A PROPO88D PROA6 C *OR IMWS #2. SGCfOOL-CONIMMITY
RnJTIrons I tf ,mUr SCHOLS000 IN
/ rf PUTNAM COUITY, FLORIDA
thb Faculty of the School of Eduaetion
Florida Agricaltural and Mechanical University
In Partial Fulfillaent
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science in Education
Flosie Willis Taylor
A PROPOSED PROGRAM FOR IMPROVING SCHOOL-COMMUNITY
RELATIONS IN THE NEGRO SCHOOLS IN
PUTNAM COUNTY, FLORIBA
Presented to the Graduate Committee of The
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of Master of Science in Education
I II II II I II I .....
Grateful acknowledgement is expressed to Dr.
Theodore B. Cooper, Chairman of the Thesis Committee, for
his continued counsel and helpful guidance untiringly,
and to Mr. Robert Smith and Mr. Neville Clark for their
interest and constructive criticisms.
Sincere appreciation is also expressed to the
many elementary schools, parents, organizations, and
the Parent-Teacher-Associations of Putnam County, who
by their cooperation made this study possible.
Acknowledgement is also made to Mrs. Helen D.
Long, Mr. Herbert S. Coleman, Mr. Henry H. Wright and
Mrs. Goldia L. Long, whose responses provided direction
for the study.
F. W. T.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. INTRODUCTION .. . . 1
The problem . . 2
Statement of the problem . 2
Definition of terms . 3
Basic assumptions * * 3
General community backgrounds. ... 7
Composition and growth of population 7
Occupational and economic status of
the county . . . 11
General community characteristics . 13
Urban community . . 1
Rural communities . 16
Implications for the problem of public
school relations . . 18
Summary . . . . 19
II. PROCEDURES . . .. 21
Data and techniques used . .21
The historical social and economic
background of the county . 21
The Putnam County School System and the
educational program of the several
schools . . . 21
The purposes of education and the
standard and criteria for improving
the effectiveness of educational
programs as presented in current
educational research and literature .
Documentary evidence . . 22
Questionnaire . . . 24
Personal interviews . . . 25
Responses related to personal interviews. 25
Group interview . . . 25
Problems discussed . . 26
Correspondence . . 27
III. RELATED RESEARCH STUDIES . . 28
Studies of newspaper publicity . 28
Surveys of public relations practices . 31
Studies of public information and opinion
about the schools . . . 32
Summary ,. . .. .. . 32
IV. PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA . 35
Publicity activities ... . 41
Summary . . . .. 50
V. FINDINGS . a a. a . 52
A Proposed Progran
* ~a tao.. 4*
* a* at* tea
* agate, tat
LIST OF TABLES
I. Distribution of Responses About Parent-
Teabher-Associations . 36
II. Distribution of Responses About Public-
Relations-Activities . . . 39
III. Distribution of Responses About School
Publicity Activities . 42
IV. Distribution of Businessmen and Laymen
According to their Opinion of the County
Public School System . . 7 .
The interest of the investigator in public school
relations developed during years of experiences as a
teacher in the elementary schools. The importance of
successful public relations was observed in many contacts
with patrons and the general public.
In many communities, alert administrators knew the
advantages of keeping the public informed about the schools.
In many Instances, the public had been included as partners
in the school work and knew whet and why the school needed
the financial support it requested. In these eases fin-
ancial support was attained with far less difficulty.
As an inseparable part of public schools, public
school relations must be enlarged so as to unite the people
with their sci:ools so that the boys and girls will reap
the benefits thbt informed community opinion brings through
The school administrator should nake a success of
his school's public relations and use its possibilities
in providing the foundations upon wi'ieh the educational
program may flourish. School administrators should know
the coImmunity-its history and its people. They are in
a position to rather the attitudes of people toward the
offerings of the school.
Public school relations loom larger in the picture
of modern education, for it is the '-teens through which the
parents and teachers, taxpayers, and children can, through
cooperative effort, bring about the most effective under-
standings and activities that will neke the community
in all its aspects a constant contributor to experiences
of boys and girls who are shaping and beine st aped in the
pattern of American culture.
I. THE PROBLEM
Statement -f the rotbeflg. It was the purpose of
this study (1) to collect and organize specific infor-stion
concerning Putnam County as -aterial for a proposed program
for School Comvunity Relations in the Negro schools and
make tentative suggestions for its tmprove'ent; (2) to
find o'-t to what extent does the school and conrunity work
together in mnetinr the needs of the school and corrunity,
with a view for devising a program for closer school come
unity relationship; (3) to keep the public informed of
what is going on in the school so that -embers of the
community may develop an interest in the school and f.el
hn identity with objectives of' education: and (4) to
determine the needs for cooperation between the school,
home and community in developing attitudes, opinions and
understanding favorable to an adequate program of education.
II. DEFINITIONS OF iTER-'S USED
The term "public school relations" refers to a
program of educational interpretation which provides
opportunities to know, to understand, and to influence
the development of the schools.
Maehlman discarded the word *publicity" and writes
of "public relations" which he defines as "organized,
factual, informational service for the purpose of keeping
the public informed of its educational purpose.*
III. BASIC ASSUMPTIONS
During the past few years the point of view of
both lay and professional thinkers in regard to the
purpose of a school in a community has been undergoing
John B. Morgan, ".A1 Phj sygcholoAy SL M ~U a3uad
School Child (New Yorks The Macmillan Company, 1930), p. 30
Arthur B. Maehlluan public School Helations (New
Yorks Ran and McNal1y and Company,) p. 23
considerable change. The responsibility of ths school
according to this changing point of view is much broader
than that of an institution which transmits definite selected
parts of our culture to the children and youth. The function
of the school Is no longer restricted to developing funda-
mental skills and teaching subject matter. John B. Morgan,
in i PtEah~p i2 t AtL Ilt Undasteg School 114d, says
Education is no longer a mere drilling of the child
so that he can read certain languages, perform certain
skilled acts, solve so many arithmetic proble-s, know
so many lines of poetry. It is all of these, but it
is a rast deal more. It is the development of every
phase of the child's life so thpt he becomes a unified--
A good educational task is not accomplished when
one is trained to be a good scientist if he cannot
get along with anyone because of his Irascible dispo-
sition. One is not the best type of person if, vw.en
he meets an unusual difficulty, he tVrows a te-per
tantrum, blames someone else, gets sick, or sits
daydreaming. We must develop the child to meet his
difficulties squarely rather than to adopt some silly
"defense moch.inism" designed to deceive himself and
others as to his true worth.
This does not mean discarding the basic tools of
reading, vritinp, and arithmetic. It means, instead,
developing a hither level of skill in using these tools,
and taking the responsibility for new levels of under-
Morgan, gR. -., p. 30
st.anrinr anM ,er.+,vior. Consequiently, a respo:.~sibility
of the setonol is to nrovi'P thVe a- ironment and iui'ance
nec.'-spry for the coi.iMu-,n Lrowth and development of the
I n. vi d ur ..
The way in virich the individucr. davelop5, ePn larns
is Pn outcome of the total e.perlence which result from
his interaction with his arnviron:.nent. If learning. ; s to
be fully effectl-'e the direct, firt.t-hand experiences
of r.iscovering an:' solvin? proble..s nust be supr:le-ented
by deocumentaryv -.a-er l l-.:l., a'i:''.-vliual ol-as, construction .
activitieses ao' coi-vnii./ e ;-r.l---- -FS school
-uprrlies only a pa- t of these expr ie'ees. Ths.r eore,
to;,: modern teacher strives to )ink aducr.tion with life
.it.la.tions ir. as 'many V w !, as p:C'tble. '--ic in ci..,-
cation is the r.ilosophy that the attitudes rnrJ skills
must te lec-rn.c: through active, rietoc.atic ertici. tion
in the sol~t-.lon of Tv rv'.' proM',-U c. To contrl;ute
-not effecttv:ly t tt.-e desirable le:jrninv: of the chlodrter
in a co'iunrity, th-e sc.ch;ool -u';t t.e cncr:irne-' with the
nqulity of living in a :orm\uanity.
An educational prorre-a? whichh is dA:-pted to the
needs. of the pupils 1, crnn-.unmty **u!-t be pl-,r.eu s7te-
clfically fo. that com-u.-Uty. The p-ittern for the s:ror
is developed upon the basis of factual information con-
cerning the children to be served and the environment in
which they live. Education becomes effective ten it
irfntifies individual and community problems and works
cooperatively in attempting to solve them,
6chool-CoOunmity relations is an area of community
life that involves every number of the co-mmunity, but the
initiative and leadership for effective action must come from
the school. Active participation by citizens of the community
in formulating policies and in taking responsibility for
many jobs to be done is of the greatestt importance in this
cooperative endeavor, but professional leadership must come
from the school.
