• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Introduction, statement of the...
 Review of the literature
 Procedure, presentation, and analysis...
 Summary, conclusions, and...
 Bibliography
 Appendix






Title: Survey of the problems of elinquents and maladjusted children between the ages of 6 and 18 with suggested remedial services
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Title: Survey of the problems of elinquents and maladjusted children between the ages of 6 and 18 with suggested remedial services
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Barnwell, Thelma Leola
Affiliation: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
Publisher: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
Publication Date: 1956
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Title Page
        Title page
    Acknowledgement
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    List of Tables
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Introduction, statement of the problem and definitions of terms used
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Review of the literature
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Procedure, presentation, and analysis of data
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
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        Page 45-a
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        Page 69
        Page 70
    Summary, conclusions, and recommendations
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Bibliography
        Page 76
    Appendix
        Page 77
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Full Text







A SURVEY OF THE PROBLEMS OF DELINQUENTS AND MALADJUSTED

CHILDREN BETWEEN THE AGES OF 6 AND 18 WITH SUGGESTED

REMEDIAL SERVICES









A Thesis

Presented to

the Faculty of the Division of Graduate Study

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University









In Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements for the Degree

Master of Science in Education






by

Thelma Leola Barnwell

August, 1956










A SURVEY OF THE PROBLEMS OF DELINQUENTS AND MALADJUSTED
CHILDREN BETWEEN THE AGES OF 6 AND 18 WITH SUGGESTED
REMEDIAL SERVICES







A Thesis





Approved By:
Adviso


e. 7. cla<^
Director of
the Graduate
SchoDate ol22
Date JUL 22 1056








ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Acknowledgement is gladly given to Dr. Walter

Johnson for the many criticisms, counsel periods, and

observations given to the writer in the conducting of

the work reported herein.

The writer wishes to express her appreciation and

gratitude to the other members of the committee, and

staff of the Coleman Library, who cooperated so wonder-

fully in suggesting, and helping her to locate literary

data related to this study.

Finally, the writer is very grateful to her family,

particularly her husband and father, who expressed words

of encouragement during the long and tedious periods

when the task seemed extremely difficult.








TABLE OF CONTENTS


CHAPTER

I. INTRODUCTION, STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM AND
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED

Introduction........................*...

The Problem............................

Statement of the problem.............

Importance of the study...............

Objectives............................

Hypothesis.................. ..........

Basic Assumptions...*................

Delimitations or scope of
investigations.......................

Definitions of Terms Used...............

II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ****..............

III. PROCEDURE, PRESENTATION, AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

IV. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS....

Summary ................................

Conclusions..........................**

Recommendations .....................**

BIBLIOGRAPHY .......................................

APPENDIX........ ................. .......... ......


PAGE









LIST OF TABLES


TABLE PAGE
I. Number of Delinquent and Dependent Children
who had to Appear Before the Duval County

Juvenile Court for a Hearing, 1954-1955... 25

II. Number of White Boys, Negro Boys, White Girls,
and Negro Girls sent to the Florida
Industrial Schools by the Duval County
Juvenile Court, 1954-1955................ 29

III. Number of White Boys, Negro Boys, White Girls,
and Negro Girls Sent by the Duval County

Juvenile Court to Parental Homes in Duval
County, 1954-1955.......................... 31

IV. Number of Parents Charged with Contributing to
Delinquency and Dependency of Minors, and

Number of Court Dispositions of Children,

Duval County, 1954-1955 .................... 34

V. Number of White and Negro Children in the
Parental Homes of Duval County, 1954-1955

(Showing Chronological Ages) ............. 38

VI. Number of Boys Served by the Boys' Home

Association, Incorporated, (for White Boys)
(Showing the Parental Status 1954-1955).... 42







vi
TABLE PAGE

VII. Number of White Boys and Girls, and Negro

Boys and Girls in the State Industrial

Schools, Located in Jackson and Marion

Counties, 1954-1955 .................. 45

VIII. Number of White School Children Who Were

Reported for Poor Attendance to Visiting

Teachers, Number of Services Rendered

Reported Children by the Visiting Teachers,

and Number of Children who had to Appear

Before the Duval County Juvenile Court,

1954-1955 ............... ................ 50

IX,. Number of White School Children who were

reported for Poor Attendance to Visiting

Teachers; Number of Services Rendered

Reported Children by the Visiting Teachers;

and Number of Children who had to Appear

Before the Duval County Juvenile Court for

a Hearing (sub-totals)..............*..... 52

X. Number of White School Children who Were

Reported for Poor Attendance to Visiting

Teachers; Number of Services Rendered

Reported Children by the Visiting Teachers;

and Number of Children who had to Appear
Before the Duval County Juvenile Court,

Duval County, 1954-1955 (sub-totals)..... 55




vii


TABLE PAGE
XI. Number of White School Children who Were

Reported for Poor Attendance to Visiting

Teachers; Number of Services Rendered by

Visiting Teachers; and Number of Children

who had to Appear Before the Duval County

Juvenile Court, Duval County, 1954-1955
(sub-totals) ........................... 57

XII. Number of White School Children who Were

Reported to Visiting Teachers for Poor

Attendance, Number of Services Rendered by
Visiting Teachers, and Number of Children

who had to Appear Before the Duval County

Juvenile Court, Duval County, 1954-1955

(Grand Total ................... ........... 59

XIII. Number of Negro School Children who Were

Reported to Visiting Teachers for Poor

Attendance; Number of Services Rendered

by Visiting Teachers; and Number of Children
who had to Appear Before the Duval Juvenile

Court Duval County, 1954-1955 (sub-totals) 61
XIV. Number of Negro School Children who Were

Reported to Visiting Teachers for Poor
Attendance; Number of Services Rendered by

Visiting Teachers; and Number of Children

who had to Appear before the Duval County

Juvenile Court, Duval County, 1954-1955

(sub-totals).................... **.......... 65






viii
TABLE PAGE

XV. Number of Negro School Children who Were

Reported for Poor Attendance to Visiting
Teachers; Number of Services Rendered by

Visiting Teachers; and Number of Children

who had to Appear Before the Duval County

Juvenile Court, 1954-1955 (grand total)..., 68







CHAPTER I


INTRODUCTION

For many years the causes of "delinquency" have

been studied. Maladjustment, from the personal and

social aspects, has been a subject of much discussion.

Parents have been blamed many times in regard to con-

tributing to the delinquency and dependency of minors.

But this study will be related to the problem of

delinquent and maladjusted children between the ages of

6 and 18 years old. Of course children from the ages

of thirteen to eighteen years old would come under the

"adolescent" or "teen-age" group. The survey of these

problems will include investigation of the number of

white and Negro children in the Florida Industrial

Schools, and the Parental Homes of Duval County for the

two-year period of 1954-1955; and certain information

from the Duval County Juvenile Court, and Visiting

Teachers in Duval County, for the same period. Some

of the causes as to why the children were in the insti-

tution, and why they had to appear before the Juvenile

Court, were really pertinent questions for the investi-

gation.

Parents who are maladjusted themselves because

of certain conditions such as: supporting a large family

from a small salary; and (2) working when they (the









parents) are in a poor physical condition, have caused

such parents to become neurotic. The parents in turn

find themselves neglecting certain guidance responsi-

bilities in regard to their children. This is not

true in all cases. Many parents frequently go to im-

moral centers, "to get away from the worries at home,"

or so they think, and past their time in drinking and

frivolity. Often there is no one at home with the

children, but the older sister or brother. A drinking

father may even come in and brutually abuse the mother

and children. Many things could be mentioned when it

comes to "maladjustment of children." Home conditions

can be the basis of these maladjustments.

It is worthwhile to concentrate on such a
problem as "sex," from this angle: "How can some

parents teach children guidance as far as sex is con-

cerned, when they are guilty of openly living immoral

lives as far as sex is concerned themselves? Children

often imitate what they see adults do.

Suggested remedial services will be given in
the Recommendations of this study. The "Suggestions*

tend to give some information for the purpose of

decreasing some of the delinquency among children in

the age group of 6 to 18'years old.









THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITION OF TERMS USED


I. THE PROBLEM

Statement of the problem. It was the purpose of

this study (1) to investigate and make a survey of the

problems of delinquent and maladjusted children; (2) to

further show and compare certain data obtained through

questionnaires sent to Parental Homes in Jacksonville,

Florida, Visiting Teachers in Jacksonville, Florida, and

Florida Industrial Schools in Jackson, and Marion Counties;

(3) to present facts from interviews with the Duval County

Juvenile Court; (4) to make a community observation in a

certain area of Jacksonville, Florida; and (5) to suggest

some remedial services, or recommendations in regard to
this study.

Importance of the study. Many delinquent and

maladjusted children, especially such school children,

between the ages of six and eighteen have been socially as

well as personally maladjusted. They have not been able to

fit in with play groups, or study groups in and at school;

they have not been able to adapt themselves to any situ-

ation. These children feel insecure in some way for some

reason or reasons. What are their problems? What are the

pre-adolescents seeking? What is the teen-ager seeking?









Where must they look for these things they seek? Why

do they seek those things, and commit offenses, which are

criminal, or immoral according to the laws of organized

society, or rather the standards of organized society?

What are the answers to all of the questions? Can we

find the answer through a scientific procedure? Can we

experiment with these young lives to the extent of finding

out certain things? Our human resources are valuable,

and children are the generation of tomorrow. It is im-

portant that we continue to reach out a helping hand, and

rescue them from !delinquency menace*. It will not be

easy for those who have worked in the past to work out

suggested programs to combat delinquency. It will mean

more time spent in child study, more financial support from

concerned persons, and the cooperation of the home, the

school, the church, and the community with the forces of

our organized society, by assuming the responsibilities

involved in properly guiding children. The whole load

should not be placed on the Juvenile Court and Correction

Institutions. Our children, and our neighbors' children

must be saved from delinquency, if possible. It is our

responsibility.

Objectives of the study. The objectives of the

study are: (1) to relate some of the problems that cause









maladjustment in school children between the ages of six

and eighteen years old; (2) to present facts which show

the relation of maladjustment to delinquency; (3) to

emphasize the responsibility of the parents, school,

church and community in the matter of delinquency; and (4)

to suggest some remedial services which may be helpful in
combatting delinquency.

Hypothesis. The greatest number of delinquents

come from disunited families; maladjusted children between

the ages of six through eighteen have problems of some kind.

Basic Assumptions. (1) Maladjustments cause delin-

quency in school children between the ages of six and

eighteen; (2) if, maladjusted children can-pass the ages

of six through twelve, they may not become delinquent.

Delimitations or Scope of Investigation. This

study will be confined and limited to the following places;

(1) the Duval Juvenile County Court; (2) the Boys' Home

Association, Incorporated, which is in Duval County; (3)

the Parental Homes for White Girls and Negro Girls, located

in Duval County; (4) the Parental Home for Negro Boys, which

is also, located in Duval County; and (6) the Florida

Industrial School for White, and Negro children, located in

Jackson, and Marion Counties. The study is confined to the

two year period, 1954-1955.










II. DEFINITION OF TERMS USED


Delinquent child. A youthful offender against the

standards of society, maybe an offender against the law,

against school discipline, against, the moral code.

