• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Half Title
 Acknowledgement
 Dedication
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 List of Figures
 The problem and definitions of...
 Review of the literature
 The materials used and groups...
 Treatment of findings
 Summay and conclusions
 Bibliography
 Appendix
 California short-form test of mental...






Title: Study of reading difficulties in the fourth grade of Glenwood Elementary School Panama City, Florida
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 Material Information
Title: Study of reading difficulties in the fourth grade of Glenwood Elementary School Panama City, Florida
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Robinson, Gussie M.
Affiliation: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
Publisher: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
Publication Date: 1955
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Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Florida A&M University (FAMU)
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Resource Identifier: notis - AAA0804

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title page
    Half Title
        Half title
    Acknowledgement
        Acknowledgements
    Dedication
        Dedication
    Table of Contents
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
    List of Tables
        Page iv
    List of Figures
        Page v
    The problem and definitions of terms used
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Review of the literature
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    The materials used and groups studied
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Treatment of findings
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Summay and conclusions
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Bibliography
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Appendix
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    California short-form test of mental maturity
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
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Full Text








A STUDY OF

LEADING DIFFICULTIES IN THE FOURTH GPADE

OF GLENCOD ELEJENTARY SCHOOL

PAAI.A CITY, FLORIDA










A Thesis

Presented to the

Faculty of the Graduate School

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University










In Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements for the Degree

master of Science in Education







by

Gussie L. Robinson

August 1955










A STUDY OF
READING DIFFICULTIES IN TIE FOURTH GRADE
OF GLENIOOD Fr.LL LTAR'" SCHOOL
PANAL:iA CITY, FLORIDA




A thesis
Presented to the
Faculty of the Graduate School
Florida Agricultural and Lechanical University




In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science in Education




Approved:
8 3^. 8 j


c)4. 4


~eau.





























AC~COWLEDGELMETS


Acknowledgements go to Dr. E. I-. Wallace, Dr. W. L. Johnson,

and Dr. L. J. Shaw for their guidance and assistance in this

investigation.

Gratitude goes to M1r. L.H. Pennington and Mr. Ivie R. Burch

for the use and operation of the calculating machine.





























DEDICATION


This thesis is dedicated to my parents, Reverend and Mrs.

A. H. Bowers for their untiring efforts in assisting me to

pursue an education, and to my husband, mother-in-law, and my

two daughters for their patience and understanding during the

course of this study.













TABLE OF CONTENTS


CHAPTERT

I. THE PROBLE1i AND DEFINITIONS OF TEmS USED


The problem . .

Statement of the problem

Purpose of the study .

Importance of the study

Definitions of terms used

Reading program .

Control group ..

lon-control group. .

Grade placement. .

Grade equivalent' .

Organization of remainder o


. 9 9


* 9 9 9 9 9 9

* 9 9 9 9 .


the thesis


II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ..

Literature on the reading problem.

Goals of instruction ..

The nature of readiness .

Factors in readiness .


* 9 9

* 9 9


* 9


. 9 9


. 9 *


Developing readiness . . . .

How can an effective reading program be set up ..

Limitations of previous studies . . .

III. THE MATERIALS USED AMD GROUPS STUDIED . . .

Test materials and methods used . . .


PAGE

1


@ O @ @


. .


. .


2

2

4

4

5

5
5

.5

5
5


6

7

7

8

9

9

10

10

11

lh


. . .


. 0


S .


. .










CHAPTER


Groups used . . .

Methods of procedure . .

IV. TFEATi.ITT OF FINDINGS . .

Tables .. . .

California Mental Laturity Test

Analysis of data ....

Reading Readiness Test. ..

Analysis of data . .

Stanford Achievement Test .

Analysis of data ...

Arithmetic Mean and Ledian .

Analysis of data ....

Standard Deviation .

Analysis of data .

Coefficient of Correlation .

Analysis of data . .

Coefficient of Correlation .

Analysis of data ...

Coefficient of Correlation .

Analysis of data ...

Coefficient of Correlation ..

Analysis of data ....

Figures . . ... ..

California Mental Laturity Test


Analysis of data . .


ii

PAGE

1l

14

18

18

18

19

20

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

35


S . .


S . .








iii

CHAPTER PAGE

California IMental Iaturity Test . . .. 36

Analysis of data . ..... .... .. 36

Reading Readiness Test . . . 37

Analysis of data . .. . .. 37

Reading Readiness Test 0. . ... 38

Analysis of data . .. .... 38

Stanford Achievement Test . . . 39

Analysis of data . . . . 39

Stanford Achievement Test . ... 40

Analysis of data . . 4. 0

Stanford Achievement Test . . . 41

Analysis of data . . . .. 1

Stanford Achievement Test .. . .. .... 42

Analysis of data .. . 42

Graph Showing Change in Reading . 43

Analysis of data . ...... .. .... 43

I. SLCULAF- AND CONCLUSIONS . . .

Summary.. . . . . ....

Conclusions . . . . .

BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . 47

APPEDIX ............. .............. 50















LIST OF TABLES


TABLE

I. Distribution of Scores on the California

Mental Laturity Test . . .

II. Distribution of Scores on the Reading Readiness

Test . .. . .

III. Distribution of Scores on the Otanford Achieve-

ment Test . . .

IV. Arithmetic lean and the tMedian of Stanford

Achievement Test . .


V. Standard Deviation of Stanford Achievement Test

VI. Coefficient of Correlation Between Reading and

Intelligence of Control Group in October

VII. Coefficient of Correlation Between Reading and

Intelligence of Control Group in Lay .


PAGE







r



















. 29


VIII. Coefficient of Correlation Between Intelligence and

Reading of the 1Ton-controlled Group in October

IX. Coefficient of Correlation Between Reading and

Intelligence of the Non-controlled Group in lay


* .


* .












LIST OF FIGURES


FIGURE PAGE

1. Distribution of Scores of Control Group on California

Mental Laturity Test ........ ..... .. 3

2. Distribution of Scores of Nion-controlled Group on

California Mental liaturity Test . . . 36

3. Distribution of Scores of Control Group on Reading

Readiness . . . . . 37

4. Distribution of Scores of Non-controlled Group on Reading

Readiness Test . . . . 38

5. Distribution of Scores of Control Group on Stanford

Achievement Test .. ........... ..... 39

6. Distribution of Scores for Non-controlled Group on

Stanford Achievement Test . . . 40

7. Distribution of Scores for Control Group on Stanford

Achievement Test Form K . . . ... 41

8. Distribution of Scores for Non-controlled Group on

Stanford Achievement Test Form K . .... 2

9. Grade Equivalent of Control Group and Non-controlled

Group Before and After Experiment . 43












CHAPTER I


THE PROBLEM AID DEFINITIOITS OF TE..S USED


Many and varied are the problems in reading; equally as varied,

are those factors influencing problems in reading. In order to

eliminate these difficulties, the teacher must be able to recognize

the deficiencies and the factors influencing them, and present a

method whereby these difficulties may be eliminated. Our philosophy

concerning these deficiencies will determine to a great extent, our

success in their solution.

A few generations ago, people were tried by juries of so-called

intelligent people for "turning into a black cat and jumping through a

key hole." Witchcraft was prevalent and people encountered much

cruelty because of superstitious beliefs. -Even today there still exists

in the minds of many parents and teachers, such uncritical beliefs as,

"Children who cannot read are slow of thought." There are some educators

who believe that basal reading materials, phonics and systematic

instruction are pedogoical relics, while others seem to worship at the

shrine of regimented instruction, poverty-striken curricula and low

standards of teacher preparation. These situations might cause observers

outside the teaching profession to wonder if education has yet passed

beyond the dark ages. If the reading program of the school is to

contribute to pupil development, we must avoid traditional superstitions

and refuse to accept unproved new theories.

48050








2

1. THE PROBLEM

Statement of the problem. The teachers of Glenwood Elementary

School have been greatly concerned about the reading level of the children.

The school has an extensive testing program, and the results of these

test each year show that the grade equivalent of the children is from

one year to as much as one year and five months below their grade place-

ment. Instructional meetings were held and the problem was discussed

adequately; however, no one has made any investigation that would

present a method whereby the reading level of the children may be

improved.

Glenwood Elementary School is located in Panama City, Florida;

a small seaport town with a population, in 1950, of 25,81. The town

is situated on the St. Andrews Bay and extends to the Gulf of Mexico.

It is located 36 miles from Port St. Joe, Florida, 57 miles from

Marianna, Florida, and 63 miles from Ft. Walton, Florida. It has as its

main industry, the paper mill.

The school has 24 regular classroom teachers, an exceptional

classroom teacher, a part-time speech correctionist, a full time music

'teacher, a full time physical education teacher, a full time librarian,

a full time secretary, a full time assistant principal and a

principal.

The school has a modern building, equipped with fairly adequate

teaching facilities, and staff with qualified teachers.

The library, having been modern with an abundance of books,

supplementary materials, and audio-visual aids, lends itself to the

improvement of instructional techniques.











Glenwood's A. D. A. enables the school to have an adequate supply

of art and supplies.

Because of the low-priced balanced meals served in the cafeteria,

and the plan by which under-privileged children are cared for, hungry

children, or children suffering from malnutrition, is a minor problem

of the school.

A custodian and two maids, in addition to the services of county-wide

maintenance men, maintain the up-keep and cleanliness of the building

and grounds; thus eliminating the problem of teachers and pupils wasting

time to attend to these chores. Under these conditions, this investi-

gator believes that the reading level of the children should and can be,

greatly improved.

It has been pointed out through the years that reading difficulties

is one of the major problems in our elementary schools. Teachers of

both middle and upper grades know better than anyone else, that if

a child is given reading material and instruction on his level, he will

improve; give him reading material and teach him beyond that level and

he will not improve. Teachers also know that this basic principle is

hard to follow; there are too many children for each teacher to care

for individually. How can one teacher adjust her instruction and

material in reading to thirty, forty or even fifty children? This

important question has been a stimulating factor in the gearing of this

investigation.

There are several types of reading difficulties and each type has

its underlying cause. These underlying causes have presented a major

problem to the elementary school teacher. The central theme of this










investigation shall deal with how to identify invididual needs and

how to provide for them in a classroom situation. It has been this

writer's experience that instruction is improved in this respect when

the teacher is given specific guidance on how to do the job and why.

Purpose of the study. The purpose of this study was: (1) to find

the present reading level of the children; (2) to investigate the

symptoms and possible causes of different types of reading difficulties

encountered by students in Glenwood School; and (3) to present a reading

program that would aid in eliminating these difficulties and would serve

as a preventive measure for future difficulties.

Importance of the study. The reading program is of primary

importance in the total development of a child. Caswell states:1

The written word has become not only an instrument for
liberating men but a means of enslavement as well...The kind
of reading one does thus becomes of major importance-"kind"
not in the sense of what one reads but rather of how one reads.
Intelligent reading today requires critical interpretation,
weighing of evidence, and evaluation in terms of the reader's
purpose.

With this in mind, it becomes even more important that we seek every

means whereby we prevent and correct reading difficulties.

Willard Abraham states:2 The desire to read is very strong among

most first graders who are ready to read, but how strong is that desire

by the time they reach second grade, especially in view of all the pressure

applied to the school beginner during that first year?


1Albert Emmett-Betts Foundations of Reading Instruction (New York:
American Book Company, 1954), p. 69.
2Willard Abraham, "A New Look at Reading," Elementary English,
(March 1954), 14o.











Reading being a tool subject, it becomes the core of all other

activities. To improve reading in Glenwood School would be to improve

the curriculum in Glenwood School. This study was conducted with this

objective in view. The experiment was limited to 120 fourth grade

students; 5h boys and 66 girls.


II. DEFINITION OF TERM USED

Reading program. Reading program was interpreted as any new

ideas, new materials and new techniques used in carrying out this

reading experiment.

Control group. The control group, throughout this investigation,

shall be interpretated as meaning, a group of children who were

administered the same tests at the same period of the school term,

under the same conditions as the non-controlled group; but, who received

instruction that included basal textbook instruction, instruction on

the "unit system" and extensive use of audio-visual aids, material

grown out of their everyday experiences and activities the children

participated in planning.

Non-controlled group. The non-controlled group shall be inter-

pretated as meaning that group of children tested at the same period

of the school term, using the same tests, under the same conditions

as the controlled group, but being instructed under the regular basal

textbook instruction.

Grade-placement. Grade-placement was interpreted as meaning

the number of months the child had been in that grade.

Grade-equivalent. Grade equivalent is interpreted as meaning

the actual reading level of the child.










III. OIGATIZATIONT OF THE RELIIIDER OF THE THESIS

The remainder of this thesis will include: (1) a review of

literature; (2) method of procedure; (3) treatment of findings;

(4) summary and conclusions; (5) bibliography; and (6) appendix.











CHAPTER II


REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE


Much has been written in regards to the reading problem, but

only a brief summary of the work done on problems closely related to

the one at hand will here be given. The literature reviewed here,

along with the investigation itself, was a search for answers to the

following questions: (1) What is the major problem of the elementary

school teacher? (2) What are some of the factors in reading readiness?

(3) How does the traditional method of instruction compare with the

modern method of instruction? (L) When is a child ready to read?

(5) How can readiness be developed? and (6) How can an effective

reading program be set up?


I. LITERATURE ON TIE READING PROBLEM

In proposing a remedial reading program for the Negro schools

of Alachua County, Florida, Weatherspoon3 revealed that: (1) poor

reading and speaking comprehension; (2) limited vocabulary; (3) poor

word recognition (4) poor phrase recognition and many other factors,

contribute to the reading problem. She further states: no one method

of eliminating reading deficiencies should be used to the exclusion of all

others. Different methods and procedures should be adopted to the needs

of each child.



Susie Jeannett Weatherspoon, "A Proposed Remedial Reading Program
for the Eegro Schools of Alachua CQunty," (Unpublished Iaster's thesis,
Florida A and L~ University Librarr, Tallahassee, Florida; 1952).








8

How well readers achieve in reading, depends upon six major

factors: First, differentiated guidance; here, equal learning

opportunities are provided for all. Second, general language develop-

ment; through this method, language arts are inextricably interrelated.

