.

rhen viewed as a position requiring high professional qualifi-

cations, the principalship assumes tremendous importance to pupils,

teachers, and to the community at large. If the principal is

adequately prepared, he should be able to supply guidance in solving

administrative problems including improving instruction and promoting

student progress. He should be able to guide his staff properly

according to sound trends in secondary education. He should keep the

community well-informed on educational practices and trends, and should

participate in community life.

Finally, it is felt that this study should be of some value in

guiding the preparation and selection of personnel who answer to the

socially potent title of Principal.



I. THE PROBLEM


Statement of the problem. The purposes of this investigation are

(1) to ascertain professional, academic, and personal qualifications of











3
the principals of the accredited Negro high schools in Florida, the

amount and kind of experience the principals have had, the viewpoint

of the principals as it pertains to the teacher, Pupils and community,

and professional organizations; (2) to study the relationship among

certain factors including those such as age, experience, salary, aca-

demic and professional qualifications, and community participation;

(3) to point out the extent to which principals continue to improve

their qualifications, as revealed through a questionnaire; and (4)

to make recommendations for improvement of the principals' qualifi-

cations.

In critically analyzing the general problem the following specific

problems were discovered:

1. To what extent are principals formally educated as
administrators?

2. How many principals entered the principalship as a first
position?

3. How many principals changed to the principalship from other
fields?

4. To what extent dp principals participate in community
activities?

5. How do the academic qualifications of principals of larger
schools compare with those of smaller schools?

6. To what extent do principals do professional writing?

7. How many principals maintain professional libraries in their
schools?

8. How active are principals in professional organizations?










4


9. To what extent do principals subscribe to professional
periodicals and purchase professional books?

10. To what extent do principals do professional travel?

11. How do salaries of principals compare with salary stan-
dards set up by the NEA for principals of secondary schools?


Need for the study, The study is important or significant because

the county superintendents, as well as county supervisors, need to

know the academic and professional status of the Negro principals.

This study will also be of assistance to the teacher education in-

stitutions which are preparing secondary school administrators, looking

for competent leaders for today's schools. It may acquaint interested

persons in the field of education with standards as set up on a national

and state level for preparation for the position of principal in the

high school.

The need for this study became more apparent when it was discovered

that there was little or no material on the principals' qualifications

available in the Negro State University.



II. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED


Analysis. "Breaking up of anything complex into its various simple

elements, the exact determination of the elements or components of any-

thing complex (with or without their physical separation)."3



Carter V. Good, Dictionary o_ Education. New York: McGraw-Hill
Company, Inc., 1945, p. 323.










5
In this paper, analysis refers to the isolation of the principals

qualifications for purposes of explication and clarification.


Accreditation. As the word accreditation relates to the study,

it means the meeting of or rising above standards set for high schools.

The preparation of faculty members, salaries, libraries, and school

facilities must meet certain standards required by the Southern

Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools. The graduates of these

schools must be exposed to experiences which will enable them to con-

tinue to grow after graduation.


Hih School. In attempting to define the word ig school, it is

the conclusion of the writer of this paper that the term means a school

division following the elementary school, comprising grades seven

through 12 or nine through 12, during which pupils learn to use

rather independently the tools of learning which they have previously

mastered.


Principal. In a study of the definitions of the term principal,

it has been found that the term means the administrative head and

professional leader of a school center; a leader in the community.


Qualifications. According to the Oxford Elish Dictionary,4

qualifications are the determining or distinctive characteristics

of a person.


4The Oxford Enlish Dictionary. London: Oxford University Press,
Vol., VIII, 1935, p. 16.










6
As conceived in this study, qualifications include the accomplish-

ments, experience, professional training, and knowledge of high school

principals.













CHAPTER II


REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


Few records are available for accredited Negro high schools in

Florida which report on qualifications attained by principals of these

schools. In the last twenty-three years, there have been thirty-eight

accredited Negro high schools in Florida. There were eight being

evaluated in the spring of 1957.

The chart below shows the number of schools accredited each year

in the state of Florida since 1934.

Number of Schools
Year Accredited
1934 1

1940 1

1942 1

1946 1

1948 2

1950 1

1951 4

1952 3

1953 6

1954 5

1955 3

1956 10


Tota 38L`'


Total


38










8

In the early days accreditation was necessarily based on objective

standards and rather arbitrary application of these standards. Since

that period, the purpose of standards has changed. Accreditation is

now anchored more in what a school does rather than what it has, even

though emphasis on facilities is still an objective of accreditation.

According to Bailey,1 Florida, along with other states, was forced

by the war emergency to abandon accreditation based on anything like

comprehensive evaluation of its schools. Through the post-war period

schools have been greatly hampered in their operations by shortages

in personnel, buildings, and instructional resources. The Negro high

schools have not been hampered by shortages in personnel, but by inade-

quate buildings and instructional resources. With these shortages, the

need for revisions of the accreditation standards for Florida schools has

grown with each passing year.

The development of the high school principalship is just as ia-

portant as the keeping of records of the accrediting of schools.

Jacobson and others2 state that the high school principalship is the

oldest administrative position in American education. It antedates

both the superintendency and the elementary school principalship.



1Thomas D. Bailey, "To Those Concerned with the Improvement of
Schools in Florida,U Standards for Accreditation of Florida Schools.
Tallahassee, Florida: State Department of Education, 1954, pp. 2-3.

2Paul B. Jacobson, et, al., rie Effective School Principal. New
York Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1954, p. 584.










9
For centuries schools have had a significant place in the social

order, but the origin and rapid development of the American public high

school are relatively new. Since its establishment in the early nine-

teenth century, this institution has been undergoing constant change.

This indicates that the training and duties of the high school prin-

cipal of today must be more varied and complex than those of his

predecessor who was sometimes called the principal-teacher, headmaster,

and by other titles.

Jacobson and others3 further state that the duties of headmaster

or principal of the early colonial secondary school were extremely

varied. In addition to his teaching, and administering the school,

he often served as town clerk, grave digger, court messenger, church

chorister, official visitor to the sick, and performed other occasional

duties.

The writing on the development of the public school principalship

is meager. The public school system has developed so rapidly and the

people in charge of its operation have been so much engaged in develop-

ing the practical side of school administration that the study of the

evolution of the principalship seems to have been neglected.

In tracing the evolution of the high school principalship, it was

discovered that James Sturm of Strassburg, Germany, is called the first


3nbid. p. 584










10

great secondary school administrator. Concerning this sixteenth cen-

tury administrator, Ensign says

"With wisdom beyond that of his years and period, and
with skill rarely found, even today, he organized the Strass-
burg Gymnasium so effectively that it became a model for all
great secondary schools which Germany produced in a later
century. But preliminary to this organization, he apparently
inspected the entire educational equipment of the city, in a
modern phrase, conducted a genuine survey and, in the light of
its findings, builded his school to serve the higher scholastic
needs of that community. In short time the school, established
on this scientific basis, numbered dix hundred boys or more,
this at a time when, as a rule, secondary schools were small,
usually a score or two of boys clustered about a single master."4

The latin grammar school in New England had an important place in

the historical development of the American secondary school, its size

was not conducive to the development of outstanding administrators.

