• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 Introduction to the problem
 Review of the literature
 Comparing the characteristics
 Analysis of supplementary information...
 Summary, conclusions and recom...
 Appendix
 Bibliography






Title: Comparison of certain charateristics of high school stayers and leavers in Highlands county, Florida, 1945-1949
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Title: Comparison of certain charateristics of high school stayers and leavers in Highlands county, Florida, 1945-1949
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Williams, Homer T.
Affiliation: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
Publisher: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
Publication Date: 1952
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notis - ABV5645

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
    Title Page
        Page ii
    Acknowledgement
        Page iii
    Table of Contents
        Page iv
    Introduction to the problem
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Review of the literature
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 23
    Comparing the characteristics
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Analysis of supplementary information on the socio-economic status
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Summary, conclusions and recommendations
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Appendix
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Bibliography
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
Full Text






A COMPARISON OF CERTAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH SCHOOL

STAYERS AND LEAVERS IN HIGHLANDS COUNTY, FLORIDA,

1945-1949








A THESIS
PRESENTED TO
THE FACULTY AND GRADUATE COMMITTEE OF FLORIDA

AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE








IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE

MASTER OF SCIENCE IN EDUCATION






BY
HOMER T. WILLIAMS

AUGUST 1952






1 5,


A COMPARISON OF CERTAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH SCHOOL
STAYERS AND LEAVERS IN HIGHLANDS COUNTY, FLORIDA,

1945-1949






A THESIS
PRESENTED TO
THE FACULTY AND GRADUATE COMMITTEE OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE
MASTER OF SCIENCE IN EDUCATION
BY
HOMER T. WILLIAMS
AUGUST 1952







Approved





5^^-I-^^r.












ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S


The author wishes to express his sincere appreciation

to Dr. Charles U. Smith and Mr. A. W. Wright, Co-Chairmen

of the Supervisory Committee, for their encouragement and

valuable assistance in the preparation of this thesis, and

to Dr. W. S. Maize, Director of the Division of Graduate

Study.

Grateful acknowledgement is also extended to the

committee of the faculty of the E. 0. Douglas School, who

aided in the collection of the data used in this report.

Appreciation is also given to the wife and the elder

sister of the writer, who gave kind words of encouragement.








TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER PAGE

I. INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM

Introductory Statement ....................... 1

The Community of Highlands County ............ 2

The Approach ......................*.** ... 4

Statement of the Problem ..................... 4

Purpose of the Study ......................... 5

Basic Assumption .*........................... 6

Significance and Need for the Study .......... 6

Definitions of Terms Used .................... 7

Delimitations .......................... ..... 9

Methods Used in the Study .................... 10

Sources of Data .............................. 12

Objectives of the Study ...................... 13

II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ..................... 14

III. COMPARING THE CHARACTERISTICS ................ 24

IV. ANALYSIS OF SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION ON THE
SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS ........................ 47

V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ..... 60

Summary ................................-. ...* 60

Conclusions ........................ ..... .-..* 60

Recommendations .....................********* 63

APPENDIX ......................--.------*****. 64

BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................. 68











CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM

A. Introductory Statement

Early in the month of January 1951, the Highlands

County Teachers? Association listened to a discussion of

the subject, "The Role of the School in the Community,n

by the principals of the schools of the County. One of

the principals talked about the problem of school leaving

as it affected his local community. It immediately ap-

peared to the writer that the problem of school leaving

should evoke concern on a County-Wide basis. As a prin-

cipal of one of the schools of the County, he had noticed

certain trends in the Highlands County school population

during the period of 1945-1949. He believed that a sig-

nificant study could be made by observing certain

characteristics of the school stayers and school leavers

and making comparisons. The 1945-1949 period followed

World War II and just preceded the Korean conflict, and was

therefore an era of comparative stability in the County.

The data presented will attempt to show a comparison

of the characteristics of school stayers and school leavers

as applied to a segment of the school population of Highlands

County between 1945 and 1949. The treatment of the subject

will not be exhaustive but limited in scope, due to the local

setting of the Negro schools of Highlands County.
"u ~~ ; d3








-2-
B. The Comunit of Highlands County

Highlands County,l one of the youngest in the State,

was made from Old DeSoto County in 1921. DeSoto County was

formed from Old Manatee County in 1887. The cattle industry,

the citrus industry, bulb growing, and the growing of winter

vegetables furnish the principal occupations of the County.

The sandy soil, warm temperatures and frost protection af-

forded by the nearby lakes have made the area an ideal place

for the operation of these pursuits. The improvement of the
highways in central Florida in recent years has increased

the number of winter visitors to the County. Many of these

people choose this region as their permanent home. Highlands

County has many of the necessary attributes which one might

seek for a healthful, restful, and entertaining winter visit,

and perhaps no more satisfying environment could be obtained

for those seeking retirement. Needless to say, many people

do retire to Highlands County or seek it as a winter sanc-

tuary.

The total population2 of the County in 1945 was

16,220. Out of this number, 2,885 were Negroes. The total


1The Highlands County Atlas Florida Growers Press, Tampa,
Florida, 1947.

Figures taken from the State Census.








-3-
school population3 at the time of this writing is 3,069, of
which 786 are Negroes. In the three schools available to

Negroes the present enrollment4 is as follows: the Carver

School at Lake Placid, 104; the Hopewell School at Avon Park,

277; and the Douglas School at Sebring, 405. Many of these

students are the potential laborers on the farms of the

County. In fact, children may often find work when it is

impossible for adults to do so. The reason for this is that
children may do the work more easily and economically than

grown people. The practice of hiring children to work in

the fields interferes with their progress in school. Needless

to say, there are certain laws to regulate such practices,

but they are not always enforced. Even if these laws were
enforced regularly, there are some who believe that child

labor legislation alone will be insufficient to stop child

labor. Velasco made this statement when she investigated

the attendance problem in Hillsborough County, Florida:

"Child labor legislation alone will not get rid
of child labor. Child labor will not end until
families have sufficient income to provide them-
selves a standard or decent living. It is equally
important to improve school opportunities and
strengthen compulsory attendance laws."


3Figures from the County Superintendent of Public Instruction.
Figures from the Principals' Monthly Reports.

Providence C. Velasco, A Study of Attendance Problems in
Hillsborough County, (Master's Thesis), University of
Florida, 1947, p. 47.








-4-


C. The Approach

The usual approach to this type of study would be to

attempt to discover the probable causes of elimination from

school, report whatever causes found and offer remedial

suggestions for the same. In this study, however, the at-

tempt was made to compare the school stayers and school

leavers in order to find out the differences, if any, between

the characteristics of the two.

D. Statement of the Problem

The extent of school leaving in Highlands County is

no greater than elsewhere according to the figures released

by the Office of Education.6 Apparently, the children leave

school to earn spending money for themselves and to boost the

family income. It is no wonder that some would quit school

when ten and eleven year old children may earn from five to

eight dollars daily on the farms. Another aspect of the prob-

lem is that children, due to the nature of the work, can often

get a job when adults cannot. From the economic outlook alone,

it may be seen that many parents would willingly keep their

youngsters out of school to assist with the home expenses.

From the foregoing, one would expect that more students

would quit school than actually do, but the figures will

show that quite the contrary is the case. During the 1945-

1949 period, seventy-five dropped out of high school in


6U. S. Office of Education, Statistical Summary of Education.








-5-


Highlands County, while 210 remained. The United States

Office of Education7 reports that in 1945, the year of the

beginning of this study, 428 out of every 1,000 students,

who had enrolled in grade five, entered the final year of

high school in the United States. This makes a total of

42.8 per cent for the year 1945 alone, whereas the figures

for Highlands County will average 73.7 per cent for the

entire five-year period. This indicates that while Highlands

County was in the midst of a slight dropping out, there were

many students, proportionately, who remained in school.

The writer believes that this significant fact indicates

that there were some differences in the characteristics of

the two groups of students.

E. Purpose of the Study

It was the purpose of this study to make comparisons

between the school leavers and school stayers in the follow-

ing categories: (1) achievement, (2) intelligence,

(3) socio-economic status, (4) health status, (5) behavior
patterns, and (6) retardation rate. These comparisons were

made between the school stayers and school leavers in the

classes or grades seven through twelve for the period 1945-

1949 in the Negro Schools of Highlands County, Florida.


71bid.








-6-


F. Basic Assumption

It was assumed that there were significant differences

between the characteristics of the school stayers and school

leavers in achievement, intelligence, socio-economic status,

health status, behavior patterns, and retardation rate.

The verification of this assumption on basis of facts repre-

sents the core of this investigation.

