AN EVALIATICO OF THE PHYSICAL PLANTS OF FIVE CONSOLIDATED RURAL
SCHOOLS FOR NEGROES IN LEON COUNTY WITH RECCBENDATIONS
FOR IMPROVING EXISTING LIMITATIONS
Presented to the Graduate Faculty of Florida Agricultural
and Mechanical College, Tallahassee, Florida
In Partial Fulfillment of Requirements
for the Degree Master of Science
Freeman D. Lawrence
AN EVALUATION OF THE PHYSICAL PANTS OF FIVE CONSOLIDATED RURAL
SCHOOLS FOR NEGROES IN LEON COUNTY WITH RECOMMENDATIONS
FOR IMPROVING EXISTING LIMITATIONS
Presented to the Graduate Faculty of Florida Agricultural
and Mechanical College, Tallahassee, Florida
In Partial Fulfillment of Requirements
for the Degree Master of Science
To my wife, Mrs. Thelma E. Lawrence, members of the grad-
uate committee, Dr. W. S. Maize, Director of the Graduate Divi-
sion, my Father, Principals of the schools, Mrs. Christine Lan-
ders, typist, Mrs. Elizabeth Mitchell, instructor in the Depart-
ment of Languages, Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College,
and my many friends, my sincerest appreciation to each of you
for your guidance, inspiration, and helpful suggestions.
Thanks to Mr. Amos P. Godby, Superintendent of Public In-
struction, Leon County, for the cooperation received from his
office. To Dr. J. T. Kelly of the State Department, who went
out of his way to provide the writer with a copy of the Florida
School Laws, a hearty thank you.
Dedicated to the memory of my loving mother, the late Mrs.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. INTRODUCTION . ....
The Problem and Its Statement .
Statement of the Problem ..
The Hypothesis . .
Basic Assumptions . .
Limitation of the Study . .
Purposes of the Study .
Definition of Terms Used .
Importance of the Study .
Methodology . . .
Review of Related Literature .
The Site ... ....... .
Location . .....
Size and Physical Features .
Relationship of Buildings .
The .Building . . .
The Building .eat ..
Functional Features . .
Some New Conceptions in School Buildings .
A Look into the Future . .
Equipment and Facilities . .
Seating . . . .
. . .
* . .
. . .*
. . .a
. . .
o o . .
. . .
* a a
. . .
Classroom Laboratories .. .. . .. 16
Special Rooms . . . . 16
Playground Equipment ................. 16
Audio-Visual Aids ....... ........... 17
The School Lunch ... ... ... 18
Summary of the Related Literature . . 19
II. METHODS, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA . . 20
Florida State Standards for the School Site . 22
Southern Association Standards for the School Site . 22
Status of the Site at Barrow Hill Junior High School 24
Status of the Site at Concord Junior High School .... 24
Status of the Site at Lake McBride Junior High School 25
Status of the Site at Raney Junior High School . 26
Status of the Site at Station One Junior High School 27
Florida State Standards for the Building ...... 28
Southern Association Standards for the Building . 30
Status of the Barrow Hill Junior High School Building 31
Status of the Concord Junior High School Buildings . 33
Status of the Lake McBride Junior High School Buildings 34
Status of the Raney Junior High School Buildings . 36
Status of the Station One Junior High School Buildings 38
Florida State Standards for Facilities aid Equipment 39
Southern Association Standards for Facilities and
Equipment ...... ... ...... .....
III. CONCLUSIONS AND
Facilities and Equipment at Barrow Hill
School .. . . .... .. .
Facilities and Equipment at Concord
School . . . .
Facilities and Equipment at Lake McBride
Facilities and Equipment at Raney
School ........ .. ...
Facilities and Equipment at Station One
School . . .
REC(MMENDATICNS . . . .
the Barrow Hill Junior High School
S. &.. a 0 a 0 0 0 & 0 0 0 *
Recommendations . ........ ..... .
Evaluation of the Concord Junior High School Plant .
Recommendations . . . .
Evaluation of the lake McBride Junior High School
Plant. ................ 0 .
Recommendations ........ .. .. .
Evaluation of the Raney Junior High School Plant .. 55
Recommendations . . . ... 56
Evaluation of the Station One Junior High School Plant 57
Recommendations . . . ..... 58
Summary ...... ............ ...... 59
BIBLIOGRAPHY .................... 60
APPENDII... ..................... .a. 63
LIST OF TABLES
I. Basic Data Concerning The Physical Plant of the
Schools Studied . . . . .
II. Equipment and Facilities Available at Barrow Hill
Junior High School . .. . ..
III. Facilities and Equipment Available at Concord Junior
High School . . . . .
IV. Facilities and Equipment Available at Lake McBride
Junior High School . . . .
V. Facilities and Equipment Available at Raney Junior
High School . . . . .
VI. Facilities and Equipment Available at Station One
Junior High School . . . .
VII. Suggested Classification of Schools . . .
LIST OF FIGURES
1. Agencies Which Should Participate in Planning and
Designing a School Plant . . . ..
In nearly every school district of the land there is a need for
new and/or improved school plants. This need springs from two major
causes. First, there was a backlog of construction during the depres-
sion of the thirties and the war of the forties. Second, war and high
income levels brought an increase in the birth rate. Whereas, before
World War II annual births varied from 2,200,000 to 2,500,000, during
and after the war they have increased from 3,500,000 to 3,900,000.
These circumstances have created a school-plant need over the nation
which will require approximately $10,000,000,000 to finance.1
It may seem a mere platitude to state that the school plant re-
presents the physical structure in which and through which society's
agents discharge the most important and perhaps the most sacred of
functions of organized society. Yet it is with this thought in mind
that one observes with critical interest the many school-houses, both
fine and otherwise, which are found throughout our country. Natural
querries might be: What is the place and function of the school plant
in the whole program of public education? What are the distinct contri-
butions of the school plant toward the attainment of educational
IWahlquist, John T., et. al., The Administration of Public Edu
cation. New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1952, p. 419.
objectives? In what ways may the school plant, through proper construc-
tion, equipment, and administration, facilitate the work of public
There is no recipe for a good school building. At best, a school
building should be a product of the collective thinking of a community.
A building so conceived makes a more creative community educational pro-
gram possible. In the development of the elementary-school plant it is
necessary first to determine the nature and function of the building and
to consider carefully the factors that determine its type and character.
All school buildings must be conceived of as factors in facilitating the
instruction of the child and in satisfying adult community needs.
During the past decade an increasing number of state departments
of education have recognized this. Regulations governing the minimum
sizes and shapes for buildings are being taken off the books. Relation-
ships with local communities have moved from that of enforcement of
arbitrary regulations to service and leadership. Accordingly, the modern
state department with respect to school buildings strives to do three things:
to adopt appropriate regulations covering the safety of occupants; to work
with each community to define a program of community education; and to
work with the community to secure a school building which will help make
that program function.
20tto, Henry J., Elementary School Organization and Administration.
New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, 1944, p. 514.
The Problem and Its Statement
Careful and systematic planning of the school plant program is es-
sential in every county to assure the taxpayers of the county and of the
state that they will receive maximum value for every dollar expended for
school buildings, and, at the same time, to assure the citizens of the
county that school buildings which are constructed or altered will meet
the educational needs of their respective communities.
Broad areas in the reorganization of Negro rural schools in Leon
County, particularly, as they relate to the site and its relation to the
total school program, the specific needs of the respective communities,
the types of programs, and the buildings and facilities needed to make
this program function are open for exploration.
Statement of the Problem. The problem in this study is to ex-
amine the school sites, buildings, facilities and equipment available at
Barrow Hill, Concord, Lake MeBride, Raney, and Station One Junior High
Schools; to evaluate them according to the standards of the State of Florida
and the standards of the Southern Association's Cooperative Study in Ele-
mentary Education; and to determine the status of these schools in relation
to the standards.
The Hypothesis. It is assumed that the physical plants of the
schools under investigation fail to meet, substantially, the standards set
up in Chapter 235, Florida School Laws, and the standards set up by the
Southern Association's Cooperative Study In Elementary Education as to
(1) the site; (2) the buildings; (3) the facilities and equipment avail-
Basic Assumptions. The basic assumptions for this study are (1)
that the physical plant is a symbol of a philosophy of education and of
the way in which this philosophy functions within a community. (2) That
there is a relationship between the educational program and the physical
plant of the school. (3) That the physical plant should have the appro-
priate space, arrangement, and equipment to permit, encourage, and faci-
litate the activities which encompass the school program.
Limitation of the Study. This study is limited to (1) the sites;
(2) the buildings; (3) the facilities and equipment available at the
Barrow Hill, Concord, Lake IcBride, Raney, and Station One Junion High
Schools for Negroes in Leon County and to criteria set forth in Evaluating
the Elementary School and Florida School Laws.
Purposes of the Study. The purposes of this study are: (1) to
determine to what extent the physical plants of the schools studied con-
form to State and Southern Association standards; (2) to ascertain class-
room accommodation in relation to the number of pupils housed; (3) to
determine the relative status of facilities and equipment available as
measured by State and Southern Association standards.
Definition of Terms Used. The term "physical plant" in this study
shall include the site, the buildings, facilities and equipment.
