• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Introduction
 Origin and development of Nassau...
 Related literature
 Improvements in negro schools of...
 The relationship of industrial...
 Findings and summary
 Recommendations
 Bibliography
 Other sources
 Appendix






Title: Investigation of the nature of improvements in the Negro schools of Nassau county from 1946 to 1950, and factors which contributed toward these improvements
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Title: Investigation of the nature of improvements in the Negro schools of Nassau county from 1946 to 1950, and factors which contributed toward these improvements
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Language: English
Creator: Bryant, James Benjamin
Affiliation: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College (FAMU)
Publisher: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College
Publication Date: 1952
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Table of Contents
        Title page
    Acknowledgement
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    List of Tables
        Page iii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Origin and development of Nassau County
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Related literature
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 14-a
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Improvements in negro schools of Nassau County from 1947 to 1950
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 24-a
        Page 25
        Page 25-a
        Page 26
        Page 26-a
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    The relationship of industrial development to improvements of negro schools in Nassau County
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Findings and summary
        Page 50
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Recommendations
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Bibliography
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Other sources
        Page 59
    Appendix
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
Full Text













****


AN INVESTIGATION OF THE NATURE OF IMPROVEMENTS

IN THE NEGRO SCHOOLS OF NASSAU COUNTY FROM 1946

TO 1950, AND FACTORS WHICH CONTRIBUTED TOWARD

THESE IMPROVEMENTS.





A THESIS


PRESENTED TO
THE GRADUATE COMMITTEE
OF
FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE, MASTER OF SCIENCE IN EDUCATION.


By

JAMES BENJAMIN BRYANT

SCHOOL OF EDUCATION


AUGUST, 1952


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17: i



AN INVESTIGATION OF THE NATURE OF IMPROVEMENTS

IN THE NEGRO SCHOOLS OF NASSAU COUNTY FROM 1946

TO 1950, AND FACTORS WHICH CONTRIBUTED TOWARD

THESE IMPROVEMENTS.



A THESIS



SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE GRADUATE DIVISION
OF FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE, MASTER OF SCIENCE IN EDUCATION



By

JAMES BENJAMIN BRYANT

APPROVED: ..--
Coarmal n of committe-'

iones uant

ons ultant


Chairnian of Gradiluat-) Study


August, 1952









ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The writer is indebted to all members of the

graduate faculty of the Florida A. and M. College for

their constructive criticisms and guidance in the prep.

aration of this thesis; in particular to my Graduate

Committee Chairman, Dr. S. H. DuValle, consultant Pro.

fessors John Riley and A. S. Parks; the unforgettable

words from Dr. V. 8. Maize, *Others have passed this

way, so can you".

Full cooperation from Mr. John T. Weisner, Mrs.

Mary E. Core, Dr. Thomas D. Bailey and Secretaries, Dr.

F. A. Rhodes, Dr. R. E. Lee, Dr. W. H. Marshall, Mr. D. E.

Williams, Mr. VW E. Combs, Miss P. Quarterman, Mr. James

G. Reddick, Mr. A. Quinn Jones, Jr., Mr. V. D. Hicks and

Miss Johnie C. Franklin who served as typist for the final

copies of this work, have been a great source of infor-

mation vital to the preparation of this thesis.

Finally, I am grateful to my family, especially my

wife and daughter, Mattie and Brenda, who gave me cheerful

words and encouragement while in the process of making

this work a reality.


*H ****** ** *










TABLES OF CONTENTS


PAGE


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ... . .

CHAPTER

I. INTRODUCTION .

Statement of the Problem


Purpose of the Study

Limitations .

The Situation .

Basic Assumptions .

Definitions of Terms

Method of Research .


* C *



* *

*


* S S 5

* 5 4 .5 5 5

*I S S- S S) S S *

* S S S S


* S 5 5 5 5 5


I

II

I


:I. ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF NASSAU COUNTY .

I. RELATED LITERATURE .. . . .

:V. IMPROVEMENTS IN NEGRO SCHOOLS OF NASSAU
COUNTY FROM 1947 TO 1950 . .

V. THE RELATIONSHIP OF INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT
TO IMPROVEMENTS OF NEGRO SCHOOLS IN NASSAU
COUNTY . . . .


FINDINGS AND SUMMARY .

RECOMMENDATIONS *

BIBLIOGRAPHY .

OTHER SOURCES .


* S S S S

* ) S ) S S S S

* S S S S S S

* 5 0 5 0, 5 5


APPENDIX . *. .


. 51
. 51

.* 57

* 59

* 60


11i



1

1

1

1

1

2

2

6


7

12


19


41


VI,.
VII.


__ ~ I__ r _











LIST OF TABLES AND MAPS


TABLE PAGE

I. AN ANALYSIS OF SCHOOL PERSONNEL, STUDENTS
AND AVERAGE DAILY ATTENDANCE OF NEGRO
SCHOOLS IN NASSAU COUNTY. . . 29

II. AN ANALYSIS OF EXPENDITURES PER UNIT IN
STATISTICS FROM 1946 TO 1950 IN NASSAU
COUNTY. . . . 32

III. EXPENDITURES ON NEGRO SCHOOLS IN NASSAU
COUNTY 1946 TO 1950. . . 39

IV. AN ANALYSIS OF THE 1950 AD VALOREM TAX OF
NASSAU COUNTY COMPARED WITH THE OTHER
COUNTIES OF THE STATE. .......... 45






MAP

I. LOCATION OF SCHOOLS DURING 1946 WITHIN
NASSAU COUNTY. . . . 30

II. LOCATION OF SCHOOLS DURING 1950 WITHIN
NASSAU COUNTY. . . . 38


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CHAPTER I


INTRODUCTION

Statement of the Problem. --To determine those
factors which contributed to the improvement of Negro

schools in Nassau County. To show how The 1947 Florida
Minimum Foundation Program, and Industrial Development

led to improvements of Negro schools for a period of
five years 1946-50.

Purpose of the Study. -- To show how the Negro
Schools of Nassau County have been reduced from (9) in-
adequate wood structures, to (3) modern plants.

Limitation. -- This problem is limited to the study
of improvements of Negro schools in Nassau County from

1946 to 1950, and significant factors which contributed

toward such improvements. It is further designed to re-

view the laws of Florida which is to give every child in
Nassau County, no matter who he is or where he lives, re-
gardless of the wealth of his parents or the town in

which he resides, a minimum amount of financial support
for his education.

The situation. -- Nassau County is located in the
Northeast section of Florida, adjacent to Duval County on
the south and the Georgia State Line on the north. The










2
climate is usually warm, and the soil is best adapted to

the growth of trees. Vegetables are not produced on a

commercial basis because of the porous soil. However,

poultry, fishing and oattle-raising are industries which
contribute to daily living. The Pulpwood Industry is the

main factor which contributes to the economic support of
the County.

Basic assumption. -- In a democracy where there
should be adequate means of financing education, it is
assumed that Negro schools of Nassau County received

their proportionate amount of Tax Funds appropriated for

schools. It is also assumed that any increase in any

school funds should result in substantial improvement of

Negro schools. Further, it is assumed that the Indus-

trial Development caused an increase in the amount of

Taxable Resources, and that the population increases con-

tributed to the improvement of Negro Schools in Nassau

County.

Definitions of terms. -- The definitions of terms
that will be used as a basis for discussion in this study

are as follows:

Improvements. -- In this study improvements will be
used throughout this discussion to mean, advancement of

anything from good to better; profitable use of anything;











3


that by which the value of anything, especially property,
is advanced.

