• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Acknowledgement
 Introduction
 Review of the literature
 Presentation and analysis...
 Summary
 Bibliography
 Appendix














Title: Analytical study of the language arts program of grades four through six at Bond Junior High School
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Title: Analytical study of the language arts program of grades four through six at Bond Junior High School
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Language: English
Creator: Brewington, Eugenia Edna Warren
Affiliation: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
Publisher: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
Publication Date: 1955
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Title Page
        Title page
    Table of Contents
        Page i
    List of Tables
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Acknowledgement
        Page iv
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Review of the literature
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Presentation and analysis of data
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 58-a
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Summary
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 65-a
    Bibliography
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Appendix
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
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        Page 88
        Page 89
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Full Text







AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF THE LANGUAGE ARTS PROGRAM

OF GRADES FOUR THROUGH SIX AT BOND JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL

LEON COUNTY, FLORIDA










A Thesis

Presented to

The Faculty of the Graduate School

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University







In Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements for the Degree

Master of Science in Education









by

Eugenia Edna Warren Brewington

August 1955











AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF THE LANGUAGE ARTS PROGRAM

OF GRADES FOUR THROUGH SIX AT BOND JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL

LEON COUNTY, FLORIDA







A Thesis

Presented to

The Faculty of the Graduate School

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University

In Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements for the Degree 4

Master of Science in Education


Ajpprsved d. .JUea__










TABLE OF CONTENTS


CHAPTER

I.






















II.

Im.

IV.


THE INTRODUCTION

The Problem

Statement of the Problem

Purpose of the Problem

Importance of the Problem

Delimitation and Scope of the

Problem

Hypothesis

Basic Assumptions

Organization of the Study

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

SUMMARY

Conclusions

Recommendations


BIBLIOGRAPHY

APPENDIX


PAGE

1

3

3

3

3



5

5

6

6

7

39

62

63

64

66

70









LIST OF TABLES


TABLES

I



II.



III.



IV.



V.



VI.



VII.



VIII.



IX.



X.


PAGE


Scatter Diagram of Otis Scores and Raw Scores

in Punctuation Test for Fourth Grade

Scatter Diagram of Otis Scores and Raw Scores of

Capitalization Test for Fourth Grade

Scatter Diagram of Otis Scores and Raw Scores of

Usage Test for Fourth Grade

Scatter Diagram of Otis Scores and Raw Scores

of Spelling Test for Fourth Grade

Scatter Diagram of Otis Scores and Raw Scores

Sentence Sense Test for Fourth Grade

Scatter Diagram of Otis Scores and Raw Scores

of Punctuation Test for Fifth Grade

Scatter Diagram of Otis Scores and Raw Scores

of Capitalization Test for Fifth Grade

Scatter Diagram of Otis Scores and Raw Scores

of Usage Test for Fifth Grade

Scatter Diagram of Otis Scores and Raw Scores

of Seplling Test for Fifth Grade

Scatter Diagram of Otis 6oores and Raw Scores

of Sentence Sense for Fifth Grade


35



37



39



41



43



45



47



49









PAGES


TABLES

XI.



XII.



XHm.



XIV.








XVI.



XVII.


Scatter Diagram of Otis Scores and Raw Scores

of Punctuation Test for Sixth Grade

Scatter Diagram of Otis Scores and Raw Scores

of Capitalization Test for Sixth Grade

Scatter Diagram of Otis Scores and Raw Scores

of Usage Test for Sixth Grade

Scatter Diagram of Otis Scores and Raw Scores

of Spelling Test for Sixth Grade

Comparison of Means and Standard Deviations

of the Tests for Fourth Grade

Comparison of Means and Standard Deviations of

the Tests for Fifth Grades

Comparison of Means and Standard Deviations

of the Tests for Sixth Grades












ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The writer wishes to acknowledge with appreciation

those persons who so untiringly worked with her in the making

of this study. She is appreciative to the teachers and pupils

of the Intermediate Area of Bond Junior High School for their

contributions. For reading and making helpful criticisms,

acknowledgements are due Dr. Walter Johnson, Mr. Neville

Clarke and Dr. E. C. Wallace, her Chairman.

For assistance with statistics, acknowledgements are

due Mr. L. H. Pennington. To her husband, Mr. James

Brewington and her family and all others who have made con.

tributions, her debt is gratefully acknowledged.










CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION


The goals of teaching language arts are as old as the ideals

of western civilization. Yet each generation faces the task of

interpreting these goals anew in the light of the conditions at its

own age. To think clearly and honestly, to read thoughtfully, to

communicate effectively to listen intelligently have always been

basic to the perpetuation of democratic ways of living. In the

second half of the twentieth century the challenge to develop

such skills with the attendant insights upon which their value

depends is peculiarly vital to the future of democracy.

Modern life makes peculiar demands on the program of the

school. Modern life with its mechanization of industry, its

clearly marked social strata, its inevitable competition, its

crowded cities, and its conflicting interests makes heavy demands

upon those who would deal creatively with differences. As social

progress struggles to keep pace with science and invention, men

must come to know and understand each .other for the achievement

of that social cohesion on which the future of democracy depends.

Language is the social instrument.

A knowledge and understanding of men and nation's and

careful examination of the values, as guides for the future, and









the development of constructive avenues of intercommunication

among men everywhere are primary requisites for intelligent

living.

Literature can give perspective on the conflicting ideas

and ideals of today's world, granting to youth spiritual insight

and a sense of proportion. Reading, listening and expression can

develop the child's power to use all available sources of informa-

tion, to think critically and to express himself with clarity and

expression. It is the school's responsibility to provide situations

that are enriching, stimulating and challenging so that children

will be motivated to read, write, speak, and listen creatively

and critically under the guidance of well prepared teachers.

In view of the foregoing facts and conditions the writer

believes that the language art experiences should be integrated

with all phases of the elementary school program so that the

girls and boys may become increasingly competent in the skills

of language.

The challenge is tremendous and it is immediate. Everyone

realistically concerned with the future of boys and girls now

learning to live must face it. Being cognizant of these facts, the

writer believes this necessitates a careful examination of what

the curriculum has to offer for the improvement of teaching of the









language arts to the extent that children may be better prepared to

deal effectively with the critical problems of life in these times.

I. THE PROBLEM

Statement of the Problem. This investigation is an analytical

study of the language arts program of grades four through six at

Bond Junior High School, Leon County, Florida.

Purpose of the Problem. It was the purpose of this study to

make an analysis of the language arts program in the fourth, fifth

and sixth grades' of the Bond Junior High School. To make an analysis

of the program, it is necessary to:

(a) determine the extent to which the language instruction meets

the needs of the pupils;

(b) determine the extent the classroom atmosphere is conducive

to creative writing;

(c) determine the media provided by the school to develop the

art of listening and to what extent the teachers are making use of'the

equipment;

(d) determine the status of the pupils in grades four through

six in use of language skills;

(e) show that relationship between language ability and achieve.

ment in the areas in respect to test results of the Iowa-Every Pupil

Test.

Importance of the Problem. Many factors have contributed

to the need for reexamination of the language arts experiences in the









intermediate grades at Bond Junior High School. One of the

factors is the changing concept of the language arts. Language

Arts once meant reading, writing, and spelling, but today

language power is recognized as part of all growth. Today, we

look at the learner and the society of which he is a part and search

to guide his growth both in and through the experiences of reading,

listening, writing, and speaking necessary to effective living.

Normally, children in the intermediate grades have a

growing zest for life. They are curious, alert, and awakening

to fresh interest in their own potentialities and in the world about

them. Many of them have sufficient skill to read for information

and enjoyment. They have much to learn about the world near

and far. Their interests extend far beyond home.

They have a flair for action, adventure and mystery. They

have faith in their own capacity for doing things both together and

individually. Children in these years have become aware of

the group. &They recognize ideas and beliefs of others. They are

the upper grade children now and find in the challenge of school

leadership a motive for developing language and reading skills and

sense of responsibility and effective group procedures. In a program

based upon meeting, extending and intensifying these interests boys

and girls become aware of the value of clear and comprehensive









expression, under the careful guidance of the teacher, they should

develop skills, necessary to group planning and perfect their

reading for wide range of purposes.

With a consciousness of the changes and an increase in media

of communication, the way is opened for an analysis of the language

arts program in the intermediate department at Bond School and the

adaptation of the program to the situation in which it is used.

Delimitation and Scope of the problem. This study was under.

taken with the following limitations in mind:

It is limited to five hundred thirty-three pupils grades four

through six of the Bond Junior High School at Leon County, Florida

for the school term 1954-.5.

This study is limited to an analysis of scores obtained from

the Iowa"Every Pupil Test and the Otis Quick Scoring Test of

Mental Ability.

There were five hundred thirty-three pupils participating from

the intermediate grades but after the tests were administered,

because of drop outs and absentees, it was decreased to two hundred

thirtyefive pupils. The tests were matched and each child had to have

two tests, an achievement test and an Otis Quick Scoring test for the

Intelligence Quotient, after the tests were scored the results obtained

were compared.

Hypothesis. Growth and improvement in language arts is

dependent on the mental development of the child; the methods

should vary to meet the individual need of the child; the materials

of instruction should be rich and varied; the environment should be

stimulating and language experiences should be recognized in all


integral parts of the school.










Basic Assumptions. A pupil's competency in language skills

is conditioned by the breadth of his intellectual capacity.

A pupil's competency in language skills is conditioned by the

motivation and demands of the situation.

A pupil's growth in language skills will depend on the extent

to which he is conscious of the way in which he is directing his effort.

Procedure and source of data. Involved in the study were the

pupils of grades four, five and six of Bond Junior High School.

Tests were given to determine the intelligence quotient of

the pupils.

The IowaoEvery pupils test of language skills were given

to measure pupils' academic score in the language skills, namely,

punctuation, capitalization, spelling, usage and sentence sense.

Tables were set up to make comparison of the intelligence

quotients made on the tests.

The Otis Quick Scoring Test gave results of the pupils intelligence

quotients.

Organization of the Study. This study has been divided into

chapters in the following manner:

Chapter One is the Introductory Chapter.

Chapter Two contains the review of related literature, which

includes several abstracts of previous studies.