Dependent child. A child who is not self supporting

and who requires financial aid from his parents, or

society.

Maladjusted child. A child who is not accepted

by other children as a participant in normal activity

groups, or whose behavior is not in suitable relation to

institutional norms.

Parental home. A unit of a school system to which

minor'childien are committed by a Juvenile Court and

where they are kept in residence and supervised for cor-

rection of delinquent tendencies. (The children may be

sent to a nearby public school or instruction may be given

within the confines of the parental home).

Juvenile Court. A court that hears cases in which

a child is involved as one of the parties concerned. The

court deals with cases regarding dependent, neglected, and

delinquent children.

Juvenile probation. The act of suspending sentence

against a delinquent and placing him on parole, that is with

the understanding that he is to report regularly to the

court, or to a representative of the court, such as a








a probation officer, no further legal action being taken

so long as the youth's behavior is satisfactory.

Incorrigible child. A child who is ungovernable,

unmanageable, or unruly and whose conduct or attitude

does not improve with the application of unusually

successful corrective treatment.

Industrial school. (In regard to this study) A

residential school is for the education and supervision

of delinquents committed by a juvenile court.

Visiting teacher. A combined teacher and social

worker whose chief function is the removal of existing

handicaps of school children that have resulted from their

social environment.

Home Interviews. Interviews with parents or

guardians of reported children, usually held by the visit-

ing teacher during a home visitation period.

School Interviews. The visiting teacher's con-

ference with a reported child, at the school where the

child is a member.

School visits. Those trips made by the visiting

teacher to the schools assigned her, where she works and

helps in contacting pupils reported for poor attendance,

truancy and other issues wherein she is needed.

Letters and phone calls. Letters sent, and phone

calls made to agencies such as, the welfare, child guidance

clinic, health department, or other agencies, by the










visiting teacher, who needs the service of such agencies

for a reported child's welfare.

Health and welfare. Those referrals made by the

visiting teacher to the Health and Welfare Departments

in regard to a reported school child, who may need such

services.

School Service. A service or services wherein the

visiting teacher may be called by the school to make a

visit concerning a disciplinary or emotional problem, in

which a child is concerned.

Office conferences. Those conversations between

the visiting teacher, the reported child, and his parents

or guardian, held in the office of the visiting teacher

concerning the child. Sometimes an 'office conference*

will eliminate a home visitation.

Children who had to appear before the Juvenile

Court. Those children in various schools who had to go

before the Juvenile Court for a hearing concerning (1)

poor school attendance; (2) truancy; or (3) some parti-

cular issue.







CHAPTER II


REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

One of the most serious problems confronting the

police and all of the bodies of organized society is

'Juvenile Delinquency,* Studies have been made in an at-

tempt to discover the main causes of delinquency, and as

a result, varied ideas have come about in regard to the

delinquent and his behavior. But, juvenile delinquency

is still a destructive force in the world of today.

Francis J. Brown concluded that the church, the

police, the home, and all of the forces of organized

society seem helpless in meeting the situation concerning

the problems of delinquency. He held that delinquency is

a problem that baffles all the forces of organized society.1

It has been said by many writers that "maladjustments"
of children cause delinquency. Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck

have done studies wherein maladjustment in regard to delin-
quency was discussed. They also stated that all behavior

of the delinquent, when viewed systematically, whatever

specific form it may take, has the common denominator of


IFrancis J. Brown, Educational Sociology, (New
York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1947), p. 351.
2Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck, Unraveling Juvenile
Delinquency (New York: Harvard University Press, 1950),
p. 13.








maladaptation of the individual to the demands of a social
code be it rules of family life, or school life, or life in

that larger society which is protected by a law system.

They further concluded that from the point of view

of the explorer of behavior and its motivations, juvenile
delinquency is only a form of maladjustment to the complex

standards of adult social life, which expresses itself in
acts that are prohibited by law under punishment or pain.

It was cited by Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck3 that

anyone desiring to make more than a superficial study as
to the causes of human maladjustments must soon realize

that there is no single divining rod and no simple path

to knowledge, and their implications have required the
collaboration of many disciplines.

Milton L. Barron4cites that "Although one may argue

that the majority of juvenile delinquents are found among

the maladjusted, certainly not all of the maladjusted are

delinquent. Furthermore, some delinquents are not

maladjusted."'
Children are capable of becoming frustrated as well

as adults. The teacher who studies her pupils, can tell


31bid.
4Milton L. Barron, The Juvenile in Delinquent Society,
(New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1954), p. i .







I 11

Ofa child is disturbed about something, that is in

most cases. The child who begins to show delinquent

tendencies should not be further frustrated by the

teacher. This does not mean that the teacher must

tolerate with impudent behavior from the child, but it

does mean that she should talk with him personally and

try to gain his confidence so as to help him if pos-

sible.
The child who does not like school often uses

truancy as a means of escape. Barron5 further revealed

that "Truancy, which neither court nor institutional

statistics portray accurately in the profile of delin-
quency, is important for reasons other than its rank in

the distribution of offenses. It so often accompanies

other delinquencies and it so frequently makes an early

appearance that it has been called the kindergarten of

both delinquency and crime. It is important too be-

cause it is one kind of delinquent behavior that can be

easily measured."
Delinquency does not follow any definite age

pattern. Barron, stated that the predominant or modal age

of delinquents in both police and court cases is from

fourteen years of age to eighteen. He held that in war-

time the sixteen and seventeen year-olds take the lead
more so in court cases than in police arrests, and

largely as a result of fluctuations in boys' cases.

51bid., pp. 52-53.
6lbid., p. 54












Kvaraceus7 made a study of the grades in which the

delinquents were found at the time of their initial re-

ferral to the Bureau. He stated that 55 per cent of the

total group came from a span of Grades 6-10, inclusive.

"However, judging from the whole range of grades repre-

sented, the delinquent is apt to come from any grade with-

in the system, with a concentration of cases in the

junior high school level.*

Delinquency knows no age, sex or race. But it is

detrimental to all who become its victims. The victims

sometime make crime their life-time profession.

Reiss8 stated that the non-conventional neighbor-

hood and community values in orienting the child toward

delinquency have long been pointed out by Sociologist.

Communities in which these values prevail are usually

characterized by indigenous institutions and high delin-

quency rates.

He further stated that "A major institution of the

community exercising social control over the child is the

school. At the same time, the school affects the forma-

tion of personal controls insofar as its personnel repre-


7William C. Kvaraceus, Juvenile Delinquency and
the School (New York: World Book Company, 1945), p. 136.

8Reiss, Albert J. "Social Correlates of Psycho-
logical Types of Delinquency,' American Journal of Socio-
logy, 17:711, 1952.








sent acceptable models of authority and provide rational
guides for behavior."

He also cited that theoretically delinquent behavior

may be viewed as a function of the nature of both social and

personal controls. He further believed that the social
environment gives structure to the personal controls and
exercises social control over the child in social situations.
Various authors have studied the delinquency

situation from such aspects as, hereditary, economical,

psychological, physiological, and sociological factors.
But it would be significant in regard to this study to give
the conclusions of certain authors regarding delinquency of

girls, and delinquency of boys.

Ralph S. Baney9 states that girls mature earlier
from an emotional standpoint than boys, yet the majority

of girl delinquents are in the older age group than boys.
He stated that perhaps girls do not mature earlier. The

impression that they do may arise from the lower demands
made upon them by society. Less is expected of the mature
woman than of the mature man,

Barron0 revealed in one of his studies that ac-

cording to available statistics, more adolescent boys


9 Ralph S. Baney, Youth in Despair, (New York:
Coward-McCann, Inc., 1948), p. 7.

10 Op. cit., p. 55.










were involved in delinquency acts than girls. The sex

ratio in arrest cases showed that approximately one girl

to every ten boys, whereas court cases are generally re-

ported to be about 1:5. The reason why the proportion of

girls' to total cases has been consistently higher in

courts than in arrests is the difference between boys

and girls in the source of their referrals to the juvenile

court. He related that a larger proportion of girls are

referred to the courts from non-police sources. He

further mentioned that delinquency statistics report more

boys than girls partly because boys are apprehended more
often, whereas even when girls are detected and appre-

hended, they are often just reported to their parents,

an expression of differential cultural expectations for

the two sexes.

BarronIl also concluded that most boys come before

the juvenile courts because of stealing or other aggressive

behavior injurious to others, the bulk of the girls'

cases are brought into court because of problems of personal

behavior or sex difficulties which primarily endanger the

welfare of the girl rather than constitute offenses against

others.

Mannheim12 revealed that, not unnaturally, girls


11 Ibid.
12 Karl Mannheim, Juvenile Delinquency In An
English Middletown, (London: Broadway House, 19487.











are apt to steal other articles than boys, mostly clothes,

cosmetics', cheap jewelry. So one can readily see that

there is a great difference in the behavior of children

according to sex. This really calls for more child.study

and guidance in the schools. The teachers, and the

principal can not do everything, that much is understood.

The school social worker or visiting teacher,

assists the school wonderfully in bringing the child and
13
his home in close contact with the school. Jones3 stated

that the chief function of the social worker is to help

secure for the child a happy and profitable school experi-

ence; to help individual teachers, groups of teachers, and

parents to understand the lying causes of undesirable be-

havior through case work, case conferences and group

discussions of definite behavior problems.

The problem of delinquency is basically a problem

of directing, educating, training and advising with and

safe guarding parents, and of impressing upon them their

continued responsibility.

Kvaraceus14 held that no two children are alike even

though they may live in the same house and have the same

parents; they may even be identical twins. But there are

always differences in the way parents treat children.

13Arthur J. Jones, Principles of Guidance, (New
York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1951), p. 225.

4p. cit., pp. 56-57.









He further mentioned'that likewise, no matter how hard

teachers try, they can not treat all children alike, and

the attempt to deal identically with children can have as

markedly harmful results as can deliberate and marked

discrimination.

The time to set the pattern of the child's person-

ality and modes of adjustment to life is in the earliest
15
years of his life. Gesell in speaking of this early

period, calls it "the most critical epoch in the de-

velopment of the individual when death, disease, and

accident then take the heaviest toll.

The parent, the school, the church and the

community must work together if delinquency is to be

combatted, and save the youth of today from its paraly-

zing clutch, and from further crime.

Payne's16 Ten Commandments for Parents is something

which every parent who is or has been charged with contri-

buting to the delinquency and abusing of their children,

should read, or have the opportunity to hear such by some

means occasionally. The commandments are as follows:

(1) You shall not work off your own complexes, inhibitions,

and repressions upon your children; (2) You shall not

continually make them feel inferior but always build up

15Gesell and Others, The First Five Years of Life
(New York: Harper and Brothers, 1940J, p. 314-315.
16Paul H. Landis, Adolescent and Youth (New York:
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 19457, p. 243.








their confidence in themselves; (3) You shall lend ear to

his explanations before punishment; (4) You shall not

punish as a results of your own emotions; (5) When correct-

ing or admonishing you shall always say something of a
commeddatory nature or of disappointment rather than rage

or bitterness; (6) You shall not deceive them, for they

understand fully; (7) You shall treat each child as an

individual person with his own personal faults and failures;

(8) You shall discipline them to accept responsibilities
to face realities and truth; (9) You shall discover, ex-

plain, and develop the will to succeed in each child; and

(10) You shall set them a good example.