Third, reading readiness; approach reading by considering the qualification

of the child and his mode of learning. Fourth, semantic, or meaning,

basis of language; we are reminded here of the relationship of language

to experience. Fifth, social basis of language; emphasis is placed on

language as a means of social intercourse. Sixth, systematic sequences;

through this means, individual development rather than lock-step

coverage of subject matter is given primary consideration. These six

factors point to personality development as one of the major goals of

education in a.democracy.

Goals of instruction. In traditional schools, the objectives of

reading instruction have been stated largely in terms of skills, abilities,

and information to be learned. In modern schools, attitudes of approach

receive major attention so that the child is motivated from within to

acquire needed skills, abilities, and information.

While there is an urgent need for more research in this area,

educators are provided with a substantial amount of information on the

nature of the goals of reading instruction. One writer states:4

The purpose and objectives of modern instruction in reading
have tended to emphasize critical interpretation, the perennial



1Emmett Albert Betts Foundations of Reading Instruction (New York:
American Book Company, 1954, pp. 9b-99.









nature of reading instruction, the development of worth-while
interests and attitudes of approach, and the social uses of
languages.

The major instructional jobs include guidance on when
to read as well as how to read.

The nature of readiness. The purpose of this discussion was

to point out the wide range of prereading needs which have a bearing

on the time at which systematic reading instruction is initiated.

According to Betts:5 "A child is ready for systematic instruction when

he can engage in such activities with success and with real satisfaction

to himself."

Factors in readiness. Factors influencing readiness are many and

of a complex nature; often these factors are so involved and so inter-

woven that it is difficult to determine what single factor or group

of factors are most significant to reading readiness.

Caswell states:6 One significant factor in dealing with

children is the extent and nature of individual differences. He

discusses three facts which educational workers must face about individual

differences. (1) That the existence of individual differences is a

normal condition of nature which inevitably is present in all character-

istics and abilities. (2) That differences are not the unmitigated

evil which school workers seem to assume them to be. (3) Education, if

adequate, tends to increase rather than decrease individual differences.



6Hollis L. Caswell and Wellsley A. Foshay, Education in the
Elementary Schools (New York: American Book Company, 1950),
pp. 96-97.












It was pointed out by another author that:7

Reading is a very complex process, requiring the ability
to deal with abstractions. Because of the highly complex
nature of the reading process, no one factor stands out in
bold relief. Factors in reading readiness are inextricably
interrelated. Furthermore, each factor carries a different
weight in predicting readiness for reading. The teacher
deals with the total organism of a growing child.

Developing readiness. The modern school program with its

emphasis on community living, differentiation in terms of readiness

and needs, purposeful learning, meaningful experience and the like,

represent a way of life. Respect for8 the uniqueness of the learner,

understandings of basic principles of child guidance, the provision

of a program of differentiated guidance, planned cooperation between

parents and teachers contribute to the development of reading readiness.

How can an effective reading program be set up? There are

five steps in setting up an effective reading program.9 (1) Find out

where your pupils are. (2) Fit silent reading work-type material to

the pupils' individual levels. (3) Give all pupils independent methods

of word attack. (4) Fit recreational reading material to the pupil's

individual levels, and (5) Broaden the reading program.




7Betts, op. cit., p. 137.

8Ibid., pp. 367-368.

9Webster Publishing Company, "Organizing a Reading Program For
Your Room," How to Increase Reading Skills, (pp. 3-13).









II. LIMITATIONS OF PREVIOUS FINDINGS

An experiment, made by Campbell in the teaching of reading10

reveals that many factors are to be considered. His results indicate

that there were no significant difference from test to retest, in the

performance of the traditional method of teaching than that of the

experimental method of teaching.

Eva L. Guyton,ll in an experiment on poor reading conditions,

revealed that the lack of a regular testing program, the lack of a

good school plant, the lack of modern teaching equipment, lack of

adequate playground equipment, and the presence of congested classrooms,

are factors contributing to poor reading conditions.

A university professor of education at New York University,

wrote an article on the Affects of Semantic Emphasis upon reading.12

In this article she pointed out that, one of the most basic functions

of a teacher of reading is to insure experiences for her pupils that will

equip them to interpret symbols which in turn stand for these experiences.

She gave as an example, the case of a teacher who, upon a certain


10oitt Alton Campbell, "An Experimental Study of Two Methodologies
in the Teaching of Reading to First Grade Pupils in the Lidway Elementary
School, Gadsden County" (Unpublished master's thesis, Florida A and M
University Library, Tallahassee, 195?).

1LEva L. Guyton, "Improvement of Poor Reading Conditions in the
Pickett Elementary School, Duval County," (Unpublished master's thesis,
Florida A and L University Library, Tallahassee, 1952).

12Nila Banton Smith, How Will the Semantic Emphasis Affect
Reading Instruction? (Volume- T of Education. Raymond P. Palmer.
Boston: The Palmer Company, September June 1968-h9), pp. $56-561.







12

occasion, placed this sentence on the bulletin board. "This is a chilly

morning." Her pupils, who came from Mexican homes, gathered around the

bulletin board and tried to read the message. The teacher helped them

with the pronunciation of the new word chilly. Then she asked what the

sentence meant. All of them thought that the sentence told them in effect

that this was a morning in which they would eat food seasoned with

chili peppers. It was not until the teacher took them to the door and

momentarily let them feel the cool crisp air as it rushed against their

bare faces and through their clothing that they sensed the full and

correct meaning of the symbol for chilly.

The writer suggests that the teacher of reading should make

wider use of first-hand experiences, increased use of visual aids, give

more attention to contextual influences, and clarify different levels

of abstraction, if she is to have an effective reading program.

Gertrude Hildreth13 pointed out that, case studies prove beyond

a doubt that retardation in language is a common accompaniment, if

not the direct cause of reading failures in many cases. She gave as an

illustration, .the case of J., a language retardate who had a struggle

learning to read, and who, after remedial training, learned to read

easily and whose interest in reading continued to grow beyond primary

years.

Teachers of reading should safeguard reading achievement through;l1

providing interrelated instruction in language arts. Suggestions are:



13Gertrude Hildreth, Reading Achievement and Linguistic Ability.
(Vol. 69 of Education, Raymond P. Palmer. Boston: The Palner Company,
September June, 1948-49), pi. 567-571.
SlIbid., pp. 567-571.







13

(1) In the child's first year of school, spend more time on the develop-

ment of his oral language and less time on formal reading lessons.

(2) Provide meaningful learning experiences at school related to the

things children like to think and talk about. (3) Spend some of

the time usually given to reading drill on related language work both

in regular instruction and remedial work. (4) Lake use of all

instructional aids that will improve the pupil's comprehension, and

($) Arrange for some reading lessons based on material the children

have written themselves.












CHAPTER III


THE iATEIIALS USED AID GROUPS STUDIED


The material in this chapter shall be concerned with the

materials used, groups studied, and method of procedure.

Test materials and methods used. The tests used in carrying

out this experiment were, the California Lental Maturity Test, the

Reading Readiness Test for use with the Basic Alice and Jerry Series

and the Stanford Achievement Test, Forms, .J and K.

Materials used in carrying out this experiment were, basal

text books, natural resources, professional resources, films, filmstrips,

recording machine, field-trips, scientific experiment activities, and

several others.

Groups used. The groups used in this experiment were, a control

group, consisting of 40 fourth grade pupils and a non-control group,

consisting of 80 fourth grade pupils.

Method of procedure. After students were assigned, permanent

records were obtained and the data thereof carefully analyzed. Observing

the reading sheets and the results of former standardized and reading

readiness tests, reading was found to be the teachers primary problem.

During the first week of school, children were allowed to tell

of their summer experiences, discuss their hobbies, and set up objectives

in terms of the things they would like to accomplish during the term.

The children brought in material they wanted to read, made up and wrote

stories to read in class and pursued their reading from the point they

stopped in third-grade.








15

From the pupils' health records, information concerning the

general health status of the child was obtained. The pupils' eyes

were tested by the investigator and the county's visiting nurse; the

teeth, ears, scalp, skin and other physical features were observed

by the investigator and notations made of any defects. Heights and

weights were taken and notices were sent to parents, in addition to

conferences with the parents about any defects the child was found to

have, and of the urgent need for correction of these defects.

The California ...nrt.al ...aturity Test was administered in order

to obtain the pupils' intelligence score. There was not a follow-up

of this test because the investigator felt that a child's intelligence

does not necessarily change to any significant degree in a course of

nine months.

During the third week of school, a Fourth Grade Reading Readiness

Test for use with The New Alice and Jerry Basic Readers was administered.

The test results indicated the areas in which children encountered

difficulties; on the basis of this, general and specific objectives in

reading were set up.

After six weeks of school, the reading readiness was followed by

the Stanford Achievement, Form J. This test measured in two areas;

(1) paragraph meaning and (2) word meaning. The test was administered

to the same fourth grade students, under favorable conditions, just as

in the case of the former test, adhering rigidly to the rules of the

test. All tests were administered and handscored by the investigator.








16

In setting up the reading program, the investigator obtained

a Reading Troubleshooter's Checklist;15 for each child experiencing

difficulty in learning to read, the teacher checked, from the checklist,

the items that applied to that child. A record of this was made, and

objectives in reading wereset up accordingly.

The reading period was scheduled for the first period of the

school day; this, the teacher felt, being a time when the child's mind

was relaxed and opened for instruction. Though there was a definite

period for reading instruction, reading was integrated throughout

all other subjects.

Using the Teacher's ilanual for the basal reader, the investi-

gator found many activities that afforded motivating situations for

the teaching of reading. At the beginning of each nine-weeks period,

a unit of profound importance and interest to the child was worked out.

Through the activities afforded by the unit, each child was allowed to

choose the phase of the unit in which he was most interested to work

on. They organized themselves into groups and made group reports.

Interesting as it was, it was surprising to see how those retarded in

reading, responded with eagerness to read their reports or to share the

information they had gathered on the subject. As a result of these

activities, the children found several fallacies in their reading habits;

such habits as speaking, using incomplete sentences, poor enunciation,

lack of regards for marks of punctuation, and the lack of reading with

expression.


15"Reading Troubleshooter's Checklist" (St. Louis 3, iissouri:
Webster Publishing Company).








17

The above findings brought into use, the tape-recording machine.

Periods were set up where each child was given a chance to read orally,

or to make an oral report and record'his activity. The recording was

then played back to the class; thus, the child was able to hear

himself as others heard him.

In addition to these, many other activities were carried out

that aroused high interest in reading and improved the achievement

level of the children.

During the last four weeks of school, a follow-up of the

Stanford Achievement Test was administered, using Form K. This test

was given under the same conditions as the former tests.

The results of all tests, and the findings thereof, will be

found in the remaining portion of this thesis.











CHAPTER IV


TREATMENT OF FINDINGS


In the following chapter the reader will find data shown in

tables and figures representing the findings in this experiment.

Tables will consist of a frequency table for each test given, tables

showing the mean and the median of each test, tables showing the

standard deviation of each test, and tables showing the coefficient

correlation of each test. Figures will include histograms for each

frequency table and a graph showing change in reading.

Data presented in Table I shows the results of the frequency

distribution of California Lental l-aturity Test.


TABLE I

FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF CALIFORNIA
:EITAL ~lTURITY TEST


Class Intervals


Control Group


Non-Controlled Group


161-170 1 0
151-160 0 0
141-150 0 0
131-140 1 2
121-130 3 3
111-120 12 5
101-110 3 20
91-100 8 18
81-90 7 20
71-80 4 7
61-70 0 5
51-60 1 0

N = 40 80








19

Table I presents the frequency distribution of both groups

of children on the California Mental Maturity Test. According

to the test, this table shows that approximately 81 of the children

in the control group have an I.Q. of from about 91-121 as compared

to about 79% in the non-controlled group.

It should be pointed out here that, according to the test,

intelligence scores fall in the following categories: (1) 130

and above, Very Superior; (2) 115-129, Superior; (3) 100-114, High

Average; (4) 85-99, Low Average; (5) 70-84, Inferior, and (6) Below

70, Very Inferior.

According to this, this table indicates that, the control

group has approximately 20% of the class in the two extremes as

compared to 21% of the control group. Breaking this down further,

an I.Q. of 100 and above is a High average. In the control group, 50%

of the children tested had an I.Q. of 101 and above as compared to

37.5 in the non-control group.

The test reveals, in the control group, one pupil fell in the

category of being Very inferior, as compared to five pupils in the

non-control.

From this table it can be concluded that the children have

innate ability to read, but that some other factor is a contributing

cause of poor reading.

Table II shows the frequency distribution of scores on Reading

Readiness Test.









TABLE II

FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF SCORES ON
HEADING READINESS TEST


Class Intervals


Control Group


INon-Controlled Group


95-99
90-94
85-89
80-84
75-79
70-74
65-69
66-64
,55-59
5o-54

4o-44
35-39
25-29
20-24
15-19


N. 4o 80


The frequency distribution of the Reading Readiness Test

is shown in Table II. This test, The Reading Readiness Test for

use with the Basic Alice and Jerry Series, classifies the scores in

the following manner; Immature, Average and Superior. The highest

possible score on the test was 121. The table indicates that the

highest score made on the test was 99. A score of from 55-100 was in

the average category; according to the test, about 52.50 of the pupils

in the control group scored in the Average category as compared to

63.75 in the non-control group. 47.50 of the readers in the control

group were Immature readers as compared to 36.25 in the non-control group.

Considering the whole class, about 40% of the fourth grade had not developed

readiness in reading.









The reader can see that one factor to be considered in setting

up a reading program for this group is that of developing readiness.

Presented in Table III is the frequency distribution of

scores for-control group and non-control group on Stanford Achieve-

ment Test Form J and K.


TABLE III

DISTRIBUTION OF SCORES FOR CONTROL GROUP AND NON-
CONTROLLED GROUP ON STANFORD ACHIEVEMENT
TEST FORMa J AND ?OTh K


Class
Intervals
Form J


Control
Group


Non-Controlled
Group


Class
Intervals
Form K


Control
Group


Non-Controlled
Group


I'


50-52
47-49
44-46
41-43
38-40
35-37
32-34
29-31
26-28
23-25
20-22
17-19
1l-16
11-13


51-53
48-50
45-47
42-44
39-41
36-38
33-35
30-32
27-29
24-26
21-23
18-20
15-17
12-14


N= h0 80 N= hO 80









The data with regard to the frequency distribution on the

Stanford Achievement, Forms J and K are found on Table III. Form J,

administered in October, revealed the following: in the control

group, 025% of the children had a grade equivalent of 3.8 to 4.O.