The average citizen has been so busy making a living
and school people have been so overwhelmed in trying to
keep up vith the rapid ,rowth of the school system, that
neither citizens nor educators have been able to take the
time and opportunity for this essential exchange of ideas.
As a consequence, an important aspect of adult civic
training for citizens of the community has been neglected
and the educator has hMd to chart his course without the
assistance of those most concerned with immediate and alti-
a:te outco'e.-. For the ultimate outcome let it be repeated
is the health and strength of Ameriean Democracy.
IV. GESNEAL COMMUNITY BACKGROUND
This section gives some consideration to certain
sociological factors that characterize the locale of the
study. The reader may beeeme orientated to the local situ-
ation by a brief discussion of the -ore inreortant factors
in the social context of the community life and orfanlz.tion
that are pertinent to the problem of public school relations.
These various elements are discussed under the following
headings, (1) composition and growth of population, (2)
occupational end economic status of the residents of the
county, and (3) generall community chareateristies.
Comaosiution and grow t oi DoPulalton. Putnam County,
Fllrida, the heart of Northeast Florida, is located about
fifty-two miles South of Jacksonville, on the Saint John's
River, and Palatka is the county seat.
The county was organized in 1849, And formed from
parts of Alachua, 9aker, Clay, Marion, Orange mnd Saint
Johns counties. According to reliable information, it was
Martha Spague A9son, Parentsg aid Te-chers (Los.tons
Ginn and Compnny, 338) p. 310
named In honor of Major Benjamin Alexander Putatm a
resident of Saint Augustine, a prominent attorney and
distinguished officer in the seconJ Seminole asr.
Putnam County has more than one thousand miles of
river frontage on the Saint John's River, and it has more
than 1,500 lakes within its borders. It contains a large
part of the section of Florida formerly known as "Pruitland"
where originally more than half of the entire wild orange
acreage in the state was discovered. *Hart's Late"
(valencias) and "rancy's Tangerines* were first grown in
Post offices and altitudes of the cor-unities in the
county are as follows, Bostviek, 34 feet above sea level;
Crescent City, 41i Denver, 37; East Palatka, 17?; dgar, 110;
Federal Point, 21; Florahoie, 115; Georgetomn, 20; Orandin, 101;
'lollister, 80; Huntington, 56; Interlachen, 105; Johnson, 100;
euka, 961 Lake Como, 64 ;. anville, S9; Melrose, 162; Palatka,
13 feet at Atlantic Coast Line Freight Station; Pomona Park,
63; Putnam Hall, 106; San Mateo, 41l Satsuma, 79; and
Palatka, a city of some 13,000 people, is tVe county
seat of Putnam County and located slightly East of the center
of the county on the Eaint Jo; ns River. Its name originally
was '*ilatia', a Seminole Indian word ,caning *Crossing Over"
or "Cow's Crossingm, and the name was changed in the early
'6O's to Palatka, upon petition to the United States Post
The State legislature granted Palatka a charter in
1853. Palatka, as well as the coanty. Is served by the
Atlantic Coast Lines, Florida etst Coest, and Georgia
Southern and Florida railways and U. S. Highway No. 17;
State Roads, 20, 21, 26, 100, 206, 308, 309,310, and 315.
A cargo air line furnishes air transportation for products
at Kay Larkin Airpcrt, Falatka. Florida Greyhounds serve
the county points and taxi cabs provide transportation
within the city.
Palatka has five leading hotels, also aroaus
tourist courts and trailer camps for whites, while rooming
and boarding houses are provided for Colored, There are
two banks in the county, the Palatka Atlantic National at
Palatka, and the People's Bank of Crescent City, with com-
bined resources of more than $8,000,000, and the Palatka
Federal havingg A Loan Association with assets of more than
Putnam County has eighteen elementary schools for
whites and ten elementary schools for Negro pupils. There
Historical kAAk, Published by the Putnea County
Chamber of Commerce, Palatka, Florida.
are four high schools for whites and only one for colored.
Consequently, education of the county children for white
is well provided for, but not for the colored.
The county government, headed by a board of five
commissioners, constitute the form of government provided
in Puttan County. Palatka uses the Commission manager form
of city government, while other incorporated comNiunities
have ample governing boards.
Putnam Coubty's health needs are taken care of with
two hospitals (one owned by colored), a county health unit,
and a county nursing home. A county agricultural agent for
whites and home demonstration agents for both races handle
the farmers' problems.
The Florida Power & Light Company provides electric
and gas ser iee for Palatka, and electric service through-
out the rest of the county. Water is provided by city owned
plants in all the communities.
Civic clubs include rotary at Crescent City and
Palatka; _tvanis and exchange at Palatka; women's and Junior
women's clubs of several county communities; business and
professional women's clubs at Palatka and Crescent City for
whites; and Parent-Teacher-Associations for both white and
colored. Some Negro organizations include the Women Educa-
tional, Social, Civic & Art Club, the Young Men's Progressive
Club, and the American Legion Post.
Palatka is the home of the having Gardens, a Nature's
wonderland of forest, water courses, flowers, shrubs, and
other evidences of Cod's creation. It is in the Southwest
section of the city and is visited annually by many thousands
of Floridians end tourists from other states. It is owned
and managed by the city of Palatka.
Palatka is also the home of Palatka Baseball Club, a
member of the Florida State League, which provides enter-
tainment in a beautifully located park equipped for night
games, adjacent to the Ravine Gardene,
White movie fans may enjoy either of two down-town
theaters or ne drive-in theater located in Pelatka, also
one in Crescent City. There is also one colored theater
in Palstka. With attractive Saint Johns liver, and more
than 1,500 lakes in the county, water sports of all kind
lead in recreational entertainment for the community and
Qeugtioaal ags amnoMic status ai te santz.
Putnam County is among the leading industrial sections of
the State of Floride. Approximately 10,000 people are
employed by 120 industries, making more than 100 different
articles with an annual payroll from suc sources estimated
at 425,000,000. The industrial development of the county
is steadily increasing due to good transportation, by rail,
air, river and state highways; labor conditions, raw resources
and other elements.
East Palatka and Federal Point areas produce the Irish
potato, cabbage and other vegetable crops; Crescent City,
Lake Como, Pomana Park, Sateau, and See Meteo, ore Ienters
of the citrus fruit section; Welaka, OeorrelsM Palatka,
and Crescent City head up the commercial and sport fishing
industries: bostuick, Florshome, Grandin, Putnam Hall,
Carrawey, Francis, Hollister, Menville, Norvalk, .euks,
Melrose and Hodman are sports fishing, cattle and other farm
product centers, as well as timber and naval store points.
M4Meekin, Johnson, and tdgar are in the Kaolin clay deposits
and commercial sand area.
Palatka is the central industrial point of the county
and produces fifty-six different products in its 31 different
industrial plants. A farmer's market at iast Palatka affords
a sales outlet for cattle, bogs and oth-r products. Palatka
is the leading wholesale and retail city of the county, and
Crescent City serves the southern section of the county very
The principal industries of the county now include
paper and pulp, naval stores, lumber, concrete, meet packing,
packing boxes, foundry, and casting a, furniture, prefabricated
homes, cypress tanks, boats, brick and building materials.
isolin is found in the Southwest part of the county and is
shipped to northern and eastern markets for porcelain,
enamels, glassware, spark plugs and other types of manu-
facture. The St. Johns River is a source for commercial
and sports fishing which are considered a million dollar
industry in their own rights. Some of the products are
Irish potatoes, cabbage, shrimp, fish and crab racking,
corn, cattle, hogs, poultry, vegetables and fruits, tung
oil production, flower buMl, (such as gltdiolas), fern
production, prefabricated houses and furniture, and other
articles of commerce and industry.
Gmnnal cosanitl characteristics. It is difficult
to characterize a whole community in particular terms.
Almost ony generalization that miyht be made about any
specific aspect of community life will be subject to
exceptions. Particularly is this true in Putnam County
as between the urban and rural. For this reason their
outstanding social characteristics are discussed separately.
The basic sources of these data were secured from personal
observations and from proup and individual interviews with
6Raymond G. Fuller, A g i j2 1aouth 11ds and
Services in Munice Tndi.na (WashinFton D.. C.s American
Youth C0o 1rission of the / ,rican councill on Education,
1938), p. 8
community leaders and organizations.
a* Urban comai ity. Palatka is the county seat
of Putnam County, and is the hub around which revolves the
business and commercial life of the county.
Civic pride, which was both defensive and con-
structive, and a degree of provincialism were attitudes
common to many citizens. Several factors helped to explain
the existence of these attitudes which one interviewee
described critically as a "holier-than-thwa* or "better
than" frame of mind. Palatka is somewhat removed from the
influence of a large city. The nearest city, Jacksonville,
with a population of over ?5,000, is 56 miles from Palatks.
One civic leader who was aware of these attitudes advised
the investigator that the greatest need in Falatka is a
mirror in which the community mip,ht see itself.
Another attitude which is prevalent among %any
business and industrial interests is conservatism. An
industrialist described his impression of .'iay of his
associates as that of extreme caution and a "show me, I
don't believe it attitude.* Another person spoke of de-
pressing attitude of community leaders, especially in regard
to social values. Other groups frequently reacted in a
similar manner to various community activities. It was to
be expected that such attitudes would occasionally asset
themselves in community and school relations.
Many outstanding projects have been undertaken in
the past that command the generous approval and support of
the citizenry. Some of these activities were directed
toward improvement in civic and social conditions. Dis-
harmony and lack of cooperative effort featured the failure
of several contemplated public projects. Among these
planned programs, school improvement projects were promi-
nent examples. Never has it been more clearly demonstrated
(among the whites, against Negroes), than during the past
two years, that organized groups pulling in different
directions get nowhere. Many projects that should have
been approved, including colored schools, are hopelessly
lost while others languish in obscure files due to the
Jealousy and controversial opinions of those who should
push them vigorously. Petty jealousies among individuals
and groups in the community was the primary reason for the
defeat of a Negro school building program.
Frankly, Palatka sees to be suffering from a *small
town" complex. Petty jealousies among individuals and
organizations who should be big enough to place the welfare
of the community above personal feelings have deprived
it of some worthwhile projects. The school building program,
which would spend large sums of money in developing our schools
to the point where youth would have the advantages of the
proper educational facilities was defeated.
Formerly, a few individuals exercised considerable
influence over community life. Some people generally
looked to them for leadership Ia matters of public concern,
Palatka, like many communities, has a multiplicity
of agencies, clubs, and organizations that contribute to
the social welfare, recreational, and religious life of
The deficiencies of youth services and activities
in Palatka are probably not the result of a numerical lack
of available agencies and organizations. They are caused
primarily by the failure of community planning and the
indifference of organizations with respect to the needs
and interests of the Aung people of the community.
b. iural comalnities. The rural non-fare communities
are undergoing rapid changes in community life and organi-
zation, Many of the community leaders are professional
and business people whose vocational interests center in
Palatka, but live in Edgar, Crescent City, East i-alatka,
and San Mateo. The churches play a most important role in
directing the thoughts and attitudes of the people in these
small communities. There are few social and recreational
opportunities available for these residents; those persons
so inclined usually come to Palatta during their leisure
Many group conflicts are in evidence in rural farm
areas. & conflict between youth and adults, which, according
to some interviews, had been aggravated by rural youth
attending secondary schools in urban communittua. Religion
was another source of conflict in some areas. The statesant
was made that the church could not be used for a community
meeting because the Baptist refused to meet in the Nethodist
church. Other persons gave other indications of religious
prejudices in their communities.
Other conflicts that tended to retard the development
of rural life included disputes arising over the location of
county roads. The church was the most influential insti-
tution in the rural farm communities in the county. Data
secured from interviews with rural youth revealed that there
were twenty churches representing eight denominations in
the rural farm areas. Methodist and baptist churches com-
prised seventy per cent of the total number of religious
Community services and activities for rural youth
were deficient in number end txpe. The interpretation of
the rural community to the school program should recognize
the inadequacy of youth facilities and services.
c. 1m1ications 1 f the problem fr 9h.blU school
relations. Certain conditions and factors in the social
context of co-'-unity life were discussed as pertinent to
the problem of public school relations. The separate school
systems under the former district organization provided
educational proz:rams that partially reflected the needs and
interest of the vnrying population groups in the county;
formerly, pupils enrollments were largely restricted to
magisterial district lines.
Other implication for the interpretative program
were indicated in the data relative to .the density of popu-
lation, particularly in the urban areas.
The occupational and Acolno ic status of the county
pointed to the fact that Putnam County had the financial
resources to support a public school system that should
compare favorably with most systems in other county units.
The individualistic pattern of thought and action
was characteristic of m"ot rural far", communities. The
need for social rehabilitation in these areas was a pressing
problem; little progress was revealed. The rural school
was not askingg any valuable contribution to social better-
Tent; social and recreational facilities and agencies were
definitely limited for rural youth.
Other implications for inmroved relations between
the public and the school were evident in the investigation
of important conrnunity backgrounds. The diverse attitudes
anong citizens and varying social and economic patterns in
different sections of the county were regarded as important
aspects of the problem of educational interpretation.
The population in Futnam County is distributed amr.ng
urban, rural non-farm, and rural farm groups. Slightly
less than one-h.lf of the rpo.ulat.on resides in the urban
community of Palatka.
Trade and industrial occupations are the most common
vocations in West Palatka, and in the rural non-farm com-
Tunities; agriculture is the prevalent occupation in the
rural farrn, areaC. ;;corotic conditions are better in Putnam
County th.:n in near by county s, even though the relief load
is considerably higher thsn in the average cr.unty.
Community life in Palsti:- is primarily centered
around the activities and services of many aevencies end
organizations. The rural non-far communities are under-
:oing a change fro' a rural to an ur:an pattern of living.
The rapid influx of new residents in such communities
as West Pal tka and Crescent City during the recent years
has been an important factor in this trend. Civic agencies
and organizations are few and their service End activities
are definitely limited in scope. The church is the :rost
influential instit-ttior in these communities.
The decadence of the rural far. community is very
pronounced in Putnia County. Individual and group con-
flicts ha-per the effort of rural organizations in their
efforts at social economic reiiabllitetion. The church
continues to be the dnminrnt forc, in community life.
The varyin- spocill structures and patterns in the
c mmunities in Futnai County complicate the problem of de-
veloping a prorrar of puflic-school relations t.-t rwy have
general applicr.tion throufbhott the county.
This sotion a tof t report coacerms the various
stops tv;t wore tImdrta-Pen in tihe :nvestioatinaX. It
considers vboro ai6n hwc the Invasti :ator sconrcd tho data
for tcs develoeprmt cf the problem ft puiblic-ieehool
roelntons in a Cclntt:-, r1orn3a,
It Is ipra iyve in devlcpitcr n a prpos-td program ,
of ;uVblic relations tiat erclh potrtnant -data rolativo to
an 3understais of th co ?-:unity be secured, and -E1r t ti-A
an3 oneray vaT speit in tig reard.3
In the devoloperat cC this lt"y cf PutnaF icwtnt:"-,
aotnr frrc tho 'tllon art.-r; ..cta cc'llpctod,
it S&SiL. 'Widn Infornaticn l v:.a secured frcr tih cc;j-.
runitty cenius re-cirt of 43, t: 'inorpleyA:-ent report of
1.46, nar varrlao batlletins ef tc cft'a rfi tof Cihaftbc r
of aCErca t nuibor of roeort-; frc-- thec c?.- unity wero
astwZiod for portLront infor'aotl cacnciccnTing tho olrne rctw.n2
of 'iutnasn County.
La kUMa a=a
20==Jm SC. ZSii. Ay'rM iS ascal. The rntrar achOdutlle of
the local radio station (''-J-) fcr f;.ai pcrir.od .rot:
oeptorJr 1 1 1953O to 'ovcrber 1, 1.. ), uoro A:t:i3Ed toC
dzton.jai t.G nature aml ovxtont of t- od eucnatSal rlcrtd-
casts. Information was also secured from the Principals'
Reports and reports from bulletins from the Florida State
Department of Education.
Iihs pDrosaes R education A naS standard a94
crfitria La iLnaroj &a effectiveness at educational
krrraM2L AU DresUated la current educational ral.Sarl
jWa littXate. The data and information collected in
the areas listed above was analyzed for the purpose of.
identifying the ore crucial educational and general
needs in the county. Tentative suggestions for changes
and improvements in the educational program for meetingg
these needs were made.
Documentary evidence. The data secured from
documentary sources formed an important part of the
informational material used in the analysis and inter-
pretation of the problem. It was necessary to investi-
sate a number of primary and secondary sources in order
to obtain the duta that was desired.
Records and reports were documentary sources of
data. The United States Census Reports of 1950, the
Unemployment Relief Census Reports of 1933, the Census
of Partial employment Reports of 1938, and various bulletins
of the Office of gducsticin comprised the ",ost valuable
federal reports used in the study.
4any state records and reports were examined for
their contributions. The biennial reports, the monthly
bulletins, the research reports, and other publications
of the Lepartiment of Education were read and analyzed.
A number o" reports from other state departments, such
as the Dep&rtn-nt of Labor, the Depert!-ent of Africulture,
the Denart ent of Public Assistance, and the State healthh
Department were studied for pertinent information conc-rning
the sociological bac..eround of Putna- Co-nty.
Cther important data were collected from the records
Pnd reports in the offices of the Board of .nmmerce,
As ociated Charities, Community Chest, Department of public
Assistance, Putnam County Fara Bureau, and the State
Employment Service. Records and reports of many organizations,
such as the Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, Y.t.C.A., and Y.w.C.A.
were made available to thr investigator. The program
schedules of local radio station for the period from september
1, 1940 to February 1, 1941, were studied to determine the
nature and extent of the educational broadcasts.
The tuidini, principles of educational interpretation
and the recommended activities of the proposed program of
rpuulic school relations for tutna-' County were derived in
part from a survey of related information end reported
practices of public relations. The investigator collected
data from secondary sources including (1) books, (2)
periodicals, (3) yearbooks, (4) monographs, (5) bulletins,
(6) graduate theses, and (7) miscellaneous sources of
Questionnaire. Considerable thought and effort
were expended in the preparation of the statements used
in the questionnaire. The investigator spent a great
amount of time in preparing a number of items that seemed
to be topics of public interest and discussion. Several
individuals, leymen, and school people, were asked to
review the list and offer their suggestions.
The questionnaire consisted of thirty-five iteis
which were grouped under six heading, s, as follows; (1)
school organization, (2) school personnel, (3) school
costs, (4) board of education, (5) school services, and
(6) school interpretation. Another heading was listed
under the title of "Additional Comnmints,* but did not
contain any of the iteom. All of the items kvee stated
in question form, and, with the exception of five quest ons,
called for a "YrS" or *NO* response. Of the five state-
wents that did not request a positive or negative response,
two questions asked the respondent to rank numerically the
items listed, two others requested a listen of certain
subjects and activities, and the fifth item instructed
the interviewee to check one of the statements.
Personal interviews. Many interviews were conducted
by the investigator for the purpose of collecting; important
data about various aspects of the problem. Mention was
previously made of the twenty-five interviews held in
connection with the preparation of the questionnaire.
a. Responses lltd Z1 a krsnalI interviews.
Responses to personal interviews indicate that the
principal's work in public relations sets an example
for the entire school personnel to pprticivate in the
life of the community. The principal should make cer-
tain that appropriate publicity is given to achievement
and events in the school which he supervises, ile should
encourage pupils and teachers to accept t~eir individual
responsibilities for interpreting the school to the
public and should stimulate the planning; of specific
activities which promote community understanding of
QrQMR interview. Six meetings were held with
adult groups for the purpose of discussing local problems
of public relations. These groups consisted of three
Parent-Teacher-Associntions, a Acther's Club, and two
a. Problems discussed. (1) Getting people to
work togeth-r. If people are to work together, good
will, faith, and confidence must be established.
Stimulation, guidance, and leadership in school matterss
should come primarily from the teaching. profession. In
order for this leadership to be effective there must
be unity in the profession. This requires tact, di-
plomacy, and a willingness to give and take on the
part of the administrators, teachers, and other scho-ol
personnel. (2) What are some opinions of the term
school public relations? To some, school public
relations ean carefully planned publicity facts
about school costs, needs, conditions, and accomplish-
"eats. To others, school public relations means
"selling the schools." This, too, is an important
phane of the probleir,, hut not all of it. At all times
the sefllin nust be done in terms of benefits to
the community, .till others think of school public
relations as a program to determine what the people
think of the schools. A sound comprehensive program
of school public relations, however, involves much
-.ore. It must provide the means whereby all the
people have the opportunity to share in defining the
purposes, establishing the policies, and evaluating and
improving the educational program. The public will
enthusiastically support a school progrsu which it
has helped to plan.
Correspondence. A number of letters supplemented
the data secured from other sources. Some of these personal
documents contained facts and sugfestions relAtive to dif-
ferent phases of the investi-ation.
Go:e of the correspondence was the result of contacts
with other workers in the field of r"ublic relations and
with school administrators in other counties in the state,
Several correspondents wrote helpful suggestions and enclosed
materials th.iat were applicable to the proble.-, A copy of
the letter to a community organization in .$t. Augustine,
Florida and uainesville, FloriV:, is found in the appendix.
RELATED RESEARCH STUDIES
Certain research studies hWve been made in the area
of public relations. Several of these researches have
contributed to the improvement of nublic-relations practices.
Reference is made to the more outstanding investigations
that have application to this study. They are clsa-ified
as follows (1) studies of newspaper publicity for the
schools; (2) surveys of public-relations practices in
different schools; and (3) studies of public information
and opinion about public schools.
'tadies at NWdEPgR E Publicity. One of the earlier
studies vws an investigation by Reynolds of the news-
paper publicity for the public schools in seventy-five
cities distributed over seventeen states. As a part of
this study, he made a column-inch Teasure:uent of articles
of school news in six of the newspapers investigated;
obtained opinions and statements of practices from editors
and superintendents; and secured judgments of readers'
interests. His study revealed 5,1~85 items of school news
R. G. reynolds "Newspaper Publicity for the
Public School" (unpublished Doctor's Thesis, Teacher's
College, Columbia University, 1922.
ih the newspapers examined in the investigation. His
findings shoved that school news is considered ood news,
is usually informational and constructive rather than sen-
sational, and that the attitude of the press toward public-
school systems is distinctly favorable. Superintendents
reported that most school systems have no organization for
school publicity, and that schools furnish news irregularly
to the press.
Garlin surveyed the generall school-publicity
activities of T,!as newspapers for the period fro-' July,
1924 to ;ovemb.r, 1925, inclusive. A total of sixty-ei:ht
different items of school infor-antion received attention in
the stuiy. The total amount of space .iven schoc:l news
during the period studied woul- have covered about 733 pages
of the typical daily newsp-per, The itev-s t:ht received the
.,ost space in order of rank were school activities, athl itics,
building s Lnd grounds, opening and closing of school, teachers,
institutes, finance, &nd courses of steady. Garlin concluded
that the news &pers in Texas rather than the school are
taking the initi-tive in school publicity, anr if school
officials would assume more responsibility for school pub-
licity, one would expect to find a better distribution of
R. E. Garlin, "A Study of Educational Publicity
in Texas Newspapers* (unpublished )octor's Thesis,
University of Texas, 1)26.
publicity efforts among the various itens of school interests.
A more even distribution of space over the school year
might also result from publicity planned by school groups.
Parley classified 29,265 column inches of school
news from three .~onths' issues of ten newspapers published
in as many cities. Five thousand and sever.ty-six patrons
randomly selected from thirteen cities were asked to rank
thirteen sch;.ol topics in the order of their interest
ap-eal. Their order of interest was found to bes
1. Pupil progress and achievement
2. Methods of instruction
3. iiealth of Pupils
4. Courses of study
5. Value of education
6. Discipline and behavior of pupils
7. Teachers and scho l officials
9. Buildings ani building proFrams
10. Business management and financial problems
1. Boards of education and administration
13. Extra-Curricular activities
Belmont : Farley Wht I L People bout
ie Public Schools (Contribution to Education, No. 355,
Teacher's College, Columbia University, 1929.)
The most significant finding of the study was the
conclusion by Farley that, for the most part, patrons
received the most school news about the topics of little
interest to them, and the least information about those
items in which they had the greatest interest, In every
city, except one of those studied, a negative correlation
was found between the amount of space devoted to the
school topics in the newspaper and the interest of school
patrons in those same topics.
Surveys of Public Relations Practices. In 1934
Miller made a questionnaire study of the public-relations
program in 160 west Virginia high schools. Every county
in the state was represented by at least one hirh school.
His investigation revealed that 46 per cmnt of the schools
reporting : had a planned program of public relations. The
most important agencies of public relations as reported
to Miller were school news in the public newspaper,
musical programs, assembly and commencement programs,
school reports, athletics, contests, and faculty partici-
pations in community affairs. Public-relations activities
that were seldom mentioned by principals included parent-
teacher-associations, parent-visitation day, and school
Delmas F. Filler, "A Survey of the Piablic relations
Program of West Virginia Xig:h Schools* (unpublished Msster's
Thesis, West Vir.inia University, 19314)
exhibits. There was no evidence that the larger high
schools had better programs of public relations than the
small or medium-sized hi h schools.
,tudea 8 Pibc information aaf OPuLbnon fbu
taE Schools. Todd made an analysis of the school
reports of city superintendents, reports of school surveys,
and the responses of 7,000 parents in seventeen cities
to fifty true-false questions. The items on the test
were concerned with the board of education, the curriculum,
finance, building, pupils, teachers, the superintendents,
school organization, and administration. Todd found that
citizens know just about half of what is desirable for
them to know about their schools, and that mothers are
better informed than fathers. On the whole, patrons of
the school have little idea of the number of children their
coaaunity must educate, what the community is spending for
education, the number of teachers required, the minimum
wafe paid teachers in any department, or the relative ability
of the community to support education.
SumarY. A survey of the early development of
public education in the United States disclosed the exis-
tence of direct contacts between the public and tb:eir schools.
W. H. Todd, hat itizens ;= Ab ut their schools
(Teacher's College, Columbia Oniversity, Contributions to
Education, No. 279, 1927)
The town meeting and the lay visiting committee were
important media in alintaining lay Interest and control
of education. With the advent of the professionalism of
teaching and administration, public control over educational
practice and public contacts with the schools waned.
Several research studies have made Important con-
tributions to the improvement of publicreelations practices.
These investigations were classified in the discussion
according tos (1) studies of newspaper publicity, (2)
surveys of public-relations practices, and (3) studies of
public Information and opinion about the schools.
The investigation about school publicity in the
newspapers revealed several important findina.s. Reynolds
found that school news had considerable appeal to news-
paper readers, but that most school systems had no crcanized
propraa of educational publicity. Garlin indicated the
need for a better distribution of newspaper space to various
school items, and the advisability of a -ore even spread
of news during the school year. Farley showed a negative
correlEtion between the amount of space devoted to thirteen
educational topics and their int-rest appeal to school patrons.
The surveys of nublic-relations practices showed
the absence of administrative organisation and the limi-
tations in rubllcit) activities. The two investigations
of the National .urvay of Secondary Nducatlon reported the
lack of planned programs of educational interpretation and
limited use of certain publicity agencies. Miller revealed
that the largest secondary schools in West Virginia seldom
had better programs of public relations than the s-aaller
secondary schools. Perry disclosed the need for greater
administrative attention to public-relations practices in
the hiCh schools of Pennsylvania.
The two studies of public information and opinion
about the schools indicated other data. Todd reported
that citizens know just about half of what is desirable
for them to know about their schools.
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
The program of public relations is by no means
complete when routine reports of school activities are
tade. Educators must seize every opportunity to interest
the schools to the public. For th:i reason, mach of the
publicity that 8oes 'fro the school should contain factual
data and also shoual be easily interpreted.
In ;ath.ring the material found in the tables in
this chapter, the writerr prepared a series of questionnaires
and sent to a number of teachers and principals in Putnam
County, Flcrida to get their opinions on thw various items
cpncerninc a good public relations program. .any of the
questionnaires sent out were not returned; 'ownver, a
sufficient number responded which made the stidy valid.
For example, in Table I, page 36, eighteen questlonnsires
were sent, but only eleven replies were received.
The primary purpose of this study is to determine
the best possible means whereby the entire public will
know, care, and evaluate the responsibilities of the school.
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES ABOUT PARFiT-TEACHFR-AS-OCIATIONS
AS INDICATEL BY i-RINCIFALS AND TEACMiERS
1o you have a parent-teacher-
association in your school?
Does your P. T. A. have defi-
nte programs prepared in
f there is no P. T. A.,, do yoi
lave any organized group of
parents that meet for the
purpose of understanding the
o you contemplate organizing
uch a group?
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES
Of the eleven parent-teacher-associaticns reported
to the investle.tor, three organizations had a definite
program of activities which had been prepared in advance.
The average group scheduled nine 2.eetin(s for the school
year. The membership in these associations totaled 12i
the largest group, Central Academy, had a membershipp of
70, and the smallest organization had only eight members.
Two of the eleven schools which did not have a
parent-teacher-association reported the existence of an
organized group of parents that met for the purpose of
understanding the school program. Four other school
officials declared their intentions to organize such a
The adverse attitudes of some school officials
toward the parent-teacher-association was reflected in their
personal comments. These expressions of opinion included
"Valuable until worn out, comes and goes by waves"
"Will try to keep it going"
"Money-making organization only"
*Would not organize one"
"Teachers put up with it"
*Parents are not that much interested in the school*
"Over-organized, attempts to do too much"
"Teachers do all the work"
Tu, findings were derived from the analysis of the
Information about the local associations of parent and
teachers. These organizations were restricted in their
sphere of influence as evidenced by the small number of
soci3tions and t-eir liaitd n rmntr-ship. There was
little indication that the#e groups were functioning
successfully as "die of public relations or as aLencies
of asdult education.
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES 0 i- UBLIC-RELATION ACTIVITIES
....-" &LUAIaO OFQ oQmL
LIST OF ACTIVITIES '
t p.. *
0 4' O e .
4 1-4 4 0 -t a3-4 41
o 0 a 1 U 0 00 o s 0
< o- > ao e- -
1. Home Viasits by Teachers ___4 0 8 6 Q 2_ .3
2. Special Day Programs 4 0 2 10 12 2 2 0
l. School news (Daily Pa45ers) Q.... 0,Q 1... .03
4. Assembly Prorag s 6'A3 4 5_ 2 TO
5. Bulletins to Parents 2 0 2 5 1 ,0 1 30
6. Parent-Tacher-AfsocilatlionS 0 0 -1 9 5 1 0
7. RPIi Progras ..... 0 11 2 ...... 3 2 N0
8. Mother's ClubI Q 0 2 0 17 1 OL 0.
9. School NewsDaDer 8 O 0 0 .22 .0 J.
. Attendance aRecordsa. 0 0 2 20 ,.J16 2 .40
1 Parent Visits to gSchool 4.___ 0,.Q 6 2 _L 4 4 10
2 Conference with Parents 0 2 .5 ..... 16 0
L. Social Contact of Faculty Q8 0 2 120 8 2 .03
!% ,,mait ue of School Bldg. 2 a .. 'A 0
5. chool _Sxhibits .. 7 Q0 2 2 16 TO
6. Musical Or.anization L.....8 _Q ..J2 3 5 2. O._
.7. Honor H2Roll ..L. 6 1 1 1I 10 L .3S
8. Student Report Cards .0 0 3 20 & 2 30
TOTALS 1 8 3_ 00 144 L2 550.
I I I=
The data in Table II, page 39, reveals the extent to
which seventeen public-relations activities were used by
the thirty schools represented in this phase of the investi-
gation. The table also shows an appraisal of these same
activities in view of their relative importance in inter-
preting the school to its community. Interviewees were
requested to consider both the frequency and effectiveness
of the procedures as bases for their evaluation.
Student report cards and attendance records were
administrative practices common to all schools. Other agencies
used in a large percentage of the schools included special
week programs (American Education Week, Fire Prevention
Week and Book Wek), parent and teacher visitations, con-
ferences with parents, and faculty participation in community
life. The school newspaper was the agency employed most
sparingly by the schools sampled. Other activities sponsored
by less than a majority of the thirty schools were Mother's
Club, radio program, parent-teacher-association, and bulletins
to parents. All of these latter activities, with the pos-
sible exception of radio programs, are generally recognized
to be effective instruments in successful public relations.
The fact that they were not utilized in a majority of the schools
indicated an important limitation of the current program.
Conferences with parents and parent visits to school
each received good or superior rating by some of the respondents,
yet a few of the interviewees considered the former practice
to have only average or limited value and ten persons gave
parent visitations a similar rating. Faculty participation
in community life, home visits by teachers, special day
programs and school plays were other practices that ranked
high in the opinions of the principals Pnd teachers sampled.
Although Parent-Teacher-Associations and Mother's Clubs
were not generally a part of the program in the schools,
their value was recognized by those schools that sponsored
these organizations. It was surprising to find that the use
of school buildings by community groups did not make an im-
portant contribution to improved public relations in the
opinion of some of the school representatives. School pub-
licity in local newspapers also received a relatively low
rank. according to the interviewees, special week programs
and administrative devices such as student report cards,
attendance records, and promotions were the least effective
PUBLacITY 'A=jCT Vie
The data in Table III, page 42 shows the replies of
principals and teachers to certain questions pertaining to
school publicity. Only six schools out of thirteen contributed.
DISTRIBUTION' OF RESPONSES ABOUT SCHOOL PUBLICITY ACTIVITIES
D11 RIBUT, 0N Of R.PONSES
__i. JL -,a Mrn ,. ,swy,,,-,glfeal
Does your school make use
of newspapers, special 6 4 3 13
bulletins to parents?
Do you give regular press
releases to the local news- 4 8 1 13
papers about your school?
Have you experienced any
difficulties in getting 3 7 3 13
school information in the
Do you have a definite p3an
for releasin; school news? 2 9 2 13
Do you have a definite
program this year for 3 8 2 13
interpreting your school
to the public?
TOTALS 18 36 11 65
= = =.
On the item, newspapers and special bulletins to
parents, one-h-lf of the respondents said yes. & third
gave regular press releases to the newspapers; approximately
one-fourth of the schools had a definite plan for releasing
Only three respondents stated that they had ex-
perienced any difficulties In getting school Information
published in the local press.
The respondents who stated they had developed a
definite program of public relations were asked to indicate
its essential features. These responses shoved that the
parent-teacher-association was the key agency in their plans
to improve public contacts. Increased emphPsis upon parent
visitations to school and special bulletins to perentr were
other practices mentioned. No interviewee indicated that
he had planned a calendar of public-relations activities
for the school year, nor was there any evidence that schools
were cooperating with each other in the development and
execution of these activities.
l* N 0 ON
S 0 0 0* *
0 0 O D
,-4 3 4 1 0 v
< a -
So i y w- o 0 0
.0 0 0 0 0
- o o t o
SO 0 4 N 4
) 0 0- 0 1 0
V4 t i:.
cc V C
= > p
-- --- --
mei e- a -- -" --
V 0 -
0 9 c
.r. 414 .C
S3Q e0 4
* -:OU f
e0 40 T
64 Ui-4 s
c 0 0
u o <
". "4 6
________________ .1 i----
t I D J
0 3 *. 0 *. C
gII ('. sJ
0 UN Z\ 0
C0) 0 01
j i- -
M ------ ------ ----<- --- -- ---- -----
o t o 3t\ o <\ 'a
0 0 NC t uo i a
___ v PCM t\
^~ ~ ^-T1rr IM --- L 1L_ .^- ---. '*
Bp- 0b Od^ v '
1- !-~ 1t -! I. !~ 1 -r--- --
*- 0 ..-4 N
S- -t -^ ^
m 4 e4
o 8 0
'.4 f 0-( E-
r^9. 0 -I"^C
F 0 41
0 0 0
Z v4 "
r4 a 0
O a 0 Z
Sto es IN
0 PC4 C
-~l SN-N ___________ NJ
D N D. N N. m
0 S 0* 0* * 4*
Sl lo lo f s Io s- n ,a? so "3
rO r, ,, C r
** l rL @
t so-- 0 -- 0 N-) N I
i| w^ 4 o a o o 0 o .t W
JL 0 0.
z a I v
S .CO 0 a~~. R 6 I n a 8 a i 0t
0.4 .. 4 I V
*04 4 r, 4+>
o C x o w
4J i R 4 0 P 4
i oo 0 t 0 4
0: ** < U) *
S3 O-4 0 0 g t
i e o m ifi 0s o 9) fU4
ti OC 4 r .4 0 e 8 i4 v. *
C. 0 0 P v 0Q 0 0 *S. 0 0 .40 c4 &6 a80
v r4 00Q V Va4e O O 0 *O S 'O
Q rp S k t4 0 Jv.4Q 66
According to Table IV, page 44-47, the majority of
the businessmen and laymen believe that the County Unit
Plan has increased the efficiency of schools and has pro-
vided greater educational opportunities for the children
of Putnam County. It is further apparent that the respon-
dents are in favor of the election of school board .embers
with educational qualifications and that the superintendent
of schools should nomlnate all persons to teaching positions.
60 per cent of the businessmen and 28.57 per cent of the
laymen indicated a preference of teachers on a local resi-
dence b.sis. It is assumed that businessmen are more con-
cerned with the problem of economic stability within the
As indicated by the responses 83.3 per cent of the
businessanen and 71.43 per cent of the laymen stated that the
school does not make adequate provision for vocational
traininF. This is most likely du* to the small number of
students who are qualified for diversified out-of-school
jobs. The condition is worthy of note because many business
concerns do not employ most high school graduates.
Slight differences appear in number of responses of
businessmen and those of the lcyymen rwho indicated th.t
suf'f cient provision is iade for inc-ividual differences of
pupils. The comparative higher number of positive responses
might show that fewer persons are aware of the existence
of individual differences to the extent of providing the
necessary materials needed in this case. Two significant
facts are pointed out in that both groups indicated on a
one hundred per cent basis that pupils receive better
tr-ining in a large school, and the public school should
be more conscious of community needs and interests. Respon-
ses to the latter substantiates a great need for a county-
wide program of public relations to develop the kind of
leadership necessary to overccne this lack of interest on
the part of the school and teachers. Further the hik.h per
cent of respondents indicated a need for a program for adult
education which, in itself, is a chin:;el for initiating
effective public relations planning. It is also indicated
that teachers should participate more actively in community
The respondents indicated thFt the public does not
receive sufficient information abo4t the schools and that
teachers should seek to establish better cooperation between
the home and the school.
The five chief sources from which the public receive
information about the schools most frequently mention d by
the respondents wereg pupils, dnily newspapers, P.T.A.
Meetings, school employees and s.:lool publications.
Businessmen reported the following three sources most
frequently in this orders pupils, school employees and
daily newspapers. Laymen reported the following three
sources most frequently in this orders pupils, school
employees, with a tie for second place between daily
newspapers and school programs. Those mentioned most
frequently by both groups comprised 80 per cent of all
chief sources of information considered in the report.
The five types of school information of great
interest to the public most frequently mentioned by the
respondents were in the following orders pupils progress,
school costs, pupil activities, instructional program, and
school buildings. It is indicated that both groups are
more concerned in the progress pupils make in school. In
comparison the lay group appeared to be more interested in
pupil activities while the businessmen selected school costs,
school buildings and the instructional program as next in
importance in types of school information most desired.
The present program of public relations functions
mainly through activities planned and executed in indi-
vidual schools. An examination of the practices in a
representative number of schools disclosed a wide variance
in the agencies employed in the program. Except for certain
administrative procedures such as student reports, at-
tendance records and promotions, the schools varied con-
siderably in the extent to which they utilized the more
common practices of public relations. Special week programs,
parent and teacher visitations, conferences with parents,
and faculty participation in community life were used in
a large percentage of the schools sampled. dovever, such
agencies as the school newspaper, parent-teacher-associations,
Mother's Club, and bulletins to parents were not included
in the programs of a majority of the schools.
Conferences with parents, teachers, and parent
visitations, faculty participation in community life, special
programs and school plays were generally rated highly by the
The data secured from the principals and teachers
failed to show a definite and effective plan for releasing
school inforirntion to the local papers.
Fewer than half of the thirty schools investigated
had parent-teacher-associations. Many of the organizations
in the school were ineffective because of restricted member-
ships, poor attendance at meetings, adverse attitude of
the school head, and restricted program activities.
In order to improve the educational program of a
county it is necessary to know the facts concerning the
county and the needs of the pupils. In this an effort
has been made to determine the educational needs of put-
nam County and means are proposed for adapting the program
more specifically to these findings
1. Housing is in need of improvement. The percentage
of homes with electric lights, running water,
bathrooms and refrigerators is relatively low,
but there is evidence of an increase.
2. Home beautification has been neglected.
3. Farming is one of the lost important industries
in Putnam County.
4. A larg-e number of children leave school before
finishing high school.
5. School plants are not adequate for a good edu-
cational program. The present buildings are in
need of repairs and equipment. Many classrooms
6. Tlnrmntary tcacher- are carrying heavy el-ss
In plannIng for the futi.ure n' Futnnm County ac hols,
it in irrortnnt to re!;mrlber that cn-nditions that have
existrd over a period of years cannot be remedid in one
or t yao yenrs R-ther, improvement imu.t !bE thought of in
tn s of long-rnnge nlann.nr.
From an annlysls of th, forgoing fin', i-'s o" th-is
vtu,'y thb frnlc,--'n. conclusions are d ra'un:
1. Tbnt the majority of thpe rural portion of our
schools bive a barren ho'e environment and
often live isolated livns Oue to lack ,'f trans-
portation 'nn opportunity to come in contact
with outside Influences.
2. That ever tr,,-t1i:.9d of the "anilios visited
are rurnl, th:t -'ven in Parent-T'3ciher ct iv."!es,
the parents 'c not co',e to the sbr'-.l anr the
teachers 'o little hone visiting.
3, ;1h t,'aciora 1/vu 'i t Kc. unity a-'r, .:rt'.c-
pat.. rnctivly n c,-ru~ir:y afi'rs..
4. The Parct-'t-.echcr-iasoct'.ton ncro :sc3 its
u:I-tf Lefn t.y ne-1 t t.L".. aSccOS::'ivc a t vai r ciu
c--ntor vrc aras aorvod by thef a'hot 1
i-. o savnitt' ewe,, urc.Cs 3WrO usdti as u foth.3 1t,
6 "c y people :n 'cvry cc:san'.ty cre ; sod La-
c..;,tly2. '~.~i i r.-t( 71.. a apce L :. cr- s.-itt -c,
t :? r:tr rfi$ scCvrc T3 neeri o;?uCt : -" a t ru;ttn-
.2t: ecIn t.i. ? en' ..'.'. p 2** ou1 .0 :-Tlsn oc t C
ort7c'" f- .- caT-ly ch:. :~ tr ci.' .*'". iCfpt t';o
.rC' Cu: t, 't".. :)A, E r;f C'.. cc? st; It W '..t. b rb :c. ~ ,m tr
Into an ex; .ric*ru and .st2v ?ty prc rvzv. rt'yr ul; :ay
_ o un?....rt;; ,rn r;. a Cear.pli.i:.;; .:.t pr;;:: c ::' ludes
* :'r.rt &'t*.: t:r r '.P ose:i
hate a i af.;-r' no .": the ;:rchlvr one? -. 10 l' ; ,,
^ite 33't l74Y try py.>rcco *'s F' offct *'. .. .;
te?;*rtl' trmrx bo '.rtt ed f, rct L, t t" 3..: -.aStaCs
alone, but by parents, pupils, teachers and all
II. Ingenuity Produces Dividends
In putting this process into operation the key figure
is the administrator. He is the coordinator and
leader in planning and guiding the course of action.
Here is where ingenuity brin-s results by finding
the best means to have the public know, care, and
evaluate the responsibilities of the school.
III, Qualified and Trained Personnel
The first step is to place public relations in the
hands of qualified and trained personnel. Care must
be taken not to delegate a burdensome task to an
efficient, Out already overworked member of the school
system. Such a course of action may "necessitate
training someone for this special duty and allowing
enough time for carrying out the assignment.*
IV. Human and Material Resources
It is the duty of the person selected to handle
public relations to work with newspapers, radio
stations, parents, businessmen, and influential
citizens--public-spirited groups, clubs, and church
organizations, all who can make a contribution to
the welfare of the school system.
KA~ men and women should be enlisted to sell the idea
of public relations to their groups. A recent business
survey revealed that the person-to-person and person-
to-group method of selling an idea has the greatest
VI. Your Best Friend
In choosing these key figures, special effort should
be made to enlist people who have no direct interest
in the school, but who are recognized as genuinely
civic-minded citizens. Allies of this type form the
nucleus of an effective public relations group and do
much to establish an esprit de corps, meaning spirit
of unity binding together the members of a group.
When the public has been informed of the current
problem, every effort must be made to stimulate
participation and establish healthy interchange of
ideas between individual and school so that the best
possible solution might be reached.
Certain techniques have been found to be helpful in
making evaluation, such as questionnaires, check lists,
and personal interviews. The development of these tech-
niques depends upon the type of long or short-range school
public relations program initiated. In a dynamic program
of school public relations, the results of the planning,
promotion, and the use of techniques should reflect how
effective the program of public relations has been in terms
of helping the community to understand the school and in
helping the school to understand the community.
It is to be remembered that school-community public
relations is not an end in itself. The fundamental thesis
in the foregoing pages has been that of teachers and lay
groups working together on problems that are involved in
bettering the growth and development of the total educational
program and the contributions that each might make toward
the other in the achievement of desired goals. The positive
dynamics of public relations programs include on the part
of the entire school and community (1) A sense of the
purpose of the school in the community, (2) Readiness to
identify and work on current problems of immediate interest
to the group, (3) Desire to plan and act together in a
cooperative manner, and (4) Courage to initiate, modify, and
change procedures and programs.
The program designed for the improvement of school-
community relations will succeed only to the extent that it
contributes to the total educational programs of the school.
It must supply adequate leadership, concrete evidence, and
accurate information to the end that desired goals may be
achieved through active group participation.
Butler, G. D., IntrodaMi1on 1t Community Recreation.
The Macmillan Copany, New York, N. Y., 1940
Hillman, Arthur, Coamunit graaniatlon Planad B .
Macmillan Company, New York, N. Y., 1950.
Mason, Martha Spague, Parent td Teachers. Ginn and
Company, New York, N. Y., 1927.
Redder, Ward G. An Introduction tq Public School Relations.
Macmillan Company, New York, N. Y., 1937.
Sanderson, Dwight, Rural Cgmunity QOranization. Cornell
University, Nev York, N. Y., John Wisley and Sons,
Stewart, Harral, Public Relations For Churches, Abinadon
Cokebury Press, New York, N. Y., 1945.
Alexander and Therseau, W. W., "Publicity for Better
School SupDort", World Book, 1921. p. 131.
Batho, M. G. "0u12 P T. T CB Q i a XMrE &Bs Friend",
Wisconsin Journal Ed. October, 1950. p. 15.
Central Academy High School Handbook, Palatka, Florida,
Chamberlain, Leo, and Meeee Leonard E., "The Local Unit
For School Administration in the United States",
Bulletin 1936. p. 30.
Farley, B. M. "What's New in Public Relations?t* national
Education Association Journal, January, 1951. p. 27
Hand, H. C. "What People Think About Their Schools", World
o2,k 1948. p. 116.
Hall, J. A. *The Nature and Scope of a School Interpretation
Program," American School Journal, Februery, 1936. p. 38.
Stout, Paul C., *Interpreting The Schools to the Public"
Nation's Schools, 411, April, 1934. p. 20.
Swift, Mayme A., "An Experience in Public Relations",
Elementary School Journal, March, 1951. p. 12.
C. PARTS OF SERIES
Bright, Sallie Everson, "Public Relations Programs, How
to Plan Them," New Yorks National Publicity Council
frr Health and Welfare Services, 1950.
Fields, H. "Making a School Community Conscious" Ninth
Yearbook f te National Committee for he. Social
Studies, 1940. p. 68.
Mayo, Nathan, "The Seventh Census of the State of Florida",
-e Department a. Agriculture, Tallahassee, Florida,
Public Relations for American's School, Twenty-eighth
Yearbook &. Angrlen Association School
Administrators, Washington, 1950.
Ways to Better Instruction in Florida Schools, State
Department ,g Education, Tallahassee, Florida,
October, 1939. P. 131.
D. UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS
Bishop, Katherine. "The Role of the Classroom in Public
Relationship." Unpublished Master's thesis, Harvard
Bryan, R. J. "Unique Areas for Public Relation Activities
in Small Agricultural Communities", Unpublished
Master's thesis, University of Nebraska, 1940.
Cash, Christine. "The Study of School Community RelationshioO,
Unpublished Master's thesis, University of Wisconsin, 1947.
Cumbee, Asilee G. "A Study of the Racial .Attitudes of
Children in Newberry (Florida) High School,"
Unpublished Master's thesis, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida, June, 1950.
Flesher, W. R. "Problems of School and Community Relati.-nship
of Beginning Teachers, "Unpublished Master's thesis,
Ohio State University, 1943.
