• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Introduction
 Public education in Florida before...
 Section
 Social and economic conditions...
 Political conditions in Florida,...
 Legal establishment of Florida's...
 Characteristics of the public school...
 Summary
 Bibliography
 Appendix






Title: Rise and development of universal education in Florida during reconstruction
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AM00000011/00001
 Material Information
Title: Rise and development of universal education in Florida during reconstruction
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Stevens, Curtis L.
Affiliation: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College (FAMU)
Publisher: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College
Publication Date: 1953
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: AM00000011
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Florida A&M University (FAMU)
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAA0806

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Title Page
        Title
    Table of Contents
        Page i
    List of Tables
        Page ii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Public education in Florida before 1865
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Section
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Social and economic conditions in Florida from 1865 - 1875
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Political conditions in Florida, 1865 - 1875
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Legal establishment of Florida's school system
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Characteristics of the public school system, 1868 - 1876
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
    Summary
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
    Bibliography
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
    Appendix
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
Full Text







S R3E Am DnLJaaftm

or WZITeSAL SDMWAT 5 FLm rI

DBIU RCOwERCTIS









A Thbsi


Tbhe Orduate DivIaLoa
Tbe Morid. AprCat=ld And uaenbia I conegll









In Pwtisl XIfilicsat
of the Vqdironmots for thUs Leagr

Vcat~ of raten.w








Curtis L* Stwe*

Aust 1293







273
10805


88 RI AM DEMADPWNT O- IBIV AL.t EDOCAUTr-N

Wffi DOLTGr EzSBCf tCTWL














Curfts L. 5 Um


APPROVE DBtst






.po .u lt nt


less of the












TsLE 07 COsrrTM


CWRAP-R PAGE

x. xacrOmsrDUw 1
Jtrfisatlon Otn eS tuidy 1
Pftrobi Of Stuay f

Asope Of vinvtwtimato 3
R~siew Of Nlated LUtaratre 3
nI, SmaLGc ECA sc 2S ?Wa T3IA r LmiT;f. 1835 7
fl. 30CIAL AU uAIDMC CoMLImTINs .J iLORA
aI c 1065 M75 2I
Iv. PLITICrAL 0C .W I ., IN LO,)A, 1 6$ 1~ 75 37

V. MiUA.L SlTAB&UiCL T :W AMrIDA'S SCOcL STMA $151
vI. cBasBWrsRxlnCs 4- T. eiaJUc XoU JSmii. ,
168 2876 76
SaUnar 93
3IDLTCORAPIr 100
APPWUIX 207












LI= :7 TABLES

TABLM PAZB
I, Atas titlc On Macation In florlda 'For 1860,
19o, 1360. 23
II. maiemss FateabLtenat In Tloriadi, I38O 2870. 32
III. tPpulation Tabulation tf : lorla, 1$0 e L' 0O. 3A
9. Statitcs Gt Paperima And Crtise In Tlcrlda*
1550 2370 36
V Sttiatasc Of beggs Bdwcation In forida. 58
vi. Proprss Of Jchoo4 F and And iPaediitre. 30











introduction


The Ie of Reawfrotrutisec (1266.-U7T ) tA Aairlaa hbatory hea
bess the subjecatat anumesre iaew tgatons. The nejwit of tVAs
fforte taxt to vi el ansatrustion a msa Mnl eoonfla t beten
the Marth and the South rather than a manitsfesttoa of the social
and eanmuo Ochnces which ootunred throughout the thited State, ad
which affeted the orth aU val a the South. For that reason, it
bhs been s ugted by the A mrioan storical Associatio~ that stalls
be made which elaborate upon the inflomme of social ad economic
ohanres~ E iprasin tuie vies on the subjects one writer stte that
"rmewtruction matt be studied from sa eomao e and social orianttaio.*l
It is beasially caused tat uniersal education Isa n eseM Ir
for the perpetuation at our deocratie society but fer stop to ttink*
that tiVt idea ha. nt always been accptmld -a "ponitivte moi.*
Also, it os amla y as uted that in order for the individual to par.
tieipate fully tI ias doaoratie saoiety, be at be taauht an's
past Macoplislht. toIn order that he mar contribute to Uth parpet.
action of tAt *good lifer a the basis at those pat xpsrieues.o
There oar, a investigation is neded that is designed to rn O
aise the 'nas objective' viaw of investir atias on Reoosatrmetion, ad


wardd K. Beal, "Qah ReitAin Reconstfuction iaftsr ry .!Ainesa
aistorali au m'. sayr, l94. XIV. ppr, so-a8r7.


37319









to riv tmBe Itaijial a 1aftcmrwd aof his present day eitatiatr,

so t1-rt he may rItn that *rrwetit. wVsawenry o'r t* assmrovsvnt

of his ea ttrtnmm

It Is tr ro lem of thW.a Inw eIrsation to trace the rimei nd

devr.lamnt at unvetreal ed'eation eme of the faouSatimo of a

deiaoratl society InS Flrrida t a intokl; e onideratioa thbu

msncm i a eenndlarul wonditioa whith uairht baIw helped to orvduce

the public school sywtovm in ; 40E tat.

Altkr:..Fh this invm titiattna is primrily concerned with t~s

PetMnd IweMs 1806 mad 1976, a b"euCrowud of pu'lio esd i'ation bee

fore 1095 wll be riwen m order to rtw perep setive ftr the pri-

mary th~Rxm tbe Uliral Tduionttion Durl~r i t oonrtruotion

It nh-uld be noted tlat this study is not fotD ndd uvm any l I

pothesal or at, gnaeral tiaory of ecunstiman. liiwmr it ti a

-ase!; numap4atc of t t inestigator that as 4). ~tte nerenased

eeonnaicully, it also prayase d diueUtiimaly,

SA =n=*-or of stUdies h e eon confdrtd wbich treot ooonstra o

tion in Florida, and sewer upon eduction in Flo idae Te s o f th!mn,

huemr, sabls ak attempt~ to dMaeribe the wucati.onal situr. inn I

toerr of the smotil sad eoonrmae oadiltiorn which prewailed at the

t;n; nor dt4 iy o" n t .he w. attempt to u;nw th t 'mIveracil lue

nation aS aon outtrowth >w" thoaoe r 1cil and econidcr ,cndit..ns dums

Inc the peari,: cneerornTd

emeuae of the mltiplicity or works ewn icted vi.r relate to

th* astud, anly -Jhv rwneat prMrinmint will TI reviewed )wre







3
l writing sloot ome of the be efits nr lnm t fr i ResmV
itta, Du S b c nalats that tMe sgr gmvanrs att Rne omst Sn
ade noy ea ctrtbumts to erimse ^oely* deg these be h lists
dwatratito gavrmeant free sebotl, and social )egmilatioi. &e tis
be ds the vir thfv th 41 ffic lUe easo tst wr it Rconsxt Us e




Wilres a vis) Ls jaiessiag 0h peLd d t ienatrt tean 1
ealmSd *oM thirtame shaptre a the patd -a It emisted l lrida.
Although the stay show sntigSro senttiante it is a h Malpil soure
to an investigator who in oauttig a St der es the "EN* Other than
an tuplied oonlniam thaAt t fhonatimotam woa dAtewteal, bo to he
state, no other oalWtioa of aqW bmWet igntifleane we* printed.
abet Parlwltdsnesd at langtt the "nt p-re t e b Nar.
durw i Raoneatrautia In 7lorlda. ias wwk comeloles that the Ugro
wa qmit Influatm al in Flcrida' politics a;r recbed a high lsel
of legislative attamtat beItmn 236 ant ma87. This s talao
aomUiale that aem of the ant latintUal stiulats to te Msp.w
dtwio this ti.. was te Afriean Methkdiet aeepal Cherh wiah do.
voted ilteIf to the legal at oolal a f r fr tre M* iegr, espeitaly
the A S Church of %lhahasee




3 aU V.us9 a, VsUstraiui a AnS aiwts STr SfsI aa

lw oerte t( a m ebia kie Reit niyti bElwri XkN
albrt S. Aurto "the Upagro la Rgeoeat tira on is fridrl"*,
zV ~jyayw 9a Oetobarg 29%e








S sRtair l t~ tao tla i'-sttheitiso e i V~ta hb m S. Cgoba
rea bn th rkem Omwdm disawed the aweswi aUhetsn of P""e p6i
cation It Flarida but he ade .ttept to shw that pAtl edwteatio
we ituanlned t pwevanitg uoolal ed aseB es e te s. i s.B
wyrS, that wrto ntiba 3 tr aldrAc one I tme atlsli tine persitoin
pUitaintag to pbll sinwastmlBe
O'par Lan6 did a yrl4 le wettgaist oa tne deu13lament af
Naore Seutitona IAn forida. In comsa tiof th swarq lair eqMpaqd4
donuotal aeats or pAutAi r6oet, and Wstd peruMaL IOenrV
and lettast of piaWne oaanetS With this phase eft laridAt's Sfatte.r
aX progqr.
J ohn rw. lall>Be^ 1 ifgra senator B IarLds durtag aassoniterfteoa,
coab asn ot tie aet valuable wrmks prtatauLs to krasbstratisa Is
the State. TakxI the roe a. the eater of ht tr, twoll cfme mglms
"abAt forW paubio deements ticeh ahow that the agres lasU eoltA atO
be bland for the earrqtra prtes prevalent during th *si*v* m-
arned. srlase takes the point of view that had the Megro been trained
1i the formal aspect, of leristlatwe aetvities, and it the trafw LartSr
tatia of aIemy bhad een oaanduave to eisb mativitiss, and iff the
edndSr orttSer agents had loft the SUtat alem t e State end aU
Isrpa .wuld he saolvr the probliam which caftrtantd them a result




Q1r060M^ ON 000M- f a f % L
Talabasam ma pparo -.& --

6 Wa m. na HUM -q m dam 1A av I a- 1

Sdhnsa to all Ja ila Da
costs l889.







5
of "m1mipaftionO o RI l toeSe tthat thbs t iVmen Sustm pow
to be e ofr a esme thao a ble miaa to the Swgro.


thun i~el provtip for pt bu s diatim nB a furid before i840. ib
emmlusi o were wwaprs td but the Auit s atw both a prlaS rdt
m-ndar7y o f U tUei prited Ot Morles bSiM tI *CMnr f tP of


A amb. r of other geawMrl oenti mwe ooartd. t whiabh prsla di.
rtUy to this stt*, but beoanu of their si*lar ealuDi sa of tOe
othwr pwekr aIrewy pruestat, it i anot nena-m y to rnatios them
hrte. iBefwnw Is mate to tbe la vartans setios of tse inrest .
ga'tieo
ThUis tar ia U 1 uMr7 invettge tioa aUts larigly from publoa
rweaeds. The 2ism of the StatU bom 8263M77 mw umed as baumS s*
ttlarl,. The jourmle of th Florida Hwms of apsesontatriett and
the Florida Sate, -us*mes of te mwrnmsm of the StaU, and pso
porter at varioM Ga@t-pwriy (12394877) aofrfita.la dr*a upon
frtey. OthAr pufblc doomeats of both FederP ai d s ate character
ar als useod. Otir sourPMe of Infeorration an geiBnral histories
o the Statop geawrl stories eo ptubl edmatia,% at general hie-
tries of Rasomstrustioa,
tue to certain qultlfSasd reason9, the SaruMtator was dmnJia
the wme of a seleUtiam of sma*tratUea n aaIMpesi nd pertidleals
Ia oe of the State tbhnslesti. for that raomn, the desired date



h591.hm t rla*
.31u EI-w-3L 5







6
fira seh nemspaprs wre ineesLle and anund heavy rjlne pa e
reeral reoondary aso state
This study oonastr of aiz c hapters whh tfr e tie advelament
Mid describe t.e charaeteriaties of ulverftl education I Florida

froiam 122 to 2876. It its prinIly oarerned, homver, ri r .- te
period betiwie 2865 amW 16B. The develops t of the idea of s.lo
versal SedUca to florlda is disausd In Chapters 1 and Is
hmareas Chaptwr VIZ I devoted to the chariwte tioe of the ~ ate
as it obtained sa i the mnactent of thoe iAc Geh al sar of j669.
Chapteu II and xV we devoted to th.o. social, seoedle sad poliUt-
oal aonditiuos wiclh ait ham ve Af~lea the final eo Uhabaemat ot

a piublie sobool aptse andl the .ool L0 o 569 whioh ltwwgwrated
the a j a of pahiLo *dutcaiUn Fl Yorilda.
It ins tb bope o the investicatar that this stua willU be of
smom histerioal value, and that it will save an ieJ loetive to
othoea to candwt better aid more wxtenaie discussion ~a t itrmiie
isal edastton and the period of JReceetruation tno forida.









Cuan-n


Ptla Udwuatita a Floridka Before 286

ta need far a system of instittianal isrunag bea been raqp-
aDlsd at the people of Forida fras the earliest Umes. As er3ly as
1823, t3e ye a following; the orsanlast ta of florUda s a territory,
"an m'tire townhip la each of the distriato at efat nd est F loarid*
a "rsenrdw fro sals far the use of a sa iar of l..aingS "Prior
to tiA, period*" arnordin to Coshrea, "'theFr is reordo of aq elfsNi
iaul activity whatever in fnorida. It ay sabhool wore maintained
ti wre jprobab3t y all in the htads of the Cathaolt COlegy, ta r
resident population of the twritaory wa largely otf te dmltanti m.2a
Agll* Mtoro state that *"exW ptin; possibly soam Spsnih sisLimta
nothing was doan tward the +stabliSAa nt of s tools La florida util


Retutiag the stataneAts of both Cochran and loareo, rtfernce ill
forwi indicating the xistenM e of sacsocUl in Ilorlda prior t to th
territorial period. According to ",n 4lt to provide for the etabcliah
nent ant nsinteaneo of a Tree school in the City of 3t. Augu tina ,





-a
1 _.. _t< 41 fm Act of % orh 3, 1323. Vol

2 Thoma L. ochre, Estcy 4 Iathutuajl M t a L& i b or) t
p 620.

Paul MoUroe, Cyclpeda Of Itaatiaon. '*2orida', Vol U, 191.
p 610.

L S ,Qf Jerda 1833 Chapter 778.










it appeared that Spda bad maaitained sa yster of somm shoois is
St. Auguagtai. An mowepu t tu the Ua stats thats
-Whereo It o aof pub I itart that a TPep Sohool
should be stabAlied in the city of St. AugUtiae, ierwhaI O
4e, tll the trbansm r of F lrlda to th kItLted Stwaea g


Although mehools wer antaainied n Florid before 3821, it
appears that fl papqar intArwt in public eduation wee pempie

fattil uarly ten year later. In 1831, the Florida sdauatioal Seaim
ry Wm forced on ?allahame, and its general objeetiUve *to
collect an! diffuse inforaticm oa the sujeot of ediuatioa and to ea.
4earor to gneo tte e estabistaent of suab a geiMral usyUt of instrawo
tiUo s was suited to the mwats atd conditions of the trritary.4,
Thme is so uaerta naty cwaeomir the value of tth -oe34lty's ativiti~e
for fr the reprta ao several authors7 several other soclatiUe we
outGrcowtha of this ImQresiv force Aleo, as a oautpgrowth of US
Florida Sdauatin SesI1ty waM not oly InflaU trial 1i atlmalatina& into.

rnt A^ WSian dMetaUQa but also In establlsMU como schools. As
a result of tUs laflueae. of the dnoutiaSooJety an wiultturl al d
manual saoltl of thfe failaburg type was esthablIhed in T&llIatasse.




aaee E-11, ?h,, DwveoPlM t $ j4 -eeopdry duoe.ition % Inortda

'a ~ha. RItsto 3r f S titm0 "lIn aI p 12; Cochrans

D ahb, jg. egi 1, P 30







9
Otihr auailiar sooitiee of the Florida MidatioU Societty mr
organiasd la varies part of the State. FTh miet prosinmt of which
awa tie *S't. Joas atd M oqusat (this county Iu later called Qrange
Comty) County Socier. This soolato was arganised far the prpos
oe fosteri eduetion in the swerral coutels amiai its title. Ae-
sording to one author, it ws "quite motive eat helped conriderably tn
awaetning an intreset n edition It the eranil oomties.D10 fDu to
the iafltae of this aoiotet *'a basription was set on foot for the
establlsiaeat of a 'ftee aoholt at St. AugatPltin This antrprise
was not uholy ruoemasful, the eaus of shlch mgr be attritated to the
fact tat the idea of free of public educatian am the an an d= r eo a
ategs and not yet accepted ma a %"eeid gset.12 It is quite crdenrt,
howrer, that the St. Johns and Motquito Countt Society smrted oonsid
arable influeame tn educational natters.
But the failuam to establish a system of oamoan school wa not
only due to the Iapawansy of the ree school idea, but also, to a
nuber o other factars. It appears that t re isadteds
An alarming neglect of education in the territory siee
the sees lton Fr ti tthe tinited States ry Sp ata s Trfe
y of Spalznabruary 22, 181fr ly t the matter of educe-
tis was vi-EL d with tdiffnwnrea, and that the obstacles
which the battered population presented rendered the estab-
lishing of erwe a lUited system of camou schools extremely
difficult, if not iwpracticable.13


Nita K. Jsot Egj Mtony Ofr Zdcation In FlordA-
9 I MA G .4. a# 61w
SBash, W g&, p 12 eI o, .Prb. lir D oes.wnt Ho. 6
SPyb trn, g. *. boomsent bo. 6
12 see P. Cubberly, h. t g 9 o nat p 686
13 Bush, a. cit. p








According to the United States Census Reports, there we a 1830,

thre hundred fortyaone children between the agse of five ad f.if-
teen, but only 137 of there were receiving achooruil Xt is doubt-

ful that this figure aede ay appreciable changes by 2832,

As a result of public apaty, prejudices against eonma education
and the obstacle of a aparee population, the harder for progressiveness

in public education wa+ soon quaobed. Oonsequently, the Florida Ia-
cation Society and its aMxliaries became defiunt, and it appears that

no others were established in their places. This decline of interest
n public education vas rejuvenated somewhat by subsequent educational

legislation. This legislation eventually led to the establishment of
Florida's present school system.
froa a review of the various Florida House and Senate Journals, and
the Journals of the Legislative Council, an estimate of the interest taken

by Floridiana in public education can be obtained. It should be noted,
however, that Congreas had already enacted a s, r which served a ths

foundation of all other subsequent educational legislation.1 Then too#
in regards to Florida, Congress had enacted a la which preserved "an

entire township in each of the districts of East sae West Florida..

for the use of a seminary of learning*.6 According to the provisions
of this Act, it appears that the Federal Gorerment ta making this
reservation evidently intended to create a permanent fI d to be Inviolably


SBureau of the Csus, Report. 1870, Vol XI Table XIII
1 O(dinanse of 178
thited States Statutes At arbe. 1813. Vol 3, p 7T%








preerved at applied t to the mlatnane of public shbools. The terrim
trial gorm ent ma retricted ty this amt tfr the rthaeritr to e U3
or alienate those lands* xeaept unter the Gowerar ante Sa-diate section
th territorial goerirmnt however was permitted to rnt the lad.
nmually, but the rental frea sah section oauld nly be used in t h tom-
ahip to which it alone belonged.
Dr the CongrMessonal Act of 127,t? the territorial Owerm and the
Legislative Comll were given the pow t t take pomsse on of the laMd
reserved for the use of sahools, to leam therm fi year to yer, to ap.
proprit* msonq arising fro the rent of said lands to the Wae of the
school=U t tou t hip, al to pass lae tr the preervation of the
rervs d ashool lmase tfeo ntruwion and trewps uatil the a*dmisIon et
the territory a a State. Acting poa ths CaOgresiom l authwoits the
Lgislativ Couewil passed a act in 828 whi' h authmrisd a leave of
thee land during the contiamae of the territorial govermmat.
It appre that this sct of 1828 an effort of the LegiAlativ
Coumil to stiulate comen education. Acoording to the provisions of
the Act of 1828, the GorenOr rad the Legislave Cunrcil were authorimd
to appoint "trta fit ane d"tcrm t peraom in each eal every ooutQ it
this territory, to be called trustees of the school lands lyai~ in the
respective ountme.*19 The duties of these truAstees we (1) to take


IAct of CooGFess January 29, 1827?, in Florida Stag t. 191,.
Vol IbII, P
W1 E flz, S 1328. pp 247-218
19 @ pP t







12
poaesaior ot the ahb lands a their rdsOlm s6uncti a d slIs
the rar te toe to u a (2) to cnellt all mMrs ad pW the Sas to
the twrltw4il taswy, anWd (3) to s*le*t an seh usifethetb selsti
a stutable amber af ares ia -m body not bto -asS twb*r, fto the
raetteea f a mshol bMet! %2r
The taritaral w}nera p E* GCall SafatumaL the Lesilatb.
Comaoll that *ttbs met W pRt iot sffe t in so" sMummi starters Sn
other it appeal ner to hve be n.*21 183a thle totl *wals
rent of lease enS ti~ o a reported a flAl.50. Thi. oe, b anr
w repealed ftor years iatw t he Leal e Ate of bruary 13