G. Significance and Need for the Study

This study may be considered as unique, in that it

manifests interest in the children who remain in school, as

well as those who drop out. In most instances more concern

develops about those who leave school. The writer believes

that it is extremely important for educators to know what

holds children in school, since good holding power tends to

assist in shaping better school programs, and therefore,

makes better schools.

The study was made for the period of 1945-1949.
This period, coming directly after World War II and im-
mediately preceding the Korean conflict, was chosen because
it was an era of comparative stability. The adults, as

well as children, who worked a portion of the time, earned

relatively high wages. It would appear that this would en-

able the parents to keep their children in school regularly








-7-

if they had chosen to do so.8

H. Definitions of Terms Used

1. Pupils,9 also interchangeable with students, boys

and girls, school children, children, and school attendants,

refer to people enrolled in the schools of Highlands County,

Florida, and elsewhere.

2. School leavers,1 synonymous with drop-outs, mean

those who leave school before they complete the twelfth grade.

3. Holding powerll is that ability of the school to

attract and interest the students sufficiently to cause them

to remain until graduation time.

4. Achievement12 refers to abilities or products

acquired primarily by school training, as determined by tests

and measurements.

5. Intelligence13 is that capacity to learn or be

able to gain profit from school training.


The writer is acquainted with employment agencies, labor
contractors, and other persons who inform him as to prices
paid for labor on farms.
9From Webster's Complete Reference Dictionary and Encyclopedia,
New York, World Publishing Company, 1948.
0According to Harold C. Hand, University of Illinois.

l1Ibid.

12H. A. Greene and A. N. Jorgenson, The Use and Interpretation
of Elementary School Tests, New York, Longman, Green and
Company, 1938.
13
Ibid.








-8-

6. Socio-economic Status. as defined by F. Stuart

Chapin, means the family income, education of parents, occu-

pation of parents, quality of home, neighborhood, possession

of material facilities and furnishings.

7. Health Status14 is a state of complete mental,

social, and physical adjustment and not the absence of

disease altogether.

8. Behavior Patterns15 refer to a sequence of actions

which adjust one to a situation in the outer world.

9. Retardation Rate1 is the deviation from the norm

of acceptable school progress, or how far one may be below

the expected level of achievement.

10. Adults17 are individuals who have passed the age

of the compulsory attendance law of the State of Florida, or

sixteen years.
18
11. Classes8 are groups of students pursuing the same

courses of study within the schools.


14Jesse Feiring Williams and Fannie B. Shaw, Materials and
Methods of Health Education.

15Floyd L. Ruch, Psychology and Life, New York, Scott Fores-
man and Company, 1937.

16H. A. Greene and A. N. Jorgenson, o_. cit.

17The students feel as though they are adults when they stop
school.

18Webster's Complete Reference Dictionary and Encyclopedia,
op. cit.







-9-
19
12. Elimination is the act of leaving school with

no expectation of returning.
20
13. Attendance2 is the process of going to school.
21
14. School stayers are those persons who have a

tendency to remain in school.
22
15. School staying is the process of remaining

in school.

I. Delimitations

This study is confined to the school stayers and school

leavers of the Negro schools of Highlands County, Florida, in

classes seven through twelve, over the period 1945-1949.

The E. 0. Douglas School of Sebring was chosen as the labora-

tory, out of the three Negro schools of the County.

The selection of the Douglas School was not based upon any

preconceived notion that the problem of school leaving was

particularly acute within its confines. This was done,

primarily, because it was the only Negro High School in the

County, and where classes from seven through twelve could be

found. Secondly, the school records were more accessible at

Douglas, and there was a local interest in the problem on

the part of the school officials.


190ne of the many terms ordinarily associated with school
teaching.
20Ibid.

1Ibid.
22
Ibid.







-10-

All students who had been enrolled in the Negro Schools

of Highlands County during the period 1945-1949 were regarded

as being eligible for the study, provided they met all other

qualifications set forth in the Definition of Terms.

Extreme care was taken, however, to confine the list, as

closely as possible, to students who were products of the

local school environment. This procedure was observed in

the cases of both the school stayers and school leavers.

J. Methods Used ij the Stuy

A card file was made of all persons eligible for the

study. The school stayers were placed in one file of cards

and the school leavers in another. The files of cards were

then shuffled separately. A 10 per cent random sample had

been predetermined as the amount to be used for the study,

but a number actually amounting to 15 per cent of each group

was taken from the two files of cards. The extra number af-

forded by this process was to be used as substitutes for the

original selectees in case it was impossible to administer

the schedules to them. There were three of these forms used

in collecting the data. One form, constructed by the writer,

was used to gather information from the school records.

The information related to the several characteristics in

which the students were to be compared. Another form, also

made by the writer, was administered to the students to secure








-11-

information on why they either left or remained in school,

as the case may have been. The third form was the Sims Score

Card of Socio-economic Status which was administered to the

students in order to obtain a score in socio-economic status

for each student. Incidentally, samples of each form will

be found in the appendix.

Information secured from the school records and from

schedules administered to the students was supplemented with

data supplied by ministers, teachers, juvenile authorities

and health officials who were acquainted with the students

during their educational careers. These data included per-

sonal opinions on interest in school, attendance or disciplinary

problems, social behavior, home conditions, health information

and scholastic ability.

The following was the procedure observed in the

selection of the drop-outs. The registers of attendance were

checked carefully for school leavers during the period of 1945-

1949. All withdrawals were rechecked against the rolls for
the entire period of the study. It was found that there were

seventy-five cases of withdrawals for the period of study.

The procedure for determining school stayers was somewhat dif-

ferent. The students of the eighth grade were asked, how many

of the group had attended school in Highlands County during
the seventh grade. The students of the ninth grade were asked,
how many had attended school in Highlands County during the








-12-
seventh and eighth grades, and so on throughout the classes
covered during the period of the study. There were 210 per-

sons who had attended school during this period. After the

school stayers and school leavers had been determined, alpha-

betical lists were made of the two groups. The files of cards

for the 10 per cent random samples were made from these two

alphabetical lists.

Schedules with pertinent questions relating to the

nature of the investigation were administered by teachers who

volunteered for the assignment. These teachers had been pre-

viously instructed as to the nature of the investigation, its

objectives, and the methods to be used in the collection of

the data. Such procedure was especially important in order

that complete uniformity would be assured throughout the entire

project.

K. Sources of Data

The data used in this study were secured from:

(1) school records, (2) information supplied by teachers,

(3) replies to schedules, (4) interviews with (a) ministers,

(b) parents, (c) juvenile and health authorities. Considerable
information was secured from various forms of literature written

by eminent authority in the field of education. A review of

this literature will appear in the next chapter.











L. Objectives of the Study

The objectives of this study were: (1) to compare

the characteristics of the school stayers and school leavers

in achievement, intelligence, socio-economic status, health

status, behavior patterns, and retardation rate; and (2) to

determine if these factors were related to school attendance.

M. Summary

This study, although initiated at E. 0. Douglas School,

includes students from all parts of the County. The Douglas

School was selected since it is the only Negro High School

with grades from seven to twelve in Highlands County, Florida.

School leaving is no worse in Highlands County than

elsewhere. The percentage of students remaining in school

during the period of this study is well above the national

average.

One unique feature of this study is that it expresses

concern about the children who have remained in school.

Heretofore, the majority of the investigators of similar prob-

lems were more concerned about the direct causes of elimination.

The writer believes that there must be some direct relationship

of certain factors to school attendance inasmuch as a very

high percentage of Highlands County students remained in school.









CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

Introductory Statement

One of the most important problems of the public schools

today is that of the number of students who fail to complete

their courses. The school officials know the problem very well

and have indicated their concern about the economic and social

outlook of that part of the enrollment.

The problem of school leaving is not a new one. It is
common to any school, to a greater or lesser degree, depending

upon the school location, facilities, teachers, and pupils.

It is just as prevalent now as it was in the time of the common

school. Many studies have been made to determine the reasons

why children leave school. A review of the available literature

will show that these studies point invariably to the same out-

standing causes. An analysis of this literature yields three

main factors which distinguish graduates from drop-outs, viz.:

(1) intelligence, (2) socio-economic conditions, and (3) retar-
dation. The literature also yields corroborative evidence to

support the fact that pupils who leave school early are usually
much-cl ae Jrn mentality than those who remain. This does not

mean that all the pupils who remain are exceptionally bright,

and conversely, that all of the drop-outs are dull. The pur-

pose here is to find the relationship of inferior mentality
to school leaving. This paper will compare these and other









factors in groups of school leavers and school stayers.
The factors have been arbitrarily selected as having a defi-

nite relationship to the attendance problem in Highlands

County.
Some Early Studies
Seymourl believes that the factors responsible for the
failure of the youth to finish high school are: (1) economic
problems, (2) suitability of the school, (3) ability of pupils,
and (4) home influences. He states that those who have written
about the problem have mentioned one, or more of these factors

as being related to the process of elimination from school.
It was Seymour's idea, in the foregoing factors, which gave
the writer a cue to the feasibility of comparing the Highlands
County school leavers and school stayers in achievement, in-

telligence, socio-economic status, health status, behavior

patterns, and retardation rate. He believes that these factors
coincide very well with those advanced by Seymour and suit the

nature of the problem in Highlands County.