The church is a very important factor in relation
to spiritual values and strongly emphasizes moral values

to a very large extent. But must one wait and leave

everything in the hand of the church? Individuals
should seek the church. Parents should teach their

children that church is important in their lives, and

encourage church attendance. This will help to instill

certain spiritual and moral elements within some

children. All children will never except the teachings

and doctrines if they do not have an inward desire to

accept.

Kvaraceus17 believes that the fact that Juvenile


17 0e. cit., p. 298.










delinquency is a product of the community must be faced

squarely. The boy who has to use the streets for play is

no more unsocial than the community which declines to fur-

nish him with wholesome means of self-expression. He held

that no community that ignores its duties to its children

should blame youth for shortcomings that might have been

easily prevented.

After the child is a delinquent, then there is much

work to be done. Parental institutions and Industrial

Schools will have more to do than just helping the child to

find himself for the period he must be in the institution.

The child's life is important far beyond this period.

Some Parental Homes also help dependent children

until they can be placed in good boarding homes, foster

homes, legally adopted if the child has no one at all to

care for him, or until the child can be returned to his

particular home or parent. Sometimes paretns are so im-

moral in their living until, a child can be taken from

their custody by the law and placed in a parental home.

The fight against delinquency must continue,

and it will take patience as well as study. But the

most significant thing to be considered is, "continue

to combat delinquency." One moment must not be lost in

the glory of an almost accomplished Victory, the fight

against this menace must continue.








18
J. Edgar Hoover, "The Nation can expect an appalling

increase in the number of crimes that will be committed by

teen-agers in the years ahead unless the crime rate among

juveniles can be lowered. In 1953, persons under 18 com-

mitted 53.6 per cent burglaries; 18 per cent of all

robberies, and 16.2 per cent of all rapes. These are the

statistics reported to the FBI by 1,174 cities."

Judge Samuel S. Leibowitz,19 Brooklyn: "Mere
youngsters are now hold-up men, armed with loaded guns,

iron knuckles, switch-blade knives, daggers; crimes such

as muggings, rapes, home burglarizes, felonious assault,

arson, dope peddling. The really alarming feature is this
rapidly increasing incidence of serious criminal conduct

in the teen-age groups and particularly the young teen-

agers.'

President Dwight D. Eisenhower,20 To help the

states do a better job, we must strengthen their resources

for preventing and dealing with juvenile delinquency. I

shall propose federal legislation to assist the states

in dealing with this nationwide problem.a

18 Jacksonville Journal, January 15, 1955, p. 10.
19 Ibid.
20 Ibid.







20
State Attorney John Gutknecht,21 Chicago: "With-

out questions (juvenile crime) is increasing and among

many reasons, I think is a gradual decrease in home dis-

cipline. The child that has never been taught in the

home is only going to respond to the court when punish-

ment is severe."
22
Police Commissioner Gibbons,22 Philadelphia:

"A great many people, when they're talking about the juve-

nile problem, pointed out that this is nothing to be con-

cerned about only 2 per cent of our youngsters are ar-

rested. And that's true. But the conduct of many others

who are not arrested is something that gives me grave

concern."

Sen. Estes Kefauver,23 (D-Tenn.) informed

Governor Leroy Collins of Florida that the subcommittee

has been impressed by the "Many advances Florida has ac-

hieved in helping its youngsters before they become

delinquents." "We have selected Florida as a pilot state

for a new program in which we are calling upon the

mayors of cities throughout the country to assist us in

finding ways to solve the delinquency problem,*

Kefauver said.


21Ibid.

22Ibid.
23The Florida Times Union, August 1, 1955, p. 10.








The senator said the subcommittee has asked the

Florida mayors to report projects they have begun which

might provide guidance for civic leaders in other

states. WWe have high hopes that this program will

grow into a coordinated national campaign to curb and

cure delinquency among out youth, and we believe that

Florida will be able to make a significant contribution

toward a better understanding of the problem," he

continued.
24
Kefauver said hearings are planned in Miami

for a time not yet set. Florida mayors will be asked

to give reports and appraisals at that time.

Re directed his appeal to mayors of Bradenton,

Clearwater, Coral Gables, Daytona Beach, Fort Lauderdale,

Fort Myers, Fort Pierce, Gainesville, Hialeah,

Hollywood, Jacksonville, Key West, Lakeland, Lake Worth,

Miami, Miami Beach.

North Miami, Ocala, Orlando, Panama City,

Pensacola, Plant City, St. Augustine, St. Petersburg,

Sanford, Sarasota, Tallahassee, Tampa, Tarpon Springs,

West Palm Beach, Winter Haven and Winter Park.

Charles Meister25 stated in a news article that,

24 Ibid.
Ibid .


25 0.* cit., p.1.








*New legislation, better law enforcement and a long-range

recreational program were set forth today as key factors in

a drive to curb juvenile delinquency.

These proposals grew out of a meeting last night in

City Hall at which Juvenile Judge Marion Gooding presented

proposals for stricter laws.

Willingness to work with him toward drawing up the

necessary bills was expressed by all members present of a

special City Council committee Louis H. Ritter, chairman;

Joe Doney, Clyde Cannon and James M. Peeler.

The last named, a former Criminal Court judge also

said that walking policemen and spanking parents would be

a help."










CHAPTER III


PROCEDURE, PRESENTATION, AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

Data gathered during this investigation was secured
from several sources. It was first important to know the

method of research which should be best used to obtain as

much information as possible for the justification of the

problem. Certain basic data was needed, in some phases of

the study, which had to come from an official source.

The Normative-Survey Method was used, and information was

gathered by the following ways (1) questionnaire inquiries;

(2) interview studies, which included interviews with two

Visiting Teachers of Negro Schools in Duval County, and an

interview with the Clerk of the Duval County Juvenile

Court; and observation procedures.

A few reports were received from reliable sources
such as, (1) two Annual Reports on children reported to

visiting teachers for poor attendance, truancy; and (2)

the Annual Reports for the years of 1954 and 1955, from
the Boys' Home Association for White boys, incorporated.

Interpretation of questionnaire returns, and

tabulation of such for the analysis of pertinent data,

provided real insight on certain facts. The responses

were summarized into a number of tables, as was the case








in presenting responses from interviews and reports. It

was necessary to construct the tables in the simplest

manner possible, and still show all of the valuable data

collected for the study.

The findings include the following information for

the period of 1954-1955: (1) data from the Duval County

Juvenile Court, on the number of delinquents and dependents

who had to appear before the Juvenile Court for a hearing;

(2) the number of parents charged with contributing to the

dependency of minor children, as well as the number of

parents who were bound over to criminal court, and jailed

for the same offense; (3) data from the Boys' Home

Association, Parental Home for White Girls, Parental Home

for Negro Boys, and the Parental Home for Negro Girls,

all of which are located in Duval County; (4) data from

the Florida Industrial Schools in Marion County and

Jackson County. The Industrial Schools gave numerical

facts concerning the number of girls and boys, White and

Negro, who were in these schools for the period given in

this study.

The data analyzed in Table I shows the total number

of delinquent and dependent children who had to appear be-

fore the Duval County Juvenile Court for a hearing, and the

number of white boys and Negro boys, and white girls and

Negro girls, who appeared before the same court, in the

years of 1954-1955.








TABLE I


NUMBER OF DELINQUENT AND DEPENDENT
CHILDREN WHO HAD TO APPEAR BEFORE
THE DUVAL COUNTY JUVENILE COURT
FOR A HEARING, 1954-1955


Number of delinquent
and dependent children Number of boys who Number of girls who
who had to appear be- had to appear before had to appear before the
Year fore the Juvenile Court the Juvenile Court Juvenile Court
Delin- Depend- White Negro Total White Negro Total
quents ents Total boys boys boys Girls Girls Girls
1954 1,935 1,193 3,128 1,288 705 1,993 801 334 1,135
1955 1,480 1,453 2,933 1,059 614 1,673 920 340 1,260













Information presented in Table I shows that during

the year of 1954, 1,935 children had to appear before

the Duval County Juvenile Court for a hearing, as compared

with only 1,480 in 1955. This was a decrease of 455,

which was highly significant. During the same period,

the investigation showed that 1,193 dependent children

went before the same court for a hearing, in 1954, while

the figures increased in 1955 to 1,453, showing an increase

of 740.

In 1954, 1,288 White boys appeared before the

Juvenile Court as compared with only 705 Negro boys. 'The

difference between the two races was 583, while in 1955

there was a reduction in the number of White and Negro

boys who appeared before the Juvenile Court. However,

the difference between the White and Negro boys is still

significant as the figures will show. One thousand

fifty-nine White boys as compared with only 614 Negro

boys appeared before the Juvenile Court during the same

period, 1955.

The total number of girls who appeared before the

Juvenile Court during the two years was somewhat similar












to that for the boys. In 1954, 801 White girls appeared

before the Juvenile Court, and just one year later the

total number increased to 920, which was an increase of

119 girls over a short span of 12 months. During the

corresponding year only 334 Negro girls appeared beforethe

same court, which shows that the number only increased to

340 during the following 12 months.

The Juvenile Court interview was very informative.

Several reasons were given regarding why the children had

to appear before the Juvenile Court for a hearing, such

as:


(Boys) (Girls)

1. Larceny 1. Truancy

2. Runaways 2. Runaways

3. Truancy 3. Dependency

4. Dependency 4. Sex

5. Sex


Girls were brought into Juvenile Court more

frequently for sex offenses that were boys, in this matter

no explanation was given.









The Duval County Juvenile Court has a special way

of distinguishing between the term "delinquent," and the

term "dependent*, such ast

Delinquent child: (1) is incorrigible; (2) is a

persistent truant from school; (3) is beyond control of

parent or other legal guardian; (4) associates with crimi-

nals, reputed criminals, or vicious criminals, or immoral

persons; (5) is growing up in idleness and crime.

Dependent child: (1) is destitute, homeless, depend-

ent upon the public for support, or has not the proper

parental support, maintenance, care or guardianship; (2)
who is neglected as to proper or necessary support or edu-
cation as required by law, or as to medical, psychiatric,

psychological or other care necessary for the well-being

of the child; (3) who is abandoned by the child's parent or

other custodian; (4) whose condition or environment are of

such as to injure or endanger the welfare of the child or

the welfare of others; (5) whose home, by reason of neglect,

cruelty or depravity, or other adverse conditions, on the

part of the parents, legal custodians, guardian or other

persons, in whose care the child may be, is an unfit place

for the child to live.

The Duval County Juvenile Court has clearly shown

that the "delinquent' has violated some phase of the "law",

while the dependent child, is one who has been neglected







29

or abused in some way by the person, or persons responsible

for his welfare and security.

Information presented in Table II show the number

of White boys and Negro boys, White girls and Negro girls

who were sent to the Florida Industrial Schools, located

in Jackson County, and Marion County, by the Duval County

Juvenile Court during the period of 1954-1955.


TABLE II

NUMBER OF WHITE BOYS, NEGRO BOYS
WHITE GIRLS, AND NEGRO GIRLS SENT TO THE
FLORIDA INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS BY THE
DUVAL COUNTY JUVENILE COURT,
1954-1955


No. of boys sent to Florida No. of girls sent to
Industrial Schools by Duval Florida Industrial
Year Count Juvenile Court School by Duval County
White Negro Total White Negro Total
boys boys Boys Girls Girls Girls
1954 50 55 105 12 18 30
1955 52 62 114 14 15 29

The data presented in Table II shows that a total

of 105 boys were sent to the Florida Industrial School,

Marianna, Florida, by the Duval County Juvenile Court in

1954 as compared with a total of 114 boys sent by the

Juvenile Court to the same school in 1955. The data

showed with regard to the two races that 50 of the 105 boys

sent to the Florida Industrial Schools were White

boys and 55 were Negro boys for











the year 1954, while during the following year, 52

of the 114 boys sent to the Industrial School at

Marianna, Florida were White boys and 62 were Negro

boys. This shows that there were 5 more Negro boys

sent to the Industrial School, in 1954, than White.

The information further shows that during the

year of 1954, a total of 30 girls were sent to the

Florida Industrial School in Marion County. Twelve

girls were White and 18 were Negroes. This, in

comparison with the next year, showed that only 14

White girls were sent to the Industrial School, and

15 Negro girls in 1955. This was a total of 29

girls sent to the schools.









The information presented in Table III shows the

number of white boys sent to the Parental Home for Negro

Boys, by the Duval County Juvenile Court, for the period

of 1954-1955. The data will further show the number of

White girls sent to the Parental Home for White Girls,

and the number of Negro Boys sent to the Parental Home

for Negro Boys, by the Duval County Juvenile Court for

the same period,


TABLE III

NUMBER OF ''!HITE BOYS, NEGRO BOYS
WHITE GIRLS, AND NEGRO GIRLS
SENT BY THE DUVAL COUNTY JUVENILE
COURT TO PARENTAL HOMES IN
DUVAL COUNTY, 1954-1955


Number of boys sent to
the Boys' Home Associ-
ation, and Negro Boys' Number of girls sent
Year Parental Home to the Parental Home
White Negro Total White Negro Total
Boys Boys Boys Girls Girls Girls
1954 19 65 84 32 21 53
1955 5 79 84 30 15 45

The data presented in Table III revealed that there

was a total of 84 boys sent by the Duval County Juvenile

Court to the Boys' Home Association, Incorporated, and

the Parental Home for Negro Boys in Duval County for the

year of 1954. These data are for both Negro and White

Boys. It is important to mention that a total of 84 boys











were sent to the Boys' Home for both 1954 and 1955.

However, there was a difference in the number of boys

sent to each of the homes during the period of 1954

and 1955. Another pertinent fact is that although some

of the boys who are served through the Boys' Home

Association are "early stage delinquentsu, a number of

the boys are dependents, and are placed in foster

homes as well as boarding homes. The Boys' Home

Association gives special supervision and guidance to

Duval County white boys returning from the Florida

Industrial School, who have released, or paroled.

In 1954, the information shows that the Duval

County Juvenile Court sent 19 White boys to the Boys'

Home Association and 65 Negro boys to the Parental

Home for Negro Boys, which as previously stated was

a total of 84 boys in comparison with the same total

a year later in 1955; the only difference was that in

1955, only 5 White boys were sent to the Boys' Home

Association while 79 Negro boys were sent to the

Parental Home for Negro-boys.












It was stated on the questionnaire from the Parental

Home for Negro Boys that the boys who were in the

home during the period of 1954 and 1955, were there be-

cause of delinquent tendencies.

In 1954, the number of girls sent to the parental

homes in Duval County for White and Negro girls totaled

53. Out of the total, 32 were White girls and 21 were

Negro girls.

It would be significant to mention that the

White girls in the Parental Home for White Girls, during

the same period, were there because of dependency and

early stage delinquency, but more so for dependency.

The Negro girls were in the Parental Home for depend-

ency and delinquency, and no further comment was made.

Information presented in Table IV shows the

number of parents who were definitely charged with

contributing to the delinquency of minor children,

and the number of children receiving various dis-

positions by the Duval County Juvenile Court for the

period of 1954-1955.







TABLE IV


NUMBER OF PARENTS CHARGED WITH CONTRIBUTING TO
DELINQUENCY AND DEPENDENCY OF MINORS, AND
NUMBER OF COURT DISPOSITIONS OF CHILDREN,
DUVAL COUNTY 1954-1955


Number of Delinquents and Dependent
Children (Receiving various Dispositions
Year Number of Parents bythe Duval County Juvenile Court)
Bound over Placed in Returned to Put on
Definitely to Criminal Boarding parents or Dis- pro-
charged Court Jailed Homes relatives Warned missed nation
1954 161 78 235 99 846 33 130 530
1955 415 149 580 100 635 87 73 325
| iL








Children need guidance, and when parents are found
guilty of neglecting their duties to the extent of actually

contributing to the dependency of their own children, the

situation is pathetic.

The data revealed in Table IV shows that in the year
of 1954, 161 parents were definitely charged with contribu-
ting to the delinquency and dependency of minor children in

comparison with 415 in 1955. A year later, 254 more parents

were charged than in 1954. In the year of 1954, there were

78 parents bound over to the Criminal Court in comparison

with 149 during the following year. This was an increase of

71 more parents who were turned over to the Criminal Court

than the previous year. A number of parents had to be jailed

for contributing to the delinquency and dependency of minor

children. Corporal punishment of some minors by their parents

or guardians, was sometimes extremely Oevere. Table IV
shows that in the year of 1954, 235 parents were jailed for

their offenses to minors, as compared with 580 over another

12 months' span. This showed an increase of 345 more parents

jailed than in 1954.

Some children who come back from parental homes have
returned to their own homes determined to conduct themselves

better than they did prior to entering an institution of

correction. But when they arrived home, they found themselves

confronted with many old problems and sometimes immoral











situations were still found in the child's home. A

child can so easily go astray when his parents will

not encourage him, guide him properly, and make him

feel secure.

The information showed various dispositions

by the Duval Juvenile Court, of children who had to

appear before the court for a hearing. In 1954, 99

children were placed in boarding homes in comparison

with 100 in 1955. In 1954, 846 children were returned

to parents or relatives, and 635 in 1955. This was

a decrease of 211 children. Thirty-three children were

warned about their delinquent tendencies in 1954, in

comparison with 87 in 1955, this was an increase of

54 more children who were warned than in the year of

1954.

The information clearly showed that during the

year of 1954, 130 children were dismissed by the

Juvenile Court, while in 1955, 73 children were dis-

missed. The Juvenile Court has tried to help delin-

quent children through 'probation", and in some cases

children have obeyed probationary rules, and have been

benefited from this help. On the other hand, some

children have had to return to the Juvenile Court more

than once, because they continued to be delinquent.






37

It was further revealed that 530 children were put

on probation during the year of 1954, while a year later,

325 children were put on probation. This was actually a

decrease of 205 children during the year of 1955.
Information presented in Table V shows the number

of White boys in the Boys' Home Association, Incorporated,

the Number of Negro boys in the Parental Home, the number

of White girls in the Parental Home for White and the

number of Negro girls in the Parental Home for Negro girls,

for the period of 1954-1955. The parental Homes are located

in Duval County,







TABLE V

NUMBER OF WHITE AND NEGRO CHILDREN IN THE PARENTAL HOMES
OF DUVAL COUNTY, 1954-1955
(SHOWING CHRONOLOGICAL AGES)


Ages Number of Number of Negro Number of White Number of Negro
of White Boys in Boys in the Girls in the Girls in the
Boys the Boys' Home Parental Home Parental Home Parental Home
and Year Year Year Year
Girls 1954 1955 1954 1955 1954 1955 1954 1955

6 1 2 6 4

7 2 3 6 3 1 0

8 2 3 9 9 2 1

9 10 14 7 5 3 3
10 16 16 4 3 0 3

11 21 13 0 0 2 4

12 9 20 3 5 1 2
(over
12) 86 81 53 74 15 21 9 12
Totals 86 81 114 135 50 50 18 25







Data, as shown in Table V reveals that the Boys'
Home Association, Incorporated, deals specifically with

White boys between the ages of 6 through 16 years. The

total number of White boys in the home was not listed

according to chronological ages, and actually give the

number of white boys *in the Boys' Home", not in

*boarding homes". In 1954 there was a total of 86 white

boys in the Boys' Home as compared with only 81 during

1955.

The information presented in Table V further

revealed that in 1954, the total number of Negro boys in

the Parental Home for Negro boys was 114 as compared with

135 the next year.. The figures show the number of Negro
boys in the home for the two-year period according to

chronological ages.

In 1955, 21 more Negro boys were in the parental
home than during the previous year. The ages of the

boys ranged from 6 to 17 years old.

During the year of 1954, there was a total of 50
White girls in the Parental Home for White Girls, ranging

from the ages of 6 through 12, and from 12 through 16.

Twelve months later, the total number of White girls in

the home was the same as that of the previous year. The

number of girls in the home was shown according to

chronological ages.








The last column in Table V shows that in 1954

there were 18 girls in the Parental Home for Negroes

as compared with an addition of 7 more during the next

12 months. Ages of these girls ranged from 7 through

12 years for the period mentioned in this study.

Data presented in Table VI, which follows will

reveal certain data concerning the Boys' Home Association,

Incorporated, such as the number of White boys *served

by" and "in" that particular home.

First, a few synoptic statements will be given

in relation to the program of work at the home. The

Boys' Home Association is an agency of the Community

Chest, which carries on its work with the consent of the

Duval County Juvenile Court. The Juvenile Court gives

the Boys' Home all the necessary information regarding

the boy and his difficulties. The Boys' Home case

worker visits the boys at the Industrial School about

four times a year, get acquainted with them and pre-

pares them for the contact they will have with the

Boys' Home during the supervision period.

The Boys' Home Association is notified in advance

of the boy's return from the Industrial School, and the

boy and his parents will, within 24 hours of that boy's

return from the Industrial School see a representative

or case worker.








In most cases, the Boys' Home will have had additional

contact with the parents before the boy's return from

the Industrial School. The length of time a boy will be

kept under supervision depends upon the circumstances,

his school or work schedule, and, above all on his ad-

justment. The assistance given a boy by the Boys'
Home is an effort to prevent further delinquency on the

part of a boy or the group of boys supervised. The

services of the Boys' Home Association are limited to

Duval County. It is non-denominational. The infor-

mation used in relation to the program of work at the

Boys' Home Association was taken from the "Annual, 1954,

Report" of the Boys' Home Association.







TABLE VI


NUMBER OF BOYS SERVED BY THE BOYS' HOME ASSOCIATION, INCORPORATED, (FOR WHITE BOYS)
SHOWING THE PARENTAL STATUS, 1954-19551


Number of WhiteBoys (Served by the Number of Boys (Parental
s' Home AssociationStatus) In the Boys'Home Number of Boys:(dischargec
Boys* Home Association) #
"In" the Receiv- Whose Sent Who Exc
Boys' ing Guid- Parents back went ing
Home Placed ance & Receiv- were Di- Sent to to Boy
(Asso- in Placed Gener- ing With With vorced to Parents Mili- Fos,
citation, Board- in al Parole one both With or Juve- or tary Homt
Incorpo- ing Foster Supervi- Super- Parent Parents living sepa- nile Rela- Ser- Tot4
ear rated Homes Homes sion vision dead dead Parents rated Court tives vice Seri
954 86 5 3 265 72 23 1 14 48 2 30 3 42)
.955 81 10 190 141 22 3 9 47 1 31 1 42:


1Data for 1954-1955 taken from the 'Annual Report" of the Boys' Home Association, Incorporated.







43

The findings given in Table VI, show that during

the period of 1954, 86 White Boys were 'in* the Home,

while in 1955, only 81 boys were Ein' the Home. Five

boys were placed in boarding homes, through the services

of the Boys' Home Association in 1954, while in 1955, 10

boys were placed in boarding homes. There was data given

as to the number of boys placed in foster homes in 1955.

Two hundred sixty-five boys received guidance and

general supervision during the year of 1954, while in 1955,

190 boys received guidance and general supervision services.

The parental status of the boys in the home in 1954

was given, and shows that 23 boys had one parent dead, 1

boy had both parents dead, 14 boys who had living parents,

and 48 boys whose parents wereeither separated, or

divorced; while in 1955, there were 22 boys with one parent

dead, 3 boys with both parents dead, 9 boys who had living

parents, and 47 boys whose parents were separated or

divorced.

The number of boys discharged were given as follows:

In 1954, 2 boys were sent to the Juvenile Court of Duval

County, 30 boys were sent back to their parents or relatives,

and 3 boys went to military service. In 1955, 1 boy was

sent to the Duval County Juvenile Court, 31 boys were sent

back to parents or relatives, and 1 boy went to military

service. According to these data, there were 428 boys served











by the Boys' Home Association in 1954, excluding the

3 boys placed in foster homes; while in 1955, there

were 422 boys served by the Boys' Home Association.

The total number of boys served did not include boys

sent to foster homes.

The responses received from the investigation

on the number of delinquent boys and girls in the

Florida Industrial School in Marianna, and Ocala, Florida,

revealed pertinent information on this study. Data

presented in Table VII shows the number of White boys

and Negro boys, and the number of White girls and

Negro girls in the Florida Industrial Schools for the

years of 1954 and 1955, with ages ranging from 9 years

old to 12 years of age, and over 12.







TABLE VII


NUMBER OF WHITE BOYS AND GIRLS AND NEGRO BOYS AND GIRLS
IN THE STATE INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS LOCATED IN
JACKSON AND MARION COUNTIES, 1954-1955


Number of White Number of Negro Number of White Number of Negro "
Boys Boys Y Girls Girls
Year Yr Year Y ear Yae
Ages 1954 1955 1954 1955 1954 1955 1954 1955
9 1 1 3
10 7 1 2 1 1 2 4

11 6 7 12 11 2 4 4 5

12 12 10 14 13 4 6 5 8

(over
12) 628 676 656 569 94 99 89 93
Totals: 654 694 685 597 100 110 100 110








45A


Data presented in Table VII, shows that in the

year of 1954, 654 White boys were in the Florida

Industrial School in Marianna, Florida, which is

located in Jackson County. In 1955, there were 694

White boys in the Florida Industrial School. This was

an increase of 40 boys in comparison to the figures for

the previous year, 1954.

The number of Negro boys in the Florida Industrial

School for Boys was 685 during the year of 1954, but in

1955, there were only 597 Negro boys in the Industrial

School. This was a decrease of 88'Negro boys in com-

parison with the figures shown for the year of 1954.

The Florida Industrial School for Negro boys is located

in Marianna, Florida, Jackson County.










The Florida Industrial School for White Girls in

Ocala, Florida, Marion County, in response to the ques-

tionnaire stated that there was approximately 100 White

girls in the Florida Industrial School in 1954, and

"'approximately" 110 White girls in the Industrial School
in 1955, which showed that by 1955 the figures had in-

creased to 10 more White girls, in comparison with the

number of girls in the same school a year before.

In response to the questionnaire sent to the

Florida Industrial School for Negro Girls, it was stated

that "approximately" 100 Negro girls were in the Florida

Industrial School for Girls Forest-Hill, which is in

Marion County, during the year of 1954- and that there

were approximately 110 Negro girls in the same school
the following year, 1955. This, too, showed that the

figures increased to 10 more girls in 1955, in com-

parison with the number of Negro girls in the Indus-

trial School in 1954.

The following reasons were given for children

being in the Industrial School during the years given
below

(White Boys) (Negro Boys)
Years: 1954-1955 Yearss 1954-1955

a. injury of a person a. stealing









b. killing a person

c. breaking the Law
of Organized
Society, one or
more times

d. sex


b. breaking the
Law of Organized
Society one or
more times

c. sex

d. defiance of parents
or guardians


e. truancy e. truancy

f. defiance of parents f. killing or injury
or guardians of a person

g. stealing

(White Girls) (Negro Girls)

Years 1954-1955 Years: 1954-1955

a. truancy a. truancy

b. emotional condition b. stealing

c. breaking the Law of c. sex
Organized Society in
someway, one or more d. other delinquent
times tendencies

d. for other reasons, e. breaking the Law
which may have been of Organized
due to separation or Society in some
divorcement of way, one or more
parents times

e. other delinquent
tendencies

Responses from the questionnaires showed that

children were removed from the Florida Industrial Schools

on the following basis.

1. Mental unbalance

2. Completion of a certain number of points
(point system)










3. Not able to benefit further from the

Institution's program.

The Florida Industrial Schools have certain

measures of correction which are used in cases where

children are extremely incorrigible or ungovernable,

these are listed as follows:

1. counseling

2. retraction of privileges

3. increase length of child's stay in the school

4. corporal punishment (under extreme conditions)

Certain tests are administered children in the

Florida Industrial Schools. These tests aid in the

guidance of the children into interest areas of activi-

ties, and helps to measure them in their academic work.

The tests sometime given are as follows:

a. Classification Test

b. Aptitude Test

c. Mental Test

d. Personality Test

e. Achievement Test

The girls found in the Industrial Schools under

12 years of age are few. The schools usually admit girls

from 10 to 18 years of age. The youngest girls live in

separate quarters from the older girls, since they show










behavior patterns in most cases. Most of the girls ad-

just themselves well to large group living. There were

no comments given in regard to the boys in the Florida

Industrial Schools on the returned questionnaires.

The program of work at the Florida Industrial
School is wonderful. Industrial activities which may

develop into worthwhile financial hobbies or life time

occupations, are taught, along with academic work in

order to help the girls and boys find themselves, strive

to be good citizens, and live normal lives, freeing

themselves from delinquent tendencies and crime.

The Data in Table VIII will show the number of

White school children who were reported for *poor

attendance" to visiting teachers in Duval County for the

years of 1954-1955. The data will show the number of

services rendered the reported children by the visiting

teachers. The information in Table VIII will further

reveal the number of White school children who had to

appear before the Juvenile Court for a hearing.






TABLE VIII


NUMBER OF WHITE SCHOOL CHILDREN WHO WERE REPORTED FOR POOR ATTENDANCE TO VISITING
TEACHERS. NUMBER OF SERVICES RENDERED REPORTED CHILDREN BY THE VISITING
TEACHERS; AND NUMBER OF CHILDREN WHO HAD TO APPEAR BEFORE THE DUVAL
COUNTY JUVENILE COURT, DUVAL COUNTY, 1954-1955


Number of
Number of (Number of Services by Visiting Teachers) Children
Reported School who had to
inter Letters Health appear be-
Home views and and fore the
inter- with School phone wel- School Office Juvenile
Schools: Boys Girls Total views Child visits calls fare Service Conferences Court
Central
Grammar 75 49 124 152 63 48 93 18 6 17 8
East
Jacksonville 38 33 71 77 38 26 37 13 5 4 0
Annie Lytle 21 24 45 81 8 46 4 6 0 3 1
Mattie V.
Rutherford 24 24 48 44 7 16 20 8 0 2 3
South
Jacksonville 5 7 12 9 0 3 3 0 0 3 0
J. Allen
Axson 16 16 32 30 14 11 38 0 1 12 3
Fairfield 17 11 28 24 5 7 6 2 1 1 1
Lackawanna .25 21 46 62 8 46 0 8 3 0 3
Beulah Beal 24 19 43 47 22 33 19 4 3 2 1
West River-
side 1 4 5 7 0 1 1 0 0 0 0
Lola M.Culver 5 11 16 14 5 3 4 0 0 0 0
Grand Park 13 9 22 21 15 15 -6 1 0 0 0
Brentwood 32 36 68 83 28 45 45 8 11 11 3
Ortega 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Annie Beaman 18 1 19 14 25 14 4 2 0 3 0
Central River
side 12 10 22 28 1 1 0 4 0 3 1
Ruth Upson 1 0 1 1 1 1
Sub-Total 327 275 602 694 240 316 280 74 30 61 24












Data presented in Table VIII shows that during

the school term of 1954-1955, in the White schools

listed, that 327 boys and 275 girls were reported to

visiting teachers for poor attendance, or some reason.

The total number of children reported was.602.

The number of services rendered in various schools

by the visiting teachers, in regard to reported children,

included the following: 694 home interviews; 240 school

interviews with the child; 316 school visits; 280 letters

and phone calls combined; 74 health and welfare referrals;

30 school services; 61 office conferences; 24 juvenile

court hearings with school children.

The figures discussed were the sub-total in

Table VIII. All of the schools could not be listed in

one table.

Table IX will follow, and is a continuation of

Table VIII. In Table IX another list of White schools

will be given, with the number of boys and girls re-

ported for poor attendance or some reason, and the

number of services rendered these particular children

by the visiting teacher through her services. The

number of children who had to appear before the Juvenile

Court will be given.






TABLE IX

NUMBER OF WHITE SCHOOL CHILDREN WHO WERE REPORTED FOR POOR ATTENDANCE TO VISITING
TEACHERS: NUMBER OF SERVICES RENDERED REPORTED CHILDREN BY THE VISITING TEACHERS;
AND NUMBER OF CHILDREN WHO HAD TO APPEAR BEFORE THE DUVAL COUNTY JUVENILE COURT,
DUVAL COUNTY, 1954-1955


Number of
Number of Number of Services By Visiting Teachers Children
Reported who had to
School appear be-
inter- Letters Health fore the
Home views and and School Office Juvenile
inter- with School phone wel- ser- confer- Court
Schools Bovs Girls Total views Child visits calls fare vice ences

Fishweir 1 0 1 1 0 11
Annie R.
Morgan 7 3 10 13 0 17 0 0 0 1 0
John Gor-
rie 38 47 85 139 26 50 19 0 1 30 8
Norwood 9 5 14 15 1 3 5 0 0 0 0
Tenth &
Market
Sts. 17 7 24 27 1 8 18 12 0 1 3
Kirby-
Smith 99 108 207 229 146 42' 153 17 2 47 16
Loretto 4 3 7 15 3 7 2 0 0 0 0
Landon
Jr. 6 9 15 17 2 5 2 0 1 3 0
Ribault 0 0 0
Robert E.
Lee 13 7 20 13 0 1 8 0 0 10 0
Andrew
Jackson 18 17 35 20 2 3 37 3 0 9 0
River-
view 10 4 14 22 10 12 14 3 0 0 3
Bald-
win 13 6 19 4 6 6 18 1 0 0 0







TABLE IX (continued)


Number of Number of Services by Visiting Teachers Number of
Reported Scnool Children
_inter- Letters Health who had to
Home views and and School Office appear be-
inter- with School phone wel- ser- confer- fore the
Schools Boys Girls Total views Child visits calls fare vice ences Juvenile Court
Picketts 10 5 15 16 4 8 11 1 0 1 0
Dinsmore 17 26 43 28 33 27 33 1 0 8 9
Arlington 11 4 15 10 5 10 9 2 0 3 0
Thomas
Jefferson 42 29 71 56 31 25 21 1 0 3 2

Sub
Totals 315 280 595 625 270 235 350 41 4 116 41









Information presented in Table IX revealed

these data in regard to the White schools listed: 315 boys

were reported to visiting teachers; 280 girls were

reported; 595 children were reported including girls

and boys.

The services rendered these reported children are

listed below, according to the number of services rendered:

home interviews 625; 270 school interviews with the reported

children; 235 school visits; 350 letters and phone calls

combined; 41 health and welfare referrals were made by the

visiting teachers in regard to children needing such

services; 4 school services; 116 office conferences. There

were 41 children who had to appear before the Duval County

Juvenile Court for a hearing.

Table X which follows, isicontinuation of Tables

VIII and IX. This table, also, shows the number of

children who were reported in the various White schools

listed in that particular table, to the visiting teachers

for poor attendance, or some other reason, for the school

term of 1954-1955.







TABLE X


NUMBER OF WHITE SCHOOL CHILDREN WHO WERE REPORTED FOR POOR ATTENDANCE TO VISITING TEACHERS:
NUMBER OF SERVICES RENDERED REPORTED CHILDREN BY THE VISITING TEACHERS: AND NUMBER OF
CHILDREN WHO HAD TO APPEAR BEFORE THE DUVAL COUNTY JUVENILE COURT, DUVAL
COUNTY, 1954-1955


Number of (Number of Services by Visiting Teachers)
Reported Number of
School Children
inter- Letters Health who had to
Home views and & wel- appear be-
inter- with School phone fare (re- School Office fore the
Schools Boys Girls Total views Child visits calls ferrals Service conferences Juvenile Court
Jacksonville
Beach 4 4 8 5 0 5 5 0 0 0 0
Whitehouse 0 1 1 2 0 5 0 0 0 10 0
Maxville 2 1 3 1 0 5 3 1 0 2 0
Wesconnett 45 25 70 97 0 37 10 2 0 6 3
Garden City 13 6 19 9 5 19 9 3 3 4 1
Oceanway 57 50 107 64 113 37 75 5 2 17 5
Duncan U.
Fletcher 9 2 11 9 2 7 12 0 0 2 0
Hogan-Spring 8 5 13 11 7 10 2 1 0 1 0
Atlantic
Beach 5 2 7 5 3 4 0 0 0 0 0
Alfred I.
Dupont 22 20 42 28 11 18 25 1 1 33 5
Technical
High 1 0 1 0 0 2 27 0 0 1 0
Venetia 7 3 10 5 4 9 3 0 0 2 3
Lake Shore
Jr. High 41 28 69 55 26 33 21 0 0 30 3
North Shore 20 12 32 25 15 18 23 4 1 3 1
Hendricks
Avenue 1 1 2 1 0 4 0 0 0 1 0
Spring Park 4 7 11 11 0 2 4 0 0 3 0
John Love 10 5 15 14 0 2 4 1 0 1 1
Sub Total 249 172 421 342 186 217 223 18 7 116 22
... ... ___ ______,_____,__










The sub-totals show in Table X that 249 boys

were reported and 172 girls were reported to the visiting

teachers, which was a total of 421 children reported to

visiting teachers.

The visiting teachers rendered the following

number of services listed below: 342 home interviews;

186 school interviews with the children who were reported;

217 school visits; 223 letters and phone calls combined;

18 health and welfare referrals; 7 school services; 116

office conferences; 22 school children who had to appear

before the Duval County Juvenile Court, for poor attend-

ance or some other reason.

Children may stay out of school for various reasons

other than merely truancy. Such things as sickness and

health needs are just a couple of reasons why children

may have poor attendance at school. All of the schools

listed did not have children who had to appear before the

Juvenile Court. This was also true from data which was

presented in Tables VIII and IX.

Table XI will continue to reveal data related to

Tables VIII, IX, and X. Table XI shows a list of White

schools, with the number of girls and boys reported to

the visiting teachers of these schools for poor attendance

or other reasons. The number of services rendered by the

visiting teachers were given, and also, the number of

children who appeared before the Juvenile Court for a Hearing.










TABLE XI


NUMBER OF WHITE SCHOOL CHILDREN WHO WERE REPORTED FOR POOR ATTENDANCE TO VISITING
TEACHERS: NUMBER OF SERVICES RENDERED REPORTED CHILDREN BY VISITING TEACHERS:
AND NUMBER OF CHILDREN WHO HAD TO APPEAR BEFORE THE DUVAL COUNTY
JUVENILE COURT, DUVAL COUNTY, 1954-1955
4


Number of (Number of Services by Visiting Teachers) Number of
Reported: Children
School who had to
inter- Letters Health appear be-
Home views and and Office fore
inter- with School phone wel- School confer- the
Schools Boys Girls Total views Child visits calls fare service ences Juvenile Court

Lake Forest 2 4 6 10 0 2 5 0 0 0 0
Paxson Jr.-
Sr. High 26 34 60 53 6 44 25 0 0 13 0
Southside
Estates 1 0 1 0 0 1 11 0 0
Hyde Park 6 8 14 20 0 20 0 0 0 1 1
Biltmore 2 2 4 3 0 19 1 0 0 0 0
Ramona 10 8 18 23 0 29 6 0 0 2 0
San Pablo 2 1 3 2 1 4 0 0 0 1 0
Love Grove
Road 16 6 22 22 2 13 8 0 0 0 1
San Jose 8 7 15 15 1 10 4 0 0 2 5
Bay view 2 2 4 2 1 5 11 0 0 0 0
60 36 96 40 0 0 100 3 1 5 1

Sub










Table XI revealed these findings in regard to the

number of White children reported in various schools to

the visiting teachers for poor attendance or other reasons,

during the 1954-1955 school term:

135 Boys were reported

108 Girls were reported

243 Children were reported

The services rendered these children by visiting

teachers numbered as follows: 190 home interviews; 11

school interviews; 147 school visits with reported

children; 171 letters and phone calls combined; 3 health

and welfare referrals; 1 school service; 24 office con-

ferences; 8 Juvenile Court cases with school children

from some of the listed schools.

Table XII will show the "grand totals"' for all of

the "sub-totals" shown in Tables VIII, IX, X, and XI.

The table gives the grand total on the number of White

school children reported to visiting teachers and the

number of children who went before the Duval County

Juvenile Court, from the various schools, for the school

year of 1954-1955.










TABLE XII


NUMBER OF WHITE SCHOOL CHILDREN WHO WERE REPORTED FOR POOR ATTENDANCE TO VISITING
TEACHERS; NUMBER OF SERVICES RENDERED REPORTED CHILDREN BY THE VISITING
TEACHERS; AND NUMBER OF CHILDREN WHO HAD TO APPEAR BEFORE THE DUVAL
COUNTY JUVENILE COURT, DUVAL COUNTY, 1954-1955


I Number of White school
Children reported: I


Grand
Rnvs Girl -e +n+a1


(Grand total) of the number of services
rendered Reported Children by the
Ivisitina teachers


I ----. --- 4I


Home
inter-
vi owc


School
inter-
views
with
Mh 41 r


School
vLi i+e


Letters
and
Phone
ra1ls


Health
& wel-
fare re-
Fe-rals


School
arwices


)f-
ice
;onfer-
enCes


Number
of Chil-
dren who
had to
appear in
Court


School
Year


1954-
1955 1,026 835 1,861 1,851 707 915 1,024 136 42 317 95


--











The findings as revealed in Table XII, numerically

show that the number of White children reported to

visiting teachers of the White schools listed in Tables

VIII, IX, X, and XI, along with the sub totals, totaled

1,861. One thousand twenty-six of these children were

boys and 835 were girls.

Visiting teachers worked well in the interest of

these reported children on poor attendance cases, which

may have been due to any number of reasons. The

visiting teachers rendered the following services in the

interest of reported children: 1,851 home interviews;

707 school interviews with reported children; 915 school

visits; 1,024 letters and phone calls combined; 136 health

and welfare referrals; 42 school services; 317 office ton-

ferences; 95 school children who had to appear before the

Duval County Juvenile Court for a hearing.

The writer did not give any detailed explanation

in relation to the attendance information regarding the

White children, because only the statistical portion of

the attendance report was available.

Table XIII, which follows, shows the number and

sub-totals regarding the number of Negro children in

various Negro schools who were reported for poor attend-

ance, truancy and other reasons which mented Juvenile

Court hearings. The number of services rendered by







TABLE XIII


NUMBER OF NEGRO SCHOOL CHILDREN WHO WERE REPORTED FOR POOR ATTENDANCE TO VISITING
TEACHERS: NUMBER OF SERVICES RENDERED REPORTED CHILDREN BY VISITING
TEACHERS: AND NUMBER OF CHILDREN WHO HAD TO APPEAR BEFORE
DUVAL COUNTY JUVENILE COURT, DUVAL COUNTY, 1954-1955


Number of
Reported (Number of Services by Visiting Teachers) Number of
Children
School who had tc
inter- Letters Health appear be-
Home views and wel- Office fore the
inter- with School phone fare(re- School confer- Juvenile
Schools: Boys Girls Total views Child visits calls ferrals) Service ences Court
Oakland 30 15 45 22 17 32 8 0 1 0 4
Forest Park 65 51 116 32 38 41 19 3 7 49 5
A.L.Lewis 79 47 126 179 58 28 23 9 3 4 19
Longbranch 17 11 28 19 23 29 5 1 1 0 2
Douglas-
Anderson 41 36 77 28 63 17 37 0 0 11 11
College
Park 10 2 12 18 4 10 5 0 0 0 1
Baldwin 10 3 13 20 13 6 3 6 0 2 1
Wesconnett 0 3 3 8 3 9 2 0 0 1 0
Moncrief 38 27 65 76 36 42 23 27 2 2 23
Arlington 2 10 12 0 2 5 0 0 0 0 0
Susie E.
Tolbert 39 43 82 138 34 44 18 6 1 3 16
Pickett 30 12 42 17 22 30 8 1 1 2 1
Sub- -.
Total 361 260 621. 557 313 293 151 53 16 83
2 9 i ii 5







62
these visiting teachers. These services rendered, according

to the table "headings! have already been explained in

Table VIII, which was in connection with White school

children. The number of children, who had to appear

before the Duval County Juvenile Court will, also, be

shown.

Teachers in the Duval County Public School System

are asked to fill out attendance referral cards in regard to

children who attend school irregularly. The teacher should

do some first hand investigation in order to be able to

learn about certain situations which may give an answer to

the irregualr attendance of a child. The teacher has to

fill in information as to what she has done about the

situation, or the situation as she sees it. This cannot

be done unless there is some investigation on the teacher's

part.

Many children have problems which cause many hinder-

ances that may under some circumstances conflict with their

regular school attendance. But the visiting teacher is

ready to help the principal and teachers with many of the

problems of the reported children even if problems should

warrant health and welfare referrals.

Table XIII shows that, according to the Negro schools

listed, 361 boys were reported to the visiting teachers,









and 260 girls, for poor attendance, truancy or other

reasons. This was a total of 621 Negro school children

reported to the Visiting teachers.

The services rendered these children by the

visiting teachers, with the sub-totals of the number

of such services were shown on the Tables as: 557

home interviews; 313 school interviews with the child;

293 school visits. Letter and phone calls combined

totaled 151. Health and welfare referrals for children

in the schools listed on Table XIII, showed that visit-

ing teachers made 53 referrals concerning children who

seemed to need such services, after the children's

cases had been studied. Seventy-four office conferences

were held with reported children by the visiting

teachers.

The number of children who had to appear before

the Juvenile Court for a hearing was 83 in the schools

listed on Table XIII.

The visiting teachers were assigned to a certain

number of schools. The schools were not assigned ac-

cording to districts set up from a geographical view-

point or according to a particular portion of town.

But, however, the visiting teachers carried on efficient-

ly, according to the schools wherein they were assigned

to work.







64

Table XIV will follow, and is a continuation of

Table XIII, showing the sub-totals as to the number of

Negro school children reported to the visiting teachers

of the various Negro schools for poor attendance,

truancy, or other reasons, for the school year of 1954-

1955. The number of services rendered by the two visit-

ing teachers of the Negro schools are also given in

Table XIV.






TABLE XIV


NUMBER OF NEGRO SCHOOL CHILDREN REPORTED TO THE VISITING TEACHERS FOR POOR ATTENDANCE
NUMBER OF SERVICES RENDERED REPORTED CHILDREN BY THE VISITING TEACHERS: AND
NUMBER OF CHILDREN WHO HAD TO APPEAR BEFORE THE DUVAL COUNTY JUVENILE COURT,
DUVAL COUNTY, 1954-1955



Number of (NMmber of Services by Visiting Teachers) Number of
Reported Children
School Health Who had to
inter- Letters and appear be-
Home views and wel- Office fore
inter- with School phone fare School confer- the
Schools BOys Girls Total views Child Visits Calls ferrals service ences Tuvenile Court
Isaiah
Blocker 112 72 184 193 115 45 96 10 3 14 32
West
Jacksonville 7 5 12 5 3 12 2 1 0 0 0
Darnell-
Cookman 36 13 49 69 26 44 30 9 7 5 12
Jacks6nville
Beach 4 8 12 5 36 8 3 0 0 0 2
Matthew W.
Gilbert 82 157 239 68 92 72 29 0 1 18 5
Richard L.
Brown 68 23 91 18 17 22 3 0 0 3 4
Smart Pope
Livingston 27 31 58 94 19 29 25 6 0 0 8
James W.
Johnson 88 53 141 97 103 108 83 0 3 18 9
New Stanton
High 137 81 218 178 69 52 103 8 3 15 3
John E.Ford $. 15 48 79 21 38 35 10 4 3 9

toal -594 458 1,052 806 501 430 409 44 21 76 84
w i- -i ______________________










Table XIV showed that the schools listed in the

table, according to the sub-totals, reported 594 boys to

the visiting teacher because of poor attendance, truancy,

or other reasons. Four hundred fifty-eight girls were

reported, which shows that there were 1,052 children

reported in the Negro schools of Duval County to the

visiting teachers.

The total number of services renderedby these

visiting teachers was shown as follows: 806 home inter-

views; 501 school interviews with reported children; 430

school visits; letters and phone calls combined totaled

409; 44 health and welfarereferrals; 21 school services;

76 office conferences; 84 children who had to appear

before the Duval County Juvenile Court. During the

interview with the visiting teachers, several reasons

were given for school services such as, defiance of princi-

pal and teachers, destroying or stealing school property

occasionally and truancy. "Truancy" is a form of delin-

quency, especially when it becomes "habitual truancy."

Table XV will follow. Table XV gives the grand

totals for the sub-totals as to the number of Negro school

children reported in various Negro schools, to the visit-

ing teachers for poor attendance, truancy, or other

reasons. The number of Negro children who had to appear








67

before the Juvenile Court is given in Table XV with the

grand total figures.







TABLE XV


NUMBER OF NEGRO SCHOOL CHILDREN WHO WERE REPORTED FOR POOR ATTENDANCE TO VISITING TEACHERS;
NUMBER OF SERVICES RENDERED REPORTED CHILDREN BY THE VISITING TEACHERS;
AND NUMBER OF CHILDREN WHO HAD TO APPEAR BEFORE THE DUVAL COUNTY JUVE*
NILE COURT, DUVAL COUNTY, 1954-1955



Number of Negro School (Grand total) of number of services rendered
Children reported: children by visiting teachers: ___ _____ .
Number of
Children
School School Childrn
who had to
term inter- Letters Health Of- ea
Home views and and School fice appear be
Grand inter- with School Phone wel- ser- confer- Juvenile
Boys Girls Total views Child visits calls fare vices ences Court
1954- 1 1
1955 955 W7s 1,673 .136. 814 723 560 97 37 150 167








Table XV showed the grand total figures for all

sub-totals in Tables XIII and XIV. The grand total

figures show that 1,673 Negro children were reported to

the Visiting teachers for poor attendance, truancy or

some reason. Seven hundred eighteen of these children

were girls and, 955 were boys, during the school term of

1954-1955.

The following services were rendered these re-

ported children by the visiting teachers: 1,356 home

interviews; 814 school interviews with the child; 723

school visits; 560 letters and phone calls combined; 97

health and welfare referrals; 37 school services; 150

office conferences; 167 children who had to appear

before the Duval County Juvenile Court for a hearing.

The visiting teacher is actually doing school

social work. (1) helps to get that information which

the teachers and principal need in the further study of

children who attend school poorly; (2) study children

who are truant; and (3) investigation of children who

need special health service, or welfare assistance.

She or he as a Visiting Teacher may sometime be able

to get information that even the teacher or principal

cannot get about a child, his homelife, and his eco-

nomical status. She works, or he works to find out the









underlying causes of children's delinquent tendencies

which may affect their going to school regularly.

The *Broken Home" was checked on most of the

returned questionnaires of this study as a cause for

dependency or delinquency. But, "broken homes" cannot

be called a basic reason for delinquency, in that,

many children who come from broken homes caused by death,

separation, or divorcement of parents, have never been

found guilty of delinquency to the extent of having to

go before the Juvenile Court, or even go to an institution

of correction.

Some of the basic reasons for conferences with

Negro school children with the Visiting Teachers were:

(1) defiance of principals or teachers; (2) stealing or

destroying school property, truancy, poor attendance;

(3) lack of proper clothing to attend school; (4) poor

health, which prevented regular school attendance. The

visiting teacher does not simply concern himself, or

herself with finding the troubles, but tries to find a

remedial source or remedial service which will help the

child to fill his place with, and in, the school, of

which he is a member.

Chapter IV will give the summary, conclusions

and recommendations in the light of this particular

study.









SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS


Summary. The writer believes, and it is admitted
by some writers that Juvenile Delinquency is widely

assumed to be a product of leisure time. The child who

is in the process of growing up and learning to adjust

himself to the adult world finds that he is constantly

being frustrated. During this period of frustration, in

the younger years, or in the adolescence, games and

recreations, serve an important compensatory function for

some of these thwarted motives of children. Children

have been made to feel as powerful as adults, through

play. Tensions can be released. But "play" which

serves as a substitute for lack of real adventure, may

shade into delinquency. Sometimes what the delinquent

child considers as play frequently involve activities

that are in violations of the "law". Therefore, a great-

er need for more recreational centers and guidance in

recreational activities are needed in our communities

where we have the most delinquency problems.

Conclusions. The writer has reached these con-

clusions in this light of this study: (1) that al-

though "broken homes" caused by conflicts such as

divorces, and separation of parents, other than by

death of the parents, in most cases contribute to










certain problems, which in turn may cause delinquent

tendencies on the part of the child who comes from the

broken home; (2) that broken homes can not be pointed

out as a sure cause of child delinquency, because too

many children from broken homes have been able to ad-

just themselves to their surroundings and conditions

to the extent of being able to live in a society which

is set up with certain moral standards and laws; and

(3) that it is the responsibility of the family, church,

school, and community to work as far as the "law* will

allow them, in the interest of combatting Juvenile

Delinquency, and (4) that if more restrictions are

placed on "delinquent parents," these children who are

between the early ages of 6 and 12 may become better

adjusted at home, and finally become adjusted in school,

and in many situations, and there is a possibility that

such children may not become delinquent,








RECOMMENDATIONS


The writer has listed a number of suggestions in

regard to Remedial Services for the purpose of further

combatting delinquency. These are merely suggestions,

and by no means stamped as 'real preventive measures'.

The writer makes such recommendations with the hope that

in the course of time, one or more of these, should prove

helpful along the lines of saving a child from further

delinquency, or preventing as much delinquency as possi-

ble; with this understanding, the writer makes the

following recommendations only as suggested remedial

services in the combatting of delinquency:

1. Development of leisure-time Hobby Centers
for children between the ages of 6 through
18, for the purposes of giving the child
who has no guidance at home during parents
working hours something to do. These
centers should also have various equipment
for play suitable to the age levels of
boys and girls. It would be highly de-
sirable if the girls' center area were a
separate unit from the boys. The age
levels should be considered in all aspects
of this "project'. Parents, retired
teachers, ministers and persons appointed
'by the Child Guidance Clinic should be
asked to serve, if they are willing, during
various hours. Some of the helpers may
even volunteer, simply because they may
like children, as well as give themselves
a little diversion from their own regular
routine of daily home activities.










2. The writer also, recommends that the
school begin to set up objectives in
terms of preventing delinquent tenden-
cies as well as set up academic object-
ives. The measuring instruments used
to evaluate such objectives would be
based on observations of the children
in and out of school as much as pos-
sible, and at the same time, avoiding
the name of a "snooper," or busy body
in the community. Observations can
not be a reliable instrument, due to
the fact that if the observer is seen
"first" in the community, there will
be the possibility of children under
observation, to falsify their actions.

3. It is further recommended that parents
whose children do not respect the
"curfew law" be notified once, with the
understanding that if their child is
found guilty of breaking the curfew
law again, that the parent will have to
meet court, be fined, and possibly
jailed for a few days, and that the
child, too, will have to spend some time,
if only a week or two, under strict pro-
bation in an Institution of Correction.

The more restrictions set up for children, the

more restrictions should be placed upon the parents, or

guardians who actually neglect their responsibility to

their children wilfully.

Parents should be forced to attend a Parents'

Guidance Clinics for at least a month if they continue,

after being jailed,.to contribute to the delinquency and

dependency of their minor children. Special films and

lectures should be given at the Guidance Clinic, along,







75

with citing various cases of delinquent children, of course

without reference of names of children involved in such

cases. Perhaps, if the parents have any inward feeling

about their duty to their child, they may possibly try

to do better in regard to the child's welfare.

Many more recommendations should be made, but how

effective can any one of them be, unless the attempt is

made to try out a few? We can not play with the lives

of children or human beings, we can not experiment with

human resources too far, but we can do everything possi-

ble to prevent delinquency before it starts. Waiting

until the child has become delinquent is like growing

a third set of teeth in many cases.










BIBLIOGRAPHY

A. BOOKS

Baney, Ralph S., Youth in Conflict.New York:
Coward-McCann, Inc., 1948.
Barron, Milton L., The Juvenile in Delinquent
Society New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1954.
Brown, Francis J., Educational Sociology, New York:
Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1947.
Gesell, and Others, The First Five Years of Life.
New York: Harper and Brothers, 1940
Glueck, Eleanor and Sheldon, Unraveling Juvenile
Delinquency. New Yorks Harvard University Press,
1950.

Good, Carter V., Dictionary of Education. New York:
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1945.
Kvaraceus, Williams C., Juvenile Delinquency and
The School. New York: World Book Company, 1945,
Jones, Arthur J., Principles of Guidance. New York:
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1951.
Landis, Paul H., Adolescent and Youth .New Yorks
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1945.
Mannheim, Karl, Juvenile Delinquency in an English
Middletown. London: Broadway House, 1948
B. PERIODICAL ARTICLES
Reiss, Albert J.,"Social Correlates of Psychological
Types of Delinquency,* American Journal of
Sociology, XVII, June, 1952.

C. NEWSPAPERS
Jacksonville Journal, January 15, 1955, p. 10.

The Florida Times Union, August 1, 1955, p. 10.






























APPENDIX










311 Claude Street
Jacksonville, Florida

September, 1955









Dear _

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for
the Master of Science Degree at the Florida Agricultural
and Mechanical University I am making a study of de-
linquent and dependent children, ages six to eighteen,
for the years of 1954-1955, which caused their being
sent to the Parental or Industrial Institutions. Please
send me the information needed on the enclosed question-
naire. Enclosed is a self-addressed envelop. Would
you please fill the questionnaire immediately?

Thank you very much for your cooperation,

Respectfully yours,


Thelma L. Barnwell









QUESTIONNAIRE

FOR THE DUVAL COUNTY

JUVENILE COURT INTERVIEW

Years studies: 1954-1955

I. Please check Yes or No:

(a) Are all children who must appear before the
Duval County Juvenile Court for a hearing

given the Title of "Delinquents"?

Yes No

(b) Does the Court have information on the number

of delinquent and dependent children who

had to appear before the Juvenile Court,

according to chronological ages?

Yes No

II. Please give the number of delinquent and dependent

children who had to appear before the Juvenile Court

in 1954 and 1955: Year Year
1954 1955
(a) Number of dependents 1954 195

(b) Number of delinquents

III. Please give the number of white children, and Negro

children who had to appear before the Juvenile

Court in 1954 and 1955:









Year Year
1954 1955
(Number) (Number)
(a) Number of White boys
(b) Number of Negro boys
(c) Number of White girls
(d) Number of Negro girls
IV. Please give the number of children sent by the
Juvenile Court to the Florida Industrial Schools,
and to the following Parental Homes, for the Years
of 1954 and 1955:

Year of Year of
1954 1955
(Number) (Number)
(a) Number of White boys
sent to the Florida
Industrial School
(b) Number of Negro boys
sent to the Florida
Industrial School
(c) Number of White girls
sent to the Florida
Industrial School:

(d) Number of Negro girls
sent to the Florida
Industrial School:










Year of Year of
1954 1955
(Number) (Number)
(e) Number of White boys
sent to the Boys'

Home Association,

Incorporated, Duval
County:

(f) Number of Negro boys

sent to the Parental

Home for Negro Boys

(Duval County):

(g) Number of Negro girls
sent to the Parental

Home for Negro Girls

(Duval County):

(h) Number of White girls

sent to the Parental
Home for White Girls

(Duval County):
V. Please check Yes or No:

Were there parents who were charged with contributing

to the delinquency and dependency of minor children

in Duval County in the years of 1954 and 1955?

Yes No










VI. If there were parents charged with these

offenses, give the number of parents charged,

jailed, and bound over to the Criminal Court
in the years of 1954 and 1955:
Year of Year of
1954 1955
(Number) (Number)


(a) Number of parents
charged with con-

tributing to the

delinquency and

dependency of

minor children:

(b) Number of parents

jailed for contri-

buting to the

delinquency and

dependency of

minor children:

(c) Number of parents

bound over to
C
Criminal Court for

contributing to

the delinquency and

dependency of minor

children:









VII. Delinquency of all boys and girls who ap-

peared before the Duval County Juvenile

Court in the years of 1954 and 1955 were

due to: (Please write causesm on the

lines below, according to the sex given)*

Boys Girls

1. 1.

2. 2.



4 0 4
3. ____________ 3. ______

4. _____________ 4. ____

5. 5.

VIII. Please give any additional information that you

can, in regard to delinquency or dependency

of children between the ages of 6 and 18 years

of age. Please write on the lines below:










QUESTIONNAIRE

(Industrial Schools and Parental Homes)

All information for this questionnaire must be
for the year of January 1, 1954 to December 31, 1954,
and for the year of January 1, 1955 to September 30,
1955. The information is based on "delinquents" and
dependent children, between the ages of 6 through 12
and over 12.

I, Please write the answer on the lines
provided:

(1) The total number of children in
this institution of the year
1954 (all ages)

(2) The total number of children in
this institution for the year
of 1955, beginning with January
1, 1955 to September 30, 1955
(all ages)

II. Please check one:

(1) This institution is restricted
to boys only

(2) This institution is restricted
to girls only

III. Please give the number of problem children
in this institution, for the ages of 6
through 12, and over 12 for the period
designated. Write the number on the lines
provided.


Number of children
Number of children for from January l,71955
Ages the year of 1954 to September 30.1955

7 i
8
9 "
10
11
12
(over 12)









IV. Please check one or more or all the reasons
below that tell why "these children" are in
this institution. (ages 6-12).


a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
1.
m.

n.
0.
p.


no parents or guardina
truancy
defiance of parents or guardian
stealing
separation or divorcement of
parents
parents or guardians deceased
fighting or bullying
Poverty
habitual lying
cruelty to other children
temper tantrums
sex offense
breaking the law of organized
society one or more times
accidental killing of a person
injury to a person
other


list any other reason on the above line

V. Please check one or more if the information is
available:

(1) Most of the children come from communities
or homes considered 'unfavorable'.
(give the number if available)

(2) Most of the children come from communities
or homes that are considered favorable
(Please give the number if possible)

VI. If children were given various kinds of tests in
1954, what types of tests were given? (Example:
Mental Maturity, etc.)


name test here


name test here


name test here











If testswere given from January 1, 1955 yo September
30, 1955, what types of tests were given?

1.
Name test here

2.
Name test here

3.
Name test here

VII. Do you have certain "Measures of Correction' for
children who are very disobedient while in the
Institution? (Please check Yes or No)

VIII. If there are certain "Measures of Correction' as
stated in question VII, please list such below:

1.

2.

3.











QUESTIONNAIRE (VISITING TEACHER)

Information for this Questionnaire must be perti-
nent to the school year of 1954-1955 (September through
June) and is concerned with school children between
the ages of 6 through 18 years of age.

I. Please check Yes or No:

1. Do you have an annual summarized report
on "poor attendance of school children
for the school year of 1954-1955?

Yes No

2. Does your report include school children
between the ages of 6 through 16 years?

Yes No

3. Were all children reported, termed
"delinquents'? Yes No

4. Were all reported children subject to
behavior at school?

Yes No

5. Do you think that some of these children
were maladjusted because of the fact
that they had problems? Yes
No

II. Does your report also include information
concerning White children?

Yes No

III. If the information for White girls and boys is
included in your report, please answer the
following:
Boys Girls
Ages Number Reported Number Reported

6
7







88
Boys Girls
Ages Number Reported Number Reported
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

IV. Please give the following information for Negro children:

Boys Girls
Ages Number Reported Number Reported
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

V. Please check the reason or reasons why children were
reported:

a. Habitual truancy
b. -defiance of teachers
c. defiance of principal
d. child staying out of school
because of insufficient clothing
e. destroying school property
f. _stealing school materials or
equipment
g. _marital frictions basis of child's
staying out of school (separation
or divorcement of parents
h. _deceased parent or parents, no one
to send child to school properly










i. other reasons, not listed above, please
list on the lines below:


VI. Please list some of the ways in which many of
these reported children with problems were
helped:


3.


VII. What are some further suggestions (if you have any)
for helping school children who have problems?
(please answer on the lines below):


II I [







IN THE JUVENILE COURT
IN AND FOR DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA

CASE NO.

IN THE INTEREST OF



-.-----.------- ORDER

--...--.-.......... -- --....--.- CHILD .... --..-



This cause came to be heard before me upon the sworn Petition filed in the above entitled

cause on the-..--.........--...day of...-----------............ A. D. 19--...... the above named child..----.... being

before the Court, all persons entitled to notice hereof having been duly notified, and the parents

and legal custodians of said child .---...... being personally before the Court; and upon the evidence

presented to the Court the Court finds that .........--------... ...........---..............



born ----------...............................---- ... ----.. --.---...- .---....----------, is/are a child-- ..

within the jurisdiction of this Court, found, living or domiciled in Duval County, Florida, and that

said child---.......-. is/are..................-------.--.......because;












THEREFORE, it is hereby ORDERED that








It is FURTHER ORDERED that this Court shall retain jurisdiction of this cause and said

child-....---.... for the purpose of making such other and further Orders in this cause as may from

time to time be necessary.

DONE AND ORDERED at Jacksonville, Duval County, Florida, this...----.....--------.day of

---------------....... ....., A. D. 19......


JUDGE





CASE NO.



PERSONAL HISTORY



N THE INTEREST OF: Date 19-






Child

INVESTIGATION RECORD

,ex, Race Nickname

kge, Born

;irthplace _- How Long lin Florida

,omplexion Eyes Hair Height Weight

theirr personal description

.ives with Relation

address Occupation

Telephone

FAMILY


3tep-father


(Address)


Father


(Age) (Telephone)


(Address),


(Birthplace)

(Occupation)


(Age)

(How long in Fla.)

(How long)


(Telephone)


(Salary)


Stepmother
(Address)' (Age) (Telephone)!



Mother
(Maiden Name) (Address) (Age) (Telephone)!




(Birthplace) (How long in Fla.)


~^------


(Occupation)


(How long)


,(Salary)




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