Acoatin to their pruwaiame of tih Alo of 18, lax pe *sDres o
earning pBUio shbeX lands wdthi tuhe sUn tim belt WV the wnerNoar nad
egsuilat Osil Wl e give to the papl%. Tin psplis of tnhe repe
tUw eismta nwer givn the paur of elastic the 'Vste fr t and die.
rest" pesros to be OallUed omiaiaioner Vt the ixtesth s scio
Theem swlcm uwtnars wre take sharp of the sead eStta In their
rpeetive tcwuhip, with the pea to prote t the fr a e wste and t
troams to ret them out for "the te of ye~w for t uwe u of hoels


a .L dra? Jf .*... prisr to a13s,

21 B age Of The Taritoial Govemr, nof k As aOfMMM
Coaneil at e Tw ritary Of Florid a. p


23 WLA F1lraft, 338. pp 121t425









in said towmshi pt and like the trutees in the Act or 3183, t
"select aon eoh atas enth se-*ac s...* stable Mnbr of more in mO
bod, not to eammee tmntrj, a tje aight thi n propr for thU eraotion
of a Io3hoomo s.'Z5
Itea in 2i3S, a act wg9 p s whteh tbau rise the Jiw s ft i.-o
bate of the several sontr o~ rts to qppeSt "'te oitasbl p pro i*
be called o eaiamionrs vith Jpomr suatlar to those authorlsda the
Mt of 183.26
As to tU e tUan et this law, no reported datta as futemS. en
wr, ~ovem Call td his mNmage to the Legislative CowSl of 18hZ,
stated that
Br wa Pt passed n 2l8314 'Ue Juge o tf thhe setgr omrts
were autAorised to aioint t oEadasiPr M to take chage of
the S*Xt-ath sewtim withina teI repVetive countiU with
P "or t.la o tr to those onferred an the comsia eonme of 1832.
tar ths law has been earied inteo eftt does not appear
tosa wy data withiM wg possems nteIn but I be reason to bellt~
that In emy of U.e oentlies at leat ao attention whatever ba
beon paie to it..
In 1835, by the Act of Desember 26, tho register of tse lad office
1s1 autE-ajorId and directed to "saelt ad soure tie various lands witob
have or hreaftnr we granted to Florda fZr ehoolas seeinariUt and
otber purposees.* It w talft his duty to *k e- ditlant and separate


iTh1 ecp ol sh. Chapter 731


W gM S. L 3bs Act on t.&.. 8.6hh pp. 53h-6a
SS27 a 2SI 2inaEa it ao Jsaa &ieI P p7

k a a t. E.LI 135*. Act of December a6. se p2 r LS









seoumte" -s that the "rights and interests at asall aot be blesd&.-
od or mined with the rights ad interest of another and eash else
of land shall per the aspe e at l oat ag the amso." Several Ac t
sbseq-et- to the Aet of 2835 and prioer tohe Af t of 1839 d~ w a
proed, bat naether of the Acts sm to hsav been wll ameauet.3
All edeatioal legislatln prior to 1839 dealt with edueatla
lands and funds, with si attepts belag a&e to setablish meas fer
the ,tillsation of the aosrd funds. ReN lung the neceseitr of aseh
S an orgralation to benefit from auh fands, the Legislative Asmebv
amoted s 139 an mat for "prfesting a legal organizatiaa to benatt
from fuds moriag froB the asrteenth setion, er emen school lands.'3
Aloa before 1839 there a legal previuems tsr the education of
the orphan and poor ehildrl but in that yer a 1r wes passed "t
raise a Lfnd fr the education of poor cMhdre-a.~ This aet prewlr
ed that '~tw per etus of the amount to be ollteds of the tWerlrit al
tax ad station duties be used fOr the edeatlen of peer obldren of the
somty to whie h the frnda belong. This is te first legal samntion ot
a dual system of education in Florida. The sytea was based wpe elams
rather than ay particular race, A1a, this i the first attempt ro.
orded in Florida to regulate the public sehoela or provide for their
support ry the State. In order to corretly portion the pOsblJ o chool





30 AM Z AsC bS I a. 136, n p -4 38a a37, 2p 4.-


Psm bu, g. g~. omar t Us._ 1









Itds, the Aet rat lb Mtterised and drnWted the te ssMar *If
moh of the coMtie-s...te take anrmally the oenmem et hiltdren betmen
the ages at 541 dA fle1 the *am In their country eourta for the Su.
formtz on of the somt r**33 Th county ours b td the repwarilbty
of a.portiUnbg the ftads mmanlly for the w~hoean of poor oehlbr
of their respective s ties, heaiav a reaab regprd, as nMr
myw be, to an equal dstaribation mrr an poor orptma sib o tie
notice of the eoart. Several am sents wmee tde to this lr, the
prinacll aoe big W th LtegiabUtive A, of 1865.
On arch 30, 5s, t a the sat Florida we asi itted into the
t!ni=&a w aso passed hirth made son ohinges and Iaproveamnts in the
*pow or erjtS iw of 283I* la ascordanse with the provisions of this
actv the judWge of r esoemr wre to be the ~apriatadat- of omeso
school of their countaesi man the had partil s~w*riM cin ever the
aotf oft t trauee of thie aonties,35 'thee uOde, according to the
Law of 18, se to kr~ Url t r reports to the Smtaetwy a state hos-
duty it as to saWit thm to the GOMen l Aesly. It is interesting
to note that the SeOstry of State in perfclrain this d*t of ermpJau.
lag inforsrtlon eomerding educational aotivitiee sal oanditlm s the
State and tranmitttiog this aforamation to the 3arovnwr, sm pertaretia




A sj La Of Fnorida, 845, Pp. 20-22
3a wth the mactasnt of this law, a plan of superwiaioa begins ia
the oomtie which, although great3y revised has xistad otxvugh.
out th. history of mohool tUdinistratican sitida Florida.









M8 aof the tbaattl r later tlpod uipon the State .uprintendent oa
fJUlia Instra-Mato
It does not *ppWa, homwar that the State eoaeseld ay SIp
vision over the patl aohoolea bqrd that of rmsiorl of the d&e&r.
ttanal sport to tie Smrtary of Staut, or that thee w a r aP
which required that the stinhls sCaboud be free to all
aU retranamr to free eduatiton i ppear to be directed towrd the
orpabaM and per obtldrean It does pper, hbmwerr that the oosi

suboola we" sustaie d tay po6r souMes as (1) thi sixteatbh seoti
lands, (t) the vat pressed of rall oateated property (3) the fads
obtae td fro the atia4al treMaur uyMer tie surpiM rmwrae act,
(4) and per a et at al o th te ritorial tau at ametion adtie
collected,
The territory also emtited public edusatieon y amus of lottre s.
For instanoa, In 1213 "Oa Aet to Inoarpoate an sacadr to Jackson
Count to be naed Tiobe Acadeq autherIed the truwltee of tit omnty
to raise a n t at eseedin; on thumamnd dollars ly the war of let-
tary"36 Ar the mOpport of the bool Int 283L, bly *An Act to eathor-
Inr the tnrurtea of Qtinoy Acadar to raise a o artain aouit of caqo
tlr lottery the legislative Conuail providei that*...it shall be lawful
for tim trustees for the time being...to establish A lottery...for the
purpose of riXqing the sua of tmlve indrted dollra., teo Carry into the
aIntaund abjet,37


StOf The &MiaILTA CGoinc 2a2s, pp. T79480

31 d, pl350








1?
'Ti popularity of tIe ei t fom for supportiur schoosI as indicated

tl t1J "Paiti on For a Lottery Err ohool Pbrposes" tb'm the school

m.ard at Tal haresoe

Prior to 1845, florir ltad made oocidern-'. rain in her offorto

to offeet a sister of pu' lie oshoolsa er~n r, upon the entrance of

t!ha F.tat into the nidan there wUa nr educational lerisltirr l Pleh

n ovided for iVe ereatlr an' canr of achorl 'illir.g~ the length

of ac'eol trs~ the .-: -nes to a tasur.t, the trrt;ook to e us ed

the qu0alilot.tiocc nd ocrtife tlion of earchor, nnd nla .r u otnr

imnrtvnt Et-tters. fIloevor, provisions had 'eon made for tWhr profbse

firaenl trold: of te chore, or by thr Act of Feitrary U1, 18 39

each mrnrty mea rLe- "mlO to d o d at leont "ron ytosmn *-n to the 11ade

'Intitute to 'Ir pducrted as a school ester-*40

'!oting the profit a&mwunt of aedational leriRlalian prior to

1845, it In surpriatin to note that &drtnr the -rst years orf state

hood lorld made vwry little woresa" in pu"-lle Fed!at'na The co eS

stltution of forld. of 1846, cmntAlnad anly ti, short paarea mwn-

enmintr edter :.on41 71wus deaolt almost ecslusinvly, as did the pre-

vioua educational le-islation of lordss, with P- lie lands.

"'hn pr-inaauon wm- :.vnted ry Conreers in 1946,42 the I.seislsatue


Py'Tmm op, .itx ocuMent lIE* to
Aota Of The Le .-lativc Council 1838, p, 00


41 Article '

4 O
Act Of rwatTBBs, I-aPrh o 184.









of the Jtate was given tie authority to cllX th sixteenth section
lan.'s "for purposes of edu. tion.* "'it this ant was tV' boginnin; of
a p.rmanmt ltate school funj wr the "first attapt to rmake public

education a state affUtr w made.*M1

Although proviaiota bad been made for ttca esbtalman t of a peo-
*aw t school fund, th first lsr providing for a systy of osm.m
schools was ot enacted until January 30, 0LAW
According~ to the provisions of tUid Act, the doors of tZ maci.oola
it this asstem wre to be open ounl to white ohtldr betmean tae aees

o frive and eighteen. The control of the pSub seheol system wM

entrusted to thie reiatrwa of the last offices whose dutt it wam to

eat a State r auperintendf t of Schoola. The Act als~ provide that

the judces o' probate serve also as superintendent t of schools for

their respective counties. Also, the local board of trustees were to

be elected annually by the tac pyers of the various school diatriots.h

Supplraenting the Aet of January 1 aen oat sntitlod "An Act 'or
.ae :ra~reaee, L vesterit, afe-keep1A and ;ia~sueaO:t Of e :- L'o:un
schooll .'d"s was parsed the following day( It apeLars tdat tV. ain

of thit eat uw to %aik better rovissions for t c support of ti< oovo an
echclgOh*'l This law provided that tii common school fu;n was to ocnist


3 Cochran, Pblio-3Soi ol JBducation k I lw s. p 16

AS4 LWD f florida lO8B6-349. Captor 29V



Cochran, g. it p 17








of the preesds of the slxtmath section lands ftiv parent of the
net proceeds ofh thi tted States lads within the Staof7, te plr
aeds of eenheated propry, the mat proceeds tof !sU prNpee found
on the cost or shors of the tate," and all other PMvW thee-
after granted for the bueefit of e on schools. The proceeds of the
ftOu wne to be pad Into the trUamy of the StteU an the Weatroll'r
was to rest said mamqa Sn either Florida or taitd Statms asteM s
Thl Iw oaf 2~89 w repeald by the Act of Jamwry 1, 1353.
The law of 153 i s ore in detail mad speift then re prevism lot
of 18dl. 3 wurverlq a tU1e PeVa o C the I at 135. it was
found that the contra l and direton of the sonesa woe sive to the
registrr oa public laod, th eounaI e.rmiLmsiiFMs the Judge of
probste, and the lal trstteeS After th e At of 1853, an e eo-
tiv legilti~o fear etaabl ing a asrg te of pAbli schools me *sc
oured until the adoptiRn of the Florida Contittiou of 1868.
Wit utwe LeCalative Act f 1853t florida had t the begimnkin
of tr vry important fnati so that county atperntandMte hawe
perfornd el nr perfuing t bdr#, nxk2j, that of Uanineg thM
qualifSlation of the teacher to be apoyed, ad to enter Into amee
treat with the aenae Anothr Important aspect of this act is the
qpp~ol~ant the em oenionars and the judges of probate wa e-effilao


SeeAct of ConesR Msarh 3 8$ a tta
Lt 1l5. Vol So P 7W
L E i lna.FSi M853-53, P
Comohrma sr* ht1 P 13








aiool afflum of ti sottae. This pears to be a r VM ittA
ofa l uths et*iu t of 1a cetC mefl plan of abaiatrstinM for
iedhool sttAnl The afluaase of this law s a prr latSt tday fOr
tha State has n a oauragMit pinA of admimalstUtsm for *as@aW
affairs, Wi h it iMet redianly dirt frst a w these N earie tw fre
It houal be notd that thl#ere w as proP~ l asmto lt MNer
apubl' o tmatia betaore 86*, W*rh r to th rar ew65M, stated CeSib
rw, the ae reseda ed sm etSoe-est In to Ur of asie3sa 50 This
utatMMent appear to be laammisteaNt with via- held MIr other author
W~a tn *sJest. Gas ntsth statue that sehkls r establrhd
In rwtenaMa in Desoarm me 2lp6, and tV the beg!in1ag of 1864, the
FRednm*tg .S Wty had, with the help of the Fedranl Mfitar estb-
laithd osn wshols for mI Cr (ale) ehildrn at St. A he tasWU ,
nacdiU, and Jao&sew8nlle,5 Another litw etAg fast is tAt, re
tfrw is made Wl a oaeit parwry numpaper to tegro school htldrua
5inALn; 'Thrice Stwpy DqVe" f s *Wituar's 1age aeetams's SaBhq.
It As highly doubtful, korarsm that Negro ptbiU edmation reached
ay desmdid helhts rwier to 1865. Fr #y VerWtain i0, the establishb-
ment ofr eIqo ashool was practically timadhb iftr exile by the
law of 832O,3 it wu wlsrl for A to ee for gM p urpwsse


c aovhrem. balaQ eJ s saasia m As d p 19
Wllm 3. Davis, SM IM #MS R Z MqAIMI



58
Am TJua q !a 23, 1 .as qwad 8W DIStS

3 Bam LIA A flnordA- 1846 Chapter 8?







21
ercat for w.t or to attend c abh at a place attuned br white peSons.
And again in 18066, r siila but striate iA w passe.

Therecre, it is pussibale to sa that utUl P865, hardly anything
was done in regard to Spgro eduatioa, mAd absolutely nothing was
done tq the State in regards tothe program of N9M1p edwoationa

Dw to nature and pa oity of informative sou-rce, it ti almost
Ilpaible to det ine t actual a a ccosplishn nts of education del.

g thew ;eriod prior to 1865. Howwver, from vrailale data, it Is
quite evident that bay 2860 considerabl. progress had ben made in nro
;rda to the estaUblishant of public school edmation in Flori4.
rorw Table I it oa= be seo tlat 'orida had cale consderable
progrsn in adurataiwwl matters by t 860. aewer, durwl the Interreg-
lia of 1260-1865 prastlealry nothinij wase couplisiad in this urea.
This wi be attributed to the traua influence of tVe Civil w which
absorbed the thxighta, enargics, and meurities of the people.

Lur tU period frm 18604.3865 the ptubls school pastsm was
alaoet dsfrtserd. The fmnds tiat had ben set aside for the uae of
carbon saco.ols before t:-e war were civen during Ut. wr to Uwe vujcwrnr
of t.o State for the purchase of arms far the State. Also, these
unads were to be amd as payaont of the .tata debts This is alridered
bt the Leuislative Ordi nme of 1861 vwich states that

*,*te stocks of the -serarl state held y the camptrol.
1. my! Treasureaw for the school and aninary funds...are hres.


Acts of Ie dgae 4s* Concil of Wge Territory af Irar .
IS VIN plO sMLAI








2t
IT plf t at tme dlMp oe tho a r*0we ft the pjpmwnt
of owah portion of the debts of the State."
oseMqautly when Florida emerged fr the *"OaRtatl thew w
bid3y s r f teds for the purptafstita of a State Pblte Skhbel SPtam































Journal Qat Tr*... onvnwsataon 181. p 123







TAXS I
St.tstlj n b14wtlon UIn Iorlda For 2lia1c W 10B* d160%




Aadelc and Otahr hool s



Akmoau ]UZM Total (Dollars) .. 9 W
irob heum nnr c f ... *. 3.
frtm th r Isourew ,.e 129 '
I I I
PAicO Shoolt

amtorj l 69 97
Teasichr 73 9
Total enaraant 9,, 76 O At
Average attendml e **** 76 I
AaaIl Zansem, Total (Dellars) # *** 22386 h796
fromn eslwasnt ** **. 7%
ftm teMtio ** ***
hura pSubli futls *** .5, 0 953)
from otber so-uree ... 22* 6 6906

I I I
Illitaetes ove so 3939 # 53
Librarivs A

Total 7 66
a I
pAblAla rlbPrries A* *.,* 1 Sb
setarh litraries *,,. 1
@1hool libraries .,* 2
Total u srat volume .... 2600 *163





.t-ifw.s are trfor white &woy
b-tae mb'er of inhabitate batMe *we 4 20 Kyena of age
t-supErsateidSnt Corlq giveS #9DAD -a the nafnt frer pULas
Etms, tlle thb TbItd State Coms rprit givns oy t2,*0.
aarne ar, artl. as tak fro ^4tui Iu
QKltt Statunes j Cesus Steait. oo PiE353iDURns K *por
v ait0 660.









CaPtIR I


Social and eomnic Canditicns In Florida From 1865-875

It has been shoun that the ashool system which misted in Florida

before 1865 were of a quast-pubic nstwe. It also bas been asl that
the sving educational influence was provided by philaathr o e eeeties.

It would be too anch to say, horwer, that these philanthqwpt efforts

alone could have resulted In the establishment of tree public educatiae

in Florida.

Therefore, in order to seure a clear tuderstarding of those fores

which made possible the establishment of a public school system in Flori

da during the period under consideration, i is neeessary to ermine the

social and economic conitieow at of uhich the public school system

sprang.
It should be said at the outset that sn attempt will be made to
treat these social and economic factors for their owS uvrth, nor to

present a complete discussion of the period of Reconstruction, but ast-

p2y to establish the enironment within which the present system of

public education evolved.

When the Civil War ended in 1865, Florida aUle with other south.

ern sates, found herself victim to both eceaen e and social devasta-

tion. The assessed value of real and personal properly, exclusive of

slaves, shrank from b7,000,000 in 1860 to $25,00o0000 in 1865.1 In
addition to this was a loss of $22,000,000 resulting from the amancipa-


Report of the State Treasurer, I860, 1865, in House and Senate
Journals, I860, 1865. appendices. -"""










ton of claves in t!- P"tatoe?

"his p. riot! t-icdiately fbalowin th '. ar Mwa ch- raetorised not

rnly 1y depreoin4 'Ionm in property valuesi, 'it also "y unreat. The

later ntlears t-. hNe rat''lted fsrom t's nwst wih conftlrad tiw iall

.jV t ornfdederacry; ThS anodic ts evidenced Iy te arcrsPnts used to

jtitIfy the p4anicky 8ie.zr.e of efederato pro-Pari4t anmid ro!ton3s GaW

fr"nn- t mrawE teuwly-

*..the 'iropcrt P t!--e "t.- then people ,11l not 'teem,
Uth propoi-7 o2 a hastlo ev iwrmewti T need the i-' &vnd
the tottan, and I hawv the fdfr .7r'verrsnt....the-otfre
I Bill egt Vitat ta ine *whiTe I Can,4

Tbe arguF.ont that onfaedBrate propxirty wv as th&e ;.nthern petnl* s

p-rportf' was not the only curwrvnrt put forth to just! Tj the 11rr'l1

ronntfiefation of onfeder.to roomts Thim is s evidenotd ty the oaS of

Ans Jobmnton vs.B benjamin P. -'ridFhts5 Thi nlaintitf in tles are) uses

tli-. arrwfent et the taldg of Confibderate oot-'?o presented sn erta

lr.ral oeeam of ELkinF c, od unpaid loans to the now doftinet ('cnftetrate

rovernxmtn. It to intefreastin- to note, h1wmaer, that the peo3e of1

'11-ida fnftered not anly fran the thievtry and dtilicit f th; I ear

people, Wlt alse fiEd tho I .rah wewereement of the ,swifibcoatic&n Aeot sad

blc frauda La- twierey of tve federal l Truo sury Ag-nts.

