AJ EVALUATION OF TIE UPGRO ELEE!IETARY SCHOOLS OF DAYTONA
EACH, FLORIDA TO DETETrINME THE BASIS FOR A RE'VISIOMI
(P? THE CURRICULLA
the Faculty of the Graduate School of Education
The Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
In FPrtial Fulfillnent
of the coquirenents for the Decree
:.aster of Science in Education
A:, LVALUJATIO:* OF THE rEGIRO ELEENTARY SCiK OLS OF DAYTONA
UEAC'I, FLORIDA TC DETERMI"ME T' E 3ASIS FOR A RtEVISIO
OF THE CTTRICP.LA
Approved : '
Chairman Thiesis Committee
an of he Gra te School
Dean of the Graduate School
Date: 4JiL 22 1jj5
ACK1JOWL EDl METS
The author wishes to express her sincere appre-
ciation to MIr. A. J. Polk, Chairman of the Committee,
Dr. T. B. Cooper and TMiss Edna Calhoun, for their on-
couragemnt and assistance during the preparation of
Thanks to iYiss !. Evelyn Uonner, Principal of
the Bonner Elementary School, Mr. W. 0. Berry, Princi-
pal of Rigby Elementary School and ras. T. E. Small,
Principal of the South Street Elementary School, for
permitting me to use questionnaires in their schools.
A special thanks to the library staff of Florida
Agricultural and Mechanical University, Miss _. Evelyn
Bonner, Mr. and Mtrs. William Cameron, :r. R. W. Robinson,
Mrs. Aletha Royal and Mrs. M. L. Lonr for the use of books
that assisted me in making this thesis a realization.
ly grateful appreciation goes to my husband who,
at all times, gave necessary assistance. It is to him
I dedicate this valuable piece of work.
Frances W. Strachan
'TAD'L OF COr '~rZT
c: IAPlM PAAE
I. I.'rrDUCTIC A TO TE FPR.1L1 .,, .
3actground . . .3
Statement of the problem n 4
Purpose of the study .
Definitions of Terms Used .* 6
Procedure Significance of the
Problem and Organization f the 6
study .. . . 6
Significance of the problem . 7
II. I RELATED LITERATUE . . 8
II RELATED LITERATE AE . . 14
III. ORGArIZATIOIX OF "ATEIAL 35
IV. SLT2ARY .. . 76
.!J% T ?EtDATIOnS AN' D COhCLUSIO:TS . 90
LIST OF TABLES
X* Instructional Supplies .* a, a a 42-44
II Administration 47-50
71 The Curriculum ., 52-53
7II The Curri.ulva. a 53
7III Healthful LivinC * , 56-58
TI Fundamenta: Skills ,* 59-60
X Creative Activities 61
XI Social Learning .. 65-66
XII Adaptation of tha Curricul-u to Individual 68-69
Needs . a . a . ,68-69
XIII The Community t a a .71-72
XIV The Teacher and the School .74-75
The evaluation movement covers a period of unusual
progress particularly in the elementary schools of America.
It must be kept in mind, however, that the movement to eval-
uate education is an extension of the accrediting program.
minnesota introduced its accrediting program in 1895.
By 1932 other states had undertaken the accrediting program,
and by 1944 the movement to accredit schools was nationwide
Evaluation which measures the strengths and weakneaasses
of the educational program is an improvement and an enlarge-
ment of the accrediting movement. However, it is evident
that improvements in all areas of education are significantly
beneficial to the child, teacher, parent, school and the
It is true that the higher echelons of our educational
system have received the greatest amount of attention from
the evaluative movement, but within recent years the yard-
sticks of evaluation have been applied most readily to the
Why should we be concerned with evaluation in our ele-
mentary schools? The question is pertinent and it merits the
fl j ,i
consideration of all educators. The elementary school is
concerned with evaluation because in the elementary schools
are the youths of our nation. The children of Akerica are
our greatest asset, not only for what the future holds in
store for them, but because of what they are.
America cannot survive without its youth. Certainly
it would be lacking in many of the qualities which we prize
dearly. Love, understanding, flexibility, tenderness, and
appreciation of others are some of the qualities that are
stimulated by the presence of our children.
Workers in education are always concerned with the
contributions boys and girls are na':ing. We see these boys
and girls, not necessarily as leaders in the future, but as
productive members of our society here and now. We recog-
nize the significance of training the whole child for the
society in which he lives. Therefore, evaluating the ele-
'*:entary school program is a highly significant factor which
calls thl attention of the people to the strengths and weak-
nesses of the program and finally to the great good that the
dlcmirntary schools can do to develop boys and girls to live
in an ever-changing democratic society.
A committee among Negro teacher. Ia Voluain County
orgrnlized itself for rrofecrional Irlrovemcnt and selected
for its .-ri-v'Iry study.Y : "iew. .'1.ution! of Negtro Sc~hnolas I
Daytonv .Be'.ch, florida.0 The oommittet w~as fully ca :atle
of oawlryin- on th study which had thce br-ckin. of the county
school officilnlr, tut after m;hin.- primary nlr;ln for the
study it was dleoontlnuu-: by thf.e -rou-s. :C'h" rE-Ln bmay bh
:-ujmmie ur in the fol2o in; atetement: The Negro elementary
school of the Halifax Area were in the -iocess of a building
Srproflram. ITererefore, the principal and faulty of these
r-jiooicl deemneq it inpdvi.-lble to permit the study to be made
at that time.
Thin stay possessea pnrtlculnr educ'fSt!cnr, sininflc:nce:
1, The boys and girls in the arei in which these
schools are loontcd are in need of a better school
2, There 1, muuch concern shout thC conduct oif these
boys and girle at hnme, at school, and in aoti-
viticr in the community.
3. "lere sl a cgri-it n ed for stlia.l-tini- values in
the .boy end .rirl'- of the Hfllfax Ar.cn.
-ilth these thinC'." in mind, the rtublic has boomer con-
scious of thce wea"ne~,t- s in th-e nchonol but it h'-- not been
tl.-. to corrql thenr: we-kn -.-. eo. It has not been able to find
the o:uc-on for aboil-.,In ; there -!ooo10nm", out neonec do see the
effet ;, whichh are th. rIsults of these ->robltme.
The writer belicve- that evalu-Atng the nmrora of
3-nne:" t3ementary, figby Elementa.ry and South Street L3e-
ri-ntfzry Sehoole will hkln to reveal the ofauss and sources
ao th f; problems.
Gampbtell Street Hizh School program has been evalu-
ated. 'ie children from Bonner Eleasntnry, Rigby blamentary
"'- "~ruth 'Sreet Elementary .:hnols attend J'mrbcll :trc:t
Hi, ":Qoh-.o3 for their high school trAflnir. eri..t.rc, the
iriter- stl.-Oced this ar"; for a tud, y w .. a r ''-. to shyow
LI:. ur-ge.nt nlcesapity for an evalutiofn of the rrogrea': tA
tJiite elementary schools,
In Fiddition tc tth- noioecin-r oainionP, evalLr.tion
cf t.h.E, 0. ahool: ill noint up w rcnth anil wcaknt. in
.;:1 rirs of nd:.inlstreticn, cur~ioalurm in-truot'oni t h-
int ner.-.onncl, and the area of schonl-oommunity r-laionchir.
StOtement of the 'rob'iem
This study is undert'-.hcn to cv-iau-:tt: th. Z-Oprorm of
the Negrn elementary schools of the alifax Area in ~a.ycona
Se-ch, Florida: 3Bnner flcmentary, Rigby idlementhry nnd
,Jouth Street Elementary Sohools. 3rp cil ehasi-. I.; ll be
npced on the fol3o;;ing:
1, Orgmniz tirn ano admainietrntion of the curriraulum
a. The sum and substance of the curriculum
e. Reporting to Parents
f. Parent-Teachers Associations
g. Evaluation of teachers
i. Classroom space, facilities, building and health
J. Individual differences
k. Instructional materials
2. A comparative study of the curricula of 3onner
Elementary, Rigby Elementary, and South Street
Elementary Schools as a means to determine which
school is meetI.ng more adequately the needs of
boys and girls.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study:
1. To give consideration to the type of curricula
2. To determine the extent to which the curricula
are improving the lives of children in the
Bonner Elementary, Rihy Elementary, and South
Street Elementary Schools.
3. To make a comparative study of 3onner Elementary,
Rigby Elementary and South Street Elementary Schools.
to dt rnstv hJ ,I Soenn-r s:.cntryIy, .1.by
auiment.ra, and *"outh v rt.x-t :c:Em.nt.ary ..c'.ols
rate eh fc-a. otC,Er
5f To (Tc-t-Eralne Vr-v trhri ,'-;J.SiuT rf ner l.-
gent r-i rigby -..ltament- -y aw. lcuthi-tec
;icrEwntrry 1'.r2r :'r- ;3A-. ,.}v na ltiorl-
nrK of rA 1nr- t:-ry ; htolr ..
to '."int up rny an. all :xiatinf7 ptrocl'au& :in.
aake neoeserary rotea-vneltionc for their lt--
.:L.2u3ating. Thn16 E -ne by nhi.e Lh ororth of C
rn- irl.- sr-' deteirminao ia eviluAtinn. :v'.Kluwttisn &s
iac?".arj.xt' which ^deqr. 1 -ith the nrnosmot in -*nd rf-'d-j1iwe of
US3aWFI.Y i-l02.o t; ncortion s e.r Is' ool.
syctcm .sLtch rninlul.c ri3e on through iIt Is CsnCl2.1ice
- he p^ -:^t :- -.T, in a5.- c, S3.
t i-s .sywy; k to ftundnt- o: to t ./ ;t X
t;..ct, ;;ilto In tSri tzusy t1 nyI-rcny-iu, u- r' .r o
* :- *8a 1J Ath hiaw. i-?'. iuq-,.. work,
71M r; k .i. !J'.-L I 't the 3t -' .C. cir
*.Y .-. bn by t:..tr I !. n..
