• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Acknowledgement
 Dedication
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 List of Figures
 Introduction
 Methods, analysis and interpretation...
 Conclusions and recommendation...
 Bibliography
 Check list






Title: Evaluation of the physical plants of five consolidated rural schools for Negroes in Leon county with recommendations for improving existing limitations
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Title: Evaluation of the physical plants of five consolidated rural schools for Negroes in Leon county with recommendations for improving existing limitations
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Language: English
Creator: Lawrence, Freeman D.
Affiliation: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College (FAMU)
Publisher: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College
Publication Date: 1953
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
    Title Page
        Page ii
    Acknowledgement
        Page iii
    Dedication
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    List of Tables
        Page ix
    List of Figures
        Page x
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Methods, analysis and interpretation of data
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Conclusions and recommendations
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Bibliography
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Check list
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
Full Text









AN EVALIATICO OF THE PHYSICAL PLANTS OF FIVE CONSOLIDATED RURAL

SCHOOLS FOR NEGROES IN LEON COUNTY WITH RECCBENDATIONS

FOR IMPROVING EXISTING LIMITATIONS










A Thesis

Presented to the Graduate Faculty of Florida Agricultural

and Mechanical College, Tallahassee, Florida









In Partial Fulfillment of Requirements

for the Degree Master of Science

in Education


By

Freeman D. Lawrence

August, 1953









273
10805

AN EVALUATION OF THE PHYSICAL PANTS OF FIVE CONSOLIDATED RURAL

SCHOOLS FOR NEGROES IN LEON COUNTY WITH RECOMMENDATIONS

FOR IMPROVING EXISTING LIMITATIONS






A Thesia

Presented to the Graduate Faculty of Florida Agricultural

and Mechanical College, Tallahassee, Florida





In Partial Fulfillment of Requirements

for the Degree Master of Science

in Education





Approved: 1953



Chairmanm





ttee member


Director

August, 1953















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

To my wife, Mrs. Thelma E. Lawrence, members of the grad-

uate committee, Dr. W. S. Maize, Director of the Graduate Divi-

sion, my Father, Principals of the schools, Mrs. Christine Lan-

ders, typist, Mrs. Elizabeth Mitchell, instructor in the Depart-

ment of Languages, Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College,

and my many friends, my sincerest appreciation to each of you

for your guidance, inspiration, and helpful suggestions.

Thanks to Mr. Amos P. Godby, Superintendent of Public In-

struction, Leon County, for the cooperation received from his

office. To Dr. J. T. Kelly of the State Department, who went

out of his way to provide the writer with a copy of the Florida

School Laws, a hearty thank you.

























DEDICATION


Dedicated to the memory of my loving mother, the late Mrs.

Isabella Lawrence.














TABLE OF CONTENTS


CHAPTER

I. INTRODUCTION . ....

The Problem and Its Statement .

Statement of the Problem ..

The Hypothesis . .

Basic Assumptions . .

Limitation of the Study . .

Purposes of the Study .

Definition of Terms Used .

Importance of the Study .

Methodology . . .

Review of Related Literature .

The Site ... ....... .

Location . .....

Size and Physical Features .

Relationship of Buildings .


The .Building . . .

The Building .eat ..

Functional Features . .


Some New Conceptions in School Buildings .

A Look into the Future . .

Equipment and Facilities . .

Seating . . . .


* .

* .

* .

* .

* .

* .


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PAGE

1

3

3

3

4

4

4




6

6

6

6

7

8

9

9

10

11

12

13

14

15
15


. . .


. .


r












CHAPTER PAGE

Classroom Laboratories .. .. . .. 16

Special Rooms . . . . 16

Playground Equipment ................. 16

Audio-Visual Aids ....... ........... 17

The School Lunch ... ... ... 18

Summary of the Related Literature . . 19


II. METHODS, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA . . 20

Florida State Standards for the School Site . 22

Southern Association Standards for the School Site . 22

Status of the Site at Barrow Hill Junior High School 24

Status of the Site at Concord Junior High School .... 24

Status of the Site at Lake McBride Junior High School 25

Status of the Site at Raney Junior High School . 26

Status of the Site at Station One Junior High School 27

Florida State Standards for the Building ...... 28

Southern Association Standards for the Building . 30

Status of the Barrow Hill Junior High School Building 31

Status of the Concord Junior High School Buildings . 33

Status of the Lake McBride Junior High School Buildings 34

Status of the Raney Junior High School Buildings . 36

Status of the Station One Junior High School Buildings 38

Florida State Standards for Facilities aid Equipment 39












CHAPTER

Southern Association Standards for Facilities and

Equipment ...... ... ...... .....


Evaluation of

Junior High

Evaluation of

Junior High

Evaluation of

Junior High

Evaluation of

Junior High

Evaluation of

Junior High

Summary ...


III. CONCLUSIONS AND

Evaluation of

Plant .


Facilities and Equipment at Barrow Hill

School .. . . .... .. .

Facilities and Equipment at Concord

School . . . .

Facilities and Equipment at Lake McBride


School ..........


.* *


Facilities and Equipment at Raney

School ........ .. ...

Facilities and Equipment at Station One

School . . .



R.C..ATIS .............
REC(MMENDATICNS . . . .

the Barrow Hill Junior High School

S. &.. a 0 a 0 0 0 & 0 0 0 *


PAGE



39



40



42



43



45



46

48


50


50


51


Recommendations . ........ ..... .

Evaluation of the Concord Junior High School Plant .

Recommendations . . . .

Evaluation of the lake McBride Junior High School

Plant. ................ 0 .

Recommendations ........ .. .. .










CHAPTER PAGE

Evaluation of the Raney Junior High School Plant .. 55

Recommendations . . . ... 56

Evaluation of the Station One Junior High School Plant 57

Recommendations . . . ..... 58

Summary ...... ............ ...... 59


BIBLIOGRAPHY .................... 60

APPENDII... ..................... .a. 63















LIST OF TABLES


TABLE

I. Basic Data Concerning The Physical Plant of the

Schools Studied . . . . .

II. Equipment and Facilities Available at Barrow Hill

Junior High School . .. . ..

III. Facilities and Equipment Available at Concord Junior

High School . . . . .

IV. Facilities and Equipment Available at Lake McBride

Junior High School . . . .

V. Facilities and Equipment Available at Raney Junior

High School . . . . .

VI. Facilities and Equipment Available at Station One

Junior High School . . . .

VII. Suggested Classification of Schools . . .


PAGE


S 23



S 40



. /42


S 45


.
*


*












LIST OF FIGURES


FIGURE


1. Agencies Which Should Participate in Planning and

Designing a School Plant . . . ..


PAGE




21









CHAPTER I


INTRODUCTION

In nearly every school district of the land there is a need for

new and/or improved school plants. This need springs from two major

causes. First, there was a backlog of construction during the depres-

sion of the thirties and the war of the forties. Second, war and high

income levels brought an increase in the birth rate. Whereas, before

World War II annual births varied from 2,200,000 to 2,500,000, during

and after the war they have increased from 3,500,000 to 3,900,000.

These circumstances have created a school-plant need over the nation

which will require approximately $10,000,000,000 to finance.1

It may seem a mere platitude to state that the school plant re-

presents the physical structure in which and through which society's

agents discharge the most important and perhaps the most sacred of

functions of organized society. Yet it is with this thought in mind

that one observes with critical interest the many school-houses, both

fine and otherwise, which are found throughout our country. Natural

querries might be: What is the place and function of the school plant

in the whole program of public education? What are the distinct contri-

butions of the school plant toward the attainment of educational




IWahlquist, John T., et. al., The Administration of Public Edu
cation. New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1952, p. 419.










2

objectives? In what ways may the school plant, through proper construc-

tion, equipment, and administration, facilitate the work of public

education?2

There is no recipe for a good school building. At best, a school

building should be a product of the collective thinking of a community.

A building so conceived makes a more creative community educational pro-

gram possible. In the development of the elementary-school plant it is

necessary first to determine the nature and function of the building and

to consider carefully the factors that determine its type and character.

All school buildings must be conceived of as factors in facilitating the

instruction of the child and in satisfying adult community needs.

During the past decade an increasing number of state departments

of education have recognized this. Regulations governing the minimum

sizes and shapes for buildings are being taken off the books. Relation-

ships with local communities have moved from that of enforcement of

arbitrary regulations to service and leadership. Accordingly, the modern

state department with respect to school buildings strives to do three things:

to adopt appropriate regulations covering the safety of occupants; to work

with each community to define a program of community education; and to

work with the community to secure a school building which will help make

that program function.



20tto, Henry J., Elementary School Organization and Administration.
New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, 1944, p. 514.












The Problem and Its Statement


Careful and systematic planning of the school plant program is es-

sential in every county to assure the taxpayers of the county and of the

state that they will receive maximum value for every dollar expended for

school buildings, and, at the same time, to assure the citizens of the

county that school buildings which are constructed or altered will meet

the educational needs of their respective communities.

Broad areas in the reorganization of Negro rural schools in Leon

County, particularly, as they relate to the site and its relation to the

total school program, the specific needs of the respective communities,

the types of programs, and the buildings and facilities needed to make

this program function are open for exploration.


Statement of the Problem. The problem in this study is to ex-

amine the school sites, buildings, facilities and equipment available at

Barrow Hill, Concord, Lake MeBride, Raney, and Station One Junior High

Schools; to evaluate them according to the standards of the State of Florida

and the standards of the Southern Association's Cooperative Study in Ele-

mentary Education; and to determine the status of these schools in relation

to the standards.