Factor. aIn this study factor is deemed to mean,
"one of two or more quantities, circumstances, etc.,
which produces a results.,2

Minimum Foundation Proram. -- In this study Mini-
mum Foundation Program is referred to as the report on
improvement of schools in Florida, submitted to The State
Legislature and Governor Millard Caldwell by the Florida

Citizens Committee on Education, written into law Tuesday,

May 20, 1947, stating:

All counties must maintain a systematic'
personnel policy, hiring by written contract,
paying salaries monthly according to a regu-
lar schedule; counties must provide for train-
ed supervisor and to meet State Standards of
class loads and budget preparation. All coun-
ties must observe the requirements of child
welfare, transportation, and related provisions
of the Florida School Code. All counties must
maintain a school board of five members elected
by a county-wide election; counties must estab-
lish one county-wide school district as the lo-
cal school unit. All counties must maintain ac-
curate and complete accounts and reports as pre-
scribed by the State Department of Education.


1Webster's Dictionary and Encyclopedia, p. 264.

21bid., p. 420.









4


'Time in school, personnel, school buila-
ings, administrative organization, regular re-
porting are the Ingredients of the Minimum
Foundation Program.

Capital Outlay. -- In this study capital outlay is
to mean, The Foundation Program shall provide a full
State allotment as follows:

Multiply the number of instruction units
determined for each county aoording to law by
four hundred dollars and the product shall be
the amount included in the minimum foundation
program for capital outlay and debt service,
for school building construction.

Industry. -- In this study industry shall be ob-
served as, a steady application to business or labor, a
productive form of labor in a particular branch of work
(pulpwood).3

Pulpwood. In this study pulpwood is to mean, a
block of wood cut five feet in length from pine trees
throughout Nassau County, carried to the factory in


1Ed Henderson, "What Is the Minimum Foundation Pro-
gram?' The'Journal of the Florida Education Association,
Vol. XXVIII, No. 5, January 1951, P. 7,

2House Bill No. 548, Chapter 25363--(No. 367), "An
Act Relating to Education Legislature of the State of
Florida, p. 7, Section (6).

3Webeter's Dictionary, p. 269.









5
Fernandina where it is ground up and treated with a mix-
ture of chemicals to form fibers suitable for papermaking
and many other items required for daily living.1

Resource. -- In this study the term resource is re-
ferred to as a source of help, supply of products from
Nassau County which sustains daily living, any supply
that will meet a need.2

Appropriation. -- In this study the term appropria-
tion is to mean, a thing or sum of money given for a
special use. (The school Board received an appropria-
tion of four hundred dollars for capital outlay.)3

Needs. -- In this study the term needs is defined
as a duty to be met by the schools which may be met in-
directly by improved school relationships; sometimes it
is classified as a basic difference from wants, since
many wants may be classified as a luxury.


1Pamphlet *How Southern Pine Becomes Paper,' p. 4,
(n. a.) Union Ba k Paer Corporation, Savannah, Georgia.
2Thorndike Century Junior Dictionary, p. 716.

Bid., p. 39.
4Webster s Dictionary ana Encyclopedia. p. 37.









6


Method of Research. -- In this study the normative
survey: Interviews and direct observations, related lit-
erature from The Florida State Department of Education,
data from adjacent states significant to this study,
statistical information on county and state level, and
all available data will be used. The Standards of the
State Department of Education will be considered reliable
measures of this improvement.

























1State Department of Education, "Florida School
Standards," Tallahaesee, Florida, August, 1948, pp. 6-48.










CHAPTER II


ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF NASSAU COUNTY

Nassau County was established in 1824, which makes
the county 127 years old during the time of this study.

It was a part of the territory lying between the Saint

Johns River and the Saint Marys River. This territory

was divided in 1816 into three districts called Nassau,

Upper Saint Marys and Lower Saint Marys.

Nassau County is situated in the extreme northeast

section of Florida on the Saint Marys River which forms

the northern and western boundary lines. Its area is

sixty-four square miles. Nassau County was once a part

of old Spanish Florida. Amelia Island, in Nassau County,
boasts of old settlements dating back to the earliest

Spanish occupation.

A bronze plaque explains the shaft which marks the

grave (on Amelia Island near Franklintown) of John D.
Vaughn, a soldier of the Revolutionary War, the war of

1812, and the Seminole War. South of the bridge over
Saint Marys River, on United States Highway Number 1,

there is a small granite monument. The inscription on

the bronze plaque states that this highway, here called

the NDixiel is dedicated to the memory of Robert E. Lee.







8
At this point Florida soldiers departed to join other Con-

federate forces during the War between the States.

After the American Revolution, the refugee Tories
settled in Spanish Florida. A group of planters came in

a body in 1810 and landed on the South end of Amelia Is-
land. They registered claims at Saint Augustine after re-

porting to the Commandant at San Carlos and settled on

plantations which were located along the Nassau River and

on Amelia Island.

In 1812 Fort Alert was built at Trader's Hill on the
King's Road to guard against Spanish rule. As a result

of the establishment of plantations with their slaves,

Nassau County in 1870 was one of the "Black Counties" so-

called because nearly all the city and county officials

were Negroes. Today Amelia Island in Nassau County, is

one of the few communities in the State of Florida with

more Negroes than whites included in its population.

Crandall, on the Saint Marys River, was the site of
the Spaniardis Fort Henry. Rose Bluff near by is the

highest bluff over the Saint Marys River. On Amelia Is-

land today, relics and ruins of the early Spanish settle-

ments can be found.

The story of Florida's four hundred years of growth
reveals that five flags have been unfurled over this state.









9


The territory now known as Nassau County has had several
flags unfurled over her land.
The eight flags are the theme of the historical data
given here:

15l3 The Spanish Flag was planted on Florida soil
by Juan Ponce DeLeon in the year 1513 and ao-
cepted as being the first European standard
flown on American soil. It was used by Colum-
bus in 1492, Pantile De Narvarez in 1528, and
Hernando DeSoto in 1539.
1686 Fort San Carloe was built on Amelia Island and
a community known as Oldtown grew up behind
its walls.
1702 A mission wasebuilt by the Jesuit priests on
Amelia Island, who were a short time later
massacred by the Indians (Ogeeche).

1778 The British built Fort Tonyn near the north
end of Amelia Islaid, where during the Ameri-
can Revolution, American cavalry attached the
British near Callahan. The Americans lost,
thus returning Florida to Spanish rule by
treaty with England.
1811 The Patriot's Flag was unfurled over Amelia
Island March 7, 1811. Early in March some
two hundred adventurous 'patriots" assembled
near St. Marys River, proceeded to organize
a government, and adopted a white flag on
which a soldier with a bayonet charged and
proceeded to Amelia Island. The Spanish
garrison marched out ten strong, and Lopez
gave up his sword, and the flag of the Re-
public of Florida was raised.
1824 Nassau County was created with Fernandina as
the county seat.

1Bulletin, 'A Report of OrgAnization and Adminis-
tration,' Nassau County Workshop, August 16-September 3,
1948, p. 7.










10
Flags in order which have been flown over Amelia
Island in Nassau County:

1. The Spanish Flag 1513
2. The French Flag 1561

3. The British Flag 1763
4. Patriot's Flag 1811

5. GIeen Cross of F. 1817
6. F. of R. Mexico 1817
7. United States Flag -1821

8, Confederate Flag 1861
The rich heritage out of the experiences of Nassau
County cannot be excelled by any other section of the

United States having its origin in the same period as

Nassau County. The citizens are proud of this heritage
dating back to 1513.