JZ 3j, 7oia'- 1i r'- 'nrz !a*, *u' -'r.n"n Ir
Significance of the problem. The value of this study
cannot be measured in dollars and cents but its significance
is manifested by the way it affects the lives of boys and
girls. An evaluation points up the weaknesses and strengths
in a school program, thereby saving time in the education of
boys and girls; it improves instruction; it points up the
necessity for teachers to know and study individual differences.
This study will be presented to the schools under con-
sideration so that it may be used as a guide in making im-
provements where improvements are necessary in the school's
This study will be divided into the following areas:
II. Related Literature
III. Compiling and Organisation of Materials
V. Recommendations and Conclusions
.any state departments of education, county boards of
public instruction, state educational associations, regional
study groups, the National Education Association and its af-
filiates, and other educational societies have made and are
making extensive evaluative study of the elementary school
and particularly its curricula.
Literature treating evaluation of the elementary school
is abundant. Literature developed from actual studies, how-
ever, is not very easily secured by those individuals who are
participants, or who are not working in the immediate situ-
ation where these studies were made. To make theme of the
paragraph clear, the following information is listed:
1. State Department of Education, Columbus, Ohio
"Your request for publications of this De-
partment has been received. Our supply is too
limited to permit us to comply with your request."
R. M. Garrison
Ohio State Department of
2. Utah State Department of Public Instruction
"This will acknowledge your order for an in-
strument for evaluation of elementary school
practices in Utah which we are unable to complete
for reason it is out of print.*
3. The University of the State of ;ow York
aThe publication you requested can not be
sent for t.e reason Ele::entary School Inventory
is out of print."
Charles Fe Probes, Chief
Bureau of Publications
4. State Department of Education
3altimore 1,, Laryland
Rwe have your letter of August 22, 1955 rc-
questin. a copy of our bulletin entitled, "Some
Suggested Jriteria for Evaluating :iarylandta
Public School Proramr" and are very sorry we
must tell you that this publication is now out
Helen D. Oeorge
5. Virginia State Department of Education
"I am very sorry to say that we do not
havie any Cpies of Lookian At Our ESloentary
School for distribution. The supply of this
public e. ion hab been coaplotely exhausted."
Very truly yours,
Secretary to Ray E. Reid
of Public Instruction
The above listed communications with many other un-
listed materials are placed in this study to acquaint the
reader with the problem one confronts when one atteefts to
secure literature that is directly related to evaluation of
the elementary school or to an elementary school system.
Through continuous efforts soe instruments for ac-
creditation and evaluation were secured: Standards for
Accreditation of Florida Schools, and Work Sheet for Stand-
ardisation of Oregon Elementary Schools. Instruments re-
ceived for evaluating the elementary school are as follows:
1. The Elementary School Self Evaluation is an
instrument for evaluating the elementary school
in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. This evalu-
ating device was prepared in the light of the
philosophy which state that "the cuLrriculum is
as broad as life itself and is not limited to
textbook memorisation. Any school experiences
that will tend to promote the all around growth
of the child will be considered a part of the
Elementary school evaluation includes an extensive
amount of information. Thus, it is here stated that
The ultimate status of the elementary schools of
Pennsylvania nay well be determined by how effectively
each school and district in the Commonwealth seeks
and find solutions to its own problems as we all co-
operate in this program to improve 6ur sch6ols.-
The material in this instrument of evaluation is di-
vided into: (i) introduction, (2) school personnel, (3) A
good school program keeps pace with a good curriculum, and
(4) a good school is a connunity school.
Paul W. Bixby, Elementr School Evaluation, Bulletin
232A, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, April, 1948, p. 2.
Ibid, pp. 3-7-
An Aid in Self-Evaluation of the Elementary School
is an instrument developed to evaluate the elementary
schools of North Carolina. It includes many of the features
of the elementary school self-evaluation described above.
The questions which are answered by yes or no are divided
into the following major groups:
1. Building and Equlpment
2. Instructional Supplies
3. Planning the Curriculum
4. Healthful Living
5. Fundamental Skills
6. Creative Activities
7. Social Learning
S. Adaptation of the Curriculum to Individual Ueeds
9. The Community and the School
10. The Teacher and the School
Guide for Study of the Elementary School is an instru-
'ant of evaluation prepared by the Department of Education of
the State of Arkansas, 1954-1955. It is intended to serve
as a basis for faculty study of the whole school program, as
it concerns the pupil, with co-operative planning for im-
State Department of Public Instruction. An Aid in
Self-Evaluation of the Elementary School. Raleigh7, TI C-
=9:j ^'1. ^ pp. ^,
The program is divided into the following sections:
1. Philosophy of the school as it concerns the
2. Instructional program as it meets the needs of
3. Reports and accounting records as they concern
4. Functional health program as it concerns the
5. The teacher.
The Arkansas instrument for evaluating the elementary
school is organized in many respects like the preceding in-
struments. It makes special provision for the individual
school set-up, the individual teacher, parents, and other
A caption from the Guide states: *School people who
are interested In extending public interest and knowledge
of the school program have suggested that parents and other
groups should be brought in to help in the study of the
school. The use of the Guide offers an opportunity for
parsons in the community to participate in an organized study.
While some items in the present edition may be directed at
professionally trained personnel, they should have meaning
for all those people who are concerned with improving our
State Departamnt of Education, Guide for g y f the
marSool. Little Rock, Arkansas. 1 55 pp. 1-2.
The state of New Jersey developed a Try Out Edition,
Self-valuation in the Elemaetary School. It is a joint
project of Elementary Classroom Teachers Association end
Elementary School Principals Association. The bulletin
contains five divisions the Curriculum, the Community
Personnel, Organisation and Finance, and the School Plant.
Its purpose is to evaluate, but evaluation here emphasizes
growth of the child as it is related to his subjects. At
the same time, there is no provision made for checking
information about evaluation, the school, or the child.
These make thick instrument of measurement decidedly
different from the ones preceding it,
State Department of Education. Self-Evaution in
the Elementary School, Trenton, New Jersey. 1 pp. 56.
II RELATED LITERATURE
Evaluating an elementary school program with emphasis
on its curriculum calls for a decided consideration of
literature in the area of the elementary school. The litera-
ture in the area of evaluation of the elementary school is
both abundant and fascinating.
One encounters little opposition in saying that evalu-
ation is a virgin area and when evaluation is applied to the
elementary school that noble group of elementary teachers
find joy and fascination in making the literature of evalu-
ation applicable to the needs of boys and girls.
What is evaluation? The term evaluation is fre-
quently used loosely. Pseudo-educators do make a habit of
using educational terms incorrectly. The same situation
is true of evaluation. Many teachers resort to the use of
the word evaluation with very little knowledge of its meaning.
Shall evaluation be thought of simply as the use of tests
or mus t it be known as a kind of measurement? "It is well to
remember that the beginning of wisdom is found in calling
things by their right names.* Shane and '%cSwain use the term
evaluation to be applied thus: (1) Evaluation is the appli-
cation of value to a problem. (2) Evaluation is a synonym
for measurement. (3) Evaluation is a label for processes in
gauging teaching competence. (4) Evaluation is the appraisal
of curriculum practices and educational resources. (5)
Evaluation is concerned with the study of the status of,
or changes in, children's behavior.
Shane and 8 nain's concepts of evaluation are* (1)
Evaluation in the elementary education field is a continuous
process of inquiry, based upon criteria. (2) It is a process
within the child as a result of which he responds to the pay-
chological interpretations he makes of the school-comunity
environment about hiM."
Among teachers, the same situation Is true of evalu-
ation. ?Mny teachers resort to the same use of the tern
with very little knowledge of its meaning.
Reavis defines evaluation as Othe process by which
one finds out bow far the objectives of the eshool program
are being realized.'
Literature on the evaluation of the elementary school
places emphasis on evaluation as a process of determining
to what extent the objectives are realized by the program of
curriculum and instruction. Educational objectives are con-
corned with the behavior patterns of children. Evaluation,
therefore, is the means which determine the extent to which
Harold 0. Shane and B. T. Moamain, lu ton gAg the
Sleentarr Curriculum. New Terkt Henry Holit "dMpan 53,
William C. Reavisadmniistering the Elementar Schoo.
New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., Septembering, 1955, pp. 47-48.
changes in theme behavior pattern are actually taking place.
If evaluation determine the obuasne in the behavir pattern
of boys and gilA, evaluation mset be continuous. Is the
first place, in evaluatiag a cPrrieulu, a a hool, or a school
yste you must include mo tbh e aattwt to appraise
that situatisa. .a the second place, if evaluation asl t
appraise the behavior of atudats, it umt coneern itself
with the changes foad nl the behavior patterns of children,
hatt are the purposes of evaluating our curriculvm
Whether the group or iuividaal it evaluating the school or
the school's currienlum, father and m at eQaial ials
must be considered. Step two i an attempt to point out the
purpose for evaluating the curriculum
1. The purpose of emricalm isaprovaemt is to
appraae the quality o the activities carried
on within the ~ urrieuli with emphasis on
pupils' growth and achievement
2. The curriulum should be the growth of the
3. CUrrielm Slapmoeesmot mat be a project of
aamunity, teehers and Upils.