Capital Outlay Class I (C-l). "Center well located to serve
a substantial number of pupils for many years in the future, where county
board should proceed with such steps as are necessary, including use of
any part of the capital outlay portion of the Foundation Program Fund
when properly included in the budget, to provide adequate school plant
facilities in accordance with recommendations of the survey subject to
such amendments as are made necessary by future trends and new develop-
Capital Outlay Class Ij (C-2). "Center which evidence indi-
cates will probably be a permanent center but evidence is not conclusive.
Has practically the same status as a C-1 center except status should be
reviewed and supporting evidence of need submitted before major construc-
tion undertaken. Capital Outlay projects specifically recommended by
survey may be undertaken when properly included in the budget."
Capital Outlay Class IV (C-4). "Center which should be discon-
tinued as soon as adequate facilities can be provided at an appropriate
center. If it is not possible to discontinue this center immediately,
Foundation Program Funds may be used for lighting, sanitation, safety,
and temporary heating improvement. Generally speaking, the improvement
made at such centers should be largely salvageable when the center is
3State Department of Education, Explanation of Symbols And Plan Of
Classification Of School Centers For Approval Of Capital Outlay Pro.ects
Financed From Foundation Program Capital Outlay Funds And Required Match-
in Funds. i n
School Center. A place where a school should be located.
Importance of the Study. Leon County is presently conducting a
survey of its school plants and this study may shed some light on the
problem of school plant planning, desirable facilities and equipment
needed, and the types of buildings which will make for a functional pro-
gram in all of the schools. The writer is particularly interested in the
study and feels that in light of the findings revealed by this study a de-
finite contribution will be made towards the improvement of rural schools
for Negroes in Leon C county.
Methodology. In this study the Normative Survey method will be
employed. Data will be secured from (1) principals, through the use of a
check list; (2) interviews with principals; (3) observation of the various
school plants covered in this study.
Review of Related Literature. In this chapter the related liter-
ature will be presented as it deals with the site, the buildings, the
facilities and equipment which a modern, well equipped elementary school
The Site. Each new site selected shall be adequate in size to meet
the needs of the school to be served. As far as practicable, any present
sites which are not adequate shall be increased to conform to minimum
standards for new sites. Each school site shall contain a minimum of two
acres for a one-teacher school. At least one acre shall be added to this
minimum size of the site for each fifty pupils enrolled in the school
after the first fifty pupils and until the enrollment reaches five hun-
dred pupils; provided, that this requirement may be waived in the dis-
cretion of the state superintendent under regulations of the state board
when any county board files evidence showing that a school site of that
size is impracticable in any given situation.4
One of the most glaring inadequacies of existing school plants are
the sites upon which buildings have been placed. In most cases, the sites
are too small and are poorly developed. In Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, for
instance, the elementary school sites averaged less than three-quarters
of an acre in size. In Jefferson County, Idaho, the elementary school
sites averaged two and a half acres in size, but in most cases little had
been done to develop them.
These conditions suggest that most lay persons and many school offi-
cials do not as yet comprehend the fact that the school site is an integral
part of the school plant and can be made to serve many educational purposes.5
Location. If school sites are to serve adequately, several factors
need consideration in their selection. The first of these is location.
Ideally, sites should be located so that they are accessible to the people
4State Department of Education, "The School Plant," Florida School
laws. Tallahassee: 1952, 235.20.
5Wahlquist, John T., et. al., The Administration of Public Edu-
cation. New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1952, p. 432.
who are to be served. Whenever feasible school sites should be kept away
from major highways, railroads, and industrial areas. There is general
agreement upon maximum distances which pupils of different school levels
should walk to school as follows: elementary school pupils, three-
quarters of a mile; junior high school pupils, one and one-half miles;
and senior high school pupils, two miles.
Size and Physical Features. Size is another factor of importance
in the selection of school sites. For today's educational program, certain
minimums in size of sites have been agreed upon as follows: elementary
schools, five acres plus an additional acre for each hundred pupils en-
rolled; and for junior and senior high schools, ten acres plus an addi-
tional acre for each hundred pupils enrolled. It should be kept in mind
that these are minimums. Single-story construction, outside classrooms,
and extensive play and recreational areas are some of the factors behind
this need for space,
Space alone, however, is not enough. The area must be usable; hence
the physical features of the site become an important factor. Ideally, the
site should be of sufficient elevation to drain well, be level enough to
permit the development of play areas, have a topsoil which would support
plantings, and have a base which would provide substantial foundations
for the buildings.
6Tbid., p. 7.
I I f i ll
Relationship to Blildins. The possible relationship of the
building to the site is also a matter of importance. The shape and size
of the site will determine to a large extent where the buildings will be
placed or what orientation it will have. The orientation should be aoe
which is conducive to good lighting. The placement of the building should
not involve excessive construction of walks and driveways. It should also
be possible to locate the building in such a manner that most of tis site
is left for development into instructional and/or play areas.7
Use. Finally, in selecting school sites the use to be made of them
needs consideration. Walks, drives, and space for parking need to be an-
ticipated. A portion of the site should be beautified with lawn, shrubs,
and trees. Sodded fields and hard-surfaced areas should be determined.
The trend in site selection is toward size-lots of it.. In a given
situation this does not just come. Thinking has taken place-thinking on
the part of more than the administrator or the architect or the school
Increasingly the school site is being viewed, along with the
building, as a portion of the teaching facilities. In a sense, this
viewpoint has always prevailed, but in the past much more thought was
given to the site as a place to locate a building and less attention given
to the fact that the site can provide as important teaching resources as
the building itself.
7bid., p. 433.
Butterworth and Dawson8 state that "depending upon the size of
the enrollment and the scope of the recreational program, facilities for
any or all of the following recreational activities may be desirable:
baseball, football, track, soccer, softball, archery, speedball, tennis,
volleyball, horseshoe pits." It is important, then, that the site be
large enough to accommodate all of the educational needs of children and,
at the same time, provide a safe and healthful place where children must
live a large portion of the time.
The Building. Modern education requires that the school become a
laboratory, a home for children, and a community center for adults. The
schoolroom and its equipment are thus an active educational agent which
affects the teaching and learning process. The controlling features of
the buildings, grounds, and equipment are important from the standpoint
of the curriculum, and they affect child growth. The question here, of-
course, is the practical one of how a modern program of education can be
instituted in a building constructed for a traditional one.
Naturally, there are only two ways of meeting this situation:
either the traditional school building must be replaced with a modern one
designed to accommodate the needs of children and a program, or the old
building must be adjusted to meet the new requirements. Obviously, it is
not possible or practical to replace at one time all small, poorly constructed
Butterworth, Julian E. and Howard A. Dawson, The Modern Rural
School. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1952, p. 425.
buildings with new and modern ones; consequently, the wisest program at
the present appears to be one of adjusting the present buildings to meet
needs, and providing new construction as funds are available.
The school building should provide sufficient space to house com-
fortably the school family for varied living and learning experiences
during and after school hours, with classes kept to a reasonable size (25
to 30 pupils)9
Functional Features. Perhaps the best thing that might be said
about any school building is that it serves well the purpose for which
it was intended. Too often school buildings have been monuments rather
than functional facilities for a certain educational program. The re-
lationship between educational program and school plant cannot be too
strongly emphasized. School plants should also be expansible. This means
that they are so constructed that, if necessary, they can be enlarged to
meet additional or different demands.
The school plant that is to serve modern educational requirements
adequately must be a flexible one. Eventhough built to serve its present
purpose well, it is entirely possible that during its lifetime the school
plant will be called upon to serve a different function. Single-story con-
struction adds considerably to the flexibility of a school building. Where
sites are adequate, this increased flexibility would seem to justify the one-
9Southern Association's Cooperative Study in Elementary Education,
Commission On Research and Service, Evaluating the ELementary School.
Atlanta, Georgia: 1951, p. 207.
Some New Conceptions in School Buildings. Probably in no phase
are there more new ideas than in this field of school-building planning
and construction. It is important, therefore, that those responsible
for the school building be alert to new ideas, whether these ideas relate
to general design, to materials of construction, to provision for housing
of special offerings, or to methods of heating, ventilation, and lighting.
Those responsible for a building program in a community should, therefore,
give themselves a general education in this field before they proceed too
Children require, as a part of their development and learning ex-
periences, a variety of sized and functioning spaces. They need associ-
ation with young people other than their immediate classmates, and asso-
ciation with youngsters in groups smaller in size and different in purpose
than the average school assembly. They require an opportunity to cultivate
and appreciate a neighborly feeling toward the young people of school as
much as the "we-feeling" toward their classmates,
In approaches to open planning may lie a real clue for design of
spaces which will accommodate the great variety of group activities desired
to help children develop into mature social beings. Functions, sizes and social
requirements of groups would seem to be a far superior basis for design than
any fixed concept of the all-inclusive classroom.11
102 cit., p. 9
1Editorial, "School Plant News and Views," The School Executive,
Volume 72, No. 8, April, 1953, p. 47.
Chapter 235.24, Florida School laws, states that "In order to pro-
vide for the sanitary, safe, and economical construction and maintenance of
public school plants, toilets, and physical equipment, and in order to
promote the physical welfare and safety of the school children of the
state, any building hereafter constructed for public school purposes in
any county in this state shall meet all minimum standards prescribed by
law or by rules and regulations of the state board of education, and, in
addition, all minimum standards prescribed jointly by the state board of
education and the state board of health as herein provided."