Down through the pages of history, Nassau County
has maintained its uniqueness, retained its culture

along with the activities of previous possessors. They
have developed a folkway that is easily discovered by

new comers. This culture is not hostile to education as


1Florida Under Five Flag Rembert W. Patrick.
he Floria- Handbook, 1947-48, Allen Morris.
Federal Writer s Project Guide to Fernandina, Fla.
Hietorir oi Florda Major George R. Fairbanks.










11
will be shown in this study. It is isolated to a small

degree, because of its geographic situation. It's

schools have kept in step with the average county of

the state, and recently, stepped into the leading ranks
in the matter of a long felt need of improving schools
for Negroes all over the county.

This act grew out of the field need of school lead-
ership within the county, and not the recent decision of

the Supreme Court on Equalization of Schools.

Today, the 12,811 citizens of Nassau County, with
an area of 417,280 acres, sings with pride the state

song, "Swanee River,' as the United States Flag (Stars

and-Stripes) wave over Nassau County's buildings and

schools.














1Advance Reports, "1950 Census of Population," De-"
partment of Commerce, Washington 25, D. C., Series PJ-8,
No. 9A, April 2, 1951.











CHAPTER III


RELATED LITERATURE

Due to the receney of The 1947 Florida Minimum

Foundation Law, the program of research is very lia-

ited, and a small amount of published literature is
available. However, it is well to note and relate

what has been done in the field of research by others.

It has been found that the people of the State of

Florida have given wide recognition to the work of the

Florida Citizens' Committee on Education.

Credit is also due to members of the Florida Legis-
lative Committee, Governors Spessard Holland and Millard
Caldwell, and several other workers for efforts toward

making the Citizens' Report a state law on Tuesday, May

20, 1947. Such recognition is shown by several reports

and periodicals which have been recently published.

Dr. Thomas D. Baily, State Superintendent of Public

Instruction, said

It is at one time our privilege, our obli-
gation and our opportunity to make decisions
which will determine the kind of chance in life
that our children shall have. In making those
decisions we shall not only determine whether
our children shall have an opportunity which
will equip them to make a worthy place in our
social and economic order, but we shall deter-
mine to some degree what the future of our state
shall be.










13


What kind of program shall we design?
Is it enough to teach children to read, to
write, and to compute? We shall have failure,
of course, if we do not teach these skills
which should be common to all; but may we
safely stop at that point? If not, should the
school be concerned with the total growth and
development of the'children? Should matters
of health, therapy, personal and social adjust-
ment, cultural and spiritual values of life be
planned as a part of the educational program?
If we accept as proper a responsibility for the
education of the children outside the develop-
ment of academic competence, what will the pro-
gram involve? In essence, a good program will
have a curriculum keyed to the laws of child
growth and development; it will involve teach-
ing with understanding and skill; it will entail
procurement of teaching materials to appeal to a
child's understanding through all multisensory
approaches; and it will require school buildings
to house a modern program. We must give our
children an understanding of their heritage in
terms of our social and political institutions.
They must understand the significance of the
factors which have produced our free competitive
society and the value of the liberties which have
been bought for us by the courage, determination,
and blood of our forebears.

What shall we do with and for our children?
The time for constructive action is at hand.
Their future and the future of our state lie in
a balance; we can weigh the scale for or against
their future. We can make or mar the lives of
our children and enable or retard the building
of a great state and its institutions. May God
give us vision, wisdom and competence for the
task that is ahead.



iBailey, Thomas D., "The Future In Your Hands,
Florida Schools Look Ahead, State Department of Educa-
tion, pp. 2-3 (n. d.).










14
Through the careful study and analysis of this prob-

lem which is limited to the improvement of Negro schools

of Nassau County, the findings will be used: (1) to

show the purpose and conditions which brought about the
need for The 1947 Minimum Foundation Program, and (2) to

show how the needs of the Negro schools have been met in
Nassau County.

A full understanding of Florida's Minimum Foundation
1
Program of Education can be gained only by a considera-

tion of the conditions which made that program necessary.

The shooting phases of World War II ended in 1945. How-

ever, the effect of World War II upon our economy, our

population distribution, and in fact, on our whole way of
life, was so fundamental that it appeared to be permanent.

Florida had made great progress in the development of its

public school system prior to 1945. Much notable pro-

gress had been made during the depression 130's. However,

the public school system in Florida in 1945 was primarily

designed to educate children in a pre-World War II world.

That world no longer existed, and there is little hope

that it will ever return,

IJohne, R. L., "What Conditions Brought About The Need
For The Minimum Foundation Program, The Story of Flori-da's
Minimum Foundation, State Department of Education, Talla-
hassee, Florida, pp. 5-8 (n. d.).











It was apparent to every thinking person, layman and

educator alike, that the public school system of Florida1

in 1945 was woefully inadequate to meet the needs of

children in the post-war world. In the first place, the

schools of Florida were in a financial crisis and faced

almost a complete breakdown. Thousand of unqualified

emergency teachers were already teaching in the public

schools of Florida. Former teachers returning from the

War found that salaries were so low, they could not go

back to teaching. The institutions of higher learning

were turning out only a handful of trained teachers be-

sause the salaries paid teachers were so low that it was

impossible to attract potential teachers to the profession.

The school buildings of the state were in a deplor-

able condition of repair and sanitation. They lacked

proper instructional equipment, and classrooms were badly

overcrowded in many sections. Florida built very few

buildings during the depression '30's and could build

practically no school buildings between 1940 and 1945 be-

cause of war-imposed restrictions. Florida's population

increased approximately 44 per cent between 1940-1950.

1Johns, R. L., Qp. Cit., pp. 5-6.










15


When the schools of any state are faced with the
problems of an inadequate staff of teachers, inadequate
buildings and equipment, with the situation getting
worse every month, they are approaching the precipice of

a breakdown. In 1946 Florida spent $102 per child for
all the current expenses of public education, an amount

which was only 70 percent of the national average at
that time.

The average teacher's salary in 1946 was only

$1,792. The financial structure of the schools in 1946
was entirely inadequate for dealing with these problems.

The state was providing only about $18,800,000 annually

in state aid for the schools and all of this fund except
about $900,000 was distributed upon an inequitable basis.

Practically all of the state funds for schools were dis-
tributed on the basis of a flat amount per teacher and

per school bus unit per teacher, irrespective of varia-
tions in wealth among the counties.

The rich counties, prior to 1945, got exactly the
same amount on a per teacher or a per bus bias as the

poor counties, despite the fact that the richest county


1Johns, R. L., O. Cit, p. 6.










16


in the state had approximately twenty times the wealth

per child as the poorest county. This antiquated method
of apportionment of state funds in use prior to the adop-

tion of The Minimum Foundation Law did not provide a
Foundation Program for all children in the state. Such
a method, in fact, completely ignored the state's obliga-
tion or provided a reasonable Foundation Program of Edu-

cational Opportunity for all children wherever they

might live.

Educational conditions in 1946 were not good even
in the richest counties in Florida, but conditions in

the poorest counties were deplorable. The average sal-

aries of teachers in poor eunties were $1,300, and in

the rich eeounties only 2,000, a fact which alone is

sufficient to show that educational opportunities were

at a low ebb throughout the state of Florida.2

The building need of the State of Florida in 1946
totaled $140,000,000, and an increase in school popula-

tion of 30,000 per year rapidly made the situation worse.