The grade placement of both groups at the time of testing was, 4.O.

075% of the children fell above the grade placement, and 90% fell

below the grade placement; whereas, in the non-controlled group,

025% had a grade equivalent of from 3.8 to h.O, 025% above the grade

placement, and 95% fell below the grade placement.

In Maay the same test, using Form K, was administrerd; The

grade placement of the children was now h.8. According to the

test results, there is a tendency for a greater percentage of the

pupils in the control group to have a grade equivalent nearer their

grade placement, than those in the non-controlled group.

This table shows that the frequencies of the control group

are heavier in the upper class intervals than the frequencies of

the non-controlled group. From this picture it can be seen that

the control group made a greater achievement in reading than the non-

controlled group.

Presented in Table IV is the Mean and Median of the Stanford

Achievement Test Form J. and K.







TABLE IV
THE ARITHMETIC EAN AND MEDIAN OF THE STANFORD
ACHIEVEMENT TEST FORM J AND K


Form J Form J Form K Form K
Control Non-Controlled Control Non-Controlled
Group Group Group Group
Interval fl d fd f I fd Intervals f T fd fd
50-52 1 8 8 0 8 0 51-53 3 9 24 0 8 0
47-49 0 7 0 0 7 0 48-50 0 7 0 0 7 0
44-46 1 6 6 0 6 0 45-47 2 6 12 2 6 12
1-43 1 5 5 2 5 10 42-44 5 5 10 I 5 5
38-40 1 4 4 2 4 8 39-41 6 4 24 0 4 0
35-37 9 3 27 4 3 12 36-38 6 3 18 6 3 18
32-34 2 2 4 8 2 16 33-35 6 2 12 9 2 18
29-31 9 1 9 11 1 11 30-32 4 1 4 10 1 10
26-28 6 0 0 20 0 0 27-29 4 0 0 20 0 0
23-25 3 -1 -3 18 -1 -18 24-26 2 -1 -2 16 -1 -16
20-22 5 -2 -10 6 -2 -12 21-23 2 -2 -4 8 -2 -16
17-19 2 -3- 6 5 -3 -15 18-20 0-3 -0 5 -3 -15
14-16 0 -4 0 2 -4 -8 15-17 0 -4 0 1 4
11-13 0 -5 0 2 -5 6 12-14 0 -5 0 2 -5 -10
N. 40 44 80 6 N. 40 113 80 2


9M.= guessed Mean +L-f(i)


Median= 4- Mea


su re


A.M..zl+~, 3
A.M.= 3.o0


Control G
Nd.=8s.54 ~-3
Md.= 3.0


ro up
4 .M.::23~ ,


hon-con-rolled Group
4A. M.= 2- X3 Md.=2z5+ 33 f X3
SF/. = 2.7 /id. = 2 f. M.^2^ = 2.


l id-355+ 3
Md. = 3.5




= 2t.s+ I!---X3
tMi = 2,7








24

Table IV presents the Arithmetic iean and the Median of both

forms of the Stanford Achievement Test. According to the test

results, the Mean or average reading level of the children in the

control group in October was 3.0 as compared to 2.7 in the non-

controlled group. The test administered in Lay reveals, the average

reading level of the control group to be about 3.6 as compared to

2.8 in the non-controlled. According to the test, the control group

made an improvement of about six months as compared to one month

in the non-controlled group.

In October the control group had a median of 3.0 as compared

to 2.6 in the non-controlled group; the test reveals that in Lay

the control group had a Median of 3.6 as compared to 2.7 in the

non-control group. This indicates that the highest grades were made by

the control group. This group had an increase in the Median by a score

of 6 as compared to a score of 1 in the non-controlled group.

In October, 40% of the children in the control group had a

reading level below the class average. In May, even though the class

average increased by a score of 10, 45% of the class fell below that

level. This compares with h1.25 of the non-controlled group falling

below the class average in October and h0% in tay.

Data presented in Table V shows the Standard Deviation on

Stanford Achievement Test Fonn J and K.








TABLE V


STANDARD DEVIATION ON STANFORD ACHIEVEMENT
TEST FOMR J AND FOMI K


Form J Form J Form K Form K
Control Non-Controlled Control Non-Controlled
Group_ Group Group Group
Interval f d f fd" d f d fd fd2 interval f d fd fd2 f d fd fd2
50-52 1 8 8 64 0 8 0 0 51-53 3 8 24 192 0 8 0 0
47-49 0 7 0 0 0 7 0 0 48-50 0 7 0 0 0 0 0
44-46 1 6 6 36 0 6 0 0 45-47 2 6 12 72 2 6 12 72
41-43 1 5 5 25 2 5 10 50 42-44 5 5 25 125 1 5 5 25
38-4h 1 4 4 16 2 4 8 32 39-41 6 4 24 96 0 4 0 0
35-37 9 3 27 81 4 3 12 36 36-38 6 3 18 h5 6 3 18 h5
32-34 2 2 4 8 8 2 16 32 33-35 6 2 12 24 9 2 18 36
29-31 9 1 9 9 11 1 11 11 30-32 1 4 10 1 10 10
26-28 6 0 0 0 20 0 0 0 27-29 4 0 0 0 20 0 0 0
23-25 3 -1 -3 3 18 -1 -18 18 24-26 2 -1 -2 2 16 -1 -16 16
20-22 5 -2 10 20 6 -2 -12 24 21-23 2 -2 -4 8 8 -2 -16 32
17-19 2 -3 -6 18 5 -3 -15 45 18-20 0 -3 -0 0 5 -3 -15 45
14-16 0 0 0 2 -4 -8 32 15-17 O -4 0 0 1 -4 16
11-13 0 -5 0 0 2 -10 50 12-1 0 0 0 2 -5 -10 50
N= o0 44 80 30 -6 330 N= 40 113 577 80 2 356


Conlrio Gr-oup
rz: 3 0 13~

r3 j| ^^^-(Z.fZ)Z

cr= 3 JS,.*Z7- y--

A/on-Contrailed Group r-3 = 2 33 3= 1
3=

3ru Af.S V4 2 0



f- = 3 X z. //


e-= 6-.33








26

Presented in Table V is data showing the standard deviation on

both Stanford Achievement Tests. According to the test in October,

the non-controlled group was more homogeneous than the control group;

after the experiment, according to the test, the control group is more

homogeneous.

In October, there was a variability of 7.2 in the control group.

In Iay, this variability had decreased by .3 as compared to a

variability of 5.6 in October in the non-controlled group, and 6.2

in Llay; a decrease of .6.

The control group in contrast to the non-controlled group, was

characterized by a greater degree of variability. The experiment has

proven a success to the degree that the variables are deminishing and

we have somewhat of a nonral curve if it should be shown on a curve.

Shown in Table VI is the coefficient of correlation between

reading and intelligence of control group in October.









TATL VI

C' LTL CIETnT 07 CO'iALTIO!' "TL, i.A. 7 AD
II TEiLLL7 L OF COlT:' L, % ^JP I1 OCTOI7r


Scores Scores
X Y X2 I X Y XiY X Yx
114 38 130 21
120 31 55 41
133 29 109 37
120 31 113 26
112 25 73 52
170 22 99 36
116 21 05 36
9L 35 122 33
123 45 C5 20
67 37 113 29
10 29 94 20
93 32 91 17
Gk 27 23 29
78 31 9 35
80 36 116 26
105 26 117 28
99 35 113 19
100 31 -9 22
79 31 81 22
116 25; 120 37 ______
So0 ____ 11,120 1,21), 123,310 1 41i,06U 3c,900


40 (/3,3/0)- (,2z)(,Z/ )


-i 49, iZ t'o ( 68r/

6 9" -l o I

/={rZ~1/^)^^^)1


2 3J' 3dLo


-------


vJy-^ i)1 7 / yD(42In y, 3fO) -(41/ 73, 7f1)]


29s -. o










Table T pr'escnts the cocfficient of correlaticn between

readin- ard intelligence of the control group in October. Ross

states: "6 "Te size of th coefficient inicc.tes the decree or

closeness of the relationship, just as the si"n of the coefficient

indicates the direction of the r-lationshi-,." Accor-in- to is

statement, the results cf the tests in Ortoloer shows no significant

relationship bt.ecrn intelligence and readinr- there is a tendency

for the tvwo to -o in the opposite direction.

As shown in thel table, thre was a -.30 relationship. This

slight degree of relationship incicates that intelligence is not the

sole factor in. achievvea-nt in readn.

Data presented in TaIble VIl shows t e cocfficient of correlation

betwerccn readin: and intelligence of control -roup in Lay.





















16.
C. C. loss, Leasurement in Today's Schools. (ieew York:
Prentice :all, Inc. 1 -27, 2-2.
--,;// in"









TABLE VII.

COEFFICIENT OF CORRELATION BETWEEN READING AND
INTELLIGENCE OF CONTROL GROUP IN LAY


Scores Scores
1 Y XY IX Y-' X XY X Y_ ..e
114 51 130 30
120 29 55 35
133 36 109 25
120 45 113 35
112 33 73 53
170 24 99 35
116 37 85 42
116 h4 122 41
94 50 85 39
123 42 113 37
87 39 94 27
108 39 98 29
93 33 83 22
84 38 94 42
78 39 116 38
80 30 117 32
105 42 113 29
99 39 89 32
100 46 81 38
79 23 120 35
. 0" ,120 1,455 149,032 441,064 55,117



r6 ze) (f


y 91 /,03)3{.Z ,/2)2 o 117)1y, /0 )


, q61,zgo 99-, 600


r,- ./x


F-


/(44r, /14)(17,;4-5)


-33,32 0
65 '67, 6, 80oa


-p33,32O
y Zr z j ^ ^ ^_______








30

There exist a controversial issue concerning the significance

of the coefficient of correlation when it lies between the 1.00 and

the -1.00.17 The minimum coefficient is .00, which indicates no

consistent relationship whatsoever. From this minimum value the

coefficient increases in both directions until it reaches a 1.00

for one limit and -1.00 for the other. Both of these limits are per-

fect and indicate equally close relationship.

Shown in Table VII is the coefficient of correlation between

reading and intelligence after the experiment. This table shows a

correlation of -.14 as compared to a -.30. This further indicates

that; if an individual has the innate ability to read, if nuture or

proper instruction is given, he will develop to his level of achievement.

According to the results of the test, there is a tendency for the

relationship to draw closer together when proper instruction is

given.

According to the test, there is no direct relationship between

intelligence and reading, but as was formerly stated, when an individual

is given proper instruction, the two have a tendency to move closer

together.

Table VIII shows the coefficient of correlation between intelligence

and reading of non-controlled group in October.



17Ibid.









TABLE VIII

COEFFICIENT OF CORRELATION BETWEEN INTELLIGENCE AND
LEADING OF NON CONTROLLED GROUP OCTOBER, 1954


Scores Scores Scores
L ,T Y XY Y Y,, '. X2y X Y XY 'I X I -2
96 31 100 33 106 20
86 32 89 24 106 20
120 31 66 23 84 33
76 37 83 26 96 28
75 38 101 29 97 19
75 41 105 41 96 22
78 28 138 24 93 31
83 25 85 31 110 25
97 28 85 22 61 26
81 40 82 25 88 27
76 35 130 26 128 32
110 25 120 34 100 26
83 27 110 23 93 29
97 21 99 31 112 28
65 32 126 17 89 31
94 35 89 26 95 24
102 29 95 14 112 25
99 26 96 17 81 26
88 28 111 30 100 11
95 30 137 27
80 25 b 105 27
61 25 109 23
92 24 84 23
67 23 100 15
81 13 107 28
105 18 76 23
106 31 109 26
91 22 89 32
90 22 105 30
107 35 89 22
110 17
80 1 1 1 17633 2130 202997 749101 102


0


r A/f^-*fXY-yy)__)(I
LI/vrl C; 7^^- (-(7
So (o02, 99)- (, 3X32,u,,o)
Y[= 0o(7, 1/ol/)-,(71 t. o3)Z o (61, Zo0)-(Z/.o)-
1/, Z3? 7go60- /, 33 ,2 ....


1 y1 y 3/340 f f F 0--------


r -. /JS


63 -, 977


N-








32

According to the data presented in Table VIII there was

no significant relationship between reading and intelligence in this

group in October. Here again we have a negative correlation.

However, there is a closer degree of relationship between the two

in this group than in the control group, but neither group has a

coefficient large enough to indicate a consistent relationship

between the two.

The coefficient of correlation between intelligence and

reading of the non-controlled group is shown in Table IX.









TABLE IX

COEFFICIENT OF CORRELATION BETWEEN INTELLIGENCE AND
READING OF UOP-COMITTROLLED GROUP MAY 1955


96
86
120
76
75
75
78
83
97
81
76
110
83
97
65
94
102
99
88
95
80
61
92
67
81


109
89
105
89
110
106
106
84
96
97
96
93
110
61
88
128
100
93
'112
89
95
112
81
100


105
106
91
90
107
100
89
66
83
101l
105
138
85
85
82
130
120
110
99
126
89
95
96
111
137
105
109
84
100
107
76


633 12251 214899 749099


z P -rd


/7, /l 12 -/7, I / 183
59 9 7 92 4- .5,r ,6 1 I? I 60 /7, 6 6,-4r3 37
Po- Z3 3


9,Z5
INJ, f 0 ,
frw^ ^,-';;3ij~Pt


~,.L3 o 9
zo,03 $6


____ I


I 66445


Scores 1 Scores Scores
X Y XY X- I 72 x I xY XT Y T xY y-


1 '


I I I .I










Pictured in Table IX is the coefficient of correlation

between intelligence and reading of the non-controlled group in

Lay. In October, this group started out with a -.l1 coefficient aC

correlation. In Lay, there was a /.Oh coefficient. Since the minimum

coefficient is .00, and a perfect coefficient is 1.00 and -1.00,

neither the control nor the non-controlled group, according to the

test, has indicated that there is no consistent relationship, or that

there is a perfect relationship. However, according to the test,

the non-control group possesses a closer degree of relationship than

the control group.