The Hypothesis. It is assumed that the physical plants of the

schools under investigation fail to meet, substantially, the standards set

up in Chapter 235, Florida School Laws, and the standards set up by the









4
Southern Association's Cooperative Study In Elementary Education as to

(1) the site; (2) the buildings; (3) the facilities and equipment avail-

able.


Basic Assumptions. The basic assumptions for this study are (1)

that the physical plant is a symbol of a philosophy of education and of

the way in which this philosophy functions within a community. (2) That

there is a relationship between the educational program and the physical

plant of the school. (3) That the physical plant should have the appro-

priate space, arrangement, and equipment to permit, encourage, and faci-

litate the activities which encompass the school program.


Limitation of the Study. This study is limited to (1) the sites;

(2) the buildings; (3) the facilities and equipment available at the

Barrow Hill, Concord, Lake IcBride, Raney, and Station One Junion High

Schools for Negroes in Leon County and to criteria set forth in Evaluating

the Elementary School and Florida School Laws.


Purposes of the Study. The purposes of this study are: (1) to

determine to what extent the physical plants of the schools studied con-

form to State and Southern Association standards; (2) to ascertain class-

room accommodation in relation to the number of pupils housed; (3) to

determine the relative status of facilities and equipment available as

measured by State and Southern Association standards.


Definition of Terms Used. The term "physical plant" in this study

shall include the site, the buildings, facilities and equipment.









5

Capital Outlay Class I (C-l). "Center well located to serve

a substantial number of pupils for many years in the future, where county

board should proceed with such steps as are necessary, including use of

any part of the capital outlay portion of the Foundation Program Fund

when properly included in the budget, to provide adequate school plant

facilities in accordance with recommendations of the survey subject to

such amendments as are made necessary by future trends and new develop-

ments."


Capital Outlay Class Ij (C-2). "Center which evidence indi-

cates will probably be a permanent center but evidence is not conclusive.

Has practically the same status as a C-1 center except status should be

reviewed and supporting evidence of need submitted before major construc-

tion undertaken. Capital Outlay projects specifically recommended by

survey may be undertaken when properly included in the budget."


Capital Outlay Class IV (C-4). "Center which should be discon-

tinued as soon as adequate facilities can be provided at an appropriate

center. If it is not possible to discontinue this center immediately,

Foundation Program Funds may be used for lighting, sanitation, safety,

and temporary heating improvement. Generally speaking, the improvement

made at such centers should be largely salvageable when the center is

discontinued."3



3State Department of Education, Explanation of Symbols And Plan Of
Classification Of School Centers For Approval Of Capital Outlay Pro.ects
Financed From Foundation Program Capital Outlay Funds And Required Match-
in Funds. i n











School Center. A place where a school should be located.


Importance of the Study. Leon County is presently conducting a

survey of its school plants and this study may shed some light on the

problem of school plant planning, desirable facilities and equipment

needed, and the types of buildings which will make for a functional pro-

gram in all of the schools. The writer is particularly interested in the

study and feels that in light of the findings revealed by this study a de-

finite contribution will be made towards the improvement of rural schools

for Negroes in Leon C county.


Methodology. In this study the Normative Survey method will be

employed. Data will be secured from (1) principals, through the use of a

check list; (2) interviews with principals; (3) observation of the various

school plants covered in this study.


Review of Related Literature. In this chapter the related liter-

ature will be presented as it deals with the site, the buildings, the

facilities and equipment which a modern, well equipped elementary school

should have.


The Site. Each new site selected shall be adequate in size to meet

the needs of the school to be served. As far as practicable, any present

sites which are not adequate shall be increased to conform to minimum

standards for new sites. Each school site shall contain a minimum of two

acres for a one-teacher school. At least one acre shall be added to this









7

minimum size of the site for each fifty pupils enrolled in the school

after the first fifty pupils and until the enrollment reaches five hun-

dred pupils; provided, that this requirement may be waived in the dis-

cretion of the state superintendent under regulations of the state board

when any county board files evidence showing that a school site of that

size is impracticable in any given situation.4

One of the most glaring inadequacies of existing school plants are

the sites upon which buildings have been placed. In most cases, the sites

are too small and are poorly developed. In Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, for

instance, the elementary school sites averaged less than three-quarters

of an acre in size. In Jefferson County, Idaho, the elementary school

sites averaged two and a half acres in size, but in most cases little had

been done to develop them.

These conditions suggest that most lay persons and many school offi-

cials do not as yet comprehend the fact that the school site is an integral

part of the school plant and can be made to serve many educational purposes.5


Location. If school sites are to serve adequately, several factors

need consideration in their selection. The first of these is location.

Ideally, sites should be located so that they are accessible to the people



4State Department of Education, "The School Plant," Florida School
laws. Tallahassee: 1952, 235.20.

5Wahlquist, John T., et. al., The Administration of Public Edu-
cation. New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1952, p. 432.










8

who are to be served. Whenever feasible school sites should be kept away

from major highways, railroads, and industrial areas. There is general

agreement upon maximum distances which pupils of different school levels

should walk to school as follows: elementary school pupils, three-

quarters of a mile; junior high school pupils, one and one-half miles;

and senior high school pupils, two miles.


Size and Physical Features. Size is another factor of importance

in the selection of school sites. For today's educational program, certain

minimums in size of sites have been agreed upon as follows: elementary

schools, five acres plus an additional acre for each hundred pupils en-

rolled; and for junior and senior high schools, ten acres plus an addi-

tional acre for each hundred pupils enrolled. It should be kept in mind

that these are minimums. Single-story construction, outside classrooms,

and extensive play and recreational areas are some of the factors behind

this need for space,

Space alone, however, is not enough. The area must be usable; hence

the physical features of the site become an important factor. Ideally, the

site should be of sufficient elevation to drain well, be level enough to

permit the development of play areas, have a topsoil which would support

plantings, and have a base which would provide substantial foundations

for the buildings.


6Tbid., p. 7.


I I f i ll












Relationship to Blildins. The possible relationship of the

building to the site is also a matter of importance. The shape and size

of the site will determine to a large extent where the buildings will be

placed or what orientation it will have. The orientation should be aoe

which is conducive to good lighting. The placement of the building should

not involve excessive construction of walks and driveways. It should also

be possible to locate the building in such a manner that most of tis site

is left for development into instructional and/or play areas.7


Use. Finally, in selecting school sites the use to be made of them

needs consideration. Walks, drives, and space for parking need to be an-

ticipated. A portion of the site should be beautified with lawn, shrubs,

and trees. Sodded fields and hard-surfaced areas should be determined.

The trend in site selection is toward size-lots of it.. In a given

situation this does not just come. Thinking has taken place-thinking on

the part of more than the administrator or the architect or the school

board.

Increasingly the school site is being viewed, along with the

building, as a portion of the teaching facilities. In a sense, this

viewpoint has always prevailed, but in the past much more thought was

given to the site as a place to locate a building and less attention given

to the fact that the site can provide as important teaching resources as

the building itself.


7bid., p. 433.









10

Butterworth and Dawson8 state that "depending upon the size of

the enrollment and the scope of the recreational program, facilities for

any or all of the following recreational activities may be desirable:

baseball, football, track, soccer, softball, archery, speedball, tennis,

volleyball, horseshoe pits." It is important, then, that the site be

large enough to accommodate all of the educational needs of children and,

at the same time, provide a safe and healthful place where children must

live a large portion of the time.


The Building. Modern education requires that the school become a

laboratory, a home for children, and a community center for adults. The

schoolroom and its equipment are thus an active educational agent which

affects the teaching and learning process. The controlling features of

the buildings, grounds, and equipment are important from the standpoint

of the curriculum, and they affect child growth. The question here, of-

course, is the practical one of how a modern program of education can be

instituted in a building constructed for a traditional one.

Naturally, there are only two ways of meeting this situation:

either the traditional school building must be replaced with a modern one

designed to accommodate the needs of children and a program, or the old

building must be adjusted to meet the new requirements. Obviously, it is

not possible or practical to replace at one time all small, poorly constructed



Butterworth, Julian E. and Howard A. Dawson, The Modern Rural
School. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1952, p. 425.










11

buildings with new and modern ones; consequently, the wisest program at

the present appears to be one of adjusting the present buildings to meet

needs, and providing new construction as funds are available.

The school building should provide sufficient space to house com-

fortably the school family for varied living and learning experiences

during and after school hours, with classes kept to a reasonable size (25

to 30 pupils)9


Functional Features. Perhaps the best thing that might be said

about any school building is that it serves well the purpose for which

it was intended. Too often school buildings have been monuments rather

than functional facilities for a certain educational program. The re-

lationship between educational program and school plant cannot be too

strongly emphasized. School plants should also be expansible. This means

that they are so constructed that, if necessary, they can be enlarged to

meet additional or different demands.

The school plant that is to serve modern educational requirements

adequately must be a flexible one. Eventhough built to serve its present

purpose well, it is entirely possible that during its lifetime the school

plant will be called upon to serve a different function. Single-story con-

struction adds considerably to the flexibility of a school building. Where

sites are adequate, this increased flexibility would seem to justify the one-

story plant.


9Southern Association's Cooperative Study in Elementary Education,
Commission On Research and Service, Evaluating the ELementary School.
Atlanta, Georgia: 1951, p. 207.









12

Some New Conceptions in School Buildings. Probably in no phase

are there more new ideas than in this field of school-building planning

and construction. It is important, therefore, that those responsible

for the school building be alert to new ideas, whether these ideas relate

to general design, to materials of construction, to provision for housing

of special offerings, or to methods of heating, ventilation, and lighting.