.a most acrinus lo' c'.n.sd ly the ar, was in the area of' :ri*

cultures The iuntnt of lira; undor enltItva'.Son deoacrscd t-ri F7,0 in


SDavis, e*s* Civil ar and .ecotatruction iru I'jlrd p 324

-id,
4 r,. ., p Zo0

; "ylornld., e'-t Of To !Iurm fctz- cA 12. op 47T.490








1860 to 69.0 ia 1870.6 A~r of d Ia fnrm duresse fte
a,920,2aM areas ia 1860 to 1ad,SfSl resre It 1870. This durawu
say be attrtibutd to the la-s of a lbor .uppy fbg testd 1 r tamipao
Uen. The results orf amL mtian s apsa dioamed In the waver
aise of Lr es. In 1860, the wrge slse of ftne a0W i s res WhWer
r br 870, third SLupre had decreased to r ares.8
O amre importae, hewve, than U the dewase aIn lsse of fPrr,
deprecation of property value9, an the destratin of propwrty, vM
the disqppeyrno of Floridats *pecullr nstittitutionQ Glwy u ad
aded ls the inrtdiau Tdeal tm ep rriuwd the freclaatlio of ~atna
nation and the Confl ratin Aat iato the State. The reimlto wnr a
maber of sootal and ee.ncad proble sa Ce major problems w the dies
locatism of freedom o tedSw te o wandr hithr and thithero from the
plantfation in idlaenes. It sahomi be noted that this wandering wsm
not a result of the 'lsWy earloatrsw try whih the Sego is g raall
depleted, but rather the sudden removal of rtraint. Throughout the
history of th's Iatitutioa of altsry, the agro had boee subjgtated
to utraint* I.arb hpunishet mnd the guadit s-ip of the hites. It
was thabeore d~ifflo t for* hia to conedre of trdam a c rrytin with
it iEwe respomlMlity. The oudent to *dt4h the frweedomwaa "lrd tA


EaS SrIs 1 au. 870a. tel U, Table I




SIt ahod be notod that this was particularly te of te "Black
Belt" which or iastited the countats of Northeran lerida at tiose
o uBtiles miot suitable to the cultivatin of a st ape erop.
10 rsraces mt m i 865.Jop T







27
din~rr it to meswtai, ad msatnoai to sew 4 treftt mesle 41 of
te mdtruam did aet lySe the pjlrtatlo ISwhve1r.seM this WRde
Iag did reut Ina Ir W~ p d amA dnnIna a al tal pe hl
Again the mot tunraientsl ohae ru tgflmetl rm ma patiton was
is ariuXlture h ftwrer hRse fe 3s t fl see bItMa sam of ftAWr
labr2 Oah r m- e ttt3af mto for his laber Rea llta tWMe the
termeor Masters amsdseed that owomes esuwr he tabs to Inure the
labhr 3ppfls, uwtMX at the sm tia protest the ftenMr sla ftrom be
aeemng the vieMa of wrwry wSsMd deprared al bad =a vIhme vteriae
may prompt hia to ratme pwamt of at wes, or whose parsios ay
aeite. to sbuos ard r4a2.elant.*1 To t hia sAd, N Lreas propoIals
mon dtaied. -
"he mao r of the Pederal Gvrament to the revultna condition
O f aMipation twbs O =%atta of the Burem of ?F dn SWqme
and JbWdaiad Land.X Ts ueMn w rested a rtaob 3, 2563, aid
iodAiater tadatook the mwerviionm of the fets for *iT1h it Nad
been s ttab lshd. e b h ht oi Its scUvtim ocewren matter 12 Ware
Although the Burea a d in ommmre hltb lute atvitl as estab-
11shia emphbaqe ho0eltaoi a giv~rin ott rsatione,4 lb o hia okhet
appesn to hw bee aidina the Soutlra Ikgo to udstt to his ar
status. Anmmdately following the stabliabnent ot the Duore in


tUllS. B. ODuffiOf Th i Dtwis lat2 Si ad
-- !M z-"M8--44

OOwnurs Doaage, Ofl l Sm l

M attS Mf!r fl A .m fla Vel 23, pp 50M-5
14 DoyMA, 040wea.i ag** p 5so







28
lrslda i t bega1 to sevrise the NaSe a al hba reis M UPLMa ?S
Thi ebjen tive appn to be based wen the ter toht "if the aW
um Wet mdAd be wual be Man lated l the atAv Se southern tes.*1
The e rnud s tares amervised the gne6 s astavltU te ae aI oes.
eaoosaO aod polittel. r aneemiM urn dwelpeid first net eay be.
eause o ite rel aUve Saportoaue, but alo basuse the politY Iol
tatftalitles of the Ntego had not yet bee realized.
In the moemmte M1 the So feeumd ift policies mrw the
direotiar anM maaL ent of the written ceatrut srte of labor, Th
Buraa spervised alanut eaww phas of the NegrIo' ontu t with the
aite .upljwer, set the Oagre part arnd spelfied the food abdalm to
be supp~J d weekly yd the eq apwr set the bsce at wor per 4 awnd
wlek, ad atn th wage m r share of tkt wfhe Varieus rpwrta oeE
oeisng the aeivities of the Bures taditest that it w oft grtmt help
to the people of the State, aad i removed the rd espt and spapprt of
the rwhte peopil.18 ut rb the Burean t Ihe ri its priaery Masst n ast


F r stivit~es of the retemn wres ina Florda s DPavi
9M Am !oasanosisp o? o.a70
v.I. 1 lingJ, "'nh. ire nbm D'Mr...+ ad ka*%emr tr
asory 9o- a4 trenW Va Iz, p3 5
a17 or Florda 2866., Chopterw 7O Although the Bwreas a e*w
vies struioty tbe oontree labor arte, it w ashe gelrj
pailJq to let wawe be d&etemlnd by the ln of and dew
rapd. Se Ai srde y sggm I.

"'a""MO Ae!2nMnM -oiagoytracti rpim PALNAE Tfcpv dp 710
1&akere ^grySGw"^^^~i o~*
pie.-r-=<-- r







29
attptSd to estSblb tbhe IsQ e poliUtsAa stata, thU GCMmUatA
2FlaIid midatry tureSd unm it with bttewr u~aaittan.
Although th IorAltrl espt of aftia* s u fts tiQtistg I
1865, an the shortage of labor eawsd a rai in wms, thee *ppwS
to hewr bmenorm dSiffmlr ta i eint *R ose to sta l ser estretO
paw to thie ew tesa, 1866M Thbi difEa tr omatituad a adittR.
4I mes for a Ulabr *bhortage,
sime the plates de m or w ts orkera han w labl e, smM
resorted o the ppitce of plat the flame of o gron a In atupro
vdSed te boteod s.dirsuwl ntsd a rk a itSe eaSM sl tate.
Otxen, anot beingO able to obtait wurets la ay usaer tffred fleoo.
@l le s amd amntd mWr tre the p an atetism ate am eitte..r
It in qitoe rident that the problem which rated fre malne
patient mled si l a premiaat peletion SI both temal adA piUtsmal
owas of Floridas. ReswuKtnmutla history. aeoeAlstuan the lpaortane


xertaei, iga3fol Va t o 99
o3 Iw86 cotton bremAht s Ae equivtrait of WO5 a yar with
rsblfsla fr f arm ha)dj 0 to 030 a thaa for all ka bd
and slUer labor without Mbdatei. Blmer io 1866, t do
to a lshrt settmon p ad othir etfrrasble csditlain suage
ftell. S. Das Ago 8 Oi p 37
SThis af be attribthad to the biterU estig omea tht eroepoe
that Ia th a 7ew, 18X66, th*y wuad reeWiv *fert 'c rs atd
a salt faw the Pfteral ousmamt,
2 Cw.er*.mrm a % Fr j,. B fl j l266
23a
AM*f








of a Uber a ppL y, the Surea attdted to Ukd itsdd s r W egngi th
e.uslave to wort for plantr' in nrder to ismo the oemtag ropol
ThiLp henwer, ms nt a f trielnt to ualme the retrn of the labw sup.
p17 am ;raqMaUS anw drastic measure m s ought.
The State*m sair to the.U labor pmXblams vas the *Bask CGod*
Thtle oe we based qpoa ftrai diffwatiatlas betoaeB the raemw and.
-s It title qaplem iI w dullwUsy oimsrod with tihe m o a In rgedS
to the labor I itstUaM vegrin n i oentastsa 1 we see meatadwM IWtd
l2glted the MWar to a position of emrb.peaqs.T
F~~immialj the State wua I distreNss the Sft tele W deobt 1ft
1865 w taerd to apgardslfatey SSOOC000 to rwnery antes and
9300O Oooo sba We.38 hwmr, this t debt I" -ameaSad tbhe reed
rqMputaWt n the gadral gwarnnetmft aUl State iSbheues insured
It adind the Cnaftdafmr. Bra though sa progress we berg mado
toaud firnaidal Mle" An the 3 ttes after 868 thee wa a cent;inad
Sam ln the aw p Sal debt iich la that yew n reported at tL6636,*9
A 287 t0 t debn oU 82l853Ba, and mr 1871s had risaa to r5,4I0,809.?


l^nr*, ja* 11* 9 369
Ib* l a.u n. i cnpar Lt70 %W"77
26PM Chaptar Hl 0


Repoet of State treasure, In gae Joarnal, 1866. iappdax
2Dom1 ajfr p 573


-,6mo a. UpS 0 "is
^^qraUL y oi ap va zz, Srae vsz
JLilalceioB goEg 957







31
The Repaltqjca sla ed tiat this we due to tU* attapts l tin GCoe
servative to disrj rait the resrneefM activities o the Roepblian
Adagnistreattea,
"urinw tl parted 18651870, mveral bant and brLtorage blouse
of IeM Twrk Cit ba teco oo eted witb tea finaaiul fortUae ofo tlFrlda
Aming these itatitutionm we t Ja Jy Cake ad Ce., The Fltt Ratltu~
Bk Tkr New Teok A arehuee and scrity Ge.c Satter end Caiptr ay, ad
so, iphiqnks and Caeqar33 Thebse oaptdas rwe Lnutraental in
etbUlishta n a syvte of rallrade in the State.--peaially toh latter.

lth.ouh srlde at of the w o e ar was c rtetrised by fina.
cial dintre.w with little or ni operatic Aepital, there appears to
have beNn a steoat iaerea in the are of buusSaes traMesticos and
balsa etsblitaihmts. The tmi o the wealth for belaMse teaer-
actionr came from the twrth either directly in the form of lorertments
or ilndrect3y through .iCrats. between tu prled of 1265 awd 2870
thI~ e a par to have spate a kind oI eeeaeai entheula whioh
proipted people frim tbhe iorth to wsprste to iwrida sitlur to *;ra
rizh aor t take advantage au the 3tate*, bealtbtr lluste.M jay go
thte uifrat cans to grew sottea and failed besuea of Uheir IaUtlItr
to maftae and e wr enmtgh labor oer a em to take pwrt in the uaj l
neas relvtal, u d atu oetrn sent their delaer to vori withna the
State, but they theaelvee reiaiaed In the iarth. As a resut of this





31s
SS09*6 1368-1873j Th ri4as.


OIveror*g Usacage, Fnlorida gibal and ate Jourana 1865
4 e70 &








32
rwival in bueinms, tp 1870 there uw 57a mer b kernes establish..
ments than to 1860" these stablatm"to th we IW aBplaed ap*

wrdrxaltelyr 31 aSeitinal tdA la 1870 than ta 1B60, Ti im businem-
a In 1670, wre operation on a total capital outlay of 61679630.*
3R.e indication of the trsasd and extent of buaineas operatisae of the
:;tate bitten 180 and 1870 mtay be gained by amininlrt Table U1 belsue


TA=Bs 5
Ba3inema etbUabitaents in Floraidn JO-14870


Total 1 I A

Wooabew* 1so 6 21670't 8 197 876

rTMh .Ie 16 I ,,
Tapital (s6oluan) *67963nt S9* i zW o03
9 9
1qges (Delrns) # 89IS~t' 699,BW# 5 Wa9152
total Valu Of ?Jatatal U 7 ,B 6 3 991M*W
Ves above 15 20* 157 *1






Total Val=s Of Proctes 31,196,1a5' t.Us7T969 I 668,335

'*Statsttie of minin,, tuarrylng and r shia I Xdatwty are emrnaed
in the flgwrae for 1870 tWers tvhey are Included in figurMe for 2860,
11, -- --------- -- ---- ---ft 1 1I -- 11 -- -- 1 -1 1 1 -- -- -- --


3 & $tates a _C 1870. Vol II, Table I









To frther ashance tie proges of t1 ftoate, a ipefcal effort

ws rmse to inzf-., respectable fbreitnmr to ir-rate to Florida. To

0o thls, the State Legislature wtthoriaed the appointment of a camoadLa

alstmr swho primary rrpo~e Vwa to nenuragOM the gaatioa of row

epectw e fIbrriw g into tlh state of PlBrise*

The*e e a definite trendl toMrd the growth of eitlas at the end

al "rsa f aSil : 'hiBs grwTth ftpenre to be tiU-w jacl*intt- -' th

thze rise of a nroewintil cleit uw!d Vt destruct'in nP thi plantation

as:tar in the St-Eo. The rilor ptlC o th Il. station sasttwD ndM it

a nomos ity th t fElW otata itsr t:< plntatia.n's original pputiletisn

be o't ilned. 2s a reuilt of a(neiprtion, the *gentsel" fBetion of the

plir.ntnt n population deelinsd, sanu1 tay of thn went into the eQ tois,
k ai-larly, the destrueti tionaf te 1tati also dislo&aVtd a larps

portilnr of th', Fegro )T olatlon w.Aich ralan ftn 4-. its VBy Into the cities.

's a reerlt the populati. of' tthe cities rose. For inutaoe9, Jroatekoaille

had a total powpitation Oa 798 In 16l0; this figAre rose to 68912 by

189704s "pa had a pwuliu a onf 2,l118 in 197 38 No eaunsu data

tO tfo at f1hr 1080, hwwrRvw, eis aritor Hlets the ;nitte pnMlation as

086 In 1860 aW. 796 in 180,I# Mo lata ns me Aven monernnr the Je grres.

'hBae fti-nres Cloerly na-wv t t t i d3ridl wsMa Mskinr progress is thae grarth


governor's e8pare, House uiand eate Jw.ournal 1689

7D united "Itate :erniu 1910. 'ol 1I p 84

30

riao*--, .a4 P ir,8









of hr atlst #aa tar pla, tP n a a *al ho (8se. TabaU ).
?TASU UXZ
plrtan Tabulatio at PlriAda I -WO70



?Pwflatl6 Totl 187,710W 0J5 flS

at.- 96p0? 77,7i6 Ii?,203
C2atme 1,68 ,6 W7,1
1 9
Total ativ Paplatia 82,781 S 8466
total Yorsa Pyapdlatiam co967 3 0,9 2#76"*

*At the Conme of l80,e tl mttAUvity Of JMd er pews
-w not retrnod on shebtule. AoeordIc to ab vs li thw
mwe 8462B hatvs, 553 5 f) atinu, and 3 Amnmes.

Nipampae tSovity l flarlda ws almost Btir&ly a outgrowth of
paUlitioae 1870 their wrare 23 msopapere of all classes within the
SUta with a total cirulation tof 30S 1S In 10 Uhe total WiroulIN
tiow a 3500 for only w2 aifopMPIra$ The nWaps e s nwe predeadI
natly Demoratite n gwqathles. To of the meet pneodat pepas dwing
the proed nw th r Ai paluhtsd in Tahmemllban and the
pabliaei In Jaaseenville. She car alat1tn at these nrempapers ean
perIIBea3el oentid to darese. during the perlod to B870. ar b a
apmle btmen the yea 2860 a) 1870, the eirtulaton of the tm tA~
week"ie declined r~ 1r 1 t0 in 1660 to OD A 18?.O 2 t r ppt r


0 t .Er 381"70. W ol l Ttai.
u a.,. Ttab. ia
^^A







35
that jpa lt Sadie eWSe ma qpstl -s d.e*rst a to mother tasetSto
tias during the perled M also attested nOppwe and pwriedleaJle
Dor to entionml oonflJa t prior to the Civil Wr, the najeritl
of realuitgea dmatnstlas As the State sewwrd eomeatber with the
Morth. alg that ti strife had taatoailn2y uned,4 it weUd appMe
that th an nminatUo w d traA r iteta BUtt the seantn y ws the ease.
ITdaeii thia re the r mber of reiia oe iVmASlfa s iLaIrtUied ob
1860 there w 31 different thurah orgiuataUmms oaf widh 220 *w
eptlet, 253 Isthodiet ad I25 Wrrebyterias. % 3170, thWe wr *6e
t athboda t arcmsuSsaus al 377 others of waolb 127 wer aptste
and 221 Pretwtarlan.sm It appears that the iogro wm crestly attr
ed tb the bptlet and Methedist, Churehbs aore so tbm ty any othwas.
It ia said theta
The Wera&nm awi ed ameh of the rzwpnrainlilt for
their rdllasrn l21t. ltb Colaed methodist axreb, TbM
Afrian Methodist SXChsuwre and variaous (dininMSe
tiona of the Negro sta blabAed JaAs Isis so y .
quarter aO the State. The Afttian Mettsdiet dplacopai
Obr.ch..beearse the most aflt2amnal haarch In the State
duriA borctwt l toA it ff attet pon wry phase of
the FrunMdan* lite.A
Despite the eoUIl rest bsich was orsaotersti a t the paried
ares ane ad pauperi In FlorIda deaelAmd# (S Tmable IV). la aminnatioa
*o this t l. meals that 87.2 per Oent of 4A1 pmaei oeran ted of
crises, bemla 3860 4atd 1870 we egreeO* Iebt strgag ly eugh In
pamprsma the atirve white ocnatiatad *6.h p*r cmat


1 ggg z, o.1870, Vl .I Table xXX
4Al tb t Steam Pwai *The eros In. Rscozawtrmetion Is lorUidsa
Th. e2rera fer (Ot~ber 19%







TANAL XI
ast.tl UatM PApr *1 CreU In r aUli, 9e-to8Q


>---.- 1II II HM I .HI..I-~---~-1- -~--- *.*.*- ----I fJillI-MJM~llll -II ll~jl -aMI


YToal Th1771 fhit. flioS P. b?.203
asred glow
$tBrUT ppiatain (total) 1381791 1371$S ANb6
Freagn popualtio (toetl) 1 ?967 3,5) 2,76p


atber of pewe iparted 11 27 0 16
S rebw of personas rm weiv
support w iJmn 3, 14?7 3l0 61
active population (total) 112 305 $8
lit *** *tW

m ereigB poolattca (toal) $ a /
Cost of ansual sport of pernaB
rncwiqiz fNidn for paserim (doUwa) 90830 hiSb 1?37
Crim
maker of perwcms oavstd 335 33 39
mXWbr of persona savietd r
JOm 1, (total) 179 25
hative population total ) 176 23 9
W3t sog 00
6 r3o56 ..a .
roraign palation (totel) 3 2 2

e o a Plantion or Table m.



r (vte ws tsk ot tohe Ws Sats & 1 9.70.








oanRas r1


fitasal CeoSitas 31 Fnledas, 13654

At th cess f the Civil Wer, the S ate aSpmw nt, tslsallyr
epetlqng hta nflei 6 stat, aS a1A aler SetivitleS | either
sid th d rintie Ot nafltmnd t the presm oft the nlitanry.
Mitutalae foaud thausewla bredl bw the L sslatxep, the eours
Mad otwhr briatrtal a trvitt ies mn p uam we"l bem la gu.
rated % tiw ftsreldw to rudaMtate Florida mal the other ieuthra
state Iato the thina, With the appeltabmt of Wllim Mar*in a- or.
viastol Govmr of flirDF a a g* l.mlNdetltl Rmointrastiom n An
Florida begai. la= rl4y foXailag tts appetastmst, thi havialeml
Goavenur diiSetatre OtMebe 0, of the aMe yW the dy fwor elMtag
delegates to a State CoasretiA tThis Couratnla a to be bld for tbhe
purpese of *iwuetls the onttlmeUtioC Pmw to th ne dew *of
thas.mU he qusoaltLate of v.etting related t -w a Ia thI e at5.
a days xaopt for these parsons wht bh4 t bee pailmd e t the
fS~idst Thewe ad -a pw ofr uffrage.