4. To obtain the greater results evaluation require
rfthe pia tin of good methods and eaellsent
$* An important function of evaluating the curriculum
is its ceoantat eveoltiounry poeas by seaun of
6, The guelity of evaluation is determined by the
quality of its leadifrahip.
7. Curriculum improvement must be purposeful and
promising to teachers.
&. The outcome from scientific research should be
readily accepted d and made a part of the curri-
9. One purpose of the curriculum is to help the
child. Therefore, learning activities must be
selected with consideration for the child and
his relationship to the community.
10. The curriculum should be sufficiently flexible
so as to permit each teacher to plan for her
particular classroom problems and environment.
11. Continuous learnin- experiences must be planned
for the whole child, including his developmental
level, readiness, and interests.
12. The final purpose of the curriculum is that it
should be constructed to include differentiated
teaching and learning.
There sl no attempt here to restate issues but
purposes like the three issues below are worthy of some
consideration. *Action" states that the specific purposes
of evaluation may be listed as follows:
1. The most important purpose of evaluation is
to identify strengths and weaknesses in the
Harold 6. Shane and Others.- Evaluation of thle lemen-
tafa Curriculu,- New Yorks Henry Holt & Bpany7,1953, p. 61-63.
Murray J. Lee and Doris Mae Lee. Cl d Ri
Curriculum, New York: D. Appleton-Century Co, 194- -ppl3-173.
American Association of School Administrators, N. K. A.
American School Curriculum. Thirty-First Yearbook, Washington,
D. C.: 19T, pp. 82-83.
2. The second purpose of evaluation is to providE
information hasic to effective guidance of
3. The third purpose of evaluation Isto have a
second basis for public~ relations.-
It goes without saying, that the start int point oJ'
an evaluation is the philosophy. Literature concerned with
evaluation devotes much tire and space to thi. .hiloophy.
?rany authors d sagree on some points in the philosophy as
it is related to the evaluation of the elementary school
and its curriculum. They disagree on the :iet.hod of poinitinp,
.p the philosophy as a stated issue broken down into snall'r
iHsses. They disagree on the unstated philosophy as far as
the values deriving from the philosophy are concerned. 'BLt,
there is a consensus of opinion amnon~;C educator> that a phi-
losophy is essential in all fields especially in the field o,
education, and its various branches, particularly evaluation.
It is stated that a sound philosophy is the starting point
of a sood school.
MVetropolitan Detroit Bureau of Co-operative School
Studies. Action. Evaluation What? W'hy? :!ow? Vol. IV,
i:. 1, December, 1950, p. 2.
shats are the approaches in developing a philosophy?
First, It is essential to know what te philozonhy Is.
A philosophy is an organized system of thought from which
vqlu~s endl outoomc q in eduoa Lon are derived. It may be
tht lionkinae definlttio for philosophy meet the apnrov&l
of the reader more satisfnotortly than the Dhilosophy abovee
7;vn by the writer, "A thiloscohy is a sot of orititcied
vplue-- In life so organized as to facilitate mskin3 intelli-
:.snt decsllons s ft policy or conduct whenever there is a
chance oi values.*10
itlh the above stated d;.finition A mindr, the sonpe
and inolusivenes? otf the nhilnonohy o.nnot be relegated to
a nl~ce cf inrI;nlfio-t *cc In evr.lunting a school or an L-Jla-
oational ycstew. Iw runr:ecntal ot..F in I*'l.irdnf &n
e', lu tion are epsentia3.
1. Dt-v-lonin., -. sound nhiloaophy of education from
which gulden Rnd obj e.tivtrn of the eductiLonal
2, Study all T-hases of the philosophy so thUt tth
Program may b e builtS suf loLently flexible to 11
meet the experiences end needs of boys and glrls.
In the words of Hopkins, the oharaoterietics of a
gnod rnhilosonhy Pre at-ttd:
Thotss L. Hookina, jfIterC-gti TSh flaQoorSti
ropo r o. octSo n Mnpeao10u2etts: t. C. Hef&th and Coramany,
11e ore Q. rite, P IrInonlal At c New York:
ainn Y-nd Coarprny, 1941. pl; .
1, That the values or beliefs should be subjected
to careful r.:t;tiny and crI'cti.cism' so ai t
make sure that they represent the beat thinking
of which the individual is capable at that tiiu.
2. That these values held in any area of life shou.'ld
not be isolated and unrelated but should be defi-
nitely organized into a unity or working whole
better to facilitate use whenever occasion demands.
3. The function of the philosophy is to enable the
individual better to make intelligent decisioa;-
whenever we must weigh values n order to de-
temine a choice of behavior.
'iavinc discussed the philosophy, its definitio',
function, fundamentall steps and the characteristics, l.et u1
take a further look at the philosophy and its relationship
to a pro:rLMr, that is being evaluated. Everything. '-onn rFteri
with an evalu-ation -ro's- ot.t of tht. philosophy. Thu qual ty
of evaluation depends upon the efficiency of thu principal uo
Ihe c&airmzan of the evaluating group, his ability to work
with his teachers, the co-operation oltalned fro-i: t~he oomurty
and its people in effecting an evaluative progra-.-
Another unique feature of the philosophy is that it
may be bro-ken down into assumptions and these are helpful in
devulopin,-: the outc'rte of evaluation. Some educational as-
1. ;tukcation is a process of cihanurin. tsie behavior
patterns of people.
'-homas L. !op! ins, Interactlion--The Deai:crat r Process,
oston, `aasaaEcusetts L D. C. Ilea.. a7i- Company, -7-17, p3 l.,
'The kinds r f chktng s in behavior -trttern.i in
human being whichL the school seek to bring
about arc it, eOduc.tional objectives.
3. An educational nro~ram is annraieed by finding
out how far the objective e of the vrogrsm are
actually bcing realized.
70. The way in w-hidh the student org~nlzes hi, be-
havior patterns is an important aspect to be
fapT. ra sed.
5, ~Methode of evaluation that include any dicloe
!'ioh 1reovides v-'i1- ev-vience rc;'Lrdin. tle
nrr,-rs ,:- of st adentr, towfrc' :'dLacftion..al ob-
J:ctLivL-:.' 6 :Lre '.. r .-"-ri uT:- rte.
*. Tbhe -rtict'tlntion of tC:- f.rE, r.urilv:, .cnd
pes'entG in the srocenBs. of evaluation is crer
tl-3 to deriv. the ry4wimum vi rues frIcv a m-;:-n av-j
.ith i.th advent rf rrogre -.':ve education the .:ri-
.e'tion of the curriculum hae undergone tremendous chanBre.
In f.-at, the planners nf the ele~ent:ry ashool curriculum
irrve accepteC ts ofhallun:- C-'odi by s-ociety. Ter'tfinre,
th,;y h&vc concluded that the currioalu of the elementary
acnoi L; iot the textbook, the units, or any body of infor-
m.tlon. Neither sh13 f the curriculum be thought of no -.ny
irit-n !ar~ter !'il -,wnt from the office of thie 5.,tserinttndent
or' the. utitr or, Under no circu stnece can the ouxrIlo ,jum
be conoeived as thte ooures of atuly, a unit of work, or .-ny
mSte~rl:) ~written in book.. The Educatinas Polioliw' Gsomit ion
states that the elementary school curriculum consists of
those experiences which the child has at school or under
Why should we evaluate the curriculum?
The Commission on Research and Service answers this
question adequately in its statement: Why evaluate the
school? A continuous evaluation of the total school program
is basic to a well-planned and dynamic program in a society
which is constantly changing. A school which might have
been considered adequate in the past is probably inadequate
tomorrow. Good is, after all, only a relative term. Since
this is true, school personnel, parents, pupils and others
should be interested in their school program.
They should make constant studies of the effective-
ness of their school and its curriculum in terms of accepted
values and purposes.
Evaluation of the curriculumtherefore, is more than
a measurement. It includes: (1) stating values and pur-
poses in terms of the needs of individuals and the group,
the community, and an ever-changing society, (2) interpreting
the evidences gathered, (3) securing evidence that these
values and purposes are being realized, (4) redefining values,
setting up new purposes and planning new practices in terms
NEA, Educational Policies Commission, Education for all
American Children. Washington, D. C, 1951. 99.
of the modified purposes.
Evaluation of the elementary school curriculum, ac-
cording to Caswell, is acceptable because the curriculum
in our elementary schools will determine the outcome of the
goals achieved. If the curriculum is well-planned, the high
aims in education are realized and the confidence and sup-
port of society are justified. If the curriculum is poorly
organized the children suffer, and, of course, society
suffers. Thus, evaluation of the curriculum becomes a po-
tent force in directing the attention of the people to the
inconsistencies, weakness, and needed improvement in the
What Are The Patterns Of Curriculum Used In
Our Elementary School?
There are many kinds of curricula patterns used in
American elementary schools. Some authors give a list of
about twelve patterns of curricula. The American School
Curriculum Thirty-First Yearbook points out that the
observation of the school practices give some clues or
Commission on research and Service, Evaluating the
Elementary School, Atlanta, Georgia: Southern Association's
Co-operative Study in Elementary Education, 1951, p. 51.
Hollis L. Caswell and Wellesly Forshay. Education
in the Elementary School. Chicago: American 3ook Corpany,
T SU7 p. 226.
trends that may assist in analyzing the many curriculum
plans that are found. Four central patterns seem to be
1. The Subject Curriculum
2. The Broad-field Curriculum
3. The Core Curriculum
4. The Experience Curriculum
Gwynn gives five types of curriculum approach Sn
his discussion on curriculum building in the elementary
school. In the struggle for curriculum revision, many
different approaches have been used more or less success-
fully, five types appear to have been developed far enough
to be described and studied.
1. The textbook approach
2. Curriculum revision based on subjectt matter or
subjet.- area tuits
3. The activity or fusion approach
4. The plan for centers of interest with scope
5. The experience curriculum approach.
Commission On American School Curriculum-Thirty-
First Yearbook. Washington, D. C., 1953. p. 58.
J. Minor Gwynn, Curriculum Principles and Social
Trends. New York: The cMWillan Company, U3. pp. 284-3
It should be made clear that if the curriculum must
be evaluated, the philosophy which is set up by the school
should be the source around which the curriculum is built.
The beliefs, values, and purposes of education should be
clearly seen and understood in every and all developmental
phases of the curriculum.
The Commission on American School Curriculum developed
the following purposes for education in the elementary school
from its philosophy of education.
1. That the purpose of education in the United States
of America is the development of each individual
for the fullest participation in the American
democratic way of life.
2. That universal free education must be made avail-
able by and to all people in the interests of
world understanding, citizenship, and peace.
3. That the American democratic way of life must be
4. That the school program should emphasize the worth
and dignity of all essential work.
5. That the quality of education will be determined
principally by the persons who teach.
6. That the structure of the American school systems
should be adaptable enough to meet the educational
needs of a changing society.
7. That the total educational experience of each in-
dividual must be designated to contribute to the
development of effective ethical character.
8. That spiritual, social, civic, economic and voca-
tional competencies are as important as academic
Conmmsalon On American School C;Arriculum, 2p.,. .Lst, p. .
This author placed the purposes of education created
by the Commission immediately following the types and pat-
terns of the curriculum so that the reader may comprehend
the interwoven position the philosophy has in the curriculum.
Cur discourse listed the following topics of impor-
1. The curriculum defined
2. The significance of the philosophy in the curri-
3. The kinds of curricula
4. The purposes or values of elementary education
which are a part of the philosophy and must be
interwoven throughout any and all continuous de-
velopmental phases of curricula.
It is interesting to look into the developmental
phases of these curricula; to show how they are developing;
to show how the philosophy is made a part of each curriculum.
I TIE TEXTBOOK APPROAC.I
The textbook approach to the curriculum is our first
attempt at curriculum development. It is the most widely
used form of curriculum building procedure in elementary and
secondary education. Gwynn says, that "basic to the text.-
book approach is the idea that the textbook is the indespen-
sable tool around which most teaching should center; hence,
this method is comparatively easy of application and does not
require extended study and careful work in evaluating the
outcomes of new procedures."
To tywev this foeal type of Cwurieol the
following procedure are frequently used$
First, a briees and fu llr ady of the estratn
utbjecet-mattr ares ad the taet in urs. Seed, the
onclulton frn this rart that the rtexbooke n se ern
be replaced by batter oas, thoe h ar b oth re up-to-date
and re adapted o effective w by the teacher and by
the childr4at d third, the adoptia o o new teat or serite
of taxt to replace the old In order to obtain better results
Cmsitered to its entirety, the textbook approach is
connected with curricula cbhagMe on the elemfentary school
level, but it t not to be placed Ji the sam clrms ith
other types. It doe not belong in the clam of other
1. It does not inovve a real study on the basid
of adequate criteria.
2. It does ait Iawlw v d eqfn amftesl by Sthi
t*a rsehr Ow mA thmO aSuid a teds.
3. There are as titerls to determae at exptriences
el activities are valuable for children.
4. That the extbook aproatch plaes ore ey am
upon the a*tjet-mat r tha upo a the l.A
Owyvan I.uQ I. 285-286.
Teachers in elementary and secondary education have
developed a firm belief in the new philosophies of edu-
cation. Therfore, whenever adequate educational leadership
is made known in the schools, teachers are prepared to move
forward for a progressive educational program. The ele-
nentary school teachers are dissatisfied with the limited
vision and narrow program of the traditional school and
its formal curriculum. However, we cannot forget the great
number of teachers who shrink from necessity of evaluating
and perhaps, modifying their habitual procedures.
II CURRICULUM RLVISION 3ASED ON SUBJECT 7M'ATTER OR
SUBJECT AREA UNTIT
It is frequently pointed out that most of our new
curriculum undertakings had or have their origin in the
subject area or the area of the units. Gwynn says that
Because of bewilderment and pressure from
school authorities the teacher decides to stick
to the textbook. ln;pite of the fact that he
wil es to emphasize che material along lines which
are more compatible with the interests, natural ex-
periences and activities, and needs of his pupils.
Revision or enrichment of this subject matter curri-
culum may take the following form:
John A. HIockett and E. W. Jacobsen, modern Practices
in the Elementary School. Boston: Ginn and Company, 1943.
pp. 9-10. "
1. Develop a study program from a textbook.
2. Developing units from the textbook guided
and directed by the teacher.
3. Develop a program from the textbook suggested
by the children, but which is wholly controlled
by the teacher.
The curriculum approach, based on subject matter or
subject area units, generally contributes more to the growth
of the teacher than it does to the growth of the child.
Gwynn states that this type of curriculum is excellent for
those teachers who are afraid to break away from the formal
III ACTIVITY OR FUSION APPROACH
The activity or fusion approach to curriculum de-
velopv-ent is generally thought of as the third major
evolutionary stop in curriculum development. In this new
approach educators were concerned with the varied interest
of the group. !iel states that educators noted the urgent
need to cope with the already crystallized idea of caring
for the varied interests of the group. That many of the
experiments carried on were so successful that numbers of
other educators became convinced that here was something
J. Minor wynn, Curriculum Principles and Social
Trends. New York: The M.'lc.iian Con~panIy,~ pUp. -27-,
they :,ht!ild be trying out in their own schools.
For the sake of caerity, activity or fusion ap-
nrreinh Is definedr as e distinctly evolutionary ourriouli~
-.-ar0- in i the xo.rl-. Mcrec bF.sio stllE, is the relation of
thi Indivl tual to the funatlon of the group Can the child
Crm-,-, ini, d.noe? CAn he construct anything? Is he in-
t. r ~-eT in the kindt.s of animailf in the forest of Africa or
is 1- te '.tnCr.-r'y c:*rt on th.. isr- ct- in. th- .v'.r.l-.:;:ec. *of
.o: l ? t ev.r interefL-., l'- i cr ability th-,; chi "d
n'. er':-ec3, hu i' a finotli-nin- r;rn rt of L nt .ionln.; -''
.-Ic?, is included in the activity or fusion curriculum.
Iht activity-fusion annroaoh intradueed a new era
in r- aEo ,b3rucantionfl cye It unhered nclnce in c6 .;:l
.it. t. euoatiaon. In ourriculums oonstruction, eduoators
Incudoated those factors which were essential to curriculum
..:r.vP;l, -.-nt. fly thnu.ht about interest, abilities,
eracoi,=, r;-te nf learnilnr diffe.rencef In growth n--; the
, y "rowthi affects learnin.. aut the Thilrty-Firot YLar-
book cautions that there are dilemnas -hdch curriculumm con-
-',t lcti:.-n must guard against. In developing a curriculum
eduo .,ore must gear their program to n rovlde for ~th
First, "One of thef perennial obligations of' the
3c,.'-f' in fny coclety I; to re~eIrve -rnO"_, tr.-'nmilt
22Al i e M4el, Ip, 19 r;ia Q I. Nu Ynrk:
Aril<-ton-Gentury-Crofta, Irnc., 19L ".
to the next generation the gains in knowledge and
skills which the race has achieved up to the pres-
ent time. This is no static function rather, it
is preserving the means of growth.*
Second, "Curriculum development must consider the
individual differences in our society. At the
same time, equal educational opportunities must be
provided for all children."
A third major dilemma for the curriculum maker is
"how to provide a curriculum which meets the de-
mands for scientific knowledge in various fields
of knowledge and also for the development of de-
sirable personal characteristics.*
IV TIE PLAN FOR CENTER OF INTEREST WITH SCOPE AND SEQ UECE
Desirable is the word of praise applied to the unit
approach with activities and large "centers of interests,*
by school systems which have been working on curriculum re-
vision. But says Gwynn, teachers and administrators must
guard against duplication of subjects and secondly, a waste
of time. To avoid this condition, the unit must be well
Commission On American School Curriculum. American
School Curriculum, Thirty-First Yearbook, Washington, D. Cc
1T9537 pp. 50-51.
planned in scope and sequence.
The plan for center of interest with scope and se-
quence presents an interesting picture. It will be
equally interesting to discover the means to care for those
children who failed to learn sufficiently well in a class.
It might be wise here to note an issue in this curriculum
which considers that scope and sequence are of utmost im-
portance. Duplication is a waste of time, "yet we say
teach the child where we find him.*
Santa Barbara, Cal ifornia county school system de-
veloped a good example of scope and sequence. The program,
richh is core, includes nine basic functions of human
living as the scope of the curriculum for all grades:
1. Developing, conserving and utilising human resources
2. Developing, conserving and utilizing non-human
3. Producing, distributing and consuming goods
6. Recreating and playing
7, Expressing and satisfying spiritual and aesthe-
S. Organizing and governing
9. Providing education
Gwynn, 2. ciLt., p. 291.
V T'I: EXPERIENCE CLURICUL-' APPROACUI
Caswell does not think well of the term experience
curriculum. lie made a contrast in which he points out that
there is experience in the subject curriculum, and there
is subject natter in the experience curriculum. He further
advocates that "every curriculum involves experience, and
all experience involves subject natter,"
Gv.ynn takes an interesting stand for the experience
curriculum. He states that "much more progress witt the
experience' approach has been made in the elementary school
than in the secondary school.*
The experience approach to the curriculunA: involves
a series of steps.
Step one involves the pupils own choice of an
activity or area of interest on which he desires
Step two takes place when the child confers w-th
the teacher and tells him what he wants to do.
The thirO step is an exploration by the child of
the rnatrials he will need.
: ollis L. Caswell. Education in the Elocre ar
School. ;ew York: American Book Comrpay, 5~ p. Z 9.
In the fourth step the pupil 'fuses' his ex-
periences and activities, intellectual and
otherwise, into the acquisition and mastery
of his chosen area of interest.
Gwynn believes that the experience curriculum is
the closest approach to individual instruction which has
yet evolved; it should be the ideal to be worked for by
every teacher. But, says he, there are two obstacles to
its universal adaptation on all levels;
I. Large classes limit the time a teacher can
devote to each pupil.
2. The specialized type of training teachers re-
ceive causes them to be ill-prepared for
teaching in the experience curriculum.
Gwynna, g~.. cit., pp. 293-294.
ORGANIZATION OF MATERIAL
In evaluating the educational program of the Bonner
Elementary School, Daytona Beach, Florida, Rigby Elemen-
tary School, Ormond Beach, Florida, and South Street Ele-
mentary School, Daytona Beach, Florida, it is significant
that attention is given to every phase of the school pro-
gram in order that each area be written up and evaluated.
The real significance of evaluation refers
to the process of determining the extent to which
the elementary school is attaining the goals for-
mulated by the faculty and parents. It is a
process of inquiry based upon criteria co-operatively
prepared, and concerned with the subjects stud
interpretation, and guidance of socially desirable
changes in the developmental behavior of children.
Another interpretation of evaluation is described
Evaluation is a scientific method used in de-
termining what elementary schools can do effec-
tively to provide a curriculum of meaningful
living and learning that insures for each child
maxiaum development through daily experiencing,
and also adequate preparation through present
living for duties ultimately inherited in adult
Tantamount in the curriculum of any school is the
philosophy of the school, written or unwritten. The one
Harold 0. Shane, Evluation and the Elementary
School. New York: Henry Holt and Companyi, 1951, pp. 4-5
philosophy obtained for this study came from the Bonner
Elementary School, Daytona, Beach, Florida. The Bonner
Elementary School philosophy states:
Our philosophy is to enrich the daily proam
in child guidance, worthwhile activities, real
life experiences, instruction and teaching aids
that they will help each child enrolled in our
school center to progress at his ow rate of
speed; and develop into the best individual of
which he is capable of becoming physically
morally, mentally, socially, and spiritually.
As stated above, the philosophy hold a place of
prominence in the school's program. All other factors
are the outgrowth therefrom. In the light of this philoso-
phy, the characteristic of a good elementary school can
be applicable to the Bonner Elementary School, Daytona
Beach, Florida. McGaughy states that *the implications of
these characteristics of a good elementary school will
serve in a large part, as basis for proposals as to the
direction in which the elementary school must move if it
is to become an improved human institution better adapted
to serve the needs of youths today and of the American
society of the future.*
These four characteristics of a good elementary
school, as presented by MeGaughy, are listed in the following
manner: First, pupils are persons. This idea is one which
has been so well promoted by Kilpatrick. It emphasizes
respect for personality. Second, each child differs from
every other child. The recognition of this characteristic
war poaulari2ed by Thorndike. Third, each school activity
hF.e reel valuc for the individual here and now. Fourth,
tech oiilX is a social b6ing and live. In a changing stolety.28
Slnue the characteristics of a good e3emenntry abbool
have been stated, attention will nov be directed to th
objectives of the school under oonnideration and the relation-
ei:l- to its philocorhy.
i-e folloing, are objectives of the Bonner La eantary
1. ~o always reooagnie and regPrd the lidlviiual
differences, habits, and abilities found in
2. To Intczrote book knowledge witt the child's
common everyday erprrienoes.
3. To develop a olocer relationship between the
home, school and the ooammunity.
4. To encourage in nupill a sense of annreciatlion
for the beautiful.
:. o direct end Pdjutt the eriotionally diaturbedd
.T So hteln children learn t;h- fund'ament-l nk131a
not only In subject matter, but a1so teach
them in relratonnhinr to (sao other..
i7 To recognize the ftot tiant each ohij3 i:n a
"aoclsil bcintc worthy of re-ec-t.
S. To teach pu.lls tn love and reReat the rights
of each other, end tno do utto his plnyrmtto as
he would hnvc thor.c "laymater do untn him.
-a~Oes R. Mc3auAoy, a e alu on *o 3oj o nlem, .tary
choo. New York Boba-Merril CoapPny, 1937, r. ..
In evaluating the objectives of the Bonner Elemen-
tary School one immediately comprehends their signifi-
cance. Their relationship to the schools philosophy is
unique. These objectives are important also because of
their relationship to the four characteristics of the good
elementary school, which were set up and popularized by
3uildinPg nd Eaqupment
The adequacy of the school plant is a feature of
great importance to both the health ad educational program
of children. A school functions best when equipment and
supplies are available and are used to promote instruction
and learning. The following is a description of the Bonner
1. The building is modern, part new and partly
2. The classrooms are adequate in sise.
3. The windows supply sufficient natural light.
4. There are adequate blinds at the windows.
5. There is space for all to work in the classroom.
6. This space does permit classes to be divided
7. 'Most classrooms are complete sanitary units with
adequate toilets and washing facilities.
8. Drinking water fountains are placed in all of
the new rooms.
9. Washing facilities and toilets are kept in a
10. There are three first-grade rooms with toilets.
There are also twenty-three general toilets in
the building which are used by 721 pupils from
the school population of 820. This gives an
average student population of 31*8 aiw use the
general toilets. By the State Deprtaent of
education standard, it is an excellent showing.
11. Each child haa his individual movoable desk.
12. Tables and desks are standard sise and height
for grade level.
13. There are sufficient chalkboards and bulletin
boards in each classroom.
14. The new classrooms have ample amount of shelves
for wraps and instructional supplies.
15. The building does meet the State and city fire
16. There are periodic fire drills and there are no
fire hazards in the rooms or building.
17. All rooms are heated adequately from a central
18. The school is located in a well-planned area with
sufficient playgrounds, trees, grass, flowers,
and adequate walks.
description of the Rigby Elementary School, Ormond Beach,
1. The building is a two-story stone structure of
the old type, but recently renovated.
2. The classrooms are not adequate in size.
3. There are adequate shades and blinds at the windows.
4. The windows do not supply sufficient natural
light. To meet this situation, teachers resort
5. The space in the classrooms does not permit one
to divide a class into groups.
6. The classrooms are net a complete sanitary unit,
7. There are no washing and drinking facilities in
8, Toilet facilities are inadequate.
9. Toilets are kept in a sanitary condition.
10. There are two general toilets in the building.
11. There are no rooms with toilets in them.
12. Bach child has his individual moveable modern desk.
13. The tables, chairs and desks are the correct
size and height.
14. Space for chalkboards and bulletin boards is
15. there is ample amount of space for lunches,
wraps, and classroom supplies.
16. There are periodic fire drills and there are no
fire hazards in the rooms or building.
17. The building is heated by individual room units,
and the rooms are heated adequately.
18. The school is not located in a well-planned
area, and there is not sufficient playground
area, but there are shrubs, trees, and flowers
which account for an abundance of shade.
19. There are no walks on the campus. The play area
is limited for an enrollment of 300 pupils.
Description of South Street Elementary School
The South Street Elementary School is a one story
brick construction which seets the State atadard from
every angle. It was built two years ago.
1. The building ti new and modern.
2. The classroom are adequate in sise.
3. The natural lighting is sufficient all day.
4. There are no shades and blinds at the window,
as the build was as designed and placed at
the right angle in order for the sun to never
ahine directly in the windows.
There is space for all to workl also the space
is szse for the cleas to be divided into groups.
6. The elasarem, washiig facilities, and toilets
area oeanplete anitary unit.
7. Drinking water is Ia each clasareom.
8. There are three grades (first graes) with toilets
in their rooms. PRere are two general toilets.
There are two tolleto shared between two rooms.
9. each child has his individual modern movable
desk or table with the correct size and height.
10. There are sufficient boards, chalkboards, and
bulletin boards in each room.
11. Each classrw has ample amount of shelves, space
for wraps, and classroom supplies.
12. The building meets the State and eity fire require-
13. Regular fire drills are not held.
14. There are no fire hazards in the building or class
IS. The rooms in t building are heated by a central
heating unit but the rams are not always heated
to the normal teperture tof 70o or obove.
16. The school is located in a well-planned area and
there are sufficient playground area, shrubs, grass,
flowers and sidewalks.
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It might be revealing to the reader to know that the
State provides funds for classroom instructional materials,
but many schools do not get these classroom instructional
materials. Miss M. Evelyn Bonner, Principal of the Bonner
Elementary School, stated that her school has always re-
ceived a very satisfactory amount of supplies. It may also
be news to some readers that there are many schools through-
out the State of Florida who get very little or no classroom
instructional materials. Funds for these materials are
According to the questionnaires, observation and per-
sonal experience, the Bonner Elementary School getg its
reasonable share of classroom instructional material. This
material goes a long way in improving instruction, giving
experience to the children, and creating situations that will
help children to be happy in their school environment.
Stratemeyer states that "physical facilities and in-
structional materials cannot be considered apart from teaching
and learning. They are service tools and their use helps to
determine the quality of learning."
Florence B. Stratemeyer and Others. Developing A
Curriculum for Modern Living. New York: Bureau of Pub ica-
tions, Teach-eris Ioege, Columbia University, 1947, p. 385.
Caswell makes the following observation: *A good
program can be developed only when physical facilities and
supplies are provided to meet the instructional needs as
It requires a great amount of courage and will
power for teachers to check questionnaires about adminie-
tration in their schools. To frequently the perspective
of rrinoipals is so limited that they would not permit
their teachers to answer questions from the questionnaire
which deals directly with the administration of the school
and particularly, with the principal. The principal and
teachers of Bonner Elementary School, Daytona Beach, florida,
expressed great interest in this study of their school's
The issues in the following tables are concerned
with evaluation of the administration of the schools pair
ticinating in this study.
30Hollis L. aswell and A. Wellesley Fashay.
Wuoatjo Ua the Elementary School, New York: American
Book Company, 1959, p. 60.
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0 +' .94 0o 0 4i
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t o 0 4E .B v W4 4. 3' V
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The curriculum of a good elementary school is planned
to meet the abilities, needs, and interests of the children
served. Consequently, the curriculum is evaluated to de-
termine if it is orientated in the social life of the com-
munity and must provide children experiences in all the
major areas of living.
The answers to questions regarding the curriculum are
formulated in Table IV. Thus, an evaluation of the curricula
of the Sonner Elementary School, Daytona Beach, Florida,
Rigby Elementary School, Ormond, Florida, and South Street
Elementary School, Daytona Beach, Florida, was done by the
media of questions the teachers answered.
H r ri
N cNwf L 4
N HH-O 0
M N Pt N
P -f I,
>H 0 g
wl 4i 4
)W. aE v
PE^e S b s
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a d >O
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0 0 0
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00 40 Q
pl .vdr I o-
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0 0 0 0 0 ,4
0 0 0 00r
0 0 0 0 r0
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0 0 0 0N
04 0 0 t
H N '. 94
0 b '
A? .0 $ *w 4
4 f t 0 9 f
a 4 a a
Much discussion has arisen within recent years rela-
tive to the curriculum in the elementary school. Books,
papers, and magazines have heralded the new creation, improve-
ment and revision of the curriculum. Some individuals have
described the curriculum with such qualities as miraculous
SBe that as it may, if the curriculum
function, there must be competent teachers who possess an
integrated personality, a philosophy of education,and prep-
aration which style them as an effective teacher.
Teachers must be capable of using the splendid quali-
ties in their personalities, and particularly their re-
sourcefulness so that organisation of the curriculum, the
fundamental skills of instruction and of learning may be
used as means to bring freedom to boys and girls.
The Commission on American School Curriculum makes
the fcrlowing evaluation of the important relation of the
teacher to an effective curriculum. At a given time, in
developing the curriculum for, and with a particular group
of children, the classroom teacher necessarily assumes a
highly creative role. He is confronted with the problem of
reconciling multiple factors. He wants his group to gain
certain knowledge, common understandings and attitudes, but
the group has varying degrees of readiness. He wants to make
learning meaningful for all, but each pupil has a difficult
combination of experiences from which to derive meaning in
A well planned curriculum covers all areas of the
child's life. This statement is not necessarily made to
point up the difference between the early conception of the
curriculum and present conception to which the school and
Healthful living is a definite part of our school
program and, therefore, it cannot be divorced Crom the
school curriculum. Realthful living represent living ex-
periences, social customs, patterns, mores, discipline and
the art of living in a democratic America where boys and
girls learn to play and grow in a free society.
N.EA., Awerican *hWaol CQrzhjaluama Tbirty-First
.earbook. American Association of School"Adminaitration,
120-Sixteenth Street, Washington, D. C., February, 1953,
-tm-f t N H0 0 -
r r> G
1 0- '*4
g- 0 l
109 w S
o 0 0
r4 O O 0
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0 0 0 0
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N 0 0 -4 o 0
0 0 o 0 0 0
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00 0 O0 o
0 0 1 0 toQ
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0 0 0 0 0
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0 0 *
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ies fr 0 A A
0 0 E 0
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ale i 4 44
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0t 5 tO* 4 4 1 0 V 4 20 a 5
'0 C- t Cs O N
rt V4 4 r N N N N
e4 o .
I e Q oH
t" *^ 4*
0 00 0 0
r H- 4 H 4 r
0 H-I O 0 H4
01 0 0 V r4
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e Is* r-(
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a *< s
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The final and most pertinent result of the curri-
culum and of instruction should be creative activities.
According to the tabulation or results of Table I, the
teachers of Bonner, Rigby, and South Street Elementary
Schools realize that the results of their work should
produce creativeness in boys and girls. There should be
complete freedom for children to express themselves. In
other words, here is an opportunity for boys and girls to
give vent to that greater urge In art, sculpture, music,
science, literature and other areas that will bring out
those creative abilities in them.
The work in this table can be evaluated further be-
cause the children are given rich experiences in songs,
dances, music, reading, science, art, poems, plays, and
composition. From these enriched experiences creative
thought and action must follow.
Children think and at some stage in their lives they
do create. Children are unlike the machine, the autoratona,
and the robots. The mechanisms do not think and therefore,
they cannot create. The product of the robot is designed
for him. Children do create, they think; therefore, they
add to the totality.
Hockett and Jacobsen give three significant phases
1, All thinking is creative.
a. A leap in the dark is a new venture.
b. The attitude of critical questioning
c. The sense of new problems
d. The suggestion of plausible hypotheses
e. The evaluation of evidence
f. Integration of data to suggest new conclusions
2. All true learning is creative.
a. The person who learns creates a new response
3. All significant behavior involve some creation.
a. Situations in life never repeat themselves.
b. There are always new elements and new re-
lationships in every situation that requires
some originality in response.
c. True education makes for creativeness.
The whole curriculum is geared to social learning,.
The questions listed in this area are desired, therefore,
to see how well the school, the curriculum, and the teachers
are planning to teach the habits, attitudes, and skills,
individual action, co-operative action and group action in
social learning. The general conclusion, as pointed out
John A. Hockett and E. W. Jacobsen. :odern Practices
l.t the Elementary School, New York: Ginn and Company, 1943,
in the chart, is very adequate both on the part of teacher
performance, school co-operation, and the general response
C a 0
O 4 .
;3 Q 0 0 $
- 0 4
04 H 04
4 4 3 3
NO 42 10
M 43 0 0 144
0 o WG 4
i i o. *
0 WO 0 -
.0 IV sa Va
Gk O O
O4 C; 0 S C -#
0 r4 01
43 Wr S 0- J
to 14 0.-
0 0 B.01
S4> oi3 I
3 40 00
0 3 0 n
0 00 D
4> i Q 0 0.
4 0r C :
ll r N OP
o 6 a r-I
C k6 pq U
0 v4 CI
43 -ri ci
The id e nf ohildre'nt nccrl et the rereon A.hy the
curiofulum is set IA., reognikc&-.. nf4 c.fIu tted. CviL tr n*c
n'e ;-' o rn be c1mrct-rised as the Ior: ?(1 *-.r.- for ti: cl :..mntry
aahnor e.nc f-or our entire elemcntiry system.
A phi easophy Is te tenure out of kich thn' rJ.t-
tii a ^v-.Flue &ar dpe ivrd,. In Plannlnr ronr-, if the
alu:. s-re t u p do nnt use childrtmn'c n? i a. oritrl,
th' n the 4o1ol: hrohCral .t futile.
The fot33owing are rome need ;-:el.tc to ohl3r rnl
2. Physical wel bilng
2. Reatal and Cmotional health
2. Ecqud edOuctt'nafl or'rortuniteus
Clear,, orltial and creative thinking
<. Soclql and economic literacy
T. T-.- dov
Tht quetlionn nresented In Table XII are discua :1in
ti2Udrsn's needs thich are the oriteria Tor srSt r-hlc.s of
.educMriAn tK thus th a ontentse sev-lute theaselvea.,
-l -,I r4r-4
eWV V Oa
aslP 5 l sri o
-* -tP St
0 0 0
o %a V4
OMQ -* t4 0
* U L
** og a
<. 0 Q
The Comnunity and the. School
A good elementary school affords a program of in-
struction based on the problems, needs and the resources
of the community served.
The following practices and conditions are evidence
of these characteristics at Bonner, Rigby, =nd South Street
Harold Spears stated that: "The school is an integral
part of the community life, rather than a training institu-
tion set apart from that life. The school can spring grace-
fully from the active soil of the community, and its fruits
will return to enrich that soil."
According to the above conception, the act.s 1 .s a
train.;:, institution set up apart from the give-and-take
of community life, a sort of education reservoir that pipes
wonders into a child and lifeblood into a community.
Harold Spears. The Teacher and Curriculum Plannirn;.
!'ew York: Prentice-Hall o5Epany, 1955, pp._'36-37.
O O O O *
o 4 0 0
V-4 q o
0 0 0 0
N N N N *
m% 0 0 fII
#4 00 0
act' ^ r 0
T? f *
.Th Teacherf ad the School
The quality of the instructional program of the ele-
mentary school is a direct reflection of the ability, vision,
and reaourcefulness of the individual teacher. Hence, oppor-
tunities sat be afforded for continuous growth and develop-
ment of each teacher in the school. The following practice
and conditions are shown in Table IIV.
r4 4 r-4 r 4
*- r-l-l OO
O% 0% a 00
M N NM mr
No 0 HN0 o
8 N r
0 0 0
e- r-i -4
Ny 000 W
Nr f't #9
* +?o0 z
The material which constitutes this study ws ga-
thered by means of personal experiences, personal obser-
vations, related and current literature, interviews and
The evaluation movement began n 1895 with the
state of Minnesota. It took many years of convincing
that the lase of evaluation was important, but as educa-
tors ventured into the issue more and more schools took
on the idea, arn by 1944 the movement was nationwide.
Evaluation is an instrument which measures the
strengtbe or weaknesses of a school's program, thereby,
helping boys and girls
fany tfte depsrtmemte of eteatiea, oefay schebl
boards of public instruction,v ryional study groups, edu-
cational study groups, local pepws ad teachers clubs
are making cwnialve study ao their schools and especially
The philosophy of the school is its starting point,
with appropriate objectives that grow out of its philosophy.
With these in mind, the nets ofA boys and girls are met.
A philosophy is an organized system of thought from which
values and outcomes in education are derived.
Evaluation of the curriculum is more than a measure-
ment. It states values and purposes in terms of the needs
of the individuals and the group, the community, and an
everchanging society, it redefines values, it sets up new
purposes and it# most outstanding criteria in the opinion
of the writer, is the child. Throughout this study major
emphasis has been placed on children and their needs.
Upon evaluating Bonner, Rigby and South Street Ele-
mentary Schools, these facts were evident:
1. These schools have good buildings, new and reno-
vated, but the crowded condition is a growing
problem in all of these schools.
2. There is a reasonable share of facilities in
all of these schools ich have been supplied
7 or a period of years.
3. The administration of Bonner was rated good from
the questionnaires answered by the teachers;
Rigby, poor; South Street, fair* The figures
show further that rules, regulations and policies
affecting the operation of the South Street Ele-
mentary School are made by the administration.
la evaluatiag the curriculum of these schools, there
was unanimous opinion by the facttie~ involved that the
curriculums of these schools were organized to assist the
growth and development of these boys and girls, both in
and out of school.
Individual differenceL, eroupin developinUg B -
velopment of skills, creative learning, healthful living,
improved instructional method, opportunity to develop
social living are phases curriculum which must be fostered,
augmented, improved and taught asa means to bring improved
living to boys and girls in the elementary school.
The questionnaires contained one philosophy and ob-
jectives. This philosophy and objectives came from the
Bonner Elementary School. Rigby and South Street Slemn-
tary Schools did not give a philosophy or objectives.
a. Bonner Elementary School was renovated and an
extensive addition was made to the school. The
present improved building eeta the State building
and equipment standards in respect to lighting,
heating, toilet facilities, sanitary conditions,
seating, lunchroom and its facilities, spacious
auditorium, shades at windows, sidewalks, beauti-
fication of grounds, sufficient space in class-
rooms, and play area for 700 pupils.
b. The condition at the South Street Elementary
School presents a picture of a modern elementary
school in that it is a new building with all
modern equipment such as: individual toilets in
the three first grade rooms, individual drinking
fountains, work benches, storage space for ma-
terials, modern tables and chairs and right
size and height, and natural lighting all day.
The remaining three grades have use of the general
toilet facilities and there are drinking fountains, wash-up
bowls in each of these rooms. There are movable desks,
work benches, storage space for wraps, materials and books.
It does meet the State Department of Education and Building
c. The building at Rigby Elementary School has been
renovated, but the following conditions exist:
poor natural lighting, small classrooms, insuffi-
cient health facilities (toilets and wash bowls),
shortage of blackboards, bulletin board, storage
space, no sidewalks and the play area is inadequate
for 300 pupils.
There are, however, some commendable features about
Rigby Elementary School. There are movable desks which
which maeke it possible to have classroom activities
The ambles and chairs are the right sise and height.
There is ample space for storage of lunches, wraps, and
classroom supplies. The rooms are well heated with individual
heating units and there are periodic fire drills, and there
are no fire hazards.
All of these elementary schools have a reasonable supply
of instructional materials, such as supplementary books,
library books, dictionaries, papers with current events, cur-
sive guides in writing in grades 3-6, also manuscript guides
for grades 1-3. Duplicating facilities are available, pictures
related to classroom activities, suitable games for various
ages, adequate maps, globes, hammers, etc.
The following supplies are available in the three
a. crayons f. brushes
b. colored chalk g. newsprint
c. paints h. finger paint
d. clay for modeling i. cloth
e. paper 3. paste
These supplies are used throughout the year. The following
audio-visual aids supplies are available in these schools:
movie projectors, slide projectors, opaque projectors, radios,
record players, filmstrip projectors, flat pictures, tape
recorders, All the teachers cannot operate the movie pro-
jector. Eight teachers at Bonner Elementary, two at Rigby
and five at South Street Elementary School can operate the
movie projector. The above equipment meet the approval of
the State Department of Education on building and equipment.
7 Rules and regulations concerning these schools are
made in the following manner:
The tabulation shows that rules and regulations at
the Bonner Elementary School are made by the principal and
faculty members. At Rigby, they are made by the principal,
and at South Street the majority stated that rules and regu-
lations are made by the principal.
The professional relations situation between the
teachers and administration at these three schools were
rated as follows:
South Street Fair
The tabulation further show that the fair professional
conditions exist in Rigby and South Street because the prin-
cipals in these schools take upon themselves the liberty to
make all the rules and regulations, but at Donnor the faculty
and principal work together in saying what is to be done,
Thirteen faculty members from 3onner Elementary
stated that major issues should be taken to the faculty for
consideration, while three at Ri by stated that major issues
should be brought to the faculty; South Street Elecentary was
represented ty five hting in fetar.
All thr ee iCFools have proftestiol mettnls. A
o-,~.;ttce of terchere conduct tif nrotfeioael atletizg
:;t Aonner, whereas the nrincitr2s oonutact the meetl r at
Plgby and South Street Lleenatary Bchooln. Th* program
for the rofe sbti-lnl seetings at Sotner is v.rep arcd by a
wr-itte-. wyy-erea-s at the other Uea chrs1 thEe nrilnoiipVe2
wor'.wrte tfh-M pror-a Th- '-".anese aaeetin-gr, tre hlde
ser-rntecly ftrosm profr::ion'l imetin.c t 3onner ?t. r:it-y,
but they are Ast btld nsnritely at South sesart t tEltemta.s.
A cordial latlenfsh lp oxir0t io meetings at aonner;
fair at eAgby and ne etine at South Strect bea mntary
cEhool. he elew mntes o intner-.t !. ;rl tPtfnus;: rv 1t-;
in x~8tir .nl at 3Bnner cnd l south ,'trmt clfmentariry lcahoola
*hcrc s at F-lgby it dnor not.*
The faoultit:: Ore dlvi.ei into eo:nat:.iters at the
orr.tt.rz, 'igb'y antd Zoath Stre;t -lc.menatary s3hoo2l, &lni the
co.Isitt.' fin iain tire recnttc o&& tl hx -crotr- in all of
hf;r-; schoolo. Th-e rri'n1CiPsl' rcoeot the cotmaattse fldinc;
at n'.:*r ejnd rigby, but the :rinoi- Ios not r. vsc't the
cotmaitte' ftitinps at oauth Street p.cacnttry,
In seettnir Pst wonner, individual teacher': oefiortsu
n'1 ri-lniont are given coneidersti"n in meeting, butt -;hey
re not given oanilerf tilr at rigby ;-nf! rSouth Street.
The existing relationship of the school with the
community rates good with Bonner, poor with Rigby, and
fair with South Street.
Bonner Elementary, South Street Elementary and
Rigby Elementary Schools have active P.T.A's. The tabu-
lation shows that the P.T.A. at Bonner and Rigby Elementary
is an integral part of the school's program, whereas at
South Street it is used for convenience.
The welfare of teachers at the Bonner Elementary
is given consideration in regard to health, teachers' load,
number of hours teachers work, but at Rigby and South Street
Elementary Schools not much consideration is shown.
At Bonner, eight teachers stated that meetings hamper
class work, eight said that they do not hamper class works
five did not answer. At Rigby, it shown that four teachers
said that meetings hamper class work; one did not answer.
South Street reveals that meetings hamper class work. Each
school under consideration indicates that children benefit
little from these meetings.
The tabulation under curriculum planning shows that
the teachers at Bonner and Ribby participate in building the
curriculum, whereas the teachers at South Street participate
partially in the building of the curriculum. Bonner and
Rigby are represented by eight and one, respectively.
With resped t to pupil participation At curriculum plan-
nngo, South Street has no studiet participation.
Under community agencies (health, welfare) Donner
Elementary recognizes health and welfare agencies to parti-
cipate in currieTlua planniat h riby does have representa-
tion but South Street has no participation Croc other
Panel discussions, workshops, directed observation
and inter-visitation are techniques in curriculum planning.
Rigby and South Street do not be, these techniques.
Teachers at Bonner, Rigby and South Street stan-
tary Schools rmet as a school staff to plan and evaluate
the program of the school. Pupils in 3onter and South
Street lemntary Schools help plan thu day's work. a'iby
shows that two teachers said yes, one said no, and two did
Group evaluation of classroom activities is a prac-
ties in oer and Rigby; South Stet respondents reported
somc. All three schools stated in the tabulation that
emphasis is being placed on growth and development in the
onner, Rigby and South Street fElamentary Schools
show in the tabulation that provision is made In the curri-
culum for creative art, musec, time for uninterrupted acti-
vities library and free reading, group and individual work,
clubs, relaxation, safety education and physical education.
The following health habits are practiced in each of
the schools under consideration: washing hands before meals,
after play periods and after toileting. The lunch period is
a restful and pleasant experience for the pupils and tear
'thera. Good manners are recognized and practiced. They
execute the use of modulated voices and are polite in each
school. At Bonner and South Street Schools the type of meals
are balanced and well planned. At Rigby foods and meals are
not given proper consideration. Interesting and well-bal-
anced meals are provided at Bonner and South Street Elementary
Schools. Rigby does.not provide interesting and well-balanced
meals. The students eat proper food at Bonner and South Street
Schools. Rigby reported no. Benner and South Street are
free from the sale of candies, soft drinks and popcorn.
There are provisions made for supplemental feedings for those
who need it in the three schools.
Immediately after lunch there is a rest period pro-
vided in each school, but there are no pads, mats, etc.
for such. Regular health examinations are given in these
schools, each school make use of the results of these ex-
tepe aret taken to correot knon physical cefeets
A all three schools; also, paptls are taught prevetiont
and care for commn diseases.
Children remove wrops when Indoors, and there Is
a calm,. relaxed condition which prevail a In eaeh sool.
PrtolUl participrte in organized,, sperviaed group games
at Bonner-and Ptgby EVoaentary Sohoola, South Street
stated that punile r'-rely partlai late in ausrvieied games.
.re rcsm temperature lo normal In al. cof these sehoole.
Adequate ventiletion, lijttin, 'taing atrmnUement,
fliet aid asupclie, I he -ath room for health service an'.: :.ro-
vision for children who ome to school early or leavL. late
are rrovieie for A3 all of the schools under oonaider;-ttion
FetAdnese &otivitics and Utalra tLu L u of sril.l
a.re treAed In order to bring O re s lif experiencc
in otaCih of theae schools. T6zsto are uaed to dieteratie lev'li
of a.onlity and inOdivldua progress Ln planning aNvl idia
hA. student's work, The ability levels arTi oneir-tid in
teadhina saklls and the content Is suitsble for the lvntl
of the childrenn In these schools.
iaalziA Acltii ais
G der oreatlve activities each school provide satc
activities s a aoreative esxre-tion, liatening to musae;
they have rhythm bands, they create songs, dances; they
are given an opportunity to express themselves through
the media of art, construction activities are a part of
their curriculum, and children are encouraged to write
poems, compositions and plays.
Bonner, Rigby and South Street Elementary Schools
all rate high in the development of social learning.
Group living, classroom responsibilities, school grounds,
group activities, sharing, selecting leaders, and thinking
for themselves are being stressed.
Adaptation of the C'urricuuma to Individual .eedi
The three schools under consideration in this study
are giving attention to adaptation of the curriculum to
individual needs in this respect, according to data. There
is careful observation made of each child to assist him in
selecting suitable activities to his physical, social and
emotional development. Tests are being used to determine
to what extent he can fit in the curriculum. Cumulative
records are used by teachers to assist them in understanding
the child. The children are grouped within the classrooms
for instruction in skills and provided with materials adapted
to appropriate developmeaital levels.
The Solmer, Pigby ad anot Street Schools ute the
follo7flng SrSaduing ystaem to determine promotion and non-
promotion progress n elatin6shio to ability, They are:
K a* Eictllent
5 a tatisfactory
U *- nsati-factory
P < Pas3inL
They further ftllow a tAith cafterrtces A ft the parents.
Frequent vi..sits to the aomranity arme =de by the
teactzrc' of 3onner anr Pigby Elcsentry Scharols. There
arec f,-w visit a sde ty Zcouth .trect zchtol t behCbrt. b-nnt.:r
i.liasrfntary ohool rFecctfniz. tlh use of ret'ources in the
coa zni;y, but TiEby and Sotath 3treCt rh-ow little or no us",
re e-.ec~tvtily. 1,aoh school utillzes the- services of the
he-3ith and welfare 4epartatnt., iThe parentss asvsoolation
fanotionrs aI the rrograa of the schnolc of 3onnrr sfn Lirgby.
'Pruth :trfet statsted that parents avsool-stion funotione
r'.rtial in their school Arogra ,. PArent; p;-rtlio.te onf
;ro:r r a t ;,o.nnr r.n- 7i .y sChoola., South .trLt -?araznta
do not partioiaptc on pgremras.
Th teachers t t the three sohaols n;rtiloiate la
ooctirtmtty or'.nizerid f-rgrfe, Th" 5oin.r rn- Yigby acj-tr>Zl
art. Cic'tr-i of youTh ndi adult cotiviti'A3, thi-rs'-. J2outh
trei. c -. no Vuch aot. lty.
s Teacher and e School
Twelve teachers at Bonner, within the past two years,
made professional improvement; Rigby had three and South
Street had seven. Ten teachers from 3onner attended work-
shops; none from Rigby and South Street. Seven took ex-
tension courses from Sonner, four from Rigby and four
from South Street.
Teachers from the three schools are members in their
national, state and local teachers' organizations. They
all read professional magazines and books. One teacher
from lonner Zleentary wrote an article for a professional
naaszine. There wore none from Rirby and South Street
Observation in other schools in the county, state
and outside of the state was done by teachers in !3onner,
r.igby and South Street Elomentary Schools. Teachers par-
ticipated in pre-school planning and conferences.
There were no conferences with the principal, super-
visor or superintendent on instructional problems from any
of theso schools under consideration. Those schools are
well represented in attending local, state, district, county
and national professional mootings. 'Iome visitation by
teachers rate good according to the data on Table XIV.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
On the basis of this st nA these conclusions seem
1. Bonner Elementary was the only school in this
study that produced a philosophy and objectives.
2. The school plant at Bonner is new and renovated.
3. The school plant at So(th Street is a recently
built modern structure.
4. The school plant at Rigby is old and renovated.
5. These schools have a reasonable share of in-
6. The schools in this study manifest the spirit
of interest and helpfulness in meetings.
7. The faculty functions both in committees and as
8. Teachers opinions are given due consideration at
the Bonner Elementary School.
9. The three schools have active Parent-Teachers
10. Meetings at South Street Elementary School hamper
instruction. They are not properly prepared far
emeah in advance.
11. Parents, pupils, teachers and the community agencies
participate in curriculum planning at Bonner, but
limited at Rigby, while South Street is extremely
12. Large blocks of time for uninterrupted activities,
club activities literary and free reading periods,
physical education and periods of free active
relaxation are given due consideration at
Banner and South Street Elementary Schools,
but Rigby's scores point to poor performance
in this area of the curriculum.
13. Healthful living as recrded in the study shows
that the three schools are stressing cleanli-
ness and courtesies at meal time and show equal
interest in helping children adjust themselves
to physical defects which cannot be helped.
14. Progress is being made in curriculum iProve-
ment as well as instruction in these schools.
S15. ICreative activities are stressed in all of
these schools through dances, rhythm bands,
readings, art and music.
16. Responsibility for, care of, participation in
group activities sharing in determining the
policies, accepting the decision of the ma-
Jority and critical thinking are some of the
social learning experiences that are demon-
strated at these schools.
17. The schools under consideration are adapting
the curricuiwm to the needs of the children.
1i. The activities of Bonner Elementary School
are attended in large numbers by the community
through the P.T.A.'s, parents programs, parents
sponsoring annual picnics for their children
and corrnuity sings by parents and children.
Rigby and South Street Schools have not provided
such community activities.
The school is an institution established to assist
in guiding the growth and development of boys and girls and
the people of the community. This being true, then the
schools program should provide, in all its phases, maximum
development for the students it serves.
On the basis of the information secured by means
of questionnaires, observation and interviews, the fol-
lowing recommendations are suggested:
I. That South Street Elementary School institute
fire drills immediately.
2. That more emphasis be placed on skills in all
3. That certain professional problems be straight-
ened out in these schools.
4. That the principals work more closely with the
teachers, pupils and parents and community
5. That policies should be made by the principals,
faculties, pupils and parents.
6. That preparation should be made for all meetings
with a pleasant atmosphere prevailing.
7. That more participation of parents and pupils
be instituted in all planning in these schools.
8. That evaluation in all phases of the school's
program is highly essential at all times.
9, That children in the South Street Elementary
School have the opportunity for increased self-
10. That readiness tests be used in Rigby Elementary
U1 That childrent experiences in and out of school
be used at South Street Elementary Schools
12. That children in these schools be given an opoor-
tunity to help plan the daily program at school.
13. That teachers in these schools institute more
home visitation in their program.
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