Those responsible for a building program in a community should, therefore,

give themselves a general education in this field before they proceed too

far.10

Children require, as a part of their development and learning ex-

periences, a variety of sized and functioning spaces. They need associ-

ation with young people other than their immediate classmates, and asso-

ciation with youngsters in groups smaller in size and different in purpose

than the average school assembly. They require an opportunity to cultivate

and appreciate a neighborly feeling toward the young people of school as

much as the "we-feeling" toward their classmates,

In approaches to open planning may lie a real clue for design of

spaces which will accommodate the great variety of group activities desired

to help children develop into mature social beings. Functions, sizes and social

requirements of groups would seem to be a far superior basis for design than

any fixed concept of the all-inclusive classroom.11


102 cit., p. 9

1Editorial, "School Plant News and Views," The School Executive,
Volume 72, No. 8, April, 1953, p. 47.









13

Chapter 235.24, Florida School laws, states that "In order to pro-

vide for the sanitary, safe, and economical construction and maintenance of

public school plants, toilets, and physical equipment, and in order to

promote the physical welfare and safety of the school children of the

state, any building hereafter constructed for public school purposes in

any county in this state shall meet all minimum standards prescribed by

law or by rules and regulations of the state board of education, and, in

addition, all minimum standards prescribed jointly by the state board of

education and the state board of health as herein provided."


A Look into the Future. We build now for the next 25 years. The

more flexible we build, and the more long range planning we do, the better

will be our success. The times will change as rapidly or more rapidly

than now; we must be able to devise ways to meet change through conver-

sion and extension of the facilities which we have. As our architects

use their skills to help devise the kind of school plant that will house

the kind of a program we envision, they will find even among the educators

themselves, vast areas of uncertainty and disagreement. They will find

some communities that are not read (sic) to attend the new approaches and

whose concepts of the present social order are limited. bme small com-

munities will understand but their capital will be limited. There is no

conclusive answer to these problems. There is certainly no mathematical

formula to solve them.13

12o. cit., p. 6.

3State Department of Education, Division of Administration and
Finance and Division of Instruction, Report of Florida School Facilities
Conference. Tallahassee: January 9, 10, 1953, p. 26.










14

Equipment ad Facilities. As the educative process has become

more complex, the demand for school facilities and school equipment has

become more extensive and more varied. The Southern Association's Co-

operative Study In Elementary Education states that "the richness of the

instructional program depends to a considerable extent upon the quantity

and the quality of the facilities and materials which are provided. It

is possible, however, to provide so many resources that children may not

have meaningful experiences collecting needed supplies. As you evaluate

the quantity and quality of facilities and materials, therefore, you should

consider the extent to which you are making use of supplies which are avail-

able or easily obtainable from the community with a little effort and plan-

ning."

The beginning point of all elementary school education is the child

as he is. He is the product of a biological inheritance which is not in

any material sense different from rural and urban children. In order to

understand the fundamental problems of elementary education, with special

reference to schools serving children from a rural environment, it is in

order to take a look at the needs of children of elementary school ages

and at some of the most observable environmental influences on children

living in a rural area.

The needs of children everywhere have to be interpreted in terms of

their experiences and environmental circumstances. The application of

this principle gives distinctive problems in the teaching of rural









15

elementary pupils, In general, rural children have the following charac-

teristic environmental influences in commons

1. They have close contact with a variety of natural phenomena.
The outdoor world is close at hand to be understood and appre-
ciated both aesthetically and scientifically.

2. Many rural children are relatively isolated and have but few
contacts beyond the family and the neighborhood school.

3. The soil, streams, forests, wildlife, flowers, plants of the
field, domestic animals, and other natural resources are among
God's greatest gifts to man. The part that the rural child
can play in enjoying and using these resources is of inesti-
mable value in his education.

4. The rural environment is distinctive in that it exemplifies
in simple form, easily understood by children, the great in-
stitutions and occupations of the world.14


Seating. More and more, movable seating is being favored over the

fixed types. Flexible seating lends itself to modern teaching, it makes

multiple use of floor space possible, and it is better adapted to concrete-

floor-slab construction. Tables and chairs in single units, double units,

and larger units are now available. The tables are usually constructed so

that two or four of them can be placed together, with the seats around the

outside, when small group activities are desired. From the standpoint of

light reflection, the blonde finish has been found to be far superior to

the classroom brown formerly used so extensively.


S14n. cit., p. 9.









16

Classroom Laboratories. Elementary school classrooms are in a

very real sense laboratories. As such, they must be equipped for many

activities. In each room there should be a sink with hot and cold water.

A work bench or two should be provided. Storage for books and materials

should be adequate. There should be several types of storage cabinets

designed to meet the needs of the room. These ought not to be built in,

but movable, so that cabinets or various types might be interchanged to

meet the needs of different classrooms. A reading table, science table,

and tables for display purposes are also necessary in the classroom.15


Special Rooms. Each of the special rooms found in a school

building requires specialized furniture and equipment. In the school

library, for instance, there should be a charging desk, tables and chairs,

for the library users, a librarian's desk, catalogue cases, book trucks,

stands for dictionaries and other reference works, bulletin boards, news-

paper and magazine racks, filing cases, display cases, globes, pictures,

files for slides, and other items.16

Playground Equipment. Appropriate equipment depends largely upon

the program for which the apparatus is intended. A beautiful playground

with limited equipment suggests the absence of wise program planning.


16oE. cit., p. 7.


15Ibid., p. 7.











Conversely, a small playground so filled with apparatus that its use

endangers the safety of children, never justified official sanction.

Efficient playground administration results in the scientific blending

of facilities, program, leadership, and equipment.17


Audio-Visual Aids. All learning is based primarily upon sense

experience. Our concepts of various relationships are in terms of mean-

ings put to our various sense experiences. These concepts are used in

building other concepts as we extend our experience, and the superstruc-

ture we build depends upon the accuracy and the significance of the

fundamental concepts we acquire. The perfection of various types of

projection apparatus in recent years has made available to schools a wide

range of visual aids that have proved effective for classroom instruction.18

Insofar as possible each classroom should be equipped to make full

use of audio-visual aids. The use of these aids within the class makes

them truly instructional aids instead of entertainment facilities. To

implement this idea, all rooms should be so equipped that they can be

darkened; also, adequate electrical outlets are necessary and some acous-

tical treatment will be needed.


17Williams, Jesse F., and Clifford Lee Brownell, The Adlmnistration
of Health and Physical Education, Philadelphia: 1946, W. B. Saunders

18Risk, Thomas M., Principles and Practices of Teaching, New York:
American Book Company, 1947, p. 566.









18

The School Lunch. The school's interest in the school lunch cen-

ters around the relationship between eating and the child's health and

growth, and the ways in which the school lunch can be used in the health

instruction program. If the school has a genuine concern for children's

physical growth and for the relation which normal physical growth has

to mental hygiene, personality development, and educational progress,

the school should assume an extensive interest in meals children eat

during the school day and to the education of children and parents re-

garding modern nutrition. It is in the latter, the educational, con-

nection that the school lunch program can make its other significant

contribution.19

Some schools are developing the school lunch and the lunchroom

as a true laboratory in which the theoretical and the practical can be

brought together on such topics as food selection and preparation,

nutrition, practices of personal hygiene, food habits, table manners,

food handling, food storage, refrigeration, milk pastuerization, waste

disposal, fly control, examination of food handlers, and such other pro-

blems as are associated with the maintenance of proper standards in the

operation of public or private eating places. The lunchroom thus becomes

the natural laboratory for much of the program of health instruction at

the same time that it makes a major contribution to children's normal phy-

sical growth and maintenance of health.20


192. cit., p. 1.

20Ibid.











Summary of the Related Literature

The related literature covered in this study substantiates the

fact that there is a great need for the construction and/or improvement

of school plants to adequately provide for the programs which today's

schools must provide if our American youths are to be prepared for the

problems they are to face in the years ahead.

Two distinct reasons are given for this need of school plant con-

struction and/or improvement: First, there was a backlog of construction

from the depression and the war of the forties, and second, high income

as a result of the war brought an increase in the birth rate.

There is general agreement among educators and school authorities

concerning the size of sites, the types of buildings, the facilities and

equipment needed to carry out the programs of our schools of tod ay, yet,

there are alarming inadequacies in all of these areas throughout the

nation. In Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, for instance, the elementary school

sites averaged less than three-quarters of an acre in size and the aver-

age age of buildings for elementary schools is 48 years.

Butterworth and Dawson state that "rural children are not in any

material sense different from urban children." The writer agrees with

this assertion, but the related literature and the findings in this study

do not indicate that this opinion is shared by many school authorities.












CHAPTER II


METHODS, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPERTATION OF DATA


The planning of a school plant comprises a large number of deci-

sions. The people of the local community want the plant to meet the high-

est degrees of safety, comfort, physical well-being, and economy. They

want the plant to facilitate achieving the educational purposes of their

schools. The community needs expert assistance in arriving at decisions

and in translating them into a fitting building design tailored to its

own particular needs and conditions. To obtain such results necessitates

the participation of citizen groups as well as educational and building

specialists.

The planning and designing of a school plant should follow a de-

finite plan. In working together to this end, responsibilities must be

fixed and relationships must be determined, understood, and accepted.

Some principles basic to the responsibilities and relationships in plan-

ning and designing a school plant are as follows:

1. The people of a community should participate in determining
the needs for a new school plant, the program to be housed,
and the number and types of youth, children, and adults to
be accommodated. Technical assistance in such planning is
desirable.

2. The local school administrative unit is the owner of the
school plant; it, therefore, makes the final decisions.

3. The state in which the local school administrative unit is
located is responsible for the schools; but delegates, through
appropriate legislation, a large degree of its responsibility
to local school units while retaining general supervision.