Chapter Three contains the presentation and analysis of

data obtained from the study.

Chapter Four contains the Summary, Conclusions and Recom*


mendations.










CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE


Communication through spoken and written language

belongs to man and to him alone. It is the most important

influence in his upward climb through the centuries. It is at the

utmost consequence in the life of an individual that he learns to

use the forms of communication. The skill he develops in the

use of these tools influences his choice of vocation, the friends

he draws about him and the pattern of personal living he builds

for himself.

A young person who expresses himself clearly and with

confidence and who enjoys books and reading tends to select

academic work in the high school, to go to college and to enter

the professions or to become a business, industrial, social, or

political leader. A person who lacks linguistic skill, who has

a less extensive vocabulary and less facility in self-expression

or reading, tends to turn for his vocation to types of work with

people and things in which linguistic demands are of a different

sort and other competencies are more important than facility in

the use of language.

Scholars and teachers have always been interested in

language. Teachers and parents are interested chiefly in the


48054









functions of language, its development by children, and its

effect upon their lives and personalities. Educators are

interested in ways and means of enhancing the language arts

programs. Many books and studies have been made in order to

improve the language arts program and its effectiveness.
1
Paul McKee believes the basic purpose in the teaching

of language from the kindergarten through college is to help

people to engage successfully in the important activities of

modern life in which the use of language plays a fundamental

role. It includes such common matters as (1) conversation

(2) letter-writing (3) story telling (4) making speeches of various

types (5) giving directions, explorations and announcements (6)

creative writing (7) making reports and reviews (8) reading

various types of written and printed material and (9) listening

to various types of talking.

Some writers have referred to most of these activities

as functional centers in language. Our schools must provide

definite and effective teaching of what the writer here arbitrarily

designates as the three basal program to be included in any course

of study.


Paul McKee, Language in the Elementary School, Revised
Edition, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Riverside Press, Houghton
Mifflin Company, 1939, p. 3.







9

One of the most important jobs of the teacher is concerned

with the problem of motivation to secure and maintain the child's

interest in language.
2
McKee language book in the elementary school describes

an effective program of instruction for the entire elementary

school. The language arts are divided into the traditional areas

as composition, written and oral, spelling, writing, reading

and literature. It is the purpose of the book to consider the

problem of improving instruction in the first three of these subjects

during the six years of elementary school.

He believes that there are certain things a teacher or super-

visor should know about teaching of any one of these three subjects.

Stated in terms of problems these are:. (1) What should be taught in

a given subject? (2) How should the abilities or items to be taught

in that subject be spread over the grades? (3) What are the

effective methods and materials which should be used in teaching

the subject? and (4) What means should be employed in testing

the accomplishment of the pupils? Definite methods for teaching

and evaluating each subject is presented in the volume.
3
In addition to McKee's subjects in the language arts, Duker


Paul McKee, Language in the Elementary School, New York,
Houghton Mifflin Company c 1934.


3Sam Duker, "How Listening is Taught," The Instructor,
May, 1955, pp. 35, 76.









states that teaching children to listen effectively has become

an important part of elementary school language arts instruction

at all levels. The awareness of the importance of teaching this

skill is a comparatively recent development. The article listed

devices and ways of teaching listening in various grades.

The opaque projector and tape recorder were given as

great aids in teaching listening.

Musical records were played after a carefully prepared

list of motivating questions had been asked. Practice was given

in following a gradually lengthening series of oral directions

in the form of a game. Other children watched to see if the direc-

tions were properly carried on in the right order. A number of

games and devices for improving listening were presented. As a

result of this emphasis on listening class discussions were improved.

It was obvious that the children found satisfaction and security in

mastering a skill for which they had full readiness and in the

exercises of which they could meet with success.
4
Russell states that research in child development in the

United States and its findings about children with some of their pos-

sible implications for the language arts program has had a
4
David H. Russell, "The Child Sudy Movement and the Language
Arts Curriculum," Child Development and Language Arts Research
Bulletin of the National Conference on Research in English, Chicago,
Illinois: National Council of Teachers of English, p. 3.










comparatively long and honorable history. It dates back at

least to G. Stanley Hall's "The Contents of Children's Minds

on Entering School," a study of children's concepts made in

the 1880's and published in 1903. Stimulated by the work of

Cattell, of Thorndike, of Watson and others, it developed

rapidly after 1920.

Educational psychology has probably concentrated on the

individual to the exclusion of the child-in-a-group. Early
5
work, such as Furfey's was directed to boys' gangs and

reports of many small studies can be found in social psycholo-
6
gies. More recently the work of Tyron in peer relationships

about the sixth and ninth grade levels and applications of
7
Moeno's sociometric techniques by Elliott and many others who

have opened up new areas of study of children in groups. An
8
example of recent work is that of Cunningham and her associates.


Paul H. Furfey, The Gang Age, New York: Macmillan
Company, 1926, p. 189.

6
Carolina M. Tryon, "The Adolescent Peer Culture,"
Adolescence. 43rd Yearbook Part I, National Society for the Study
of Education. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1944, 217-
239.
7
Merle H. Elliott, "Friendship Patterns," Progressive
Education, XVIII, 1941, pp. 383-390.

8
Ruth Cunningham and Others, Understanding Group Behavior
of Boys and Girls, Bureau of Publications, Teachers College,
Columbia University, 1951, pp. 446.









Sears has suggested five trends or emphases in current

child study. These are (1) an emphasis upon molar behavior,

or the study of the child as a whole, especially in terms of his

motivation; (2) stress upon the learning process at various

levels; (3) emphasis upon the social settings of behavior as in

the work of the cultural anthropologists; (4) the use of projective

techniques, such as doll play and finger painting; and (5) the

application of child psychology to such agencies as the home, the

school, and the clinic.

This summary of the child study movement suggests that

it has attacked many important problems in child development.

It indicates further that many of the research results have

implications for the school but that much of the material is not

directly connected to the language arts curriculum. It attempts

to bring the two together in showing child development data as

one influence on the curriculum.

Commenting on a usage doctrine which he calls "Obedience
10
to the Club Spirit," I. A. Richards declares that

"It makes the conduct of language subservient to
manners -* to the manners of a special set of speakers.
If you belong to a certain sort of club you thereby enter
upon an engagement to behave, while there, in certain

9
Robert R. Sears, "Child Psychology", Current Trends in
Psychology. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1947,
pp. 50-74.

10
I. A. Richards, The Philosophy of Rhetoric, New York:
Oxford University Press, 1936, pp. 77-78.








ways. Similarly, in using a language, you join a more
or less select company of correct users of the language.
Deviation from their customs is incorrectness and is
visited with a social penalty. "
11
Fries points out that language practices vary among

different social classes. He draws the analogy between levels

of language usage and clothing. Clothes or habits of dress connote

or suggest certain information concerning the wearers. In like

manner language forms and constructions not only fulfill a primary

function of communicating meaning will also suggest that one

habitually associates with those social groups for whom these

language forms are the customary usage.
12
Khater found that upperclass children speak more about

themselves and their own possessions, while lower class children

tend to speak more about the outside world of people and things.

He found further that in speaking about their experiences the upper-

class children tend to draw from both the immediate and the remote

in place, and from the past and present in time, while the lower-

class children tend to draw mostly from their immediate present


I1C. C. Fries, American English Grammar, New York: D.
Appleton-Century Company, 1940, pp. 10-11.

12
Mahmoud Roushd Khater, The Influence of Social Class on
the Language Patterns of Kindergarten Children, Unpublished Ph.D.
dissertation, The Department of Education, The University of
Chicago.










environment and to project themselves into the future. Upper-

class children are "inclined to listen to each other and comment

upon each other's speech freely and spontaneously, while the latter

are inclined to remain silent until they are drawn out of their

shells. "In discussion, although most of the children from both

classes have been concerned with the problems under discussion

more of the upper-class children tend to contribute to its solution,

while lower class children tend more to drop the problem from

their minds and devote more attention to the narration of personal

experiences. As for language patterns, Khater reports that patterns

of language used by upper-class children are, in general, more

mature. Pronunciation among them is on an adult level, and the

structure of sentences is more mature and nearer to the standard

English. All children were concerned with the mastery of the

subordination and coordination of ideas.

A number of valuable studies dealing with the relation

between socio-economic status and intelligence and personality

have been made in recent years. While few of these are explicit

on the subject of language development or language usage of the

various socio-economic levels, they suggest a number of interesting

observations concerning various phases of communication.










13
Lazar3 found that although school facilities in New York

were roughly equal as among the various socio-economic levels,

the bright group had, in general, better home environments than

either the average of the dull group, and the average group had

better opportunities than the dull group. She found a close relation-

ship between the number and quality of books and magazines in the home and

socio-economic status. Bright pupils ranking lowest in socio-economic

status, were interested in reading, but the quality of the material

was inferior. It is reasonable to conclude from their findings that

environmental factors had a powerful effect upon the nature and extent

of the children's reading choices.
14
In this connection, Russell lists as one of three basic

factors which determine what a child or an adult will read, the

accessibility of the material, in a world where radio, movies,

sports, club work, and hobbies compete for one's time.
15
Of interest is the observation made by Maddy5 that, although

children of professional families average higher in Intelligence

13
May Lazar, Reading Interests, Activities and Opportunities
of Bright, Average, and Dull Children, New York. Bureau of Publi-
cations, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1937, pp. 49-50.

14
David H. Russell, Children Learn to Read, New York: Ginn
and Company, 1949, p. 10.
15
Nancy Ruth Maddy, "Comparison of Children's Personality
Traits, Attitudes, and Intelligenee with Parental Occupation, Genetic
Psychology Monographs XXVIII, 1943, pp. 3-65.









Quotient than children of semi-skilled workers families, children

of professional families living in economically poor neighborhoods

have slightly lower intelligence test scores than the average for

their occupational group, while the reverse is the case for

children of semi-skilled families living in wealthier areas.

An earlier bulletin of the National Conference on Research

in English reported on the mass media of communication in their
16
relations to education. Other recent publications, of a somewhat
17
more popular nature, are a pamphlet of the Public Affairs Conmittee

gives significant data on mass media of communication.
18
Fleege found that two percent of the movie audience were

under the age of seven; 11.8 per cent were seven to thirteen years

of age; and 22. 1 per cent were between the ages of fourteen and twenty.