The writer regards the methods used by Van Denburg,
and reported by Seymour2 as being very significant in light
of present day procedure. Van Denburg's method was to collect


1Howard C. Seymour, Characteristics of Pupils Who Leave School
Early, (Doctor's Dissertation), Harvard University, 1940, p. 9.

2Ibid.







-16-

data on the age, birthplace of parents, conditions of health,

occupation of the father, the pupil's choice of vocation, and

information regarding the socio-economic status of the home

on all entering students. From such data, Van Denburg con-

cluded that he could predict the upper limits of education.

He urged his contemporaries to choose non-graduates by these

factors which he had determined as the chief cause of school

withdrawal. He believed that the use of his method would cut

the cost of public education. Van Denburg's distinguishing

factors between school stayers and drop-outs were: occupation

of the father, racial origin, amount of rent paid, pupil's

vocational objective, and school failure. With the exception

of racial origin, all of the factors mentioned have an agree-

ment with the methods used in this paper. The deletion of

that single factor is probably obvious.

Both Seymour and Van Denburg agree in viewpoint on the

following statement:

"At least seventy-five per cent of the pupils who
entered high school had the mental capacity and
native ability to graduate, if they had decided to
apply themselves to their work. The environment
from whence they came did not inspire them with
sufficient challenge. They are hampered by insuf-
ficient economic means, parental sacrifice, narrow
living and perhaps the pangs of poverty itself."


31bid.








-17-
The earlier investigations, of which Van Denburg's
is a good example, did accomplish two things. First, they

upset the complacency of those who thought the school suf-

ficient to meet the needs of all the students. Secondly,

they focused attention on the cause of retardation, economic

insecurity causing pupils to withdraw and the influences of

economic need. However, theory, as applied to the school

of the earlier part of the twentieth century, is no longer

applicable to the schools of today. This is due largely to

the great change in the purposes and nature of the present

day educational programs as compared with those of the earlier

day.

Comparatively Recent Studies

The studies presented in this section are a few of

the more recent investigations, starting in the year 1931

and ending a few years prior to the time of this writing.

Eckert and Marshall in their Regent's Inquiry Report

deplore certain conditions as the main causes of withdrawals:

"More than three out of every five pupils in New
York State do not remain to finish the secondary
school work. This high rate of withdrawal which
exceeds that prevailing in three-fourths of the
United States, undoubtedly reflects the general
social and economic conditions fully as much as
inadequacies in current school programs. It repre-
sents, nevertheless, a situation to which teaching
must be intelligently adjusted. Since a majority
of New York's future parents and citizens belong
to this withdrawing group, the promise these young
people give of meeting their vocational and social








-18-
obligations is of very direct concern to the State."4

According to Collins, the responsibility for school

withdrawals cannot be placed on any single group offctors

or agency:

"The responsibility cannot rightfully be placed
on any one individual or any single group of factors.
The pupils criticize the school and the teachers.
The parents hold the school and the teachers respon-
sible without making proper allowances for adequate
teaching facilities, which play the major role in
producing the problem of drop-outs. The school
contends that both a lack of parental interest and
encouragement for their children are perhaps the
greatest conditioning factors. The school board
immediately passes the problem to the Welfare Divi-
sion where the personnel of this division claim that
it is impossible for their agency to enforce ade-
quately the provisions of the attendance law without
doing an injustice to the parents whose financial
circumstances make it next to impossible for their
children to attend school. So, in this circle the
various agencies pass the responsibility to each
other. In reality it should be shared by all persons
and agencies in a way for the children."

Dickerson,6 in mentioning the study made at Richmond,

Indiana, under the direction of Superintendent William G.

Bate in 1939-1940, lists several factors contributing to

school leaving. These factors are: age, employment, health,

and marriage. The "sixteen year olds," mentioned in Bates'

study, exhibited poor adjustment in school and very little


4R. E. Eckert and T. O. Marshall, When Youth Leave School:
New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1938, p. 178.

5W. R. Collins, A Study of the Drop-out Problem in the John-
ston County Training School, (Master's Thesis), North
Carolina College at Durham, 1948, p. 6.


6Rebecca E. Dickerson, A Stud f Withdrawas n the David T
Howard Elementary-JunfiG tr _gn hool or t TrgSeoe
1943-1944, (Master's Thesis), Atlanta University, 1945, pp. 1-2.







-19-


success in school subjects.

When Velasco7 investigated the attendance situation
in Hillsborough County, Florida, in 1947, she found delin-

quency associated with the problem. She makes this observation:

"Early school leaving is often the delinquent's own
solution of an unsatisfactory situation. Dozens of
boys are anxiously awaiting the day when they can
leave school officially. Many times the teacher or
principal will encourage the child to drop out of
school because the school program does not fit the
child. The child may be so retarded that he has no
interest in his school work or he may have become such
a discipline problem that the teacher advises the
child to drop out of school."

She also found that many students were unable to remain in

school because of economic conditions. Any number of high
school students dropped out because of inability to meet

necessary school expenses. Some of the latter would prefer
to run away from school rather than explain their plight to

the school authorities. Velasco showed that the most of the

truant cases came from the children of people in poor economic

circumstances.
Hart8 discovered that non-enrollment and poor

attendance, allied problems of school leaving, came from ill-

ness and work in all situations. This varied in some specific

cases, however. He agrees with Poppell9that according to the


7Velasco, o2. cit., p. 37.
8Alan E. Hart, Methods Used to Improve Florida Schools Belong-
ing to the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary
Schools, TTMaster's Thesis), University of Florida, 1946, p. 11.

9 J61 Poopell Factors Influen ing Pul Mortality in the Hi
lchol ol o roe~--e ploria er nTes es versrty-
Florida,9-7 77 P7.







-20-
statements of the children themselves, (1) lack of interest,
(2) poverty, and (3) economic need were the highest on the
list of causes for leaving school.

The conclusions of the study of Harl R. Douglas are
quoted by Dickersonl0 and Robinsonll in their Master's theses.
These conclusions are that socio-economic status and retarda-
tion were the two factors most closely related to elimination

and retention. The purposes of Douglas' study were to deter-

mine the differences in age-grade status of students who were
eliminated from Junior High School in the city of Minneapolis.
Campbell studied the withdrawals from Booker T.

Washington High School and Annex in Atlanta in 1944. One con-

clusion drawn from this investigation is significant:
"Children should not be allowed to direct own lives
until they have received the proper foundation.
It is society's duty to see that they receive the
best that has been discovered thus far It is
appalling to even consider a generation of the future
who, because they have failed to take advantage of
available educational opportunities, may not be able
to meet the responsibilities of an increasingly complex
society." 2


10Dickerson, Q cit., p. 7.
llHorace E. Robinson, A Study of the Reasons for the Dropping
Out of Students in the Low Tenth Grade of BookerT. Washing-
ton High School During the First Semester of the 190-1941
School Year, (Master's Thesis), Atlanta University, 1941, p. 6.

liara C. Campbell, A Study of the Children Who Withdraw from the
Booker T. Washington High School and Annex in Atlanta, Georgia
During the First Semester of 21943- To Go To Work. (Master's
Thesis), Atlanta University, 1944, pp. 2-3.







-21-

She merely voices the concern manifested by social workers

and educators over school children who leave school to go

to work, when there is no apparent manpower shortage.

In the opinion of the writer, both Seymour 13 and

Dillon14 made studies which compare very favorably to his.

Both are comparative studies as is the present study.

Dillon made a study of 1,300 school leavers in five communi-

ties, in an attempt to find out why they sought work before

completing their high school education. It was hoped that

many causes for school leaving would be discovered and recti-

fied. The purpose was to gain information that would aid in

the establishment of better school programs, and thereby in-

crease the holding power of the schools. The conclusions are

briefly stated as follows:

First, it was found to be only partly true that the

boys and girls know why they leave school. The writer even

questions the validity of the answers to the questions by

the students. Second, there is even evidence that regardless

of the reasons given for leaving school more serious and

underlying causes actually exist. Third, a large portion

of both boys and girls were unable to do no more than express

a general distaste for school when they answered the questions.