4. The local administrative unit fixes legal responsibili-
ty for schools in a school board of education, school
board, or school committee.

5. A local board of education employs specialists, including
administrators, teachers, custodians, architects, con-
tractors and consultants to carry on its operations, to
advise it on technical and professional matters, and to
perform assigned tasks.

Figure 1 below shows the agencies which should partici-
pate in planning and designing a school plant with lines
of responsibility and cooperative planning indicated.

Figure I*


ca Agencies The School Board
Sand Lay Groups


Contractors The School Plant


Solid lines indicate lines of responsibility. Dotted lines
indicate cooperative planning relationships.

*Figure 1 taken from The School Executive, 72:59, December,
1952.












FLORIDA STATE STANDARDS FOR THE SCHOOL SITE*

...As far as practicable, any present sites which are not adequate
shall be increased to conform to minimum standards for new sites. Each
school site shall contain a minimum of two acres for a one-teacher school.
At least one acre shall be added to this minimum size of the site for
each fifty pupils enrolled in the school after the first fifty and until
the enrollment reaches five hundred pupils.

...Each site shall be well drained, reasonably free from mud,
and the soil shall be adapted to landscaping as well as to playground
purposes. In so far as practicable, the school site shall not adjoin
a right of way of any railway or of any through highway and shall nob
be adjacent to any factory or other property from which noise, odors,
or other disturbances would be likely to interfere with the school pro-
gram.

It shall be the responsibility of the county board to see that
each school site is arranged to provide adequate play areas, is at-
tractively landscaped, and is maintained in such a manner that it is
both useful and attractive.


SOUTHER ASSOCIATION STANDARDS FOR THE SCHOOL SITE

Southern Association Standards for the School Site are as
follows:

1. The site should provide at least five acres of space
plus one acre for each one hundred pupils enrolled.

2. The site should be conducive to safe and healthful
living.

3. The site should be located away from traffic hazards.

4. The grounds should be well drained and non-eroded.

5. The site should provide play areas for different age groups.



*State Department of Education, Chapter 235, "The School Plant,"
Florida School Laws. Tallahassee: The Department, 1952.












6. The site should be conveniently located to the greatest
number of pupils served.

7. The site should provide for garden plots.

8. The site should be attractively landscaped.*




TABLE I


BASIC DATA CONCERNING THE PHYSICAL PLANT
OF THE SCHOOLS STUDIED**


Age of
Name of Date of Original Number of aze of
School Construc- Construc- Class- Site
tion tion rooms (Acres)


Barrow Hill 1943 10 8 5

Concord 1897 56 7 2

Lake McBride 1926 27 8 6

Raney 1934 19 7 2

Station One 7 l


*Southern Association's Cooperative Study in Elementary Edu-
cation, Evaluating The Elementary School. Atlanta, Georgia:
Commission on Research and Service, 1951.

**Data secured from check lists.












Status of the Site at Barrow Hill Junior High School

The five acre site at Barrow Hill Junior High School does not

meet state nor Southern Association Standards as they relate to the

size, location, and physical features. This school had an enrollment

of 273 pupils during the school term 1952-1953 which would require a

site consisting of at least seven acres as a minimum as measured by

Florida and Southern Association standards.

The small portion of the site upon which the building rests is

just about large enough for that purpose. The remainder of the site,

except a small portion on the northeast side which was graded during

the current school term, is very low and cannot be used advantageously

for school purposes. To correct this condition would require a very

large expenditure of funds. The site is badly eroded and a small ditch,

conducting run-off water from two adjoining roads, passes through its

center making it inadvisable and dangerous to use this portion of the

site for play areas.

Contrary to requirement of the law, the site adjoins a through

highway on the east and an improved, clay road on the south. There is

no fencing to protect children from these hazards to safety. In spite

of these limitations some organized play areas are evident, and a

garden plot is located on the southwest boundary of the site.


Status of the Site at Concord Junior High School

Concord Junior High School is located approximately twenty miles

northeast of Tallahassee at Miccosuke, Florida. The site contains two










25

acres of land and there is evidence of erosion. On this restricted site

three classroom buildings, a concrete block house housing the boys and

girls' toilets, two basket ball courts, and a small garden are located.

The site adjoins a through highway on the west side but is pro-

tected by fencing. A portion of the two acre site is uncleared and

there is evidence of some landscaping around one of the buildings.

An adequate supply of water is furnished by a power operated pump with

the source of water being a driven well. The site is relatively level

and could be made into an efficient utility by expansion and clearing.

The land adjoining this site can be purchased by the school board when-

ever the school board is ready to purchase.

Concord Junior High School had an enrollment of 24.1 pupils during

the school term 1952-1953 and according to standards used in this study

a site containing a minimum of seven acres is required. Spot maps of

Leon County indicate that Concord Junior High School is well located to

serve many children for a number of years in the future.


Status of the Site at Lake McBride Junior Hig School

The Lake McBride Junior High School is located about eight miles

north of Tallahassee on the Thomasville highway at Bradfordville, Florida.

The site contains six acres of land which is only partially cleared.

There is no apparent evidence of erosion on this rolling site and the

setting is a very pleasant one. A large ravine passes through the site

but this ravine is grassed and erosion is not noticeable, however, it

must be borne in mind that this ravine limits the site for play areas and

should be filled.









26

There are two class room buildings, a pump house, and a concrete

block house housing the boys and girls toilets located on this site.

In addition, there are two basket ball courts, one slide, one merry-go-

round, and one set of swings. Organized play areas are congested but

very much in evidence and the site is pleasantly landscaped.

lake McBride Junior High School had an enrollment of 207 pupils

during the school term 1952-1953 and its six acre site is sufficiently

extensive to adequately accommodate this population, however, as indi-

cated above, the site is only partially cleared. The buildings are so

located on the site as to allow for maximum use of the available portion

of the site for play areas and the site is conveniently located to serve

a large number of pupils for many years in the future.


Status of the Site at Raney Junior High School

Raney Junior High School is situated approximately three miles

northeast of Tallahassee on the Centerville Road. The site at this

school contains two acres of land upon which two class room buildings,

a pump house, a small garden, and one basket ball court are located.

There is evidence of erosion on the site and the land is sloping. The

site adjoins a through highway on the west side and a hazardous condition

resides in the fact that there is a drop of about ten feet from the level

of the site to the road bed adjoining the site. No fencing is provided

to off-set this condition.

The principal, Mr. Raymond Fields, with student labor, has done

some grading and sodding on a small portion of the site and is to be











commended for his efforts. Some landscaping around the buildings is

evident and the grounds appear to be well kept. Raney Junior High School

had an enrollment of 209 pupils during the school term 1952-1953 and to

accommodate this population a site containing a minimum of six acres is

necessary. An adequate supply of water is furnished by a power operated

pump on the site with the source of water being a bored well. The writer

feels that this site constitutes a hazard to safe and healthful living of

its population.


Status of the Site at Station One Junior High School

Station One Junior High School is located about ten miles east of

Tallahasse on U. S. Highway 19 at Chaires, Florida. The site at this

school contains one and one-fourth acres of land upon which two class

room buildings, a concrete block house housing the boys and girls' toilets,

a small garden, and one set of swings are located.

The principal, Mr. Augustus Robinson, with student labor, has clear-

ed about one acre of land adjoining the site, which the county does not

own, and uses this land, alternately, for basketball and soft ball. This

necessitates the removal of basket ball goals after the basketball season

ends and converting the area into a soft ball field.

There is no appreciable amount of erosion present as the land is

relatively level and sandy. The site is situated far enough from the

highway to be considered safe but the land adjoining the site is low and

water stands for several days subsequent to heavy rains making it inad-

visable to purchase additional land adjoining this limited site.











There is an adequate supply of water furnished by a power operated

pump on the site. Station One Junior High School had an enrollment of 177

pupils during the school term 1952-1953 and a site containing a minimum

of five acres is required according to standards used in this study.


FLORIDA STATE STANDARDS FOR THE BUILDING

The Building

Minimum Standards for School Building Construction. No county
superintendent shall recommend tentative approval, and no county board
shall tentatively approve any plans for construction of any school build-
ing in the county, unless the following minimum requirements and any
supplementary regulations concerning the sanitation of schools jointly
prescribed by the state board of education and the state board of health
in conformity with the school code have been fully complied with. Fur-
thermore, it shall be the responsibility of the architect concerned in
proposing plans for the construction or alteration of or the addition to
any such school building to see that these standards are observed,

a. rEpansibility Each building shall be so planned
that enlargements and additions can readily be made without
unnecessary cost and without interfering with natural light
and ventilation of any of the rooms.

b. Orientation Building and class rooms shall be so
arranged that natural lighting is adequate under normal day-
light conditions. All buildings shall be so arranged that
most of the class rooms receive light from either the east
or the west.

c. Entrances and xits All entrances shall be kept
free from outside obstructions. All exit doors shall be
hung so as to swing outward and shall be provided with hard-
ware that will permit opening by pressure from the inside
at all times.

d. Corridors Corridors shall meet the following stan-
dards:

(1) Width The minimum clear passageway of main
corridors of any school building of our class rooms or
more shall be not less than eight feet.