Shown in Figure 1 is a histogram representing the frequency

distribution of the control group on the California Lental 'iiaturity

Test.









12

11



9


.rl
" 71
CH
6





3
3-----!

2

01


0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
o I -


S0 O H -I .cH r- \ r- r- r
r 1r-H r-H r-l rH-4 H -

FIGURE 1

A HISTOG-RAi.., iEPRESEF1TING THE FRE1UE!GCY DISTRIBUTION OF THE
CONTROL GROUP OVT THE CALIFORNIA METAL MATURITY TEST


A general idea of the distribution of intelligence scores for the

control group may be seen in Figure 1. It can readily be seen that the

scores are not evenly distributed, however, the greater percentage of the

intelligence scores fall between.81-120.

Figure 2 presents a histogram representing the frequency distri-

bution of scores for the non-controlled group on the California Mental

Maturity Test.








S36

2C-
19-
18-
17-
16-
15-
14-
13-
12
H 11
S10-

7 9
S' 6


3
2


o5: o o o i'o co c o
1r

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
I'D r- a) ON H HH


FIGURE 2

A HIGTOGRAM1, REPRESETTING THE FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF SCORES FOR THE
NON-CONTROLLED GROUP ON THE CALIFORNIA MENTAL 'iATURITY TEST


Figure 2 represents the intelligence scores of the non-controlled

group. The scores in this group are more evenly distributed, however,

the greater percentage of this group fell between 81 and 110.

A histogram, shown in Figure 3, reveals the frequency distribution

of scores on the Reading Readiness Test for the control group.





















ON --I o\r _1
H Ci C,
I I I I
V_\ 0 VN 0
H Cj ( CNj M


o0 -r oN
1A 0 V\
110 r- t1-


o V\ 0
CO .c CO N


FIGURE 3
A HISTOGRAM, SHOWING FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF
CONTROL GROUP ON READING READINESS TEST

Some idea of difficulties encountered in reading can be seen in
Figure 3. This figure shows the distribution of scores of the control
group on the reading readiness test. This figure indicates that this
group is not homogeneous; varied reading difficulties imay be found within
these limits.
Figure 4 shows a histogram indicating the frequency distribution
of scores of non-controlled group on Reading Readiness Test.


t


h


































0\ -I \ -t \ -O ON--- O\ O--N (I -ON o\
Hi J C\J r 4 s\ Ns 1- t co aco
V\ 0 I 0 Lr\ 0 V\ 0 \ 0 V\ 0 I\ 0 In\
-l cu cu r \ ; t --t 11\ V\ o '0 r\- co co
Class Intervals

FIGURE 4

A HISTOGRAMi, SHOWING FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF SCORES OF
NON-CONTROLLED GROUP ON ISADING READINESS TEST


O'N ON
I I
o o


Figure 4 represents the reading readiness scores of the non-controlled

group. This figure reveals a slightly more homogeneous group.

It is somewhat hard to view in comparison of this group with the

control group due to the fact that there are twice as many children in

this group; however, these scores represent more of a normal curve than

the scores of the former group.

Figure 5 shows a histogram of frequency distribution of scores for

control group on Stanford Achievement Test, Form J.


















rl
cj4
6

o. I--

S4

I 3

2






S H C CM c r \
H tr-- 0 CC \O C\ OJ IC\ cO H- t 0
Srl H CM C J CM If\ L

Class Intervals

FIGURE 5

A HISTOGRf SHOWING DISTRIBUTION OF. SCORES FOR CONTROL
GROUP ON STANFORD ACHIEVEMENT TEST, FOR- J


Scores in Figure 5 represent the grade equivalent of the control

group on the Stanford Achievement Test, Form J. It should be read as

follows: 1.1 to 1.3; thus meaning, the child has a grade equivalent of

1 year and 1 month or 1 year and 3 months.

Shown in Figure 6 is a histogram revealing distribution of scores

for non-controlled group on Stanford Achievement Test Form J.








40
20
19
18
,17
16
15
1l
13
12
4 11
0 10
S 9

7 -
6


3
2

o F FJ t ,i,-
rC \O ON CM L1\ CO r-4 0- O O O 0\
1 ? M, I I I I I I I I -1 I-P>
r-- t3- O Pn 1O O\ CJ 'L\ 00 r -q t I- 0
r H rl C\ CM CM CM c rr M C -\ -r

Class Intervals

FIGURE 6

A HISTOGRAh, SHOVWTIG DISTRIBUTION OF SCORES FOR NON-CONTROLLED
GROUP ON STANFORD ACHIEVEMENT TEST, FORi J


Figure 6 represents the distribution of scores of the non-control

group on the Stanford Achievement Test, Form J. It should be read as

stated in Figure 5. This figure shows that the greater percentage of

the children had a grade equivalent of from 2.3 to 3.4.

Figure 7 represents distribution of scores for control group on

Stanford Achievement Test, Form K.



















S3
II-

k 2





0 H ,4 1 11 1 4 1 1 1
.- e- o \o o\ Oj V\ \ r l 0 M
C'l V\ CO A _: CL- 0 M \' 0 0 (1j \ CO rHl
H- i rH H C' Cj M M z --- -: o T- -- t s \
Class Intervals

FIGURE 7

A HISTOGRAI, SHOWITG DISTRIBUTION OF SCORES FOR CONTROL
GROUP ON STAKFORD ACHIEVEMENT TEST, FOR.1 K


The distribution of scores for the control group on the Stanford

Achievement Test, Form K is shown in Figure 7. The grade equivalent

of the greater percentage of children as shown in the figure, is from

2.7 to h.h.

Represented in Figure 8 is the distribution of scores for the

non-controlled group on the Stanford Achievement Test, Form K.















17
16

















C 17-- r-- 9 C
0 I 'U O i- \- I> 0 cn .i i H



Class Intervals

FIGUTi 2


SA(TI TT 1' 3'



grado equivalent for thc -reate'r )orccnta e of t i

nor-control .rou a :Lown Cn iure 2, is Lro. 2.1 to 3.1. Thi' flls

iai' belo tie actual ,ra-e ol-acemient of te chil4, which is rnor ,.2.

This 2fig~'ur aseare& to -ipur- 7 so'as that Cro is, a tend.

for the -reater iercerta.,e of ils ir thir grou! Lo 2-11 in tie l(jer
2 -L




























class trval- vilr, th zr 'r c'rc ta of th- control "rouq I s a

tendency ')o ~fl in t a uNe~r class inte rvals

Fi*aur!e -ou sws t'e cr o're in rtor oti ,o o r and
after
LGas intervals
FIUR 5
A ITr.. JC^Qul;_ :-0 CPSFO -2-'*;XLZ










6









S3.7

43 .0 2.
22.7
// /// ,,,

0 2








c: C
H H

S0 0 0

0 0 OH
o Fo o r, o O



FIGURE 9

A GRAPH SHOWING THE GRADE EQUIVALENT OF THE CONTROL GROUP AND THE
NOI-COITROLLED GROUP BEFORE AND AFTER THE EXPERIE21T

The graph shown in Figure 9 represents the change in reading

of the pupils of both groups. Before the experiment, the control group

had a grade equivalent of 3.0 as compared to 2.7 in the non-control

group. After the experiment, the control group had a grade equivalent

of 3.7 as compared to 2.8 in the non-control group.

The test reveals an increase of 7 months as compared to a very

small increase of 1 month in the non-control group.
small increase of 1 month in the non-control group.







44hh

From this picture one can readily see that the experiment was

a success and that if this method of teaching reading is a continuous

process, the level of achievement in reading for the pupils at

Glenwood School will improve.











CHAPTER V


SUILAIE AND CONCLUSIONS


SULAXRY


The purpose of this study was: (1) to find the reading level

of the children; (2) to investigate symptoms and possible causes of

different types of reading difficulties encountered by students; and

(3) to present a reading program that would bring about, or aid in

the solution of the problem.

The primary causes of reading difficulties are: (1) poor reading

and speaking comprehension; (2) limited vocabulary; (3) poor word

recognition; (4) lack of reading readiness; and (5) lack of attention

to individual differences.

In order to bring about a solution to the reading problem,

teachers must set up an effective reading program and must make wider

use of first-hand experiences, and all instructional aids that will

improve the pupils' comprehension.


CONCLUSIONS


Upon initiating this investigation the investigator worked

from the assumption that if the reading level of the children in the

Glenwood School is to be improved, attention must be given to individual

needs and experiences provided whereby each child can progress at his own

level. Upon terminating this investigation it is concluded that vocabulary










enrichment, concept enrichment, and v ord recognition ability are basic

factors in the i.iprovci:mnt of reading. In order to develo. these

factors the teacher must cive attention to the following: (1) differen-

tiated guidance; (2) general language development; (3) reading readiness;

(4) semantic, or ::eanrir basis of lanmua";e; ($) social basis of language;

(6) ~-:i.~ .:.tic sequences.

In the light of the force. oin- conclusions, the invest ator

makes the follov-.in recommendations:


:;C0.; ZhDATT! S


1. Teachers should teach rwit an open mind, respecting the uniqueness

of each individual, imaing use of all available resources, and

failing to let the lack of conveniences, modern school plant, and

low salaries, serve as a hindrance in the instructional procedures.

The child must always be the center of attention.

2. Teachers of readinrT, when setting un a reading nrogram, should

provide a program so broad that equal learning opportunities will

be provided for all.

3. That lanruuage arts be inextriciably interrelated.

h. Teachers approach readin '-y considering the qualifications of the

child and his mode of living.

Center readin-g material around the child's experience.

6. Develop within the child the ability to express hi.miself both orally

and in written work.

7. Strive for individual development rather than lock-step coverage of

subject matter.







































BIBLIOGRAPHY









BIBLIOGRAPHY


A. BOOKS


Betts, Albert Emmett. Foundations of Reading Instruction.
American Book Company, 19)4. 66p.


New York:


Caswell, Hollis L. and Foshay, Wellsley A. Education in the Elementary
Schools. New York: American Book Company, 195. 96-97pp.


Ross, C. C. Measurement in Today's Schools.
Inc., 197. 242p.


New York:


Prentice Hall


B. BOOKS: PARTS OF SERIES


Smith, Nila Banton.
Instruction.
Boston: The


How Will Selmantic Emphasis Affect Reading
Edited by Raymond P. Palmer. Education Volume 69.
Palmer Company, September-June 1948-49.


Hildreth, Gertrude. Reaching Achievement and Linguistic Ability. Edited
by Raymond P. Palner. Boston: The Plmer Company, September-
June 1948-49.


C. PERIODICALS


Abraham Willard. "A New Look At Reading,"
iarch 1945),. 10.


Elementary English


D. UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS


Weatherspoon, Susie Jeannette. "A Proposed Remedial Reading Program for
the Negro Schools of Alachua County." Unpublished Laster's
thesis, Florida A. and M. University Library, Tallahassee, Florida,
1952.

Campbell, Witt Alton. "An Experimental Study of Two Methodologies in
the Teaching of Reading to First Grade Pupils in the Midway
Elementary School, Gadsden County." Unpublished master's thesis,
Florida A. and M. University Library, Tallahassee, Florida,
1952.







49

Guyton, Eva L. "Improvement of Poor Reading Conditions in the Pickett
Elementary School, Duval County." Unpublished Laster's thesis,
Florida A. and ML. University Library, Tallahassee, Florida, 1952.


E. ARTICLES IN COLLECTION

Webster Publishing Company. leadingg Troubleshooter's Checklist."
St. Louis 3, missouri..



































APPENDIX









X Intelligence

Y Reading Scores


October Form J.
Stanford Achievement Test Scores
California l-ental Maturity Scores
Non-Controlled Group


X Y XYi y X XY 2 Y2


96 31 2976
86 32 2752
120 31 3720
76 37 2812
75 38 2850
75 41 3075
78 28 2184
83 25 2075
97 28 2716
81 40 3240
76 35 2660
110 25 2750
83 27 2241
97 21 2037
65 32 2080
94 35 3290
102 29 2958
99 26 2574
88 28 2464
95 30 2850
80 25 2000
61 25 1525
92 24 2208
67 23 1541
81 13 1053
105 18 1890
106 31 3286
91 22 2002
90 35 3150
107 24 2568
100 33 3300
89 24 2136
66 23 1518
83 26 2158
101 41 2828
105 24 4305
138 31 3312
85 32 2635
85 25 2720
82 26 2050
130 34 3380
120 23 4080
110 2530


9216 961
7396 1024
14400 961
5776 1369
5625 1444
5625 1681
6084 784
6889 625
9409 784
6561 1600
5776 1225
12100 625
6889 729
9409 441
4225 1024
8836 1125
1004 841
9801 676
7744 784
9025 900
6500 625
3721 625
8464 576
4489 529
6561 169
11025 3214
11236 961
8281 484
8100 1225
11449 576
10000 1089
7921 576
4356 529
6889 676
10201 784
11025 1681
19044 576
7225 961
7225 1024
6724 625
16900 676
14400 1156
12100 529


99
126
89
95
96
111
137
105
109
84
100
107
76
109
89
105
89
110
106
106
84
96
97
96
S9-3
110
61
88
128
100
93
112
89
95
112- .
81
100


7,633 2,140 202,997 719,101 60,210


3069
2142
2314
1330
1632
3330
3699
2835
2507
1932
1500
2996
1749
2834
2848
3150
1958
1870
2120
2120
2772
2688
1843
2112
2883
2750
1586
2376
4096
2600
2697
3136
2759
2280
2800
2106
1100


9801
15876
7921
9025
9216
12321
18769
11025
11881
7056
10000
11449
5776
11881
7921
11025
7921
12100
11236
11236
7056
9216
9409
9216
8649
12100
3721
7744
16384
10000
8649
12544
6561
10000


961
289
676
196
289
900
729
729
529
529
225
784
529
676
1024
900
484
289
400
400
1089
784
361
484
961
625
676
729
1024
676
729
1024
676
841
784
961
576
625
676
121


Total-


Total-









X Intelligence

Y = Reading Scores


May Form K
Stanford Achievement Test Scores
California Mental Miaturity Test Scores
Non-Controlled Group