2 orvnrmsra Message, J Py 4 Ofg 5M9"65. p 6
hI Tdas a result of the f~ailw of mur Floridlan to Oeqply
with th protwiien of tx ProdaensiUal Le.qty a.to
3 Risaeon, Iftluffs e re* T Fe PReMident, yel I. p )2P

3 fsteea leMg & tate h.WftcWmmWf
%as* p I
"Ihnlsatian Ofr tllmn Marvin, rovlimmaona Goowraw l&IU
estat,", Vol iX W9h. p B1









Despite L e fact Ct Vt a proportion et the population had been
disfr.achsed, 6,707 votes were cast for deleaatcs to Ut.a Coavention.6
,o eleaftd delegatoo, ojt,44o witdi. t.; purpose of tUOir election,

asseablad In Tailahawose Wn Jctouer 25, 136,S to initiate t-e ConsUc t

tutional Convcr.tion of V&e sawx year.7 Acting pon th.e recorwndwat:xa
of thyv 7.worar, Uhi, CorwCentlon proceeded 1 -s:iatcll to aceiMkleBdg

t-r rosults or t.o C slit A.-': V the voice of t:c po.pla of the 'tate? to rostore tVic tatoe, a

quickly as posallrc, to its for!iv*r constit-tianal rl.Aticn tr: V. c fed-

cral ove.-nA;:it, th- Co:ivntion ietodiata3y took t.u) nacesasry stops

for ancciplin: : Vtfi eo:A, L 0ndo mta c ai.ed ft nc awr Coatitutico
saunull, 2 1aMtnano u&' 4ecss icn,11 avM raLmtantJy accepted t
cartoaIth :iard.ant o t;A.. federal CanUtatitton. 12 I. ctAr ncos3ar

ste. ojf' ruepoulatin the ar debt. -net iara; okpewitionG. eCwertrlesae

1gr a vote of 33- uan ordinamac was iaou dw ich pruposod repudiation of

Umi atr debt nai a& waixnsaew incurred in telpinu the Caoutederacy.13


;.aflaoe Ca.pebi8 Rule In tlor.2 j 9

Journal Fo oaostitutation Corr ent.on 1L365. p t

*"iocdlafti>c of the troslis-.:L, "ppointir illia etrvin Pros
via onel -owcncir of 'lorida" .lor.ldla -tatutee 7ol MI.l
"n1ac, q .A. p 9
1 lorida Constitutjn f 3r Ug65





Joural. 13f Co 1titut8aamal Gn titn;, 1865. 9p oG; Clnw tIan
TflnAMI'ca 7 "'^ U. P 56 ^









Thc permanent lssue of the ConvtiIon was not thA reinstatir;: of
lorld. into the Union, but rateOr th> future civil ao so:ia.l status

of t et roeda.n. 31~me U r. Corstittl tloal Convent lon ccrl3 not le;al2y

logialaio, thi.- matter mae l':ft tc be taken up 'br t:.e noxt 3 Late Loc

latare" tievo. tholcon n .o .'COrirr,tiAon iu C akc prcvial.maa wvAc2, tawra

tood the ;rooduan Co ri-ti tc toattiyr In all civil a'.: criAinal case,

to sue IAJ. x, ufnd, asl t i. r ctooCtlacn Iof to c CSIta.a- Lut ttU ri. ht

of euffrc,;c, aoooritUn to .ae nw Cowtitutioan was restricted to

whites.a The Coyvemntln not only f Uil t* ake ~r plans for Jeoro
suflTrac, but "Iu a sort fa obitor diotas declared Its uriqualfird dite

approval o& any project for enfruachionl Uthe rtisroa*"2 T2-he i-onwcnti-n
further imnLiatod its pomiticn on t~ o !Hero quet ion ir rctainra tUe

pri-t" pel o 0' th 3/5 Comprowmie.17
It s itcroottL,: t.. not e t. :'t t c Connatitdton included. a rro-
vi3o:.n" v .AcY stated th.ti

..all1 political power t i enher.nt i the JTopl"-, id
all frwe cvera.ento aro foaxod on t.-hir aat! .rrit, c-ad
established for ttifr bonofitj .ri^ tlierefore U t.o:. have/ at
all tLLs an inalionable anr indefe-sibolc rig).t t.. ltcr or
abotlist tiAr fjiS o' fcvrwarr t in saucL :. er as tV cy a-A y
daca opodi nt.,

tslisoriulc'A ono4;!. tA: CovwcrclLn ado;te1A A ..U c t obslt txu tid;-i>tfJch

becm&r o.ffetiv'ct c lkr(-br 7, 1365-w-i'iout first ubuitutiri, it to t~a

people~3 'i .in w. =a "all poli:ic;.l oler Lo inhreit.e



14 i.a Conatitiuaon 1265. rticle I
l .bd., Article 6
iLavil, a. oit, p 363

17 TrLioa Corutitut-l-n l6 Article 9 se. 1

r^*A rrtictc e9 see 1









gto Com etnam djauexad an ewmbr tU 9. Ups it. adJmm

wfmt, the osymtnua had (1) rwtesed the tet CuMstittlaI (3) d-M

ered ep' teaie to amy plne for eqpual ua, the agrg with th ftLte*
(3) repqdVowtt the Var debt, und (4) laid the eels of the l"dkt Cede

by appnti a s em ttMee o thre to te inquire Into soditiom Uhlte

Mneem-itated g novrnaMent fr the readen

TDevd 8, r al kor, an eowelav holdSr c:nd eeaservtive big w4
r elected governor. tE to ar Wny other eodidate for offoe lkd run

tmppeetd UtJlker heUA ppeed seoesa on, yet On w a elected by plo

pnants of tln see"miaon movemrrA. One writer offers this expleat Ione

TO el Whip soem to hiaw tbd -m mdetntndnr. that
they wvuld iS vote for a rw tet, a th y ehPrgd $le
DmMorats with bvlinr 'rrnat an the ar, and m.seiWaller
k:! n .= ae on the .met popular leader of the Old T'bt
e wrt, he bsme ,ndidate by ceral eooiAt.e Tha Defl
erat be ng etaxr te o Et book into the Union Y help of
either friend or fee voted ftr hbe 0

Thien tle legislature not in DNne'mvr, 18ft, it fund itself

er-d ith the difficult protlaes tht had onstrateo d thi- Ceunt "a,
he Megro w h 1te fbeal peait of each of t hse prl' lecam afrt

the Lofislatwre. Ut Coantiatiao had provided eam re.ilgatl~~ r e

gardin the new a lase of deo aen, but it wa the dtty of the- Legie

latwo to provide the noeeer-ry esttutwoy mupplWmants. Te result-


jaso Af Valfllaee, Cnrpot* g fwule In Florida p 17
It eshuld be noted that Iltlutg'. walker had eppoed eem.Elidi
he eHst his baTU with the State dwia tle cnafliet. Also,
:'alker v.-a an vrdaIt propaaet of etimaeL9r lerlslatlrio See
his rtsaige to tbe '.eult rtwo ie oususe san .ni.te wurnals,
16osF-C.









tag preduat of the eoIalatwu*a offtrts wu the lack Code This
oede wio a "peoullUr ehbraseter d4elsed for a former "peauia

stitntltialo

The lasr Code onmt-eted rouIhly of seven diatiat oartesl The

sots ooLonemnd sexual mArality, ordinary wrimn, tudmigwnoyr & cgQmay,
apprentleoishp labor eeantwae and the htablishnment of mshoola far


Zt appear. thmrt this oede me vtewd Alffltrntly by may, for
mea writer stated txst the 'Nortfhernr viewed the Code sa *s deterldA

atina tso stutitut eoeanmo psanage for alavory."8t Others thoeaht

of the Cedb a *as realisatl seoeptBnan of setmal eatditiim in.: net

the result of a-i el direo to ftvor the vthitvs*..etd nernsouta 4t

blabrS."3 Aother, viewed tha Codo -a "a oonsolnattauw and otratCht.

forwrid attempt to brmar sam sort of ri eTr out of soiatel and reommle

ohbae and in priaiple mad diat faithful on tho whole to the ao.tul

oaandtioBaB."4

In the matter of rLme n. puniteromnt, re-ulatAl.io covering the free
Negro of 1861 orn ar ied to the Fre mtwn. In Jntfleaton of ths



ra thPis Co s eee Og 1ore, s, 1NG Chlrpters 146.1479
Titltsle, g. Oltc.p P 3

25 Aekersbn, o.oi'U _oastnr#uia ot '_ P-el r a Q o Thr jg

IuBmlnj, Reo0mrl ution3 Politiol 3fd voal p 86









distinction betsea the egro andi white, it m claimed that

*..one of the results if the Civil 1ar6 was tue
abolition of African 531a;r but it will T brXly be seriously
argued that the simple Act of rsancipation of itself worked
an cJnr:e In the social, legal or political statw of aush
oW tie Africa. res as were already ftea. Mor ill it be
irnstead..that the emrniopated slave teoo toafly dol nated
a 'reemaW or oceupted aPr higher position in tWe scale
of ri.ts ad privilege than did te *%ree no roees',t tha
it result, as a loioal oonclusioa, that all ts artame!.t
;;iapn to sustain the authority of the wneral Asmblgy to
disortainato in the oasc of 'fr nserose' equaj- aply
to tLAt ci the PrMeham or Cesa1iptatd slaves.

In ad ition to the atLtepts made U Justify disriminatlon oa

thi basia of previous dcicrimic tion, iAtinetions in the tye of

pwniahient for criminal of fanse were also demanded It appears that

fine and imprisonment vwre suffilent as puniDanent for white offenf-.

eeag wiereca, in the oase a t -c "'erro, florgin7 and the pillory wnre
t-he .earw cf punir~ aant woet resorted to. (e writer Offr(T the a

plantiion th t southern wites generally felt tVats

***to degrade a witte anoa bgy orpora punistzont
Is to make a bad e e of society and a dangerous politS-
Cal agent. To flaw and iqprlaon a colored per~a in his
parent oonition, Is to pwuAth the 3iate Instead of ie

Another wrlt.-r boliovos that, "flok ciL' aid the pilloryy. o..phasised

t;c diIfflr*n in being white dali oiTr., a !:e.oa Tua importance of

iaaintainia t is diffarone...*wat nover questioned anr the treats,

either valid or invalid, of servile insurrection t ser ued to ration.


2 u Ort of Co. ittee to prepare suitable lea1 for ti ,o-rn-
:eIt of t freodmen" t in ae Journa 1866. p 187,

2' allace, ApQ3ekA Rule a ? 1A ori. p 28,









AUl the ate ame of the prietUiSpS"e

There ppears to bhw bee n qan qustlimble Me a, bw for

aswrl er th e pr eep lie whih MdeA up the -llk Cdel. Per itmn eo
"the witftm bbwr acsrewt .7tePet the coamonea Jaw.r r of the

3ltateo tlaeted th need fr rubh la to pretm* the mnaipatd
slw and at the a NO tla tM S' the r abr apply. st there to a
JtlS MetSMi tIw P9ehueant fr t c et se t*aet* The e-se of
reecwh of conlrct t wrm held In oivil or1 t It the Negro was d
oland gutlty, the pmusheut me the same n that pr~ewrlbd fhr

wgr9asy, n lys the pAllry ftor laber for the sena or flae
glu.o br errs, if the hiite wu f2S4d ulliy, the Negro s e rlm

the right to vtail proeseedtr for 4angeI This prastleMe tI vim
oP tie prvaRUslia. satint me usually tot the Hegrn* detrmen t.
Regardless of the many ausses agftast te N1egro em6itMted unRer

the iaek Code, the most eintnimont previe"an of thse Ua" was tUe
esrtblistalamt of "*m Ma school for Fhecmise." Thisa l pr*witie

for the establiah1 nt ofa separate sohoel systa for Ne rores whleh

vas to ho supported by a capitation tax of 9 100 upe all NoW males

between teAa@pene cnd flftvy 3ya of ag. It should be noted that
this o largely a proper traaettoan ance ot the tI e ther oe oted
ab thate for this purpoae In the SateB Trearry.
AlthigSh State asslstenae ne latekbg, the system did have =Ail
fled leadership. Goverar Walier attempted to reandy the itsant9sa


t7 ofreen, ,W iit, 7
20 Mam of nloridn 186a 'hpter 1td









by rppeai lngt e L Ib 5lb, a wtherwr ten tl eharlg of wte sheva

tes tepri.t. of th'e Freodhmp*s MsaeU as SUMrperati t e t s Cemm
school for TpMeeeaieT Althwei th 'laUk Code bud providid fe. a

system of seboats Ar retedm S alUtit and aspatra fre sv trat

mt-ht eiset for Mhitael t he qoeatlanm artsesw d theN r Wsree d.

ly want e Utiose The aiu e appe. r to be a n tepduta ble 3yeFe

Thil Ia d eftm te rlema sa be given fbr it1 the egre childra

fleea to the vatnila *seohls* w ( reeha pltis
te -o greatly In wnt oa seheesl, and to parMBs we
wll establish Ohm im will guarOate oar anAlded support.
Oar See people are 'h proper em te to tach us, and we elt
waly wish thm to ad *a-**O

2o U1 8, u eana ported that by the aeg of Jawnary X1,.

it wv reported to hib that IM emlriet pqis w ern attatlwM fatr.

turn hwersp eheals, tabch we *sing upperted lwsrgly by private

agenotes s-nd the Ofderal goswrmint, nAd Iy tih first t Augsgt, this

flur haud increased to O8M,1

Although the pellteie aepleyed by rth President to help rcosw

street the Sout had preIdeed eaw pregrealsw meamures, there asee

aroe a faction in Cegr9e *vich appesed thna as being tes liberal

toward feaer ceaSdlhrates and too haris toward the Frsdmane. Thfldis
Stevens amnd Charlee Swumir delared the failure of the Prleosdnt't plt.i

lean by petatBla to uah clauses as the vagrnar rdalmaone of the


8 aloride, Bae Joornal 188l6 p 8 T

so F1 mae Jomaray 2M, 186 *
3S1 r abche Table I








cmatUtiatll CematKion fa Plrid A, h rtim Er e sateld that#

***eA uptalat any = perm able to wom who w fould
mrt*e or eltmn&ge abit aor lsatta a sU Uftm neWsl
e bvreqht efbnoe J n ti.. of the p9ss,,a eIatieaM
anl, ta p=ssAe fy re ans m moeisfst f-1, mnnII donUrs,
aed i1prto erw fahr d a W inMb sIsHMaetag tfw antlSe or Mm
ad baab at ar a tmet em m dinettg t .e a h 0at te or
balm LM w a t awt eo cm odla -Ie mertMb at t dim
rootMalt of the oourxts
tr other ord thns A couU how giwoes ma mtiafsetin to the op

pacatn of Pr aideatial ReIastrustlea, the to it wis iam e thf
the CeamMhia Qad not elude equl rights for B~ro. Ins the Site

Caoi ta~ ps, aat fta t w tsPt tou theme aI f r lthe sa en
Cra b appsmtiwjt a exgtbs is reprt g the Listo ag Vgia
ahnes meseary to tit t = nw statue of the PNsemitl5

C .msqlmy*, a- oaantsraseunr to s.he lmak Code and at the
m(*a tiee epw the failure i Presidential snmurtnirEaas the QCge
Cgresional eppenute to the Prealdent'u pelaoes devised a Civil iighft
ill, Later. the ri tb mmhn ki ured the oitiusuhtp sA
the Nepr ftweed the South to srant tuffrge to all eitimem or satu
her a rehwetian of oaryoeulonal represtattins, and disquliftod
fhe ole-l offlsa a parti on f th thite pepulatitem
When ttryr w Valbsr presented th. Aamdamri t to the State oegiws
aUture fCr oeasideration and etie, he strag3y afdvoosted reIfatte*4
Ite att a n a tpwn to ane w R seed aopn sea fin pointe at whith
hie fit the propeetd Amnanntwt w ea eon olit with the FPeeral


38 ft ga c0nti0tt c4Swpts "a p ws
Ant* eet aPs a IVF

stBltmo m tE J6rpel a 1 pp 7-14









Cmwtitulat.6" OspI$ta with th new=n8r rqulte tbe LtfsetatWa

rejstd the Iftrteefth awhmteiat by Sa sa)et N f-- nb te It Pe

pera that the legailterw fteIt that the smeptasw of thiA lbw would
reult it t ai rruntag the defitea sad pretoetion tof taftihvl rigte
km tfhe State t the f tdnal government XrevwrM tM thelat of

S9e emfraflng woU thea tba m a reality, a mt at itf Iet all

thn tsgilaters wel be stina their emn Uiraso- hiemns%

UNwrfselMss, this rojestia Is used ty Owrwes as a jt we*

seM fr &dntag Flar Idae re mis l tIat the anteesn The remeetu

of the F rteanth Afgiamnt n y all a the Soutuemb state., molept
Isammao-e threw the redial. Cause rs ate a tr-er, sad SIumr
"marnkh ed at tih delntaqu ay of floridu6*38 Rems *e the ovr &ll

resootoa at the Pr,,atewtt Amndment, Ck~ es adopted a ew pla

for reanmtrunist for t e t S.wth Tbhi new plan of CoegrMseleal Rem

oaefrtima sonwtrte the Southern States at.o fite allUtry district

eer wMhi wt e plrsd a liUtatry emMnaer, ad a c ubse-omanr fr

00eh Ottst1.7 ferlda wos posed to the third alUtary district Witer

Geamerl Pfe

The fnlt of the rkees traatia AMets nearly met forth their pwr

poWe. The Aet of Marsh 38 28 stated il parts

hv an s legal Sitata guranent or adequate preteottei
for ll1fe prper4ty Ue eaiets it tIhe t eol RStnt of VirSinla.


risee Florida Sma.n nll 160-67. p

SUpaeot orf umwr on Godit a s to Fletridt*, CR stonal
GbLS. s9th csBras*, Iot seeda Par t 1.p I
Cmapeer#, ouamntea .:iarictan IItgyS. -nee. o. t0o









*p.lnersda..s Gad bhevsaa it to necessunr that pesas and Good
erder should be etreedt n st4 a States uatil 1gal wad repubtl
aam Ctte g wtremf i e~m be lgAlly e slbliShesr
Therefte, it em ted that smid retl Sttesu hall b
***. bjeb to t he aftltary authority ef the Ualtte Ste ..

T ah eonditloa e st*~at within the Stalm did not tflly j3rt'fy th
satemnt CivMe abews

In sqmpamp to iUitary orders preslpeted ty te Aet of tareh

2, 1U o, t State wns divided late uneoeen odesion LattrL te flta
elatting deleogat to a Cestiut.teelml Cenwnateis The elective. a

held an Hewamber 14, 15t7, and ecbtiawm d ft throe 4day.0 Apsty

appears t" trve ba tih gnernl trend in the election, tr the eloe.

tion renilte show -h throre mwe oly "vtMtyrTeevi teamed m e

hamdred tnd seventYutws veten.uretwWned ba the rirstertag offloers."A

The eletten resulted In 40 delegates to th CaoutlMm of whteh 18

Tare Worrees*

Althmeth the ienventioa was to have assailed a JenMtry 0O, 186,

It wa snot until fmeiazry 1 tbt 'atsrrsn wo e sOg lly oeWutet6tde

Antag, o and bitter eppieettilm th t en abvetiao eSmaed a delay of
uaminmes nativity &ad evn diarnytn of the AsembXi. The reergalme

Coeentieo preeeoedo rapidy to rnmo ie itt cret r e wemR bilitltve


) See Alboe Chapter nTT
wtall se, LCjpot uai, In Florli. p 40
41 zIbid. pOs
4Jourml Of 0 CantitAtieial Camention, 13868.

4p 4










The reralt wns an in*ol tient8, liberty end 4oaef tive domment which

proved to ie the nam t dwcortie of all Floridats Caontltutlons.l

Th Cswtittimon provided tbw eqMi sle suffrage for tlne

ovTer twntom n years of rge. Local offices were imde largely apM

polntielw a am syatea of Ladly needed sirouit courts was prrlided fbhr

and oe scttv rerentatiwves e'tm each icounW, T re owtitutin orf 18s,

atime that of 1888, wsw s witted to t' people for atiftteationu A

Conventit n lrdinaswe irovlded tbr the election oa" Ploride's vtsgIlae

tue awnl ^-ernor4 Axtot h-r l',inif'ilent aspect of this Coantlitu.

th1 was Ur h eduoet'on prreviilo which laid the foundation for the

0hoiol Law of U184 cea m^raue--mn.t ednostional lcg'al' tion.

The election, whieh was h'ld on tim firlt dafy Tursdwna Pnd

id 'eadnrdy In May deAtroyed whatOver aspirations the ;watstitutlam'u

opponents nay hav- held, for, the Ceontitution ws ratfiltrd y a

vote cf 14,M20 to 9,491.l

flarrison noed, t h nominee of the -pe liacsn tieest, was elected

,;ocraor i y 14,170 votcn TIh nrm'r of registered rwtor wrO 141190

votes* The manIbr of rerlstered voters woa 31,498, of whioh 18,690

were white and 17,800 Begrees.,*47 $ioe only 24,294 votoe were east,

aww 71,096 quali fled voters did! nrt east ballet.



"Jourml Of Tim Caatiltutioaml cnvBetioa, 1868. P 3S4

fe
Daviek, civil oar And oinnMtruetin n 'IToIrida, 88T

47
ikvivs, M. cit,








4%'
fW s32oted b od gathered at Tat lUah'se. a uebaO, An 8, 188l*48

At th~s ties there appeared to hm 'an no odrs moe ivw4d frM G mrarl

ibeam to bnditea the attitude of the miUitary toward the M s oivil

Cowrnmanto iDa plt the tapprohmeio of those who Ft4t tat it we

osemary to hear ftro i the Fedtral gwarainst betfbr aetiaet the MMsS
ber of the r w legf lature kfandiatcly aesembleM At tho oloak

thit aiftenrMa the iwmagiration of th Goewrxrns let tas hebld*
Sm TLgsalatnsr proeseewdd L-ediatel aftenrmrd to e paa

noesreary IsM to allvialte the problems whih oenftrsats ts States

Pr.oniafont waa theBae im wain tUi public oshesl lw of 196949

Fra 18o8-l8t ,l Wrda wm under Repilleams rule. *-%l perlkd

in naty reapiet, proved to to a v x we of pPsperityJ and tri'ulf.

tton, the Ir-tter beLfn oa'ied maadt by om onaplamy of 1S sra rW p

oitieM to annwesasry '.MornatlVe oppAsit2ea. Zn sPatinr of this

Grim it1an On witoer stated thuct

9*th. S tato end flame Jswur ..lua.,n cdlalte with stnrts
Xlc olarinty.oettt the lwsosnatte satera were not aely wlum
Sawr i Ut uaSltae to ote for the pPmsae of eonwmiw let ser
lati#n, YtRiat emantl an on thle ther strange soea of
eathio tiht wa d sell eat a friendly omostitUwMey In riW
to d lreldt an eppInarnt witi t, e hcu almot bal noed
ta 1870, it squired but a saall aser of interwa+hd Re-
publisan ueaiers to paoe embamrrm ua gy sobWt pestlaa
iSgialatioa with the aid of the DesWratia minsrs.s)

Th rnerd of ManW aIs tizr aprownMmtas exita wotly In the emetment
of saatutr'i law, owetrdi4les as, tie sahienentu o hthi on uheuld



FrloI e ida se and Si ntL Jarna, 1S88W. I
4 m em 9 Eflrfl. 1589, Chapters, te68, 174
SAebrnean I, .t. p anS