Boys and girls in the upper grades and high school averaged one

movie a week and children in primary grades about one movie in

every two weeks. Most commentators attribute the decline in

attendance since 1945 to the advent of television.

16
John J. DeBoer and Fred Godschalk, "The Mass Media of
Communication and Children in the United States", unpublished
Report to UNESCO made for the Bureau of Research and Service
of the University of Illinois.

17 -
Frank Josette, "Comics, Radio, Movies--and Children,"
Public Affair Pamphlet No. 148, New York: 1949.

18
Brother Urban H. Fleege, "Movies As An Influence in the
Life of the Modern Adolescent" Catholic Educational Review XLIII
1945, pp. 336-352.









Despite the rapid growth of the television industry, the

number of radio homes in the United States is greater than

ever. It is safe to generalize that radio is available in the

homes of all but the merest handful of children. Even these are

accustomed to it in the homes of friends, in automobiles, in

taverns and lunchrooms and the cross roads store, the radio

is everywhere.

,-The average amount of radio listening has bean variously

reported as from a minimum of five and one-quarter hours per

week to a maximum of eighteen and one-half hours. According
19
to Clark, peak listening for adolescents come between the ages

of twelve and fifteen. NBC figures for 1948 confirm Clark's

figures by reporting ninety-one minutes per day average of radio

listening for the fifteen to nineteen year age group.
20
In a fairly recent study, Mitchell found that the reading

achievement of a group of sixth grade pupils was adversely affected

by a variety radio program, but not by a musical radio program.

She found no differences in this respect between boys and girls,

but she discovered that pupils with Intelligence Quotients above

19
W. R. Clark, "Radio Listening Habits of Children," Social
Psychology, XII, 1940 pp. 131-149.
20
Adelle H. Mitchell, "The Effect of Radio Programs on the
Silent Reading Achievement of Ninety-One Sixth Grade Students,"
Journal of Educational Research j[LII (February 1949) pp. 460-470.







18

one hundred were not adversely affected by the variety program,

and made significant gains in reading achievement during the
21
musical program. Hall in a more recent study found that within

certain limitations, substantial aid to reading comprehension

results from the use of background music at the eighth and ninth

grade levels. She reported that students below average in

intelligence and achievement receive more benefit from musical

background than those above average. Her findings parallel

those of studies of the effects of music on factory production.

Television is the most rapidly growing of the mass communi-

cation industries. Numerous estimates of time spent by children

in viewing television have been reported, ranging from twenty to

twenty-five hours per week--almost as much time as children
Z2
spend in school. Lewis found a decline six months after tele-

vision programs first became available in the community--perhaps

as he suggests, as a result of parental control, novel by wearing

off, and both children's and parents' recognition of the time

consuming factors involved, of skills, and the exclusive emphasis

21
Judy C. Hall, "The Effect of Background Music on the
Reading Comprehension of Two Hundred Seventy-Eight Eighth and
Ninth Grade Students", Journal of Educational Research, XLV
(February, 1952) pp. 451-458.

22
Philip Lewis, "TV Viewing Hurts Grades of Sophomores
and Juniors, But Helps Seniors," Advertising AgenXII (May 8, 1950).









in instruction lay in imparting these important skills of literacy.
23
Probably Piaget more than any other psychologist, has stimulated

interest in language as communication and as a means of studying the

child himself. Both psychologists and educators today have come to

look upon language as a vitally important form of behavior through

which the individual adjusts himself to his social environment.

Accordingly, the field or language activities embraces the entire

range of childhood interest s and experiences. Some emphasis on

language activities as arts and greater attention to the language

arts as communicative activities have enriched the modern concept

of the language arts.

In language skills it is difficult to overestimate individual

differences in patterns of language development and facility in
24
dealing with language situations. McCarthy states that language

is one area in which more marked and more striking degrees of

individual differences can be observed than in almost any other.
25
McCarthyZ5 further states that a measure which has been used

satisfactorily in many major investigations, is a highly sensitive

23
Jean Piaget, The Language and Thought of the Child, New
York: Harcourt Brace and Company, 1926.

24
4Dorothea McCarthy, "Language Development in Children"
Manual of Child Psychology, ed., L. Carmicheal, New York: John
Wiley and S6ns, 1946, pp. 476-581.

5Ibid., p. 583.










index that reveals developmental trends from infancy to maturity

and reflects sex, occupational, and intellectual group differences

with remarkable consistency.

The great popularity of comic books or magazines justifies
26
their inclusion in a discussion of the mass media. Malter

who classified one hundred eighty-five comic book titles according

to type of content, distinguished the following categories: westerns

adventure stories, animal antics, love stories, detective stories,

"Superman" stories, adult antics, jungle stories, children's antics

and sport stories, in that order of frequency. He found that the

per cent of pages devoted to human and crime are approximately

one-third of all comic story content is devoted to humor. He con-

cludes that general attacks on the comic magazines are unwarranted,

since there are both good and bad examples.

The effects of comic book reading on children has been the

subject of much debate. Expert opinion tends to favor the view

that comic books serve the maladjusted child as an escape device,

but are not in themselves a cause of delinquency. The problem

appears to be one of making a proper distinction between desirable

and undesirable comic books, and of providing effective competition

in the form of high grade children's literature.

26
Morton S. Malter, "The Content of Current Comic Magazines,"
The Elementary School Journal, LII (May 1952) pp. 505-510.











Interest in the study of language development and activities

as strands in the pattern of total growth of the child is a phenomenon

at the recent past and of the present. In an earlier day, psycholo-

gists considered language as a means of expressing mental

content; educators regarded language primarily as a body.

Studies of growth in composition abilities indicate that there

are developmental trends in the use of written language which the
27
teacher may employ as guide posts. Hoppes in a study of the

writing of three hundred eighty-six pupils in grades three to

six in a Chicago Public School found that growth in this area

might be summarized as (a) growth in the number of sentences

used in a composition, (b) growth in the length and complexity

of sentences (c) decline in the "run-on sentences, although this type

of error was uncommon, (d) decrease in unpleasant repetition of

words and phrases, (e) growth in the use of inverted order of

subject and predi cate, indicative of the ability to give emphasis

to an idea by increasing the prominence of its position, (f) increase

in the proportion of abstract nouns accompanied by decrease in pro-

portion of specific, concrete, individual nouns, and (g) decline in

the number of sentences whose subject is "I", possibly marking a


2William C. Hoppes, "Some Aspects of Growth in Written
Expression", Elementary English Review, X (March, 1933) pp. 62-70;
121-123.







22

decline in egocentrism. Hoppes also found that in all grades girls

tend to write more than boys.
28
Baer's study of written compositions of almost twelve

thousand children in grades one through eight in the St. Louis Public

Schools indicates that the number of sentences used by a child in

telling a story varies from an average of approximately ten in the

sixth grade. The length of the composition remained approximately

the same from grade six through eight. The average number of

sentences used by girls in all grades w&a slightly higher than the
29
number of sentences used by boys. Baer regards the number

of sentences were used as an elemental factor in languages growth.

She also reports that complex sentences were used more commonly

than compound, although both types were employed at all levels.

She concludes that the use of the complex sentence appears to be

another of the elemental factors in the growth of language usage, and

to correlate as closely as any other factor with maturity in language

ability. There were few children who used incomplete sentences in

this study, but percentage of pupils using "run-on sentences" increased

rapidly until grade five. The percentage dropped slightly from fifty-one
28
M2ata V. Baer, "Children's Grotrth in the Use of Written
Langauge", Elementary English Review, XVI, (December, 1939), pp.
312-319.


)Ibid. p. 319.









30
in grade six to fifty-one in grade eight. Baer's research would

indicate that this phase of language usage deserves consideration

in written language program of the elementary school.

Creative writing, which may be partly an individual and

partly a group affair, can give opportunity for vocabulary growth

sociability, sensitivity to meanings, and probably some growth

in order and sequence in relating occurrences. However, the child's

capacity for organizing and relating experiences in logical or

connected fashion is limited by maturational factors. Typically,

not until a child is nine or ten can he give a reasonably accurate

account of what happened within a definite period of time.
31
Swenson and Caldwell who analyzed six hundred eighty

letters written by pupils from grade four through twelve in a

typical midwestern community report that pupils letters showed an

encouraging improvement in communication skill from grade to

grade, that performance of individual children at each grade level

varied widely enough to correspond to average performance at

several grade levels and that variation within grades was fairly

consistent from grade to grade. They report that there was evidenced

a general positive relationship between ability in written communication

30
Ibid., p. 320.

31
Esther J. Swenson, and Charles G. Caldwell, "The Process
of Communication in Children's Letters", Elementary School Journal.
XLIV (December 1948) pp. 224-225.










and intelligence, and a trend toward increasing differentiation

of writing ability by intelligence level with more years at

schooling. The same writers in reporting on spelling in the same

group of letters, state that an increase in the average length of

letters and a reduction in spelling errors were, both marked

between the fifth and sixth grade groups. This reduction, they

feel, may indicate some association between master y of mechanics

(spelling in this case) and freedom of written expression, as

evidenced by the amount written.

Psychological readiness for handwriting consists of the

child's having something to say and an urge to say it in writing.
32
Dawson has pointed out that handwriting should not be taught

as a subject in its own right, but rather as a means to a desired

end. Today's emphasis is away from the push-and-pull, oval

drill of yesteryear and toward functional handwriting used as a

tool, with emphasis on legibility and reasonable speed and with

the encouragement of the development of some individual style

rather than slavish following of this or that handwriting "system."

Within this framework, handwriting still needs to be practiced,

and such practice can result in decided gains in both legibility

and speed.









33
Artley has pointed out that growth in reading, writing,

or spelling is contingent upon depth and richness of experience

which provides ideas and the opportunity for the use of words.