Facilities and equipment within the state, espee-
ially Nassau County were too inadequate for school pur-
poses.


1Johns, R. L., 92. Clt., pp. 6-7.
2Ibid., p. 7.









17
Unimproved conditions in Nassau County in 1946 were
1
shown as follows:
1. Peck High School, a two-story inadequate brick
structure with 12 teachers and 377 pupils, with a teach-
ing load of 31 pupils.
2. Callahan Junior High School, one inadequate four-
room structure (wooden), and two wooden structure one-room

cottages adjacent to the old building used for class pur-
poses. There were 4 teachers, 135 pupils, with a teach-
ing load of 34 pupils.

3. Brickyard Elementary School, a one-room inade-
quate wood structure with I teacher and 18 pupils, with
a teaching lead of 18 pupils.
4. Bryceville Elementary School, a one-room inade-
quate wood structure, grades 1-6, one teacher and 25
pupils, with a teaching load of 25 pupils.

5. Chester Junior High School, a small church of
wood structure, with grades 1-8, one teacher, and 15
pupils, with a teaching load of 15 pupils.

6. Hilliard Junior High School, a two-room wood
structure with grades 1-8, two teachers and 45 pupils


1uarteirman, Phebe, "Statistics," Statr Department
of Education, Tallahassee, Florida, June 30, 1952.









18
with a teaching load of 22 pupils. This structure was
in good condition.

7. Kings Ferry Junior High School, a one-room
wood structure church too inadequate for school pur-
poses, grades 1-8 with one teacher, and 34 pupils with
a teaching load of 34 pupils.

8. Odom Branch Junior High School, an old Army
Barrack, a wood structure, one room with 1 teacher, and

35 pupils, with a teaching load of 35 pupils.
9. Yulee Junior High School, a three-room wooL
structure too inadequate and isolated for school pur-
poses with 4 teachers, and 84 pupils with a teaching
load of 28 pupils. One teacher taught in a small church
2 miles away from the school.

The school system of Nassau County at the beginning
of the 1946 school term Negro schools were in a deplor-
able condition. If there were any counties in the
State of Florida who needed immediate improvements,
truly, it was Nassau County.






1Quarterman, Phebe, Qp. Cit.,











CHAPTER IV


IMPROVEMENTS IN NEGRO SCHOOLS OF NASSAU COUNTY
FROM 1947 TO 1950

The fundamental work of the Citizen's Committee
which resulted in the development of The Florida Mini-

mum Foundation Program was done between 1945 and the

meeting of the 1947 Florida Legislature. The deplor-
able conditions of the school building with many other
needs, presented a picture to the people of Florida
which caused the adoption of the Citizens Report, which
became a Law Tuesday, May 20, 1947.
The text of such law in terms of computing its
cost to a county or counties (Nassau) provides:

To add together all instruction unite,
those based on average daily attendance, and
those approved for special programs such is
vocational agriculture and home economies,
kindergarten, exceptional children, ete., and
then multiply by $300 for other current ex-
pense, $400 for capital outlay, and by the
amounts allocated for teachers in various
ranks according to the percentage of teachers
in each rank. To this is added the allocation
for transportation, and the total amount is
the computed cost of the Minimum Foundation
Program in a particular county (Nassau).

That substantially equal public eduoa-
tional advantages should be obtained in all
counties of the state; that such equality does
not now exist. In order to provide in every
county, from combined state and county sources,










20


substantially equivalent educational advan-
tages, the StAte Minimua Foundation Program
Fund shall be, and it is hereby apportioned
and distributed on the basis of educational
needs and relative taxpaying ability as pre-
scribed by law*

The same law abolished the 720 special
tax districts by consolidating all the dis-
triet in each county into one district per
county."

The Foundation Program Law is based up-
on the fundamental democratic philosophy that
wealth should be taxed wherever it is,'to edu-
cate children wherever they are. Thus, 'equal-
ity of opportunity" is one of the Bulwarks of
American Democracy.2
The sprlng-boart for the beginning of improving
Negro schools of Nassau County came as a result of The

Minimum Foundation Law which proposed:

That county school boards be given the
authority with appropriate safeguards to is-
sue revenue certificates or bonds without a
bond election which could be paid off over a
period of twenty years from the $400 per unit
provided for capital outlay. That is, a county
may vote a bond Issue to provide the capital
outlay facilities needed, and that the $400 per
instruction unit provided under The Foundation
Program may be Applied to the retirement of
that bond issue, saving the necessity of levy-
ing local taxes to retire the bond, A consti-
tutional guarantee of revenue was proposed so


1Campbell, James T., "The Determination of The Costs
of The Florida Minimum Foundation Pr6gram,' The Btory of
Florida's' Minimum Foundation Pro ram, State Department of
Education, pp. 16-20 St(n.a)

2Ibid., p. 8.










21


that the certificates would sell under favor-
able conditions, thus enabling counties to
easily provide needed capital outlay facili-
ties for schools.

With a guarantee of financial support from the State,

as a result of the Foundation Law, school board officials

of Nassau county immediately launched a program to la-

prove Negro schools.

A survey committee was formed to draft plans for
new buildings and sites. Members of this committee were:

A survey staff from the Florida State Department of Edu-
cation, Superintendent and Board Members of Board of

Public Instruction, Nassau County. In order to help

this committee reach immediate eonolusions, key citizens

such as P.T.A. members, principals and ministers were

asked to bring to this committee spot drawings of var-

ious communities, the number of parents, number of pupils
and approximate miles from their homes to a given loca-

tion. Consideration was also given to the kind of roads

and their directions as a major factor in such reports.

At given times these groups made reports to the survey

committee. A general session was called to hear final
reports, thus enabling the survey committee to make its

1h .-7 -- 8.
a ohns, OB. Git., 9. 8.










22


final decisions. Final decisions made, were especially
satisfactory to State Architect James Garland, County
Superintendent John T. Weisner, and Building Architect
Sanford W. Goin. The committee proposed that the (9)
inadettate schools (Negro) be dissolved and consolidated
into (3) modern plants with estimated cost by a building
Architect as follows

PECK NEGRO SCHOOL (FERNANDINA)
New Constrmation: New construction at this center may be
divided into three parts, consisting of a new elementary
school south of the existing school plant, additions to
the existing high school building, and certain major al-
terations.

New Elementary Buildin The plan for the new
elementary building follows the recommendations
contained in the report of the Survey Staff in
providing for two primary rooms, four standarA
elementary rooms and a cafeteria. The shop is
included under work to be done in connection
with the high school building. Providion is
made for heating this building as a separate
unit.
Additions ~t the Hg School: New additions to
the high school as illustrated on the drawings
consist of a home economics department, science
room, commercial room, and shops with a draft-
ing-room in connection. The report of the Sur-
vey Staff also recommended the provision of
adequate library space. However, it was felt
that the relieving of classroom space in the
existing building by the construction of the
new elementary school and the new construction
indicated in this building would permit cer-
tain interior alterations leading toward the
use of the existing library as library space of
sufficient size to accommodate the school.










23


Major Alteration4: The report of the Survey
Staff recommended repairs to the staire and
the overhauling of the heating system. This
report also included recommendations conoern-
ing new roof, waterproofing of walls and in-
terior renovation.
Bite: The location of new construction is dictated by
present site restrictions. The new wing to be added to
the high school building has been placed on the west
side as offering the best possibilities for connection
to the existing construction. It is reeoamended that
the street separating the two buildings be closed.
Cost Estimate:

New Elementary Building
General construction, including instrue-
tional areas, cafeteria, etc.t
7,555 sq. ft. *7.60/sq.. t. ---- 57,418.00
Covered walks:
2,275 sq. ft. 0 $3.20/sq. ft. ---- 7Z280.00

Total ----- 64,698.00
Additions to the High School:
General construction, including instrue-
tional areas:
3,300 sq. ft. *10.50/sq. ft. --- 34,650.00
Shop:
1,500 sq. ft. 0 $ 6.30/sq. ft. ---- 9,450.00
Corridore and stairs
1,044 sq. ft. 0 5.50/sq. ft. ---- : .742.0

Total ---- $ 49,842.00












tor A9te6Fitont,
New roof .OO.
Renovation of heating system 4 8,000.00
General renovation including
repair of stairs Vl3,0000.

Total $25,000,00
Ai1 TOT L F IOR THISBI OOL $139,540.00
Construti o Details: it is contemplated that the new
elementary saool wirll be of frame construction with a
sufficient amount of brick introduced into the design
to pret :.the lower portions of the valls and possibly
as a design element to recall the maaonry in the exist-
ing building. Frame walls would be eoveret with asbes-
tos ~q higles to relieve the necessity for painting anA
the root i~ rnldi be of-: bestos shingles. Floors are to
be asphalt tile ower sonorete slabs.
Design of the existing high school building diotates the
use of masonry construction for the additions to this
building. However, it is anticipated tha ground floors
will be asphalt tile over concrete slabs.

ALLAHtAN NEGRO SCHOOL
]new Construotiona New construction at this center con-
sists of-a. _e elementary school which provides for eight
classrooms of whith two are provided with individual toi-
lets for the use of the primary grades, a oObination
cafeteria and general assTebly room with incidental kitchen
facilities, a library, a hoae economics department, a oas-
bine shop and science department and. an administrati e

-- II--- "I -- ..... -- .
10oin, Sahford V., 'A Program of Construction," Ja.sau
County SA ,, Board of Public Instruction, Fernandina,
Florida, pp. -10O (ah.).





























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































I __ _










25


suite including a clinic. Space has also been allotted
for general purpose service, such as boiler-room and.
toilets.
It should be pointed out that the combination of the shop
and the sienOce room is dIn principally to the fact that
it is anticipated by the administration that one teacher
will have to handle both of the instructional fields.
This saae idea is brought out in the location of the li-
brar which has been placed adjacent to the prinoipal'e
office s to provide for its supervision without addi-
tional personnel.
ite:i The site of this building is undetermined as of
the preparation of this program. However, the report of
the Survey Staff includes the recommendation for a site
that wold provide for at least ten acres with more being
desirable. The building is planned for north window ex-
posure for all instructional roose.


General construction, ldii.ng Inktrvs-
tioaal areas, cafeteria, toilett, ete.
12,225 eq. ft. $7.60/q. ft. ---- 92,910.00
Covered walks:
4,627 sq. ft. $3.20/sq. ft.----, 14806.00
GRAND TOTAL FOR THIS SCHOOL --- 107,716.00
Copa st r~Atn metals It is contemaiated that this build-
ting al be of fre oae construction but that brick hall be
introduced in the lover portions of exposed walls to pro-
test the walls and introdnee color. Upper portions of
walls would be covered with asbetoas shingles to avoid
future painting, and the roofs would b of asbestos shin-,
glee. Floors are to be asphalt tile over eonerete slabs.




koin, 2.* it., p. 11





















































































































































































































































































































C 1;-









26
!1* UNtO SCHOOL
New Copaetr 1tia New construction at this center con-
sists of a mew eleantary school which provides for six
classrooms of ehih two are provided with' individual
toilets for the use of the primary grades, a combination
cafetea: atg general assembly, an administrative suite,
and spae. allotted for the general service facilities,
suash I a a boiler-room and toilet rooms.
In order to reduce the iatediate oests of construction
it was tiZt ytat the t4brary Right be omitted. The
music and ait toom has also been omitted dur to antici-
pation on the part of the administration that teachers
would not bh available for these activities. The plan
is flexible, however, and provide for additions when
funds are available and proper teaching staff can be ob-
tained.

5j3te The site of this building is undettrasaed as of
th- pej. -q e thi program. However, the report
of th iey StItaf )nta0 te re~~eo enation for a
site that would foi& for at4 Isaet tn 'rea, with
more being desire. The bi n pnnd for ornorth
window exposure for all instructional room.
Cost Estimate:
General construction, including inktruc-
tional areas, cafeteria, toilets, etc. '
7,292 sq. ft. $7.60/sq. ft. ----- $ 55,419.00
Covered walks:
3,142 sq. ft. 0 $3.20/sq. ft. -----. $ I054.
(WAND TOTAL FR THIS SCHo ----- 65,4T.00

Colptrumton Details: It is contemplated that this build-
ing shall be of frame construction but that briek shall be
introddued in the lower portions of exposed walls to pro-
teet the walls and to introduce color. Upper portions of
walls would be covered with asbestos shingles to avoid
future painting and the roofs would be of asbestos shingles.
Floors are to be asphalt tile over concrete slabs.1
--. ...
1Goin, La. 4t.., p. 12




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STATISTICS AND CHARTS ON IMPROVEMENT TRENDS











28


The following tables will show:

I
1. The Names and. Number of Schools
2. The Number of Teachers

3. The Number of Pupils
4. The average Daily Attendance

II
The location of schools within Nassau County,
Red (+) indicates schools to be consolidated. Blue (+)

indicates the number and place of construction.










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33


EXPLANATORY NOTES
It is to be noted that the County Superintendent,
members of the Board of Public Instruction, and citizens
of Nassau County, floated a bond issue for $725,000.00
to improve schools in Nassau County. White improvements
amounted to *444,247.79, and improvements for Negroes
amounted to $286,954.36. The total cost for the three
modern plants as estimated by Architect Goin, amounted
to $312,729.00 for Negro schools. :To reconcile the es-
timated figure of $312,729.00 against the amount of

$286,954.36 spent, will mean that the scope of the phy-
sical plant was reduced to the amount of $25,774.64,
such as omitting libraries, music and art rooms, etc.
The school site for Peck High School, Fernandina,
Florida as recommended by the Survey Committee was to
remain the same, renovate the old building, construct
new elementary buildings and a cafeteria, close the
street south of the existing building and extend play-
ground area south of elementary buildings.2

f-Weisner, John T.,'"Report on Expenditures," CoUmtg
su~erintendet' t Ofie, Board of Public Instruction,
Nassau County,, ernandina, Florida, July 1952.
2Goin, QP. Ot., pp. 9-10.









34
The school site for the Negro school at Callahan,
Florida, at the time of the Survey Committee's Report
was not determined. However, the committee at a later
date accepted, approved and constructed a new school
for Negroes now known as Pine Forest Community School.
The school is located within one-half mile south-west
from the old site. This location is not considered
ideal because of the low land and proximity of the At-
lantic Coast Line Railway.1

The new site for the Negro school at Yulee, Florida
was not determined at the time of the Survey Committee's
Report. At a later date the committee accepted, approved

and constructed a new elementary school two and one-half
miles east of the old school. The location for this

school is considered ideal. There are seventeen (17)
acres within this school center which includes the build-

ing and play areas. The name of this new school is now

known as Bryant Academy, Nassau County, Yulee, Florida.2

Nassau County was fortunate in having a dynamic
leader, John T. Weisner, Superintendent of Public In-

struction, to spearhead the movement toward improving

1Goin, it. p. 11.
2lbid., p. 12











schools in Nassau County.

Instrumental toward its effectiveness were: Board
Members of Public Instruction, James S. Stevens, Lloyd

W. Herrin, W.H. Russell, Irvin Poole, and B.T, O'Quinn;

Trustees: E.R. Bounds, C.H. Sheffield, Nicholas Smith;

Attorney Thomas G. Hall; Secretaries: Alyce Crosby and

Mary E. Core; Supervisors: Sidney L. Horne and Margaret

Strassler; School Principals: A. Quinn Jones, Jr., James

Gary Reddick and Chester R. Cowart; teachers and voters

of Nassau County did their jobs well, in order to make

the Bond Issue successful.

Their efforts, time and money, gave rise to a
building program toward improving schools within the

county, for which all citizens of Nassau County shall

forever be proud.

A county school system which attempts to serve its

proper functions for its communities, will to the ex-

tent of their power, provide buildings and equipment to

meet the needs of pupils, community and Standards of

the State Department of Education. Nassau County has

the honor and distinction of being the only county in

the state to begin and complete its building program,

consolidate and start operating within one year.









36


John T. Weisner said:
The quality of a nation depends upon
the quality of its citizens. The quality
of its citizens depends upon the quality
of their education. The quality of their
education depends upon the quality of their
teachers, and the kind of buildings within
which they have to work.




























1Weisner, John T., *Teachers for Our Times," A Re-
ort of Organization and Administration, September 1948,
ei7~ l. ,




N


37


The following tables will show:

I
1. Location and names of new constructions.

II
1. Cost and expenditures in Negro schools of
Nassau County.





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An over-all picture regarding the improvements of
Negro schools in Nassau County, can be summarized in the

following meaningful statements:

Nassau County is the only county in the
State of Florida to complete its building
program satisfactorily to community needs and
State Requirements within one year. Truly,
Nassau County now serves as a model on im-
provement of schools for the other 66 counties.1




It would be a very fine idea for adminis-
trators and other school personnel of the State
of Florida, to conduct tours to Nassau County
in order to see what can be done, and what has
been done toward improving schools within this
county. 2







1Statemen? made to County Superintendent and
Principal by State Superintendent Thomas D. Bailey at
Bryant Academy, Yulee, Florida, during a visit to this
school in November 1951.

2Statement made to County Superintendent and
Principal by Secondary School Administrator, Samuel
Rayborn at Bryant Academy, Yulee, Florida, during a
visit to this school in 1951.











CHAPTER V


THE RELATIONSHIP OF INfUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT TO IMPROVE-

MENTS OF NEGRO SCHOOLS IN NASSAU COUNT!

In order to evaluate Nassau County in terms of in-
dustrial development and its relationship to the im-
provements made in Negro schools, several items should
be considered as follows (1) Population: In Nassau
County the population increased by 33 individuals over
a period of five years, 1940-45, with 7,400 whites and

3,500 Negroes, totaling 10,900. From 1946 to 1950 the
population increase was 1,952, and 561 for whites and

1,391 for Negroes; total population for Nassau County
in 1950 equal 12,811. Significant to this study is
the increase of the Negro population of 1,391 as com-
pared with 561 for whites during this period. (2) Em-
2
ployment: During the period of Industrial Develop-
ment 1946-50, there were 4,868 Negroes of which 1,493


lU. S. Department of Commerce, "1950 Census,"
Advance ReDorts, Washington 25, D. C., April 2, 1951.

2McRay, John; "Secretary Files,' A. F. of L. A.
Union, Fernandina, Florida, 1951.










42


were men seeking support for their daily life. (3)

Schools: The approximate number of 1,000 children of
school age who had to be crowded into 9 inadequate
structures with only 26 teachers presents a problem to

be adjusted..

During the Industrial Period many families came to
take advantages of op ortunities in Nassau County, ant

with them came many children. The heads of each family

were faced with the following three things: (1) Must

find or develop places to stay, homes (2) Must find a

place of employment and (3) Must seek adequate schools

for their children. With high wages these problems were

solved.

At this same time the two pulpwood factories were
in the process of renovating and expanding their plants,

and getting the idea of "Tree Farming" sold to the citi-

zens of Nassau County.

In 1946 two of the major needs were met because of
a situation which solved the problem. The plants needed

men to do the required jobs, and the men needed the work

in order to earn enough money to purchase homes. From


1Survey Staff, "Survey," Board of Public Instruc-
tion, Fernandina, Florida, 1949. ---










43
1946 to 1950,1 the Pulpwood Factories of Nassau County

were exempted from county taxes in order to make the

necessary adjustments within their plants. While high

prices were being paid for both labor and home develop-

ments, the greater proportion of the money was spent

for developments within Nassau County. The men return-

ing home from their jobs found that the greatest nee&

had not been touched. This need was, to provide better

schools for their children.

When a recognition of the third need penetrated

the minds of the citizens of Nassau County, they imme-

diately set a plan in motion toward accomplishing all

their immediate needs. Namely, better homes and schools.

Parents worked satisfactorily on their jobs, invested

their earnings toward home-owndership, which turned a

portion of the money back to the county in the form of

taxes. Such taxes are converted into County Millage

and Ad Valorem which is used for improving schools with-

in the county.

Table number will show how Nassau County, on

its own volition set a plan in motion whereby they could


1Bwearinger, S.H., 'Records,'"County. Tax Assessor,
Nassau County, Fernandina, Florida, 1951.









44


help themselves improve their schools with state aid.
The average salary for men in 1946 in the state of Flor-
ida amounted to approximately $1,000, and in 1950 in-
creased to the approximate amount of $3,000.
From a point of observation, Nassau County would
appear or rate as a poor county. Data from a financial
glance does not ascertain these facts. It does indicate
that the lack of guidance, and a sense of economy are
areas in which they need to improve. This fact will re-
cognize how these conditions affect the schools and what
contributions the schools may make in meeting these needs.


















1Bulletin, "A Report of Organization and Adminis-
tration,+ Nassau County Workshop, September 1948, p. 50.













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et
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I1


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0









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Ct





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o
















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0 1 -3




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)^


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46
During the Industrial Development Period in Nassau
County, the years from 1946 to 1950 were called the "Fat

Years, and activities where Negroes were concerned was
labeled The Role of Neroes

Out of the 4,868 Negroes of Nassau County, statis-
tical data revealed that very few of them rated above

the class of common laborers. Beyond the 38 profession-

al people who are classified as principals and class-
room teachers, and others are approximately 10 ministers

including pastors and non-pastors, others to the nearest
approximate number are: 6 bricklayers, 12 owners of

business establishments such as shops, etc., and 1 music
teacher. This data recognized 67 persons above common

laborers and prorated the others as following:

67 professionals including skilled crafts
'200 infants
1,000 children of school age (in and out)
1,801 women, 18 years of age and over
1_800 men, 18 years of age and over

4,868
This 4,868 total Negro population of Nassau County does

not reveal a bright future for potential leaders. Oppor-

tunities in Nassau County are awaiting Negroes with a

little initiative and the will to work.

1The World Almanac, "Book of Facts for 1951,' Tele-
gram and Sun, p. 49.









47
A few areas in Nassau County which offer great op.
portunities to Negroes are: Poultry, Tree Farming,
Fishing, General Farming, Pulpwood Industry and Cattle
Raising.

Data further revealed that the Pulpwood Industry
in Nassau County is the main source of economic income

for tbe support of daily life. Employment opportunities

for men in this field are expected to be very favorable

for the .next few decades. However, a large proportion
of the industry's workers are well along in years and

an increasing number of them will vacate their Jobs

each year through retirement or death. This will re-

sult in excellent opportunities for other Negroes de-
siring employment in the Pulpwood Industries.

Observations at the factories, in the pulpwood
fields and on the highways revealed that Negroes are

slow and very reluctant in making efforts toward chang-

ing from common labor jobs to skilled workers or some
phase of management. They have stayed in the industry

through good and bad years. As a result of such low

turnover, the present labor force has grown old on the
Job. This fact presents a bright future for the young

Negro who is interested in this kind of work. While

the Pulpwood Industries were using all available labor










48
in their expansion program, homes were constructed for
their comfort. At the same time the members of the
school board and other citizens realized that this was
truly the time to begin improving their schools.
Data further revealed that the county school offi-
cials geared their improving program to meet the needs
of this fast growing county. At the close of the In-
dustrial Development Period, the 'Fat Tears," the long
felt need for Negro school improvements was a reality.
The nine inadequate schools of Nassau County were no
longer in existence. Renovating, consolidating and
new construction resulted into three modern schools
adequate for Negroes in Nassau County,
The Pulpwood Industries had completed their ex-
panding program, developed Tree Farms throughout the
county to keep an average supply of trees ready to
harvest. Findings further indicated that the average
hourly wages in 1946 amounted to $0.75 to $0.85. In
1950 the hourly wages amounted to $1.17 to $1.31.
There are to the nearest approximate number, 200
gas drawn 1* to 2 ton trucks carrying 500 units of


1McCray, John, "Secretary Report,' International
Woodworkers of America (0.I.0.) A., Fernandina, Florida,
1951.











Pulpwood to the factories in Fernandina, Florida,

* $19.50 per unit. Out of the total number of operat-
ing trucks only four are owned by Negroes. This is an

opportunity which offers a challenge to the Negro popu-
lation of Nassau County.

The South is the most rapidly growing paper-making
section of the United States. The industry is develop-
ing more rapidly in Nassau County, than any other seo-
tion of Florida. In 1935 the South produced 1 million
tone of wood pulp. Today it produces approximately four

times as much. This fact is important to industrial
development and to the welfare of Southern people. This
development will continue because Americans are the

greatest users of paper in the world. Americans use
over 300 pounds of paper per capital as compared with a
world average of less than 30 pounds.

The importance of thePine Tree can be seen by a
few items derived from it:2

Newsprint Lamp shades
Wrapping Pencils
Books Paper textiles


1Bulletin, How Southern Pine Becomes Paper," Union
Bag Paper Company, New York, N. y., p. 2 (N.A.).

2Bulletin, "United States Forest Service," Department
of Agriculture, 1950, Tallahassee, Florida.












CHAPTER


FINDINGS


AND SUMMARY


This


investigation


revealed


that


the Florida


cit'-


zens '


Committee


made


a report


to Governor


Speseard


Holland,

The 1947


his


successor


Florida


Governor


Legislature,


Millard

concerning


Caldwel

. their


1 and to

findings


from

1947


a state

Florida


survey.


Legislature,


by


a law Tuesday,


May 20, 1947,


effective


immediately.


This


law became


known


as The 1947


Florida


Minimum


Foundation


School


Law.


Other


findings


from


this


investigation


were


follows:


That


Na ssau


County


received


its proportionate


amount


of tax funds


appropriated


for schools.


That


increase ii

provement

That

the amount


n school fu

of Negro sc:

industrial

of taxable


nds r

hools


resulted


in


in Nassau


development

resources;


a substantial

County.


caused

that pt


an increase


population


crease


contributed


to the improvement


of Negro


schools


in Nassau


County.


That


the improvement


of Negro


schools


grew


out of


the long,


felt


need of school


leadership


within the


VI


The report


was approved


and became


The


as


the


ix-.


in


in-










52


county


and not from


the recent


dieeision


of the


supreme


court


on equalization


of schools;


that


the schools


Nassau


County


have


kept


in step


with


the


average


county


of the state,


group


and recently


in the matter


steppe


of improving


d into the leading

schools for Negroes


over


the county.


was revealed


that


four


basic


factors


signifi-


cant


to this


investigation


were:


An increase in

Transportation


Provisions

Provisions


made

made


salaries

units gu


new constructions.


of instructors.


aranteed.


for teaching

for retiring


aids.

old debts


and


That


the Foundation


Law (school)


is based


upon


fundamental


wherever


philosophy


it is,


that


to educate


wealth


children


should


wherever


be taxed


they


are.


An analysis


of the statistical


data


reveals


following:


That


the school


board


members


and key


citizens


Nassau


County


were


instrumental


in investigating


plan


for improvement


of Negro


schools,


which


resulted


in the consolidation


into


three


newly


of the nine


constructed


inadequate


school


plants,


schools

namely:


Fer-


nandina,


Callahan,


and. Yulee at a total


cost


of $312,


792 00.


of


all


It


1.

2.

3.

4.


the


the


of


the









53


That during the period 1946 to 1950 the Negro pop-
ulation increased 1,391 as compared with an increase of

561 for whites. The opportunities in the pulpwood in-
dustry were the main factors which resulted in the in-
crease of population.
That the enrollment in Negro schools increased from
672 pupils in 1946 to 804 pupils in 1950, showing an in-
crease of 132 pupils,
That teacher personnel in Negro schools increased
from 26 in 1946 to 36 in 1950, an increase of 10 teachers.
That the teaching load decreased from 26 pupils in
1946 to 22 pupils in 1950, a decrease of 4 pupils per
unit.

That the per capital cost increased from $54.00 in
1946 to $133.12 in 1950, an increase of $79.02.
That the county's millage in 1950 was 17.00 mills
which is 2.22 mills above the average of the state's
14.78 mills.










CHAPTER VII


RECOMMENDATIONS

After carefully analyzing and compiling all avail-
able data significant to this investigation from the

following sources

1. Florida A & M College Library
2. Book Department Division of Education

3. Florida Education Association

4. Report from Department of Statistics

5. Reports from Rayonier and Container Factories
6. State Library in Supreme Court Building

7. Florida State University, School of Adminis-
tration
8. County Superintendent's Reports (Nassau
County)
9, State Superintendent's Annual Reports
(Tallahassee)
10. County Tax Assessor's Analysis (Nassau)
11. State Secretary (Tallahassee)

12. State Department of Agriculture (Tallahassee)

13. State Director of Negro Education (D. E.
Williams)
14. State Supervisor of Negroes (W. E. Combs)

15. Direction Observation in the Pulpwood Factories










55


16. Direct Observation in the Pulowood Fields

17. Observations made of Negro Homes and Schools

18. Observations made of Negro churches and or-
ganizations within Nassau County

The investigator of this investigation recommends:

1. That every Princinal, teacher, counselor, and
school administrator within Nassau County, familiarize

themselves with The 1947 Florida Minimum Foundation

Program.

2. That a course of Resource Education be added

to the curriculum of Nassau County Schools. (Emphasis

should be placed on the importance of the Pine Tree

based on what life would be like in Nassau County with-

out pine products.)

3. That all school personnel should live in the
community in which they work (at lecst five days).

4. That courses be provided on county level for

adult education, kindergarten and exceptional children

within the Negro schools of Nassau County.