A Look into the Future. We build now for the next 25 years. The
more flexible we build, and the more long range planning we do, the better
will be our success. The times will change as rapidly or more rapidly
than now; we must be able to devise ways to meet change through conver-
sion and extension of the facilities which we have. As our architects
use their skills to help devise the kind of school plant that will house
the kind of a program we envision, they will find even among the educators
themselves, vast areas of uncertainty and disagreement. They will find
some communities that are not read (sic) to attend the new approaches and
whose concepts of the present social order are limited. bme small com-
munities will understand but their capital will be limited. There is no
conclusive answer to these problems. There is certainly no mathematical
formula to solve them.13
12o. cit., p. 6.
3State Department of Education, Division of Administration and
Finance and Division of Instruction, Report of Florida School Facilities
Conference. Tallahassee: January 9, 10, 1953, p. 26.
Equipment ad Facilities. As the educative process has become
more complex, the demand for school facilities and school equipment has
become more extensive and more varied. The Southern Association's Co-
operative Study In Elementary Education states that "the richness of the
instructional program depends to a considerable extent upon the quantity
and the quality of the facilities and materials which are provided. It
is possible, however, to provide so many resources that children may not
have meaningful experiences collecting needed supplies. As you evaluate
the quantity and quality of facilities and materials, therefore, you should
consider the extent to which you are making use of supplies which are avail-
able or easily obtainable from the community with a little effort and plan-
The beginning point of all elementary school education is the child
as he is. He is the product of a biological inheritance which is not in
any material sense different from rural and urban children. In order to
understand the fundamental problems of elementary education, with special
reference to schools serving children from a rural environment, it is in
order to take a look at the needs of children of elementary school ages
and at some of the most observable environmental influences on children
living in a rural area.
The needs of children everywhere have to be interpreted in terms of
their experiences and environmental circumstances. The application of
this principle gives distinctive problems in the teaching of rural
elementary pupils, In general, rural children have the following charac-
teristic environmental influences in commons
1. They have close contact with a variety of natural phenomena.
The outdoor world is close at hand to be understood and appre-
ciated both aesthetically and scientifically.
2. Many rural children are relatively isolated and have but few
contacts beyond the family and the neighborhood school.
3. The soil, streams, forests, wildlife, flowers, plants of the
field, domestic animals, and other natural resources are among
God's greatest gifts to man. The part that the rural child
can play in enjoying and using these resources is of inesti-
mable value in his education.
4. The rural environment is distinctive in that it exemplifies
in simple form, easily understood by children, the great in-
stitutions and occupations of the world.14
Seating. More and more, movable seating is being favored over the
fixed types. Flexible seating lends itself to modern teaching, it makes
multiple use of floor space possible, and it is better adapted to concrete-
floor-slab construction. Tables and chairs in single units, double units,
and larger units are now available. The tables are usually constructed so
that two or four of them can be placed together, with the seats around the
outside, when small group activities are desired. From the standpoint of
light reflection, the blonde finish has been found to be far superior to
the classroom brown formerly used so extensively.
S14n. cit., p. 9.
Classroom Laboratories. Elementary school classrooms are in a
very real sense laboratories. As such, they must be equipped for many
activities. In each room there should be a sink with hot and cold water.
A work bench or two should be provided. Storage for books and materials
should be adequate. There should be several types of storage cabinets
designed to meet the needs of the room. These ought not to be built in,
but movable, so that cabinets or various types might be interchanged to
meet the needs of different classrooms. A reading table, science table,
and tables for display purposes are also necessary in the classroom.15
Special Rooms. Each of the special rooms found in a school
building requires specialized furniture and equipment. In the school
library, for instance, there should be a charging desk, tables and chairs,
for the library users, a librarian's desk, catalogue cases, book trucks,
stands for dictionaries and other reference works, bulletin boards, news-
paper and magazine racks, filing cases, display cases, globes, pictures,
files for slides, and other items.16
Playground Equipment. Appropriate equipment depends largely upon
the program for which the apparatus is intended. A beautiful playground
with limited equipment suggests the absence of wise program planning.
16oE. cit., p. 7.
15Ibid., p. 7.
Conversely, a small playground so filled with apparatus that its use
endangers the safety of children, never justified official sanction.
Efficient playground administration results in the scientific blending
of facilities, program, leadership, and equipment.17
Audio-Visual Aids. All learning is based primarily upon sense
experience. Our concepts of various relationships are in terms of mean-
ings put to our various sense experiences. These concepts are used in
building other concepts as we extend our experience, and the superstruc-
ture we build depends upon the accuracy and the significance of the
fundamental concepts we acquire. The perfection of various types of
projection apparatus in recent years has made available to schools a wide
range of visual aids that have proved effective for classroom instruction.18
Insofar as possible each classroom should be equipped to make full
use of audio-visual aids. The use of these aids within the class makes
them truly instructional aids instead of entertainment facilities. To
implement this idea, all rooms should be so equipped that they can be
darkened; also, adequate electrical outlets are necessary and some acous-
tical treatment will be needed.
17Williams, Jesse F., and Clifford Lee Brownell, The Adlmnistration
of Health and Physical Education, Philadelphia: 1946, W. B. Saunders
18Risk, Thomas M., Principles and Practices of Teaching, New York:
American Book Company, 1947, p. 566.
The School Lunch. The school's interest in the school lunch cen-
ters around the relationship between eating and the child's health and
growth, and the ways in which the school lunch can be used in the health
instruction program. If the school has a genuine concern for children's
physical growth and for the relation which normal physical growth has
to mental hygiene, personality development, and educational progress,
the school should assume an extensive interest in meals children eat
during the school day and to the education of children and parents re-
garding modern nutrition. It is in the latter, the educational, con-
nection that the school lunch program can make its other significant
Some schools are developing the school lunch and the lunchroom
as a true laboratory in which the theoretical and the practical can be
brought together on such topics as food selection and preparation,
nutrition, practices of personal hygiene, food habits, table manners,
food handling, food storage, refrigeration, milk pastuerization, waste
disposal, fly control, examination of food handlers, and such other pro-
blems as are associated with the maintenance of proper standards in the
operation of public or private eating places. The lunchroom thus becomes
the natural laboratory for much of the program of health instruction at
the same time that it makes a major contribution to children's normal phy-
sical growth and maintenance of health.20
192. cit., p. 1.
Summary of the Related Literature
The related literature covered in this study substantiates the
fact that there is a great need for the construction and/or improvement
of school plants to adequately provide for the programs which today's
schools must provide if our American youths are to be prepared for the
problems they are to face in the years ahead.
Two distinct reasons are given for this need of school plant con-
struction and/or improvement: First, there was a backlog of construction
from the depression and the war of the forties, and second, high income
as a result of the war brought an increase in the birth rate.
There is general agreement among educators and school authorities
concerning the size of sites, the types of buildings, the facilities and
equipment needed to carry out the programs of our schools of tod ay, yet,
there are alarming inadequacies in all of these areas throughout the
nation. In Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, for instance, the elementary school
sites averaged less than three-quarters of an acre in size and the aver-
age age of buildings for elementary schools is 48 years.
Butterworth and Dawson state that "rural children are not in any
material sense different from urban children." The writer agrees with
this assertion, but the related literature and the findings in this study
do not indicate that this opinion is shared by many school authorities.
METHODS, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPERTATION OF DATA
The planning of a school plant comprises a large number of deci-
sions. The people of the local community want the plant to meet the high-
est degrees of safety, comfort, physical well-being, and economy. They
want the plant to facilitate achieving the educational purposes of their
schools. The community needs expert assistance in arriving at decisions
and in translating them into a fitting building design tailored to its
own particular needs and conditions. To obtain such results necessitates
the participation of citizen groups as well as educational and building
The planning and designing of a school plant should follow a de-
finite plan. In working together to this end, responsibilities must be
fixed and relationships must be determined, understood, and accepted.
Some principles basic to the responsibilities and relationships in plan-
ning and designing a school plant are as follows:
1. The people of a community should participate in determining
the needs for a new school plant, the program to be housed,
and the number and types of youth, children, and adults to
be accommodated. Technical assistance in such planning is
2. The local school administrative unit is the owner of the
school plant; it, therefore, makes the final decisions.
3. The state in which the local school administrative unit is
located is responsible for the schools; but delegates, through
appropriate legislation, a large degree of its responsibility
to local school units while retaining general supervision.
4. The local administrative unit fixes legal responsibili-
ty for schools in a school board of education, school
board, or school committee.
5. A local board of education employs specialists, including
administrators, teachers, custodians, architects, con-
tractors and consultants to carry on its operations, to
advise it on technical and professional matters, and to
perform assigned tasks.
Figure 1 below shows the agencies which should partici-
pate in planning and designing a school plant with lines
of responsibility and cooperative planning indicated.
ca Agencies The School Board
Sand Lay Groups
Contractors The School Plant
Solid lines indicate lines of responsibility. Dotted lines
indicate cooperative planning relationships.