Spelling readiness, according to Artley, includes the following

abilities: (1) auditory perception and discrimination, or the ability to

recognize the sounds that are heard in a word, to associate with

them their appropriate letter symbols or phonograms, (2) visual

perception and discrimination or the ability to analyse a word

visually, noting its arrangement of letters, the presence of familiar

prefixes or suffixes, syllables, or already known "little words"

and the visual similarity of the new word with an already familiar

one, (3) accurate pronunciation and careful enunciation (4) clear

recognition of the meaning, since a word whose meaning is unknown

is not going to be used by the child in either spoken or written

discourse, and (5) accurate handwriting and proper letter formation.
34
Russell's study carried on in Canada, resulted in these

significant findings, among others: (1) spelling readiness was

acquired in the high first grade by most of his subjects (2) spelling

success was facilitated by attention directed toward phonetic

analysis, configuration, sound of words, syllabication and recognition


3A. Sterl Artley, "Principles Applying to the Improvement of
Spelling Ability," Elementary School Journal XXIV (November, 1948).


34David H. Russell, "Reading as Communication," Childhood
Education XXVII (February 1951) pp. 274-277.







26

of word families (3) spelling abilities in the second grades studied

were found to be closely related to abilities in recognition of words

and capital and lower case letters and to visual and auditory per-

ceptive abilities, and (4) a cancellation of language skills, which

can be taught and which seems basic to success in the language

arts, at least of the primary level, was identified.

The separation of language growth into oral, written and

mechanical aspects of language in the three sections above needs

to be corrected by an emphasis upon the interrelatedness of all

phases of language development. Some of the research showing
35
relationships has been summarized by Hildreth.

The interrelatedness of language growth shows first in the

sequential patterns of language development discussed above

i. e., the child listens with comprehension before he speaks with

meaning; he develops a substantial oral vocabulary before he

reads.; he makes considerable reading progress before he writes;

he usually begins to spell when he needs spelling in his own

writing.
36
Beery has indicated that reciprocal relations between

reading and listening includes these (1) pupils will listen better

35
Gertrude Hildreth, Learning the Three R's, 2nd Edition
St. Louis: Educational Publishers, Inc., 1947.

36
Althea Beery, "Listening Activities in the Elementary
School," Elementary English Review XXIII (February, 1949)
pp. 69-79.










if they expect to use what they hear; (2) listening needs to be

reinforced by other modes of experience; and (3) since compre-

hension improves when pupils are encouraged to check themselves

on ideas gained from reading, listening, probably needs similar

checks. Several writers, including Beery, have emphasized the

fact that listening as a developmental skill needs to be explored

by research.

,The child s language is probably the best means of studying
37
his thinking. Curt, believes that perceptual and ideational

meanings develop side by side and that they are related to intelligence,

social status, and the stage of cultural development attained by the

society in which the child lives. While many of the conclusions

of Piaget are open to question in the light of current research

evidence, he did call attention to the fact that much of children's

thinking is characterized by egocentrism, absolutism, animism,

and a lack of understanding of cause-and-effect.
38
Baker in his study of children's free discussions in grades

two, four, and six in three, schools in the New York area were

factual and were concerned with the present. There were gradual

37
Margaret W. Curtis, Child Psycholgy, New York: Long-
mans, Green and Company, 1938.

38
3Harold V. Baker, "Children's Contributions in Elementary
School General Discussion" Child Development Monographs No. 29.
Teachers College, Columbia University, 1942.









gains apparent in the fourth, and sixth grades in terms of the

attention given voluntarily to adult activities and interests.

The higher the grade, the greater the dependence upon vicarious

experience. Baker found second graders to be almost entirely

individualistic in expressionswith little give and take as compared

to fourth and sixth graders.

Roma Gans' 39 gathered some facts about the extent of

clildrens' reading, that should delight even the skeptic. A study

made by the American Library Association revealed that more

children than adults are using the libraries. The demand for library

materials in schools is one of the worries of today's administrator,

hamstrung by inadequate budgets. Skill in the use of the library

and the ability to gather information from several books is common

to today's children in schools, that have enough money to supply

this need. In such fortunate situations one finds even primary

children who love reading and have gained a wide knowledge of

authors, stories and poems through reading on their own. The rapid

rise of the trade book industry in children's books in the United

States and the work of some of our finest authors and artists in

producing these books are further evidence of the application of

reading skill and tests developed in today's schools.



Romas Gans, "Are the Schools Neglecting the Fundamentals?"
Teachers College Record, Teachers College, Columbia University
Vol. 56, No. 1, pp. 43-45.










In addition to the fundamentals which are measured by

tests previously used in schools and the various standardized

tests, some very important skills are being taught to today's

children and youth. Much attention is given in a vast number

of schools to what is commonly called problem solving. Even

children in the primary grades begin to gather evidence, collect

facts, make observations, test out ideas, and finally arrive

at generalizations or conclusions. Such procedures no matter

what they are called, develop essentials in meeting the problems

of living. Instead of assuming, as teachers did in former years

that able pupils will demonstrate intellectual maturity in adult

life, today's educators seek to assure this maturity by guiding

children and youth to acquire intelligence.








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In Table I the Otis test scores y, range from fifty to

one hundred twenty-four. In this table, X1 represents Part I

grade equivalent. The mean score taken for Part I was 27.48

while the standard deviation for the 87(n) students was 15. 50. The

product moment correlation coefficient between the mean (Xl) and

the IQ (y) was 11. The frequency of the IQ scores shows that

only eight students made an '%average" punctuation score, twenty

made 95-99 as eight made 90-104. Only one student made a

superior score of 120w124 as compared to three students who made

a low score of 50-54. The frequency for (y) Otis IQ scores ranged

from 50 to 124 while the frequency for the grade equivalent (punctua*s

tion)(fxi) ranged from 10.100, the average score being 30-40 in which

nine students made an average score, ten made scores above average

between 50o59 and while the one student made the highest score of

95-100, seventeen made low scores between 10-14. The (u, fy was
2 2
*93, ivI fx1 was .77, ul fy was 881. Avl fxI was 907 anduuv was

208.

Data presented in Table II shows the relationship between the

Otis Test and Raw scores of the Capitalization Test for fourth grade.










In Table II the total number of students was eighty-seven.

This test was centered around capitalization. The Otis Test scores

ranged from 50-124 while the grade equivalent scores ranged from

10.94. The mean score (x2) on the test was 34. 43, a rise approxi-

mately 7. 05 above the punctuation test. There were eighty.seven

pupils tested. The product moment correlation coefficient between

the mean grade equivalent (x2) and the IQ (y) was 19 while there was a

standard deviation of 17.90 (sx2). For the Otis Test there were

eight students in the average bracket while the extreme of the normal

probability curve (normal distribution) was three making scores

between 50-54 and one making a score between 120-124. y was

89.16 and sy was 14.98 as in Table I. The Otis scores were ju fy__
1 -
"93, Iv1 fx2 .130, ful fy 881, iv fx2 1152 and uuv 270.

Information presented in Table III shows the relationship

of Otis scores and Row scores of usage test for fourth grades.

The tables show the frequency distribution and mean correlation

of the scores.








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In Table III the number of students for the Usage Test was

eighty-seven, the mean score of which i~as 27.69 or 6.76 above the

previous test. The Otis IQ ranged from 50-124 the average score being

89. 16 the standard deviation for Test III of the fourth grade on

this test was 18. 55 and for the Otis it was 14. 98, while the product

moment correlation coefficient between X3 and y was .21. The

majority of the pupils made scores between 105-124 while thirty-two

made scores between 50-84 in the Otis. On the usage test most

students made sub-average scores as seen on the table. In this table
2
the sum of ul and fy was -93 while u 1 fy 881, tuv 306 vI fx3 -75,

.vi fx3 1263.

Table IV reveals the correlations between the Otis scores and

the scores of the Spelling Test made by the eighty-seven students

in the fourth grade.








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In Table IV the number of students in the distribution was

still eighty-seven for the Spelling Test. The mean score was

34.46 or 7.77 above the previous test. The Otis IQ average score

was 90w94 while 35,.39 was the "normal" score for the spelling

test. The sigma for test IV was 15. 80 while the product moment

correlation coefficient between the Otis and the test was 41. The

4ul fy was -93, ,v fx was .25, 4u2 fy was 881 ,iv 2 fx4 was 875, and

uuv was 368. More students made sub-average scores on the Otis

Test the majority of pupils made between 1 and -1 (ul) of the average

score; on the Spelling Test most scores were sub-average.

Table V is a scatter diagram showing the relationship of the

Otis scores and Row scores made by the eighty-seven students in the

Sentence Sense Test.









CHAPTER III

PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

Educators are now focusing considerable attention upon the

subject of pupil's ability to read. It has been found through various

methods that weaknesses in all other subject areas stem. It is

an important phase in any curriculum to notice where the weak

points are and try to find through some form of research what

attributes to the weaknesses.

One of the most important aspects in the teaching profession

is to know the child and aim your standards toward his progress.

Tables I, II, III, IV and Y show correlations between the

Otis test and the Iowa Every Pupil Test for the children in the

fourth grades. Eighty-seven pupils participated in the test. The

Iowa Every Pupil Test measured language skills in punctuation,

capitalization, usage, spelling and sentence sense.

The code for Tables One through Fourteen is as follows:

n is the number in the distribution

y is the Otis Intelligence Quotient

x is the mean for the particular grade

sx is the standard deviation for the respective test tables

sy is the standard deviation for the Otis Test

xy is the product moment correlation coefficient between the

Otis Test score and the respective test grade level

u and v are letters for coding

f is the frequency for either fy or fx respectively.











In Table V the mean 32. 49 or 2. 97 below the previous test.

The standard deviation was relatively high (15. 01) while the

product moment correlation coefficient between x5 and y was 34.

The mean for y was 89. 16 and the standard deviation for y was

14. 98. The Jul fy was still -93, the ,ul fx5 was lowered to -216,
2 2
Fu 1 fy was still 881, vl fx5 was up 1322 while iuv was raised

499.

In general the mean test IQ's ranged from 27. 48 to 35. 46

while this standard deviations ranged from 15. 50 to 18. 55 in

Table III the sigma for the Otis IQ was 14. 98.

In Table VI, the relationship between the Otis Scores and Row

Scores af the Punctuation Test for the fifth grade.