80
be earuided, frr hbey eourtwI la spIta of (1) radical ftfhest la.r
(s) a tibtkrt *swry, (s) MpJaerst and (4) epa ard Vtalre
eppeetmtN by the Cset L~ w

h 8S, RepIU saoeI s a n OirlMi wa d4trcqwr t"a eSly
lasting etatubery uahiOevuins loft tf this om Is th. pwenant P Mblte
ajw BywteBm TWas qotes s an utu rAnth et the plans fite ateU

uudr the '* ool 'Art of UIB0, ThiUs Uw r e s~ fd by the Selm
Lea of M180 n the (tlasm itutam of the see yewr, witth aStan lAgeSi

ly esta IUbshd a "dwl.eytma of *Awsttie fe FlPlarida










CHAPS V


Legal Rstbablshiamut Of Floridte 8aehlem Cysts

Tt uSa beo nrc.lfly oaneludd that up to 1880, lorida hod maiS

cwnVsiderble pegremN In ptUAL oaoo tioC Tht progress bhmwr,

wne tabpW d the latcr'uiTrr porislt CM 1860.486 whish lbuat dae@

OtrWed t-he public sogbel sygtam within the CtAtbS It oan also be
oemolutod ett tie perled fol wing e80C to te y ar 1806 I deplitSl

its fakMA nmomsar- (C'r Ath perpetuation of the tatire' soeiel o*p*

te. Althbo-h the school tnd hbad ben virtually deebtrqpd, a

MInU manrt of intrat MA the muneyr ucaurd by the settuol tft eir

naming t the terawury. sNu at of Jacary IXOB6 directed tih

ltt S'tmrintntedmnt *f Publiec Tnatreaton "teo fwr uat the interest

at the statt sobe'l fiad on, avpertioa it to the asonty trqwperiatgate

Baite'1 Thee eman ty MspSerintladent were to .0e the intoreost i

papeint of ttitioa frr t:ei tiadgat white Fidron. This not it
b teis.tuast in so iaoh as it dattIitly apeaoifto tihs siltrma for

thiM thw ausey was to be use4, and for t.J parent of tittiMa for

attend iA tUh o@exa se iielas*

It appears tht tho prerPl of e.-ida rnoeoaid to iWnod ftr
revitaXltsars the "poerptal seohel tme*, fr tm TfagIslature*, rW

to"r speitiallyl the delate



isa- o1 Fljridf 1866. Chapter 149N









laB, twmeparateP d to the CoiatuttioIn o tt year a a etao tar. tich
atnted that's

*.thse preedso of (41 lands for :e ueo of sohetls
or !en flgles of Lanssiag sall be and swia a pwrpetal
fnue tme Lnatrest of tehb, toepther with all asu yp seo
awed -rem my tr square appllaahle t to the sa object
sh-el he alaar lry apromps-lated to the ^ us of eehaols
uaxd imaliet of soarnnlge rewprtilvely, and to ne eta


This p-avistan miadt hwIn been setoasafar owptng tee: f":" that

it was Introduced diurIn t. poried o of riss (1MU) tais:. olarabterlta

te9M ora of Cmanaerwve owsaswtrutian ?wn too,w the "fcrts ma.e to

enar'. to ie ao*heels 1!the toXeNor rtied from the so.oal lands wre mot

wholly nseealft S This l ia ht be explaind ly th6e .irttg oirowum

strawes whioh nrs ost cannuolw to the dnlep wannt a flq m 0ye intarewt

In pa1'-lie dultin. Tms, an 'N foitiwr .,-aletioan ardth reorerno to

pIt'l@lo "aool s w aswPred umtil the adoptiM n o the C+ n wttitam tf

19a,6 and '" passage of +the '".l eol Lma of 1869

Birtlwtht+Adi, n; t. ft t -.t 2- effeitw- so.lool l1cislatito mws

eaoted tnwtil 1339, staioly oaebh $tie latck COads, wtte'a wias a

of the auwsS of Vt sdnafpla of ConsBret41an "eaemstructlst to

Coegresaioewl t econotruatlmn, esartEned pronlalsm for AJo areation of

eoma scwholsl This law, borrur, was ft,- P roesMl wnlyr It w*ppear

thi't i s law was thrBma'o be pLt'lLo epikian gnwtlly,8 it is


^mgltt Q 196C Artiole 10, noe, I
e C rLsr's OImeanle, In qri(aU Bee of Jsuanalfe 180


Soee "Repert Of fluporlatendent Of Ca ran Peheol Pbr Irebm*n,"
tI rrsa lda U pl taat 1am6 tppnodi5e
4- S1..1










seiwatfat to note that this bill was (t roes:t an fl.n1ne

ftre the vreefmen's urnau rather than any direct spentaan ity as

thl part of the Legislative A1embly* This oan be seen eloarly in

tie fellewing letter fcan the Gerner of the Statei

Gentlemen r the Ownnralr .Assembly.

Tie oaoloed lUtter tra. chaplain Iobbs will
explain to yao that hl requett m to eun ~dt t
your iladeration the '411 oolaernfiG the 01*
tabisameunt of e mrin schnem l for tr ee ,f?

I hb" oeraidered th ebill M atwly, and ah
setisfied that ~i tih ano smmE&ante as y ay
mIake etasu plleoy requires that it should beans
a la81500

P*elea that t!ae u':jet it ene o.f rrrt ti-r
pertamew I respo ftilly reoeSmuen that the biU
be oefrred to a joeit ecasittee so as to t'e oer-
tals of rweeivl early set' san

Thie oeaou education tIll of Chaplain Hobbs prepeed to tax

thl Freem n of the stte for the education of their ohildr-.

The State superintenbdnt of COnem So'GnIe fir PF~in n was to be

appointed by the Governme and th oeaty superintetdent of oaema

soehola for Pr eean was to be appointed by the County Cseluasionerse.

In an attempt to justify the need Pa such a bill, the Chaplain

wrote on eitensia e letter to the Gevmnr whioh learly Sets forth

the jurtfifcation, the purposeo and te basi e provirstos of the ille.



Mes ae of the coroeror in Furida Huse and SBeate Jornmals
1886. p 47

Thid. p 148









he ~allowiml tI a copy ft the eamlesed Istrs
Talla asser, Plorild
amanry %e UN


16 His bemellmsr w Oonmaor, DRU4 S. Walkers
Dear Sire *e uswe the 11 ory I btem take tIn addrene
iM you *%* embjet of the sda wtllta of P"eemeni AM
y ar we mare, X brve bree offltSally eoneated with the
ftAe mn slnae tihe "urlr tO tI vea eleel studied the
MftreatTh si an Ant Saest of 'Wth sases an I a fully
purMaded that the nterets or the the er aeter and th
lbedaS b etat, unrdr the 'eew e dl4tln fa atbtine that
thU ange (*to) stwhid beo ested at tle t In the wsimant
ofat aem seahool *deset" e*.ag Elam g the errwmes-,nt of
the finzoe of the State, I have dr fted a 'bll, thoqh
ersdely, to provide fbr reettblihihn seho la for Pt~reden
by plaeia the entre empme upen them.0

WotlaC the SaeInfl S WrthMrn epm ln& seanowing Sottbern nations,
Ho be souxmi thus
*,eliwvr that it wmoud to more acemptble to the people
of thO Z1tate to hM the direction ani eantrs of thie edua
tion of the Flreedm, nd that it rw.?ld go a Igeat a0e to
rwemo' the pnrejAS e ot the northern people and d d t*o Proe
dnt In his polloy toward the southss states, I r espeattlly
ask your ecsuidmw nation of thes ille

In eant iata his letter, the assumed 4isreptirw force of northea
kroee I t1ap&iWe, for Wote stated thats
The bill prmdded fbr the estai-lishr of a mana
mebeh l to e &eaeQ teachers of AfrtemI dement, which I
Think Io lkaepauble as I beliesv it would not be good
pelia to emploa teachers of African descent ftrm the
morthers etateo,20






T hp4 pit
]V)Imm T 1jA,
0jsi w.









To further state the parp-e of t he l, BiUbB oona tune vatst
I tia the Fre n a mtumtOad, i aomr s and reli ble as a
laberitg eleM is to pride soehools for thtir hildr&M
fThy arm sot we-pmi.4 te lrr tt present OueaM tiae they
belag to the tate., and iee s2mbJt to te he orf at
Stb*w, and .Wt bee their part of the e~eppm of the
Coaarwam ad it mneeBs narpant to powe that t
mr ImAntllitat Vthy beems, the loss arim will thy
oem t, and ear eWm Sn Itten t as wll as balty and
ralit"o amken that w do all we oe tor their edunes
tioa*

Iopiag that y3 will resetw this frm anm who
ieols a ds e interest in the State rad our whole oua
try, I repe.otfully ask through yam that the aooamprap
itn bill mW be peemnted tho L islatura with seah
noeornmdtttiaon ma py mWy bo pleased to gvw tell
In .qpliamOe to the show beearu.a.tioa, the Taeislatuar
emeted a bill an Jamar 63 1i f ter th etmbiselament at

"~aheol Per Fr1WVeMa"I It shob be noted tat the exisrtn
de l eta ation system based upona som bad its blgimninG with this
law, for thi is the fire Jlsil emotions of pulto etidatiL whikh

mad4 tI esyeti of sabooEl for lNerofe distilt and oepar m ft

aEy which lah$bt at for white. It:s law orf 18 provided for
the atppeOnt nt of a 'b4.rintalenrt of Ca CIO SBol lme for Poedma

by the G snmrns Th Superintndent wa authorimd to establish
schools for rbesbda and to amplor omapetmst toahTer fMr their 1


S p 1 0p this letter was* e*~ .. Me HBebbs, Aaste
.1 of 4Akeatlon, F. r. end r e
L ow of loridr, 1866. Chapter 143s1
13 2aL Pe9. a
u TIbid Son, 4 throgb *









F;r the suppwot of thema echo A1 tbe 1)1 pomtdmd thats

*** ta shall be so8semod and loevid uipa all ntse
perwas at Qolf r leitmen tei &oBn of twentyiSam years aMa
tilttuywin of arm d;IlmrW eah, tre pro-et of Weoh maUll
coae titutm a tand to be da tasdwte1d tIl Comasmn eohoel
fTnad for thIe ematlon of Vwesbns, wteh maId tax *sill
pai4 Isto Oe tsreat re of the rtate fOr tha -3se a' Ut
COmen '-ohol uand for Ivfedauen faorg Hd4jt

It Le atoiflomat to note that althcd tti wee tuvr to, b

*esafn aechoole or psu lic sehoXI 'ow ar tbeekmua, they wre )s e "bre

sAe
*p.ooflolIy a ftes tblte

***a tittflB fTwr" t. 1 el BlSotx i frrim Oah pupil
**rr-ieh shalt N be Mn!" Zn.. tI trFarswy M9" *I.k rtatU as
a portion of "*'o er-" non aoCwl grNtd b.* .%wriawuoeld

.Au 'lSh saint rt:r C 'U^Iw t's I a.lhrlee f i J thl t.o .cwrs and

o*t&ce.g'1 "n t4.0 VMccr.o qWciIf'oi iGon 'ar holdcIng a to.abLr#6

pmauiSmttaM1 etwfr, e in pmVias 8' ool s sIltin' no st'noilir

ontiamei ware pe {u oonesntwn oductotiial prewiaretla of tdI omaiorn

not tU qu-lt;SAI icC? a-.' CVo pjos-tOO itaiutAi h te.laT otrti'ftsatee.

I1t abrad bie ted that ttwee titampts rto provide somrm stemia

tion for rm.roas wpe wt oS Brosatertled ty StPt ri port tut rther

,y fudes thr private bwneolest se1itelese The taaended fa'is for

this ptrpine w re mmexicstant. After t#d laX os tea raVflfl.0

BsmwveA Aorthern bseaneW att fs.. aetio-.sa ftoean Citviliatisctna elty,

* teies lcastinmry Soetiety nof .l .'riain :td.dist rplaorpAl Clhuroh,




1tO Td., 'e, fl W teriln 0We ws 1M00

1? Piu., es. 89.
rIdB so. 6








ST
and the New Tork rwaSh of the Aieriema Preednass Unia Camudsi,

beqwn to establIsh Wagro setools tbioughout the State. T ise soeesw
tie wre reepalble for setteng up ml thirty aehoo within the
S tat* by eewmber lM88L

Although the rill proidd ore a quaslpoblie system of iseh-so
for tPrese t appears that a seaon s this Itl of 1880 was enaeet
efibrta were Made to pot it lnto ffeftL ?h GOeron r LSantditte3

appointed a &uporinteadent iP CWiWs obeols for FrWeemEa20

twen d offoe the esae day of appetln~ enat. I TD- an tiur apprd nt
ed superintaedin% twlla d tIhrosglht th t.ate nd helped to ese

tabith mm serl ~l.*ee. It appeals that publi OapAd n w i tall

at "ome edu etion for VPeedmta .or Dwaun stated that Io 1 h paur
sueare of his duties, he "%t ewry -ri a kind reftptle ad harty
regepg ee'81

The Freedom appeared to be rrpit ltereted fs to tis project fIr
in several int aoes sol ool rulldingc wr eseote at the t-omedn n

owan raweef nd in otler tistanaes wtere the tachers*" salariee wr

dolXSqumat, the Freedhmn aontrlated both mawyb, food, and shalterA23

Yet, the full barden of edoAatica for Freerdma did not roat upes
Predeaen 6lao, for ihob 'tate and plantation arwers aidad in the



t R of sa.- of Pl..Iek X ot Mr pv 4
so204 Sewe r tM f 1e66 Ia s ae Z as3 aIsees

Report of Supte of Pa CAmon 1 ohas for Preeafe., ingu
earnal, 16660 appedi.
M Iid.,
25 Ibid.













TAuIB V


rtatifLtas of Negre r&cducIttso n Florida, 198i-t1b88


1386 186 1661 188

ttmbw of schools, total 50 66 71 84
Day -M S6 s42 3
Ni -t *0 0 SO S321
twnabr of tarnherg total 19 48 e4 81
thtth -- -3 8 84
Colfosred .....M wn 3g 3
.ociol enrollaont, total 1,9o0 2,720 2,22R 2,1a

Wale C lts3 1,0"a

Thhakle a 1,178 1,100

;*'rage &Attnano. n 1,811 1,l19

Per c*nt of enrollment 31 fl

Annal Iamoea Totl l,2OX 19,800

From FTreasBwn 4000 9

Proa Others em- w 20,392 18,f71


Thia Inforastion was taken frame the 1:eparts at the '!parInfAdemnt
of Coaen Sohasol for Pre'enIn La H and Selts. JagEt?
13866-988








69
establibtma end niattBme of sohooles Alas, the Prns9Am's 'wea
and the Pea l anuaA l me ta trm I o nl n the Ieoette osrawntga

et malant#Su of neiaIs for ftaaM 24 Ikuring the perti d tbra

1W864 S6 oaesturl ablo aid we gina to Ragro public e&smWtlem. y

the -at of Jeonary 18 tnatywnas egro schools wre epaorted at
fburteea point empletaXG thirtawttwe teabers aen enrol 2 inte 1086

pupils of all *ase88 lrther Intadat on of progrs to Sn Begr publlt

e&nttion nwy be ra-Smd t wronsultift Tabl Ve This table sta v that

by -hbe elee of IM89 the auer of ashools ard taohe had mre thr n
60 per oait lnaren mr the fig4 u fbr 1808

As to tea program of these acmimen school for tmren*&sm TZ, B*

Thnaan ta h"s report for 1966 stated tlat

Timsee sohocU hbve bwen awrked by a mtest earnest pare
sewreamse n the part of the tmiaehert, while th pupl tals
th USwlesGt intent and rme~rs who hbme goen only tow
mal rO'ad and spell readily, and apur great pmropr to

Ca*Sniaz t6 the teWChrs of thate Imtitutime, he stated tinhat

The trceers have be n Bmet all colaroed of ooad moaal
hmareter, del4ltiAng i t hir wei, mnatals cood disciplltr ,
aM et oergy, and any i all quali'dlel hawe neswr beard
a saicle complaint agalmt thent,

It aOpeas froe the report of thwe uperinte dsnta of Caeman
e :ol for -Vneedmen ttwt the" s co ,la usad oeatiazed prgrefu s to


"se 80e uliza-l ?M2 ..O ^T*^ l"I;A:LgtWAW* of N-,UQc a!Mxcttr io
U%-twUpt hi aObi evers tMt wov of WBTwma u m sand
the Fakhody Mad, Se flo, Deate, CiZl & aer and PpeoS
te in Florida, p t8.
SDavis queati "awse x DoeI, 3S9th Cowe.S.. 1st ***8 70,
p 6
opart of "*:^ rintcmdnt*.. in ioe Jr 10e apeondi
7 d Id










188?. BfHCmnr9 betwnmm 1867 ,,nd 1888, 2n reports show thma. thers

ma a Ideora.e in tthe awntr -Stf ue ools fim 71 in 1867, to ,s4 in

2868 with an wrrsmc erolAAt .t of ,206 pupils. Th doar s in

thle maMw of schools ad enrollment miht be 1ptl irs-d by ti6e tot

that uIN derponsa uwv sle to pay tre ax levied uon then for the

purniese. oTf etoati-w A-, i r ?* oe It i k1lso nwBoCasa-f.- tf ttal into

cenidersat' o, the ievolutioazry e'1ftot ra Cmgressional -eoronstrueN

tia in 16s upoan ti p at socilf lift* Ry Vthi Cqnu4titatta of

188, t'e &-1 oeyl t atii o-i ed -:t..iai wo tnohnionlly e1.ntrWy-dr S

"e-ftrleas o; tie tsou' tiamt the rne'-soe riw fFI re y t '.l of

the inhreent rumsena tiat abo ld h- considered, It is ata evident

thant t re Troo tan eslra s ra 1Oa 86n I 68 WrM e sigt- 'Us-nt In laying

*t:*-: -astion few ;~11 1igreo'. asrthaning polital, il, l e

eemnaic Sleva-tlion tin s 'e to, Also, the sdMalA : oaduAotd for

t'-e OT o iartrifl this ps ri od apr4e &r o *have rew ailtod In tIhU btreepW

a-t o, ti; 'mpK*ss knEL d;e a%.d his gwout -1 Oaanlot of. ib and tbcere

by helpon to pav the e *r Vior the eat'lsts 4nmt of s. pryse- t public
u-stiw of o dt k.ot .on,;

Tr.it tthe Buting of !:UC yar 18a6w8, eaew --o amrmas ea Vhrw

In 1 :-. 's encsxeaso, s2oo:l, and plel tittsn atwCture Thi.e ianoing

We of areasa' aol aecnstrruaotian al-so played en imrriortant rfae In

emusetion "i th te ests& i.uahlnt# arganimation and opert n aof the

6,--,---------Wr
90a rtlole 10M Ihin artoian provide a* distantlr rfs in the
rams who wsalu attend the public schnola provided t Uhe
article, FPr the aock-aols wer "free" to all w thin tba lItJta
o. tT1 Spuetfled sieh ages.








pdbliu oshloo otf ferTS" fle toe atsm" of this esr was the
ranMtittUmt of I88 kamme ob it wa with tth demwtnt that soeal

ant political stmturs of iaorids war reernuai Also, it -s t

this doameat tat lt preset pyete of pulse h eoas an we ms esab.

Ildied. As as sham in Chapter IV the Csti tutta o 1888 wMe wui

liberal in regards to eoth vYese s o bs ure, the nmot Ubtrl deewmst

evr ford tlad btr the people of Pl .-da dwir the hitter of the State,

T'rftore, iit sa nly as expected thra if the doma< nt was emelatest

it all pLhYse the eaIM pattern Ahad tre prm illd In rereard to

ed:eation.

It is quite evident thie the sm pattern pr~wlled in regards to

edueation, for the Collot inA rtiole ol eduestio clearly presew a

preYies nm .otali ble tfo o li'erlls sId fI lirsiA!edm.us v It

aptrer that the CaatltiondCl CT nt on delegtes of 1968 resognied

this nsesuaty of 1l'eIrIIU m and f inu dri ess Par thJr', ianorper~te

within the Contituttmx of 188 on artlelo which sttetes

Seea le It It the paremountduty of the Btate to Maes
aMple provilaton for the edu6etion of all the children
roaidiin within itU borders, without diatistiom or
preference.

~eo.* te 'im Lefielature shall provide a ulnifom systAe
of oremon esh oi0ls.oand atall. provide for the liW rsl
mainsrnmwe ao tfhe art,* XInstruetion to then shell be
free.

Seoe 3 '* h re s1all be a Sqerintena6t of Pu Io Intrlue
tie whos torn Of offir ashll be ft-r years...He shall
Ibtaw geM ral npcr. iaaion of the edoatloal interests of
tie "tnte. HW duties s all be ure rilbed by lwa.

e0* 4#* The oocramn shool ) 'nd, the Interest of which


89 See ontiticfut ion f .rtiolo 'TII









*hall be slIEmIwly applied to be support and mlatammnM
of emOm e oos and parohas. of suitable lUtrarle srd
pptb huMnfate rea shall be derived rr the follntlg
mseeee The premed of all lanId that haw been r oay
harmfst be gsCted to the State by the sUtted Stats ter
edA stiaan ppmes eem apprtpriatul by the States the prom
Seeds of lands or other pre rty whehb m- semrue to the
tate wh wa the pupe o t sn h Irent shall at be speolflo
Wl moe wuhth oi y t paid as an emaeptlo frem miltery
ahys all iw fe lloeted Imder the peml I s of Mt state
meh portion of the per oapit t Ue as y be preswribh by
la ft r daesatimol prpeoeeg tentyttw peraietu of the
*ale of pualte lands which are Bn or may hereafter be
m by the Statat.30

To frtEar spoey mae oaf support of the publte eshool ~svtew the

Convention of I88 Inoorpsrated te following oetioe late Artiale


eoe So A syemal ta of not bue thb om dmll ma the
dollar et all tUable proper i the Rtateb.ehall be
levied end a pvrtmlod anmntbly f or thep support and
miiateams of eammen ehools.

'5ee 8* tThe principal of the e~a school ftad shall
remafa scored and inrlolate.

Seer 7r Provislone shall be aede by law far the distuit
button of the cmemn school fund esmW the mrwrl oounatle
of the tate in proportion to the aster of shiltdm w*
AdinUJ therein betmen the aes of fb- nd & mteatyns years.

o So Er aosh oonnty shall te required to risel avmilly
by tx*. fIm the tipoort of e-acan sehosle thesein, a sam
t lees thwn a~am*dtf of t e enasa t appW tio d to eaek
omty for that year fru the inome of the eeanm svehel
ftnd, Aqiay seho diatriet negloettng to establish atd
mlntlin for at least stre amnthi In o eah year suoh sehol
or shols as may be prwlded by law ftrftl its portion of
the camon school fuhd dwar 9suh nrgleetl.