*Figure 1 taken from The School Executive, 72:59, December,
FLORIDA STATE STANDARDS FOR THE SCHOOL SITE*
...As far as practicable, any present sites which are not adequate
shall be increased to conform to minimum standards for new sites. Each
school site shall contain a minimum of two acres for a one-teacher school.
At least one acre shall be added to this minimum size of the site for
each fifty pupils enrolled in the school after the first fifty and until
the enrollment reaches five hundred pupils.
...Each site shall be well drained, reasonably free from mud,
and the soil shall be adapted to landscaping as well as to playground
purposes. In so far as practicable, the school site shall not adjoin
a right of way of any railway or of any through highway and shall nob
be adjacent to any factory or other property from which noise, odors,
or other disturbances would be likely to interfere with the school pro-
It shall be the responsibility of the county board to see that
each school site is arranged to provide adequate play areas, is at-
tractively landscaped, and is maintained in such a manner that it is
both useful and attractive.
SOUTHER ASSOCIATION STANDARDS FOR THE SCHOOL SITE
Southern Association Standards for the School Site are as
1. The site should provide at least five acres of space
plus one acre for each one hundred pupils enrolled.
2. The site should be conducive to safe and healthful
3. The site should be located away from traffic hazards.
4. The grounds should be well drained and non-eroded.
5. The site should provide play areas for different age groups.
*State Department of Education, Chapter 235, "The School Plant,"
Florida School Laws. Tallahassee: The Department, 1952.
6. The site should be conveniently located to the greatest
number of pupils served.
7. The site should provide for garden plots.
8. The site should be attractively landscaped.*
BASIC DATA CONCERNING THE PHYSICAL PLANT
OF THE SCHOOLS STUDIED**
Name of Date of Original Number of aze of
School Construc- Construc- Class- Site
tion tion rooms (Acres)
Barrow Hill 1943 10 8 5
Concord 1897 56 7 2
Lake McBride 1926 27 8 6
Raney 1934 19 7 2
Station One 7 l
*Southern Association's Cooperative Study in Elementary Edu-
cation, Evaluating The Elementary School. Atlanta, Georgia:
Commission on Research and Service, 1951.
**Data secured from check lists.
Status of the Site at Barrow Hill Junior High School
The five acre site at Barrow Hill Junior High School does not
meet state nor Southern Association Standards as they relate to the
size, location, and physical features. This school had an enrollment
of 273 pupils during the school term 1952-1953 which would require a
site consisting of at least seven acres as a minimum as measured by
Florida and Southern Association standards.
The small portion of the site upon which the building rests is
just about large enough for that purpose. The remainder of the site,
except a small portion on the northeast side which was graded during
the current school term, is very low and cannot be used advantageously
for school purposes. To correct this condition would require a very
large expenditure of funds. The site is badly eroded and a small ditch,
conducting run-off water from two adjoining roads, passes through its
center making it inadvisable and dangerous to use this portion of the
site for play areas.
Contrary to requirement of the law, the site adjoins a through
highway on the east and an improved, clay road on the south. There is
no fencing to protect children from these hazards to safety. In spite
of these limitations some organized play areas are evident, and a
garden plot is located on the southwest boundary of the site.
Status of the Site at Concord Junior High School
Concord Junior High School is located approximately twenty miles
northeast of Tallahassee at Miccosuke, Florida. The site contains two
acres of land and there is evidence of erosion. On this restricted site
three classroom buildings, a concrete block house housing the boys and
girls' toilets, two basket ball courts, and a small garden are located.
The site adjoins a through highway on the west side but is pro-
tected by fencing. A portion of the two acre site is uncleared and
there is evidence of some landscaping around one of the buildings.
An adequate supply of water is furnished by a power operated pump with
the source of water being a driven well. The site is relatively level
and could be made into an efficient utility by expansion and clearing.
The land adjoining this site can be purchased by the school board when-
ever the school board is ready to purchase.
Concord Junior High School had an enrollment of 24.1 pupils during
the school term 1952-1953 and according to standards used in this study
a site containing a minimum of seven acres is required. Spot maps of
Leon County indicate that Concord Junior High School is well located to
serve many children for a number of years in the future.
Status of the Site at Lake McBride Junior Hig School
The Lake McBride Junior High School is located about eight miles
north of Tallahassee on the Thomasville highway at Bradfordville, Florida.
The site contains six acres of land which is only partially cleared.
There is no apparent evidence of erosion on this rolling site and the
setting is a very pleasant one. A large ravine passes through the site
but this ravine is grassed and erosion is not noticeable, however, it
must be borne in mind that this ravine limits the site for play areas and
should be filled.
There are two class room buildings, a pump house, and a concrete
block house housing the boys and girls toilets located on this site.
In addition, there are two basket ball courts, one slide, one merry-go-
round, and one set of swings. Organized play areas are congested but
very much in evidence and the site is pleasantly landscaped.
lake McBride Junior High School had an enrollment of 207 pupils
during the school term 1952-1953 and its six acre site is sufficiently
extensive to adequately accommodate this population, however, as indi-
cated above, the site is only partially cleared. The buildings are so
located on the site as to allow for maximum use of the available portion
of the site for play areas and the site is conveniently located to serve
a large number of pupils for many years in the future.
Status of the Site at Raney Junior High School
Raney Junior High School is situated approximately three miles
northeast of Tallahassee on the Centerville Road. The site at this
school contains two acres of land upon which two class room buildings,
a pump house, a small garden, and one basket ball court are located.
There is evidence of erosion on the site and the land is sloping. The
site adjoins a through highway on the west side and a hazardous condition
resides in the fact that there is a drop of about ten feet from the level
of the site to the road bed adjoining the site. No fencing is provided
to off-set this condition.
The principal, Mr. Raymond Fields, with student labor, has done
some grading and sodding on a small portion of the site and is to be
commended for his efforts. Some landscaping around the buildings is
evident and the grounds appear to be well kept. Raney Junior High School
had an enrollment of 209 pupils during the school term 1952-1953 and to
accommodate this population a site containing a minimum of six acres is
necessary. An adequate supply of water is furnished by a power operated
pump on the site with the source of water being a bored well. The writer
feels that this site constitutes a hazard to safe and healthful living of
Status of the Site at Station One Junior High School
Station One Junior High School is located about ten miles east of
Tallahasse on U. S. Highway 19 at Chaires, Florida. The site at this
school contains one and one-fourth acres of land upon which two class
room buildings, a concrete block house housing the boys and girls' toilets,
a small garden, and one set of swings are located.
The principal, Mr. Augustus Robinson, with student labor, has clear-
ed about one acre of land adjoining the site, which the county does not
own, and uses this land, alternately, for basketball and soft ball. This
necessitates the removal of basket ball goals after the basketball season
ends and converting the area into a soft ball field.
There is no appreciable amount of erosion present as the land is
relatively level and sandy. The site is situated far enough from the
highway to be considered safe but the land adjoining the site is low and
water stands for several days subsequent to heavy rains making it inad-
visable to purchase additional land adjoining this limited site.
There is an adequate supply of water furnished by a power operated
pump on the site. Station One Junior High School had an enrollment of 177
pupils during the school term 1952-1953 and a site containing a minimum
of five acres is required according to standards used in this study.
FLORIDA STATE STANDARDS FOR THE BUILDING
Minimum Standards for School Building Construction. No county
superintendent shall recommend tentative approval, and no county board
shall tentatively approve any plans for construction of any school build-
ing in the county, unless the following minimum requirements and any
supplementary regulations concerning the sanitation of schools jointly
prescribed by the state board of education and the state board of health
in conformity with the school code have been fully complied with. Fur-
thermore, it shall be the responsibility of the architect concerned in
proposing plans for the construction or alteration of or the addition to
any such school building to see that these standards are observed,
a. rEpansibility Each building shall be so planned
that enlargements and additions can readily be made without
unnecessary cost and without interfering with natural light
and ventilation of any of the rooms.
b. Orientation Building and class rooms shall be so
arranged that natural lighting is adequate under normal day-
light conditions. All buildings shall be so arranged that
most of the class rooms receive light from either the east
or the west.
c. Entrances and xits All entrances shall be kept
free from outside obstructions. All exit doors shall be
hung so as to swing outward and shall be provided with hard-
ware that will permit opening by pressure from the inside
at all times.
d. Corridors Corridors shall meet the following stan-
(1) Width The minimum clear passageway of main
corridors of any school building of our class rooms or
more shall be not less than eight feet.
(2) Lighting Corridors shall be well lighted by
outside windows where practicable. Illumination of an
intensity of at least three foot candles (A foot candle
is the amount of illumination on a surface, all points
of which are at a distance of one foot from a light source,
of one international candle) shall be provided by arti-
ficial lighting if the natural lighting is not sufficient
to provide this amount of illumination on a clear day.
e. Heating System In all buildings not provided with
a central heating plant and in those south of the twenty-
seventh parallel of latitude for which exceptions are not
granted under regulations of the state board, each class room
shall be equipped with a ventilating jacketed heater or the
equivalent ad defined by regulation of the state board.
f. When windows are used for ventilation, they shall be
of such design that at least fifty per cent of their area may
be opened at one time.
g. When windows are used for ventilation, two or more
windows shall be equipped with deflectors to protect children
from currents of cold air.
i. Artificial Lighting
(1) Outlets Class rooms wired for artificial lighting
shall contain not less than four outlets, and the illumi-
nation on each desk shall be not less than ten foot candles.
J. Library In every school building where elementary
or high school, or combination elementary and high school, sub-
jects are taught, there shall be provision for minimum library
facilities to meet regulations that may from time to time be ,
adopted by the state board.
k. Other Instructional Rooms- Provision shall be made for
such other instructional rooms are are necessary to meet the
needs of the educational program of the school.
1. Office Space Any building having more than four class
rooms shall be provided with office space for the principal.
m. Toilets and Lavatories Each school plant shall be pro-
vided with a sufficient number of suitable water clostes, earth
closets, or privies adequately screened and ventilated, urinals,
lavatories, and other conveniences as may be prescribed jointly
by regulations of the state board of education and the state
board of health for the use of the pupils attending school therein.
n. Water Suply Each school plant shall be provided
with pure drinking water.
o. Fire Extinguishers Any school plant with six or more
classrooms not protected by the services of a public fire de-
partment must be provided with chemical fire extinguishers
approved by the national board of fire underwiters and the
number required per school plant shall be sufficient to obtain
credit in fire rate.
SOUTHER ASSOCIATION STANDARDS FOR THE BUILDING
The building should provide the following:
1. Space enough to house comfortably the school family for
varied living and learning experiences with classes kept
to a reasonable size (25 to 30 pupils).
2. Space for administrative officers, including a conference
room for parent-teacher conferences (not the principal's
3. Classrooms with adequate seating and work space for from
25 to 30 pupils.
4. A central library.
5. Sanitary and efficient facilities for preparing and serving
6. Space where about half of the school can gather at one time
7. A health clinic or room.
8. Space which may be used by special music groups.
9. A lounge-rest room for teachers.
10. Adequate central storage space for books and supplies.
11. Storage space in each classroom for books and needed teach-
12. Storage space within each classroom for pupils' coats and
other personal belongings.
13. Fire extinguishing equipment at strategic locations.
14. A safe and healthful place for children.
15. Sanitary facilities, including good indoor and outdoor
drinking fountains on an approved water supply.
16. Indoor toilets and handwashing facilities, including
soap and paper towels.
17. A good system of cross-ventilation.
18. Sufficient electrical outlets in classrooms.
19. An abundance of natural light.
20. Adjustable shades to control natural light in the class-
room-preferably of the double-roller variety.
21. Chalkboards which are light enough to maintain good
lighting conditions in the room, are in good condition,
and are mounted at proper height for the children using
22. Bulletin: boards which cover approximately half of the
available wall space in each classroom and are mounted
at the children's eye level.
23. Movable furniture which is adjustable or an adequate
supply of tables and chairs of appropriate sizes for
24. Furniture which is light in color.
25. Running water in each classroom.
Status of The Barrow ill Junior High School Building
The one-story frame building, erected in 1943 at a cost of appro-
ximately $3500.00, to which the Tuskeena School building was annexed in
1951 at a cost of approximately $5000.00 appears to be structurally sound,
but needs almost an entirely new roof. A portion of the roof was covered
with galvanized roofing in 1952. The building cannot be economically ex-
panded as it is bounded on the east and south sides by public roads; on
the west side the land is very low, and on the north side a small room
housing the water plant is joined to the building.
Natural lighting is adequate, under normal conditions, in all but
one of the eight classrooms and this conditions is corrected with arti-
ficial lighting. The building is so arranged that all but one of the
classrooms receive natural light from either the east or the west sides.
All exit doors open outwardly, but the main corridor is less than eight
feet wide and is not adequately lighted.
Heat is supplied by unjacketed wood and coal burning heaters with
most of these being very old and unsatisfactory. Windows are of such
design that fifty per cent of their area may be opened at one time,
but none are equipped with deflectors to control currents of cold air.
Only two of the eight classrooms have four electrical outlets which in-
dicate that the illumination on each desk is less than ten foot candles
as required by law. There is no central library, however, some provisions
for library books are made through the school budget and these books are
housed in the principal's office which is inadequate both in size and
conveniences. No special rooms are provided.
A sufficient number of water closets, lavatories, and urinals is
provided, but pupils must be exposed to the elements to use them. An
adequate supply of drinking water is provided; there are no inside faci-
lities for drinking water. No chemical fire extinguishers are at this
school and this condition has been reported. The writer feels that a
fire hazard is present.
The school lunch facilities are inadequate. There are only
four tables and eight benches housed in a regular classroom to accom-
modate patrons of the lunch room. During the 1952-1953 school term
15,486 meals were served or an average of approximately ninety meals
per day for one hundred seventy-four days.
All furniture at this school is light in color, movable, adjust-
able, and of three different sizes. Chalkboards are dark, but properly
mounted and windows on the east side of the building are equipped with
adjustable shades of the double-roller type to control natural light.
Bulletin boards are inadequate.
Status of the Concord Junior Hg School Buildings
Three buildings provide housing for the Concord school population.
As indicated in TABLE I, one of the buildings was erected in 1897 and
must be considered sub-standard in the light of present educational needs.
With good planning this school could be developed into an ideal center.
It is apparent that natural lighting is adequate under normal con-
ditions, however, natural light does not enter each classroom from either
the east or west sides. Exit doors open outwardly as required by law and
there are no corridors.
Heat is furnished by unjacketed wood and coal heaters. Adequate
ventilation is provided and fifty per cent of the window area may be
opened at one time. Deflectors are not provided for any of tle windows.
Artificial lighting is inadequate; there is no central library, but the
school operates on a budget which makes some provision for library books.
These books are housed in the various classrooms and in the principal's
office, rather, a portion of a cloak room which is being used as an
office for the principal.
Toilets, lavatories, and urinals are provided in sufficient num-
bers to adequately accommodate the school population. There is an
adequate supply of drinking water, but no inside facilities for drink-
ing are provided; two chemical fire extinguishers supply the fire pro-
tection for this school.
A partition between two rooms which may be folded and the rooms
used for assemblies satisfy the need for an assembly room sufficient to
accommodate half of the enrollment at one time. Lunch room facilities
are limited but not unsatisfactory. No window shades to control natural
light are provided, chalkboards are dark in color, but properly mounted
and bulletin board space is inadequate.
There is a shortage of movable and adjustable furniture and the
old type, out dated furniture which permits double seating is being used.
Most of this furniture is dark in color.
Status of The Lake McBride Junior High School Buildings
There are two classroom buildings at the Lake McBride school one
of which is a Rosenwald building, erected in 1926 at a cost of $5,500.00.
The other building is the Dawkins Pond school building, which was annexed
to Lake McBride in 1951. This building was originally constructed in 1901.
An addition of two classrooms was made to the Dawkins Pond building in 1953.
These buildings are in very good condition and provide eight classrooms,
a lunch room, kitchen, and an office for the principal.
In the opinion of this writer, these buildings can be expanded
with minimum cost to the school board as they are pleasantly located
on the site. Natural light enters all of the classrooms in one of the
buildings from the east and west sides, however, for the other building
natural light enters the classrooms from the north and south sides.
Exit doors open to the outside and there are no corridors.
Heat is provided by unjacketed wood and coal burning heaters.
Windows are of such design that adequate ventilation is provided in all
classrooms but no deflectors are provided. Four ceiling outlets are pro-
vided in each classroom which is adequate according to the standards used
in this study.
The school has no central library but there is a fair collection
of reference books, obtained through the school budget, on hand. These
books are housed in the principal's office.
Toilet facilities are adequate in numbers of the various items,
but are located in a separate building away from the classrooms. This
condition is considered to be unsatisfactory. The water supply is ade-
quate, but, there too, no inside drinking facilities are available. No
chemical fire extinguishers are available at this school.
The furniture at lake McBride Junior High School is of two types,
with one type being the modern, light colored furniture and the other type
being of the old, double-seat, dark colored furniture which does not con-
tribute to maximum classroom efficiency. The lunch room facilities are
inadequate. A regular classroom size room is used for lunch room pur-
poses and this room is too small to be considered adequate for a school
of this size.
Storage space for books and supplies is entirely lacking both
as a central unit and in the individual classrooms. No window shades
to control natural light are available; bulletin boards are inadequate
in total area and chalkboards are of light color in four classrooms,
while the other four classrooms are equipped with dark colored chalk-
boards. Chalkboards are mounted at the proper level for the pupils
using them and are in good condition.
Status of The aney Junior High School Buildings
The Raney Junior High School has two frame buildings, providing
seven classrooms, three of which must be considered sub-standard as
they do not meet minimum standards of 22 by 30 by 12 feet. The ori-
ginal building was constructed in 1934 and the Crenshaw building was
moved to the Raney site in 1951.
It would be very undesirable and unwise to expand these build-
ings on this limited site. The location of the buildings on the site
facilitates entrance of natural light from the east and west sides in
all classrooms and window shades of the single-roller type are pro-
vided in each classroom.
Attention is invited to the fact that doors swing inward con-
trary to legal requirements. Heat is supplied by unjacketed wood and
coal burning heaters. Adequate ventilation is obtained through windows
sufficiently large to accommodate each classroom and one-half of the
window area may be opened at one time. None of the windows are equip-
ped with deflectors to control currents of cold air.