13Seymour, o_. cit.

14H. J. Dillon, Early School Leavers A Major Educational
Problem, New York, National Child Labor Committee, 1940.







-23-


there may be an agreement, and upon which he may secure a

good footing to prove his own case. He, therefore, believes

that according to the foregoing analysis of the literature

on this subject, the following agreements are in common:

1. The pupils who leave school are, on the average,
much lower in mentality than those who remain.

2. The parents of the pupils who leave school are,
in the majority of cases, much lower in occupa-
tional, social, and economic standing than those of
the pupils who remain.

3. In general, the students who drop out are unable
usually to analyze the reasons why they leave
school.

4. There are many factors which may have a direct
relationship to school attendance.

The majority of the studies reviewed in this chapter

have attempted to show the causes for leaving school. In the

main, they point to economic and social factors as the most

outstanding reasons for elimination from school. Even though

there is much in the literature to support the latter pre-

mise, there is a scarcity of methods to be used in solving

the existing problems. If social and economic factors are

the principal causes of elimination, the schools are only

indirectly responsible and must not be blamed altogether.

On the other hand, if the existing school programs are con-

tributing causes to school withdrawals, the schools must do

something to insure successful educational careers to the

majority of the students.










CHAPTER III

COMPARING THE CHARACTERISTICS

Introductory Statement

In this chapter comparisons will be made between the

characteristics of the school stayers and the school leavers

in: socio-economic status, intelligence, achievement in

reading and arithmetic, health status, behavior patterns,

and retardation rate. It was believed that these charac-

teristics were related to the attendance problem as it faced

Highlands County.

Seventy-five students dropped out of school during

the period included in the study, while 210 remained. A ran-

dom sample of 10 per cent of the stayers and leavers was

taken, making twenty-nine subjects to be investigated.

These individuals were compared in some instances by total

groups, in others, by the sexes. It must be remembered that

the investigation was concerned with certain characteristics

of the two groups more so than it was with the direct causes

for withdrawal or remaining in school. In conjunction with

these analyses, other data closely allied to the subject were


1Since this is a sample study of school stayers and leavers,
based on ten per cent of the universe, on certain compari-
sons, no cases may appear in some category, particularly
among the male school leavers (only three appeared in the
sample). While this does not mean that the universe does
not contain cases in these categories, the absences do in-
dicate a certain scarcity in these groups which is indicative
of the entire population.








-25-
examined for their association with the problem. These data

included ages by sex, average daily attendance, educational

ages, and scholastic averages of all students. The informa-

tion was secured, either from school records, or from schedules

administered to all concerned.

Data leading to achievement in reading and arithmetic,

intelligence, behavior patterns, health status, and retarda-

tion rate were also secured by means of schedules and school

records. However, statistics on socio-economic status were

obtained by administering the Sims Score Card for Socio-

economic Status. From this form each pupil was assigned a

socio-economic index score.

It must be pointed out that it was not the purpose

of this report to question the validity of the data from the

Douglas School. But not all of the tests involved were given

to all students at the same time, same age, or same grade

level, nor were the other data confined to any definite period

other than covered by the study. Extreme care was taken to

secure, as accurately as possible, a picture of the individuals

as they appeared in school, for the period of the study, from

the records obtainable. At the present writing some of these

people are in high school classes ranging from nine to twelve,

some are graduates of high school, while others are attending

college.








-26-


Ages by Sex

Table I shows the ages of the school stayers and

school leavers by sex. The entire number of both boys and

girls of the school leavers was at the age of seventeen and

above. Seventy-five per cent of the boys and 55.5 per cent

of the girls of the school stayer group were at the age of

seventeen and below. Children who left school in Highlands

County seemed to drop out around the age of seventeen.

It appears to be a matter of their leaving school when they

are legally able to do so and probably after they have lost

interest in school subjects. Many of the school leavers

were reported to have hoped for the day when they could leave

school legitimately and not have to return.









THE AGES BY SEX OF


TABLE I

THE SCHOOL STAYERS AND SCHOOL LEAVERS


School Stayers School Leavers
Age Male Female Male Female
Number Per Cent Number Per Cent Number Per Cent Number Per Cent

14 2 16.7 1 11.1 0 0 0 0

15 1 8.3 2 22.3 0 0 0 0

16 2 16.7 1 11.1 0 0 0 0

17 4 33.3 1 11.1 1 33.3 2 40

18 1 8.3 3 33.3 0 0 1 20

19 0 0 1 11.1 1 33.3 1 20

20 and over 2 16.7 0 0 1 33.4 1 20


Total 12 100.0 9 100.0 3 100.0 5 100.0


I
N)
?0
!3







-28-

More boys than girls remained in school under the age of

seventeen, but this is probably due to the fact that there

are actually more boys than girls in this particular group.

It is interesting to note that boys from this sample remain

in school longer than girls, as evidenced by the two boys

remaining who were twenty years of age or over. These data

also show that younger children have a tendency to remain

in school.

Daily Attendance

The daily attendance of these pupils makes a very

interesting comparison as illustrated by Table II. All of

the boys of the school stayer group attended school between

171 and 180 days while only 55.6 per cent of the girls of

that group maintained that average. On the other hand, 66.6

per cent of the boys who dropped out and 60.0 per cent of

the girls who dropped out averaged between 141 and 150 days.

This means that a total of eighty per cent of the school

stayers reattended school between 170 and 180 days while a

total of 62.5 per cent of the school leavers attended between

141 and 150 days. It may be safely concluded from these facts

that school staying has a definite relationship to regular

school attendance, since the majority of the stayers were in

school approximately one month more than the leavers.









Educational Ages

When the school leavers and school stayers are compared,

as in Table III, it will be noted that only one girl of the--...

leavers had an educational age of 12-0 and above. No boys

were in this bracket. Sixty-six and seven-tenths per cent

of the girls and 41.7 per cent of the boys in the school

stayer group had educational ages of 12-0 and above. This tends

to show that the girls have higher educational ages all around

and that remaining in school increases the educational ages

of pupils generally. It might be pointed out here that such

a conclusion is probably obvious. However, the point here is

not one of whether staying in school increases one's educa-

tional age, but that there is a difference in the characteris-

tics of the educational ages of individuals who remain in

school as compared with those who drop out.






TABLE II


THE AVERAGE DAILY ATTENDANCE OF THE SCHOOL STAYERS AND SCHOOL LEAVERS


Average School Stayers School Leavers
Daily Male Female Male Female
Attendance Number Per Cent Number Per Cent Number Per Cent Number Per Cent

Less than 140 0 0 1 11.1 1 33.3 2 40

141-150 0 0 0 0 1 33.3 1 20

151-160 0 0 1 11.1

161-170 0 0 2 22.2

171-180 12 100 5 55.6 1 33.4 2 40



Total 12 100.0 9 100.0 3 100.0 5 100.0


O
I







TABLE III

THE EDUCATIONAL AGES OF THE SCHOOL STAYERS AND THE SCHOOL LEAVERS


School Stayers School Leavers
Educational Male Female Male Female
Age Number Per Cent Number Per Cent Number Per Cent Number Per Cent

9-0 to 9-11 0 0 0 0 2 66.7 0 0

10-0 to 10-11 5 41.6 1 11.1 0 0 2 40

11-0 to 11-11 2 16.7 2 22.2 1 33.3 2 40

12-0 to 12-11 2 16.7 3 33.3 0 0 1 20

13-0 to 13-11 3 25 2 22.3 0 0 0 0

14-0 to 14-11 0 0 1 11.1 0 0 0 0



Total 12 100.0 9 100.0 3 100.0 5 100.0


I
I-*
I







-32-

It appears significant that there were only two boys in the

entire study with educational ages below 9-11. These were

drop-out boys and would tend to show that school staying

is closely akin to the growth of the educational age.

Scholastic Averages

In Table IV the scholastic averages of both groups

are tabulated. It is found that all of the boys and girls

of the school stayer group, or 100 per cent, made grades

of C or above. It was also noted that 80 per cent of the

girls of the school leaver group made grades of C, while all

of the boys, or 100 per cent, made grades of D and F.

Since these were the only two D and F grades of the entire

study, it is probably true that these boys were failing as
they withdrew from school. It can be clearly seen, however,

that the average scholarship of the students remaining in

school was much better than the withdrawing group. Table V

illustrates the actual averages of both groups.