481MMO








As to the orpgomitia amnd RA dlbtrate4 of the eyt6, the

artsles provided that's
E.e oo Tb Superatasmblt eo Publie lXrtrutIlas Sere a
tary of SItte, *ad ttePrn GOaeral shall eoumtiatsel*
Os :ardt of la noatie of nleritdae Th Sprtlatmi
of Pu li Insteruction shall be presidwa t tahereO S

eor the prib ed Ino tb Uase sometitAtial prewisr ms war

eaote, they wero soxmairably progresesive Wnewrtmles thasr

eujted the ameMlty of Le islettiv astments to asks these So *
s*ttutielt pr0vi sl a eparqeti It appears tiht this mneserfti

w i brmediately reseogmiued, hr Gowram Reed in bMl first umes4

Lv itod the Legislalurete ttsenton to the feot that

tamM fr the esoylrtiL lo of the public sodto system#
the uare end distribution of eSebel uadb and their beame
the ma gement sad rale of school, ativreity and snlmawy
2and-nemure meidsd488

Aetbg ILmdiately upan the Orasr's rIecma~i8ab t Io the

Rate legaslasu'rre eased a law in ajs ry 19 wh teh provided ftb

a syste of parblie sObolw i The prresion of this Utr aeatalnd

terms relatis to tdinistoation, wariraltic t, enarmen t and

equipmet of solh lr o ti teahowi tors, the kinds iof itrueti

to be offered eat the support of Mth stool syste

Primw to the etmtment of this ~lae ther, had ban som form

of sev ol qMeutics, but were had been nadeate organist am an




a 6Sa of, the Cowternr, florida Doase talm 1868

Elees nlorld 186 .18r6, Ct,#1 ptllr 18O. Ths h1ll at
sem wl. falld the Tlorida "Putlia school 'afw of Uls"







64
tfslittlia Thewetfb the AM t Oat IM, appea to be he firt state-
wibt *fftrt to grmMnI a effetlt e4aeatiotel sta in Fis rioda
Aeardlag 1 t o ]prrwevsic of the Bheol Law of 1809, tOh syst4
vas to boo

**. aftm s 'te of public t.l rusete fwee to all th
y utM ewlai in t he State beta m the a e~ of esd am r
oa ypars, so f A me the ftem will ast wA bere pbrskri

A* to MatlabtrattVw urPa&utim Ohe iNw prerdeld hfr the suq.
vlrisn Wad oltt at the satM t o be truated to a 8tate BarM

Ft -delstila a a Ba -rd at Ptubl e Iztrtilin, Asthb r with a .E'gr
of Prblie IstetAI m fot efah ar aty*a Superitteindnt of Sehoole
ftr eah eso ty, l0eI r shoml t uasteso reasurs and Ogests. It

tapsar, that thi oregatmrtlam as tI isre aw airateimn I s esr
tabllthmat of a geanmral and anito system of paublI ltmoettoam l

the State for all youh tbmea the "e. of six and tmeatyeem yearnS?

It should tb noted that in this ct thee tI dlstletlams eonmseml
the raee who sre to atted the ystm s WMe as ohracteriaed s pb e vous
sohoo ltsglalatlome
'- tih 8ato board of t4kieatloa me at the head of the Departaent of

PU; lie Intvetrctai a cmaniated of a Superintendent of -Pu .c tMat es
tioa, the Srwetary of Stat o bnd the tt4ormy Gerarml8 TU hi

enUsatiOam m in direct Cenfom$t with seotlae 9 of the State Cen
stitttla o Th Supernttendent of P'.llo Intruetlan aetd as president


Low of orgidba. 109 Ciapber UW*. I*e I


8 s










and .hS Btate Trwnrwr as trearer of the ourd, This "aourd was

d fined4 a a "*orpormat body with full ponere to parfbmr al l earprat

ats thrw oduzetionc pUrposoee'89 In that easielty, the bowd was dtreta

s4 alrd AIOrowved toe

***o tals p sOssion and take oharges, oversight and
Managennt of pu lie eduoatlonal lansde*to hawve the da
rectIon anuld Banageant on provide for the safe leaping, and
ewpMnditur nof ul l te ae&at tional f aisa of the 9tat.e;..ete
audit the criounts of the -;uperutain ern nt f Pttlio tertantiroca
to entertain and decide upan qesticas and an-wale reftnrrd
to thin by the AI.pevrintrndet of Pu'cile Instruntlgea3f9 t rmw
fnl atny subortinate c;flonr in the depOrtint l.. of imcqpse
wteyB.re.to oatablish wne or raBOe departments o a unlivemret
*se*n a brad and liberal basitse the -joot of 'wdch a&i11i be
*e*the protesai n oC tenohlnRIf..to opersatr with the SuPOaVr
Interieont of Pu lie Instruoton n the orranirsaton of thi
Dfetua tent,40

As had teen provided '- the Causotitut on fC l880 hp 411 .prix-n

tendien.t of Pu.llie Instructi-on was the principal eduoetional cflooer

fo"r th tItj, Ani r aclinr- to 'rtIlle V# .-otlan 17, o.; the mtgew.o

oiltd daoomu;nts, the Cu.lnrin:tcndont was an;-ointed 1y tIhe iowrn*, !ho

Sivrlntcndesnta t:rr o; office was four arswr with ,nerol sueorvie

san of -il 60:o!?t-i.omnl interest of the strto0 Iocorai.r to the

0:I r.l ww 1860 the '-"'poxrintldeaint oIf 'u lic Instruct' an was su

tharised a S enrpowered to (1) print am) d"istri" ute as mnriy sopa of

tir no d:- law 1EI ar fc-h Pi is, inttr ns*,, Instract-on-s, r- .:1 'ens



Sta of lo. 18.0 9, C:3, (r, 1636, %e0. 410

ST'd, ee. 11, ahe. 1-8

:Tlo:-dB C:anttlaetinc o 18068 rticl 8, fee* ws .so a
o^4f '^"" 18.^-. ^: iQ Qo ",









and dlstesim, na he may sloe nmessearyg (8) provide plane and epe
at Loatiao for the oeaLws taton of nmeti~ of jaunty *uperiatrr;amt

at ehoets, ad other of io (3) seamble bshen In irLstitutieom

(4) great ertifeat (5) apperte sheol mwo e I (a) MakW diaere

tiory a&ppeiatmrntG (8) enturtala sad eideM upOn appuala and asu-m
ties arSter idwer tOi sets (9) eatleot suady martertala and (1)

pr rlbe rules aMd regulatiamr for the mainaement of the be rtment
ef PuISAL trout on4I

In nsmeate other Ip etoas oa t1 Seheo La of 1869, it appears

thut ti addition to the odneationl t rg lestion for the itatnte there
also exited a seyst of ealinSatrftive organitatioa fbr the schools

of ea4h of the oelaetiw. Eah o arty eamttlbted a school dletriet,48

esA It educattiel aterbst w ore etrurted to a so aty bomed of Pub
lie Inartruction

This card of Publie Inatructian was to onasist oft

***, t aots thea fw ramlerys, to be appointed by the
anrd of Fd.aatia ai the baumiaat of the 8 Speoratmend.t of
Public Instructine ad the wenormendatiton at the represented
tiwos ftre the eoantve44

y tirtuo of Ma orfloe, the county riperlatbea ent w" loth tle
ooeta*B bard of Public I tructiona eoretary and asentt The shainr.

Mr- ard other offeers of Vtu ward apeao r to have be=n chsmen by thB

uard i sefr.


xw of Iglr, La*tw Chapter 86O8. P,* I 1$ pte. tU 1


Ibid., Deo. I









in asemdea with the pro ilwls o thb S hool law of IM,
asee county earrd of Pat1e 16 e iwtrute t s e authorftlnl nd trted
to meqAre ranheld I a l amd personal etfat. resei be PeB eat
deaoti, m a pe farm other ewrprta etie Cter e*za tioml pvrpeees*

As it was to the enae of the arnd of e*natlnij, sath eoaty bad
a eides e9* mtiaeml officer tit 4 the eoouny %upep.rutaSent oA Scho s
hO ms appointed e nw the State SUperintedent of PLublie latrM ties
by the Gowraare4

*9.the Goveror shall appenat in each county a S'partatwident
of Coaara Seohols, ad fe ouniMty CeuQmistnIlam eah of Whoi
sUn1 held hMs oefic fOr toe yars..sa s h arffiere shall be
suhject to smsrl 7 the Oewranwir Wq In his jagdpmt the pabe
s walitre ,1i be adnvae thdwnby.4e
The pritaipLt ftmBtls oaf the ose o- iaty suprtntendants wo (1) to
ashe "tibaly abpewbtam of the county to aseertain 'he Ioauliftes is
tdoch ashawlh should be e**sblishade the ambwr ef youth whe w A
attend eeah, and the asw Bt ofr t that eitimne wall contribute to

oIwuriae the estblilshag may Mae asho'li* (a) to present plans fbr
uildiages (3) to 'V9t atohb school SeOe a tens Oad Oxamnm its

antnirs (4) to *xeste interawt Iln *dest -.Oa (8) to eaoftr with
besi trutee frequently (0) to select "fOw esbl trutes persons
who dahretertua qusalilett' i~ d e apt thy with duoetiaa special



SS46 Sa *6* Se 1. 1U. 80
S-lordan CSnWtitutigqg O la8g Artiole V, See. 39
49









3y seamm the to them pMiltimrte (T) to khep a report of rohs
asheol wiltia the district o smeorda (8) to report to the taft

tupertbeslrent the ame, hdatl and addressmw of all county adheod
Ofineru *ad teacher (9) to 6ecie disputed qoattmam or iftr ib,
OaBe to the alrd of PuMiC Instretios athe ewmityg (10) to ewtLh
*wr all school Interests# (U) to *et, whtn mr mPry Itasted of the
aouity card of P'Alc Inlstruwties (12) to seine eruta watee ftir
taohlqa a And (Is) to goold or .UspeGad %ta.or ertitiflAt.ee Whn


nra edition to the tfnte and ao-aty &enatlowa l orgatniatlica%
the Rohool tar of 2389 also provided for a disitrlot or rather sub-
diestrt for the sadmibtlratie et eehemola It a ~par tint e-mm
at4lejtriote oartmained ne or a"e echoo ans the aontrc l and damage
maet of the nehoale' *ueoa ical Iateitnetu wre Arvesntod y t)he eoanty
.ard ot r&ioation tl a local iarnd of Truiawts* Thin loal bs,
as presrt*emd by lw, mws to o -mist of 'at more than five nsberen
to be wsnoreeanerl by the patroas ot the s*hod, ad appointed by the
-:crd ot PAttl astrumtiOe'W It wa the Auty of ths bo,, to

(1) trims opar, i~Lpeetim, and amagemant of all he sehool0 ema
*aoeol interests err whiad thfy had been appointed (2) attend to

the oomntrnttiom and aintemlmme of serool 'vtldiguo (s) to mmapeet


s e ftE of 166, Chapter m8o Se"* $I

JZw 8**. 19, pt$ 4
hbtA See-4









each school Unce a aonth, (4) suspend or aje*L pupil and cooperate

with tse teach. r in efforts .t elevate like ctlracttr and conditions

of t a schools (5) encourage propWt atte.dance (6) "keep full and

correct recor .e of all their official acts awi proceedir;s, accounts

,.f all mmonys an. property raceivedl (7) report to ts-r ,sonty Superin-

tandent of Pthlic Instruction quarterly, or oftener trin reQuired,

(8) determine tV. environments and equipment of te schoools.o1 riuoh

wenr the adWinistrative provisions o' what ws an elaborate plan for

public equation in Tor ida.

Nlt on3y dl. U.c Lchool La of 1069 contain elaborate "ai pro-

grassiv w foeturwe for administration, but also pro.,;reaivc feature

coo~crirn. tt cnvirorment anl eqqipaont of the school, thi toacinAm

forces t -ta. atean of public instruction and t a:.~.una for s u,,ort of

2Ux schools.

,'RFco nisin the obstacle of ill-plaummd soaol sites to eduoGtxial

progress, t~e 2tte t Legislature provided L>e cunt' school board with

authority of detrtini4.o w>'on and & iere t-e solbohl were to be organiAeC.52
lHowa er, the count; .'~ rd of education Nuad p: cified instruction t-.at

the selected ctool site wa to be located on not less t! an,

..or-e aore of ;rournd...the situation to be dry, airy
healthful arn plDasant, also reasonsby central ard c- aveint
of ascee f cr all o n sI:oulC attend t.o sohraWol-



5ee ,Laws :1orida. 169. Cha.t-r 16W6. ,loc. 22

Iite :*c. 19. pts. 3,t

Sbi "'. a -..,o. 19. pt. 5









the osertrueetite, npir, te ofat the school boildir, wnre to

"t attema d to bythae lost Beard of ristems with the eomty !Wrd of

Publie Instruetio oenrutedl w th the tiadmnttrMttn rtoa the -a.*

In regard to &apa e tu and bollitis, those were to be preried by

the county tV&rd of PubUlI IMnrtotioa at pubhite epeameM"

Se *ahoel rsptta t oauplete without it te blidn flre. ineeg

aIdlsa tihe iaprtano of this Sxtiag the Lrtialstswo mab prea las

for a teaching rwos Comiequntly, thore in imaorperated seetica

to the -ehgel Uas of I8f wtieh provided tfr the appeaintment of teaSb

are of the puilio sobhels by "he wrieu school bearb*lU Ia this

oMnusation a wall as in the *lo stian of school atteo and ot8,t

matters of local odueatcloal Interest, the params of the et'udistr'lbt

wea usually oaoultels86

this feter eoaeosm tr the toemhtniCa or e afp sr to haw asumred

saw tapertaues. This ts evidsmoed V t ne moaber fat rfbnresa to

toaehin in the Seheel Lmr of 1689. Thi school law authorized the

State 'ard of Edtoat e' to estalimth a department of teaehtv: if a

Saniterettys

***. whiteh eeeh oeunty shall be entitled to se
papls in the region it semns represet atives to the !artos
Istarmernree of of ntaotAgIfI I Tt nt to amSed the
Maurer as the oard ba preserwbed.57

The 'tate ctr el' Educl tinn also was "to keep in view %te establtsbatent


84 Ib eo". 19, pt. 1U

SIbd, lr, p. 4 pr 1 p


y LM of Faelomda, f I"* Chupter I Oa sa w* 1Sf l*








n
of a tuenwrnity "2O object t of which van to apart instrci-t1 a to yTub

Ita 'he pretfeasion of totchlings"5

The yqwpartnaae attaobed to tho teaching firom io agtin shorn by

the necsslty of tesahere to hold tcaeowr oerts fic' tae In order to

rintasu ax tAcht
toaoher eartlflentese ws held 1y -the wootty "card of RK&cl.tirfn and

the oo aty qupci -nteednit of Pubtle IXMtruatimaa* Tie eertifiaote

granteAd by the oonfty was oftecti-ve for ocly mu ywr and uessle In

tJie O aty of ait nnooe, ily1U whereas, these Iaued by the Vtate

FP,'porintrcadent ware "good in ay part of the ttste for" the tlms spoi,

fled tlert."a18 In 'oth oesua the standards of qualil.'lc iown are

fixed 1'- tihe C :toa Saporint<-nde' t r' PIubille nlotrutta -8S

Artain t: sapwrtanem of ftrlnw il teaolnrs Is ovirldneod 1y the

prwiarics of the "sa-r of 1806' which nadie t a dut.' of the State

u''pwxrintenfne. of Pu lieo Intrwct a to.

*..aees i IBs tecouirr n in Inrst'lI5tes, and employ oa.m
pttseni -Irraatwsr to trport Inonrma.'on on c SUproved tBthods
of toaching arnd onaCwtitag btoolf and other relwnte rit:oe.M

:;o "nisimg tC;A taport*nt role that toeeoe-r play p in ayr oduos

t.: al al bl.aon the Lo,-ia-Au ampwered the toucher, ta (1) Iaml-


Thid. f-eo. 11. pt. 7
9 :4*, 'ec. 1V, pt. 4


61 T.a rn p 4



13 Id. eo. X5, pt. a
04
4id6, 6 c. I". pt. 4









oat truth, u umtob,* ad patruttaaig (2) require pupils to d~orw

virtue p.-so.al hotttmj (s protect nobowo r appert w (4) enftersn

needti r rstrlotic upon t'-e condurot of h pupils (6) t: suspend

thooo who pOrslstcntly violate tc rule r ulots radrorulu' i. g (0) hald

a pu'i.t" emaimnt: of the soltv1 aml e oac taomS (7) be om qpt4

froea Malitay services; (0) road the t1.le in a short dr vot'.oal Iemw

vice of. naBmIeaharPlian ohrfotr eIch Tc. y.

Although "tx t-;n of pi ll iwlnrctieton provided 1.y tie '"tfft

..o t'A.-.t of 'th ol ent. ud2-oo&l'Of tbe s 1nifn ant poin ol t!sat

this inarucrtion moue oP r'nld .'tobrod to al.1 olil ea "residifc, in

the tateo 1ibmse trihe ps of ~ Lsr nd tw steB mM :' a Str8"67 7ha m p

w" 9 o? hil en W .hai thiss ". c:rup =as to bi detont'niad by the

tax asacsoaire orin t s ease 'Q- neClaht, by the o'rnty p1rlnttenet,

.It a c cru !o-' ;to '. tc OrisBlfsftla .Anc. ryconised the nood for

dL. oiplit, a-d lsoi t'w-, fthactbr of "potty dittiraoes*' fo(r &ily

tu!eo hialfran who had 0o ISto4d 'rossXe Aiaral 'tr, tAsoeauaet or

wresiatert viola' ten o. the ro:l''.anl t of the school esuSt be dmnid

t1V rNght b f free eduor -oBn.

.o qa'-. ol 4V weg nm)t to "o 'prisa. ere t,..n gs hbows e)olm ivii

o.f roseeona an.I 4hV aohocl 'rwtt wer t o r cocqrs "taantyrte. d; y eao

oalI'zi9 o.' :Iho first and 1ast ay o: aoh rt ek e schools ware


Go is :hunter lce0, .:oo 18

coahrwi, cite p 4S
07 t ar of IfoBiMi, i ,* 'haputer I683, '.o 1

a I do r. s. tl pt. 8
..SI. .
do*O










to be open for inutruotion for nAt lesa thAn thrae months each yearo7.

If a sQhool was not In eeas Ion for at least taree mwothb
w;old ftwinot its portion our tho school fuad until t rested the r.e

quit-ed tree months perlsod of irotruction.

It is InterestI- to note t .t no tine alletrsnt or course of

stiti lly naontknOd oetept as na po rtein of each wir:y a to b de*

voted to tleu "readiznw of thi- 1Ue in a mea eatarlan mnaxor0*71

AltihifCrh the typ-e o(' imtruation offered was ae tei olaalntur:.

lively provisions aatr 3ad& k'o manr strd a& hi"!nr oedn '.iac "TAis

oa rvidweod by the staturnent thai tie county owrds or' P' lio Inatrumo

tion wier "Iut;;riLed and directed to eatb'lish sou.ole of. hicigwr

aiAloas oif Instruct j.. t,. Ci ut*n.:oeiSt eiand rnaubor oC pupfla roP

quiro t*bhas."7

hi.t as e.n a13a,1 -JM;:. the Canaitfirtan 'f 1808 I provided quite

11 'rally 3or the support o.- tile public aehol a sc:toa1. Novwrthlcloses,

it was aRgi nemusaary'rj fr logbl1a' Iv. oluaanm to a supporZ thote

omnswtitutienl provio'an. ('aaWequontlys, in U o. o-t.l La o 1309,

tia LGeislature pruvirdd .L.At

**o* apoeial tax <. aw adll Sa theo doi lar or all tbas
a'le property o? t. rtato ,- 11 be sammially lkvied as:i eals
l1oted, anid apportioned annually Por the support and rains
tenanoe of oieao aechools, and for schools %or t': Ins ruow
tion of' tocohers which >h ola a0e hereby deolared to be
oaima o ashools4co



-MOMWA-MM wa- a --- --
Slortl.n coaititlutin of 1968. Article O, oe., 8

Law of rardI, 190 ICghatntoer 166O. so, 30

T7 d, 9oL 19, *t,

73L4** 'htator 172.", ^'eo. 8










To lasnro tVn sabty 'V the eshool aamoney, evy person reasive

laY ucah Mwnaya was required "to give bel nd with tw,* ood surestes

for double th*e enaou t tt-1 t will to 11 nto his haads at

arny ae ti:t. Thv ends to be iSed by the amrd- of Public lustrae

tan fPor tho county and a- proved by t!w deard of Couan Caeatlasio eren*4

It i- thr 2 d-.-t o, to ouw P'p rintondeyit to 4o tbvt fall

di~ot ;is~ys Preceiwvd by their vopeotive otiariesaa ifyo "ttetu 4r

Twamwl- nt rosr .rooae "'a rtaisd Ly Ue oornatyg an a:.j liud to toe ob

otc i'tor r -ito2, t:ynj weo ;-. atexd Or* rsd

uoa Vat-I w S i"ot 1=309 uId rovidrsL ed ?or tiv eata'.1isiia.nts

opera 1..na, .; naintoan mu oef t first .au lal:' roul pm:'ull soiomdl

:r.uta i. lo .iA.kS

AlUat...h 1:2 Zo-ool 'av of 1909 was a rarkaet"lc. lorl::nlkiw enar

acteont, i o .nti;; erozwd w rid. wiraca -son. 1ThEe wAtl'.hJosfeeU p-oved to

to a sorce afC IrARtloitn dr-uri the erioC' ?Vrr'a 3J8 18785. Nevorthem

orin, *th tio.ol Law 18063 tOir n.-.r to biav AnXH fnvarmblz: to the

papl V... ti -o lt.e. l-.' in #vidEwenld by hiIts 1r rnafority of lZoia-

lators which voted for 1- IhA I tt lsnwChes of t:.tn ;;tute legislAture.