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In all the tables for Grade Five the number of students were

seventy-four. The average for the punctuation test was 24.76 while

the sigma was 10. 88 which can be readily observed to be naturally lower

than those of the previous grade level the product moment correlation

coefficient between the test and the Otis was 32. The mean for the

Otis was 84. 16 while the standard deviation (13. 58) was

lower than test of the previous grade, also. In the Otis frequency

in the scatter diagram was sub-average as was the frequency for the

punctuation test. On the whole the distribution was more evenly dis-

tributed than in the other grades. The following scores should be noted:

f.ulfy was -42

(v1fx was -34

2
ui fy was 48
2
vl fx1 and uv was 366 and 207 respectively.

Table VII is a scatter diagram of Otis scores and Row scores

of capitalization Test for seventy-three pupils in the fifth grade.









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In Table VII for capitalization the mean for the test was

28. 99 while that of the Otis was 84.19. The standard deviation

for the capitalization test and thd Otis was 12. 16 and 13. 57

respectively, both notably lower than similar tests for that level.

the rx2y or product moment correlation coefficient between both

test was .21. In the capitalization IQ scores of this test were

decidedly sub-average, while for the Otis IQ the distribution was
2 2
more even. iul fy>, ul fx2, :Cu 1 fy, fu fx2, uv scores were

-41, -44, 538, 460 and 186 respectively.

The information in Table VIII reveals the relationship

between the Otis Scores and Row Scores of Usage Test for seventy

four pupils in the fifth grades.









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Table VIII is the Usage Test. The mean for the test was 31. 95

as compared to 84.03 for the Otis. The sigma for this test was 16.48

which was relatively high. 13. 58 was the sigma for the Otis. The

product moment correlation coefficient was .21 as the frequency

for the Otis was quite normal. The frequency for the usage test

showed that sixteen pupils made the lowest score of 10-14 on the

test while twenty-five made low scores 25 to 34 which was very poor

for the grade level. The Jul fy was .44, ul fx3 was -75, fu21 fy was

2
572, fu fx3 was 881 and fuv was 173.

Table IX shows the frequency distribution of the scores made by

the seventy-four pupils of fifth grade in the Otis and the Spelling

Test.








- I.- D %0 00 00 -J J 04 C7 UI u-i
N O 0 0 W O UI 0 UV O (. O L 0
o Ln o0 1 0 I i a I i t 1 I,
I a 3 I I DO 00 00 -. a O C a' Ul uli
N 0 0I
43 .0 %D


N p w N I-


N -


- N v N -


N N



- (, ij N, N~


N N N N -


N -


1- -4


I2r
~. X
lj.


'0


I

I






I



I



I


- 0 0 wI w)


-4 a', L-1 & w)


-j .0


f OO Ul rP o w i


I I t I I
N 0 -' N w 01 a% -4,,


A


C,,









NN

IC"



I







II


I I-
Jl r0s






!s


o o






N 0







SN


l N











030 J


II U







oft



00
r
00



-c
II
N

r
"!;

II
-J
P


0

H











0






















0
0







0
0





























'I


I-a












The frequency for the spelling test indicates a fairly even

mean. The same goes for the frequency, this would have to be

classified, however, as slightly sub-normal. The mean of the

test was 45. 93 while the Otis Arithmetic average was 83. 90. The

standard deviation of the Otis in the spelling test was 13.58 and

13,44. The product moment correlation coefficient fell to 20

for the seventy-four students. The sum of the Otis frequency and the

test was -46, while the ul, fxy was 58. Scores of u2 fy, ul fx4

was uv were 580, 870 and 192.

The scatter diagram shown in Table X reveals the correlations

of scores made by the pupils in the fifth grade between the Otis

Test and the test on sentence sense.





TABLE IX. SCATTER DIAGRAM OF OTIS SCORE AND SPELLING TEST FOR FIFTH GRADE -----


S 15- 20- 25. 30- 35- 40- 45- 50. 55- 60- 65- 70. 75- 80. 85- 90- F U1
19 24 29 34 39 44 49 54 59 64 69 74 79 84 89 94


1 2


50-54
55-59
60-64

65-69

70-74

75-79

80-84

85-89

90.94

95-99

100..104

105-109

110-114

115-119

120-124
Fx4

vi


3 1

2

3

1


1

1 1

1

1 1 1


1 -7
3 -6
4 -5

4 -4

6 -3

8 -2

12 -1

13 0

9 1

72 2

3 3

3 4


a

1

2 1

1


1 1


1
3 3 4 8 15 7 5 7 6 7 3


-5 -4 -3 -2


-1 0 1 2


3 4 5


0 5

0 6

1 7


0 2 3 0 1

6 7 8 9 10


9 = 83.90
S =13.58


- =45. 93
SXA =13.44


rx~~ =.20
rX4 1 -


1 1

2


1 3

2











In all the tables for grade five the number in the distribution

was seventy-four. In the final test for grade 5 pupils, the sentence

sense frequency was sub-average as was the frequency for the Otis.

The mean for the Otis was approximately the national average (83. 90)

while that for the other tests was 38.76. While the product moment

correlation coefficient was .18, there was a standard deviation or

sigma of 13.58 for the Otis IQ test scores and 18.58 for the sentence

sense test scores. Characteristically the students tend to do better

on the Otis than the individual tests. In general the scores for the

former were near the national norm while for the latter scores tended

to fall in the lower percentile.

Table XI is a scatter diagram of the Otis Scores and Row

scores for the punctuation test taken by seventy-four pupils in the sixth

grade.





TABLE X. SCATTER DIAGRAM OF OTIS SCORES AND Ri(W SCORES OF SENTENCE SENSE FOR FIFTH GRADE


S10- 15-
4 14 19

50.54

55-59 2

60-64 1

65-69

70.74

75-79 2 1

80.84 1

85-89 1 2
90-94 1-

95-99

100-104

105-109 1

110-114

115-119
120-124

Fx5 8 4

Vi -1 -5

;=-83.90 S\=13.58


20.. 25 30- 35- 40. 45. 50- 55. 60. 65. 7Q. 75- 80. 85. Ui
24 29 34 39 44 49 54 59 64 69 74 79 84 89


1 *7

2 .6

4 -5


2 2


I

1. 1


3 10
-4 -3

)L=38. 76


9 9
-2 -1

SX1 8. 58


1 1

3

1


4 2
0 1

rx,=. 18


7
2


1 2


4 -4

5 -3

9 -2

10 -1

13 0

9 1

7 2

3 3

1 3 4

0 5

0 6
1 7


1

3 1
3 4


IM=71










Tablex XI and XIV are the tests for the sixth grade. On Table

XI the frequency for the Otis score was substandard when compared

to the national norm, while the frequency for the punctuation test

was better than average, which shows that the sixth grade pupils

did much better than the other grades, which of course was to be

expected. There were seventy-four students in the distribution. The

mean score for the Otis was 78. 38 while the mean score for the

punctuation test was 38. 76. The standard deviation for the Otis and

the punctuation test were 11. 79 and 15. 32 respectively. The product

moment correlation coefficient was 14. iul fy in this test was 20,

'vI fx1 was .48, :uI fy was 415, Iv fx1 was 726 and
Six students made scores of ten to fourteen and one each made

scores in the 50-64, 65-59, 79-74, and 80.84 respectively.

The information shown in Table XII shows the relationship be-

tween the Otis and the Capitalization test for seventy-three students

in the sixth grade.




TABLE XI. SCATTER DIAGRAM OF OTIS S CORES AND RAW SCORES OF PUNCTUATION FOR SIXTH GRADE


10- 15- 20.. 25- 30- 35- 40- 45- 50- 55- 60. 65- 70- 75- 80-
14 19 24 29 34 39 44 49 54 59 64 69 74 79 84


1

1

1
1



1


1 1


2

2 1

3 1

2

2


1 3

1 2


60-64

65-69

70-74

75-79

80-84

85-89

90.94

95-99

100-104

105-109

Fxl
Ui


2 1

2 2 2

1 1 2

1 3 3

2 E 1 2


1

1


8 12 11 4 1
0 1 2 3 4

38.76 15.32


45-49

50-54

55-59


Fy Ui


1 -6

0 -5

3 -4


6 3 7 7 5 7
-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -I

78.38 11.79


6 2


.14


--











In Table XII the scores on the capitalization tests were

compared with the Otis. Seventy-three students took the test.

On the Otis the average or mean score was 77.75 while in the

capitalization test it was 39. 33. The sigma for the former was

14. 06 and the latter it was 11. 81. The product moment

correlation coefficient was 22. Scores on the Otis were slightly

above average but they were slightly sub average on this part of

the capitalization test. The other scores were:

u1 fy 11

v1 fz2 "- 39
2
1u fy 411
2
v 1 fx2 681

uv 128

Information in Table XIII reveals the relationship of the Otis

Test and the Raw scores of the usage test for seventy-two pupils

in sixth grade.








TABLE XII. SCATTER DIAGRAM OF OTIS SCORES AND RAW SCORES OF CAPITALIZATION TEST FOR SIXTH GRAD;


Sv10. 15- 20- 25- 30- 35- 40- 45- 50. 55- 60. 65- 70- 75- Fy Ui
S14 19 24 29 34 39 44 49 54 59 64 69 74 79


2 1 1 1


1 2 2


1 1 2 1 1 1


45-49

50-54

55-59

60-64

65-69

70-74

75-79

80-84

85-89

90-94

95-99


1 2 2 1 3


1 I 2


0 -5

3 -4

6 -3

8 -2

8 -1

16 0

14 1

6 2

4 3

3 4

3 5

1 6


7 1 6 5 11 5 10 8 9 7 1 2 0 1

6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7


Ri=39'33 Syj=14.06 -,x=- 22


S=77.75 S=11. 81


2 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1


1 2


100.104

105-109


Fx2


CI


--













In Table XIII, seventy-two students were tested on the Usage

Test. Again the test scores on the Otis were slightly above

average while in this part of the test scores were slightly subnormal.

The mean for the Otis and the Usage test were 77. 76 and 35. 50

respectively the sigma being 11. 81 and 14.42 respectively. The

product moment correlation coefficient was '29. The figures 11,
2
-23, 411 606 and 139 represent ful fy, ulfx3 LKU fx3, and iuv.

One student made a 75-79 score while seven made 10-14, nine

made 20.24, ten made 30-34 and 34 made between 35 to 54.