X Y XY X2 2 X Y Y X2 2


96 26
86 28
120 27
76 23
75 34
75 36
78 27
83 29
97 21
81 27
76 35
110 29
83 26
97 32
65 26
94 30
102 20
99 24
88 26
95 33
80 30
61 27
92 26
67 36
81 36
105 29
106 32
91 29
90 22
107 27
100 18
89 44
66 24
83 24
101 28
105 24
138 21
85 45
85 29
82 25
130 32
120 38
110 12


2468
2408
3240
1748
2550
2700
2106
2407
2037
2187
2660
3190
2158
3104
1690
2820
2040
2376
2288
3135
2100
1647
2392
2412
2916
3045
3392
2639
1800
2916
1584
1992
2828
2520
2898
3825
2465
2050
4160
4560
1320


9216 676
7396 784
11400 729
5776 529
5625 1156
5625 1296
6084 729
6889 841
9409 441
6561 729
5776 1225
12100 841
6889 676
9409 1024
4225 676
8836 900
10404 "400
9801 576
7744 676
9025 1098
6500 900
3721 729
8464 676
4489 1296
6561 1296
11025 841
11236 1025
8281 841
8100 : 484
11449 784
10000 324
7821 1936
4356 576
6889 576
10201 7814
11025 576
19044 441
7225 2025
7225 841
6724 625
16900 1024
14400 1444
12100 144


99
126
89
95
96
111
137
105
109
84
100
107
76
109
89
105
89
110
106
106
84
96
97
96
93
110
61
88
128
100
93
112
89
95
112
81
100


2970
3906
2937
2470
2304
3552
4932
3675
2616
2352
2200
3638
2584
2834
2047
3045
2403
2850
3286
3074
2604
2496
4365
3552
1860
2530
793
2112
2816
2800
1860
3696
2581
2565
2240
1377
2900


Total- 7;633 2,2_1 5i f4,889 749,099 66,44


9801
15876
7921
9025
9216
12321
18769
11025
11881
7056
10000
11449
5776
11881
7921
12100
11236
11236
7056
9216
9409
9216
8649
12100
3721
7744
16284
10000
2649
12544
7921
9025
12544
6561
10000


900
961
1089
676
576
1024
1296
1225
576
784
484
1156
1156
676
529
841
729
1225
961
841
961
676
2025
1369
400
527
169
576
484
784
400
1089
841
729
400
289
841









October Form J
Stanford Achievement Test Scores
Control Group


May Form K
Stanford Achievement Test Scores
Control Group


X Y XY X Y2 X Y XY X Y
,, ,Yx


114
120
133
120
112
170
116
116
94
123
87
108
93
84
79
80
105
99
100
79
130
55
109
113
73
99
85
122
85
113
94
98
83
94
116
117
113
89
81
120


Totals
4120 12f4 123,310 441,064 38,900


38 4332 12996 1444
31 3720 14400 961
29 3857 17689 841
31 3720 14400 961
25 2800 12544 625.
22 3740 28900 484
21 2536 13456 441
35 4060 8836 1226
45 4320 15129 2025
37 4551 7569 1369
29 2523 11664 841
32 3456 8649 1024
27 2511 7056 729
31 260L 6084 961
36 2808 6500 1296
26 2080 .11025 676
35 3675 9801 1225
31 2821 10000 961
31 3100 5241 961
25 1975 16900 525
24 3120 3025 576
41 2255 11881 1681
37 4033 12769. 1369
26 2938 5329 676
52 3796 9801 2704
36 3564 7225 1296
36 3060 14884 1296
33 4026 7225 1089
27 2380 12769 784.
29 3277 8836 841
20 1880 9604 400
17 1666 6889 289
29 2407 8836 841
35 3290 13456 1225
26 3016 13699 676
28 3276 12769 785
19 2147 7921 361
22 1958 6561 484
22 1782 14400 484
37 4440 1369


144
120
133
120
112
180
116
116
93
123
87
108
93
84
78
80
105
99
100
79
130
55
109
113
73
99
85
122
85
113
94U
98
83
94
116
117
113
89
81
120


51
29
36
45
33
24
.37
44
50
42
39
39
33
38
39
30
42
39
45
23
30
35
25
35
53
35
42
42
39
37
26
28
22
42
38
32
29
32
38
25


14,120 1,1455 1149,032 14)1,06)4 55,177


X = Intelligence


Y = Reading


5814 12996 2601
3480 14400 841
4788 .17689 1296
5400 14400 2025
3696 12544 1089
4080 28900 576
4292 13456 1369
5104 13456 1936
4700 8836 2500
5166 15129 1764
3393 7569 1521
4212 11663 1521
3069 8649 1089
3192 7056 1444
4032 6084 1521
2500- 6400 900
4410 11025 1764
3861 9801 1521
4600 10000 2116
1817 6241 529
3900 16900 900
1925 3025 1225
2725 11881 625
3955 12769 1225
3769 5329 2809
3465 9801 1225
3570 7225 1764
5002 14884 1681
3315 7225 1521
4181 12769 1369
2538 8836 729
2842 9604 841
1826 6889 484
3948 8836 1764
4408 13456 1444
3744 13689 1024
3277 12769 841
2848 7921 1024
307o 6561 1444
4200 14400 1225


--------------


4 2 4 4 0 I







( /J Elementary S .1 1950 S-Form

California Short-Form

Test of Mental Maturity
Devised by
ELIZABETH T. SULLIVAN, WILLIS W. CLARK, AND ERNEST W. TIEGS


.,l ,-
0,*
INSTRUCTIONS TOSPUPILS
This iatest~ of '1 menta mauiy In taing it you will' [ sho how [ well yo ne rstand


DO NOT WRT O MAS To BOO ET UN ESS TOLD TO D S O BY H EXAMINER.


PUBLISHED BY CALIFORNIA TEST BUREAU -5916 HOLLYWOOD BOULEVARD- LOS ANGELES 28, CALIFORNIA
BRANCH OFFICES: MADISON, WISC.; NEW CUMBERLAND, PA. COPYRIGHT 1950 BY CALIFORNIA TEST BUREAU PRINTED IN U. S. A.








Samples A and B Correct Test Booklet Marks Correct Answer Sheet Marks
A B A B
R L
A
R L
.// B i

L R L R R
TEST 1

1 2 3 4 5






L R R L R
6 7 8 9 10






L RO R R L L
11 12 13 14 15






3 L R L R L
16 17 18 19 20






R R R (L L

Page 2 Test 1 Score
SFE- 50 (number right)..







TEST 2


3


28


.


S1 2 3 4 -C 1 2 3 4 "28
21 29



1 2 3 4 21_ 1 2 3 4 3-29


1 2


3 4 -22


J~1


30O


1 2


3 4 0
3 4 Y 30


1 2 3 4 23 1 2 3 4 31



241 2 3 4 32 1
1 2 3 4 124 1 1 2 3 4 1 32


1 2


3 4 -25


r7Lpri ^ e


sj 'L.LJ &4J


1
I
27



I 1


Page 3
SFE- 50


3 4


2


2 26


3 4 27


33

l~aI
!^


1 2





3 4 1.33


f


I 1 2


3 4 /34


*
S


3 4 --35


Test 2 Score i
(num ber right) ... ... ... ....


LFBIH 1Z


22


23


7$


25




26 '


&L m- 11 I


Znvy^]


%


I








S~TEST -- -

TEST 3


1 2 3 4 %D


43




1i 2


3 4


38 46




1 2 3 4 38 1 2 3 4


42


2 3


Page 4
SFE- 50


1 2 3 4 _50
Test 3 Score
(number right) ...... ....


rIsPI




DIRETO S Redec0ru fsaeet eo n h ocuin hc olw
The mark as yo u ar tol th numbe of eac anwe yo hav deie
17 isp-correct.


TEST 4


E. If the sun shines it is day.
The sun shines.
Therefore

1 It will not rain
2 It is day
3 The moon may shine tonight E


51. All four-footed creatures are
animals.
All horses are four-footed.
Therefore

1 Creatures other than horses can
walk
2 All horses can walk
3 All horses are animals


52. Either the sun moves around the
earth of the earth moves around
the sun.
But the sun does not move
around the earth.
Therefore


J


Vo


1 The earth moves around the
moon
2 The earth moves around the sun
3 The sun is larger than the earth _5 2


53. Jack runs faster than Harry.
Bert runs faster than Harry.
Which is the slowest of the three?
J/
1 Bert
2 Jack
3 Harry -53


54. Jane is taller than Helen.
Helen is taller than Barbara.
Which is the tallest: Jane, Helen,
or Barbara?

1 Helen
2 Jane 5
3 Barbara 54



55. All mammals are vertebrates.
The cow is a mammal.
Therefore

1 Some verterbrates live on land
2 Some mammals live in water
3 The cow is a vertebrate 55


56. A is either B or C.
A is not C.
Therefore

1 A is not B
2 A is B
3 C isB
3C is B "s


Either your cousin is older than
you, or the same age, or younger.
But your cousin is not older, nor
is he younger.
Therefore

1 Your cousin is younger than you
2 Your cousin is older than you
3 Your cousin is the same age as
you


Page 5
SFE- 50





TEST 4 (Continued)


58. All circles are round figures.
A certain figure is not round.
Therefore

1 It is not a circle
2 It is oval
3 It is either a square or a
triangle 58



59. All metals except mercury are
solids.
Gold is a metal. /
Therefore

1 Gold is valuable
2 Gold is a solid 9
3 Metals are usually heavy



60. Some fishes fly.
No birds are fishes. /
Therefore

1 All creatures that fly are fishes
or birds
2 No fishes resemble birds
3 Creatures other than birds can 6
fly



61. Three boys are up on a ladder.
Tom is farther up the ladder than
Paul.
Jim is farther up than Tom.
Which boy is in the middle po-
sition on the ladder?


1 Tom
2 Paul
3 Jim


3 61


62.


George Washington was a skill-
ful general.
George Washington was Presi-
dent of the United States.
Therefore


1 Skillful generals make good
presidents
2 One President of the United
States was a skillful general
3 Good presidents make skillful
generals 62



63. A is situated to the east of B.
B is situated to the east of C.
Therefore I


1 C is situated close to A
2 A is situated to the east of C
3 C is nearer to A than to B


64.











65.


He is either honest or dishonest.
But he is not dishonest.
Therefore

1 He is desirable for a position
2 He comes from honest people
3 He is honest 64


A is equal ti
B is equal to
Therefore

1 B is larger
2 A is equal
3 A is equal


Nicol


Page 6
SFE- 50


o B.
C.


than C
to C
to B plus C 5






Test 4 Score
(number right).............................















2 4 6 8 9 10 12 14


66). 5 10 15 20 22 25 30 b d20 22
a 5 b10 e15 d20 e 22 ._ .68

67). 18 15 13 12 9 6 3
a 15 b 13 c12 d9 e3 ".67


[68). 2 5 8 10 11 14 17
a 5 b8 c l0 dll el? -s68

69). 1 2 4 8 14 16 32
a2 b4 c 8 dl 4 *16 L 69

70). 27 9 3 1 0 1/3 b3 d
a9 b3 l dO */ 70

71). 3 4 7 8 10 11 12 15
a7 bl0 cl1 d12 el5 -L 71

72). 3 9 27 76 81 243
a9 b27 c76 d81 e243 -_.72

73). 25 24 22 19 18 16 13 12 9 10 7
a25 b22 19 d 13 9 73

74). 1 2 4 7 11 15 16 22 29 37
a 15 b 16 c22 d 29 e 37 d74


75). 12.5 11.4 10.3


ige 7
:E- 50


9.8 9.2


IL11(^^^^^Ai^^^^^^^^HH
O NOW WAI T FOR
STOP FURTHER I STRCIN


Test 5 Score ")
(number right)............... .......


TEST 5.


a8 b9 e10 d12 e14 -- F


7.0
a 11.4 b 9.8 c 9.2 d 8.1 e 7.0 _L.75


e/






r--1-nnina----I
DIRETIOS : Wor ths prbes on she of scac paer Mark as yo ar told
L the lete of eahcrec nwr


TEST 6


G. There are 5 birds in a tree and 3 birds on a fence. How
many birds are there in both places?


76. Tom has 5 marbles. Bob has 4 marbles. Bill has 3 marbles. a 1
How many marbles do all three boys have? b2
c 12
d 60 -


77. Tickets to a show cost 10 cents. Jim bought 2 tickets. How a 20f
much did he pay for them? b 2#
c 12ll


78. Ben earns 4 dollars each week helping his father after school. a 20
He has earned 16 dollars. How many weeks has he been b64
working? 4
d, 4 --f


79. Seventy girl scouts were divided into 5 groups of equal size.
How many girls were there in each group?


a 15
b 14
c 20
d3


80. How many marbles can you buy for 25 cents at the rate of a 15
3 for 5 cents? b75
e 33
d 40


81. Two boys bought watermelons and sold slices of them at a
a $2.00
ball game. They had 50 cents in the cash box to start with. b 80o
They sold 40 slices of melon at 5 cents a slice. How much c$3.oo
should they have in the cash box at the end of the day? d$2.50


82. Balls which usually sold for 65 cents were sold for a short
time for 25 cents less. Frank bought a ball at the lower price
and gave the clerk 50 cents. How much change should he
get back?


Page 8 B
SFE- 50


a 250
b 20#
C 10d
d 5


7h&


a2
b8
c15
d7


fGCHT O To
*l^^^^NEXT PACE^




TEST 6 (Continued)


At Camp No. 9 it took 10 boy scouts 3 days to set up camp.
Camp No. 12, which is the same size, must be set up in one day.
How many boys will be needed to do the work?


a3
b30
c27
d 13


IL 83


84. George lives one-fourth of a mile from school. He goes a mi.
home at noon for lunch. How far does he walk each day b 1 mi.
going to and from school? c %/ mi.
d 1 mi. 84


85. A newsboy delivered papers to 30 customers for a month. At a 50o
the end of the month he collected $15.00. How much did each b$2.00
customer pay? c 5
d $5.00 L 85


6. There are 20 girls in the Sunday School class. Each week a $1.00
each girl gives 5 cents to go toward a fund for needy families. b 25
How much will all the girls give in 5 weeks? c $5.00
d $7.50 sf86


87. Richard saw an air rifle advertised for $21.00 at one-third off a $14.00
for cash. How much money will he need to buy it? b$7.00
c $18.00
d $9.00 87



88. How much will your mother have to pay for the cleaning a $8.40
of a rug 9 ft. wide and 12 ft. long at the rate of 20 cents a b$1.08
square foot? c$4.20
d $21.60 88


9. In a field meet, 20 events were listed for the day. Pupils from a 4
your school won 60 per cent of the events. How many events b 3
did you lose? c8
d 12 __ 89


10. A swimming pool is 60 ft. long and 30 ft. wide. The water
in the pool is 4 ft. deep on the average. How long will it
take to fill the pool if the water runs in at the rate of 90 cubic
feet a minute?


bge 9
FE- 50


NOW WAIT *. FOR
STOP FURTHERINSTRUCTION


a 80 min.
b 5 min.
c 26 min.
d 45 min.