''oll ^%-c LEcara'it o& .:. L.-w C-lr 1889, ined tlite uc ;,iZi luxs

ar'rter.abt to put. it iii ertipotn. In aeroreri of t-Ie orrjatice sitter

poaerni t o- tapcrtiry oj s%'isati.ns began to ii -uur. z':aon a0ftr





b7 idt ('t <' 4w laf6 : ooS 21. pt 10

C -g 9of lW !4t Xr LstJadeni of Pu. licU atruat" 12870. pe









thirtyerlfw yewt-r, Floid:- imwmrated a publir soa!l ta-stora vt'loh

x,.~e prt o W.t pi~Pcint policy of tho EtatQo an, '!ich he

oren.*ro "' tt ac pIrt,- rvnioo "c ccow ;- .oo:asl!v d t.s trrl t~ ia

Tt: iutO 'mt uatu. 1 "3 & ', .."y as. gzt I' at. olbcm a wore nade In the

lrn;, ,tsin in C- t tw. Yh 'Il t ~ ytWa c o1 don.i 3a Irn -c .rda to

rao mr- sC-..-IR legiliedw4






























0 the t-m -itentent of 'Pulio Inotruotion. 189S9-4*
PU'









(Ct.P'"'. Vy


::hraertrlties of the PublU rohaol B3yitse 18889M.89


In 1868 wtsan C.i Thuratan haer was appointed the firt tafe

Sxperitm. dnrt of Public Instrwtit it wa fund that Mbre wns a

lako of public school fri:ts no adequate dF~ mnitre ,.ive oerr(n- stla

Inadequate school Iootlleee an I ll-qirpAred toaehinc, free, ,a d ts

arrqnil school wI sTha obstacles plus a p lue popul'ticas -M

avernrp of three per aquire mi ISS4Sdifftbnme, "grat .febr of diw

schtoole and pnretas agaimt LS pultie sehools'Al oaoetituted a

greet deterrent to o&ic2'i n 1 progress.

Althourh these obtieoloo estaE od, thor wre a now r as roee of

eno treret, t.n .blic eduioation. These were ;haraCteraLed by a

a: 'oprrt tioa rf k(6,000 frtn the Federal' government ftr buldi!ngs,

and tho 7ood vi41 of tVi 'eolesaertatollL tcachere t t aO htl kpt up

a ifw soh. la wihst. eampenzatte, other than that eortri'uted by

pr'vatr Ladicidusias rd*4 hoernolant annokciticas.

The appcrtibeamnt of thea fiAl ramot of interest 1 ft In the

tronanry from tho school nir to to he sewartl counties, w P tes otI

ly aqwesa*ito Por lack of proper data upin shlah the apportbiaAmuet

a nld be nBftds* Cansequently, it stand to rason tint withart tho


Sbart a iabmey, ninwvrsal 1 duCatSon In the %'?uthe I 3p12

Report of the I0 pweritndent of Pubtlic lItrution, 1870, p 8
Lam of Vloritan 106

2 oB f thg rSjto.Lfabunt of Pu l.e Intrut 10970. pG









gifts of laboP oad ueony froma both private and oewrwentatl agencies,

there would not have been an putlo sehools In opers' lan by 1B9. As

t vesa, the fmd elr the support of the sahoolsa n 8M9 va tSnaed to

enly SY0,O0eX $S,000 frAna the national gomrinant, %71,000 fOra the Pema

bOd \ rO ad, 430,000 fPra nsWAty tbaos end the rout fcaa private cmatri

bot-ian. 1ms t,, trhe total acfntLt L xponded fbr public ashoola Sn

1609 me omly 36,0300 or riich 6,000 as pad to to th sminmary ta.d*8

ased upmt the 1Cg.uem of sohr1,- popul tirm in 170, tide atmrnt wild

hisB allowed s2 inuttaloiont sawportioagmnt of 1..60 por student annual

rly Of t>- omai e.xpenmoi, 1290000 as ued to asstes.lsh oearvi rtao-.ols

eP Preedao-i. An a ro-l'it c -this ina&Bqueooy ft aunda for up1iort of

pJ lie school, ivry Vosw echor-l me maulrnained 4 1070, at which time

Bsly 226 8choole of t"ll Colasnrs sxatSe?

iovertheloes, theo Idnatg Era of i'rar3essionml 'eowstrueotian

omupled W- th eooamieo prosperitW, tended tro arete a ellint ftvoraeult

to p'Ali e d&ict Ion. As a rosilt of tits renamed interest to public

ew'eation a Ir mea eaectatd based upon univoural edtlutionna Althsgb

C, Thuraton Chase, nDu werintendont of Pu lie I'duction was instrutrsntal

In the emntar nt of) tis flra, he dir' not livw to e V I in oeftetive

onsr.t-an.r After sorvin- twr years (1868.1870), C. inuarstom '\w

d(ad an Septmbegr 83, 1870. After a tuperamry vacancy of nix anrth.



-a-m%
The redrta-,. ad oaniststed o"' n.i ma"rieys soonrod fr'3 tihe rent
of, and th9 Intervat see red frm the lade reserved y tl- oar>
gresieartl Pot o Whiroi 3, 1%92, %or th- use, of "two socrinaris-l
at le'saing"
7se Ct s CgS 1370. V40 1. Table 'i'
La8 of Florida 1S9, Crapterv 1686, 1728
Um-a L









charlos ewso r wus chosen by the owrnor to fill tie rnaomy. le,

i harlum Bneeto r, entered ir aisatel upon t'a cOutte of tul etffse.

In addition to estaebltastn twh first effbetive publiae hool

B.te in laorida the eho-l Law, tbJed upwo r+se' pli --.f ul

rvrsal suffrPe reeorileod for the first tta in t-% historM of

e$LatlonI lofisliuion it the 5OW uth, th trwe view of onflit.e

ien parties and ltrtonstee9 'iat th raore siit floant polrt it tia t
the .eoMTl Law fas renaCtl adti ted in points thrnhout t i "tate.

At af result. In soMi 88 counties s auOritendwentA Ind bon appeotited

a 'tallfIed, asehoel be-ard tha been apoeiated It S. ',nwtis, s o aol

oi"nisn' lon had ueWi eampleted IA U8 of teo VS oewvties and in othbr

Orn atis. tle sperary ernnisatitem bat been fbrnWed wh thV hope of es-

tablildr- permnan ornanis+Iaiomn.0

t&en 18069 anl 1080 teu hubadro u d fifty echools w re in Opawr

ten with a r-ported attem; no. of 7,676 pupils ien td-io flure

to conpired vdth tie to^r? ana or of Iildron of asclool ansiv4lS0Gb-

it unporr- rather anmll. 'ls ame or is inRooplete teaaust no census

*a -ope ted t rva the o- antio of I'e lhua, rowvrd, "eamc ia -'r nklln

ioarnes, )renue and SeBta os0 Co atieso, amwBr,' the ainrylflant fNct

to tisht ecided proremax vas bsein3 mde AI thls area of e r-:tiwAl oe*

vljopunt. It in neessaouy to note that t0i?.s mra rF or nttmendrnce


9 ij tthe S print rtntt of' Pliwg c A tru8tica 8m70. p4


0J .por4c ,wac zxl r7LnAe JOUlrm 187O% ap.L-n4ix










wiSch apps -rn simal is attriuteBd to iny fctore, or" vil h the lmoet

,*o aent M*a the pntrent' .? pnat: ..a- A-rdoaina t4. Ie 'ni.ted

rtotpa ern-ai for 1870, there existed only 187*T78 people in thes

C tate, "1doa ficure wm av.r. orew it 'i-t three prnns perw "qare nilc,

1 on t'o, threo we0 areia o0' the tote which were almoat oasroletely

nitnhlablted-.eapooiully ith t orildas. fAkl manyr o- the 1xrtns

i.-od In eoh rwaote cad spaoelky settled aras CLit the pr otloatCL211

ty oi" utt;adlla 0 Oanor shoL toI was naeusatwunts. V*':refbrct, excepts

n t:manos, the ap rot; of pvpul. --n ri-ea.;ntdl a nost serious hiar.

"r nee to odoti-. -:1l prcryesa in I.oi a.&l

It r.l rpe lxa werc*, tA, '.y M97, tCc obistele Ias 'oetI. ever

coc$, fIor h Govon-ao sat ito .t

..durtii "La' yur' 1870, t1ht. wona uttrendance upon tWl
soai-col Wa cmaly 7,W000, a In 1871, 17 has 'en 14,000, rivtfln
,f inofLa'-InJ a 3 attrao ;.f 6,c800 r near 100 M eor cent, 'e
talber of school in 18t0 reported at 2B50, 'it In IMP1, tiy
had increased to Ig*, riving as ioorapose of woae th-n 30 per
cent.1

In ae.tditis. iB th; t proVr-os .nd the vi'. vl o o N t' f mitnaial

distrgeas 1 due tAon, i interestinr to note th t in 180s, t!oyer

xis te4 a seinry fad o(4 73,9333, w3dnhi yielded r-Ln t of' of L-oyut

.;6000 a omanoe slool Itatd of *283,S69&,0o yleldirv ar incne of "14,

145 j a coaol Utex ir elevwtn -i -V.* twnt vaewn emIl e Le which

pu 'lie schonole had 'eo;. orGanised, and printed oantri' utl -2 for the

estat*list;:nt and naintenaaoo cif pu'111c school in ten of the ofrhar

sixteen aontmosrl "'




w a -m = ---
fis w-wrnm's y***aiiao A,.;j~at y Jaurc 1871
1 o t ., *rjin. ent oPtf.li XIntruptiqan 1TO, p9












TA &L VI

Prg4reeas of ohool Pand anr.i spenitwe.w

(laeo-law)


0nn"L*IIflrPY~efeaae*~((I~ *aQfleno..nane ------ l-lL.
CII-- ~ -IIU-IDI YRSP ted. r1 II-~I -1- -lL1. Y-LI- I-Il_. I __ C^


1872O890

18711 874




1895744107

187S8767

1976-1877


-ted ot0ao"
':' ool (ed










219,400X00


2 0.o*oo0
aP, 0.0


o heel
F apnditurea


t 7000000.o0
100,914.14

101,320,80


1'9,S0o.O81e



*1* **. **

n1 S40.10


upprIantendent
1eparti11:

Ce ThraItma *.hose

ev. Tairle. echor
w LAly-.ls ewoche-

ohnntfan :' CIt as

WanaRl M'ot1
reyv. VT- Ticks

Rov. t ,. jiuks

llisane P. itealey


ae All Vfins* I.r" are sm tC reports of tfho Firinuao ftr-te


.* Appreairoly.

o. %ke data.

d. Wn aserves hEo cwsuwt of' th tate appeartlament and the esti-
"aited ashool ta aeolletod by tie various ew.entie. Tbh r!a+te
paryt rnamnt (. 589146 0),p hfw mash of it was realised io SUi
peas1 It to say& due to the I ck ,o" countyy reports

a* T.sIanEted fvsai rsrtiatl data.

i* 6ee Pt C *JaiItaBnhonts o P0i1lo .mitruatlon 1074, 9a 57.

cr .eoe topor t ?f j jrinteents of Lru -lie Intruotiong
1 7 rp Mr .


ss


. M









ogardlea o tAe fcnt. Wtt the oanmn oseol fund had shmm a

decided Inremae by 1870, the oshooles til.l appeared to 1 barAly

siaBlint int 18a1. x hi s Ielovieaneed y the rarlial ftam the Cnard

of Pu' lic Instrustion to the Letislature witoih tatses -"mtm-

***in ^ofsequenem to the failure of the last Leal..
blat'rs (1890) to make the noessea:y anreqprWitiaro, several
of thbe w-inties haw been obliged to aoloe the puth ato smaciciU
thfle otr h bn e hav been ble to pa:/ their teoadars, onuatrp
great poealtr y distress.

Ifowrthel cos, theor aniears to heae 'aen a gradual increase la

theo trunt' of pu..ile a 1807f?

'henre from the aeempartlnr tw lt, ('.abie UT), it lCn '- canoluded

Sh t betoen 1M80 and 10, o7ue0s tweal expenditures and proese

tWore&aed consideroaly. r'iI moor..Ise my also he attributed in a

lare mer.-stro to the Growth of pu lio aontia 't in farT-r of public

ed11e0' ion, an t to e e'nradeo Bdevloypnnt oif thn Z ites6

In Precrds to proroas In putlio sd-c--. lin '.otnwn 1869 -ind 1877,

ono author stten s: ttiit

*..durln(; thls poriod (1808-1877) the inersst in ca=si
sohowla lihxd so inareaosd Ut.t of only eleven oewmtitoe with
an average Tchrol tax of butl. ne-half aillUe.. n 1877 there
were five oo'utlos whio hr*d levied a tax of asusLaills or


Th-o finenoial obs'tscle =as not thi- onlyM hinrance t: ecdi 'jtmral

pregreeso in -lori'Le t wonres tIha t'0eo 0alt, related a l -ok of


1 florica 'n tot an id .iae onrIn. 1871, ap -ndix

15 Coobra, m s cit. b 7
p .1,









erfleient arraatsatlo and adiCnistrtimat M This iOfoiSeieO rvas

due In a V':rrA maeasireo to both weaknesie.e a tbw Eann nahoCol low

LdlA th1^ ftailenv of th- Fa&niuistratiw oefters to carry out Wju7iou.se

ly tin prafvision of t-io law.

To further marks ite tMe point, lthe school law iho: v mar emonated

in 1839& provided foar t appointmanw of tie state and o mt: qsorup're

+endamta tl q c rQ oior.1"q8 tEre nqntly, It apneir natural tint"

(e rio ta the alarliea In tShe aoCla48 barP-n to be at all wiorttwhilo

partm politia o wept in, aid toe often ran wro selected for the p"Ly

iur poestirna 'mamuse of' wrrty affilst3nws*17 rather th.i otpetsuees

SrPnrrin'adent foAn ocmpalained th'it "the oo'umty wrinptea dents

brd ft-l1n intoa So haIt:r of nan to prostitutod the otfftea to their

tlin or politite'l ewvairuroa"nt18 the r 'ow raty rnprntua also

t" tyroubai with insoiilent local cffo.als i
-ha ana3os to to te Ilegislature a Jrsaury 1, 1877, stated tiati

..tereo has 'ewn nare IAuetlme dons -y failure to
owcaaly. with t!v Ulr a&nd faithftB ly oar-r at the preptei
alo5m o0! tti lw thaM frca awy defeat In the systat itself?.1

.o iVel e plcs Of' of thisa Iner fli-eno, t1H0 Coerr ontieod A shata

.,,!t :;?-ae:!rs Nfan *o..re ort of the 'o pwri;ntendent of
ublkt zMtra-t!ot tU tV:0 s tu la*e not boon taken since
1878. "T work was Begr n in 1978 utt not onpleted. Tie
ownsu.e recod rs twetrpwthrne counties aly are fceal In the
ofice of the L.p -zhnwt.20



ta Le 71or iia, JiA), Mlpter 18M. i eotv.n I
17 y, a

s apart of *1ha Supe Intordent or Publio Tnat+vutiion 1879?9, p C3

awror' MeeaCe, OiuaGe JoirWl, 1T77

STbid.









As a result, it ins cowluded th.t .te fotoer of itawftieiney as

ewamrplfied by tiw net an eotivitieB of the administrative oPforials

emused waS presented an aobtaole to cof ioLal Prcwth and d*welwpeant

roam 1808-1877

It shield be mrntionad, howwr, that all o' 'he-* atbttlore to

eduentksnl prowess I in 'loidu was nct foatd in the a&,snia-tsretl

and fianeial aspects of th pmu lie school synts, Ther'e wero mnwerw

ettaoce fed In t6he prlyeial ebY aotsristio8a Of tohe system

As to lie :.ogool Plant, V1 appears th t thip. part or f'lh Bvustea

exiased in a deplaarblo canrdii:rmn. 2a 1989, t1 reports of' the wariotn

co it- wn11rinbert*ce-ts shoIy that tier.e was i total loek ai adecniate

achael rildirrws IOe 'tlitsmlc,1 ffo riAca swptrlntondont reported

Q> t

...th-e rant of P Tlslo school 'tidal.a la m- f&ivr
eaatuael tJo tie uiay i p yrme.s Lver'Aor1 -f the meaiel.
hkr-aes in this eaity aro nrde tle-a, sacd Ict in ahe
seoreest d nidrdet manor. 'aon eare destitute firo
pleoca or 8toavsit

J -vero.n of !.8Lau d .aunty describe o th eitt.tt' na n ts county

stulun-. thst

*..thsre nre s*wrn soah-'-a* in oprttlon.teee arc oaew
*eiered oECfortrbll and onntec a t i lm d n met nf t iUanao
usually sployed as aida in instruotion.8

It &apeaor tf-t the ae-no3a were oewly equipped an' tot can.

&cmtz- t, ro'od honlth &a'd odc I ni. a!h -* iwRot, i o"V %pla,


c oQ enort o' .Lw i -porintand tet of Pu' lie TInasretin, 1070,
for the norinaty eat repo-t of th- pat.
I .T-Id sepsrt Co So ollidS:., .liam 'cntty.
3id n., vpeort of J, C. t'srasvOn of 'ies^ is nty









of the elsft aedwel homsUo In .co ts Alachua I'.try aich lre prow

vided by the county altiebas free -f runt u

taaoh has a brocs4 a drinkl-r* oup, an.' a wll of r-ood
water, rour hum wvter 'u. kets8 three hive chalrs anrd
ta',l4 for t'o tear"e-spg one is we ll "sated. All wate ath
uAt wiboiaaee* Very comideIrwnl raprire are nuedads4

It rprar- tlrt t'-.ie condit.i as wild prsunt a hazard to bot2 tes

oelth 4rt odu- iarlcmn! aaccl-Iovat.nt of tOl pupie llf* ar, ytkol:ut hant,

iZ tau'd appwor that tas shtidbn n wr -ld not be a&le '.-o apply t'wrab

aelve therua.ly to their satsadies in the wInter, TMhe in tn myr

acmnm- ftr the mna or of absences duritr Imllanont wBa-th'r, T+, also

aerP t!T 16 h ii' l:nIB wiro inadequate or h- *IOtel mf ran "r -.T

eli-I U.1 pupils, ft.- one o.airty superlnt.c-ndnt reported that *tito

tre atill elx hundred youth, taa- are not a'4ending sahr 1 for taint

S-:i+;aI.' a1 o seumnSda ioet."e

lThrnw ne aewrul ocrw. .vers, toweewr, ir ttwir: the aitfation

tended to &"ow coenaidr6ial- qroyr-'n. Tn lesae ooinm'.Iota attempts

vre i onr (sAndo t werono the obFtOele* eiwnmod y inadequate school

4tldinres, ior enjple, Juotm L urth of o E!anteae 6 .wrnt;y, atted

in a letter to Jebuathwr Co, (l' t" "at

o %:re oroatirt, oaet ftis4 eaho'lAhWuaosa, well fl ld *.4th
desk, iooate, temaciheri ea a ..desiThl is the firat in tide
o'nty..aeu hberetoforo our aoihool have 'an Lpt in someaa old
1, oa '.ildMe, badly exposed to the iauthber, &ad almost on"
tiely destittute o, T bo* d4sbi ".rd oat*280


24
26 Ld. ep Port of :. 1 P, *ol ^ ida, tlich U *... Ty

0 ort of The pnrintundent df Pu'Y 1I Itr1ustI.an 1*8M p4






85

85

In the area ot mrricula thwre wear no ell sdeftnl plans Witoh

ch *-'aorisel! the aitols ftristnTe Jowi r. fal niAh che'l, aem at

tll. raot. pPraremsive. of Vie peirte ham desligd the fellwong rFree'

!'1rast Tear ew *Xt nsenl rittifn rithrnetiol, Tysilolo,
-atfin urisesmar, :.nrtth Crnm-ar, T nslirsh cam
peit'on, Biatary af the united "7ttee.

b(l3 Some 'cam Algetrl Chestatry, 'Attn lIeoader,
rn-lish CirEnr, rlNa-lth arA C:ampoitSeti
Hisfltory of' the "nitae Stateme

eBeaaed Yes ar lt s e Aleee, C'-ntaltry, Coaw, C'loteh
oek, Irvin CaCpeltliun, lautery of Ialtnd.