Artificial lighting is inadequate in that there is not enough
ceiling outlets to provide an illumination of ten foot candles on each
desk. In the absence of a central library, reference books are housed
in individual classrooms and in cabinets located in a small hallway
which is also being used as an office for the principal. Reference
books are secured through the school budget.
There is a sufficient amount of sanitary water closets, lava-
tories, and urinals to adequately accommodate the school population,
but these facilities are situated so that pupils must leave the class-
room buildings to use them. Water is supplied by a power pump located
on the site with all drinking facilities being located on the outside
of the buildings.
Two chemical fire extinguishers are available at this school;
space for assemblies is inadequate, and lunch room facilities are very
inadequate. The kitchen is housed in a former cloak room and children
eat their meals in their classrooms. No central storage space for
books and supplies is available; furniture is of the old, double-seat
type and chalkboards are dark in color but properly mounted. Bulletin
boards are inadequate.
Status of The Station One Junior Hi School Buildings
The Station One Junior High School is housed in two old and very
dilapidated buildings, one of which is an old auditorium. Seven sub-
standard classrooms are just about all the facilities these buildings
This writer feels that the school board cannot justify expand-
ing this plant and that its continued use is very undesirable. The
classrooms have poor natural lighting but this condition is somewhat
received by electric installation. Exit doors open to the outside
and there are no corridors.
Heat is provided by unjacketed wood and coal burning heaters;
windows in one of the rooms are very small which does not facilitate
adequate ventilation. A few reference books, secured through the school
budget during the term just ended, constitute all the library facilities
available at this school, and there is no office for the principal.
Sanitary water closets, lavatories, and urinals are housed in a
separate building away from the classroom buildings and there is only
one stool for boys and two for girls. The water supply is adequate,
but all drinking facilities are located outside of the buildings.
No chemical fire extinguishers are available; the school popu-
lation is not comfortably housed, and space for assemblies is very
limited. The seating conditions at Station One School is very poor with
all of the furniture being of the old, dark colored, double-seat type,
and there are a few benches being used in the classrooms. Two of the
classrooms have fixed-type furniture.
School lunch facilities are very unsatisfactory and inadequate.
The kitchen is housed in a small, enclosed porch where a range, refri-
gerator, and ice cream box are also located along with what limited
storage space for food is provided. There is no central storage space
and no window shades to control natural light. Chalkboards are of com-
position material and of little use; bulletin boards are very inadequate
with only about three square feet of area in each classroom.
FLORIDA STATE STANDARDS FOR FACILITIES AND EQUIRPENT
Florida state standards relating to facilities and equipment are
stated in the standards for the building as they are not promulgated
separately and distinctly from the building standards.
SOUTHERN ASSOCIATION STANDARDS FOR FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT
Among the important resources which elementary schools provide
so that children may have good learning experiences are: (a) library
services and materials, including textbooks, (b) audio-visual materials
and equipment, (c) art and craft materials, (d) music equipment and
materials, (e) equipment for physical education, (f) science equipment
and materials, and (g) general supplies and equipment needed by teachers
in order to do a good job of planning, teaching, and record-keeping.
Evaluation of Facilities and Equipment at Barrow Hill Junior High School
EQUIPMENT AND FACILITIES AVAILABLE AT
BARROW HILL JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL*
1 16mm Sound movie projector
1 Record player
2 Small apartment size ranges
1 Milk dispenser
1 Hot water heater
1 Sewing matching (out of order)
1 Electrically operated pump
and water tank
8 Heaters, one storage room
1 Large filing cabinet
9 Pencil sharpeners, 8 teachers'
desks and chairs
Inadequate supply of textbooks
2 large U. S. maps
Tempera paints, finger paints
Crayons, paper, hammer and saw
2 Basket balls
2 Basket ball courts
3 Soft balls, 2 soft ball bats,
2 Slides, 2 see-saws, 1 set of
1 first aid kit, 1 set of horse
1 Volley ball and court
2 garden hoes, 1 garden plow
*Data taken from school.
TABLE II indicates that there is an inadequacy in equipment
and facilities at Barrow Hill Junior High School. The sound movie pro-
jector and record player were purchased by the faculty in an effort
to strengthen the school program and some progress along this line is
noticeable. There is an acute shortage of textbooks, maps, globes,
and charts. The hot water heater needs replacing as well as does the
The site does not offer much opportunity for playing softball,
hence the main activity in physical education is basketball, with
volley ball and horse shoe pitching occupying a lesser role. Science
equipment is entirely lacking and this school offers instruction from
grade one to grade nine inclusive.
The kitchen ranges are war surplus equipment, having just about
served their usefulness, and facilities for teachers are inadequate.
Evaluation of Facilities and Equipment at Concord Junior Hih School
FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT AVAILABLE AT
CONCORD JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL*
2 Chemical fire extinguishers
Hammer and saw
2 garden hoes
4 Book cases
1 Large range
1 Ice cream box, 7 heaters
9 Teachers' desks and chairs
Inadequate supply of textbooks
1 Large U. S. map, 1 globe
Tempera paints, finger paints
Crayons, construction paper
1 dodge ball, 2 basket balls
2 basket ball courts
1 Volley ball and court
*Data taken from school.
As revealed in TABLE III, there is an acute shortage of facilities
and equipment so necessary to the execution of a well-planned and func-
tional school program. The very fact that a serious shortage of text-
books exists at this school makes for an inadequate total program.
In the areas of art and science the facilities available leaves
much to be desired especially as they relate to the development of
creative abilities and to the development of a greater appreciation of
the immediate environment of the child.
The place where the principal must carry on his duties falls
far short of being adequate which makes the burden of administration
a terrific one indeed.
Evaluation of Facilities and Equipment at lake McBride Junior Hig School
FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT AVAILABLE AT
LAKE McBRIDE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL*
1 Slide, film strip projector
1 Duplicating machine
Hammer and saw
1 Piano, 9 teachers' desk and
1 Large gas range, 1 wood
2 Sinks, kitchen cabinets
1 Hot water heater
1 Electric sewing machine
8 Heaters, 1 electric water pump
Inadequate supply of textbooks
Out dated furniture
Unabridged Funk-Wagnalls dictionary
Flat pictures, crayons, finger
paints, construction paper
2 Basket balls, 2 basket ball
courts, 1 merry-go-round
3 Soft balls, 2 soft ball bats
*Data taken from school.
Equipment at Lake McBride Jumior High School is considered satis-
factory in light of the standards employed in this study, however, the
facilities here are inadequate. Notwithstanding, the fact that physical
education and recreational facilities at this school are just about
tops for the schools studied, adequate use of them cannot be made due
to the limited portion of the site which is cleared and suitable for
The combination slide and film strip projector lends itself well
to visual education and the duplicating machine is an asset in any
school. School lunch equipment is very good but the space for serving
lunches is entirely too small for the enrollment. Another asset to
this school is the electric sewing machine which facilitates the develop-
ment of skills in using modern equipment as well as adding spice to the
job of the home economics teacher and the enthusiasm of the pupils.
Evaluation of Facilities and Equipment at Raney Junior High School
FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT AVAIIABIE AT
RA1EY JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL*
- Duplicating machine
- Teachers' desks and chairs
- Book cases
- Large range (gas)
- Milk dispenser
- Power operated water pump
Hammer and saw
Inadequate supply of textbooks
1 Large U. S. map
3 Globes, 2 charts
Tempera paints, crayons
2 Basket balls, 1 basket ball
court, 1 first aid kit
1 %lley ball and court
1 set of horse shoes
9 Pencil sharpeners
*Data taken from school.
TABLE V reveals that equipment and facilities at Raney Juniar
High School are inadequate as measured by state and Southern Association
standards; that the instructional program here is hampered by insuffi-
cient numbers of state adopted textbooks and an inadequate supply of art
Three of the classrooms are sub-standard and with an enrollment
of 209 pupils overcrowded conditions are present. It is of note that
Raney Junior High School has a duplicating machine which facilitates the
classroom work of teachers and aids the principal in the execution of
Raney Junior High School has a tonette group which is progressing
well. Recreational facilities consist of basket ball, volley ball, and
horse shoe pitching as the site is very limited. There is also a merry-
go-round for the smaller children.
Evaluation of Facilities and Equipment at Station One Junior High School
FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT AVAIIABE AT
STATIC ONE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL*
1 Power operated water pump
First aid kit
Insufficient number of chair-
3 Mounted pictures
1 Piano 2 garden hoes
8 Teachers' desks and chairs
1 Large and 1 small gas range
Inadequate supply of textbooks
2 Large U. S. Maps, 2 globes
1 Chart, tempera paints
1 Dodge ball, 3 basket balls
2 Basket ball courts, 3 softballs
2 Soft ball bats, 4 bases
2 Slides, 2 see-saws, 1 set of
1 Set of horse shoes, 1 volley
ball and court
*Data taken from school.
Facilities and equipment at Station One Junior High School are
very limited, excluding the area of physical education. It is note-
worthy to mention here that the site contains only one and one-fourth
acres on which the classroom buildings are located in addition to the
play areas. Of course, the basket ball courts are not located on school
property. The Station One school has sponsored a championship and runners-
up basketball team for the past two seasons which indicates that in spite
of these very limited conditions a good physical education program is a
Aside from the physical education, however, the facilities just
do not have much to offer. Text books are inadequate, there is no hot
water heater at the school, and no sink for washing dishes in the kitchen.
Teacher's desks are inadequate, and there is no office for the principal.
Seating facilities are only sufficient to accommodate 120 of the
177 pupils enrolled and 40 of these desks are the fixed type.
These data indicate that the schools in this study fail to meet,
substantially, the standards set forth in this chapter relating to the
site; the buildings; facilities and equipment available.
If we view the site as a major agency in facilitating the school
program, then, we must also accept the fact that the small and general-
ly unimproved sites presented in this chapter do not make a maximum
contribution to the school facilities.
The buildings, some of them very old and dilapidated, do not
present a wholesome atmosphere for varied living and learning ex-
periences for pupils and teachers; facilities and equipment are in-
adequate in all cases.
The five schools had enrolled during the school term 1952-1953
a total of 1107 pupils. These pupils were housed in a total of 37
classrooms, 16 of which are considered substandard, and taught by a
total of 44i teachers for an average of 30 pupils per teacher. This is
not the case, however, as the distribution of pupils and teachers re-
spectively is as follows: Barrow Hill: 273 9; Concord: 241 9;
lake McBride: 207 9; Raney: 209 9; and Station One: 177 8.
From these figures, a more equitable distribution of teachers is desir-
The combined sites contain a total of 16- acres as compared with
31 acres needed.
The Superintendent of Public Instruction and the School Board
are cognizant of these inadequacies and are taking steps to correct
them. This course of action is much desired and the writer feels that
it will be a fruitful one.
CONCLUSICKS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
In Chapter III the writer is presenting conclusions drawn from
the analysis and interpretation of the data collected and making recom-
mendations in light of these findings with the related literature and
allied reading serving as a basis for these recommendations.
SUGGESTED CLASSIFICATICW OF SCHOOLS
Suggested Inclusive 1952-1953
Name of School Classification Grades Enrollment
Barrow Hill C-1 1- 8 273
Concord C-1 1- 8 241
Lake McBride C-1 1- 8 207
Raney C-4 1 8 209
Station One C-4 1 8 177
Evaluation of the Barrow Hill Junior High School Plant
The Site. The present site is very low, too small, and cannot
economically be filled and graded to the extent that it would be suitable
for school purposes. The location is undesirable as it is bordered by
two public roads, which presents a safety hazard.
The building is structurally sound, but too small for the pre-
sent population and spot maps indicate that the enrollment will be
going upwards in the future. There are three substandard classrooms
and five standard classrooms in the present building.
Facilities and equipment are inadequate, with a serious text-
book shortage being most outstanding. No stage is provided in the
building and art and science materials are very inadequate.
The Site. In this study, Barrow Hill is classified as a 0-1
center for grades 1 through 8 at a new site located approximately two
and one-half miles south of the present Barrow Hill school. This new
site should contain at least 15 acres and the site is available for
sale. Pupils now attending Station One school; all pupils who live on
the southwest side of the Centerville road, and are now attending Raney
school should be brought to this new center as soon as facilities are
The Buildn. A new building at the newly suggested site should
be constructed with the following facilities: 16 classrooms, a music
and art room, a library, an auditorium, a lunch room, administrative
suite, including a conference room, a store room, inside toilets, a
shower room, an audio-visual education room, washing and drinking
facilities in each classroom, a communication system, controlled from
the administrative suite, in each classroom, a clinic room and a
central heating plant.
Evaluation of the Concord Junior ih School Plant
The Site. The two acre site at Concord school is very inade-
quate, only partially cleared, and eroded. The site is bordered on
the west side by a public highway, but is fenced to correct the con-
dition. For this study, Concord is classified as a C-1 center for
grades 1 8. There are three buildings located on this restricted
site, leaving only a small portion of the site for play areas.
The Buildings. One of three buildings at Concord school is
56 years old, having been constructed in 1897. Two additions have
been made to the Concord school but two of the rooms cannot be con-
sidered as classrooms in the permanent plan as they are below standard.
They might be converted into a lunch room. The other two rooms added
meet minimum requirements and may be used indefinitely with proper care
Facilities and Equipment. The data collected indicate that
facilities and equipment for this school do not make a maximum contri-
bution towards the total development of the child and the school budget
is not large enough to absorb all of the inadequacies in instructional
materials for any given school term.
The Site. In order to take care of present needs and future
growth, it is recommended that the present site be expanded to include
at least 10 acres. The land adjoining the site is available for sale
and should be purchased by the school board immediately as the owner
will sell to the first buyer. If purchased, the new land should be
cleared, graded, and fenced to prevent children from entering the
highway during play periods.
The Building. A new building with the following facilities should
be constructed on the expanded site 5 elementary classrooms, a library,
a storage room, administrative offices, including a conference room, a
music and art room, a clinic room, inside toilets, washing and drinking
facilities in each classroom, a shower room, a communication system, con-
trolled from the administrative office, an audio-visual education room, and
a central heating plant.
Facilities and Equipment. Adequate facilities and equipment to
take care of the school needs in all areas of learning should be provided.
Evaluation of The lake McBride Junior ih School Plant
The Site. The six acre site at Lake McBride school is sufficiently
extensive in area to accommodate the present enrollment, however, a large
portion of the site is uncleared and can not be used advantageously for
school purposes. The site is pleasantly located and considerable ef-
fort has been directed towards landscaping the grounds. A large ravine
passes through the site and should be filled to add utility to this
rolling site. Erosion is negligible and the setting is a pleasant om.
The Buildings. The two one-story frame buildings at Lake McBride
school appear to be in very good condition, one having an asbestos roof
and a masonry foundation. Two classrooms were added to the Dawkins
Pond building in 1953, but attention is invited to the fact that these
rooms are substandard due to the small windows on the north side and
the absence of an inside entrance. The eight classrooms available will
accommodate a maximum enrollment of 240 pupils based on 30 pupils per
room, which indicates that the present enrollment is pretty well housed.
Facilities and Equipment. The data on facilities and equipment
for Lake McBride school point out that more progress towards reaching
minimum requirements has been made here than at any of the schools cover-
ed in this study, yet, there are some inadequacies.
The Site. Iake McBride is classified, in this study, as a C-1
center for grades 1 8. The present six acre site is adequate for the
present population, however, spot maps indicate that future enrollments
will be on the incline. At least one school will move to this school
for the ensuing school term. In light of this fact, it is recommended
that the present site be expanded to include at least 10 acres and that
the entire area be cleared and graded for ideal school use.
The Buildings. This center should be expanded to include 5
additional classrooms, a library, administrative offices, including
a conference room, a cafetorium, a music and art room, inside toilets,
washing and drinking facilities in each classroom, a shower room, a
store room, a communication system, controlled from the administrative
office, and a central heating plant. The present buildings should be
joined by the library.
Facilities and Equipment. The investigator suggests that faci-
lities and equipment recommended in this study be provided as soon as
funds are available.
Evaluation of the Raney Junior High School Plant
The Site. The two acre site at Raney school slopes rather
steeply, is eroded, and there is evidence of some landscaping. That
portion of the site which is available for play areas is well organized,
but very inadequate. The site is dangerously close to a public highway
and no fencing to protect the lives of children is provided.
There is no land adjoining this site which is available for sale,
and this writer feels that it would be inadvisable to expand this site
at its present location even if additional land could be purchased.
The Buildings. The two one-story frame buildings appear to be in
good condition, however, the doors in one of the buildings open to the
inside contrary to legal requirements; the Crenshaw school building,
which was moved to the Raney site in 1951, contains three substandard
classrooms, and the kitchen is inadequate.
SFacilities and Equipment. Seating facilities at Raney school
are inadequate, with most of the classrooms containing very old desks.
A shortage of textbooks, art materials, and playground equipment is
The Site. In this study, Raney school is classified as a C-4
center for grades 1 8. It is recommended that pupils now attending
this school, and who live on the northwest side of the Centerville
road, be sent to lake McBride or to the proposed new Southwest Elemen-
tary School as soon as facilities are made available there. The pre-
sent site should then be sold to the highest bidder.
The Buidings. Now new construction is recommended at the present
site. The present buildings should be sold to the highest bidder or
torn down and the salvageable portions used by maintenance crews for re-
pair work and other improvements at the various schools. It is suggested
that the Crenshaw school building be moved to the grounds of the Leon
County Fair Association and converted into a warehouse for storing
materials used by the several schools in connection with the Leon County
Facilities and Equipment. It is recommended that all usable,
and transferable facilities and equipment be moved to the Lake McBride
and Barrow Hill schools.
Evaluation of the Station One Junior igh School Plant
The Site. The one and one-fourth acre site at Station One school
is very restricted and inadequate. This limited site is very well or-
ganized into play areas, with some of the recreational facilities located
on non-school property. The land adjoining this site is low and surface
water stands for several days after heavy rains. None of this land is
for sale, and its purchase is not recommended if it were for sale.
The Buildings. Two very old buildings, one an old auditorium,
provide the facilities at this school. These buildings are in very bad
condition, and natural lighting is inadequate, however, this condition
is somewhat received by electric installation. Due to the present con-
dition of these buildings, extensive alteration is undesirable and un-
wise. Their use as school buildings should be discontinued.
Facilities and Equipment. At Station One school, the seating
facilities are very inadequate, and there are not enough textbooks.
Recreational facilities seem to be better than those at some of the
other schools covered in this study, but space is grossly inadequate.
The Site. Station One School is classified, in this study, as
a G-4 center for grades 1 8. No further expansion of this site is
recommended and the present site should be sold to the highest bidder.
Replacement of this plant should be a first priority.
The Buildings. It is recommended that the two buildings be
torn down and the salvageable materials be used to construct shelters
at bus stops for Negro children as far as the materials will go.
Facilities and equipment. Any usable facilities and equipment
should be transferred to the new Barrow Hill school as soon as this
facility is made available.
The findings in this study clearly indicate that the physical
plants of the five rural schools for Negroes covered in this investi-
gation are inadequate in the size of sites, building accommodations,
facilities and materials as measured by State and Southern Association
Standards. The average size of sites is three and one-fourth acres
as compared with an average of six and one-fourth acres needed.
The buildings, with two exceptions, are inadequate and facili-
ties show glaring deficiencies. These findings suggest that an
extended building program for the rural Negro youths of Leon County
is much needed. Another significant finding of this study is the fact
that the distribution of teachers is not commensurate to the distri-
bution of pupils. This condition springs from the fact that housing
facilities are inadequate, hence, teachers must render their services
where there are rooms to accommodate them. The method of apportioning
teachers seems to be based upon the absence or presence of rooms for
housing rather than upon the usual teacher-pupil ratio of determining
the number of teachers needed.
In light of the findings, it appears that three well planned and
well equipped rural school centers will adequately provide for the rural
Negro youth of Leon County.
From the standpoint of location, it appears that the three schools
classified as C-l Centers in this study are appropriate to serve this
purpose for many years.
Arnold, William E., et. al., School Building Survey of Harrisburg,
Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Educational Service
Bureau, School of Education, University of Pennsylvania, 1949,
Bell, Millard D., "The Modern Elementary School Needs A Central Library,"
The Nations Schools, 48:52, December, 1952.
Butterworth, Julian E., and Howard A. Dawson, The Modern Rural School.
New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1952, 494 pp.
Cannon, J. W., "Tomorrow's School Plant Will Be A Child's School,"
The Nations School, 48:60, September, 1951.
Edmonson, J. B., et. al., M Administration of The Modern Secondary
School. New York: The MacMillan Company, 1948, 690 pp.
Fleagle, Edward, "The Good Side of A 'Bad' Site," The School Executive,
72:79, September, 1952.
Fowlkes, J. W., et. al., "School Plant and Equipment," Review of
Educational Research, 12:137-254, April 1952.
Joint Committee of The School Committee of The American Institute of
Architects and Special Committee of The National Council on School
House Construction, "Planning and Designing A School Plant," The
School Executive, 72:58-60, December, 1952.
Jordan, C. H., and Weldon Cowan, "Rural Needs Well Met Under One Roof,"
The Nations Schools, 48:52, December, 1951.
Monroe, Walter S., Encyclopedia of Educational Research. New York:
The MacMillian Company, 1950, 1520 pp.
Otto, Henry J., Elementary School Organization and Administration. New
York D. Appleton-Century Company, 1944, 571 pp.
Risk, Thomas M., Principles and Practices of Teaching. New York:
American Book Company, 1947, 728 pp.
Southern Association's Cooperative Study In Elementary Education,
Evaluating The Elementary School. Atlanta, Georgia: Commission
On Research and Service, 1951, 325 pp.
State Department of Education, Chapter 235, "The School Plant,"
Florida School Laws. Tallahassee: The Department, 1952, 195pp.
Tillman, Turner H., *An Evaluation of the Physical Facilities of the
Three School for Negroes in Brooks County, Georgia in Terms of
Selected Criteria," Unpublished Masters' Thesis, Florida Agri-
cultural and Mechanical College, Tallahassee, Florida, August 1952,
Wahlquist, John T., et. al., The Administration of Public Education.
New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1952, 611 pp.
Williams, Jesse F., and Clifford Lee Brownell, The Administration of
Health and Physical Education. Philadelphia: 1946, W. B. Saunders
Company, 483 pp.
Wilson, Richard, "The Status of the Physical Plant of the Lincoln High
School, Tallahassee, Florida." (For the School Year 1949-1950).
Unpublished Masters' Thesis, Florida Agricultural and Mechanical
College, Tallahassee, Florida, August, 1950, 46 pp.
Name of School
I. The Site
1. The site provides at least five acres of space plus one acre
for each one hundred children enrolled. Yes No .
2. The site is conducive to safe and healthful living.
Yes, No ___
3. The site is located away from traffic hazards. Yes
4. The grounds are well drained and non-eroded. Yes
5. The site provides play areas for different age groups.
Yes No .
6. The site is conveniently located to the greatest number of
pupils served. Yes _, No
7. The site provides for garden plots. Yes No _
8. The site is attractively landscaped., Yes ._, No .
9. What recent improvements have been made to the site?
a. ,b. ,c. d. d
10. What suggestions would you offer for improving the site?
a. ,____ b. c. d.
11. Is the school designated as a permanent center? Yes
II. The Building
1. How many classrooms are there in the building?
2. The building provides which of the following special service
a. An assembly room sufficiently large to house at least
one-half of the school population at one time. Yes ,
b. An office for the principal. Yes No_
c. A conference room for parent-teacher conferences.
Yes No _
d. A central library. Yes ___ No
e. A clinic or first aid room. Yes No .
f. A lounge-rest room for teachers. Yes No
3. The building provides showers with hot and cold water.
4. The building is constructed of fire resistant material through-
out. Yes ____, No __
5. The building provides a central store room adequate to house
books and supplies. Yes No _
6. The building provides exits and corridors sufficient to enable
quick evacuation in case of disaster. Yes No .
7. The building is arranged so that adequate ventilation is pro-
Vided. Yes No _
8. The building provides indoor toilets, handwashing facilities,
including soap and paper towels. Yes No _
9. What type of heating system is provided? ___.
10. Adjustable shades of the double-roller type are provided in
each classroom. Yes No ____
11. Sufficient electrical (at least 4 ceiling) outlets are pro-
vided in each classroom. Yes _, No ____
12. Chalkboards light in color, mounted at the proper height for
the pupils using them, and in good condition, are provided
in each classroom. Yes No .__
13. Bulletin boards are sufficiently extensive to cover half of
the available wall space, and are mounted at eye-level of
the children using them. Yes No. .
14. Movable and adjustable furniture or an adequate supply of
tables and chairs of appropriate sizes are provided for all
the children. Yes No
15. All furniture is light in color. Yes No .
16. List some of the seating problems you face.
a. b. c. d.
III. Facilities and Equipment
A. Library Service and Materials
1. An adequate supply of well selected textbooks is avail-
able for each teacher. Yes No .
2. A central library staffed at least half of the time by
a teacher-librarian who has had a minimum of at least
eighteen quarter hours of library science is provided.
Yes No .
3. The central library provides sufficient space to accom-
modate a single class (25 to 30 pupils) at one time.
Yes __ No
4. The central library contains an unabridged dictionary
or an up-to-date set of juvenile encyclopedias.
5. What problems exist in developing adequate library faci-
lities? a. ., b. c.,
B. Audio-Visual Aids
1. Which of the following art and craft materials are avail-
able at your school?
a. Tempera paints b. Crayons c. Fin-
ger paints d. Paper (Large size for use with
tempera paints and construction paper of many colors).
Easels Simple tools __.
2. What other art and craft materials do the school have?
D. Music Equipment and Materials
1. Which of the following music equipment and facilities
are available at your school?
a. Rhythm band instruments b. Piano ,
c. more than one series of music books designed for
use with children .
E. Physical Education Equipment and Materials
1. Check items available at your school
a. Bean bags b. Dodge balls c. Basket
balls__, d. Basket ball courts e. Soft balls
f. Bats, gloves, and bases g. Soft ball
field h. Fixed playground equipment such as
ladders, bars, slides, see-saws i. First aid
kit contaiining needed supplies for treating minor cuts,
scratches, and burns .
2. What other physical education equipment is available
at your school? a. b. c. ,
d. e. .
F. Science Materials and Equipment
.1. Check the items of equipment and materials available at
a. Tin pans_ b. Batteries c. Wire ,
d. Magnets e., Magnifying glasses f. Micro-
scope g. Aquarium_ h. Cabinet or table for
display i. Bird charts j. Simple scales
2. What other science materials and equipment is available
at your school? ___ ,
3. Identify progress made by your school in getting and
using science materials and equipment.
F. Facilities and Equipment Needed by Teachers
1. Identify by check mark any of the following equipment and
facilities, needed by teachers, which are available at your
a. Duplicating machine_ b. Paper cutters, c.
filing cabinet in each room d. Chart holders
e. A comfortable desk with drawer space and a comfortable
chair ___ f. A good pencil sharpener g.
Erasers and chalk, h. A library table, i. Book cases .
2. What other facilities and equipment for teachers are avail-
able at your school? ....