) 90


I Tert 6 Score .
(number right) ................. ...... 7


"










H.

91.

92.

93.

94.

95.

96.

97.

98.

99.

100.

101.

102.

103.

104.

105.

106.

107.

108.

109.

110.

111.

112.

113.

114.


115. legal


TEST 7
blossom 1 tree 2 vine
3 flower 4 garden H
journey 1 state 2 travel 1
3 end 4 fair -, 91
law 1 rule 2 power '
3 able 4 help 2
always 1 larger 2 forever .
3 know 4 apart 93
almost 1 rarely 2 never
3 now 4 nearly 94
alarm 1 blame 2 signal
3 address 4 comfort 95
damage 1 manage 2 collect
3 injure 4 recover 96
announce 1 keep 2 publish
3 reform 4 destroy 97
improve 1 make 2 better
3 satisfy 4 admit --- 9
difficult 1 different 2 pleasant
3 hard 4 task 99
despair 1 mind 2 time 10
3 past 4 hopelessness o
consent 1 occur 2 offer
3 oppose 4 agree __101
portion 1 collect 2 part
3 make 4 refer 102
amuse 1 afford 2 gift \
3 game 4 please lo3
lack 1 use 2 want
3 admit 4 apart -_104
cease 1 consent 2 concert 3 I
3 stop 4 strain 05
disguise 1 reveal 2 declare
3 show 4 mask 106
distinct 1 success 2 clear
3 interest 4 noticed 10 7
sincere 1 satisfactory 2 genuine
3 hopeful 4 noble 108
lofty 1 tone 2 high
3 example 4 toil l109
extend 1 refuse 2 remain ",
3 lengthen 4 revert 110
condemn 1 false 2 blame
3 oppose 4 alarm --1
humble 1 secure 2 dwelling
3 lowly 4 proud 112
expert 1 average 2 master
3 business 4 student 113
apply 1 piece 2 use
3 correct 4 mean 114


1 la


3 lawyer


wful 2 court i
4 humane 11


116.

117.

118.

119.

120.

121.

122.

123.

124.

125.

126.

127.

128.

129.

130.

131.

132.

133.

134.

135.

136.

137.

138.

139.

140.


I Test 7 Score J -9
I (number right .......... ...............


endeavor 1 help 2 hero
3 attempt 4 harm -_ 11
conclusion 1 settlement 2 end J
3 journey 4 right
obscure 1 clear 2 hidden ~
3 odd 4 quaint -
extraordinary 1 loud 2 unusual -
3 particular 4 favorable
location 1 relieve 2 choice ,
3 view 4 situation 12
imaginary 1 existing 2 trifling
3 unreal 4 substantial
escort 1 avoid 2 occasion]
3 attend 4 remain 12
merit 1 deserve 2 merry
3 desire 4 just 21
compile 1 aid 2 ample f
3 collect 4 answer ---12
console 1 empower 2 reduce
3 order 4 comfort -12
legislator 1 elector 2 lawmaker 3
3 minor 4 citizens
revert 1 persist 2 perplex Lj
3 return 4 unknown 12
significance 1 prevention 2 age
3 meaning 4 certainty 1
petulant 1 oppressive 2 stagnant
3 sprightly 4 peevish 12
dispute 1 disturb 2 question
3 subdue 4 disguise -_18
deplete 1 complete 2 final
3 exhaust 4 fearless -- 1s
compassionate 1 sly 2 free 3
3 respectful 4 kind s
deter 1 meddle 2 applaud /A
3 hinder 4 recline 131
complex 1 simple 2 compliment
3 complexion 4 mixed
dispatch 1 discount 2 mood
3 relieve 4 haste --_ 13
venerable 1 adequate 2 aged
3 youthful 4 reliable 184
conceited 1 variable 2 connected
3 vain 4 conquest 18
malign 1 insure 2 slander '
3 muffle 4 invade 181
facile 1 fragile 2 futile ,
3 easy 4 remote -1181
empower 1 enlarge 2 permit
3 surpass 4 indulge 14


Page 10
SF E -50


I ST




i






SCalifornia Short-Form
Test of Mental Maturity
I (Relementary 4-GR '50 S-form


DEVISED BY E. T. SULLIVAN, W. W. CLARK, AND E. W. TIEGS


l alw I G e.... ( C I R C L E O N E )
Naom e. ......... .. Firt .... .....................M dde----- G trade .... .. ...................... G Girl
Last First Middle


'D t nth Day Yearof
Examiner.~. ./! / upi's Age.......Birth ...o
Month Day Year


See MANUAL for instructions..

S Mo.

Y r.

1. Sensing Right and Left 20*'/ .
0 2. Manipulation of Areas 15"/! -
TOTAL (1+2) 35~ -

S 3. Similarities - 15' -
uz 4. Inference - -15 /- 1

S TOTAL (3+41 30 -- -

&5 5 Number Series - 10* -
S 6. Numerical Quantity 15 .

z- TOTAL (5+6) 25

S7. TOTAL VERBAL CONCEPTS 50 .! -
>0 k f
U TOTAL MENTAL FACTORS- 140h .-


LANGUAGE FACTORS -- 80 r...
14+6+71
NON-LANGUAGE FACTORS- 60 -
11+2+3+51
CHRONOLOGICAL AGE // -. -
Average Grade Placement Equivalent

INTELL. GRADE PLACEMENT 5 -


SNon-language T.,s


Yr.
Mental Age
Mo.


DIAGNOSTIC
Mental Age
84 96 108
I I


PROFILE

120 132


IChart Pupil's Scores Here)

144 156 168 180 192 204
a i I I I I


7.0 1.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0 17
154 21 1 5 I I 4 35
I I I I I I I I I
S I i I I I 1 I
13 15 20 25 30 35
I I I I I I I I i I I I I I I
" 1 lI II 13 14 15
I I I 3 4 is

8 11:1 l ______30
I 3i4 2 8 110 II 1 ; I1 14 15
I I II





8 5 10 15 20 25

3 I 10 15 2. ) 5 30 35 40 45

35 40 5 4 60 70 80 9 10I0 110 13 130

S5 10 15 20 2 5 3 70
I I I I I I I I I I I l








25 30 35 40 4,45 50 55

84 96 1018 10, 132 144 156 168 180 192 204
o~ 0 '40 '50 60 7.0 80 '90 '10 0 11.0
2 30 4 50 60 70 80 90 100 1100 0
7.0 8.0 1.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 18.0 15.0 16.0 17
2i 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110

7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0 17
0 0 1 I I I I I I I I


108 120 132 144 116 168 180 192 204


-ilie
Rank
to. CA


SUMMARY OF DATA
TOTAL LAN. NON.
MENTAL GUAOE LANG.
FACTORS FACTORS FACTORS
SCORES 3


MA )^ / J
divided by
CA / /4
equals
"*" I/ /I^ f .

INTELLIGENCE GRADE PLACE NTS

r/ .7


For comparison and prediction, use Q.
percentile norms on page 19 of Manual.
TMF LANG N-L
Normal
Population

9th Grade

10th Grade

11th Grade

12th Grade

College
Freshmen
College
Sophomores
College


.. ... I I _, 1, .. ..... ..... 4 7 -.-r oo


I


"~~""


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pIMs SAA'Bq S p Jaet
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qojo IITA noX pue 9 u- uJ4 lte saq5oO0
x-no0A -uo pye 9 a0q job no in amoo3,,
'aotuo1/s:q poaio ,,'Xuuipu,, "saoppnd aoq
UT poqsTids puu Ino u-r OH "ur.r otq u. Au1ld
o0 paou1M luimu.F *p1req ne J sI. M rn1 mu


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apsui sT peajq IsoW "suLiJ- uo sMoa juaqM
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x : XAVuouam IO plojlnUvg





Stanford Elementary: K
TEST 1 Paragraph Meaning (Continued)


Plants get water through their roots. Each
big root branches into small and smaller
parts until the rootlets at the nd are as thin
as hairs. These tiny 20 ap themselves
around d-bits of earth an e up food and
from them.
0. twigs stems ootlets plants
.i pieces water material things



The mother mosquito lays eggs in the
water, and the eggs hatch into little wigglers
that come to the top of the water to breathe
the air. One way of getting rid of mosquitoes
is to drain the 22 out of pools a P puddles.
If you cannot drain these, put sor oil/on the
water. The wigglers will 23 jeca se they
willnot be able to get air tqi 2 .
L2. mosquitoes mud /watg wigglers
,y:z. leave swim w gle
~2 fly breathe t blow



At school e play dodge ball. e children
form a circle One child stands the center
and throws a big 25 towar the others.
If a child i hit, h has to stand the 26
and 27 the b .
`25. ring whee tire 1U1_.
ae. center ya corner circle
-27'. hrow bo ce hit push



If you look at a pencil, you will often see
a number printed on it to show how hard the
lead is. Number 1 pencils are very soft.
Number 2 pencils are a little harder than
Number 1 pencils, but are not so hard as
Number 3 pencils. Ann's Number 2 pencil
is 28 than Mary's Number 3 pencil, but it
is 29 than Alice's Number 1 pencil.


28. longer
29. longer


shorter softer harder
shorter softer- harder


I


Long ago the Indians of the Great Plains
killed and ate buffaloes. They made their
tepees and clothing ut of buffalo skins. Some
of their cooking essels were even made of
rawhide from t e same animal. The ho
and bones pro ded tools. Thus, the 3
was in many/ways a useful 31 to ese
Indians.
30. buffalo deer skin meat
.31. material product thing animal



The sand on our ocean beaches was once
rock. Tides and waves pound the rocks, and
the tiny 32 that are broken off are called
grains of 33 .
32. bits shells plants microbes


33. corn wheat sand


rock


Next to the air we breathe, water is the
most necessary thing for life. Persons can
live for several weeks without food. To go
without 34 for more than a few days will
cause even the strongest man to die. One
can go without 35 much longer than he
can go without water.


34. air


food sleep water


35. air food breathing


anything


The first permanent English colony in
America was established at Jamestown in
Virginia, chiefly for commercial purposes.
The second colony was founded in Plymouth,
Massachusetts, by the Pilgrims, who had
suffered religious persecution at home. Un-
like the founders of 36 who sought
financial gain, the 37 came o America in
order to practice their 38 without inter-
ference.
36. Plymouth Jamestown Ne York Mexico
'T. English Virginians P s French
38. business religion trade politics
3 ] Go on to the next page.






TEST 1 Paragraph Meaning (Continued)


Once there was a boy who liked to earn
money. He lived in a house wi a garden in
which he raised vegetables. very day he
took some of his 39 t the market to
40 .

9. money flower S carro t toys
\ai spend sl / show play


In olden days men made their own pens
from the quills of feathers. It required con-
siderable skill to cut a pen properly so as to
suit one's individual t ste in writing. Stu-
dents were always on the lookout for good
goose, swan, turkey, r other bird feathers.
Goose quills made the ost satisfactory 41
for general 42 ut schoolmasters liked
pens made front the 43 of swan feathers
because they ftted sst behind the ear.
4. feathers/ pas birds points
y.4 rear times effects
\A. ends stubs .jjji parts


An important part of the work on farms
which grow fruit and vegetables is the picking
or harvesting. When peas, peaches, beans, or
berries are ripe, they must be 44 at once.
The job is often done by 45 who travel
with their families from one field to another,
stopping wherever a particular kind of 46
is 47


44. harvested
45. tramps
46. fruit vj


cultivated


ued shipped


workers salesmen


students


crop thing


47. ripe found growing


seen


In general, insects may be divided into two
classes. The group that lives on solid foods
has biting mouth parts. The group that
lives on liquid foods h#s long, hollow, sucking
mouth parts. The butterfly visits flowers,
drawing up its food ith its long sucking tube
in 48 form. Grasshoppers do untold dam-
age to grain aid her farm crops. Because
the grasshop r ets 49 food, its mouth
parts are of t e 50 type.
48 -solid qui convenient dry
49. green ispan liquid solid
a p / sucking hollow strong
Stop.


4( i


No. RIHT 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 1 1112 13 1 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 81 a 33 34 5 367s 838 90 40 1 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
SGr. score below 10 10 12 14 15 16 17 18 2021 2223242525262728 28 29303031 3233343536 37 HA9 40 42 43 45 47 49 52 555862677381 849097100


~ed~sl


MW4table




TEST 2 Word Mtanford Elementary:
TEST 2 Word Meaning


DIRECTIONS: Draw a line under the one word*
that makes the sentence true, as shown in
the first sample. Look at all four words
and choose the best one.