2nd ecB Iona aeBetry, -. oaiesoonc', teaser,
Latin r rpesltiom, Mltan emd ( aswsoltiaem
aialrt Hiatory, inciernt (GeMsreph*P'

"Ti.rd toar lot 'eatsvo5m 'tioenaztry& :lryj 'v'lO flatin
CrcBqeit2or, ?neteost Siatwry, Anciarrt Goepgrphy.
tnA V seial on: levlet soon, earwytnr;, ?'oolgy,
rall, iV'-1 Ir 'rench, ieterel, lesntal Phi-
lesoty

11rth Yearw lt 4.C, fa AnDlytiel anOtry, Aooler, esotany,
'ice roe, 'PtW-ia or 1'r !joLa Iapnl hil -


tnd .ooSdna thilosereahy anCl "%etrnteo, is wy,
Zorsme, :"eraodots or Frenon, Ptli' .loal o!naxay,
(CanMtitutiozitl law

The real u in h 1 n.rood our llma1ts tt y :n' im.ne y n pi e eolample of

tbdu inwritil. .' JK SJ ac!tool, To A&tr aIS fPwid Mwc4' preanfled

tn av r oruf o crnr ioulit .4t E3 e *nou w im ropert a ? e-.itry .s-parinn


87
hie ourwSe ro s- at4d e t"W laken tfru th -e j g t ?9^r'
t rdeint Cof lnstreet ) a9 19tw ppQ liiB








88
tgAirnts0, tnwnraw r school oa ricultwna c a*rttot AroA 1d thIe nSp1im

cat ela ntt 'y ubjctaeeS Alqo, tfae scoA-ls tut etlet'-X!.od rstrino this

-neA- not onla looed i
liat Of sA*'aiFmdepted t'Drb' -aofes In this oapaOtty, charlus .scohwr,

tte prn terimntaennt ea ".uI' o Insrtration frar 19871A873 atated that

*..next te firnnotail obstacles to e4uuwatic(nal progroe
Is thi-t rilinm froa ths pmn .t r"ita'e te'rtm'roa. !3MI s
prqportisn of the Ioploe.oire not a le to btvxs.
rewnequantly, a larce anmer of the pupils are of
testiboe roku. hose a i. o n'^r supplied eshibit (alret onry
variety krn.se.th' puptlta ae ftwniashd by thnir- -pnren1
with owry aeioriptima of bof1e, ev.L asE ttsp, ao'ld pite
bare end thoereg tlhw tanl te t nr' e r Ind iwch In use 'ber
'lobeery'ue Rloempnt .-P polling 'oak. The rtaisozaaay wo-uld to
lnaoatle it It wit :.t. Bso lhrrmseaL and ;ltn02l to 'both
tacleor and pupil."t

ecairuinC thin Cot'atcl, ticre trdi."ly art:-o nn K1i3 ce

an t.a rt of t.he ed'io' ? n'1 7aadaer" to 9astabltl a lk st "*' "fm

teaxt ooE a r.rd co-r a 'r' !t"2 I fobr i 11 VSe pOli-Ul 3oiooilBwithin the

t'tts. X'nl se plink: vsrr : posed, 'tl it tI no' untill tihe wpream

Int-mndaenr of Joa1ti. C, r01 a tat the first list oa "tAte adopted

teyt-booe wAe pu iulhtfad. PI.-or to tA:. t ine thro otxisttod no Soter

ob li dolis &r iao 'y a "t '" a' tot al tltt-rib t'o list that veu

deviaeFd Ty Jdxaathon C. .i"to 'ae lcId to spooify toe trrdov In t'iob

thi li:t, or tlr iT ok oo r. o v lAt, wvas to be used, it la on omaples

o0 Ow type of 'ooks that wveo -wevalent Aur-1 this ntwod In t*s


oe PF narts Ca f "T& onf aiendnt of Pu. ntiot
I8S7-f1X0 in OoGo ofr T" Ut '"'^IiT o Z n '' 1876o


.J ofal' ";t I-.Po itendeat 0! Pu lic TnrtruoVtn 1987*
*dS O p o---










S ? rriat. s r-idol 4f' <;x :&X fte,


o;;a&r.n .-A ?pollers

Vn:.-n "'rrie toW:a ft'mi tkolode *c'm .r oumy
'irot 'eader or Jo ffasoer hin t Ya-at A




etlta'. Fint L Za8 In 'ritbastloS i'e toutu
4r' i4ttti'TtifjiE 'aarir SBtan'r s t^i tithe
-^* and ie itan^ a ?:-: o 'iml r.ne^^mt'i
yOracre

**^Hwl* w tit = gIOj -
o;*.'wl '^i~i maftt'L '^" ~ """


Ta*seall'a 'Preadh t -tres





Latin


a n'drewss nd


tdd& rd's frser~r rnnd.-,-d odw
a n n-- --


(area


MAplfhus r ra7yg. s ranar rand rT a





"h-bes-l


*..4aOe:nofe' I haterSo end searlsr*' carwueslttmn



?ra the o ipart Las a at t t Memoel, I
sinal and ltrteirto ij an1d MIWT f y-


"I;G 1b1s id as,4 1l aoL3










r itiaz







!'Um' PIm, mta-m '-.p-'-A
t '"holtonza









Oo-l yll NHrow Plt krv^t- e rOb Qr'

2biaetry







',ia lst served up a "Uaeis fIf l'9lastnt lHut of Stnton adoddk

tn4oW*fl,,61o size: th4e Giol bbtI Lit as rPtfron, Supeo'ntandent

'of Pftl. 11v Yn stru3to-n V tl also dfmilwl a liat'l Vf :adisnm tin6.r

:.') eke liat "0a Is l ow a



The In6laiPSrndPt ChWid'n T'eadae




x list of uniform tete '-*oaks tswt W deviand by Jebaathan
b G MI b rna til:-mn iwir ths 'Toi to iu .e.L:- nIut of
Ptulic liauruota.rj 3V8* 2571.
SA rltni Jl tdias I nt Nas devised In 197$, us nrrit putAlshad
uatc-' 1 after thu r.orain .rndsoy -T UcWAn Ina 289 ee
'f' a-erint nit of Pu' litc TamtruetLe 1878. p 93
o~ se,,~eaaaanc~inr -f PU~ar i~~C~fannin 1 aB _)










Re4dersa Idepecndet :erlee


;a~rett Poe
an


"'urath ,'ter
"aTShiVgt


rl itaeNea


oavia* Iklnt"ary


arst Jloasna CMep-mashwIva

axiL4 (for Intomnmida s)

itenrl '.ons' W Teel's's -'rirtwe 'oetis
series

qIn laaturnil :hlis 'fo urtie %ss ,tl : 1 t ? heaistff


Srteen eekag fIn0Mg sigol^-


:ZupplaorBrntl a* b'iV foarrs' 1tiact1 U2r1e1* ..S1


5 a .4 s p e m-- itteia
S ai centen


Bo. I orGst
< 'I *rr ar< j in ert anrd se
no


0I aliatmr 0 Pottrerre nlam-th and cWperray *7ohn r tretc
"Iew Yor:-, whea nall or4ers ahorld be addressed


0mrarw


rrl's First Les83E
-'bI~~PljS:ZBCY


alittary


rvrintonia pfirset 1ISnM
Swinton'ts re a -fed united
a-w


turl'g fcr p Toloa1 Orenasr



stirnton'a rr4^li&f g O


revias* Prt r
irviat* e...i tA. l
rAVa' ,APrLOtUeO







90


Is amrbip 4 alplian er&

ma& ts Wois lo a. o, a.8 4, 4 tA, Sand



1i al

Publisher. o ft th abes (via) i iltw7*ya n.s3ip a
atQie 4t uion, '1a iman Taylr and CPt am Gra rV ,
MIb Tuwk to twham all lrr ohu be $64ae6sia


Riuterte and C tatwtihe


PNttll w a P* Appletc and r.m, to mwh all 'mern f
bee Pbs. shsc be mst.


i1 th e ahitri toEInO of Jumatihan C fbbs, a peied phrase.
taritd S a dSSorS "ysts of textbooke atsMw% teWUde t I ppe
ttnt te tfnittatint o.f t he p 4a4otL by Jat an C.C 3 Ibbse has had

oesitrae Iinultmoim e n aupm s qmant tastee fupertn ed This
is & by ta tcontimad pmetw of rte t tate Aprtmwit of aO
mti5aa 6in libh a ltt oP rtatbndept.d Thxtsoloa
It- wid be nato, erw ythat thIe lUook of untifn systai of
wsben m n ot thIe Wly Wstole to edSan M l aro.r tnothlr

-ry portant obetf'els xoe th qwaicty and Am f the
1t'cling NiMne A lr bw ofv thsolwaes nr led appemed to ehw hatd
a lack ae tcduate p: eptrB2tm. Acordins tn thl rtootsw of l rttate

wprnta mtais, tho aujorlty of afsr ote rs iamated of um fnaS rvaMn
vho had bad no prifteeo5. n Ipopnwaticon treyaed tit of its elsearwtry











I 4*ir.s~llNarb
4~g$ ~.ijrS.A.~A&kA D


writing ia


sritk *tics


iastor -*i


grr'm La a-d


In TA4any


ins tances


those


ealoyecj
Aft' v a
fw- lilo


posssnO~d no


cwr tiicaites


,%a oa K1ct: "' tin nd nrc~ :el$a unfit


atr. :,hi-


xcr inciplFes


V%- xoaaurVioa


in rsiWpoEt to Wctklarbhip,


einc r 1 intell. ezoxe


a cool. 33


A tho h I


thelaw 1w O


r1
&&&i n6lt vs


1&69 provided


ik the t*aflx,'


pr'fe+ion without
Ion I


a tach-


ra p onalt
,.


Lca tS4 it
**'.,
'C~t^-A-. 1.* q
^-^t> .* -, jl ***


C.CA.
Aj~~l~a f


tat the law


t;o :e;us r t cvurlookod,


-e4 toacJ. ,.


force


aetital


at L .pte

en tablic


ate to alleviaLe


od in various pirteS


were emtatlaiht atda"


teoacA:."r


oJ


U.iC L -Jitiunfl


L Ithte05


trail ..


'Ifoei'


teac' atrc inin


cores were


schools ware


ILk t i *kt4tut


offered, .4


CTo furtkr


imSure


the quality


0tf OG


eatlorin;


the teachiK .


fte ion,


Johnmati ;ln C,


t. first


Teach er Ccrtificalion


:xcrviinetion


in Flor:ila.


If tte crsninatino


at.> t?;C teach r..


tr-: inin-I


ins titute"s


ha been


ccnl bCted*


as desireduc


x~. ohou~~~~pppp~~~~pppp l~~


a: -per


,itat t;.e


tnprtx~c

;ult"


oIf to..cLcr


"(old


OresutI


>:t, t'.e contrary


470


..s" 4 '"QC


'4, e~arifle

o~t4 .3t 1 '' P "- -p
'I-I.,


;:bO atiinr4 .cU

-Et:.10


t cooe


%. ..14 45 .C9,r


J. t, ia or-pl
t';

of poliAtics between


tue -o.zPUtlvve atitdti2e
t" Z 'r1' ("f^'^'711 Ptv^ A^^gb *? 4 ""
V".~~~~~~~~j -t^ '^U j irf'.L ^ AJ ~bw


that cof.: ucted


tI&'so


in ~"~&7


teacherr


bAil Jin


detioa~ "


...... .. I~YL Lr" -. -


AL Aw


.:rlant ... ..E t f bli-


LZAI1.
i-4a.,40


waxiall"


Siprt


r


.4w! *I! i. -i- 44
4 1460(.-& t


ar *g


:r stis exc'a'it:at iBon se@ ap iaxt


o:
a--


u-au-
4049momokwoo


(of tida investi; action.


91


to


- wIa


%no at:ameful caitions


C0


prom


33


3t

35;


3136 ,-


1110 tr"U o ng


,, -t"'


~r~ -- -~~~~~~-~ -'"I~ ~-'-~---------r-----


r:


3~tcp.~;!


WPO I I.-;~.-


1.)


qaan i ,,









92


:4M Y'


the proposed


as n ureul-t,


p1 an:;


wert not ca*rriod


7i r lack o c provisions


out s3tcCM B-l3.y,


for ti beproveac.t


&-id


of t'C trachinr


force


rl rIatelyj,


rr j'(Cf *~J:


obstacles


c' a spare


population,


Inslf*


fi zu* t kt3 t


sut.4 ort,


PublZzr"rr icfiAs'4.I~T~ejr


on tic ..wt


4p~l ft ) 1


a.i... b~


ad ill-n.aI i:s ;"a ttijon


c anL'^Uon ocainued


t+ Xi:t or


ci thoe teacher


.dum tca tonal "prorc4 3


cortifi-


until


'. ~,g C. .(Il
~c~ r


"prcair s weroe alleiatd1

"in c.w fwat c di:ficul'4tia..prcorsaB was


'rIre


f.r universal


cda,:tl. :z 'fw


Sroia ,+


ti tIo


apite


pu ~1


C U


a*j wuasi


fLL~i .


f T ic ultics


at~l 9eestti8 ~1 ~jt~


t0"36


tot i wA ahiC wducsia ti*W3S *Wf t~ cl 'uJ0&h


4rophcyS


Vt ~


A"ate


LIiiic


I..a tr action s


"he stes ~oillt
pi roanent polity


u.


trltwp
CqL4. ^ '


party vcrlleX


;:d becc- 'in


Itate, 1ill
a: successive


the


onduref


tr blZeas


aatdirnistration .-7


u--- ffiaeesau--I- flin--


36


t n n-nA iI
Ls&2~~ECT, vak\suL ZLtit2 iJ iAi
L~~jq~ tj~FCZbbL ~Xc~0


1r&W
'..


:4&4irin fcdL at


-a-----rn----


'-.4


rici nt


4,' c
&'. @9~rr ~


pt~ S -~ i~.


a .


1.1eI


37


p 11


Z.i J.b~ 2d~-~e ~~05


.PUDI~~.f


a-tv-411-I,


of


,...raft


79'


k


n ;-3;nf,


0+:


33 -4i


f~i3~~


hs












the ported that w-s lnwetlstAd In thid #astuy otetd fm el8tr I
to I8$. AlttMagh tUa nse tiaticas WeA rarwIsry t erM! w!' wt tie

period efma 1865 end 1876 ,e rsWrtl priw to 186M w gii s a

twurQo~sur 67 the intood t*emo tee del Ptsmt of0 utawral edaa

tion In FIlorAtdeft 'Hdtroig Hoastaei

Betfor 18IS, tier is little tit on be maid ar:t tthe teSi

tlianl girowt in the Ctate, Alteh bSpain at rabintabetd yats

of cohas eshlels Ina t. Augustixw bSefore 2822w popular rnterest

V" minated tIn owim searan OI marl %is Procne" ia tin e

dcw-lopq nt of interest in yt&iwo.:on "W 1 tho 10 ople of 1tto tate0

apnprns to ltw be=O te wresalt of the eacitiavitto of tiae lorioa Td, rA

onrtiaol oecletyz tIs eawiety we established in TA4 hsoeeee in l8I,

with t-e eqTroscdI purpose nf PzoaspagcLIMaP 5hr &k odtx0-tie trws4e

aOUt tic ttrrLtry of loida, The lntlunuOe 9 thx nooety nonitM

in tiw entabtieinag of a iralbr of other seolttiese, ohools Uand stiae

latitng legloatkin in ttw oI ductionacI pro'reoss.

Apparently ftw sohoola wr raintSiwn duriwg t-se riPried before

1845k t out of 1 dtildhe orf o crwtol usf in 18a31, ely S7 aie ein

regular schools, 80 wm re rewivi varied nstrtimisar, ad 30 tfl

werernsvIg mty hboire aily in tkvhe IhnV ( Oe of t!r sholai

m isultl firma th oativitioe of the FPloride fAutstio Ro a('oety wAs S

Mmarnl school of S lliw aQe1 wni8o wt Add uWpon t!t plans devisBd

try En11 stwerC in Sirwtt tnds








94
Emwor,t tiho 7p;oav ao w4 .te fstols UttS a dsira o san

%hoat* hto U t4 etaclo wAits oesmatwte th snotltos, iM A

the r: y t ptulir school it *1 th" at-rhod psoetatirA

puite Qput2Vg and puLic pirejdit aoimte aptll wamns scdi.o)'ds, thi

4 utoa vt "e o aucAvn to the rrtth of thextiAStit e0SaAti A 1.'

In ;10 territory.

overtwesn, *t1 a stivittie of tin edmttiml asetotle left

an fllUbl iprint -ups cloridats e4&bloMrips.w yro after

stablishlr ttm tasia t" r suppwttxse a Bms school systa in 184B,

to laslator passed thb tin&t so 4ol law in Jsy X49 Thi


ts =x."ia of aA tx l acttiStrativ' stytfacn nflr t restetr of

tho IwAd oiMe ta rae ttet ozt The ANil esblisted b; tt 0m

tutiaf of 1t4" pro"vi44 for ttV t0ttws of all the rpen and M am

dl ildreng4i d'sr? afl other cWhiM sin t di-htt attnd the asotels had

to pay thair i tt1timir

The firAmt sclol rf*ltz wa efWAistda by tai lt.iulativew ot of

80M, bmu thn nmwilty of a nore c*letI lw mreulted In t* hew of

863* tich ui.hwtsd t cowmunty o-I, imam to s o1p Aswnt tie i

one to tts sohoio frn the Stts with zwmwos mra the ae ty ary

AthtlJuhi Ploridt had saw prflbdt fNr thw telctsminrw a systs


tl iAn s ly a Ah oenti, Agin tlw .eate ton p

Msonitd s.t twa1so.e fe nt 18T0 te i gnS t! whit.attin o? thle Ptste tas

sly 47200a lose then s l1r .asae .ll@ This in tein mre tlu







96


prwpeet of .we nviWc a me s sol hu ed&wtioen raeMlly zmexte

teot to a pwrtia nof tw p4?r Atio.t n aill tre wre only S ecnho le

with a total earolrsnt of 40406 and an an a of 1i8s8 tfr

a .white school population of 18~oo, Then tooe ti aem owf t ~e svohol

ws dAqWts total tocM aw imwt from the esewol fwit w mly
,93 and g8016 90 frnm tuti lens. T Iq teotas cpled th

the pow econmato posttion in wb*ch tke State existed, Pretnted an at*

msphwre not oenduolve to deatimal gr

11Ntig wiaey wtrn toIn t. area tof egro education by "he Stte until

IMSQ Hwwer ew Ilegro e solo had bea et itbed te fo this

tr Pin ?FIrnlsatIS, JoP eonvlle, Su i 8At, aiA, TAln0ae oeools

are not suppwtd by th :w tat, bit by1 prLvv bya Wm alnt aWcietfteO

Alto all of the educational aoopliasnents of te Stat. Bre

hlsta rS, by the C: il bAr* re EffriO~ tswere rai to aintatpam s s e!' oleL

Ixt li ttle I s attainedo Thie prinoip al o r swthe, osolrol t w ae

used. for wvr pwarpoaee nd methrim.; oaptlng a sall asmsat of interest

ef the adieol toA rwgy me w-s left TlwreNrc, due to l*k of

the sairy itf etntablished schools dtappeanrd, and hba Virida Mnre

fra the :t'val par, the trato ave *wat imally dtitIfte,

Florida net aly isufftbred ecattomally as a re lAt of the War, haut

also eo dmicatlly rtA socially as iell, *The cratest problem. being

in t: neea of atoreultwet 'itt the I*aMt and esitabt4inenmt of

0 e nwaip.ation Proolwsation in f'leridas, amsswi p .t'bms resturlJt

In add 1t i to to t, A47O0O00a0 let by t!w a taLe twrwgh the aeproota

Ia pof pM wlolos, an ddztiotal emla of .fl (,aDOxOOI mo ut Cas

a reAult of the abelitia o? the Intitution sf slerrwy.








96


i't aest wtsaF ias t -. -U) fiin b CtA raol r* OW Wt

the oproi.tit at propr ty 7lue., 'ntat rwt' r t-e o1rme anad Teonial

wRwoe awre.t o ; th t Cisap pow n'e tfi ir mtitthtlon a Slary in tiP

' trte.

oeowts2nn&r thN p obteam uDA Ty U{w *anlep0Sn' ae @flrl pParl

re proposedd tfel te te aotveio th ntr, fle 1 wnrwant i an at.

teqit to rlw ti ob ; pratel oru tiy 7 o wtie ar' PcnettMtn*a

nwure in -ti S: c te^ Tti arohrlwtble activi ties ^ C 'w itn ito

ati g to aid tof 8tto resrltod in 34vap s critilaesa fram thN o

sorfatim Cfationz c tr, V?'t oa, J4t s*Ani th rnu hatto t

reglat and oat;liEh thx" Tgros soeecial emd paldeal 01ati1 Tiw*

people a l t .oe tm terzod thf acti'dioe o t.e7 !Ae e as 'Cng 4^rtie

utaX the bee laeolpl of r)'&ida- te s nal tredit.'ome

"ht rAatg1 eOftt'ta to tllaevta tAiv n11dCiUtm oreu" ty 0oifb

pr- im re*rsdltd In t e 21ack Ce Th Sde 4xa frsnk dihrr

toan naten the rmoosa ait mAl^ImA the inhkeriw peoAt,"ae of tm

%proreo AltlwriU th0e Cdnwre b lish in regears tx. thw Tero Ift etabbe

ithed t!w first leg1l" Stg eaaotxon of 1"!gro ati n t lworida

rvie to tads Act of IW, I wstats41ialrant of sy stat of Be

Odu* Ian by t o ;.-te .asB lwa1ly Sgqnetale lo, 2r? toak (oe be*Wuse

of the repwmvoeto t# it temxrcoad ty st1Vt@ ti e P-rseibte's, plan

of rleeatrmtivon was :44d aw a justwficaixc on C, fr cctlihi a rre

carvletc aA ofltetit reooatrufti a of the ttete

c s xsB cntlyt, "wC~st ezAlblto4 ) 0: SinSe Jttro* Acmk wtiph

vevolutioktd the & t te 1Ha lly, p.11eatlly and nootally, T6I




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs