A STUDY OF PARr:IT-TEACHER RiBLATICNSHIP
IN FLAGL.R COUNTY
the Faeulty of the Gruduate School of Education
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical Unhversity
In Partial Fulfillaent
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Seience in Education
Mabel Phabian Robinson
A STWDT OF PAREIT-TEACHER RELATIONSHIP
IN FLAGLER COUNTY
Apprv.4 S~ j;i~ ___ __~ /____
^ojiS gqct ee
/yy iA it
.ZKN ". L .GLh IBTS
The writer wishes to express her sincere appreciation to
Dr. Charles J, Stanley, who served as chairman of her committee,
for his untiring efforts in the development of this thesis, Also,
sincere gratitude is extended to Mrs. Thelim Cobb, who also gave
may helpful uggeiti ,ns, and Mr. Matthew H. .:starss, who served
as a member of the cocdvttee, for their critical su cstitons '.nd
Credit gnd thanks are extended to my sister, K:r. Cora
Pack and the Reverend Edward Martin for their kind words of
encouragoant in the pr praetAon of this paper.
., P. R.
2* IBKT3LIJ . . . . .
Purpose &nd signtftcance of the study .
Iportance of the study .
3t4temnt of the problem . ,
finrations f terc tsed a us a
rS-Ch .lF * * * * *
el-tio-h r i . . .
G3ope and neral aesu pti n . .* .
4ethi k of r a.ar c . *. . .
XI. A .*Vig hi 1 .. L.AU r 2:l U; l..LE . . .
III. XXFU-CLICT-1 I' b !TC7 ACar ?cL'.TI.-:NSHP .
IT. MYTflat JP ALLcV1&TIU C. FLICT:' . *
SV, UALM -N 0 LUSlG w 0 . 0
v. aEttry a e 9 0* 0 W
J15oAuns ca a a a a e a a c*
ICUO onclusinn + *
IIIDLIOCE Ifl!. *a.a.a............ C ~ a N
Most parents havo little knowledge of what the school is
doing w~th tbir children* On the other hand, uanr teachers are
ignorant of the cultural enviromens t of the child. They maintain
that the schoolroom ltiLts their obligation, and, consequently,
focus all of their attention on classroom instruction. mweveor
some teachers recognize the wider opportunity and challenge they
face, To them the school is only a part of their r spoaei lity.
As the study of education has developed, it has become
iaereaaingly elear that the child is influenced by xpermiense
outside of the school as well as by those i school. Experimental
evidmea e is available to show that a teroher can work more effectively
it she knows the out-of-school experienoee of the pupil.
It is not sufficient for the parent to know how to build
the haae enviroameant he must also know how to work with the teachers
to supply them with the kind of inforatlos they need, to get their
suggestions concerning exparieeea needed, to provide a background
for the child'* schoolwork, and to give the school the intelligent
support of the comanity. Sidmlarly, teacher are finding that it
is not sufficient merely to obtain information about the child's
hoee sad eoranity background. There are problems f direct coopera-
tion with parental such as, keeping parents informed about the child's
esperienoee at school, planning way by whieh home and school ean help
the child to overcome any difficulties that may exidt.
In addition to the realization by teachers that a knowledge
of the child's home environment is helpful, and by parents that a
knowledge of the child's development is needed, there has also
appeared a recognition of the need for effective cooperation between
parents and teachers on problems of mutual concern.
t oaoe inTd sAfloancse If Q 3 Through contact and
observation, the writer has discovered the existence of poor parent-
teacher relationship in Flagler County. These strained relationships
have resulted in a number of undesirable conditions poor parent
cooperation in the schools' progmea, insufficient understanding of
the needs involved in the aims of education, unsound evaluation of
teaching procedure, and lack of interest in school improvement.
With these deficiencies in mnd, this study is designed teo
1. Determine the sources of conflict in parent-teacher
relationship in Flagler County
2. Suteit proposals, based on the experiences of
other comanities as reported in educational
literature, to alleviate the sources of conflict
Importance oL a sd. If the proposals suggested in this
study lead to improved parent-teacher relationship in Flagler County,
they will prove valuable guides for other com ities faced with a
Statemeni of the problem. Since the purposes of this study
are primarily concerned with the improvement of parent-teacher
relationships in Flagler county, the problem discussed in this
study islt lba PLarent-Teaoher Rejaltoanbi 1a a1 laer Qggd;.
i4riga Bj laProed?
XI. DEFINITIONS OF TkEMS USD
In order to clarify important words used in this study, the
following words are defined
Pa In this study the term "parent" msansu, other,
father, or guardian.
TXabier. Throughout this study, "teacher* wdll refer to
elationahi. Throughout this study, "relationship will
refer to cooperative efforts of parents and teachers,
SCOPE AMD GENERAL ASSUMPTION
.SM.* Tbhi study is confined to an analysis of parent-teacher
relationship in Flagler County, Florida. It is limited further to
the findings from interviews, observations, cumulative records, and
an analysis of related literature.
a^ AasuatioaU. Basic assumptions upon which this study
is based area
1. All pupils need help with their problems of
development or adjustent
2. Every thing that a child does at school is
affected by the attitudes of his parents
3. Cooperative parent-teacher relationship is an
integral part of pupil adjustment and development
4. A cooperative parent-teacher relationship can
be developed in Flagler County
METHODS OF RESEARCH
In this study, a combination of the normative survey and
historical methods of research was used. The purpose of the investi-
gator was to ascertain the prevailing conditions of parent-teacher
relationship in Flagler County, and to determine, through a survey
of related literature, how the relationships might be improved.
A RMVI H OF RELATED LITERATURE
huoh has been written concerning the importance of improved
paret-teacher relationships. Out of the Aide spread interest in
this problem, two schools of thought have developed. The first
acclaimed "drive" publicity) the second advocated the theory and
practice of continuous publicity through all available media. Both
were derived from the philosophy known as "selling the school,"
Intense exploration and experimentation resulted in a new under-
standing of the school in relation to the conmanity. Publicity
began to assume its proper role as a component part of the public
relations program. It seems now that public relations of the schools
tend to promote further integration of the school idth the life of
Gregg writes, "The modern teacher must be a student of youth,
of the community, and of the purpose of seooadary education in
present day domratio society." This statement taplies, proem-
ably, that all ehool officials should live deeply and disely in
the social group and processes about the,. Pursuing this point
farther, Oregg, in an analysis of the comanity relationship of a
a asell T. Oregg, "Study of the Teosher's Responaibilities
in Education and the Profession," A uihtial aPmIgu Eduat tion
(New Yorks Syracuse University Press) p. 19.
select group of public school teacher, found that r
1. A a profess! onal group, teachers ome a the
sain fro middle clas and lover middle elaes
homes, with vierw ad values of that class-
typed ode of life.
,2 In travel experienee, from hoMs to school, chool
to college, college to job, ete,-tCechers
illustrate the principle of lCAted mobilityf
there move often, but not tar, mainly Aithin a
fifty ile radius. Thus there are some grounds
tfr the charge of provincialim,
Plly qualified to teaoh, iteahers are selected
nevertheless on a basis of "sociul fitness*
hieh often emludee wrthy youmg mea and 'nae
because of narrow and irrelevant aomanity view
k, The smaller tbh are the greater the number of
teachers who report their out of school life i
controlled by anoas besml groups and presasres
where as auny of these ame perrons feel entitled
to the printed htbLte, the lateure pursuLF and
the eivle activities eoneedel by the commauty
to be the rights of its respected adult embers
*5. Teshere participate in eommaity group and
setivitles, but, it office holding is used tas a
itndeS they have soebteed sIbstantial leadmerip
in ao ecanmity orgalvsetion aespt the htaret
and the yauth groups sponored by the church
6. Teaebers sow their share of participation in
emnsitir affairs perhaps, more than their
*bare of metal il health, meh of which
presably atffets pupils. Solitary and asedes-
taq leLare lpuruite, plus repressive life
outisde the school, are aong the eaueas of this
7, ethical codw, ateortationsc and the like re
n6t enough to chane the present situation The
aned is for practical projects eat program bhich
will demonstrate waye end mens of uitin school
and coumity in building better, stronger
It is very difficult for parents who have not been in touch
with the educational procedure since they attended school to under-
stand or to learn about the school when they attend some special
extra curricular activity, such as a football game or an auditoriua
program. In order for the public to obtain a more comprehensive
view of the actual work of the school, those in authority have encour-
aged visitation by parents.3
The pupils' parents constitute the largest lay group with
personal interest in the school, Since this is true, it is very
evident that they should be directly concerned with the progress of
growth which the school is trying to direct.
The most important means of creating under-
standing end cooperation between parents and
teachers is the visit of the parents to the
school. Parents should be invited and enmour-
aged to kelt frequent visits to their owa
children's classrooms. Invitations to progress,
exhibits and regular class work should be issued
by the school from time to time Although
parents naturally watch their children, they
become sensitive to other children's activities
and to the teacher's work. The genuine warmth
with which the teacher treats her pupils, the
cheerfulness and good will which pervade the
classroom and the evidence of good teaching that
is discernible, create confidence in school on
the part of visitors.4
Lloyd A. Cook, *A Community Contact of Teachers, "Shol ReYlew.N
491 646-47, Noveber, 1941.
Teaching is not the simple task that it once was It is
believed that much can be done to bring about loser relationship,
if we can gain the interest of the parents. A large number of
parents blame the public school for having failed to produce a
generation of moral citizens. It has been noticed that much of
the trouble may be traced to the home.
Many teacher-pupil barriers tumble when the teacher and
parent are working together. The respect for the teacher and the
necessity of her accomplishing her work every day leap upward. The
united effort of pupil and teacher pay high in satisfaction, Coopert-
ing with the parents instead of functioning as an isolated institution
can lighten the load of many teachers.
The importance of parents' taking part in the school program
is constantly expressed by various educators. They maintain that
the school alone cannot do a successful job of educating the child.
The teaching-learning program at its best cannot fully anticipate
all of the actual needs of students when they enter a new situation."
Teaching methods are rapidly changing and parents need to know some of
the techniques, in order for pupils to make efficient adjustments
Oeorge Wilder Frasier and Winfield Dockery, tInretaton i
Education (Atlanta Scott Foreman and Company, 1933), pp. 60-1.
Louise Burke, "Home Visits a Teacher Asset," T Edujatio
Diajgg, 14 18-19, May, 1949.
late V. Wofford, odeM Euf a tion in Rga llNI Sgchoo
(New Yorkst acmillan Company, 1928), pp* 10-11.
Syand states that the teachers hold help parents work Lith their
children, rather than against them,
Baxter makes this observationt teacher can know more about
the home and oomunity environments of their pu4ls if they partici-
pate actively in affairs of the eomameity and single freely with
the adults of the community.9
Paret participation is an important asset to the swooens of
the educational progr~s. Without the cooperation of the home, the
school cannot develop the child to the extent of hit ability. Home
visits should be made by the teachers in order to gain friendly
relationship with parents. If the teacher regards her patrons as
friend, she eam help the parents understand what is needed to
encourage the children to beeeoe more interested in learning. If
visiting the patrons' homes is good for the teachers, then vistting
the school is good for the patrons.
Parents and teachers are responsible for the esiatence of the
educational status of their co Lty, and they are Jointly respoa-
sible for its improvement. Participation' of tbecheis in policy planning
of a parent-teacher assooeation, for example, oan help to make the
citisens aware of physical needs that should be met by public appro*
priation-parent-teacher relationship can be improved, but victor
Percival M. Symond, "Mental Health Through Education,"
9esm Arn hwm jrai (tMarh, 1940), p. 89,
9 Bernice lBxt r, Tejajer-F dj Rjelalonship (New York: Macmdllan
Company, 1945), pp. 137:4
may come only if parent and teacher work together.10
For many years educators have been aware of the significance
of the interdepuedeace of home and school, but it is only in recent
years that a movement has developed to make the community as well
as the school an integral part of teaching and learning. This
movement has been fostered by the organisation of parent-teacher
associations. One of the best agencies for parent-teacher coopera-
tion is the Parent-Teacher Association. It is national in scope,
and thoroughly experienced in methods of cooperation. The promotion
of child welfare by home, school, church and state is the avowed
general aim of the organisation. There are two special aims that
relate definitely to the school (1) to bring into closer relation.-
ship the home and the school, and (2) to interest am end women in
cooperating with the schools in the work for better conditions in
the community. It is not the purpose of the organization to inter-
fer with the administration of the school,
A general outline of the legitimate functions of a Parent-
Teacher Association are as follows
1. Sef-educative. The parents and teachers
help each other. The parents learn the
necessity of prompt and regular attendance
on the part of the pupils, acquire interest
in the building, the eurriculua, and the
10. M Cuskey, "Teaeher-Comaunity Cooperation," national
maarm Aocatiatlonaal toa 37* 596-7, December, 1948.
equipment. The teacher learns home conditions,
the parents, ideals of education and reading
2. 2Mratien. The association furrmihes the
medium for the cooperation of children, teachers
and parents in formation of good habits among
3- S~adin. The association may offer valuable
advice to the teachers and to the school
4. E~CMWA i eg nukbllitr. Campaigns for better
equipment and facilities ay be given as
examples of proper subjects.
5. ti lative f etion. The Association may call
attention to needs overlooked by the teachers
and the superintendent.
6. Promotion gj oSal w welfare. This function refer
to the support of legislative and relief programs
outside of school.
7. gooperation .Lth nai neal ajnK2la The United
States Bureau of Education, the Publie Health
Association, and the National Education Associa-
tion may be given as illustrations.
8, gt a function. This includes a list of
things with which the association should not as
a rule interferes
a. Ordinary problems of school discipline
b. Actual selection of teacher
e. Selection of textbooks
d. Assig mret of teachers and pupils to
grades and rooms
e. Actual organisation of courses of st~dy
/ f. Dictation of teaching methods used. I
SJohn C. Almask, Mucataio fraxs C at si (ew Tbrks
Houghton Mifflin Company, 1924), pp. 24-45.
The Parent-Teacher Association is a valuable means of bring-
ing community and school closer together. Inspite of the faet that
Parent-Teacher Associations -occasionally have over-stepped their
bonds, occasionally have seen the needs onlyof their children to the
exclusion of the interest of all other children of the school system,
they have usually been guided by sound principles and actuated by
altruistic motives. They have been especially helpful in making
parents and teachers acquainted, in eliminating difficulties between
parents and teachers, and in stimulating a community sentiment for
It has been cited that parent participation also extends to
curriculum planning and evaluation. More and more parents are work-
ing with school people on such questions s;t What kind of education
do we want for our children? What kind of experiences should they
be exposed to? Now effective are the experiences they are having?
What kinds of reports should we have?3 The schools of Flagler
County have failed to get any help in planning the curriculum. Many
parents have stated that the teachers know more about what their
children need than they.
Most of the parents in Flagler County are not concerned about
u2 Ward C, heeder, f Fundamentals g bl School A-iitra-
ti (New York MNaeaellin Company, 1951), p. 241.
Roema Gena, Celia Burns Stendler and Millie Almy, TecbhinA
Young Children (New Yorkt worldd Book Company, 1952), p. 377*
their children attending school regularly. It is left to the teachers
to try to encourage regular attendance. A study made by Bell produced
strong evidence to the effect that home environmet exerts influence
in the motivation of children to achieve success in school, and to
continue in school.1Y As early as 1825, attendance at school for at
leasW a few years was made compulsory in Massachusetts and Delaware,
and the Southern states followed. It was cited that compulsory edua-
tion laws differ greatly. Usually they include some provision with
respect to each of the followings
1. Amount of attendance required, stated in terms
of minimum and maximum age limits or total number
of years of attendance
2. Minimum length of annual teat attended
3. Minimum amount of education necessary for
4. Exemption for various reasons, including labor
permits, distance from school, poverty, physical
disabilities and church obserances
5. Provisions for compulsory, part-time, or evening
6. Educational aid to indigent children
7. Methods of enforcement, including provisions for
taking the school eensus, definition of truancy,
and the duties of principals and teachers in
keening records and making reports
8. Provision for attendance officers and stAtements
of powers and duties
SH. M. Bell, "Youth Tell Their Story: "AMeriNan CouncilU
education." 1938, p. 60, cited by L. Hattery,"Why waste Talent?"
School and Society 7ln February 11, 1950, p. 82.
The typical age limit of compulsory education today is
seven to sixteen years. The median number of years of required
school attendance is eight. The median amount of attendance each
year is eiht months. There are six states that require attendance
bEyad the elementary school level. Current tendencies are to re-
quire attendance to the age of sixteen or until high school gradu-
tion, unless a child is given a work permit, in ease of need to
support self or family.15
15 p 270
XEgg., pp. ~270*1.
COKNFCTS IN PARENT TEACHER RELATIONSHIP
The factors responsible for conflicts in parent-teacher
relationships in Flagler County are somewhat similar to those
found in other counties. However there are certain factors that
make its problem unique. The poor marital status of the parents
is an example of the uniqueness of the problem. The permanent
record cards of the students reveal that the majority of the
children are from broken homes. Many of them have changed names
four or five times before completing the eighth grade. Divorces,
separations, and the death of one or both parents have caused
many of the children to develop a feeling of insecurity, Also,
these record cards give an index to the educational level of the
parents. The educational levels of the children were superior to
the educational status of the parents. Only one patron had completed
the high school course, two had completed the eighth grade, one
hundred and thirty-five had less than a six grade education, and
fifty-three could not read or write. Figure I, is a graphic
illustration of the grades in school completed by the parents of
the three hundred fifteen pupils in Flagler County.
In presenting the information contained in Figure I, the
writer is making no attempt to show that the amount of formal educa-
tion among the parents of Flagler County is a causative factor in
HIGHEST GRADES IN SCHOOL COMPLETFD BY PARENTS
OF FLAGLER COUNTY
3 A,4 h
School Grades Conpleted
any respect, but like other indices used in this chapter, school
achievement of parents is an associated social condition, and is
an important factor that must be taken into consideration by those
who would plan a school program to meet the educational needs of
The children of Flagler County know that, for the most part,
their parents are very limited in knowing even the "three R's".
Do these parents understand what they should do in order to be of
help to teachers in their efforts to do a better job? Although
the permanent dwellers stated that they want their children to get
all of the "learning" possible, they have no understanding of, or
sympathy for, the educational program of the school.
This indifference to the educational program of the school,
caused by the low educational level of the parents, is increased
by another factor, transiency. The necessity of families remaining
for about six months in one place, then going to another suggests
that school enrollment will be eratics Table I shows that there
were 303 pupils who entered Carver High School for the first time
during term 1953-54. The greatest increase in enrollment was dur-
ing the month of November. This was due to the fact that the
transient pupils had come. Table I shows also that 49 came from
other schools, while 74 withdrew. The largest number of drop-outs
occurred during the month of March. That is the time that the potato season
is beginning. The highest per cent of attendance was during the
first month; that was due to the fact that there wasn't any ggri-
cultural work going on.
The parents of these students are unskilled, transient
laborers. They are dependent upon facing for their support.
Although the salaries are enticing, the laborers are limited to
seasonal work. In order to maintain a yearly salary, they have
to follow the type of work best suited to their intelligence.
These transients are interested in neither community, nor school
Most writers agree that the school belongs to all of the
people and must be prepared to educate all of the children. Many
teachers withdraw themselves from the lower class. They consider
the children or their parents to be slovenly, unintelligent and
Our society is governed by laws, mores and customs,
Children are not born instinctively knowing and accepting the
rules of society. They learn slowly the conventions of their
particular culture, They receive instructions, deliberate or in-
cidental, from their parents and other socializing agents. These
instructions tend to build in them certain attitudes toward property,
authority, agressicn, sex,and honesty. Since the majority of the
parents of Flagler County have failed to give their children the
care that society will accept, the school is left to assume that
CAV -I10 f SC)OL
ATTXhCABCZ RETOkT FOR 1953-53
1 .BrAggrete Da Dnay Day |J
MontAh* Earolstnt Manmership Attndance Abeence membership
rI InaI Trans- Witb-. Tren- Ion Total Trane- on Total Days I UDa Tran-| No Total Averj~ Perent
hitries ftr drawal ported trans- ported trans- Abec Men. ported rn.- eber
ported ported ported ship
Aug-S.pt 238 13 15 90 146 236 1,629 2,667 4,26 231 4,5 1 133 215 6 95
s*-Pot 251 2o 23 97 151 248 1,691 2,734 4,425 407 4,832 84 137 221 241 92
Oct-ov 272 27 31 102 166 268 1,748 2,904 4,652 613 5,265 87 145 223 263 P8
soy4eta 291 33 41 108 175 283 1,19 3,157 4,976 624 5,00 91 158 249 280 89
Jan-Jan 296 40 45 118 175 29 1,890 3,044 4,934 734 5.668 95 152 247 283 87
Feb-Feb 303 42 58 I1S 172 287 1,991 3,078 5,069 696 5,765 100 153 253 288 90
MrMc r 303 44 69 111 167 278 1.999 2,901 4,800 738 553 95 15 240 277 87
Mar-My 303 48 71 111 169 280 1,917 2,843 ,760 842 5,602 96 142 238 280 85
nay-Jmne 303 49 74 111 167 278 1,938 2,749 4,887 673 5,560 97 147 244 278 88
Each hool sontbh otainr 20 day
Corasted to the a arest tenth
Per cewt means the per enmt of attendance
Table I shows the record from a one-teacher school. The
orm used for it in saLilar t tthe monthly report blanks used by
grades. There were only 23 pu:lls enrolled for the first time
that tera in Espanola. There were 4 transferred, and 4 withdrew.
The xprcent of attendance shows that the people were able to keep
their children in school.
ATTEIrANCE REPORT FOR 1953-54
Enrollment MIhaership Aggregate Day Attend- "
bnths* Orignal Transfers With- Trans- lon Total Trans- Non Total Da ays Pet
Entries drawls ported Trans- ported Trans- Absenc Member- cant*
ported ported ship
Mg-Sept 22 3 4 21 25 60 40 500 0 500 100
Sep-Ot 22 3 4 21 25 60 440 500 0 500 t00
et-Nov 22 4 1 4 21 25 80 420 500 0 500 100
seoe 23 4 2 4 21 25 72 420 492 8 500 98.4
Jan-an 23 4 2 4 21 25 80 403 483 17 500 96.6
eb-Feb 23 4 3 4 20 24 80 400 480 480 100
r-Mar 23 4 3 4 20 24 79 398 477 3 480 99.3
ar-May 23 4 4 3 20 23 59 399 458 2 460 99.5
ay ne 23 4 4 3 320 23 60 400 460 0 460 100
Each school month contains 20 days
Per ent means the per cent of attendance
Computed to the nearest tenth
Table III shows the record of another one-teacher school.
The enrollment for the year was 16; there were just 2 withdrawal.
Roy is a place where the turpentine industry is the main source
of income, and the children didn't have any work to keep them
out of school.