SAMPLES:
The name of a color is
farm milk red pet
The day that comes after Frida is
Monday TuJsday Saturfa


Ai A kitten willtrink
nothing bread
\, A chair i t
Ssit on talk to
\..We can eat,
co sunshine
1in apple is a pie
If a boy and girl have
father, they are broth
,. baby child au
Tomorrow will come
Monday after tod
7 Ice is frozen
milk cream jP
\IIf I drop a glass uat
bounce bre
I New York is a lIge
joat city fact<
Small means /-
first early bo
-Tfo begin is to
bring car st
P To repair is t
spend b, neei
\13 Children ar people wl
youg i/short ft
(14 To be whole is to be
broken religious
A. chapel is a
picture cross


milk coo es

cut with de upon

"d o
arm t cart
e same mother and
and


ly early late


LI6 Across means
going street 6 ., behind
17 If you have a pain just above your foot,


is in your
shoulder


wrist ankle


No. RIGHT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1112 18141516 17 1
Gr. score 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 22 23 24 25 26 27 27 28 293


Sunday


If you c oose between two things, you
decide hurry plan wait
19 Strength means
duty power slow atura
20 To invite means to 7 i
thank listen promise sk


2kDelighted means
true proud


22 A dove is a
flower


please beauty


cloud bird


iful


queen


23 A huge thing is ery
small stro g dark large
24 To command to
order wer destroy complete
" A shelter giv
protection w rmth food hope
26 When a train h left, it has
departed llen hidden arriyad
27 A heavy load s
la e not light not soft
ildren w o assist in doing something are
helpful selfish greedy peculiar
"""'-*-----
29 When people look for something, they
engage in a
game search march s y3e
30 If something is small and pretty, it is
china dainty lace golden
31 A tree that is not standing straight is
slender powerful stooped slanting
32 A long stick carried to help one walk is a
handle staff club hammer
33 The things made in a factory are w at it
produces purchases destroys extends
s4 A vessel is a


bell basket


boat Jake


6 Something that can't be done is
difficult unusual assured possible
36 Someone who does a job well likes to be
Im oved blessed nursed praised
S7 One ho always tries to get ahead h
t per authority ambition dness
13a To c ide means to
co t take away separate figure
8 1920 21 23 24 25 6 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 4 35 6 7 381 Stop.
031 32 31 35 36 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 47 50 52 56 60 67 71


'"5fC}o~b"?LOJX~h


t ,


' -~--~~~-~


\


I







TEST 3 Spelling .


1..... .. ..... --------------.------.--






4. K
. -------------. --------------------------





7.- ------- ---------------------

8 -.. ........ ..------ -------...





II. - - -. -.. ...
12.-------- -------------------------------





13. ---------- ------------------ ---------
10 ..------------ ---- ---------------------------



14.-----------------------------
12.-------'- ---------------------------



15. -.. ----- --------------------------


1..------------------------------
1..... ... ---- -----------------

18. -- ----------- ------------------------





20. .
21 ..-- ...... -- --------------------




122..._.----- -.---------------- ------

23... -. ---- ------- -------- --------
20.--------4-------------------------------

21. --------- --- ----------------------
/
22.- ------ -----------------------


24...- ..- -----------------------------


25.------------------------------


I


NO. BIGHT 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1112 13 1415 16171819 20 212223242528 27 22930 313 33 34 35 36 37 38 a 40 4142 434445 4 47 48 49 5
Gr. score 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 35 36 37383839 40 41 42434445464748 50 51 53 55 56 58661 6 65 6870

[6 ]


Stanford Elementary: K




26.... -'-
26. --- --- ------------------

27.------------- -- -------- ----------

28.------------- ---------------------

29.--------- ------------------

30. --------------- -----------------------

31._ ------------------

32. ___-- ------- -- ---- -----------------






36.7 --- ---------------------.
33.---- ------------------------


y---- ------------------------


35.- --------- -----------------------------------

37.---------- --- ----------------

38.----------------------------------------



40..--------------------- -----------------


41.--------- ------------------------------


/ I,

44. ---------------



45. -------- -- -------------

46. 2--------- .----- ----------------------

47.. ....----- -- -----------------------

48.- ----.-- A, -------------------

49. .------------- ------------------------

50.------ ----------------






TEST 4 Language


.7a


DIRECTIONS: In each pair of words in heavy
type in the letter below there is an error in
either capitalization or punctuation. You
are to decide which one of each pair has
the correct capitalization and punctuation.
Then mark the answer space at the right that
has the same number as the correct form.
1 mr. Jones.
SAMPLES: This is 2 Mr: Jons............. i
3 4
3 St. Louis, Missouri
4 St. Louis Missouri
1 2
618 Maple 1 avenue
618 2 Avenue
3 4
3 Vermont
Fenton, 24 ermont I 2
5 6
6 November 5 1953 ii 3
6 November ..


1 Dear aunt Mary,
2 Dear Aunt Mary, ..............*

I am now making Cimas gifts..cs.

At school w've been having..........

12 un, We gave a Halloween party....

for our own ro'm, and the pupils in...


1 2

i.4
3 4


. 8
5 6

1 2
. 7
3 4
.1 0


5 6
Miss Alen's room, Before the party we 1 9
1 2
sent them a note which id, "Please... 1
2 said
3 surprise."
come to our room for a 3 surprise. .. 11"
4 surprise..
5 6
Have you ever made a cross 5 jack-o'-lantern 1
6 jack-o'-lantern.
One of ours had a turned-down 2 mut..h 13
3 4


4 teeth .
and three sharp 4 'e ..

5 another activity we enjoyed was... .

S"bambi.
reading a book called 'ambi........
2Bambi."....


, 6

2
ri 6


3 today.
We finished reading it 3 today. .....
4 Today.* 17
5 more, about
I'll tell you m aboutit when I see you., a
1 2
1 With love,
2 With Love, 19
3 jimmy : L
4 Jimmy I: 0


DIRECTIONS: Each exercise below has two num-
bered parts. One part is written well and
makes good sense. The other is written poorly.
Choose the good one and mark the answer space
which has the same number as your choice.
SAMPLE: 1 We'll go when you are ready.
2 We'll go. When you are ready.


1 Why he likes ice cream.
2 Why does he like ice cream?
3 The circus train carried lions. 3
4 A circus train with lions.
5 We went home after the game.
6 We went home. After the game.
1 We girls have regular jobs. Which we
do each morning.
2 We girls have regular jobs which we"
do each morning.
3 Together we wash the dishes. 3
4 Together wash the dishes.
5 Both of us make our beds.
6 Afterward make our beds.

1 At the zoo one monkey, had a nut which
he was trying to crack. .
2 At the zoo one monkey had a nut.
Which he was trying to crack.
3 The other monkey chased him. To the
top of the tree. And down again. 3
4 The other monkey chased him to the"
top of the tree and down again.
5 A third monkey sat in a corner. He
watched the chase.
6 A third monkey sat in a corer he"
watched the chase.

1 Our class gave a program. When we
finished our unit on "Pioneer Days." 1
2 Our class gave a program when we"
finished our unit on "Pioneer Days."
3 First a scene acted out in a log cabin. j
4 First we acted out a scene in a log cabin.
5 Which our parents liked very much.
6 Our parents liked it very much.
1 The girls wore calico dresses.
2 The girls in calico dresses.
3 The boys wearing fringed jackets.
4 The boys wore fringed jackets.


2
%21
4
22
6
23

2



4
25
6
26


2


2T


6
1 29


4
31

6
S32
2
~i33

4


[7


Stanford Elementary: K


I




,1 "

!' TEST
1 -,


4 Language (Contin


'~~rliB'pt~~~$; ,~ i"~"~ W r~EJ5a~A8~? I


led) 8


DIRECTIONS: In each sentence, decide which of
S the numbered words is correct. Then mark
the answer space at the right which has the
same number as the word you have chosen.
1 2
SAMPLE: Apples i good. ..........

1 2
2 Theo dogs just had a fight.. ....... .
3 4
The boys 3ar 't ready yet............ s6
Th'bys4 ain't
5 6
The 5 girls they asked me to come . .
6 girls


STom I d, his best...................

Where are the other boys?...........

Ann rung her doll to school.........
6 brought

2Last night Bob a to me, "Go home.

Where is my 3 book?
Whereis my4 bookat ................

He said that no bones were 5. broke.
6 broken.''

We can't find anythinwrong .......
2 nothing wrong......

3 knew you would be late.
Sknowed you ld be late ....

Will you ba this book to Mary?. ..
ring .

May all of we fourth graders go?......


S3 There getting on the bus............

Our teacher 5 doesn't scold us...........

Don't you think he may fe left?....
She put the vase down careful ......
4 careful mi lk ly...........

Give the kittens 5 themilk...........
6 there


1 2

3 4
.*r 139
5 6



1 2
3 4

5 6
.0a3
1 2

3 4

5 6
i: 4 6

1 2

3 4

S 48

1 2

3 4

5 6
::: I52


He 2 drew some water from the well.... .| i 53


3 taught


At school they 3 taught spelling....
4 learned US speing....

The wind had 5 blowd all day........

1 write your cousin?. .
Did you 2 right your cousin.........

One day I 3an all the way home.....
a run ......

Have you 6 a eraser?.................

Sally had already went home..........

they rseles asked us to come... ...
They 4 themselves

Everyone has 6 tken a turn.............

Has Mr. Brown poken to this class?....
2 spoke

It's real cold outdoors ..............
4 really

Nobody has 5 ate his carrots..........
6 eaten

1 Lte Jane be first in line............
2 Leave

There 3 were nine men on the team. ....
4 was

5I hope well now...............ur
I hope 6 you're well now.

John's bicycle works w.............
2 good. -"". .

Mike is 3 layg on the couch............
4 lying

Why don't girls play tag?..........

1 rode O
You haven't ride in our car..........

I don't know 3 whose turn comes next....
4 who's
5 stole the ring.
That man might have 6 sto the ring...

Did you and 2 h eat lunch together?...


Stop. No. right ( ) X2


DIFFERENCE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1112 1141516171819 20 2122 23 24 26 27 29 30 31323334 35 837
Gr. score below 10 10 II 12 13 14 15 15 16 17 18 19 2021 22 23 24 25 26 28 29 30 31 32 33 35 36 37 38
DIFFERENCE (Cont'd) 41 42 43 44 45 44 47 48 400 51 558 54 56 568 7 8 59 60 61 626 3 64 65 66 67 8 61 7 71 7 783


IGr. score


43 45 46 48 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 66 69 71 73 74 76 78 80 83 85 88 92 97 102 109 I above 110 1


No. omitted or double marked
8 a3s40 Sum
39 40 421 Subtract


DIFFERENCE.


3 4

5 i 6

1 2
56
3 4
5





3 4
#1U60
5 6




1 2
i- .Y62,
3 4
63J




3 4
5 6









3 4








5 6
7 a




1 2
.. 74


( )
( )

74


.,QdA(QJ,0~w8(p~1 Afl


'~'' ~ """ ~ ~"~Kbo~ ~um Ymbl~~


ankrd ELM




Stanford Elemeatary: K
TEST 5 Arithmetic Reasoning


DIRECTIONS: Find the answers to these problems as quickly as you
for each problem on the dotted line at the right of the problem.
pay no attention to a sales tax. Use a separate sheet to figure on.


PART I
1 How many dolls are 2 dolls and
1 doll? -__
2 Helen has 4 boxes and Dan has 5 V"
boxes. How many boxes have both_
children? _- _
3 Bert caught 2 butterflies yesterday, v
2 this morning, and 3 this afternoon.
How many did he catch all together? J

4 Bob sees 3 red apples and 6 green
ones on the tree. How many apples -
does he see in all?

5 Mother bought 3 new dresses for
Mary, 4 for Jean, and 2 for Alice.
How many dresses did she buy all a
together?

6 There are 9 pencils on the desk. Jim L/
takes 5 for his row. How many
pencils are left?
7 Tom put 2 pennies in his bank one
day, 5 the next, and 1 the next. i/
How many pennies did he put in the
bank in all?

8 We had 10 books on the table.
There are 4 left. How many books
have been taken away? --


9 How many chairs have we
There are 14 at the front, 7
table, and 12 at the back
room.


in all?
at the
of the


10 Ben found 13 shells and Ned found 6.
Ben found how many more shells 20
than Ned? -

11 Ann picked 19 roses. She gave one
dozen of them to a sick friend. How
many roses did she have left? .


can. Write the answer
In problems of buying,


12 Mike rode his bicycle 13 blocks the
first day, 9 blocks the second day, and
22 blocks the third day. How many
blocks did he ride all three days? --
13 Two dimes and two nickels are how
many cents? -
14 A 2-ring circus has 8 monkeys in each
ring. How many monkeys are there
in the circus? --/
16 Louise gave away 35 stamps and had
57 left. How many stamps did she
have before she gave any away?
16 Dan has 17 jacks and Joe has 8. Dan
has how many more jacks than Joe? __
17 Harry has 4 marbles and 3 balls.
John has 2 marbles and 6 balls. How
Many marbles have the two boys?
18 Steve got 38 addition examples right
and 24 subtraction examples right.
How many examples were right all
together?
19 A farmer had 137 sheep in a field.
He put 42 of the sheep in his barn.
How many sheep were left in the
field?
20 Bill missed 23 air-rifle shots and hit
37. How many times did he shoot?
21 Father bought ice cream for 79 cents.
How many cents in change should he
get back from two half dollars? ----
2 Ruth has 24 lines to learn for the play.
She says she will learn 4 new ones
every day. At that rate, how many
days will it take to learn all 24 lines?- ....
23 Nancy had 7 feet of ribbon. She
sold 1 yard to Jane. How many feet
of ribbon did she have left?----


19]


Go on to the next pcge.


.il




Stanford Elementary: K
TEST 5 Arithmetic Reasoning (Continued)
iI


24 How many cents will 6 boxes of break-
fast food cost at 16 cents a box? --
25 The 249 pupils of a school eat lunch
in 3 different groups. If all three
groups had the same number of
pupils, how many would be in each
group?
26 George gathered 184 shells at the
beach. If he divides them equally
among 8 of his friends, how many
shells will each get? __
27 The clerk says the cost of the meat
is 61 cents. Betty gave him three
quarters. How many cents should
her change be? -_
28 The school library has 24 shelves.
Sue counted 34 books on one shelf.
If each shelf has the same number of
books, how many books are there all
together? --
29 The cost of a new school flag was
shared equally by 7 Scout troops of
our school. The flag cost $3.85.
How many cents was each troop's
share? --
so Jane read 15 pages in her book in
45 minutes. That was an average
of how many minutes per page? --
PART II
31 Which month comes next after April? ------
32 Write the one of these which will buy
the most: dollar dime nickel
quarter -----
8s Write the one of these that is used to
show the cost of something:
pt. o ft. lb.
4 What number is written under the
space where Friday (Fri.) should be? ------
MAY
Sun. Wed. Sat.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7


36 Here are some figures.
ber is in the square?


Which num-


OL W W

6 A foot is how many inches? -

37 Which is the largest of these numbers?
401 98 357 199
V
o Write four hundred six in numbers. _i

89 What number would come next after
these three?
530 430 330 ? _3

40 Write one-half in numbers.

S41 Write the fraction which
tells what part of this
circle is black.

42 This chart tells how hot it was one
week. On which day was it hottest?
1000
800 -
600
40-
Sun. Mon# Tues. Wed. Thurs. Fri. Sat.

43 Which is the largest?
1 1 1 1
10 40 50 20 ------

4 One of these numbers tells you about
how many inches the doorknob is
from the floor. Look at the door-
knob. Which of the numbers below
tells best about how many inches
it is from the floor?
3 12 24 36 -

45 Write the Roman numeral XVI in
figures.


'1


No. RIGHT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 2 23 24 25 26 27 2 29 30 81 32 33 34 35 3 37 38 39 40 41 4 4 434 45 Stop.
Gr. score 12 13 14 15- 17 18 20 21 22 23 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 37 38 39 40 41 43 44 45 47 48 50 51 53 56 58 61 64 67 69 3 75

to ( /2 A J


i




-- Stanford Elementary: K
TEST 6 Arithmetic Computation

DIRECTIONS: Look at each example carefully to see what you are to do. Do the examples and
copy your answers in the column marked "Answers" at the right.

SAMPLE A SAMPLE B 1 2 3 Answers
2 6 5 2 6 A
+2 -1 +4 +7 -4 B 5
4 5 q 2 -

__1 ______
2 ------1 4-
3
4 5 6 Add 7 8
3 9 4 4 26 _
+5 -2 3 -2 +41
3 2 a .---

8 A7

9 10 11 12 13 9 _
76 79 25 28, 94
-23 -34 +84 -5 -34


12
_______________ _________ _________ _________ ______13 4_O_

14 15 16 17 18 14
14-6 =) 3 249 35+8 = 128 7
x3 +432 -86
ST. 6i1 / .7 ...
17 ----
18 -1

19 20 21 2219 /-
I i19
478 74 $3.76 317 Z ---
f X2 +6.50 x 3' 2
$r ?T 21 $_
22 X--V


Go on to the next ha .


[ 11 ]




I.


Stanford Elementary:


TEST 6 Arithmetic Computation


(Continued)


7 x9 =& 3


24 Add

179
57
903,
65


323
-276

1f3


* I


2)186
"#


23 /.3.
24

25


26 _

27 28 Add 29 30
27 ----
504 4883 48 -6 = 308
x4 7886 -279 28
4546
29

30


31 32 33 34 31

$2.22 410 $2.54 64
-2.07 -364 x7 x 61 s2
$ $ 33s $-

34
34 ----------


35 36 37 38
35 -
1
4)1 22 0 46 32)6 4
X6032)64 2 36
x 602
4
37 ----

38


39 40 41 42 $
$ 680 700 39 -
3)$ 2.0 9 X708 x970 68)1 61 5

41 -

42 ---



Stop.


1 32 83 4 35 3 87 3 3 4 41 42
17 48 50 51 53 55 58 62 68 74 80 95

(I O4)yK


No. mraT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 113 14 15 1617 18 19 20 2122 23 24 25 26 27 29 30 a
Gr. score 10- 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 20 22 24 26 27 28 29 30 31 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 44 45 4


[12 1







FOURTH GRADE READING READINESS TEST
FOR USE WITH

THE NEW ALICE AND JERRY BASIC READERS


Write your name here-o Z-A wi4 I Vj. i/4A',.

Zhnf-,l f/ye 2 / 4),A/f" P/ 47 Gra de


Date !t A.


PART I. WORD RECOGNITION
DIRECTIONS. Look carefully at each word in the row marked SAMPLE. Draw a line around the word lumber.
Each of the other rows, draw a line around the word your teacher pronounces.


AMPLE
number dandy lume handy



1. gather rather thirst first

2. gWJl mustard custard pillow

3. ba gh vanish tailor jailer

4. / jacket liver racket

5. kettle cheat settle e

6. bear beam bea beak

7. hoof hoop hood hoot
_- 1 1 1 1_ ./ _,
-^ ^ ^ ^ ~ ~. -- -


cluck


club


z- clutter


9. bath batter batc h bass y

10. push pug pulls


(Go on to page 2.)


Copyright, 953. Not to be reproduced in any form without permission. Row, Peterson and Company, Evanston, Illinois


41


vv --\--u~r-llr Ir--~l--- -


-~-"--


j,









12. tice slice scatter platter

13. clutch flame t blame

14. sweep frpc steep speFkled

15. glance prance ,g ch s etch

16. snatch smash splash j watch

17. lark lurk/ launch

18. stew stern stout starve

19. flirt fw flaw / flood

20. powder pointer ppewter

21. carved curved coiled sed

22. prayr prowler prouder proof

23. crib crash crop

24. drift drench, draft drugs

25. chap chip chck/ chop

26. blank blink block blunt

27. strap strip strung strength

28. thrash thresh / throb thrush

29. stake sreak stroke strie

30. pure pore peak pain

31. glaze gleam glide globe

32. crime cream croak crane

33. asate sleet slope slice

34. spy spade speech spike


POSSIBLE SCORE 34 PUPIL'S SCORE. PUPIL'S RATING


dri2 d


tripped


grain


11. brain






PART II. VOCABULARY
DIRECTIONS. Read the first sentence under the heading SAMPLE. Draw a line around the word to the right
ich completes the sentence correctly. Then do the second sentence in the same way. Continue in the same way
r the rest of the test.


AMPLE
A lad is a: girl man woman

To beg is to: take give tell


1. To mend is to: make spoil crack

. Cattle are: sheep h ses goats
. A trail is a: road s streett highway

. A sack is a: crate chest / box
- To finish is to: begin e continue decofe

* To graze is to: drink sleep wander a
. To be within is to be: without inside outs e
. To upset is to: fall drop tos overtn

. A clown is always: beautiful u fat tall
. A cobbler mends: clothes shoes tools

1. To ripple is to: wave shine slip mingle
* Kids are: boys girls goats
. To chuckle is to: smile laugh sing talk

. A shepherd takes care of: cattle reindeer goats

. You've means: you are you have you had Nou w-ouic
. An easel is used by: an artist a doctor a merchant a cobbler
. To continue is to: stop return wait go on
. Perhaps means: surely maybe truly never

. To desire is to: ask forget wish remember
. A waist is a: blouse coat trousers cap

. To be restless is to be: quiet sleepy lonely uneasy


(Go on to page 4.)
3








23. To be thoughtless is to be: careless trusty proud unkind

24. Finally means: soon at last at st never

25. A large number of sheep is a: herd family flock pair

26. To be alarmed is to be: friendly curious awake

27. The surface means the: top bottom middle side

28. To tinkle is to, twinkle tickle twitter ring
29. To be worried is to be: tired sorry gay troubled

30. To be worthless is to be: wis good-for-nothing young foolish
31. To be fortunate is to be: f zen unlucky lucky surprised

32. Earth is: sky oun wind water

33. A bun is a: isc cake pie pot to

34. To return is to: c come back go away stay

35. A meadow is a: mountain cliff hill

36. To be different is to be: like heavy thik unlike

37. To chatter is to: whisper sing talk shout
38. To be careful is to be: wonderful cheerful lovely
39. A merchant is: a storekeeper an innkeeper an artist a traveler
40. Toward means: away from; behind in the direction of under
41. To pluck is to: join end pull fit
42. He'd means: he will Ihe is e w here is
43. Certainly means: ely maybe perhaps if
44. To journey is to: travel return climb wander
45. To twinkle is to: tinkle shine twitter show
46. Amusing means: blazing astonishing dreaming pleasing
47. Cliffs are made of: rock water earth
48. To be astonished is to be: slow surprise excited
49. Frolicsome means: tantalizing d \/ foolish gentle


50. To hope is to:


POSSIBLE SCORE 50


search


expect arrive


PUPIL'S SCORE


guide


RA
PUPIL'S RATING__


after while since


22. During means:


before







PART Ill. TABLE OF CONTENTS
DIRECTIONS. Use the Table of Contents to answer the questions below. Draw a line around the right answer
to each question.


ANIMALS OF THE SEASHORE


The Life Story of a Clam..............

Crabs of Many Kinds................

Starfish and Other Queer Fish..........

Lobsters and Lobster Pots ............

Turtles and Their Uses ................

A Day on a Codfish Boat............


ANIMALS OF THE DESERT


The Camel, Ship of the Desert.........

A Shepherd and His Sheep............

Horses Fit for a Chief..................

Goats and Their Uses ................


102

126

142

153


Into how many parts are the stories grouped? one four six

How many stories are in Part II? four eight seven

On what page does "Turtles and Their Uses" begin? 86 36

On what page does that story end? 101 (64 36 85

In which story will you be reading when you are reading page 115?

Turtles and Their Uses The Camel, Ship of the Desert

Horses Fit for a Chief

How many pages are there in "The Life Story of a Clam"? 10 1
In which story might you find out how to make goat's-milk cheese?

A Shepherd and His Sheep Crabs of Many Kinds Goats and Their


POSSIBLE SCORE 7


PUPIL'S SCORE
5


Uses


PUPIL'S RATING






PART IV. COMPREHENSION
DIRECTIONS. Read the paragraph under the heading SAMPLE. Then answer each question by drawing
a line around the right answer. You are to do the rest of the test in the same way.


SAMPLE
Behind the house were a dozen apple trees. The apples were ready to pick. But Father had
work to do in the cornfield. So Jack picked one basket and then another. He took them to the
roadside stand to sell them. By night tired Jack had over ten dollars for Father.
1. Where did Jack live? city nt village town
2. Which word tells best how Jack felt that night?
unhappy cross ip playful
3. How much money did Jack make?
'ten dollars twelve dollars (more than ten dollar
4. How many apple trees were behind the house? ten six four
5. What is the best name for this story?
A Day on the Farm Picking Apples MIow Jack Helped
A Roadside Stand


A. May took down her bank. It was so loaded with money th't it was hard to lift. For half
a year she had been saving money to get a bicycle. Grandmother had given her some. Mother
and Father had helped her, too. But Grandfather gave her more t an all the rest put together. As
soon as she counted the: money, she jumped up and down. Tw ty-five dollars! Just what she
needed!
1. Which word tells b st how the bank felt? light eav cold hard
2. How long had M been saving money?
t' six weeks six days years
3. Where did most of May's money come from?
Grandmother Mother Father
4. Which word tells best how May felt when 'she counted the money?
worried delighted tired
5. What is the best name for this story?
A Bicycle for May a a My First Bicycle Ride
,How to Save Money,


B. Bob stood by the fence waiting for the plane to come in. /Only one-half hour to wait! He
was going to fly from his home town, St. Joe, to New York wit Uncle Bill. All at once he heard
the bad news. The plane was grounded at Fall City, sixty mile away. No more planes would leave
that day.
1. What was Bob waiting for the plane to do?
disappear continue linger
(Go on to page 7.)






2. What word tells best how Bob t when he heard the bad news?
hungry isapointe cross sleepy
3. Where was Bob going? New York New Castle Fall City
4. How long was it before the plane was supposed to arrive?
60 minutes 15 minutes / 45 minutes
5. What is the best name for this story?
A Day in St. Joe Good Flying weather a
Flying with Uncle Bill


C. The circus had come to town. Now the parade was on its way down the street from the rail-
road station. First came the man who owned the circus, riding on a big cream-colored horse. Next
came the band, playing as loud as it could play. Next came the circus wagons and the cages with
the monkeys. Then more horses with beautiful circus ladies on their backs! Last of all came a long
line of bad-tempered camels. In and out among the crowd went the funny clowns.
1. How did the circus come to town?
by bus by train y y airplane
2. What did the clowns do? mingled wit the crowd laughed at the crowd
watched th crowd talked to the crowd
3. Which word tells best what kind of animal camels are?
funny ffindly lazy
4. What was the color of the first horse? white black gray
5. What is the best name for this story? ____
Three Funny Clowns owt e cusCame
The Circus Parade In the Big Tent



D. There were twenty-one children at the picnic, but only twenty could be in the race. It was
to be a three-legged race, and there must be an even number. So Jack said he would wait until the
next race. Alice's left leg was tied to May's right leg. Now the race had start. All at once Alice
tripped over a stone. Down went Alice and May. Bob and Joe came in first, ut Bill and Jim were
right behind. / /
1. Who won the race? Alice and May Bob and i11llbad
2. Which number is the even number? 13 I 9 / 15
3. Which word tells what Alice did? walked um jumped ran
4. Who was not in the race? May Bill a/ Bob
5. What is the best name for this story?_ "
Poor Jack How Bill Won the Race e Three-Leed Rac
Bad Luck for Alice


(Go on to page 8.)






E. There were seven boys around the campfire that night. Each one had a story to tell. They
came from different parts of the country. The most interesting sto ris were told by Jim, Carl, and
Lee. Lee told of clambakes and moonlight parties on the sand. rl, the eldest of the boys, told
of cowboys and life on the range. Jim told of the mountains ne which he had always lived.
1. Where did Lee live? in a city /, ear the seashore


in the mountains
2. Which word tells best about the stories tolc
long tiresome n eova
3. How many boys told stories? ~SI
4. Which boy was the oldest? Lee '1
5. What is the best name for this story?
Bob's Story
n Evenio amp


three
n

;e a Campfire


F. The island was in the middle of a beautiful blue lake. The shore was rocky except nea
the little inlet where the boat landed. Carl had come to spe d the night with Old Joe. Old Joe lived
alone on the island in a little hut near the boat landing. N w it was evening. Old Joe was smokifi
his pipe. All Carl could hear was the ripple of the water ad the cry of the gulls. How he wished
he were back home!
1. Which word tells best how Carl felt? happy excited lonesome g
2. Where did Old Joe live? / rTisland a on an island in a lake
on the shore of a lake 'fthe seashe
3. Which word tells where the/island was in the lake?
end ei edge corner
4. Where was Old Joe's hut? on the shore of the inlet on the rocky shore


at one end of the island
5. What is the best name for this story?
Old Joe (Mfe o an Islad A Hut on the Shore


14


/


Yf~F


POSSIBLE SCORE 0

TOTAL POSSIBLE SCORE 121


PUPIL'S SCORE ___

PUPIL'S TOTAL SCORE


A Night on an Island










PUPIL'S RATIN
PUPIL'S TOTAL RATINdJ




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