(2) Lighting Corridors shall be well lighted by
outside windows where practicable. Illumination of an
intensity of at least three foot candles (A foot candle
is the amount of illumination on a surface, all points
of which are at a distance of one foot from a light source,
of one international candle) shall be provided by arti-
ficial lighting if the natural lighting is not sufficient
to provide this amount of illumination on a clear day.

e. Heating System In all buildings not provided with
a central heating plant and in those south of the twenty-
seventh parallel of latitude for which exceptions are not
granted under regulations of the state board, each class room
shall be equipped with a ventilating jacketed heater or the
equivalent ad defined by regulation of the state board.

f. When windows are used for ventilation, they shall be
of such design that at least fifty per cent of their area may
be opened at one time.

g. When windows are used for ventilation, two or more
windows shall be equipped with deflectors to protect children
from currents of cold air.

i. Artificial Lighting

(1) Outlets Class rooms wired for artificial lighting
shall contain not less than four outlets, and the illumi-
nation on each desk shall be not less than ten foot candles.

J. Library In every school building where elementary
or high school, or combination elementary and high school, sub-
jects are taught, there shall be provision for minimum library
facilities to meet regulations that may from time to time be ,
adopted by the state board.

k. Other Instructional Rooms- Provision shall be made for
such other instructional rooms are are necessary to meet the
needs of the educational program of the school.

1. Office Space Any building having more than four class
rooms shall be provided with office space for the principal.

m. Toilets and Lavatories Each school plant shall be pro-
vided with a sufficient number of suitable water clostes, earth
closets, or privies adequately screened and ventilated, urinals,
lavatories, and other conveniences as may be prescribed jointly
by regulations of the state board of education and the state
board of health for the use of the pupils attending school therein.












n. Water Suply Each school plant shall be provided
with pure drinking water.

o. Fire Extinguishers Any school plant with six or more
classrooms not protected by the services of a public fire de-
partment must be provided with chemical fire extinguishers
approved by the national board of fire underwiters and the
number required per school plant shall be sufficient to obtain
credit in fire rate.


SOUTHER ASSOCIATION STANDARDS FOR THE BUILDING

The building should provide the following:

1. Space enough to house comfortably the school family for
varied living and learning experiences with classes kept
to a reasonable size (25 to 30 pupils).

2. Space for administrative officers, including a conference
room for parent-teacher conferences (not the principal's
office).

3. Classrooms with adequate seating and work space for from
25 to 30 pupils.

4. A central library.

5. Sanitary and efficient facilities for preparing and serving
lunch.

6. Space where about half of the school can gather at one time
for assemblies.

7. A health clinic or room.

8. Space which may be used by special music groups.

9. A lounge-rest room for teachers.

10. Adequate central storage space for books and supplies.

11. Storage space in each classroom for books and needed teach-
ing supplies.

12. Storage space within each classroom for pupils' coats and
other personal belongings.










31

13. Fire extinguishing equipment at strategic locations.

14. A safe and healthful place for children.

15. Sanitary facilities, including good indoor and outdoor
drinking fountains on an approved water supply.

16. Indoor toilets and handwashing facilities, including
soap and paper towels.

17. A good system of cross-ventilation.

18. Sufficient electrical outlets in classrooms.

19. An abundance of natural light.

20. Adjustable shades to control natural light in the class-
room-preferably of the double-roller variety.

21. Chalkboards which are light enough to maintain good
lighting conditions in the room, are in good condition,
and are mounted at proper height for the children using
them.

22. Bulletin: boards which cover approximately half of the
available wall space in each classroom and are mounted
at the children's eye level.

23. Movable furniture which is adjustable or an adequate
supply of tables and chairs of appropriate sizes for
the children.

24. Furniture which is light in color.

25. Running water in each classroom.

Status of The Barrow ill Junior High School Building

The one-story frame building, erected in 1943 at a cost of appro-

ximately $3500.00, to which the Tuskeena School building was annexed in

1951 at a cost of approximately $5000.00 appears to be structurally sound,

but needs almost an entirely new roof. A portion of the roof was covered

with galvanized roofing in 1952. The building cannot be economically ex-

panded as it is bounded on the east and south sides by public roads; on









32

the west side the land is very low, and on the north side a small room

housing the water plant is joined to the building.

Natural lighting is adequate, under normal conditions, in all but

one of the eight classrooms and this conditions is corrected with arti-

ficial lighting. The building is so arranged that all but one of the

classrooms receive natural light from either the east or the west sides.

All exit doors open outwardly, but the main corridor is less than eight

feet wide and is not adequately lighted.

Heat is supplied by unjacketed wood and coal burning heaters with

most of these being very old and unsatisfactory. Windows are of such

design that fifty per cent of their area may be opened at one time,

but none are equipped with deflectors to control currents of cold air.

Only two of the eight classrooms have four electrical outlets which in-

dicate that the illumination on each desk is less than ten foot candles

as required by law. There is no central library, however, some provisions

for library books are made through the school budget and these books are

housed in the principal's office which is inadequate both in size and

conveniences. No special rooms are provided.

A sufficient number of water closets, lavatories, and urinals is

provided, but pupils must be exposed to the elements to use them. An

adequate supply of drinking water is provided; there are no inside faci-

lities for drinking water. No chemical fire extinguishers are at this

school and this condition has been reported. The writer feels that a

fire hazard is present.











The school lunch facilities are inadequate. There are only

four tables and eight benches housed in a regular classroom to accom-

modate patrons of the lunch room. During the 1952-1953 school term

15,486 meals were served or an average of approximately ninety meals

per day for one hundred seventy-four days.

All furniture at this school is light in color, movable, adjust-

able, and of three different sizes. Chalkboards are dark, but properly

mounted and windows on the east side of the building are equipped with

adjustable shades of the double-roller type to control natural light.

Bulletin boards are inadequate.


Status of the Concord Junior Hg School Buildings

Three buildings provide housing for the Concord school population.

As indicated in TABLE I, one of the buildings was erected in 1897 and

must be considered sub-standard in the light of present educational needs.

With good planning this school could be developed into an ideal center.

It is apparent that natural lighting is adequate under normal con-

ditions, however, natural light does not enter each classroom from either

the east or west sides. Exit doors open outwardly as required by law and

there are no corridors.

Heat is furnished by unjacketed wood and coal heaters. Adequate

ventilation is provided and fifty per cent of the window area may be

opened at one time. Deflectors are not provided for any of tle windows.

Artificial lighting is inadequate; there is no central library, but the










34
school operates on a budget which makes some provision for library books.

These books are housed in the various classrooms and in the principal's

office, rather, a portion of a cloak room which is being used as an

office for the principal.

Toilets, lavatories, and urinals are provided in sufficient num-

bers to adequately accommodate the school population. There is an

adequate supply of drinking water, but no inside facilities for drink-

ing are provided; two chemical fire extinguishers supply the fire pro-

tection for this school.

A partition between two rooms which may be folded and the rooms

used for assemblies satisfy the need for an assembly room sufficient to

accommodate half of the enrollment at one time. Lunch room facilities

are limited but not unsatisfactory. No window shades to control natural

light are provided, chalkboards are dark in color, but properly mounted

and bulletin board space is inadequate.

There is a shortage of movable and adjustable furniture and the

old type, out dated furniture which permits double seating is being used.

Most of this furniture is dark in color.


Status of The Lake McBride Junior High School Buildings

There are two classroom buildings at the Lake McBride school one

of which is a Rosenwald building, erected in 1926 at a cost of $5,500.00.

The other building is the Dawkins Pond school building, which was annexed

to Lake McBride in 1951. This building was originally constructed in 1901.

An addition of two classrooms was made to the Dawkins Pond building in 1953.









35

These buildings are in very good condition and provide eight classrooms,

a lunch room, kitchen, and an office for the principal.

In the opinion of this writer, these buildings can be expanded

with minimum cost to the school board as they are pleasantly located

on the site. Natural light enters all of the classrooms in one of the

buildings from the east and west sides, however, for the other building

natural light enters the classrooms from the north and south sides.

Exit doors open to the outside and there are no corridors.

Heat is provided by unjacketed wood and coal burning heaters.

Windows are of such design that adequate ventilation is provided in all

classrooms but no deflectors are provided. Four ceiling outlets are pro-

vided in each classroom which is adequate according to the standards used

in this study.

The school has no central library but there is a fair collection

of reference books, obtained through the school budget, on hand. These

books are housed in the principal's office.

Toilet facilities are adequate in numbers of the various items,

but are located in a separate building away from the classrooms. This

condition is considered to be unsatisfactory. The water supply is ade-

quate, but, there too, no inside drinking facilities are available. No

chemical fire extinguishers are available at this school.

The furniture at lake McBride Junior High School is of two types,

with one type being the modern, light colored furniture and the other type

being of the old, double-seat, dark colored furniture which does not con-

tribute to maximum classroom efficiency. The lunch room facilities are










36

inadequate. A regular classroom size room is used for lunch room pur-

poses and this room is too small to be considered adequate for a school

of this size.

Storage space for books and supplies is entirely lacking both

as a central unit and in the individual classrooms. No window shades

to control natural light are available; bulletin boards are inadequate

in total area and chalkboards are of light color in four classrooms,

while the other four classrooms are equipped with dark colored chalk-

boards. Chalkboards are mounted at the proper level for the pupils

using them and are in good condition.


Status of The aney Junior High School Buildings

The Raney Junior High School has two frame buildings, providing

seven classrooms, three of which must be considered sub-standard as

they do not meet minimum standards of 22 by 30 by 12 feet. The ori-

ginal building was constructed in 1934 and the Crenshaw building was

moved to the Raney site in 1951.

It would be very undesirable and unwise to expand these build-

ings on this limited site. The location of the buildings on the site

facilitates entrance of natural light from the east and west sides in

all classrooms and window shades of the single-roller type are pro-

vided in each classroom.

Attention is invited to the fact that doors swing inward con-

trary to legal requirements. Heat is supplied by unjacketed wood and

coal burning heaters. Adequate ventilation is obtained through windows









37

sufficiently large to accommodate each classroom and one-half of the

window area may be opened at one time. None of the windows are equip-

ped with deflectors to control currents of cold air.