Outstanding teachers were not uncommon; and one of the greatest was

Ezekiel Cheever. Concerning his administrative achievements, Ensign

writes:

.. and while we look to Ezekiel Cheever as a great
school master and educational authority, he was not, in the
modern sense, an administrator. He taught and flogged and
wrote. He inspired boys; he stood a worthy type of citizen-
ship in his community, but his administration duties were
limited to the routine of a little school, and to an organi-
zation requiring but one teacher in addition to himself."5

The principal, first known as the "headmaster," or "principal-

teacher" has had varied duties from "grave digging" to "teaching classes."



4. C. Ensign, "Evolution of the High School Principalship," School
Review. Vol. XXXI, (March, 1923), pp. 181-182.


51bid.p. 187.










11

In 1857 or earlier, the principal was relieved of those duties in order

that he might carry out the principalship more efficiently. About 1900

the duties had increased until it was necessary to select assistants

and clerks.

The principal is now held responsible for the improvement of in-

struction, as well as for the organization and management in the local

school.

The question of the principal's qualifications is of vital ime-

portance. In attempting to answer the question, the situation in which

the principal operates should be carefully considered. The many things

which the principal has to do and the pressures he must face should also

be considered.

If the principal is to cope with the ever-changing society and

meet the needs of students and community, he should have executive,

managerial and organizational ability. He should provide leadership

for the teaching faculty in the process of improving instruction since

instruction is the main objective of the modern secondary school. It

is recognized that no school can operate smoothly if the supporting

community does not understand what it is trying to do; therefore,

the principal should be competent in public relations.

In Frick's6 analysis of the qualifications of the principal, he

believes that the principal should possess high qualifications first,



6Herman L. Frick, "Qualifications of a High School Principal," he
Bulletin of the national Association of Secondary School Principals.
IXXVIII, Number 201, (March, 1954), pp. 29-33.










12

he must understand thoroughly the culture-its problems, alternates,

and commitments-in which he lives and works; second, he must have a

thorough understanding of the appropriate role of the school in that

culture; third, he must have skill in interpreting the culture and the

role of the school in providing cultural media to teachers and to the

laymen in his comcmnity; and fourth, he must be able to help teachers

and other personnel in identifying their problems in relationship to

the role of the school.

Along with the qualifications listed by Frick, there are others

which the principal should have. He should have a mastery of techniques

for promoting good human relations among the school faculty and pupils,

the ability to interpret the school to the community and the community

to the school, and skill in handling routine organization procedures.

The characteristics of the principal are synonymous with qualifi-

cations. Jones7 believes the principal should possess certain

characteristics: character-a man who stands for justice; appearance-

which can be done by (1) cleanliness, (2) personal pride, (3) an awareness

of modern styles and customs, and (4) a realization of the effects of

color; intelligence-strives to improve his mentality; kindliness-a

man who is considerate and sympathetic; fairness-willing to listen to

every teacher's point and consider it for the welfare of the group; a

good listener-he waits until the teacher has presented his case before



7Edwin Winm. Jones, nDoes This Describe Your Principal?" School and
Community, XL, (December, 1953), pp. 18-19.










13

breaking in with an explanation; and backs up his teachers-he does

not bend his ear to outsiders but to his faculty first.

Cubberly8 relates that in addition to those personal qualifications,

the person who would be principal must also possess that something so

hard to test for or to define but which is known and recognized as

executive capacity. This is a compound of many personal qualities

and working habits. On the personal side, cleanliness, courtesy, good

manners, and kindliness are important. A good executive is seldom a

sour, discourteous, ill-mannered boor. Good working habits--prompt-

ness, speed and accuracy in work, sense of order and system, and a

good time sense-are important.

McClure describes seven types of principals as follows:

1. "The principal who is a master of detail but who is not
mastered by it."9
It is the responsibility of the principal to get the details of

operating his school organized quickly at the beginning of the school

year. There are some principals who plead for office helpers, and when

given them, do more work than before--they have been mastered by detail

and not a master of it.

2. "The principal who knows that the school helps make his com-
munity a better place in which to live.10


8Ellwood P. Cubberly, h Principal and His School. New Yorks
Houghton Mifflin Company, 1923, pp. 23-24.

9Worth McClure, "Some Principals I Would like to Meet," The School
Executive, LXXXVI, No. 1, (September, 1956), p.72.

lOli_ d, p. 72.









14
This kind of principal is warmly interested in improving the health,

the standards of living, the cultural values, the literacy, the spirit-

ual strength and civic participation of the citizens of his community.

He is interested in parent education--the kind that helps parents to be

more successful in bringing up children.

3. "The principal who sees the whole educational program--not
just one part--as contributing to community betterment."ll

This type of principal, who is a real educator, is the one who

knows that a child's education is his total experience--not just part

of it. He can see the value of the whole school program in its entire-

ty.

4. "The principal who has the courage to break with tradi-
tions."12

This type principal will make for the improvement of the entire

school program. He does not only break the traditions of the school

but he is able to save many students who would have quit school because

of the old traditional curriculum.

5. "The principal who is deeply concerned with the individual
growth of pupils and teachers."13

This type principal sets the tone of the school. He realizes that

the school is not his. He is a good classroom visitor. He is always

available to students and teachers.




1mbid. p. 73.



13bid., p. 73










15
6. "The principal who plans for his professional growth."14

This type of principal realizes that his teachers cannot grow

unless he grows himself. He knows that unless he grows, he will become

unhappy, cynical, bitter, pickled in the vinegar of his own disappoint-

ments.

7. "The principal who thinks he has just about the nicest job
in the whole school system."15

The principal who is enthusiAstic about the principalship is the

one who is fortunate to see the growth almost from day to day in boys

and girls, and often teachers. He can see growth in himself, too, as

he develops more skill in competing with the oncoming ranks of problems

which beset him.

Lane16 believes that the successful principal is probably thirty

or forty years of age. He has a personality which appeals favorably

to fellow teachers, children, parents, and the general public. He is

well-groomed and would be accepted by a casual acquaintance as a success-

ful business man. He has a well-controlled sense of humor. He appears

to enjoy contacts with people and is versed in the social amenities.

He bears the marks of good birth and good breeding. He has a rich

cultural background and his conversation is not restricted to school

affairs.


^Tbid, p. 74.

151bid. p. 74.

16Robert Hill Lane, The Principal in The Modern Elementary School.
New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1944, pp. 10-12.










16

He is a successful classroom teacher who enjoys the company of

children and guides their learning wisely and effectively. He has

had a rich background of experience in several elementary schools

and has been successful in adjusting himself to various types of

children.

His record shows that he is popular with children, fellow teachers,

and parents, not only because of his success as a principal but because

of his personality, and his sterling character. He makes decisions

promptly and wisely and preserves his independence of thought and

action without being opinionated or militant.

He has taken a keen interest in the general welfare of the schools

with which he has been connected. His sphere of influence extends far

beyond his classroom into the life of the entire school and into the

homes represented. He is always willing to assume responsibility for

duties and enterprises which are assigned him. He is even-tempered

and does not allow the petty irritations of the day's work to upset

his poise or his sense of humor.

He possesses a modern philosophy of education which he carries out

successfully in his daily work. He thinks through his educational pro-

blems slowly and is not unduly influenced by current educational fads.

He has an attractive office set-up which is open to the teachers and

pupils.

He values the friendship, respect, and confidence of the parents

of his pupils. He makes every effort to cooperate fully with parents

to the end that their children may grow fully in all directions in










17


which growth is possible. He must also be alert to the physical,

social and emotional needs of children as he is to their intellectual

needs. He takes an active part in the work of parent organizations.

He has a rich, full and varied personal life outside of school

hours. He is modest. He has a professional point of view toward the

work in which he is engaged. He is a student of education, not only

in university courses, but through his own thinking and reading. He

is well-informed on educational progress. He leads the good life.

Hunt lists eleven qualities which he feels a principal should

possess if he is to be successful.

1. "Exhibit real expertness in human relations and take a
genuine interest in the good fortunes, worries, and
difficulties of associates.

2. "Keep their associates informed concerning the more
perplexing problems of schools and encourage staff parti-
cipation in their solution.

3. "Know how to delegate responsibility and how to allow
freedom in discharging it.

4. "Do not irritate their colleagues by petty regulations
that are designed primarily to control the few.

5. "Courageous in protecting associates against unwarranted
criticisms by pupils, parents, or pressure groups.

6. "Make vigorous efforts to cultivate in pupil an en-
thusiastic loyalty, strong pride, and a real affection
for a given school.

7. "Generous in commending good work of associates, pupils
and parents.

8. "Resist temptations to become cynical, pessimistic, and
disgruntled, and exhibit a real enthusiasm for the im-
portance of their work.
















I)











I


18
9. "Grasp the broader educational or organizational problems
of schools and do not get lost in a maze of time con-
suming details.

10. "Strives for teamwork and usually use 'we' and 'our'
rather than 'I' and 'mine' in discussing successes and
problems of school.

11. Organize, deputize, supervise, and sometimes compromise."17

The research tends to show that principals of high schools have

had a greater amount of training than principals of elementary schools,

and the training of principals in the large schools has been greater

than that of principals in the small schools. Jacobson and others said

that "it is only natural that junior and senior high school principals

should have acquired more training than elementary school principals

because of the salary differential.N18 This does not imply that

greater training is required for the secondary school principalship,

nor that it is more important.

On the whole, it is fair to say that principals are generally

better trained than teachers, that the master's degree is becoming

almost a prerequisite for the selection of principals, and the doctor's

degree has not yet been required of many public school principals.

A school moves upward and forward according to the quality of

leadership provided, and it is the principal who should lead in the

solution of its problems and secure for the school the cooperation of

the teachers and of the community. Mentally alive and always restless,


17Herold C. Hunt, "The Principals An Analysis of Leadership," The
Clearing House. XVIII, Number 1, (September, 1953), p. 49.

18Jacobson, et. al., o_. cit., p. 58E4.










19
moving forward and upward, the principal should guide and guard the

development of the school. He must have intellectual courage and he

must be willing to take a risk.

In selecting a principal, Worth19 believes that the following

qualities should be considered:

1. Leadership. He should possess personal and educational
characteristics which will make for a successful leader.

2. Personality. He should be well-adjusted and have ranging
interests.

3. Cooperation. He should be as good a follower as leader,
and willing to weigh other points of view.

4. loyalty. He should be loyal to his profession, superiors
and subordinates.

5. Responsibility. He should be able to carryout responsi-
bilities successfully and cheerfully.

6. Evaluative ability. He should be able to evaluate edu-
cational research and his school program.

7. Human understanding. He should have an understanding of
people of different faiths, different abilities, and dif-
ferent beliefs.

8. efficiency. He should have time well scheduled and carried
out.

9. Foresight. He should be able to plan long-term projects.

10. Executive ability. He should be able to delegate duties
and let them be carried out.

11. Judgment. He should be able to make concrete decisions
and critically analyze total school program.

12. Interest in community activities. He should be able to
know how many community activities to participate in and
guide his faculty members in that direction.


19Charles L. Worth, "Selection of High School Principal," American
School Board, CIII, (July, 194), p. 49.









20
When members of a group have complete freedom in the choice of

a leader (Principal), they select a person who believes in the dignity

and value of other people.

Hopper and Bills state that the qualities of a good principal are:

"Democratic attitudes, respect for the integrity of others, ability to

organize, understanding of the Job, and acceptance of himself and be-

lief that others accept themselves."20

In the early days of this country's history, many principals were

born and reared in the community in which they later became teachers or

principals. A teacher often taught members of his own family and the

children of friends and acquaintances. He also was a member of various

community groups, such as the church, civic organizations and community

clubs. Teacher-community relations were close and intimate. As prin-

cipals and teachers were imported from the outside they were expected

to become a part of the community, affiliate themselves with a local

religious body, and participate in worthy community projects.

This situation still holds in American towns and villages. How-

ever, in larger cities there gradually has been evidenced a decided

decrease of teacher participation in the affairs of the school community.

The modern city principal lives miles awpy from his school. His leisure

time activities may be far removed, both in space and kind, from those

of the ccmmDunity that he serves as a principal.



20Robert L. Hopper and Robert E. Bills, "What's a Good Admini.trator
Made of?" The School Executive, LXXIX, Number 1, (March, 1955), pp. 93-95.










21
Crow and CrOIl believe that many present-day principals are recog-

nizing the fact that an increased knowledge of the environmental factors

affecting their pupils will increase their own power to guide learning

activities. As community groups are organized for the improvement of

community welfare, many principals should give their active support to

such projects.

In the principal's participation in community affairs, he should not

let his enthusiasm run away with his good sense; he must use discretion

regarding the extent to which he engages in such projects.

After extensive study of the professional needs for educational

leadership in the American secondary schools, Hubbard22 states that

the National Association of Secondary School Principals proposed a

minimum annual salary for every professionally trained and qualified

principal of an accredited secondary school according to its size and

the amount of responsibility for its administrative head. It was found

that the minimum salary of the principal should range from $6,000 upward

for schools with an enrollment of two hundred or fewer than five hundred

and a teaching staff of twenty to twenty-four; $8,000 for schools with

an enrollment of five hundred or fewer than one thousand two hundred-

fifty and a teaching staff of twenty-five to fifty-nine; and $10,000



21Lester Crow and Alice Crow, Introduction to Education. New Yorks
American Book Company, 1947, p. 218.

22F. W. Hubbard, "Salary Standards for Principals of Secondary
Schools," The Bulletin of Secondary School Principal, XXIXVIII, No. 198
(December, 1953), p. 11.











22

with an enrollment of one thousand two hundred-fifty to two thousands

five hundred and a teaching staff of sixty to one hundred or more.

This minimum salary is based on the fact that the principal must have

the minimum professional qualifications of training and experience

which include:

1. "Graduation from college; a bachelor's degree along with
professional preparation for teaching; general education
necessary for the orientation of the individual in the
universal area of human need.

2. "A master's degree with emphasis on secondary-school ad-
ministration broadly conceived as a national minimum
requirement.

3. "Three years of successful teaching experience with the
major portion on the secondary school level."23

Annual increments of $300 should begin the second year and each

year thereafter for a period of at least fifteen years. It is assumed

that such increments will be given to all principals who grow profession-

ally and can be adjudged efficient and effective professional leaders

in their schools.

Jacobson and others summarize their writings on the principal in

this manner:

"The principal must be a student of education and edu-
cational problems. He must find time for the analytical
study of his duties and repDnsibilities and the appraisal
of the work and activities of his school. On the basis of
a broad factual knowledge of his position, he can project
plans of a professional character. These things are neces-
sary if he is to play his proper role in improving the


23Ibid. p. 11


' C ~ l !,!,_ "!" .',,. .. .. . .. .. .










23


quality of the educational services of youth and furnish
professional leadership to the school staff. The scope of
his influence on education will be determined largely by
his own conception of the possibilities inherent in the prin-
cipalship.n24

The review of the related literature is concluded with the writings

of Sensebaugh, who says:

"A good principal is one who is blessed with personal
characteristics essential to the effective operation of a
school. He is endowed with intellectual power sufficient
to resolve the multiplicity of problems occurring daily,
and has the wisdom and foresight to discern the effect of
his decisions on the course of events in the future. He
has the ability to organize the many activities of his
school into a systematic and smoothly operating unit.

"He is a man of integrity. He is honest and forthright
in his dealings with the many and varied individuals having
association with him, yet he is friendly and pleasant to all.

"He has developed a wholesome philosophy of life which
serves to give direction and consistency to his daily actions.

"He is a specialist in human engineering. He is able to
stimulate all-the teachers on his staff, the pupils of the
school, the service employees, the parents of the children,
and citizens of the community-to move toward desirable group
goals.

"He serves the community as its chief educational leader.
He is sought out by the community for advice on educational
matters; in turn, he offers his services when the community
can profit from them. He knows the community and encourages
his school to become an integral part of community life.

"The good principal is a good teacher. He is instrumental
in providing the climate for good teaching in his school. He


2-4acobson.,. Q. citi, 589


I~ ______









24


recognizes the elements leading to effective learning and
knows when it is taking place. He knows what to do to in-
prove the learning situation and takes steps to that end.w25

The writer summarizes her opinion about the principal in a very

few words. He is looked upon as the top man of the community. He

has to lead the "life" which is considered the "good life." He has

to possess the characteristics and qualifications not expected of

any other person in the community.
































25James A. Senbaugh, "Who is a Good Principal?" The National
Elementary Principal, XXXII, Number 6, (May, 1953), p. 9.














CHAPTER III


PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA


In an effort to collect data for this study, questionnaires were

sent to all of the principals of the accredited Negro high schools of

Florida as well as schools which were being evaluated.

Visits to the Department of Certification, State Department of

Education, were made to collect available data on the history of

Negro high school accreditation. Statistical reports secured from

the office of the Negro Specialist of Secondary Schools were used in

comparing the validity of certain data received on questionnaires

from principals. Visits were also made to the Office of the Executive

Secretary of the Florida State Teachers' Association in an attempt to

make the data collection all inclusive.

At the time this study was undertaken, there were 38 accredited

Negro high schools in Florida and eight were being evaluated. Of the

total number of accredited schools, 73 per cent of the questionnaires

sent were returned, and of the total number of schools being evaluated,

66.5 per cent of the questionnaires sent were returned. Of the com-

bined total of questionnaires sent, 72 per cent of the questionnaires

sent were returned. These accredited schools are found in nine of the

10 districts of Florida.










26

The normative survey method of research was used to investigate

this problem. Tables will be used to present in graphic form infor-

mation derived from the questionnaires.

After collecting and computing the data, the writer endeavored

to interpret and analyze the results as shown in this chapter.

Information presented in Table I shows the findings from question-

naires completed by principals included in this study.



TABLE I

RESULTS OF QUESTIONNAIRES RECEIVED
FROM PRINCIPALS

N o o f : :-: : -i ii I L Il | ,,,, ,,,m


No. of
Districts Counties

I 2

II 3

III 0

IV 3

V 3

VI 6

VII 4

VIII 2

IX 2

X 2


No. of Principals No. of Principals Per Cent
Sent Replying to of
Questionnaires Questionnaires Participation

2 2 100

4 3 75

0 0 0

4 2 50

4 2 50

14 11 78

4 4 100

3 2 67

3 2 67

7 5 71


Totals 27 46 33 72
'II ~ r ., !- ...-. "". ,I, !1 -,.,~im)ml, ,III,~ ;,l ,1


wwa


w










27
Table I represents all of the Negro accredited high schools of

Florida. In the State, there are 10 districts and 67 counties. Of

the 10 districts, nine were used in this study. District Number III,

located in the northwest section of the state, represents the single

District not having an accredited Negro high school. Twenty-seven

counties of the 67 were selected for this study. The number of

counties with accredited high schools ranged from two to six within

the districts.

There were 46 questionnaires sent to principals and 33 question-

naires sent were returned. Two districts responded 100 per cent in

questionnaire returns, Districts I and VII. There were no districts

falling below 50 per cent of returns. The largest number of question-

naires (14) were sent to District VI. One county within that district

alone has six accredited schools.

By the end of the deadline date for returns, only 25 principals

had responded to the questionnaire. A second copy and a letter re-

questing an urgent return to the questionnaire were sent to others

who had not replied, and eight responded to the second request.

The questionnaire used in this study was prepared under the

supervision of the Department of Administration and Supervision and

and office of the Negro Specialist for Secondary Education in the State.

The information presented in Table II reveals the marital status

of principals.





















I,


TABLE II

MARITAL STATUS OF PRINCIPALS


Number of
Marital Status. Principals Percentage

Married 33 100

Single 0 0

Divorced 0 0

Totals 33 100



As revealed in Table II, all principals included in this study

are married. It is believed that this factor should contribute to the

stability of principals.

The information presented in Table III shows the number of prin-

cipals with children in their families.



TABLE III

NUMBER OF PRINCIPALS WITH CHILDREN
IN THEIR FAMILIES

Number of Number of
Children Principals Percentage
0 18 54.5

1 7 21.2

2 6 18.2

3 2 6.1

Totals 33 100.0


28











.r















i


The data presented in Table III reveal that 54.5 per cent of

the principals do not have children; 21.2 per cent have one child;

18.2 per cent have two children; and 6.1 per cent have three chil-

dren. To have a child of their own should help them better understand

children and their problems in the school.

The information presented in Table IV shows the age range of

principals.



TABLE IV

AGE RANGE OF PRINCIPALS


SNumber of
Age Range Principals Percentage

30- 39 5 15.2

40 49 19 57.6

50- 59 9 27.3


Totals 33 100.1*

*All differences over three times Standard Error.


The data presented in Table IV show that 57.6 per cent of the

principals' ages ranged from 40 49; 27.3 per cent ranged from

50 59; and 15.2 per cent ranged from 30 39.

Lanel pointed out that the successful principal is probably 30

or 40 years of age. At that age his personality should appeal


iRobert Hill Lane, The Principal in The Modern Elementary School.
New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1944, p. 10.


29










30


favorably to fellow teachers, children, parents, and the general

public.

Bailey2 pointed out that no person shall be employed as a prin-

cipal of a school of three or more teachers who has not had two or

more years of experience as a teacher and attained the age of 23

years.

The information presented in Table V shows the religious affi-

liation of principals.



TABLE V

RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION OF PRINCIPALS


Religious Number of .- .
Faith Principals Percentae

Protestant 30 90.9

Catholic 3 9.1

Totals 33 100.0


The data presented in Table V revealed that 90.9 per cent of prin-

cipals belong to the Protestant faith and 9.1 per cent of the principals

belong to the Catholic faith. As a member of the community, he should

participate in the church life. The church is one social institution

through which the principal can interpret the school to the community.

The information presented in Table VI shows the undergraduate

majors and sources of formal education of principals

2Thomas D. Bailey, Standards for Accreditation of Florida Schools.
Tallahassee, Florida: State Department of Education, 1954, p. 14.







TABLE VI


UNDERGRADUATE MAJORS AND SOURCES OF FORMAL
EDUCATION OF PRINCIPALS


Under- I _____NSTITUTIONS
graduate Hemp-. Morris More- Syra- Tuske- Wilber-' Num-
Ma.ors Bethune Bisho Clark FAMU ton Brown house cause gee force Wiley Xavier ber
Agri- ... -
culture _____________ 3 ______ _.. 3

Business __1 1 2

English 2- 1 1.___ ____

Edu catio .......1 1.. ,.. .... ... ..L. 3
Elementary
Education 1I 1 2

History ____ 2 1 3
Industrial
Education ______ 2 2_____

Mathematics 1 1 1_ _3
Social
Studies 1 1

$Scie nce,____ .__ 1 1 ...1 1.. .. 9
tnclas si-
fled 1
Totals 1 1 1 16 1 2 3 1 3 1 1 1 33

*All differences over three times Standard Ervor.


Per-
centae

9.1







6.1

9.1
6.1

9,1

3*0

27.3

3.0
100.1*


H3


C
--.~-i










32
The information presented in Table VI shows the formal education

of principals involved in this study. The field of specialization

for one principal was not given, and as a result was listed on the

table as unclassified. The table revealed that even though the

principals had completed their formal education, it seemed that

they had not made plans to become administrators during their under-

graduate years because of pursuit of their fields of specialization.

In the schools of Florida, both elementary and secondary, only five

of the 33 principals received their formal training in education.

There were three trained in agriculture, two in business; four in

English, three in history; two in industrial education; three in

mathematics; one in social studies; and nine in science. These

results seemed to imply that these principals went into the principal-

ship because of the inspiration for an administrative or higher position.

Some of the fields in which formal education was received were not even

closely related to Administration and Supervision.

Unruh3 states that "students of school administration, school

officials, and college professors are currently engaged in examining

the work, preparation, recruitment, and selection of school admin-

istrators.* If this is a truism, the future high school principal

will have to plan his course of study very carefully to meet the

requirements. It is felt that all school principals should be trained

in administration and supervision.



3Adolph Unruh, "Administrators Look at Their Preparation," hi
Delta Kappan, Volume XXXVIII, Number 9, (June, 1957), p,. 376.






























r






:
I




r


33

The table further revealed that only 16 of the 33 principals

received their formal education in the state of Florida,

Although principals are better educated today than ever before,

the challenge and tasks facing them are greater. French and others4

state that the principal of 1849 had little formal preparation for

his administrative tasks, but he dealt with a high selected student

body that had common goals and that was learning to live in a simple

and comparatively static society. The high school principal today

works with almost all the youth of the community as they are learn-

ing to live in a complex and changing society. The high school

principal needs to plan, work, and study continuously to make the

school into what it ought to become. With the crisis that confronts

him, he must be a policy maker, leader, and not only an office

manager, but an educational statesman,

The information presented in Table VII shows prior teaching ex-

perience of principals.















4Will French, et. al., American High School Policy and Practice.
New York: Rinehart and Company, 1957, p. 120.












34


TABLE VII

PRIOR TEACHING EXPERIENCE OF PRINCIPALS


Prior Teaching
Experience
(No, of Yrs,)

0

1- 3

4- 6

7- 9

10 12

13.- 15

16 18

19 21


Number

8

9

9

3

1

2

0

1


Percentage

24.2

27.3

27.3

9.1

3.0

6.1

.0

3.0


Totals 33 100.0


The data presented in Table VII revealed that eight of the prin-

cipals included in this study, entered the principalship without any

prior teaching experience, and that 54.6 per cent of them entered

after one to six years of teaching experience,


- I
~" I


wimmo


.. .. T : J


----- -


earomo





5Lane, oZE cit. pp. 10-12.


_1_~ ~_ _I__~L I___~


35

The eight principals who have had no teaching experience may

pose a big question in many readers' minds. This was pointed out

by lane in his statement: "A successful principal is a good class-

room teacher who enjoys the company of children and guides their

learning wisely and effectively."5

The state of Florida has adopted a policy which is felt to be

Justifiable--the person who qualified in administration and super-

vision must possess at least two to three years of teaching experience.

This experience will enable the future principal to actually get the

work-experience with students and classroom situations. Those type

experiences are "not learned in books, but acquired by actual doing."

The data presented in Table VIII show the graduate majors and

sources of advanced professional training of principals.







TABLE VIII


GRADUATE MAJORS AND SOURCES OF PROFESSIONAL ADVANCED
TRAINING OF PRINCIPALS


Masters INSTITUTES p
Majors Atlanta-i Chicago Columbia Cornell Fla A M Hampton Michigan N. Y Number c
Univ Univ Univ Univ Univ Institute Univ Univ
Administration
and Super-
vision .....__ 5 3 7 3 3 21



History 1 _____________________________________1
Industrial
Fdqcation 1________ ________ 1 _____ 1

Mathematics ______________ 1
Physical.
Education____ 1 _______1 2
Secondary
Education .1 1 1 1 4

Unclassified ____________________________2
Totals 8 1 4 1 7 3 1 6 33


*All differences over three times Standard Error.


er-
entage



63.6

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

6.1

12.1

6.1

99.9*

==.










37
The information presented in Table VIII revealed the graduate

majors and sources of advanced professional training of the prin-

cipals. One principal did not list his field of specialization, and

one does not hold a master's degree. Those two principals are listed

on the table as unclassified.

Even though these principals are serving in the capacity of

school administrators, only 63.6 per cent are trained in Administration

and Supervision. Three per cent of the principals hold higher degrees

in English, history, industrial education and mathematics respectively;

6.1 per cent hold degrees in physical education; 12.1 per cent hold

degrees in secondary education; and 6.1 per cent are listed as un-

classified.

This advanced professional training was received from selected

southern and northern universities. Eight principals received their

degrees from Atlanta University; one received his degree from Chicago

University; four received degrees from Columbia University; one re-

ceived his degree from Cornell University; seven received degrees from

Florida A and M University; three received degrees from Hampton In-

stitute; one received his degree from Michigan University; and six

received degrees from New York University. Since these principals

are Floridians, the thought could be entertained that the state uni-

versity would be responsible for at least 75 per cent of the degrees

in higher education. Then too, this could be contributed to the fact

that the university is young.










38

With the demands placed upon the high school principal today,

it will be doubtful if any future principals will be hired without

a master's degree.

Jacobson and others6 state that on a whole the principals are

generally better trained than teachers, that the masters degree is

becoming almost a prerequisite for the selection of principals, and

the doctor's degree has not yet been required of many public high

schools. Since quite a few teachers in high schools are securing

master degrees, there is reason to believe that any one who aspires

for the principalship in the future will seek a doctor's degree.

The data presented in Table IX show prior teaching-principal

experience of principals.























Paul B. Jacobson, et. al., The Effective School Principal. New
Yorkt Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1954., p. 584.










39


TABLE I3

PRIOR TEACHING-PRINCIPAL EXPERIENCE OF PRINCIPALS


u m be o


Number of
Principals

1

I

I
1


Number of
Different
Schools

1

0

0


Date
Range

1918 -

1924 -

1933 -

1934 -
1943 -

1935 -

1936 -

1937 -

1937 -

1949 -


Percentage

.10

.10

.10


.10

.10

.10

.10

.10

.10


Total 9 8 100



The data presented in Table IX revealed the principals who had

performed the duties of teaching-principals before entering their

present positions. It revealed that nine principals also taught re-

gular classes, and eight principals changed schools from one to two

times. The dates for these types of duties renged from 1918 1955.

One principal performed teaching-principal duties in two different

school at different dates.


2

2

1

1



0
IL


1922

1928

1948

1936
1947

1939

1939

1939

1944

1955


Ir


- -


so










40
There were no available data on the size of these schools at the

time these principals were serving as principal-teachers, but it is

believed that these were small schools. As school enrollment grew

larger and less highly selected, the principal was freed of his

teaching duties for part of the time. French and others7 state that

the principal was assigned the responsibility of visiting the class-

rooms and giving instruction to teachers; therefore, he must be

relieved of the teaching duties. Increasingly principals have been

freed from teaching duties so that they could devote greater efforts

to professional leadership.

The principal is now held responsible for the improvement of

instruction, as well as for management, in the local school. With

the duties required of the office of the principal, along with

management and instruction, he would be overworked with teaching

classes. The principal must have time for planning the activities

of the school.

Information presented in Table X reveals the community partici-

pation of principals.


7French, et. al., op. cit., p. 571


___ __ __ __I












TABLE X

COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION OF PRINCIPALS

-Number of : .
Commupjty Activity Principals

American Legion 2

American Red Cross 5

American Cancer Society 2

Business League I

Boy Scouts 4

Chamber of Commerce 1

Church 17

Citizens Council 1

Civic League 6

City Council 1

Democratic Club I

Elks Organization 5

Human Relations Council I

International Council 2

Masonic Organizations 3

PTA 2

Recreation Club 1

T. B. Association 3

USO I

Urban League 2

YMCA 5

Unclassified 4
Total


lube Holding _~


number Holding
Offices

2

3

1

0

4

0

15

1

4

1

0

4

1

2

3

1

0

3

0

2

4

0
51


41


woII


wammp"N


_1 _I ___~ ~ __ ___ _/ L
_ _____ __ __ __ ~ __ ~










42

The information presented in Table X revealed the community

participation of principals. There were two principals affiliated

with the American Legion and holding offices; five affiliated with

the American Red Cross, and three holding offices; two are affiliated

with the American Cancer Society and one holding an office; one is af-

filiated with the Business League and holds no office; four afe

affiliated with the Boy Scouts and holding offices; one is affiliated

with the Chamber of Commerce and holds no office; 17 are affiliated

with the Church and 15 holding office; one is affiliated with the

Citizens Council and holding office; six are affiliated with the Civic

League, and four holding offices; one is affiliated with the Democratic

Club, and holds no office; five are affiliated with the Elks Organization,

and four holding offices; two are affiliated with the International Re-

lations Council, and holding offices; three are affiliated with PTA

and holds no office; one is affiliated with the Recreation Club and

holds no office; three are affiliated with the T. B. Association, and

three holding offices; one is affiliated with the USO and hold no office;

two are affiliated with the Urban League and holding offices; and five

are affiliated with the YMCA, and four holding offices. Four principals

did not list any community activity participation. The validity of com-

munity activity could be questioned due to the PTA affiliation of only

two participants. With the problems that a principal has to face, there

seems to be little likehooad that he would direct a school program without

affiliating with the PTA Organization.










43

The success of a principal depends largely upon community parti-

cipation. He must be able to interpret the school to the community.

Jacobson and others8 state that the community activities of the prin-

cipal represent an important part of his responsibilities. These

activities may not require more than a few hours per week, but those

should be made as productive as possible. Usually the principal is

the key to a successful program of interpretation in the community.

His activities with the community will demonstrate his interest in

the welfare of the boys and girls.

The principal must have the highest ideals for himself, the school,

the community, and his profession.

As a citizen in the community, he is expected to live within the

community and enjoy its social and civic life freely. He is expected

to serve on civic planning groups, be a member of a service club, and

leads in the study of school and community by community study groups.

The principal is the one person who is looked upon with high

ideal in the community. More is expected of him than any other pro-

fessional in the community.

The information presented in Table XI shows the salary ranges of

principals.


Jacobson, et. al., o_. cit., p. 588.


__I _










44


TABLE XI

SALARY RANGES OF PRINCIPALS


Salary Number of
Ranges Principals Percentage

Above $8,000 4 12.1

$7,000 $8,000 7 21.2

$6,000 $7,000 12 36.4

$5,000 $6,000 8 24.2

$4,000 $5,000 2 6.1

Totals 33 100.0 .


The data presented in Table XI revealed the salary ranges of prin-

cipals. Thirty-six and four tenths of the principals received salaries

ranging from $6,000 to $7,000. One principal drew a salary ranging be-

tween $5,000 to $6,000 with a Bachelor's degree. Six and one tenth

per cent of principals received salaries ranging between $4,000 to

$5,000; 24.2 per cent received salaries ranging between $5,000 to $6,000;

21.2 per cent received salaries ranging between $7,000 to $8,000; and

12.1 per cent received salaries above $8,000.

Hubbard9 states that in 1948 the National Association of Secondary

School Principals proposed a minimum annual salary for every profession-

ally trained and qualified principal of an accredited secondary school



9F. W. Hubbard, "Salary Standards for Principals of Secondary
Schools," The Bulletin of Secondary School Principals. XXXVII, No. 198,
(December, 1953), p. 11.










45

according to its size and the amount of responsibility for its admin-

istrative head. The minimum salary should range from $6,000 upward.

The four principals whose salaries ranged above $8,000 are prin-

cipals of four of the larger high schools of the state.

The information presented in Table XII shows the number of pro-

fessional meetings attended by principals.



TABLE XII

PROFESSIONAL MEETINGS ATTENDED BY PRINCIPALS


Number of
Meetings
Attended

2

3

4

5


Number of
Principals

1

5

16

6


6

7


Percentage

3.0

15.2

48.5

18.2

3.0

12.1


1

4


Totals 33 100.0


Information presented in Table XII shows the number of profession-

al meetings attended by principals. All principals attended at least

two or more of some type of professional meetings during the school

year. Four principals attended as many as seven professional meetings


pum"Nomm


LLJlI_ _t .L _[ I. L 1 J[ L II . . ,


~~-~--- ~ ~ -~~~- ~ -- I-- LLl -lt


AllJo .










46

within the year; one attended six; six attended five; 16 attended

four, five attended three; and one attended two.

About 95 per cent of the professional meetings included the Florida

State Teachers' Association and the Principals' Annual Conference.

The information presented in Table XIII shows membership of prin-

cipals in professional societies.



TABLE XIII

MEMBERSHIP IN PROFESSIONAL SOCIETIES OF PRINCIPALS


Membership in
Professional Number of
Societies Principals Percentage
6 1 3.0

3 6 18.2

4 6 18.2

2 9 27.3

1 11 33.3

Totals 33 100.0


The data presented in Table XIII show the membership of principals

in Professional Societies. All principals are members of at least one

professional society. One principal belongs to six professional

societies; six belong to three; six belong to four; nine belong to two;

and 11 belong to one.











47


The most popular professional societies among the principals

are the State Principals' Organization, Florida State Teachers' Asso-

ciation and their local teachers' association.

The data presented in Table XIV show professional books purchased

by principals.



TABLE XIV

PROFESSIONAL BOOKS BOUGHT BY PRINCIPALS
DURING PRESENT YEAR

1'iue or Nibe or- -- ---; ----- ------ -- --- ---------


Number of m
Books P

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

8

9

10

12

20

Totals

*All differences over three


=mber of
principals

5

1


4

3

5

3

4

2

1

2

2

1

33

times


Percentage

15.2

3.0

12.1

9.1

15.2

9.1

12.1

6.1

3.0

6.1

6.1

3.0

100.1*


Standard Error.


*


No"


- 1--


4"










48
The data presented in Table XIV reveal the number of books pur-

chased by principals. Five principals bought no professional books

this year. One principal purchased one book; four purchased twoq

three purchased three; five purchased four; three purchased five; four

purchased six; two purchased eight; one purchased nine; two purchased

10; two purchased 12; and one purchased 20. One principal revealed

in his questionnaire that he does not maintain a professional library

for his staff and faculty.

No matter what his training and experience, unless the principal

maintains a constant interest in professional books and magazines,

his usefulness will soon be impaired. Many of the best books in the

field of secondary education are of comparatively recent date. He

would have to be selective in his reading, for he cannot read every-

thing in secondary education. A general interest in all ideas that

bear upon his work can keep him abreast of the rapid changes.

The information presented in Table XV reveals the number of pro-

fessional periodicals subscribed to by principals.














PROFESSIONAL PERIODICALS


TABLE XV

SUBSCRIBED TO BY PRINCIPALS


Nu be of______ --~_


Number of
Periodicals

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

10

15


Number of.


Number of
Principals

1

1

6

8

8

2

2

2

2

1


Percentage

3.0

3.0

18.2

24.2

24.2

6.1

6.1

6.1

6.1

3.0


Totals 33 100.0
- .- .... 'T "'" ... ... .. ... .. ... 1. .. 1. ". '" ........ '1"" = 'i 1 -- 1 ""


The data presented in Table XV reveal the number of professional

periodicals subscribed to by principals. All principals subscribed to

some type of professional periodical ranging from one to 15.

There seems to be an indication that principals in this study

do not subscribe to enough professional periodicals and books. DouglaslO




10Harl R. Douglas, Organization and Administration of Secondary
Schools. Boston: Ginn and Company, 1945, p. 554.


49


memo"


------









50
pointed out that the high school principal should invest at least

fifty to sixty dollars a year in professional books, journals, and

organizations.

The principals have a general responsibility for keeping in-

formed concerning what is going on in the world, about the trends in

all phases of life with which the average citizen is likely to be

concerned, and about the problems which the pupils now in school must

fact in future years.













CHAPTER IV


SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND REC AMENDATIONS


summary. The school principalship is a professional position

requiring specific preparation on the part of the individual who as-

pires to fill it successfully. Experienced teachers who have merely

acquired the technique of managing unruly children and irate parents

can no longer be considered adequately prepared for the duties of the

principalship.

The high school principalship is the oldest administrative

position in American education. It antedates both the superintendency

and the elementary school principalship. That the early high school

principalship was not a professional position as it is conceived in

progressive school systems today is illustrated by the duties the

early principal was called upon to perform.

Few records are available for accredited Negro high schools in

Florida which report on qualifications attained by principals of these

schools. In the last twenty-three years, there have been thirty-eight

accredited Negro high schools in Florida. There were eight being

evaluated in the spring of 1957.

There are certain basic qualifications the high school principal

should possess: First, he must understand thoroughly the culture--

its problems, alternates, and commitments--in which he lives and works;









52

second, he must have a thorough understanding of the appropriate role

of the school in that culture; third, he must have skill in inter-

preting the culture and the role of the school in providing cultural

media to teachers and to the laymen in his community; and fourth, he

must be able to help teachers and other personnel in identifying their

problems which are related to the role of the school,

No one could so well list the qualifications of the high school

principal without considering certain personal characteristics that

the principal should possess. They are listed as: first, character--

a man who stands for justice; second, appearance--which can be done

by (1) cleanliness, (2) personal pride, (3) an awareness of modern styles

and customs, and (4) a realization of the effects of color; third, in-

telligence--strives to improve his mentality; fourth, kindliness-a

man who is considerate and sympathetic; fifth, fairness--willing to

listen to every teachers point and consider it for the welfare of the

group; sixth, a good listener--he waits until the teacher has presented

his case before breaking in with an explanation; and seventh, backs up

his teachers-he does not bend his ear to outsiders but to his faculty

first.

The writer summarizes the well-qualified principal as a person

who possesses the following qualifications:

at least 30 years of age

holds a master's degree

major field of specialization--Administration and Supervision









53

S attends principals' annual conference and meetings yearly.

invests at least $60 in professional periodicals, books
and organizations yearly,

actively participates in community activities.

provides professional guidance for staff.

continues improving his professional growth.


Conclusions. The study is concluded by a presentation of possible

answers to the specific problems. It was concluded that:

All of the principals studied are formally educated.

Eight principals entered the principalship as their first position.

Twenty-eight principals changed from other fields into the prin-

cipalship.

All principals except four participated in some form of community

activity.

All principals except one maintain professional libraries for

faculties.

Academic qualifications of principals of larger and smaller schools

compare favorably.

Principals do not do professional writing.

All principals are members of some type of professional organi-

sation.

All principals subscribe to professional periodicals and purchase

professional books.

Principals do a small percentage of professional travel, but no

foreign travel.









54

Principals' salaries fall below the standards set up by the NEA

in 1948.


Recommendations. In the light of findings revealed in this study

and other related information, it is recommended that:

More professional training in the immediate area of concentration

on the part of the administrators and prospective administrators be

given consideration, especially in administration and supervision.

Standards for principals of accredited schools be specifically

stated in the Standards for Accreditation of Florida Schools.

The principals be required to do professional study every two

years.

The principal accept the responsibility of keeping the community

well-informed on educational practices and trends, through his own

participation in community life.

Principals be required to make frequent studies and constantly

evaluate their accomplishments to meet the increasing demands of society.

Principals be encouraged to do professional writing.

A wider selection of schools offering professional training be

represented by principals employed in Florida.

Attendance at principals' conferences be mandatory.

Principals encourage and stimulate professional growth on the

part of faculty members.










55

Principals be adequately prepared to help teachers who need in-

structional leadership.

This study is recognized as an initial attempt to analyze the

qualifications of the principalship and indicates a need for further

research.



































BLBLIOGRAPHY










56


BIBLIOGRAPHY


BOOKS


Anderson, V. E., and others, Principles and Practices of Secondary
Education. New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1951.

Briggs, Thomas H., and Justman, Joseph, Improving Instruction
Through Supervision. New York; The MacMillan Company,
1954.

Cubberly, Ellwood P., T Principal and His Scho. Boston: Hough-
ton Mifflin Company, 1923.

Douglas, Harl R., Organiztation administration Secondary Schools
Boston: Ginn and Company, 1945.

Edmonson, J. B., Roemer, Joseph, Bacon, Francis L., The Administration
of the modern Secondary School. New York: The MacMilln Coim-
pany, 1953.

French, Will, and others, Hih School Administration Policy and Practices.
New York: Rinehart and Company, Inc., 1957.

Ivins, Wilson H., and Runge, William B., Work perience in High Shool.
New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1951.

Jacobson, Paul B., and others, The Effective School Principal. New
Yorkt Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1954.

Jacobson, Paul B., and others, Duties of School Principals. New Yorkt
Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1951.

Koopman, G. Robert, and others, Democracy in School Administration.
New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 1943.

Koos, leonard V., and Reavr's, W. C., Administering the Secondary School.
New York: American Book (bmpany, 1950.

Kyte, George C., h Principal A Work Boston: Ginn and Company, 1952.

lane, Robert Hill, The Principal in The Modern Elementary School
Bostont Houghton Mifflin Company, 1944.


: ~il I
a









57


Moehlman, Arthur B., School Administration.
~ifflin Company, 1940.


New York:


Reeder, Ward G., Fundamentals of School Administration.
The MacMillan Company, 1947.


Wiles, Kimball, Supervision for Better Schools.
Hall, Inc., 1951.


New York:


Houghton


New York:


Prentice-


PERIODICALS

Frick, H. L., "Qualifications of a High School Principal," National
Association of Secondary Principals Bulletin, Vol. 38, pp.
29-33, (March, 1954)

Hubbard, F. W., "Salary Standards for Principals of Secondary Schools,"
National Association of Secondary School Principals Bulletin
IXXVII, (December, 1953), p. 11.

Lynch, Audie J., "The High School Principalship," National Association
of Secondary School Principals Bulletin, XXVIII, (March, 1954)
pp. 22-24.


Jones, Edwin Win., "Does This Describe Your Principal?1
Community, (December, 1953), 40:18-19.


School and


Patton, John, "The Principal's Responsibility for the Professional
Growth of his Faculty," Education, Vol 69, (March 1949), pp.
453-57.

Reeder, Ward G., "Professional Ethics-A Code for Administrators,"
The Nation's School, Vol. 27, (January, 1941), pp. 50-51.

Worth, Charles L., "Selection of High School Principals," American
School Board, CIII, (July, 1949), p. 49.

Unruh, Adolph, "Administrators Look at Their Preparation," Phi Delta
Kappan, Vol. XXXVIII, No. 9, (June, 1957), p. 376.



































APPENDIX









58


PERSONAL DATA

1. Name ss


2. Address: (Home) _

3. Age: (Check the range which 4. Marital Status (Check one)
includes your age)

Above 60 __ Single

50 59 Married

40 -4-9 _____Divorced

30 39 Children
(How many)
Below 30

5. Religious Affiliation (Member of Church)

Yes

No

Faith


ACADEMIC DATA AND EXPERIENCE

6. Supply information requested below
Date
Degree Reg'd Major

Bachelor's

Master' s

Doctor' s
(Earned)

Doctor s
(Honorary)

Others

Additional Study


Minor


Institution


(No. of Semester Hours)


List Honors received


I~ slow



saw


li lo


-Now


~--`~- -


--










7. Indicate the number of hours completed in the following areas:
as semester hours.)


Course

Administration and Supervision

Guidance

List other related courses



0 ll I im l~l


Undergraduate
Hours


8. Teaching Experience:


Subject


DgTp ate Position or Leld

Elementary .








Secondary ___



College of Univ.



PROFESSIONAL READING, LIBRARY, WRITING, AND TRAVEL

9. How many different professional books and periodicals do you sub
yearly? -_____ Books Periodicals

10. List important magazine articles written by you (with citations)


59


Name of
School





















scribe to


11. List books written by you with titles, and dates.


(List


Graduate
Hours


-I- -`~. --~-.---..----~..~1~-. .~~- 1~-~11- --..-------1 ----.----- ------------------ ------ --- .---IL-- ---_--_.I... .__ ._I _~~~__~. __ __ ~~__

--.-- --.------ ---------------------r--- --_._~ .~~~ __1 ___ __~~ ____.__ __ ~_ ____ __~


- ~I "'--- I ... ~-


--------.-- --~----- ---- ------- ------------------ -- ---I--- -------- -..----_--____.. __~ .~__ __ _~_ ___ ~__ ____.______ __ ~ _~_~__~_~_ ____







60


12. List research completed.



13. List writing or research now in progress.



14. Indicate if you attend the professional meetings listed below:

FSTA

State Principals' Meeting

Local Teachers' Meeting

Others (List other professional travel and meetings.)




15. Do you maintain a professional library for the faculty and staff?

Yes

No

16. Active membership in learned or professional societies (List them.)




17. Membership in civic or fraternal societies (also college fraternities).

N\.I..O


FINANCE

18. Check your Salary Range.

More than $8,000

S$7,000 to $7,500

$6,000 to $6,500

$5,000 to $5,500


$4,000 to $4,500

$3,500 to $4,600

Below $3,500








61
MISCELLANEOUS

19. Check additional responsibilities other than administrative.

Coaching

Teaching

(List Others)







20. Indicate previous business activities engaged in which have contributed
to school administration.





21. Check applicable information. The school has:

Part-time Assistant Principal

Full-time Assistant Principal

.____________ Two or more Assistants

22. List community activities that you participate in and office held:

Activity Office







23. Comments



I,- I II- l ... 'l .. II-


. .... (Signature) .










62


STATE OF FLORIDA

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

Tallahassee

May 2, 1957




Mrs. Christene F. Knowles
P. 0. Box 300
Florida A and M University
Tallahassee, Florida

Dear Mrs. Knowles:

I have observed the progress of the study which you are now engaged
in with reference to the qualifications of the principals of Southern
Association accredited schools in Florida. This study is concerned
with the kind of research which we have needed for some time, but time
would not permit us to make such a detailed study as yours. The only
information secured from the principals has been the highest degree
held, which is not adequate to get a total picture of their qualifications.

I think you have a very complete questionnaire and I can assure you,
knowing the principals as I do, that you will get complete and im-
mediate returns.

Please keep us informed as to the progress you are making, and we hope
you will be kind enough to give us a copy of the study when it is com-
pleted.

Sincerely yours,



W. E. Combs, Specialist
in Secondary Education


WEC/k









63


P. 0. Box 300
Florida A and M University
Tallahassee, Florida
May 3, 1957





Mr. John Doe, Principal
High School
Florida

Dear Mr. Doe:

I am making a study of the qualifications of the Principals
of the accredited Negro high schools in Florida and wish to solicit
your kind cooperation.

Please fill out the enclosed questionnaire and return it in
the self-addressed stamped envelope by May 15, 1957. The infor-
mation received will be held in strict confidence, and no names
will be used in interpreting the data. All schools will be
tabulated by an assigned number.

The findings of this study will be available to you upon
request.

Thank you very kindly for your immediate cooperation.

Very truly yours,



Christene F. Knowles

Ac


Enclosures









64


P. 0. Box 300
Florida A and M University
Tallahassee, Florida
May 22, 1957




Mr. John Doe, Principal
High School
Florida

Dear Mr. Doe:

Between the first and third of May, you were mailed a
questionnaire with a self-addressed stamped envelope for you
to kindly fill out and return to me by the 15th.

I know you have many requests for information, and I
know you are quite involved in school activities. However,
the time you take to fill out the inclosed form will return
dividends in increased knowledge of Florida school personnel.

If you have misplaced or overlooked the first one, I am
inclosing a second copy with a self-addressed stamped envelope
for your convenience.

Please fill out the attached questionnaire and send it to
me by return mail.

Thank you very kindly for your cooperation and for your
interest in the extension of knowledge.

Very truly yours,



Christene F. Knowles


Enclosure




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