Table XIV is a scatter diagram showing the relationship of

the Otis score to the Row scores af Spelling Test for seventy-four

pupils in the sixth grade.








TABLE XIII. SCATTER DIAGRAM OF OTIS SCORES AND RAW SCORES OF USAGE TEST FOR SIXTH GRADE


14 14

45-49

50-54

55-59

60.64 1

65-69 1

70-74 2

75-79 3

80-84

85-89

90-94

95-99,

100-104

105-109


15- 20. 25- 30. 35. 40- 45. 50. 55- 60. 65. 70. 75-
19 24 29 34 39 44 49 54 59 64 69 74 79 y


0 *.5

3 -4


1 1


1 2

1

1 1

2 2.


2 1


2 2

3

2 1

1 1


3 7

-5

u=77.76


3 9 6 10 9 7

.4 -3 -2 "1 0 1
Su=11.81 3;=35.50 S$3=14.42


7 8

2 3

tA = 29


3 2 0 0 1

4 5 6 7 8
v =72


Fx

Vi


--"


I











In Table XIV, the same number seventyfour took the test,
2
same as Table XI. Whileul fy was 20, v1 fx4 was 34, $u 1

2
was 415, (vi fx4 was 780, uv was 178. Scores on the Otis were

again above average while on the spelling test they were decidedly

more superior than on the other tests. The Otis mean was 78. 38 and

the sigma 11.79. For the spelling test, the arithmetic mean was 54.

30 and standard deviation 15.92. The product moment correlation

coeffieicnt was 17. In this scatter diagram most scores for the

tests were concentrated in the center as indicated in the table.







TABLE XIV. SCATTER DIAGRAM OF OTIS SCORES AND RAW SCORES OF SPELLING TEST FOR SIXTH GRADE


4 10. 15. 200 25- 30- 35- 40- 45- 50- 55- 60. 65. 70. 75- 80. 85- Fy ui
I4 i'J14 19 24 29 34 39 44 49 54 59 64 69 74 79 84 89


45-49
50-54


1 -6
0 .5


1

1 2 1

1 2

1 1

1 2 1

1

1


1

1

2 2

1

2 2

1 2

1 2


55-59

60-64

65-69

70-74

75-79

80-84

85-89

90-94

95-99

100-104

105-109


1 3 -4

6 -3

9 -2

8 -1

16 0

2 14 1

6 2

1 4 3

3 4

3 5

1 1 6


1 1 0 1 3 7 8 8

-8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1

9=78.38 S%=11. 79 ,=54-30


8 13 6

0 1 2

SIx=15. 92


5 4

3 4

r, =. 17


4 0 5

5 6 7

' 74


1 1


Fx4

ui










TABLE XV


COMPARISON OF MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS OF THE
TEST FOR FOURTH GRADE


Otis Norm

89. 16

89. 16

89.16

89.16

89.16


Otis Sigma

14.98

14.98

14.98

14.98

14.98


Test
Mean

27.48

34.43

27.69

35.46

32.49


Test
Sigma

15.50

17.90

18.55

15.80

15.01


Product Moment
Correlation

.11

.19

.21

.41

.34


The table is a comparison of means and standard deviations

of the test for fourth grade. Xl, X2, X3, X4, X represents

punctuation, capitalization, usage, spelling and sentence sense tests

respectively. The Otis mean for all test in the fourth grade was 89. 16,

the Otis Sigma 14. 98. The pupils in fourth grade did best on the

Spelling test. The test mean for the Spelling Test being 35. 46. The

test sigma ranged from 15. 01 to 18. 55.


Test

x1

X2

X3

X4

X










TABLE XVI

COMPARISON OF MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS OF THE

TEST FOR FIFTH GRADES


5th Grade
Test

XI

X2

X3

X4

X
5


Otis Mean Otis Sigma

84.16 13.58

84.19 13.57

84.03 13.58

83.90 13.58

83.90 13.58


Test
Mean

24.76

28.99

31.95

45.93

38.76


Test Product
Sigma Moment Correlation

10.88 .32

12.16 .21

16.48 .21

13.44 .20

18.58 .18


The table shows comparison of means and standard deviations

of the test for fifth grade. X X X X X represent the punc.
1 2 4 5
tuation, capitalization usage, spelling and sentence sense tests,

respectively. The Otis Mean for the fifth grades range from 83.90

to 84. 19. The Otis Sigma for all tests was approximately 13. 58. The

table reveals that fifth grades did best in spelling test as did the

fourth grades.









TABLE XVII

COMPARISON OF MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATION OF THE TEST
FOR SIXTH GRADE


6th Grade Test Test Product
Test Otis Mean Otis Sigma Mean Sigma Moment Correlation

X1 78.38 11.79 38.76 15.32 .14

X2 77.75 11.81 39.33 14.06 .22

X3 77.76 11.81 35.50 14.42 .29

X4 78.38 11.79 54.30 15.92 .17



The table shows comparison of means and standard deviations

of the tests for the sixth grade. X1, X2, X3, X4 represent punctuation,

capitalization usage and spelling tests, respectively. The Otis Test

mean range was 77. 75 to 78. 38. The test mean range was 35. 50 to

54. 30. The sixth grade pupils did better than other grades on the lest

which was to be expected. The scores for the spelling tests were

better than on other tests.










CHAPTER IV

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


Summary. In this study an effort has been made to analyze

the language arts program of the intermediate grade of the Bond

Junior High School of Leon County, Florida. Involved in the

study were two hundred thirty-five students in the grades four, five

and six.

The literature reviewed in Chapter Two indicated the

importance of the broad range of communicative activities

developmental patterns in various phases of language and the varia-

tion from child to child in different language arts abilities.

Academic success of the two hundred thirty-five students in

grades four to six were measured by the Iowa-Every Pupil Test of

Basic Language Skills Form L. The tests were administered and

scored by the investigator. The relationship between general mental

ability as measured by the Otis Self.Administering Test of Mental

Ability, Form A was administered and scored by the investigator.

The relationship between general mental ability as measured by

the Otis Self-Administering Test of Mental Ability, Form A and the

academic success in the language skill was revealed. Tables

revealing frequency distributions, correlations of the variables as

used in this study were compiled and results are shown in Chapter

Three.









Conclusions. The conclusions drawn from this study

are as follows:

(1) The level of intelligence of the two hundred thirty-five

students, participating in this study, in the four to six grades of the

Bond Junior High School range from an Intelligence Quotient of fifty

to one hundred twenty-four.

(2) The mean intelligence quotient for the pupils in the fourth

grade is 89.16 which is slightly below average.

(3) In the fourth grade on all parts of the Iowa Every Pupil Test

the majority of the pupils made sub-average scores.

(4) The fourth grade pupils made sub-average scores on the

Otis as on the Punctuation Test. In light of the few facilities in the

school for the teaching of science, this was to be expected. Their

scores on the former test, however, were not much lower than those

of fifth and sixth grade students as the means and standard deviation

did not differ widely.

(5) Punctuation, capitalization, usage, spelling and sentence

sense scores did not differ widely. On the whole sub-average

students on the Otis test tended to do poorly in the other parts and

vice versa.

(6) The fifth grade pupils made sub-average scores on the

Otis test. The mean for the Otis test for fifth grade pupils was

lower than the fourth grade mean.

(7) The fifth grade pupils made sub-average scores in

the Iowa Every Pupil Test. PurCtuation, capitilization, usage,











spelling and sentence sense scores did not differ widely. On the

whole sub-average students on the Otis test tended to do poorly

in the other parts and vice versa.

(8) The sixth grade pupils made sub-standard scores on

the Otis when compared to the national norm.

(9) The frequency for the punctuation test was better than

average which shows that the sixth grade pupils did better than the

other grades which of course was to be expected.

(10) One sixth grade pupil scored 0 on the capitalization

test, two scored 0 on the usage test.

(11) The sixth grade pupils made above average scores on

the spelling test they were decidedly more superior than on the

other tests.

Recommendations. In view of the findings revealed in this study

the writer makes the following recommendations:

(1) In light of the poor performance on the Basic Language

Skills Form L more emphasis should be placed by the classroom

teacher on the development of these skills.

(2) A follow-up program of individual testing should be

made by competent personnel for those pupils who have intelligence

quotients lower than seventy to see if there is a high level of mental

retardation in the grades four tosix of the Bond Junior High School.

(3) More funds should be provided for the purchasing of test









and other equipment needed for the making of a better language

arts program in the grades four to six at the Bond Junior High'

School.

(4) A program of remedial work for those having a grade

equivalent below 4. 0 be initiated in the intermediate grades at

the Bond Junior High School.

(5) A study should be made to find at which grade level

teachers of Bond Junior High School begin emphasizing the acquisi-

tion of these language skills.

(6) More time should be provided for the pupils in the grades

four to six for use of the library so that they may improve in the

skill of collecting and organizing information.

(7) The classroom teacher should test pupils at the beginning

of the term, chart the results and retest near the end of the term

to determine the progress made in the language arts area.

































BIBLIOGRAPHY









BIBLIOGRAPHY

Artley, Sterl A., Principles Applying to the Improvement of

Spelling Ability, Elementary School Journal, November 1948.

Baer, Mata V., Children's Growth in the Use of Written Language,

Elementary English Review, XVI (December, 1939) 312.319.

Baker, Harold V., Children's Contributions in Elementary School

General Discussion, Child Development, Monographs No. 29,

College, Columbia University, 1942.

Beery, Althea, Listening Activities in the Elementary School,

Elementary English Review, XXIII (February, 1949) 69-79.

Clark, W. R., Radio Listening Habits of Children, Social

Psychology, XII, 1940, pp. 131-149.

Cunningham, Ruth and others, Understanding Group Behavior of

Boys and Girls, Bureau of Publications, Teachers College,

Columbia University, 1951, pp. 446.

Curtis, Margaret W., Child Psychology, New York: Longmans, Green

and Company, 1938.

DeBoer, John J. and Fred Godschalk, The Mass Media of Communi-

cation and Children in the United States, unpublished report

to UNESCO made for the Bureau of Research Service of Univer-

sity of Illinois.

Dawson, Mildred A., Teaching Language in the Grades, Yonkers-on

Hudson, World Book Company, 1951.

Duker, Sam, How Listening is Taught, The Instructor, May 1944, pp.

35-76









Elliot, Merle H., "Friendship Patterns," Progressive Education,

XVIII, 1951, pp. 383-390.

Fleeye, Brother Urban H., "Movies As An Influence in the Life of

the Modern Adolescent" Catholic Educational Review, 1945,

pp. 336-352.

Fries, C. C., American English Grammar, New York: D. Appleton-

Century Company, 1940, pp. 10-11.

Furfey, Paul H., The Gang Age, New York: Macmillan Company,

1926, p. 189.

Gans, Roma, "Are the Schools Neglecting the Fundamentals?"

Teachers Collg e Record, Teachers College, Columbia University

Vol. 56, No. 1, pp. 43-45.

Hall, Judy C., "The Effect of Background Music and the Reading

Comprehension of Two Hundred Seventy-Eight Eighth and Ninth

Grade St udents, Journal of Educational Research XLV (February,

1952) pp. 451-458.

Hildreth, Gertrude, Learning the Three R' S, 2nd Edition, St. Louis:

Educational Publishers, Inc. 1947.

Hoppes, William C., "Some Aspects of Growth in Written Expression,

Elementary English Review, X (March, 1933) 62-70.

Josettes, Frank, "Comics, Radio, Movies -- And Children" Public

Affairs Pamphlet No. 148, New York: 1949.









Khater, Mahmoud Roushd, The Influence of Social Class on the

Language Patterns of Kindergarten Children, unpublished Ph.D.

dissertation, The Department of Education, The University of

Chicago, 1951.

Lazar, Mary, Reading Interests, Activities and Opportunities of Bright,

Average, and Dull Children, New York. Bureau of Publications

Teachers College, Columbia University, 1937.

Lewis, Philip, "T. V. Viewing Hurts Grades of Sophs and Juniors,

But Helps Seniors", Advertising Agency (May 8, 1950).

McCarthy, Dorothea, "Language Development in Children, Manual of

Child Psychology, Ed. L. Carmichael, New York, John Wiley

and Sons, 1946, 476-581.

Maddy, Nancy Ruth, "Comparison of Children's Personality Traits,

Attitudes, and Intelligence with Parental Occupation," Genetic

Psychology Monographs XXVII, 1943, pp. 3-65.

Malter, Morton S., "The Content of Current Comic Magazines,

The Elementary School Journal, LII (May 1952) pp. 505-510.

Mitchell, Adelle H., The Effect of Radio Programs on Silent Reading

Achievement of Ninety-One Sixth Grade Students, Journal of

Educational Research XLII (February 1949) pp. 460-476.

Paiget, Jean, The Language and Thought of the Child, New York:

New York: Harcourt Brace and Company, 1926.

Richards, I. A., The Philosophy of Rhetoric, New York: Oxford

University Press, 1936, pp. 77-78.









69

Russell, David H., Children Learn to Read, New York: Ginn and

Company, 1949, p. 10.

Sears, Robert R., Child Psychology, Current Trends in Psychology,

University of Pittsburgh Press, 1947, pp. 50-74.

Swenson, Esther J. and Charles G. Caldwell, The Process of Com-

munication in Children's Letters, Elementary School Journal

XLIV (December 1948) pp. 224-225.

Tyron, Caroline M., The Adolescent Peer Culture, Adolescence

43rd Yearbook, Part I, National Society for the Study of

Education, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1944,

pp. 1217-1239.

































APPENDIX





OTIS SELF-ADMINISTERING TESTS OF MENTAL ABILITY
By ARTHUR S. OTIS, PH.D.
Formerly Development Specialist with Advisory Board, General Staff, United States War Department

INTERMEDIATE EXAMINATION: FORM A
For Grades 4-9
20 Score ..........


Read this page. Do what it tells you to do.

Do not open this paper, or turn it over, until you are told to do so. Fill these blanks, giving your
name, age, birthday, etc. Write plainly.

Name................. .... .................. .....Age last birthday......years
First name, initial, and last name

Birthday........................... Teacher......... ... Date ..............19..
Month Day

Grade .................. School ................. City..............................


This is a test to see how well you can think. It contains questions of different kinds. Here is
a sample question already answered correctly. Notice how the question is answered:

Sample: Which one of the five words below tells what an apple is?
I flower, 2 tree, 3 vegetable, 4 fruit, 5 animal. ............ ..... ( )

The right answer, of course, is "fruit"; so the word "iruit" is underlined. And the word "fruit"
is No. 4; so a figure 4 is placed in the parentheses at the end of the dotted line. This is the way you
are to answer the questions.
Try this sample question yourself. Do not write the answer; just draw a line under it and then
put its number in the parentheses:

Sample: Which one of the five things below is round?
I a book, 2 a brick, 3 a ball, 4 a house, 5 a box...................( )

The answer, of course, is "a ball"; so you should have drawn a line under the words "a ball"
and put a figure 3 in the parentheses. Try this one:

Sample: A foot is to a man and a paw is to a cat the same as a hoof is to a what ?
i dog, 2 horse, 3 shoe, 4 blacksmith, 5 saddle......................( )
1
The answer, of course, is "horse"; so you should have drawn a line under the word "horse"
and put a figure 2 in the parentheses. Try this one:

Sample: At four cents each, how many cents will 6 pencils cost ? ......................... (/ )

The answer, of course, is 24, and there is nothing to underline; so just put the 24 in the parentheses.
If the answer to any question is a number or a letter, put the number or letter in the parentheses
without underlining anything. Make all letters like printed capitals.
The test contains 75 questions. You are not expected to be able to answer all of them, but do
the best you can. You will be allowed half an hour after the examiner tells you to begin. Try to
get as many right as possible. Be careful not to go so fast that you make mistakes. Do not spend
too much time on any one question. No questions about the test will be answered by the examiner
after the test begins. Lay your pencil down.


Do not turn this page until you are told to begin.

Published by World Book Company, Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York, and 2126 Prairie Avenue, Chicago
Copyright 1922 by World Book Company. Copyright renewed 1950. Copyright in Great Britain
All rights reserved. PRINTED IN U.S.A. OSATMA: IE: A-83
i" This test is copyrighted. The reproduction of any part of it by mimeograph, hectograph, or in any other
way, whether the reproductions are sold or are furnished free for use, is a violation of the copyright law.






S.A. Intermediate: A


EXAMINATION BEGINS HERE.
1. Which one of the five things below does not belong with the others? (
i potato, 2 turnip, 3 carrot, 4 stone, 5 onion........Donotwriteon.hesedottlin.) ( )
2. Which one of the five words below tells best what a saw is?
i something, 2 tool, 3 furniture, 4 wood, 5 machine............................. ( )
3. Which one of the five words below means the opposite of west?
i north, 2 south, 3 east, 4 equator, 5 sunset.................................. ( )
4. A hat is to a head and a glove is to a hand the same as a shoe is to what ?
i leather, 2 a foot, 3 a shoestring, 4 walk, 5 a toe............................. (
5. A child who knows he is guilty of doing wrong should feel (?)
i bad, 2 sick, 3 better, 4 afraid, 5 ashamed.................................. ( )
6. Which one of the five things below is the smallest?
I twig, 2 limb, 3 bud, 4 tree, 5 branch....... ........... ........ ........ ... ( )
7. Which one of the five things below is most like these three: cup, plate, saucer?
I fork, 2 table, 3 eat, 4 bowl, 5 spoon ................................. ( )
8. Which of the five words below means the opposite of strong?
I man, 2 weak, 3 small, 4 short, 5 thin.............. .................. ( )
9. A finger is to a hand the same as a toe is to what?
i foot, 2 toenail, 3 heel, 4 shoe, 5 knee ......... ............................. ( )
o1. Which word means the opposite of sorrow?
i sickness, 2 health, 3 good, 4 joy, 5 pride .................................. ( )
11. Which one of the ten numbers below is the smallest? (Tell by letter.)
A 6084, B 5160, C 4342, D 6521, E 9703, F 4296, G 7475, H 2657, J 8839, K 3918 ( )
12. Which word means the opposite of pretty?
i good, 2 ugly, 3 bad, 4 crooked, 5 nice..................................... ( )
13. Do what this mixed-up sentence tells you to do.
number Write the the in 5 parentheses.................................... ( )
14. If we believe some one has committed a crime, but we are not sure, we have a (?)
x fear, 2 suspicion, 3 wonder, 4 confidence, 5 doubtful...................... ( )
x5. A book is to an author as a statue is to (?)
i sculptor, 2 marble, 3 model, 4 magazine, 5 man............................ ( )
i6. Which is the most important reason that words in the dictionary are arranged alphabetically?
i That is the easiest way to arrange them. 2 It puts the shortest words first. 3 It enables
us to find any word quickly. 4 It is merely a custom. 5 It makes the printing easier.. ( )
17. Which one of the five things below is most like these three: plum, apricot, apple?
i tree, 2 seed, 3 peach, 4 juice, 5 ripe................................... ( )
18. At 4 cents each, how many pencils can be bought for 36 cents?........................ ( )
19. If a person walking in a quiet place suddenly hears a loud sound, he is likely to be (?)
I stopped, 2 struck, 3 startled, 4 made deaf, 5 angered. ............... ........ ( )
20. A boy is to a man as a (?) is to a sheep.
I wool, 2 lamb, 3 goat, 4 shepherd, 5 dog..................................( )
21. One number is wrong in the following series. What should that number be? (Just write the
correct number in the parentheses.)
1 6 2 6 3 6 4 6 5 6 7 6...... ...............( )
22, Which of the five things below is most like these three: horse, pigeon, cricket?
I stall, 2 saddle, 3 eat, 4 goat, 5 chirp .................. ................... .. ( )
23. If the words below were rearranged to make a good sentence, with what letter would the last
word of the sentence begin ? (Make the letter like a printed capital.)
nuts from squirrels trees the gather..................................... ( )
24. A man who betrays his country is called a (?)
i thief, 2 traitor, 3 enemy, 4 coward, 5 slacker................................ ( )
25. Food is to the body as (?) is to an engine.
I wheels, 2 fuel, 3 smoke, 4 motion, 5 fire................................... ( )
26. Which tells best just what a pitcher is?
i a vessel from which to pour liquid, 2 something to hold milk, 3 It has a handle,
4 It goes on the table, 5 It is easily broken........................................ ( )