ATTM)DARCE REPOhT FIR 1953-54
tha* o Mbship I Aggrep S t A D7 S Attsend.
Mon Total Mon Total Days 'Day Per cent *
OrigLnal Trans. With- Trana- Tramp. TTran- Tran- Absncs ameber-
Entries fers draal ported ported ported ported ahip
Aug-Sept 12 0 0 0 12 12 0 20 0 20 100
5*0-04 13 0 0 0 13 13 0 260 260 0 260 100
Vct-.v 13 1 0 0 12 1U 0 280 2 0 0 280 100
0e* 15 1 0 0 16 16 0 320 320 0 320 100
e-Jn 15 1 0 0 16 16 0 320 320 0 320 100
Fb-Peb 15 1 1 0 15 15 0 300 300 0 300 100
ar-a1r 15 1 2 0 1 1U 0 290 280 0 280 100
r-7y 15 1 2 0 14 14 20 280 2 0 280 100
Ul.Jne 15 1 2 0 l3 11 0 a80 280 0 2M0 100
I II II I I Ilia 0 1 1
Each school minth conta lM 20 da
Per enti maans the per cent of attendance
Coputed to the nearest tenth
M4T"Us OF ALlICATfIG C -l.EL* Is P.':J-T Ti L.C-:t hLATI r?br
.Varted aethode have been triod ta solnv the problems of
prect-4w-eber retlationshAps. he ae thsdm have vAried from theeo
isLOA tte as)nl- by $he se
of parents ardr school. The beet k.now srd the -3st wdIee9presd
method hee been the orgSnislu on of prenst-tehober groups. Th vast
majority of these groups are sfafftlt'd with the katinal Congrees
of Parent and Teach*rs.
The Parent-Teacher ;soeriation offer t as intereet,-d and
sympathetic means of gantind !,ubli utldert Mndig san d pport of
the school's propia.1t6 IuriLg thesw* eeoings the more regularly
attesding smbers soa be sold the ide~ that they are lUteenats
in winnir- t.e ooaunlty to desltrble inovetionu, Proposed plans
or changes can be dielusead also. Thzrugh tbe organisatin,pride
is the schooll sad its ocbievwents may be developed. Through the
Periet-Teacher hanctattin, the eowtumity may be eductued to demand
more offeetive or --o4em dovelopments.
O I.nvrite tterwAnQoe the progr~ of the aesweLtton should
be attrretive. At every ueett"ng,tn addition to talks Mad papers,
eotertatnIng feature; sueh %s, ausical numbers, dramatic sKits, on
sat plany costs danMiesr and silar plealagd types of eativtide
Th3aas 1. lrisa hmpMovina lanr IuiA (Nev 1'rku Rtasallam
Caeinasy, 1949), p. 124*
should hb embiLted. These events can be something that has taken
plaee in a chapel program or an assembly. A period just after the
meeting, during which parents may visit teachers, in their officers
or classrooms, to confer with then concerning the progress of their
children dll prove helpful.
In addition to the parenatteachers aseeoiation, there are
other supplementary methods that are co. ducive to bringing about
a closer relationship between the parents and the school. These
methods includes inviting parents to "open house" or"parent night"
at school, relying on home visitation by regular classroom teachers,
and arranging special conferences.17 The planning for "open house"
on one evening each semester depends on local conditions. The
teachers plan with the pupils and principal the different features
or activities that they ant to display. It may be that the children
would like to present all of the parents with a little souvenir
made during the art period. An exhibit of class work, in any subject
or all subjects, showing just how the child has improved, will play a
great part in getting the interest of the parent* Usually it is
sufficiently successful in creating interest so that the visitors are
willing later to attend a meeting at which they can participate and
discuss what was shown.
WaLter S. bonroe, "Parent-Teacher Relationshipe."
c2rdge tt of l ducational Rosearch. Revised edition, pp. 802-6.
"Parent night" is a night sat aside for parents and friends
to see the children participating in classroom w-rk. In some counties
this night session takes the r.lJc of one regular school day. The
periods are a few minutes shorter where there are transported pupils.
A coffee hour or refreshments served by the New HomreakErse help the
parents to spend a more enjoyable evening. The seaastin is climaxed
with a chapel program, consisting of a few group numbers or a short
The use of the following periodicals and pamphlets suggested
by the Matiotsl Congress of Parents and Teichers, suggests another
method for improving parent-teacher relationships. Through this
method the dissemination of information is designed to stimulate
parents to study information pertinamt to their children.1
The Association for Childhood Education,
1200 Fifteenth Street, dashington 5, D. C.
publishes ChldghogAod W3p9fi. m, nthly,
September through MNy. The magazine is devoted
to the improvement of practice from aurey school
through the intermediate grades.
The Child Study Association of America,
122 F. Fourth Street, New York 21, V. Y.,
Rarl R. Douglass, Oraniestion rnd Administration of
3F ler Rgh"If (Atlantr Ginn and Company, 1945), pp. 499:k03.
publishes hil S .td This is a quarterly
journal of parent education. This journal
represents a mental hygiene point of view.
It is written primarily for well-informed
parent,. It has an interesting section devoted
to parents' questions.
The National associationn for Mental Health, Inc.,
1790 Broadway, New York 10, N. ., publishes.
Understanding the 3IMd, a quarterly. This
magazine simnaries current developments in
mental hygiene and strEsses the understanding
of children. The association has available
an excellent list of pamphelts, some directed
to parents, others to teachers and professional
United States Children's Bureau, Superintendent of
Documents, United States Covernimot Printing
Office, W'ashi.nton, D. C., publishes. the
ld oathly. This is a useful summary of
the health and welfare of AmEerea's children,
The Bureau also makes available to parents a
series of free pamphlets on child care. These
are ailply written and thoroughly helpful.
In SmaSties like Flagler County, it wll be ecessary
to oradis. dises ion groups to bring the infoamstion lsimedd
is the pephists and perlodi als to the larger nambr of parents
T~s oet tsggestms the nod aft prog p of adolt ~auilon for
Atlt station is e peoial7 laportast, bosase the probims
of piults are predeomtately of thbe *igh awn vTrietyf the
deciioe m"de by adults tffeets both adult d ahbildrta. This is
hihgligtd by the faet that hal of the adults in the tIHe- Statem
ever twentyt.vf years of age have not attended school beyead the
eighth grds. The seeuaulation of importat wevnt requi res iat*i-
get doetiions by all eitisans. This demnd ea aenutimattn of
requiring new skills and ftreb kowvaige. The adult dueatimo
pogr is geredl to metk the needs of out-of-aehool young adults
oceapetiooall. displao s, Ad adult d prelo, as well as these
sohKing ftedam tal oduastlos.
SUWIARY AND CONCLUSIONS
SaMaar. It has been the purpose of this study
1. To determine the sources of conflict in parent-
teacher relationships in Flagler County.
2. To state a proposal to alleviate the sources of
conflicts through an analysis of data of other
communities as reported in Educational Literature.
In seeking to arrive at the above mentioned objectives, the
inquirer recognized the significance of the problem by stating the
view point voiced by D. M. uskey "Parent-teacher relation-
ships can be improved, but victory may come if parent and teacher
It was necessary that the limitations of a problem such as
this be known. In brief, the limitations were confined to an
analysis of parent-teacher relationships in Flagler County, and to
the findings from observations, cumulative records, and an analysis
of related literature. Certain basic assumptions were underlineds
(a) all pupils need help with their problems of development or
adjustment; (b) everything that a child does at school is affected
by the attitude of his parents and (c) that a cooperative parent-
teacher relationship is an integral part of pupil adjustment and
For clarification purposes, key words used in the study were
defined and the methods of procedure was discussed. This inquiry was
based on the normative survey and historical methods, with the assist-
ance of such instruments as cumulative records and related literature.
A review of such reports as made by Bainbridge II, Greggs
and Gould served to strengthen the present inquiry in the following
manners (a) Two schools of thought were developed. The first acclaimed
"drive" publicity; the second advocated the theory and practice of
continuous publicity through all available media. Both schools derived
from the philosophy known as "selling the school." (b) Greggs disclosed
that the modem teacher must be a student of youth, of the community
and the purpose of education in present day democratic society. Gould
revealed that teaching is a mode of life, as well as an occupation, and
it should be taught as such in all teacher educating programs. The
need is for practical projects and programs, which will demonstrate ways
and means of uniting school and community in building better, stronger
Causes of Conflicts. A study of the literature indicated that
the factors responsible for the conflicts in parent-teacher relation-
ships, in Flagler County, are no different from those found in other
counties. The educational level of parents as compared with levels of
George Bainbridge II, "A Study of Public Relations from the
E&d of the War 1918-30" (published Master's thesis abstract, Bloomington,
Indiana, University of Indiana, 1950), p. 4.
children, showed that only one had co pleted high school, two the
eight grade, and one hundred thirty-five had not completed the sixth
grade. The marital status of parents was revealed from the permanent
records. The indications were that many pupils have changed names
four or five times before reaching the eight grade. The majority
of those unfortunate children have to support themselves.
In many cases the lower the level of education the greater
the problem in securing a Job. The majority of the farm workers
remain in their homes long enough to harvest the crops, then move
to another place. They carry out that procedure annually,
It was revealed that the parents did not understand what
was needed in the curriculum. They have stated that they expect
the teachers to plan.
Since the whole child goes to school, the teacher on longer
thinks of intellect as the sole concern. She is interested in
knowing how the child reacts at home in order to help him become
socially adjusted, Compulsory education is not enforced in Flagler
County. The teachers and principal need the cooperation of
the parents in order to bring about better attendance.
Methods aileviati conflicts. The Parent-Teacher
Association has been suggested by many writer as one of the most
outestnding organizations which help parents and teachers solve
their problems convening the child. The meetings must be attrac-
tive enough, however, to interest the parents. It was mentioned
that entertaining features; such as, musical numbers, one act plays
dramatic skits and similar types of activities be exhibited.
In addition to the Parent-Teacher Association, there are
other supplementary methods that are conducive in bringing about
a closer relationship between the parents and the school. These
methods includes inviting parents to "open house" or "parent night"
at school, relying on home visitation by regular classroom teachers,
and arranging special conferences.
Adult education is very important in helping to break down
the barrier between parents and teachers. The accumulation of
important events requires intelligent decisions by all citizens.
The adult education program is geared to meet the needs of out-of-
school young adults, occupationally displaced,and adult parents,
as well as those seeking fundamental education.
If the need for improved parent-teacher relationships in Flagler
County is necessary-and there is a reason to believe that it is-
then the recommendations that follow should be of value to the entire
school system of Flagler Couty.
In view of the findings of this study, and in order to effect
improvement in the schools of Flagler County, the following recommend-
ations are made:
1. That more adult-education activities be injected
in the Adult School, so that parents will be exposed
to activities that will develop leader-
ship, and that will give them an insight
into what children need to fit them for
every day living.
2. That the Parent-Teacher Association should
be reorganized in order to gain new strength
3. That the observance of Patrons' Night be
continued, and a speaker for the occasion
4. That all patrons be informed concerning
activities and regulations of the school,
through the Public Relations conmttee.
Almask, John C., Education LX CitisrenaS. New Yorks Houghton
Mfflin Copany, 1924, pp. 244-45.
Baxter, Bernice, Teacher-Ptpl selationsa. New York: Macmillian
Company, 1945, pp. 137-38.
Briggs, Thomas, Iloovin Instruction. New Yorks MamellHan
Douglass, Harl R., Qrstwsation and Admisnitration ao Secondagr
Schools. Atlanta Ginn and Company, 1945,
Frasier, George W,, and Dockery, Winfield, Introduction g Education.
Atlanta Scott Foresman and Company, 1933,, pp. 60-61,
Gans, Roma, Stendler, Celia B., Alby, Millie, Teaching Youg Children.
New Yorks World Book Company, 1952, p, 377.
Kyte, George C,, 1 PrinciRal Work~E Atlantas Ginn and Company,
1952, p, 420,
Reeder, Ward C,, lT Fundamentals 2f Public Schools Administration.
New Yorks The Macmillan Company, 1951,
B, PERIODICAL ARTICLES
Bell, H, M,, "Youth Tell Their Story"s American Council of Education,
1938, Cited by L. H, Hattery,,"Why Waste Talent?" School ad
Society 71t February 11, 1950, p, 82,
Burke, Louise, "Home Visits a Teaching Asset", eS Educational Digest,
XIV (May, 1949) pp. 18-19,
Cooke, Lloyd A,, "Community Contacts and Participation of Teachers",
School Regew, Vol. XLIX (November, 1941), pp, 646-47
Cuskey, D. M*, "Teacher-Comunity Cooperation, National Education
Association Journal, XXXVI[ (December, 1948), pp. 596-7.
Educational Policies Cocasinion, "The urpose of hducat ion in
American Pseocrnay" ('washlngton, D. C., 1921) pp. 132-33.
tly, Mary L.. (ad), "Adult Lduction in Aotion", SAari S as ahl-
Ma ta M l& t eas&LabO 1936., P, 480*
Larson, ail L., irastIn and Its 4ff'ects on Sctwola*, s lm tr
ghhaQLl ta Volume XUI (peceaser, 1940), pp. 283.
Symoad, Fercrval 1., nt4l kn i Ij duSation&a (March, 1940)
C. WJCYCLOPIF'i'A ARTICLE.
Oemanm, i. alpha PParret-.reacher hLelati nur aps". incyclopadia
L iFucational kesoarchp hweisd edition, 02-06.
Pf1MJ:H I' M. TA ii.; e -TS W?"T \:rC7
BainbrLdge IIs, eorge, *A Sttuy of Public kelatit ns from the KS of
the 1ar 1918-30" (published Master's thesis abstrrict, Blooaing-
toe Indiana, University of Indiana, 1950), p. 4.