Achievement

The standingsin arithmetic and reading were taken as

guides to the achievement of these groups of pupils.

These two subjects were chosen because they were tool sub-

jects in which a rating could be secured for everyone.

Other subjects might have been chosen but these two also

furnished a quicker and more uniform way to the achievement

levels.







TABLE IV


THE SCHOLASTIC AVERAGES OF THE SCHOOL STAYERS AND THE SCHOOL LEAVES BY SEX


School Stayers School Leavers
Scholastic Male Female Male Female
Average Number Per Cent Number Per Cent Number Per Cent Number Per Cent


B 5 41.7 5 62.5 0 0 1 20

C 7 58.3 4 38.5 0 0 3 60

D 0 0 0 0 1 33.3 1 20

F 0 0 0 0 2 66.7 0 0


Total 12 100.0 9 100.0 3 100.0 5 100.0








TABLE V

THE SCHOLASTIC AVERAGES OF THE SCHOOL STAYERS AND SCHOOL LEAVERS
COMPUTED FOR EACH SUB-GROUP


School Stayers School Leavers
Male Female Male Female
Grade x f f f f x f xf x f xf

B 13 5 65 13 5 65 13 0 0 13 1 13

C 10 7 70 10 4 40 10 0 0 10 3 30

D 7 0 0 7 0 0 7 1 7 7 1 7

F 4 0 0 4 0 0 4 2 8 4 0 0


Totals 12j fx=135 9 fx=105 3 ffx=15 5 tfx=50


Mean = fx or
N

_13 or
12


Mean = Afx or
N


Mean = f.fx or
N


105 or
9


1 or
3


Mean = tfx or
N

^0 or
5


11.42 or C4-


5 or F


10 or C


11 25 or C4-


I
)
t~







-35-


In arithmetic, 16.7 per cent of the school stayer

boys were between the fourth and fifth grade levels.

There were no girls to correspond to this level of achieve-

ment. All of the girls were between the fifth and ninth

grade levels. Forty-four and four-tenths per cent, or

nearly one-half, of the school stayer girls were above the

seventh grade level. Among the school leavers, all of the

boys and 80 per cent of the girls were below the sixth grade
level. The school stayer group, consequently achieved more

in arithmetic. All of these results may be seen in Table VI.

In Table VII the achievement scores in reading may be

found. Here, again, as in the case of arithmetic, 80 per

cent of the school leaver girls and all of the boys of both

groups were below the sixth grade level in achievement.

Two-thirds of the school stayer girls were above the sixth

grade level. In the stayer group, the boys were not quite

as proficient as the girls but offered them keen competition.

These comparisons tend to show that school staying has in-

creased the achievement in reading. The conclusion here,

as in the case of educational age, is also obvious. A longer

exposure to reading would, naturally, lead to greater achieve-

ment in reading. The point here is practically the same, as

in the case of educational ages, one of whether there is a

difference in the characteristic of achievement in reading

and not the reading level itself. Conclusions in arithmetic







-36-


would be practically the same.

Socio-Economic Status

In Table VIII is found a statistical summary of the

socio-economic scores of the two groups, with the suggested

ratings and the corresponding level of socio-economic status

compiled by the author. It may be noted that 71.4 per cent

of the school stayers had corresponding levels above medium,

while 12.5 per cent of the school leavers had levels above

the medium mark. It can also be seen that a total of four,

or 19.1 per cent of the school stayers had medium low and

low ratings as compared with a total of four, or 50 per cent,

of the school leavers. These data show that the socio-eco-

nomic status of the school stayer group is definitely higher

than that of the other. Incidentally, an analysis of sup-

plementary information on the socio-economic status of the

two groups will be presented in a later chapter to give a

clearer picture of this important characteristic of school

children.







TABLE VI

THE ACHIEVEMENT LEVELS IN ARITHMETIC OF THE SCHOOL STAYERS AND SCHOOL LEAVES


Achievement
Level


School Stayers School Leayers
Male Female Male Female
Number Per Cent Number Per Cent Number Per Cent Number Per Cent


4.0-4.9 0 0 0 0 2 66.7 0 0

5.0-5.9 6 50 3 33.3 1 33.3 4 80

6.0-6.9 5 41.7 3 33.3 0 0 1 20

7.0-7.9 1 8.3 3 33.4 0 0 0 0



Total 12 100.0 9 100.0 3 100.0 5 100.0


g
t
!*









TABLE VII


THE READING LEVELS OF THE SCHOOL STAYERS AND SCHOOL LEAVERS


School Stayers School Leavers
Reading Male Female Male Female
Levels Number Per Cent Number Per Ceumber Per Cent Number Per Cent

4.1-5.0 2 16.7 0 0 3 100 1 20

5.1-6.0 5 41.7 2 22.3 0 0 3 60

6.1-7.0 3 25.0 3 33.3 0 0 1 20

7.1-8.0 1 8.3 3 33.3 0 0 0 0

8.1-9.0 1 8.3 1 11.1 0 0 0 0


Total 12 100.0 9 100.0 3 100.0 5 100.0


09
o
!j





TABLE VIII


THE PROVISIONAL LEVELS OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF THE SCHOOL LEAVES AND SCHOOL
STAYERS AS TAKEN FROM THE INTERPRETATION OF THE RESULTS OF SIMS SCORE
CARD FOR SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS

School Stayers School Leavers
Score Fre- Per Sug- Correspond- Score Fre- Per Sug- Correspond-
quency Cent gested ing Level of quency Cent gested ing Level of
Rating Socio-Economic Rating Socio-EconomJ
Status Status

5-6 3 37.5 3 Low 5-6 0 0 3 Low

7-8 1 12.5 4 Medium Low 7-8 4 19.1 4 Medium Low

9-10 3 37.5 5 Medium 9-10 2 9.5 5 Medium

11-12 1 12.5 6 Medium High 11-12 1 4.8 6 Medium Higi

13-14 0 0 6 Medium High 13-14 4 19.1 6 Medium Higi

15-16 0 0 7 High 15-16 8 38 7 High

17-18 0 0 7 High 17-18 2 9.5 7 High


Totals 8 100.0 21 100.0


Lc


\O
I








-40-


Health Status

The writer believes that according to the date

presented on the health of all these individuals, Table IX,

school leaver and school stayer alike, may be considered as

satisfactory. It may be noted that there was no "poor"

health in either group. There were eight persons who listed

average health, which also may be interpreted as "fair"

health." In view of these facts, it was believed that there

were not enough differences between the health of the two

groups to be significant. Therefore, the writer would con-

clude that there were no differences in health. However, it

must be pointed out that students rated themselves on this

index and perhaps there is some distortion since good health

is a national goal.

Behavior Patterns

Table X shows that there are practically no behavior

problems in Highlands County. Out of twenty-nine students

studied, none had ever had any conflict with the Juvenile

Authorities. One boy and one girl of the school stayer group

had been suspended from school at once for some minor infrac-

tion of the rules,, but it appears that there are no fundamental

differences in the behavior patterns of the two groups.

Retardation Rate

In Table XI it may be seen that a high percentage of

boys and girls of the school stayer group had never repeated






TABLE IX


THE HEALTH STATUS OF THE SCHOOL STAYERS AND THE SCHOOL LEAVERS


School Stayers School Leavers
Health Male Female Male Female
Status Number Per Cent Number Per Cent Number Per Cent Number Per Cent


Good 10 83.3 5 55.6 3 100 3 60

Average 2 16.7 4 44.4 0 0 2 40

Poor 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0



Total 12 100.0 9 100.0 3 100 5 100.0


I
H








TABLE X


THE BEHAVIOR PATTERNS OF THE SCHOOL STAYERS AND SCHOOL LEAVERS


School Stayers School Leavers
Behavior Male Female Male Female
Number Per Cent Number Per Cent Number Per Cent Number Per Cent


Those who had 1 8.3 1 11.1 0 0 0 0
been sus-
pended from
school


Those who had 11 91.7 8 88.9 3 100 5 100
not been sus-
pended from
school




Total 12 100.0 9 100.0 3 100 5 100


I
I







TABLE XI


THE RETARDATION RATE OF THE SCHOOL STAYERS AND THE SCHOOL LEAVERS


School Stayers School Leavers
Grade Status Male Female Male Female
Number Per Cent Number Per Cent Number Per Cent Number Per Cent


Those who 2 16.7 2 22.2 0 0 2 40
repeated
grades


Those who had
not repeated
any grades 10 83.3 7 87.8 3 100 3 60



Total 12 100.0 9 100.0 3 100.0 5 100.0


!
to
!E






-44-

any grades. In both cases the figure was well above 80 per

cent. None of the boys and 40 per cent of the girls of the

school leaver group who had repeated grades was shown.

These figures favor the school staying group. Statistically,

they are less retarded than the school leavers.

Intelligence

Thirty-three and three-tenth per cent of the boys

and 80 per cent of the girls of the school leaver group had
I. Q.'s of 90 or below. The figures to support this are

recorded in Table XII. Only one-fourth of the boys of the
school stayer group had I. Q.'s in this bracket. All of

the school stayer girls and 75 per cent of the school stayer

group boys had I. Q.s of 90 or above. There were no boys

or girls of the school leaver group with I. Q.'s above 90.

The complete picture shows a total of 85.7 per cent of the

school stayers having had I. Q.'s of 91 and above, while

62.5 per cent of the school had I. Q.s of 90 and below.

This is conclusive proof that school stayers were higher in

intelligence than school leavers.

Summary

It has been the purpose of this chapter to review the

statistics gathered on achievement, intelligence, socio-

economic status, health status, behavior patterns, and re-

tardation rate to see if there were any significant differences
in them in the two groups studied. The characteristics of






-45-
age by sex, average daily attendance, educational age, and

scholastic average were also considered since they are allied

topics. In all cases, with the exception of health status

and behavior patterns, significant differences were found.

The literature pointed out that there were three main factors

which distinguished drop-outs: intelligence, socio-economic

status and retardation. The literature also revealed that

there was corroborative evidence to support the fact that

pupils who leave school early are usually much lower in men-

tality than those who remain. All of these evidences point

toward the difference in certain characteristics. Socio-

economic status appears to be the most closely related since

it covers the home environment.









TABLE XII
THE INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS OF THE SCHOOL STAYERS AND SCHOOL LEAVERS


School Stayers School Leavers
I. Q. Scores Male Female Male Female
Number Per Cent Number Per Cent Number Per Cent Number Per Cent


70- 75 1 8.3 0 0 1 33.3 1 20

76- 80 1 8.3 0 0 0 0 1 20
81- 85 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 20
86- 90 1 8.3 0 0 0 0 1 20

91 95 5 41.8 1 11.1 2 66.7 1 20
96 100 2 16.7 3 33.3 0 0 0 0
101 105 1 8.3 4 44.5 0 0 0 0
106 110 0 0 1 11.1 0 0 0 0

111 115 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
116 120 1 8.3 0 0 0 0 0 0


Total 12 100.0 9 100.0 3 100.0 5 100.0


$-










CHAPTER IV

ANALYSIS OF SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION
ON THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS

Introductory Statement

It was mentioned in Chapter III that the

socio-economic scores appeared to be low as compared with

those of other places. It will be recalled that two-thirds

of the school stayers made scores between thirteen and

eighteen and all of the school leavers made scores of twelve

and under. In this chapter, the data surrounding these

scores will be reviewed along with topics relating to the

length of residence, marital status of parents, and reasons
given by school stayers and school leavers for staying in

and leaving school. These additional topics are treated

for the benefit of whatever light they may shed on the

total picture of the situation by way of association.

Length of Residence

According to Table XIII, the figures show that well

over half of the boys and girls of the school stayer group

and 66.7 of the school leaver boys and girls have lived

in the County thirteen years or more. It would be expected

that the parents of these children would have a firmer socio-

economic footing than the facts indicate. Hence, residence

is not a factor in the difference of this characteristic of

the two groups. The latter observation represents no






-48-

criticism of existing conditions, but is an application of

the facts to the case.

Data on Socio-Economic Scores

Table XIV shows a survey of some of the resources

available to the students of both groups which relate to

socio-economic status. The random sample of 10 per cent

used in this study has yielded one telephone and this was

in the home of a school stayer. It is found that five per-

sons, one school stayer and four school leavers, have no

books in the homes. A total of nineteen, eighteen of whom

are school stayers, have from one to twenty-five books in

the homes. Five school stayers, or the remainder of the

two groups, have from twenty-six to 125 books in their

homes. Twenty-two of the school stayers and two school

leavers had private bathrooms, while the remainder, five

school leavers, had no bathrooms at all. Fourteen mothers

of the school stayers and fifteen fathers had attended high

school while none of the fathers and mothers of the school

leavers had gone to high school. Three mothers of the

school stayer group of students had attended college there-

by showing a slightly upward trend in college education.









TABLE XIII


THE LENGTH OF RESIDENCE IN THE COUNTY OF THE SCHOOL STAYERS AND SCHOOL LEAVES



School Stayers School Leavers
Years of Male Female Male Female
Residence Number Per Cent Number Per Cent Number Per Cent Number Per Cent


4- 8 33.3 2 22.2 0 0 3 60

9 13 1 8.3 1 11.1 1 33.3 1 20

13 -18 7 58.4 5 55.6 2 66.7 1 20

Over 18 0 0 1 11.1 0 0 0 0



Total 12 100.0 9 100.0 3 100.0 5 100.0


I
I








-50-


TABLE XIV

FACTS SUPPORTING THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF THE
SCHOOL STAYERS AND SCHOOL LEAVERS


School School
Item Stayers Leavers Total

Those having bank accounts 4 1 5
Those having telephones 1 0 1
Those whose fathers went to
college 0 0 0
Those whose mothers went to
college 3 0 3
Those whose mothers went to
high school 14 0 14
Those whose fathers went to
high school 15 0 15
Those having bathrooms 22 2 24
Those having rooms in which
to study 23 2 25
Those having 1 to 25 books 18 1 19
Those having 26 to 125 books 5 0 5
Those having no books 1 4 5
Those subscribing for no maga-
zines 5 6 11
Those subscribing for 1 maga-
zine 4 2 6
Those subscribing for 2 maga-
zines 7 0 7
Those subscribing for 3 or
more magazines 5 0 5
Those never having dental work
done 0 1 1
Those having dental work done
once a year 8 0 8
Those having dental work done
when needed 12 7 19
Those spending the summer at
home 9 8 17
Those spending the summer
away from home 12 0 12






-51-

The figures show further that four school stayers and

two school leavers subscribe for one magazine; seven school

stayers and no school leavers subscribe for two magazines;

five school stayers and no school leavers subscribe for

three or more magazines; and eleven persons, six of whom are

school leavers, subscribe for no magazines whatsoever.

The magazines listed were of the pictorial type, which in-

dicates that there is not much demand for the type of

literature which requires the reading and assimilation of

thought. However, this is no attempt to deny the value of

pictures as visual aids to education.

The Sims Score Card for Socio-Economic Status

classifies the fathers into five groups of occupations

ranging from professional men to unskilled laborers. Each

group is assigned a certain score, depending upon the father's

occupation. There was only one father who made a score of

two, which is the lowest score in the scale. All of the rest

of the fathers, twenty-eight in number, were unable to make

any score at all. Table XV illustrates the scores assigned

to the various occupations. These data merely tend to con-

firm the literature which implies that school leavers are

generally lower in socio-economic status than their more

favored comrades who stay in school and attend school regu-

larly.





-52-


TABLE XV

THE SCORES ASSIGNED TO THE GROUPS OF OCCUPATIONS
UNDER THE SIMS SCORE CARD FOR SOCIO-
ECONOMIC STATUS1

Assigned
Group Type of Classification Credit


I Professional men, etc. 8

II Commercial and Clerical
Service, etc. 6

III Artisan proprietors, Petty
Officials

IV Skilled laborers, Printers
excepted 2

V Unskilled laborers, etc. 0






1Taken from the Manual of Directions for Sims Score Card
for Socio-Economic Status.







-53-


The writer does not mean to imply that the

socio-economic level is a causal factor of low intelligence.

He would carefully examine all evidence before accepting as
final the theory of pure determinism in regard to intelli-

gence. Some authorities would say that intelligence is
independent of the environment and that favorable conditions
at an early age may actually increase intelligence.

Others would probably question these views. It should be the
duty of the schools to try to modify the deficiencies of the

environment that are found to hinder the educational advance-

ment of the youth. Even in that respect, all cases should
be individually examined for it is quite true that retarded
children may come from both the less favored as well as the
more fortunate homes.

Marital Status
With the exception of the parents of the boys of the

school leaver group, all of whom are divorced, the majority

of the fathers and mothers are married. (See Table XVI.)

In the latter cases the children stated that they were living

with their parents. The school records verify this.

These data, plus the fact that a comparatively large number

of both boys and girls have lived in the County for a long

period of time, indicate that the families are pretty well

established and succeeding as well as the conditions will

permit. This fact is commendable because no community can

be stronger than the social fabric furnished by the families..