Artificial lighting is inadequate in that there is not enough

ceiling outlets to provide an illumination of ten foot candles on each

desk. In the absence of a central library, reference books are housed

in individual classrooms and in cabinets located in a small hallway

which is also being used as an office for the principal. Reference

books are secured through the school budget.

There is a sufficient amount of sanitary water closets, lava-

tories, and urinals to adequately accommodate the school population,

but these facilities are situated so that pupils must leave the class-

room buildings to use them. Water is supplied by a power pump located

on the site with all drinking facilities being located on the outside

of the buildings.

Two chemical fire extinguishers are available at this school;

space for assemblies is inadequate, and lunch room facilities are very

inadequate. The kitchen is housed in a former cloak room and children

eat their meals in their classrooms. No central storage space for

books and supplies is available; furniture is of the old, double-seat

type and chalkboards are dark in color but properly mounted. Bulletin

boards are inadequate.











Status of The Station One Junior Hi School Buildings

The Station One Junior High School is housed in two old and very

dilapidated buildings, one of which is an old auditorium. Seven sub-

standard classrooms are just about all the facilities these buildings

provide.

This writer feels that the school board cannot justify expand-

ing this plant and that its continued use is very undesirable. The

classrooms have poor natural lighting but this condition is somewhat

received by electric installation. Exit doors open to the outside

and there are no corridors.

Heat is provided by unjacketed wood and coal burning heaters;

windows in one of the rooms are very small which does not facilitate

adequate ventilation. A few reference books, secured through the school

budget during the term just ended, constitute all the library facilities

available at this school, and there is no office for the principal.

Sanitary water closets, lavatories, and urinals are housed in a

separate building away from the classroom buildings and there is only

one stool for boys and two for girls. The water supply is adequate,

but all drinking facilities are located outside of the buildings.

No chemical fire extinguishers are available; the school popu-

lation is not comfortably housed, and space for assemblies is very

limited. The seating conditions at Station One School is very poor with

all of the furniture being of the old, dark colored, double-seat type,

and there are a few benches being used in the classrooms. Two of the

classrooms have fixed-type furniture.









39
School lunch facilities are very unsatisfactory and inadequate.

The kitchen is housed in a small, enclosed porch where a range, refri-

gerator, and ice cream box are also located along with what limited

storage space for food is provided. There is no central storage space

and no window shades to control natural light. Chalkboards are of com-

position material and of little use; bulletin boards are very inadequate

with only about three square feet of area in each classroom.


FLORIDA STATE STANDARDS FOR FACILITIES AND EQUIRPENT

Florida state standards relating to facilities and equipment are

stated in the standards for the building as they are not promulgated

separately and distinctly from the building standards.


SOUTHERN ASSOCIATION STANDARDS FOR FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT

Among the important resources which elementary schools provide

so that children may have good learning experiences are: (a) library

services and materials, including textbooks, (b) audio-visual materials

and equipment, (c) art and craft materials, (d) music equipment and

materials, (e) equipment for physical education, (f) science equipment

and materials, and (g) general supplies and equipment needed by teachers

in order to do a good job of planning, teaching, and record-keeping.










40
Evaluation of Facilities and Equipment at Barrow Hill Junior High School


TABLE II


EQUIPMENT AND FACILITIES AVAILABLE AT
BARROW HILL JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL*


E equipment

1 16mm Sound movie projector

1 Record player


1 Piano

1 Refrigerator

2 Small apartment size ranges

1 Milk dispenser

1 Hot water heater

2 Sinks

1 Sewing matching (out of order)


1 Electrically operated pump
and water tank

8 Heaters, one storage room
for coal

1 Large filing cabinet

9 Pencil sharpeners, 8 teachers'
desks and chairs


Facilities

Inadequate supply of textbooks

Unabridged Funk-Wagnalls
dictionary

2 large U. S. maps

1 Globe

Tempera paints, finger paints

Crayons, paper, hammer and saw

2 Basket balls

2 Basket ball courts

3 Soft balls, 2 soft ball bats,
3 bases

2 Slides, 2 see-saws, 1 set of
swings

1 first aid kit, 1 set of horse
shoes

1 Volley ball and court

2 garden hoes, 1 garden plow


*Data taken from school.











TABLE II indicates that there is an inadequacy in equipment

and facilities at Barrow Hill Junior High School. The sound movie pro-

jector and record player were purchased by the faculty in an effort

to strengthen the school program and some progress along this line is

noticeable. There is an acute shortage of textbooks, maps, globes,

and charts. The hot water heater needs replacing as well as does the

sewing machine.

The site does not offer much opportunity for playing softball,

hence the main activity in physical education is basketball, with

volley ball and horse shoe pitching occupying a lesser role. Science

equipment is entirely lacking and this school offers instruction from

grade one to grade nine inclusive.

The kitchen ranges are war surplus equipment, having just about

served their usefulness, and facilities for teachers are inadequate.












Evaluation of Facilities and Equipment at Concord Junior Hih School


TABIE III


FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT AVAILABLE AT
CONCORD JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL*


Equipment


2 Chemical fire extinguishers

Hammer and saw

2 garden hoes

1 piano

4 Book cases


1 Refrigerator

1 Large range

1 Ice cream box, 7 heaters

9 Teachers' desks and chairs


Facilities


Inadequate supply of textbooks

1 Large U. S. map, 1 globe

Tempera paints, finger paints

Crayons, construction paper

1 dodge ball, 2 basket balls
2 basket ball courts

1 Volley ball and court

2 see-saws


*Data taken from school.


As revealed in TABLE III, there is an acute shortage of facilities

and equipment so necessary to the execution of a well-planned and func-

tional school program. The very fact that a serious shortage of text-

books exists at this school makes for an inadequate total program.










43

In the areas of art and science the facilities available leaves

much to be desired especially as they relate to the development of

creative abilities and to the development of a greater appreciation of

the immediate environment of the child.

The place where the principal must carry on his duties falls

far short of being adequate which makes the burden of administration

a terrific one indeed.


Evaluation of Facilities and Equipment at lake McBride Junior Hig School


TABLE IV


FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT AVAILABLE AT
LAKE McBRIDE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL*


Equipment

1 Slide, film strip projector

1 Duplicating machine

Hammer and saw

1 Piano, 9 teachers' desk and
chairs

1 Large gas range, 1 wood
range

1 Refrigerator

2 Sinks, kitchen cabinets

1 Hot water heater
1 Electric sewing machine
8 Heaters, 1 electric water pump


Facilities

Inadequate supply of textbooks

Out dated furniture

Unabridged Funk-Wagnalls dictionary

Flat pictures, crayons, finger
paints, construction paper

2 Basket balls, 2 basket ball
courts, 1 merry-go-round

1 Slide

3 Soft balls, 2 soft ball bats


*Data taken from school.













Equipment at Lake McBride Jumior High School is considered satis-

factory in light of the standards employed in this study, however, the

facilities here are inadequate. Notwithstanding, the fact that physical

education and recreational facilities at this school are just about

tops for the schools studied, adequate use of them cannot be made due

to the limited portion of the site which is cleared and suitable for

such activities.

The combination slide and film strip projector lends itself well

to visual education and the duplicating machine is an asset in any

school. School lunch equipment is very good but the space for serving

lunches is entirely too small for the enrollment. Another asset to

this school is the electric sewing machine which facilitates the develop-

ment of skills in using modern equipment as well as adding spice to the

job of the home economics teacher and the enthusiasm of the pupils.












Evaluation of Facilities and Equipment at Raney Junior High School


TABIE V


FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT AVAIIABIE AT
RA1EY JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL*


Equipment

- Duplicating machine

- Teachers' desks and chairs

- Book cases

- Large range (gas)

- Refrigerator

- Milk dispenser


- Power operated water pump

- Piano

- Tonettes

Hammer and saw


Facilities

Inadequate supply of textbooks

1 Large U. S. map

3 Globes, 2 charts

Tempera paints, crayons

Construction paper

2 Basket balls, 1 basket ball
court, 1 first aid kit

1 Merry-go-round

1 %lley ball and court

1 set of horse shoes

9 Pencil sharpeners

1 Stage


*Data taken from school.


TABLE V reveals that equipment and facilities at Raney Juniar

High School are inadequate as measured by state and Southern Association

standards; that the instructional program here is hampered by insuffi-

cient numbers of state adopted textbooks and an inadequate supply of art

materials.









46

Three of the classrooms are sub-standard and with an enrollment

of 209 pupils overcrowded conditions are present. It is of note that

Raney Junior High School has a duplicating machine which facilitates the

classroom work of teachers and aids the principal in the execution of

his duties.

Raney Junior High School has a tonette group which is progressing

well. Recreational facilities consist of basket ball, volley ball, and

horse shoe pitching as the site is very limited. There is also a merry-

go-round for the smaller children.


Evaluation of Facilities and Equipment at Station One Junior High School


TABIE VI

FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT AVAIIABE AT
STATIC ONE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL*


Equipment
1 Power operated water pump

First aid kit

7 Heaters

Insufficient number of chair-
desks

3 Mounted pictures

1 Piano 2 garden hoes

8 Teachers' desks and chairs

1 Large and 1 small gas range

1 Refrigerator


Facilities
Inadequate supply of textbooks

2 Large U. S. Maps, 2 globes

1 Chart, tempera paints


Crayons, paper

1 Dodge ball, 3 basket balls

2 Basket ball courts, 3 softballs

2 Soft ball bats, 4 bases

2 Slides, 2 see-saws, 1 set of
swings
1 Set of horse shoes, 1 volley
ball and court


*Data taken from school.