5. That a county school attendance officer be em-
ployed by the Board of Public Instruction, Nassau County.

6. That Negroes of Nassau County be encouraged to

develop the land in their possession for economic ad-

vancement, to the extent by seizing the opportunity to










56

become operators, growers, managers and stockholders in

the pulpwood industry.

7. That a code of ethics be developed among pa-

rents, teachers and students regarding the importance of

having new buildings and equipment, to show their appre-

ciation by assuming the responsibility of constant vigi-

lance over them as a public service.

8. That architectural advice should be secured for

future home builders.

9. That all workers in the pulpwood industry should

be protected by an insurance company with a minimum amount

of $1,000.

10. That a nurse (health) be employed at county

level on full time to serve only the Negroes of Nassau

County (schools and all communities).











BIBLIOGRAPHY


Bailey, Thomas D., Florida Schools Look Ahead. Talla-
hassee: State Department of Education, 1948-1950.
49 pp.
------, The Story of Florida's Minimum Foundation Pro-
gram. Tallahassee: State Department of Education,
(n. d.) 31 pp.
----- Sufervision. Tallahassee: State Department of
Education, 1950. 20 pp.

Balwin, Michael P., Public Education in Florida g190.
Tallahassee: School of Public Administration, The
Florida State University, 1950. 365 pp.

Cruikshank, James W., 1949 Pulwood Production in the
South. Atlanta: United States Department of Ag-
riculture, 1950.

English, Colin, Biennial Reoort. Tallahassee: State
Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1946-
June 1948. 294 pp.

Delson, Robert, Education and Florida's Future. Talla-
hassee: Florida Citizens Committee on Education,
State Department of Education, 1947. 92 pp.

Gray, Tryon, Florida's Government. Philadelphia: The
John C. Winston Company, 1926-1950. 192 pp.

Meyers, Walter J., Ten Lessons in Forestry. Louisiana:
The Southern Pine Association, 1948. 56 pp.

Marshall, Alfred, Princinles of Economics. New York:
The Macmillan Company, 1950. (eighth edition,
third printing) 739 pp.

Mayo, Nathan, The Seven Census of the State of'Florida.
Tallahassee: Commissioner of Agriculture, State
Department of Agriculture, 1945. Sheet forms.











58


Container Corporation of America, "Annual Report," 1951.
Florida School Standards, State Department of Education,
194W8T
The Journal of the Florida Educational Association, 1947.

The Journal of the Florida Educational Association, 1951.
Panel Discussion of the Minimum Foundation School Program,
1950.
Some Simolified Phases of the Minimum Foundation Program,
1951.
How Southern Pine Becomes Paper, 1952.
Nassau County Schools A Program of Construction, 1949.
Rayonier Incormorated Annual Report, 1949.

Nassau County Workshoo Reoort of Organization and Adminis-
tration, 1948.
Florida Citizens Committee on Education, 1947.











59


Other Sources

Case Records, "Pulpwood Industries," Nassau County Tax
Assessor, Fernandina, Florida July 1951.

Analysis of the Tax Rolls, "Millages Levied and Taxes
Assessed," State Com.troller, C. M. Gay, 1950.

Interviews, State Librarian, Supreme Court Building,
Tallahassee, Florida 1951.

Interviews, State Department of Education, W. H. Marshall,
D. E. Williams, W. E. Combs, Michael P. Balwan, and
Thomas D. Bailey.

Interviews, Truck Operators, "Pulpwood Industries,"
Nassau County, 1951.

Observations, Workers in the Fields and Factories, "Pulp-
wood Industries," Nassau County, 1951.

Observations, Negro Homes and School Buildings, Nassau
County, 1951.

Correspondence, John T. Weisner, Superintendent of Pub-
lic Instruction, Nassau County, 1950-1951-1952.

Correspondence, State Department of Education of:
Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Missouri,
Mississippi, and Louisiana.

































APPENDIX





(COPY)


61

131 Sampson Hall
Fla. A. and M. College
Tallahassee, Florida
June 19, 1952
State Department of Education
Atlanta. Georgia
Columbia. South Carolina
Raleigh. North Carolina
Baton Rouge, Louisiana
Jackson. Mississippi

Dear Sir:

I am writing your department regarding
information significant to The Minimum Foundation
School Law. I am a student here at Florida A. and
M. College, Tallahassee, Florida, doing research
on the improvement of schools in Florida and ad-
jacent states.


Please send me any material or information
you have on improvements in your schools since
1946.


Thanks for any information vital to this
investigation.


Sincerely yours,

James B. Bryant, Student


(Copy)






(coPY)


62
STATE OF SOUTH CAROLINA
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

COLUMBIA, S. C.



June 23, 1952
Mr. James B. Bryant
131 Sampson Hall
Florida A. and M. College
Tallahassee, Florida

Dear Mr. Bryant:

I am sending you under separate cover a copy
of my Annual Report for 1950-51. This will give
you an idea of improvements which have been made
in the schools since 1946. This report is found
on page 82 of the State Superintendent's report.
I am also sending a copy of our Library Standards
for South Carolina High Schools and Recommendations
for Elementary School Libraries of South Carolina.


Sincerely yours,

(Nancy Jane Day)

Supervisor of Library
Services

NJD: lh

COPY
OF
(LETTER RECEIVED)







(COPY)
63

STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION
RALEIGH


June 24, 1952


Mr. James B. Bryant
131 Sampson Hall
Florida A & M College
Tallahassee, Florida

Dear Mr. Bryant:

With reference to your letter of
June 19 let me say that we do not have a Minimum
Foundation Program for the schools in North Carolina.
It has been considered at one time and another but
no definite program has been developed.

With respect to your request for any
material or information having to do with Improvement
in our schools since 1946 let me say that we have no
division of statistics and research and the time
available for some time to come is too short to make
an adequate report possible.

Cordially yours,

(J. Henry Highsmith)
Director, Division of Instructional
Service


JHH:R


COPY
OF
(LETTER RECEIVED)






(coPY)


64

STATE OF MISSISSIPPI
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
JACKSON



June 21, 1952

Mr. James B. Bryant
131 Sampson Hall
Florida A. and M. College
Tallahassee, Florida

Dear Mr. Bryant:

We are sending to you a copy of an explanation of
the financing of our public schools. We believe
that this will be of some use in answer to your
letter of June 19. We enclose also a folder which
sets out the recommendations of a Citizens Council
on education which is self-explanatory. This plan
was not adopted by the Legislature; however, our
Legislature, through a School Study Committee, is
now making an extensive study of schools in the
state of Mississippi, and will recommend to the
governor certain parts or points in the early part
of 1953. We look with a great degree of optimism
toward this report, and believe that it will go a
long way toward equalizing opportunities and facil-
ities for our school between the races.


Sincerely yours,

(R. W. Griffith)
Assistant Superintendent of Education

RWGriffith: bm


(COPY)
OF
(LETTER RECEIVED)








(COPY)
65


STATE OF LOUISIANA
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
BATON ROUGE 4

June 23, 1952



Mr. James B. Bryant
131 Sampson Hall
Florida A. & M. College
Tallahassee, Florida

Dear Mr. Bryant:

Your letter of June 19 addressed to the
State Department of Education has been referred
to me for attention.

We are mailing you, under separate cover,
a copy of Bulletin No. 714, ONE HUNDRED FIRST
ANNUAL REPORT FOR THE SESSION 1949-50. I trust
that this bulletin will assist you in your research
work.

Yours sincerely,

(Lena Dearing)

Secretary to: Mrs. de Grummond
Supervisor of School
Libar (Libraries)


COPY
OF
(Letter received)




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