TABLE XVI


THE MARITAL STATUS OF THE PARENTS OF THE SCHOOL STAYERS AND THE SCHOOL LEAVES


School Stayers School Leavers
Status Male Female Male Female
Number Per Cent Number Per Cent Number Per Cent Number Per Cent


Married 7 58.4 7 77.8 0 0 3 60

Widowed 1 8.3 0 0 0 0 1 20

Divorced 2 16.7 0 0 3 100 0 0

Other 1 8.3 1 11.1 0 0 1 20

Data lacking 1 8.3 1 11.1 0 0 0 0


Total 12 100.0 9 100.0 3 100 5 100


I
!x









-55-

Strong community organization is predicated upon strong family

organization.

Reasons for Staying and Leaving

Since a high percentage of the students stayed in

school, it appears that the primary reasons for remaining

should be examined. By the same token the reasons given by

the school leavers for leaving should be of certain interest

since the number was very small. In the following tables,

XVII and XVIII, the chief reasons given by the two groups

are tabulated. It must be borne in mind, however, that these

reasons were given by the young people themselves and, as

such, are subject to the limitations of the immaturity of

youth. They may not represent the underlying reasons in

either case, but are significant because the students felt

that they were those which caused them to make the decisions.
In the cases of the school leavers, Table XVII, the

opinions are pretty well evenly distributed. It may be said

that no great amount of emphasis was placed on any one ques-

tion. This was probably a spontaneous response on the part

of all concerned.
The situation was not quite the same with the school

stayers. (See Table XVIII.) Fifteen of them, or almost 50 per

cent, gave reasons that centered around school life. The writer

takes this as a sign of genuine interest in school and its ac-
tivities. This response centered around such questions as,







-56
"I need my diploma to get the work I want," or "I need my

diploma to get further schooling," and "I am interested in

school subjects." Only five, or less than one-fourth, were

personal enough to say I remained in school because "all

my friends go to school," while one said, "I have nothing

else to do." These responses show that school life is a

happy experience to these people.









TABLE XVII

THE PRIMARY REASONS GIVEN BY THE SCHOOL LEAVERS FOR LEAVING SCHOOL



Frequency
Reasons Number Per Cent


My friends left school 2 25

Disliked certain subjects 1 12.5

Wanted spending money 2 25

Teachers did not show a high degree of interest in me 1 12.5

Grew tired of school and quit going 1 12.5

Did not receive proper guidance from teachers and principal 1 12.5



Total 8 100.0


I
!
Im
4=









TABLE XVIII

THE PRIMARY REASONS GIVEN BY THE SCHOOL STAYERS FOR REMAINING IN SCHOOL


Frequency
Reasons Number Per Cent


All my friends go to school 5 23.9

I am interested in school subjects 7 33.3

I haven't anything else to do 1 4.8

I need my high school diploma to get further schooling 3 14.2

Teachers showed their interest and gave me advice 1 4.8

I need my high school diploma to get the work I want 3 14.2

I plan to graduate from school 1 4.8


Total 21 100.0


I
\Jt
80







-59-


Summary

This chapter attempted to show why some of the

socio-economic scores of the school leavers were so low,

by presenting some of the data upon which these scores were

based. Whatever the factors contributing to socio-economic

standing may be, extreme care should be exercised in inter-

preting the conclusions.
It is agreed that some of the factors upon which

socio-economic status is based are not available to the
school leavers. Even though there is a greater expectancy

that children in low educational status will come from homes

of less favored occupational and economic position, it should
be remembered that youth from homes thus represented may also

include many students of very high ability.
The average of the socio-economic scores for the

twenty-nine students in this study was 10.3 Scores from

other parts of the nation2 are: Bessemer, Alabama, 18.0;

Lake Charles, Louisiana, 16.1; The Lincoln School, New York

City, 27.2; and New Haven, Connecticut, 13.6
The primary reasons for remaining in school exhibit a

genuine interest in school work, on the part of the Douglas

students. The reasons for school leaving were pretty well

distributed.


2Scores secured from Public School Publishing Company,
Bloomington, Illinois, Publishers of the Sims Score Card
of Socio-Economic Status.










CHAPTER V

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary

It was the purpose of this summary study to compare

the school stayers and school leavers of the Highlands County

schools for the period of 1945-1949. This examination was

made to determine if there were any differences in the charac-

teristics of the two groups in achievement, intelligence,

socio-economic status, behavior patterns, and retardation

rate. The data was secured from the following sources:

(1) the records of the E. 0. Douglas School, (2) schedules
administered to the students, (3) the Sims Score Card for

Socio-economic Status, administered to the students, and (4)

from interviews with teachers, ministers, juvenile and health

authorities, all of whom were acquainted with the students

during their educational careers. The opinions of leading

authority in the field of education were read, considered

and in some cases made a part of this manuscript. The sched-

ules and the Score Card for Socio-economic Status were

administered to twenty-nine school stayers. This represented

a 10 per cent random sample of 285 students in all.

Conclusions

The findings indicate as illustrated in Tables VI,

VII, VIII, XI and XII that there are noticeable differences
in the characteristics of achievement, that is, in arithmetic









-61-


and reading, socio-economic status, retardation and

intelligence, respectively. Tables IX and X indicate that

there are no significant differences in the characteristics

of the students in health and behavior patterns. In con-

nection with all of the characteristics previously mentioned,

age by sex, Table I; average daily attendance, Table II;

educational age, Table III; and scholastic average, Table IV

were examined for whatever educational implications may

have existed. The findings in these cases indicated that

there were differences in the characteristics, and that

they had a relationship to the school attendance and progress

of the students in school. In all characteristics examined

of both the school stayers and the school leavers, the evi-

dence of any differences in the said characteristics was

preponderately in the favor of the school stayer group, with

the exception of the characteristics of health and behavior

patterns. In the latter, the differences were not enough to

make any reasonable distinctions between the two groups

studied. Therefore, it is believed that the original

hypothesis holds, which stated that there were significant

differences in certain characteristics of the school stayers

and school leavers of Highlands County during 1945-1949.

The findings further indicate that school leaving

among the students of the E. 0. Douglas School was no greater

than elsewhere during the period of 1945-1949. The percentage










of those remaining was well above the national average,

according to the figures of the Office of Education.

The national figures were 42.8 per cent, while those of
Highlands County were 73.7 per cent.

The findings also reveal that certain factors
contributing to the socio-economic standing are not avail-
able to the school leavers as revealed in Table XIV.

Finally, the findings show that the reasons given

by the school stayers for remaining in school reveal a
genuine interest in school work and its accompanying ac-
tivities. (See Table XVIII.)

As was previously pointed out, the results of this
study are in fundamental agreement with similar studies

which have been made. It appears that the student who re-
mains in school seems to possess a significantly different
background from those who drop out. In the present study,
this was quite evident from the analysis of intelligence,

socio-economic status, and retardation rate and scholastic

performance. These four indices showed the students in the
stayer group to be far ahead of those who left school.

Although the sample used was only 10 per cent of the total

universe of students concerned because of the strict ad-

herence to sound random sampling procedure, it is believed
that the differences discovered exist proportionately through-

out the entire population of students. Therefore, the

conclusions drawn on the basis of this sample may be assumed
to apply to all stayers and drop-outs connected with the










E. 0. Douglas School during 1945-1949.


Recommendations

The following recommendations are made:

1. Since students who remained in school showed
more general academic progress, attended school
more regularly, had greater intelligence, and
were less retarded than those who dropped out
of school, it appears to the writer that greater
means and devices should be contrived to keep
children in school. It is reasonable to assume
that, if such practices were followed generally,
there would be far less children dropping out
of school. If less children dropped out of
school, it would be much easier to hold the in-
terest of that large percentage who answered
questions centered around reasons related to
school, as their primary reasons for staying
in school.

2. Since the educational status of parents, books
and magazines, dental and other health services,
telephone service, bathroom facilities, private
rooms for study, and other vital factors were
not the same with the school leavers as they
were with the school stayers, efforts should
be made to help offset these deficiencies of
the environment. These suggestions may prove
helpful.

(a) Build up an interest in books.

(b) Develop an interest in newspapers and
magazines.

(c) Encourage the use of dental and other
health services.

(d) Assist in the expansion of the Adult Educa-
tion Program.

(e) Promote co-curricular activities to maintain
the interest of the students.



























APPENDIX








-65-


INFORMATION FROM SCHOOL RECORDS
E. 0. DOUGLAS SCHOOL


Name:


Sex: Male Female


Place of Birth:


With whom was the child living: Parents? Others?___(Check one.)

Marital Status of Parents: Married Widowed Divorced
Other

Test Data: Reading Level_ Educational Age I. Q.
Arithmetic Level

Scholarship:
Grade Average for the year: 7th_ 8th 9th _, 10th ,
llth 12th

Days Present: 7th_ 8th_ 9th___, 10th._ llth 12th

Record of Extra-curricular activities: (Check one.)
Participate in: 2 3 k more than 4_.


Date of leaving school:
(If pupil has left)


Year


Month


Behavior:
Was the pupil ever suspended? (Check one.) Yes
If yes, give date:


Year


Month


Day


No_


Day


Did pupil ever have conflict with Juvenile Authorities? (Check one.)
Yes No
If yes, give date:
Year Month Day


- - 10-4-


- -- m m - --t -.0 at --b -


- --~ --'- ---


State


City


county










-66-


Sims Score Card ,, l,. Cwpyright 1927 by th
m onC Public School Publishig Co.
rm C mfnnot f Joomito 15.
Printed is U. S. A.


SIMS SCORE CARD FOR SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS
Ferm C

Score............



2. Age........... ..................Years and....................Months

3. Grade................. ...Date..... ....................

4. Have you spent two years in any grade?I........If so, what grades?....

5. Have you skipped any grades ?......................If so, what grades?......

6. Home address: City.............................. State...........................

7. How many years have you lived in this town ....................

& Have you attended schools in any other towns?................If so, name

them.................................................... .......

9. Name of your School........................ ..... .................

Don't answer any of the questions below until you are told what to do.
If you have brothers or sisters in this school, write their names and
grades on these lines:

Name..... ...... ..................... Grade................................-

Name ........... ................. ..... Grade.......................

In the Following Questibns Underline the Correct Answer:

Are you a Boy? a Girl? (Underline correct answer)
Are you living at home with your parents ?........................Yes No
Are you living in the home of someone else, such as a rela-
tive, adopted parent, guardian, etc. ?.............................Yes No
Are you living in an institution, such as an orphan asylum
or a home for children? ........................................Yes No

78-4p




-66-


Underline the Right Anawe


1. Have you a telephone in your home .. ............................Yes
2. Is your home heated by a furnace in the basement ?..........Yes
3. Do you have a bathroom that is used by your family
alone ?.....................................................................................Y... es
4. Do you have a bank account in your own name ?...............Yes
5. Did your father go to college ?...........................................Yes
6. Did your mother go to college?..................................Yes
7. Did your father go to high school ?.......................................Yes
8. Did your mother go to high school ?......................................Yes
9. Does your mother (or the lady of the home in which you
live) regularly attend any lecture courses of which you
know ?.............................................. ..... ...............................Y es
10. Do you have your own room in which to study ?................Yes
11. Do you take private lessons in music?..................................Yes
12. Do you take private lessons in dancing?........................Yes
13. Does your mother belong to any clubs or organizations
of which you know?...............................................Yes
If you know of any, write the name of one of them on
this line (................................... ..)
14. Do you belong to any organizations or clubs where you
have to pay dues ..... .......... .........................................Yes
If you do, write the names of the organizations that you
belong to on these lines (...................................................
............................................................ ........0.........................-


No
No


No
No
No
No
No
No


18. How many servants, such as a cook, a housekeeper, a chauffeur,
or a maid, do you have in your home?
None One Part Time One or More All the Time

19. Does your family own an auto which is not a truck?
None One Two or More

If your family does own an auto, write the make of the auto on
this line (........................ ...................... ................................ )

20. How many magazines are regularly taken in your home?
None One Two Three or More
If any are taken, write the names of three of them--or as many
as are taken -on these lines (............. .............................. .........
.................... ...... ... ............ ........ ......... )

21. About how many books are in your home? (Be very careful with
this one. A row of books three feet long would not have more
than twenty-five books in it.)
None 1 to 25 26 to 125 126 to 500 More


No
No
No
No


No


22. How many rooms does your family occupy?
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

How many persons occupy these rooms?
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10


No


..................................... ................... .................................
15. Does your family attend concerts?
Never Occasionally Frequently
16. Where do you regularly spend your summers?
At Home Away from Home
17. How often do you have dental work done? (Underline only one)
Never When Needed Once a Year Oftener


11 12 More


11 12 More


23. Write your father's occupation on this line (....................................)
Does he own Part All N one of his business? (Underline)
Does he have any title, such as president, manager, fore-
man, boss, etc. ?................................. ..............................Yes No

If he does have such a title, write it on this line (............................)

How many persons work for him? (Underline the right number)
None 1 to 5 5 to 10 More than 10



Total Credits................ No. Answered.................. = Score...............









-67-


SCHEDULE FOR SCHOOL LEAVES AND SCHOOL STAYERS

Highlands County Schools


For Those Who Left School


Using the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4,
etc., check in order of im-
portance the reasons that
caused you to leave school:

a. Left school as I preferred
work to school.
b. Disliked certain teachers.

c. Disliked certain subjects.

d. Could not learn in school
and became discouraged.
e. My health was not good.

f. Could learn more out of
school than in school
_g. My friends had left school

_h. Wanted spending money.

i. Needed money for clothes and
to help at home
_. Was not interested in
school work.
k. My parents wanted me to
leave school.


1. Teachers did not show a
high degree of interest in
me.
m. Grew tired of school and
quit.
n. Did not receive the proper
guidance from the teachers
and the principal.

Other reasons


Health Record: (Check one.)
Good__ Average___ Poor__
Date of Birth:
Year Month Day_
Sex: Male Female


For Those Who Remained in School

Using numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, etc.,
check in order of importance
the reasons that caused you to
remain in school:

a. All my friends go to school

_b. I am interested in school
subjects.
_c. I prefer going to school
than work.
_d. I haven't anything else
to do.
_e. My parents make me stay in
school.
_f. I need my high school diploma
to get further schooling
_g. Teachers showed their interest
and gave me advice.
h. I need my high school diploma
to get the work I want.
i. I plan to graduate from
school.
J. I enjoy going to school.

_k. I like to play basketball,
football, other games, sing
in the chorus and act in
plays.
1. Part-time work has not inter---
fered with my going to
school.
m. I have enjoyed good health.

n. The law makes me think I
must go to school


Other reasons


Health Record: (Check one.)
Good__ Average___ Poor_
Date of Birth:
Year Month Day
Sex: Male Female_





























BIBLIOGRAPHY










BIBLIOGRAPHY


Campbell, Sara Carter, A Stu of the Childre Who Withdraw
From the Booker T. Washington ig School and Annex in
Atlanta Georgia Durin the First Semester of 192 3-4
To Go To Work, 1944, pp. 2- 3.
Collins, W. R., A Study of the Drop-ut Problem in the
Johnston County Training School 1948, p. 6.
Dickerson, Rebecca E., A Study of Withdrawals in the David T.
Howard Elementary-Junior ~igh School for the First Semester
1943-1944, 1945, pp. 1-2.
Dillon, Harold J., Early School Leavers A Major Educational
Problem, Child Labor Committee, New York, 1949.
Eckert, R. E. and Marshall, T. 0., When Youth Leave School.
McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1938.

Greene, Harry A. and Jorgenson, Albert N., The Use and
Interpretation of Elementary School Tests, Long Mans,
Green and Company, New York, 1938.
Hart, Alan E., Methods Used to Improve Attendance in Florida
Schools Belonging to the Southern Association of Colleges
and Secondary Schools, 1946, p. 11.

Highlands County Atlas, Florida Growers Press, Tampa, Florida,
1947.
Poppell, T. J., Factors Influencing Pupil Mortality in the
High School at Groveland, Florida, 1931, p. 67.

Robinson, Horace E., A Study of the Reasons for the Dropping
Out of Students of the Low Tenth Grade of Booker T.
Washington High School During the First Semester of the
1940-1941 School Year, 1941, p. 6.
Ruch, Floyd L., Psychology and Life, Scott, Foresman and
Company, New York, 1939.
Velasco, Providence Castillo, A Study of Attendance Problems
in Hillsborough County, 1947, p. 47.
Webster's Complete Reference Dictionary and Encyclopedia,
World Publishing Company, New York, 1948.
Williams, Jesse Feiring and Shaw, Fannie B., Methods and
Materials in Health Education. Nelson and Sons, New York,
1935.









-70-
REPORTS

Report of Superintendent of Public Instruction, Highlands
County, Florida, May, 5 2.

Monthly Report of Principals, Highlands County, Florida,
May, 1952.
Florida State Census Report. 1945.

Statistical Summarl of Education, U. S. Office of Education,
1945-46.




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