Ferrell, Sidney Scalfe. "Public Opinion in Confederate
Florida Unpublished Master's thesis University
of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 1940.
Fuller, Edward H. "Public Relations in a Surburban
Community," Unpublished Master's thesis, New York,
N. Y., 1934.
Hedlund, P. A. "Measuring Public Opinion on School Issues,"
Unpublished Master's thesis, Harvard University, 194 .,
Hickey, J. N. "The Direction of Public School Relations
in Cities of the United States," Unpublished Doctor's
thesis, University of Pittsburg, 1945.
Miller, Delmas F. "A Survey of the Public Relations Program
in West Virginia High School," Unpublished Master's
thesis, Morgantown, West Virginia, West Virginia
Miller, D. E. "An Appraisal Technique for Programs of
Public School Relat1i)s Unpublished Master's
thesis, University 6f Pittsburg, 1943.
Seyler, L. W. "A Tentative Check List for School-Home
Relationship Unpublished Master's thesis,
University of CalifLrnia, Los Angeles, 1944.
Triplett, Dixioe King. "An Analysis of Newspaper Publicity
in Duval County on the Public School Program from
July 1, 1948 to June 30, 1949," Unpublished Master's
thesis, University of Florida, Oainesville, Florida,
E. STATE BULLETIBk
State Chamber of Commerce, Statistical Abstract of
Florida Counties, Tallahassee, Florida, 1948o
Stone, M. L., Morse C., Margerite, Avenues f
Understanding Community, og Sch Sho Florida
State Department of Education, Tallahassee, Florida,
English, Colin, LAvirng ad L arnin Democracy JU the
School, State Department of Education, Tallahassee,
Floridas Bulletin No. 56A, December, 1948.
Ways to Better Instruction in Florida Schools, Bulletin
1.2 2, p. 131.
QUESTIONS RELATED TO PERSONAL INTERVIEW
1. What are some of the responsibilities the principal
and his staff have in planning and carrying out a
public relations program?
2. What are some of the underlying principles governing
the part played by the teacher in a sound program of
school public relations?
LETTER TO TEACHERS IN ONE-ROO.M SCHOOLS
I am interested in completing a study by
including data from all one-teacher schools in
Putnam County, Florida.
Enclosed is a short questionnaire which I
am asking you to fill out at your earliest con-
venience, and return to me. The information
requested concerns the Public Relation Activities
in your school and your suggestions for an im-
proved program of educational interpretation.
Your cooperation in answering this
questionnaire will mean much to the success of
Flossie W. Taylor
LETTER TO COMMUNITY LEADERS
In connection with my graduate work at
Florida A and M University, I am asking for a
study of the opinions the citizens of Putnam
County have concerning their public schools and
their community. The enclosed questionnaire
deals with topics that seem to be essential in
such a study. This questionnaire has been worded
so that your attitude toward these school problems
is the important factor; it does not seek to test
your knowledge of educational issues. There are
no "right answers" to any of the questions.
Your willingness to express your opinion
on these questions of local importance will be
greatly appreciated. A stamped envelope has
been enclosed for your use in returning the
Flossie W. Taylor
LETTER TO COMiMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS
I am making a survey of the opinion the
citizens of Putnam County have concerning their
I have selected your organization to
represent a group of people who are citizens of the
county. As you read the enclosed questionnaire,
you will find that it deeks to determine your
attitude toward certain community problems.
I am particularly anxious to secure an
expression of opinion from the member of your
organization. Will you please take a few minutes
to fill out the questionnaire and return it to me
in the stamped envelope I have enclosed?
Flossie W. "aylor
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR PRINCIPALS
A STJDY OF PUBLIC RELATIONS ACTIVITIaS
OF PUTNAH COUNTY SCHOOLS
Name of School
Date o ...
Population of School Community____....
By means of a cheek ( v) please appraise the activities in your
school which constitute your public relations program. Evaluate
the practices in view of their relative importance in interpreting
the school to its community. "Value" refers both to thefrequency
and to the effectiveness of the public relations activity.
EiLUATION OF ACTIVITIES
LIST OF ACTIVITIES Not No Limited Av. Gcod Tu-D.
Sed Value Value Value Value Value
School Publicity -.- .-.-._____
Bulletins to Parents
School News in Daily Papers
Assembly Progra ms
Special Day Programns -.-.-
Activity of Parents_
Mother' s Club
Special Day for Parents
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR PRINCIPALS (continued)
EVALUATION OF ACTIVITIES
LIST OF ACTIVITIES Not No Limited Av. Good Sup.
Used alu Value Value leValue
School Reports -...... ...-
kttedagnc .e cords
SHonor ho ll -..-.*
Promotions -.- -_
Pupil aort Cards____
Pupil Activities .__- -
Musical Organization.s.-.-- -
Scout Clubs --
Community use of
Conference with Parents -
in Community Life _______
ioj"e Visits by Teachers- ---- ----
Parent Visits to School ___----- -- -
School exhibitss -... -
Social Contacts of Faculty I .. _
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR PRINCIPALS (continued)
I. School Publicity Practices
1. Does the school make use of special bulletins
to parents?................................... yes_no
2. Do you give regular press releases to the
local newspapers bout the school and its
program?......... .... ........ ..... ...... yes no_
3. Do you have a definite plan for releasing
school news?.......... ..................... yes no
4. Have you experienced any difficulty in get-
ting school information in the paper?......... yes._no_
5. Do you have a definite program this year for
interpreting your school to the public?......, yes no
6. If you have a definite program, what are its
1. Do you have a Parent-Teacher-Associaticn in
your school?............................ ......
2. If you have a P. T. A., how many years has
it been organized?..... ...... ...............
3. How many members are there in your P. T. A.?..
4. What is the average attendance at your
P. T. A. meetings?............................
5. How many meetings are scheduled for this
school year?......f.......... ...............
6. If there is no P. T. A., do you have any
organized group of parents that meet for the
purpose of understanding the school program?..
7. Do you contemplate organizing such a group?...
8. What is your evaluation of the work of the
Parent-Teacher-Association in your school?...
. I I- II- -l11 I [I I L...
PUBLIC RELATIONS QUESTIONNAIRE
A STUDY TO DETERMINE WHAT OPINIONS THE BUSINESSMIEN
AND LAYMEN OF PUTNAM COUNTY' i h.V COuiC&.NING
THEIR PUBLIC SChGOL SYSTEM
?.*i ,^____-7 .......__________
Please check (.) the answer which best represents your
personal opinion on each of the questions contained in the
outline. You 'ill note that space has been provided for
*comments". Your frank expression of opinions on th-se
school problems will be appreciated.
In reporting the results of this study, no reference will
be made to any individuEl who has answered the questionnaire.
:__. __:~ __ _ :_ ,,,- .. ..... .
1. Has the efficiency of schools increased
under the Unit Plan?
2. rias the Unit Plan provides greater educa-
3. Do you favor transporting rur-il pupils to
4. Should school board members be elected?
5. Do you favor educational qualifications
for school board cenbers?
6. Should the school board determine school
7. Should the county superintendent no-inL.te
all persons to teaching. posltirons?
,__~_ ___ __~~ __ __ __ ~_
PUBLIC RELATIONS N QUESTIONNAIRE (continued)
8. Should the best candidate for teaching posi-
tions be selected regardless of residence?
9. Do our schools make adequate provisions for
10. Is adequate provision made for individual
differences amonp pupils?
11. Has pupil achievement increased during the
pbst five years?
12. ,re athletics over-emiAhaized in the school?
13. Do you think pupils receive better training
in a large school?
14. Should the county school be more conscious
of community needs and interests?
15. Do you favor a program of adult education?
16. Should teachers actively participate in
Comment s : ,
17. Should school grounds and hbaldings be
available for community activities?
18. Does the puLlic receive sufficient infor-
mation about the schools?
19. Should teachers seek to establish better
cooperation between the home and school?
PSIIC rE1,Al.:l01; QUF;uSiluhI Ib (continued)
20. What is your chief source of
about the schools?
a. School TEployees .
b. Dr ily I .'s7; .pers .
C. ju ils .* 4 *
d. Schciol Publicatlon .
e. P. T. A. 4eetings .
f. School Prcgrams .
g. FPrsons not as-4clted w
ith the school
21. W?.at type .f scl'r-l information is
interest to you?
a. School costs . .
b. Instructional program. .
c. Pupil activities .
d. School personnel . .
e. Pupil progress ...
f. Administration . .
g. School buildings . .