47

Facilities and equipment at Station One Junior High School are

very limited, excluding the area of physical education. It is note-

worthy to mention here that the site contains only one and one-fourth

acres on which the classroom buildings are located in addition to the

play areas. Of course, the basket ball courts are not located on school

property. The Station One school has sponsored a championship and runners-

up basketball team for the past two seasons which indicates that in spite

of these very limited conditions a good physical education program is a

reality.

Aside from the physical education, however, the facilities just

do not have much to offer. Text books are inadequate, there is no hot

water heater at the school, and no sink for washing dishes in the kitchen.

Teacher's desks are inadequate, and there is no office for the principal.

Seating facilities are only sufficient to accommodate 120 of the

177 pupils enrolled and 40 of these desks are the fixed type.












Summary

These data indicate that the schools in this study fail to meet,

substantially, the standards set forth in this chapter relating to the

site; the buildings; facilities and equipment available.

If we view the site as a major agency in facilitating the school

program, then, we must also accept the fact that the small and general-

ly unimproved sites presented in this chapter do not make a maximum

contribution to the school facilities.

The buildings, some of them very old and dilapidated, do not

present a wholesome atmosphere for varied living and learning ex-

periences for pupils and teachers; facilities and equipment are in-

adequate in all cases.

The five schools had enrolled during the school term 1952-1953

a total of 1107 pupils. These pupils were housed in a total of 37

classrooms, 16 of which are considered substandard, and taught by a

total of 44i teachers for an average of 30 pupils per teacher. This is

not the case, however, as the distribution of pupils and teachers re-

spectively is as follows: Barrow Hill: 273 9; Concord: 241 9;

lake McBride: 207 9; Raney: 209 9; and Station One: 177 8.

From these figures, a more equitable distribution of teachers is desir-

able.

The combined sites contain a total of 16- acres as compared with

31 acres needed.










49

The Superintendent of Public Instruction and the School Board

are cognizant of these inadequacies and are taking steps to correct

them. This course of action is much desired and the writer feels that

it will be a fruitful one.











CHAPTER III


CONCLUSICKS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


In Chapter III the writer is presenting conclusions drawn from

the analysis and interpretation of the data collected and making recom-

mendations in light of these findings with the related literature and

allied reading serving as a basis for these recommendations.



TABLE VII


SUGGESTED CLASSIFICATICW OF SCHOOLS



Suggested Inclusive 1952-1953
Name of School Classification Grades Enrollment

Barrow Hill C-1 1- 8 273

Concord C-1 1- 8 241

Lake McBride C-1 1- 8 207

Raney C-4 1 8 209

Station One C-4 1 8 177


Evaluation of the Barrow Hill Junior High School Plant


The Site. The present site is very low, too small, and cannot

economically be filled and graded to the extent that it would be suitable

for school purposes. The location is undesirable as it is bordered by

two public roads, which presents a safety hazard.










51
The building is structurally sound, but too small for the pre-

sent population and spot maps indicate that the enrollment will be

going upwards in the future. There are three substandard classrooms

and five standard classrooms in the present building.

Facilities and equipment are inadequate, with a serious text-

book shortage being most outstanding. No stage is provided in the

building and art and science materials are very inadequate.


Recommendations


The Site. In this study, Barrow Hill is classified as a 0-1

center for grades 1 through 8 at a new site located approximately two

and one-half miles south of the present Barrow Hill school. This new

site should contain at least 15 acres and the site is available for

sale. Pupils now attending Station One school; all pupils who live on

the southwest side of the Centerville road, and are now attending Raney

school should be brought to this new center as soon as facilities are

available there,


The Buildn. A new building at the newly suggested site should

be constructed with the following facilities: 16 classrooms, a music

and art room, a library, an auditorium, a lunch room, administrative

suite, including a conference room, a store room, inside toilets, a

shower room, an audio-visual education room, washing and drinking

facilities in each classroom, a communication system, controlled from










52

the administrative suite, in each classroom, a clinic room and a

central heating plant.


Evaluation of the Concord Junior ih School Plant


The Site. The two acre site at Concord school is very inade-

quate, only partially cleared, and eroded. The site is bordered on

the west side by a public highway, but is fenced to correct the con-

dition. For this study, Concord is classified as a C-1 center for

grades 1 8. There are three buildings located on this restricted

site, leaving only a small portion of the site for play areas.


The Buildings. One of three buildings at Concord school is

56 years old, having been constructed in 1897. Two additions have

been made to the Concord school but two of the rooms cannot be con-

sidered as classrooms in the permanent plan as they are below standard.

They might be converted into a lunch room. The other two rooms added

meet minimum requirements and may be used indefinitely with proper care

and maintenance.


Facilities and Equipment. The data collected indicate that

facilities and equipment for this school do not make a maximum contri-

bution towards the total development of the child and the school budget

is not large enough to absorb all of the inadequacies in instructional

materials for any given school term.











Recommendations


The Site. In order to take care of present needs and future

growth, it is recommended that the present site be expanded to include

at least 10 acres. The land adjoining the site is available for sale

and should be purchased by the school board immediately as the owner

will sell to the first buyer. If purchased, the new land should be

cleared, graded, and fenced to prevent children from entering the

highway during play periods.


The Building. A new building with the following facilities should

be constructed on the expanded site 5 elementary classrooms, a library,

a storage room, administrative offices, including a conference room, a

music and art room, a clinic room, inside toilets, washing and drinking

facilities in each classroom, a shower room, a communication system, con-

trolled from the administrative office, an audio-visual education room, and

a central heating plant.


Facilities and Equipment. Adequate facilities and equipment to

take care of the school needs in all areas of learning should be provided.


Evaluation of The lake McBride Junior ih School Plant


The Site. The six acre site at Lake McBride school is sufficiently

extensive in area to accommodate the present enrollment, however, a large

portion of the site is uncleared and can not be used advantageously for









54

school purposes. The site is pleasantly located and considerable ef-

fort has been directed towards landscaping the grounds. A large ravine

passes through the site and should be filled to add utility to this

rolling site. Erosion is negligible and the setting is a pleasant om.


The Buildings. The two one-story frame buildings at Lake McBride

school appear to be in very good condition, one having an asbestos roof

and a masonry foundation. Two classrooms were added to the Dawkins

Pond building in 1953, but attention is invited to the fact that these

rooms are substandard due to the small windows on the north side and

the absence of an inside entrance. The eight classrooms available will

accommodate a maximum enrollment of 240 pupils based on 30 pupils per

room, which indicates that the present enrollment is pretty well housed.


Facilities and Equipment. The data on facilities and equipment

for Lake McBride school point out that more progress towards reaching

minimum requirements has been made here than at any of the schools cover-

ed in this study, yet, there are some inadequacies.


Recommendations

The Site. Iake McBride is classified, in this study, as a C-1

center for grades 1 8. The present six acre site is adequate for the

present population, however, spot maps indicate that future enrollments

will be on the incline. At least one school will move to this school

for the ensuing school term. In light of this fact, it is recommended

that the present site be expanded to include at least 10 acres and that

the entire area be cleared and graded for ideal school use.












The Buildings. This center should be expanded to include 5

additional classrooms, a library, administrative offices, including

a conference room, a cafetorium, a music and art room, inside toilets,

washing and drinking facilities in each classroom, a shower room, a

store room, a communication system, controlled from the administrative

office, and a central heating plant. The present buildings should be

joined by the library.


Facilities and Equipment. The investigator suggests that faci-

lities and equipment recommended in this study be provided as soon as

funds are available.


Evaluation of the Raney Junior High School Plant


The Site. The two acre site at Raney school slopes rather

steeply, is eroded, and there is evidence of some landscaping. That

portion of the site which is available for play areas is well organized,

but very inadequate. The site is dangerously close to a public highway

and no fencing to protect the lives of children is provided.

There is no land adjoining this site which is available for sale,

and this writer feels that it would be inadvisable to expand this site

at its present location even if additional land could be purchased.


The Buildings. The two one-story frame buildings appear to be in

good condition, however, the doors in one of the buildings open to the

inside contrary to legal requirements; the Crenshaw school building,










56

which was moved to the Raney site in 1951, contains three substandard

classrooms, and the kitchen is inadequate.


SFacilities and Equipment. Seating facilities at Raney school

are inadequate, with most of the classrooms containing very old desks.

A shortage of textbooks, art materials, and playground equipment is

evident.


Recommendations


The Site. In this study, Raney school is classified as a C-4

center for grades 1 8. It is recommended that pupils now attending

this school, and who live on the northwest side of the Centerville

road, be sent to lake McBride or to the proposed new Southwest Elemen-

tary School as soon as facilities are made available there. The pre-

sent site should then be sold to the highest bidder.


The Buidings. Now new construction is recommended at the present

site. The present buildings should be sold to the highest bidder or

torn down and the salvageable portions used by maintenance crews for re-

pair work and other improvements at the various schools. It is suggested

that the Crenshaw school building be moved to the grounds of the Leon

County Fair Association and converted into a warehouse for storing

materials used by the several schools in connection with the Leon County

Fair.










57

Facilities and Equipment. It is recommended that all usable,

and transferable facilities and equipment be moved to the Lake McBride

and Barrow Hill schools.


Evaluation of the Station One Junior igh School Plant


The Site. The one and one-fourth acre site at Station One school

is very restricted and inadequate. This limited site is very well or-

ganized into play areas, with some of the recreational facilities located

on non-school property. The land adjoining this site is low and surface

water stands for several days after heavy rains. None of this land is

for sale, and its purchase is not recommended if it were for sale.


The Buildings. Two very old buildings, one an old auditorium,

provide the facilities at this school. These buildings are in very bad

condition, and natural lighting is inadequate, however, this condition

is somewhat received by electric installation. Due to the present con-

dition of these buildings, extensive alteration is undesirable and un-

wise. Their use as school buildings should be discontinued.


Facilities and Equipment. At Station One school, the seating

facilities are very inadequate, and there are not enough textbooks.

Recreational facilities seem to be better than those at some of the

other schools covered in this study, but space is grossly inadequate.












Recommendations


The Site. Station One School is classified, in this study, as

a G-4 center for grades 1 8. No further expansion of this site is

recommended and the present site should be sold to the highest bidder.

Replacement of this plant should be a first priority.


The Buildings. It is recommended that the two buildings be

torn down and the salvageable materials be used to construct shelters

at bus stops for Negro children as far as the materials will go.


Facilities and equipment. Any usable facilities and equipment

should be transferred to the new Barrow Hill school as soon as this

facility is made available.















The findings in this study clearly indicate that the physical

plants of the five rural schools for Negroes covered in this investi-

gation are inadequate in the size of sites, building accommodations,

facilities and materials as measured by State and Southern Association

Standards. The average size of sites is three and one-fourth acres

as compared with an average of six and one-fourth acres needed.

The buildings, with two exceptions, are inadequate and facili-

ties show glaring deficiencies. These findings suggest that an

extended building program for the rural Negro youths of Leon County

is much needed. Another significant finding of this study is the fact

that the distribution of teachers is not commensurate to the distri-

bution of pupils. This condition springs from the fact that housing

facilities are inadequate, hence, teachers must render their services

where there are rooms to accommodate them. The method of apportioning

teachers seems to be based upon the absence or presence of rooms for

housing rather than upon the usual teacher-pupil ratio of determining

the number of teachers needed.

In light of the findings, it appears that three well planned and

well equipped rural school centers will adequately provide for the rural

Negro youth of Leon County.

From the standpoint of location, it appears that the three schools

classified as C-l Centers in this study are appropriate to serve this

purpose for many years.






































BIBLIOGRAFMI












Arnold, William E., et. al., School Building Survey of Harrisburg,
Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Educational Service
Bureau, School of Education, University of Pennsylvania, 1949,
76 pp.

Bell, Millard D., "The Modern Elementary School Needs A Central Library,"
The Nations Schools, 48:52, December, 1952.

Butterworth, Julian E., and Howard A. Dawson, The Modern Rural School.
New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1952, 494 pp.

Cannon, J. W., "Tomorrow's School Plant Will Be A Child's School,"
The Nations School, 48:60, September, 1951.

Edmonson, J. B., et. al., M Administration of The Modern Secondary
School. New York: The MacMillan Company, 1948, 690 pp.

Fleagle, Edward, "The Good Side of A 'Bad' Site," The School Executive,
72:79, September, 1952.

Fowlkes, J. W., et. al., "School Plant and Equipment," Review of
Educational Research, 12:137-254, April 1952.

Joint Committee of The School Committee of The American Institute of
Architects and Special Committee of The National Council on School
House Construction, "Planning and Designing A School Plant," The
School Executive, 72:58-60, December, 1952.

Jordan, C. H., and Weldon Cowan, "Rural Needs Well Met Under One Roof,"
The Nations Schools, 48:52, December, 1951.

Monroe, Walter S., Encyclopedia of Educational Research. New York:
The MacMillian Company, 1950, 1520 pp.

Otto, Henry J., Elementary School Organization and Administration. New
York D. Appleton-Century Company, 1944, 571 pp.

Risk, Thomas M., Principles and Practices of Teaching. New York:
American Book Company, 1947, 728 pp.

Southern Association's Cooperative Study In Elementary Education,
Evaluating The Elementary School. Atlanta, Georgia: Commission
On Research and Service, 1951, 325 pp.












State Department of Education, Chapter 235, "The School Plant,"
Florida School Laws. Tallahassee: The Department, 1952, 195pp.

Tillman, Turner H., *An Evaluation of the Physical Facilities of the
Three School for Negroes in Brooks County, Georgia in Terms of
Selected Criteria," Unpublished Masters' Thesis, Florida Agri-
cultural and Mechanical College, Tallahassee, Florida, August 1952,
79 pp.

Wahlquist, John T., et. al., The Administration of Public Education.
New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1952, 611 pp.

Williams, Jesse F., and Clifford Lee Brownell, The Administration of
Health and Physical Education. Philadelphia: 1946, W. B. Saunders
Company, 483 pp.

Wilson, Richard, "The Status of the Physical Plant of the Lincoln High
School, Tallahassee, Florida." (For the School Year 1949-1950).
Unpublished Masters' Thesis, Florida Agricultural and Mechanical
College, Tallahassee, Florida, August, 1950, 46 pp.











APPENDIX A


CHECK LIST


Name of School

Principal


I. The Site

1. The site provides at least five acres of space plus one acre
for each one hundred children enrolled. Yes No .

2. The site is conducive to safe and healthful living.
Yes, No ___

3. The site is located away from traffic hazards. Yes
No

4. The grounds are well drained and non-eroded. Yes
No

5. The site provides play areas for different age groups.
Yes No .

6. The site is conveniently located to the greatest number of
pupils served. Yes _, No

7. The site provides for garden plots. Yes No _

8. The site is attractively landscaped., Yes ._, No .

9. What recent improvements have been made to the site?
a. ,b. ,c. d. d

10. What suggestions would you offer for improving the site?
a. ,____ b. c. d.

11. Is the school designated as a permanent center? Yes
No .

II. The Building

1. How many classrooms are there in the building?

2. The building provides which of the following special service
rooms?












a. An assembly room sufficiently large to house at least
one-half of the school population at one time. Yes ,
No _

b. An office for the principal. Yes No_

c. A conference room for parent-teacher conferences.
Yes No _

d. A central library. Yes ___ No

e. A clinic or first aid room. Yes No .

f. A lounge-rest room for teachers. Yes No

3. The building provides showers with hot and cold water.
Yes No

4. The building is constructed of fire resistant material through-
out. Yes ____, No __

5. The building provides a central store room adequate to house
books and supplies. Yes No _

6. The building provides exits and corridors sufficient to enable
quick evacuation in case of disaster. Yes No .

7. The building is arranged so that adequate ventilation is pro-
Vided. Yes No _

8. The building provides indoor toilets, handwashing facilities,
including soap and paper towels. Yes No _

9. What type of heating system is provided? ___.

10. Adjustable shades of the double-roller type are provided in
each classroom. Yes No ____

11. Sufficient electrical (at least 4 ceiling) outlets are pro-
vided in each classroom. Yes _, No ____

12. Chalkboards light in color, mounted at the proper height for
the pupils using them, and in good condition, are provided
in each classroom. Yes No .__











13. Bulletin boards are sufficiently extensive to cover half of
the available wall space, and are mounted at eye-level of
the children using them. Yes No. .

14. Movable and adjustable furniture or an adequate supply of
tables and chairs of appropriate sizes are provided for all
the children. Yes No

15. All furniture is light in color. Yes No .

16. List some of the seating problems you face.
a. b. c. d.

III. Facilities and Equipment

A. Library Service and Materials

1. An adequate supply of well selected textbooks is avail-
able for each teacher. Yes No .

2. A central library staffed at least half of the time by
a teacher-librarian who has had a minimum of at least
eighteen quarter hours of library science is provided.
Yes No .

3. The central library provides sufficient space to accom-
modate a single class (25 to 30 pupils) at one time.
Yes __ No

4. The central library contains an unabridged dictionary
or an up-to-date set of juvenile encyclopedias.
Yes No

5. What problems exist in developing adequate library faci-
lities? a. ., b. c.,
de

B. Audio-Visual Aids

1. Which of the following art and craft materials are avail-
able at your school?
a. Tempera paints b. Crayons c. Fin-
ger paints d. Paper (Large size for use with
tempera paints and construction paper of many colors).
Easels Simple tools __.

2. What other art and craft materials do the school have?













D. Music Equipment and Materials

1. Which of the following music equipment and facilities
are available at your school?

a. Rhythm band instruments b. Piano ,
c. more than one series of music books designed for
use with children .

E. Physical Education Equipment and Materials

1. Check items available at your school

a. Bean bags b. Dodge balls c. Basket
balls__, d. Basket ball courts e. Soft balls
f. Bats, gloves, and bases g. Soft ball
field h. Fixed playground equipment such as
ladders, bars, slides, see-saws i. First aid
kit contaiining needed supplies for treating minor cuts,
scratches, and burns .

2. What other physical education equipment is available
at your school? a. b. c. ,
d. e. .

F. Science Materials and Equipment

.1. Check the items of equipment and materials available at
your school.

a. Tin pans_ b. Batteries c. Wire ,
d. Magnets e., Magnifying glasses f. Micro-
scope g. Aquarium_ h. Cabinet or table for
display i. Bird charts j. Simple scales

2. What other science materials and equipment is available
at your school? ___ ,


3. Identify progress made by your school in getting and
using science materials and equipment.











67

F. Facilities and Equipment Needed by Teachers

1. Identify by check mark any of the following equipment and
facilities, needed by teachers, which are available at your
schools.

a. Duplicating machine_ b. Paper cutters, c.
filing cabinet in each room d. Chart holders
e. A comfortable desk with drawer space and a comfortable
chair ___ f. A good pencil sharpener g.
Erasers and chalk, h. A library table, i. Book cases .

2. What other facilities and equipment for teachers are avail-
able at your school? ....
*




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