Do not stop. Go on with the next page.
[2]






S.A. Intermediate: A


27. If George is older than Frank, and Frank is older than James, then George is (?) James.
I older than, 2 younger than, 3 just as old as, 4 (cannot say which)............... ( )
.28. Count each 7 below that has a 5 next after it. Tell how many 7's you count.
7 5 3 0 9 7 3 7 8 5 7 4 2 7 5 7 3 2 4 7 0 9 3 7 5 5 7 2 3 5 7 7 5 4 ........ ( )
29. If the words below were rearranged to make a good sentence, with what letter would the last
word of the sentence begin? (Make the letter like a printed capital.)
leather shoes usually made are of ................................. ... ( )
30. An electric light is to a candle as a motorcycle is to (?)
i bicycle, 2 automobile, 3 wheels, 4 speed, 5 police............................( )
31. Which one of the words below would come first in the dictionary?
i march, 2 ocean, 3 horse, 4 paint, 5 elbow, 6 night, 7 flown................. ( )
32. The daughter of my mother's brother is my (?)
i sister, 2 niece, 3 cousin, 4 aunt, 5 granddaughter........................... ( )
33. One number is wrong in the following series. What should that number be?
3 4 5 4 3 4 5 4 3 5 ... ....... ........ ....... ( )
34. Which of the five things below is most like these three: boat, horse, train?
i sail, 2 row, 3 motorcycle, 4 move, 5 track .................................. ( )
35. If Paul is taller than Herbert and Paul is shorter than Robert, then Robert is (?) Herbert.
i taller than, 2 shorter than, 3 just as tall as, 4 (cannot say which)................ ( )
36. What is the most important reason that we use clocks?
i to wake us up in the morning, 2 to regulate our daily lives, 3 to help us catch trains,
4 so that children will get to school on time, 5 They are ornamental ................. ( )
37. A coin made by an individual and meant to look like one made by the government is called(?)
i duplicate, 2 counterfeit, 3 imitation, 4 forgery, 5 libel ....................... ( )
38. A wire is to electricity as (?) is to gas.
ia flame, 2 aspark, 3 hot, 4 a pipe, 5 a stove................................. ( )
39. If the following words were arranged in order, with what letter would the middle word begin?
Yard Inch Mile Foot Rod ................................... ... ( )
40. One number is wrong in the following series. What should that number be?
5 1o 15 20 25 29 35 40 45 50 .................. ...... ( )
41. Which word means the opposite of truth?
i cheat, 2 rob, 3 liar, 4 ignorance, 5 falsehood .............................. ( )
42. Order is to confusion as (?) is to war.
i guns, 2 peace, 3 powder, 4 thunder, 5 army .............................. ( )
43. In a foreign language, good food = Bano Naab
good water = Heto Naab
The word that means good begins with what letter?................................. ( )
44. The feeling of a man for his children is usually (?)
i affection, 2 contempt, 3 joy, 4 pity, 5 reverence ........................... ( )
45. Which of the five things below is most like these three: stocking, flag, sail?
i shoe, 2 ship, 3 staff, 4 towel, 5 wash........................................ ( )
46. A book is to information as (?) is to money.
i paper, 2 dollars, 3 bank, 4 work, 5 gold............. ... ............. ( )
47. If Harry is taller than William, and William is just as tall as Charles, then Charles is (?) Harry
I taller than, 2 shorter than, 3 just as tall as, 4 (cannot say which)............. .. ( )
48. If the following words were arranged in order, with what letter would the middle word begin ?
Six Ten Two Eight Four.................................................... ( )
49. If the words below were rearranged to make a good sentence, with what letter would the third
word of the sentence begin ? (Make the letter like a printed capital.)
men high the a wall built stone................... ............... ..... ( )
50. If the suffering of another makes us suffer also, we feel (?)
i worse, 2 harmony, 3 sympathy, 4 love, 5 repelled........................... ( )
5T. In a foreign language, grass = Moki
green grass = Moki Laap
The word that means green begins with what letter?.......... .......................... ( )


Do not stop. Go on with the next page.
[31





S. A. Intermediate: A
52. If a man has walked west from his home 9 blocks and then walked east 4 blocks, how many
blocks is he from his home?... ........ ................................ ( )
53. A pitcher is to milk as (?) is to flowers.
i stem, 2 leaves, 3 water, 4 vase, 5 roots.....................................( )
54. Do what this mixed-up sentence tells you to do.
sum three Write two the four and of. ....................... .......... ( )
55. There is a saying, "Don't count your chickens before they are hatched." This means (?)
i Don't hurry. 2 Don't be too sure of the future. 3 Haste makes waste. 4 Don't
gamble .. ... ...... ........ ... .. ... ..... ........ ....... ..... ......... ( )
56. Which statement tells best just what a fork is?
i a thing to carry food to the mouth, 2 It goes with a knife, 3 an instrument with prongs
at the end, 4 It goes on the table, 5 It is made of silver........................ ( )
57. Wood is to a table as (?) is to a knife.
I cutting, 2 chair, 3 fork, 4 steel, 5 handle. ....... ...... ...... .............. ( )
58. Do what this mixed-up sentence tells you to do.
sentence the letter W rite last this in.......................... ........ .. ( )
59. Which one of the words below would come last in the dictionary?
i alike, 2 admit, 3 amount, 4 across, 5 after, 6 amuse, 7 adult, 8 affect ( )
6o. There is a saying, "He that scatters thorns, let him go barefoot." This means (?)
i Let him who causes others discomforts bear them himself also. 2 Going barefoot
toughens the feet. 3 People should pick up what they scatter. 4 Don't scatter things
around.......... ........................... ... ............ ( )
61. If the following words were arranged in order, with what letter would the middle word begin?
Plaster Frame Wallpaper Lath Foundation............ ................. ( )
62. In a foreign language, many boys = Boka Hepo
many girls = Marti Hepo
many boys and girls = Boka Ello Marti Hepo
The word that means and begins with what letter ?..... ............ .......... ( )
63. A statement which expresses just the opposite of that which another statement expresses is
said to be a (?)
i lie, 2 contradiction, 3 falsehood, 4 correction, 5 explanation................... ( )
64. There is a saying, "Don't look a gift horse in the mouth." This means (?)
i It is not safe to look into the mouth of a horse. 2 Although you question the value of
a gift, accept it graciously. 3 Don't accept a horse as a gift. 4 You cannot judge the
age of a gift horse by his teeth.......... ......................... ........... )
65. Which one of the words below would come last in the dictionary?
I hedge, 2 glory, 3 label, 4 green, 5 linen, 6 knife, 7 honor.... ............ ( )
66. Which statement tells best just what a watch is?
i It ticks, 2 something to tell time, 3 a small, round object with a chain, 4 a vest-
pocket-sized time-keeping instrument, 5 something with a face and hands........... ( )
67. Ice is to water as water is to what?
i land, 2 steam, 3 cold, 4 river, 5 thirst..................................... ( )
68. Which statement tells best just what a window is?
I something to see through, 2 a glass door, 3 a frame with a glass in it, 4 a glass
opening in the wall of a house, 5 a piece of glass surrounded by wood................ ( )
69. Which of the five words below is most like these three: large, red, good?
I heavy, 2 size, 3 color, 4 apple, 5 very. ............ ........ ........... ( )
70. Write the letter that follows the letter that comes next after M in the alphabet ............ ( )
71. One number is wrong in the following series. What should that number be ?
I 2 4 8 i6 24 64 .......... ................... ( )
72. An uncle is to an aunt as a son is to a (?)
i brother, 2 daughter, 3 sister, 4 father, 5 girl.............. ................. ( )


73. If I have a large box with 3 small boxes in it and 4 very small boxes in each of the small boxes,
how many boxes are there in all? ............... ................. ...... .. ( )
74. One number is wrong in the following series. What should that number be?
I 2 4 5 7 8 io II 12 14 ............................ ( )
75. There is a saying, "Don't ride a free horse to death." This means (?)
i Don't be cruel. 2 Don't abuse a privilege. 3 Don't accept gifts. 4 Don't be reckless. ( )
If you finish before the time is up, go back and make sure that every answer is right.
[41




li*. *t


IOWA EVERY-PUPIL TESTS OF BASIC SKILLS
New Edition


TEST C: BASIC LANGUAGE SKILLS- FORM L

ELEMENTARY BATTERY GRADES 3-4-5

By
F. SPITZER, in collaboration with ERNEST HORN, MAUDE MCBROOM, H. A. GREENE, and E. F. LINDQUIST (General Editor), all of the
College of Education, State University of Iowa, with the Assistance of the Faculty of the University Experimental Schools.


Do not turn this page until you are told to do so.
Your teacher will tell you what to do.


CONVERSION TABLES*
I __II ,


rade Equivalents
Raw
Pt. Pt. Pt. Pt. Score
II III IV V

98 105 82 _--- 40
S93 101 75 ---- 39
89 96 68 ---- 38
S84 90 63 ---- 37
79 85 58 ..- 36
73 77 56 102 35
64 68 53 97 34
58 62 51 92 33
53 55 48 87 32
51 50 47 82 31
48 44 46 77 30
46 40 44 73 29
44 37 43 69 28
42 34 42 65 27
41 32 41 60 26
39 28 39 55 25
38 25 38 50 24
37 23 38 46 23
36 20 37 42 22
34 17 36 38 21
33 14 35 33 20
32 13 34 29 19
32 11 33 25 18
30 10 33 22 17
29 10 32 17 16
28 10 31 14 15
27 10 29 11 14
26 10 28 10 13
25 10 27 10 12
24 10 25 10 11
23 10 24 10 10
22 10 23 10 9
21 10 21 10 8
20 10 18 10 7
18 10 16 10 6
17 10 14 10 5
16 10 12 10 4
15 10 10 10 3
13 10 10 10 2
) 12 10 10 10 1
)10 10 10 10 0


-- .-- .-.-.-- .


Name


Total Scores
Raw Grade Raw Grade Raw Grade Raw Grade
Score Equiv. Score Equiv. Score Equiv. Score Equiv.


190-102
189-101
188-100
187-98
186-97
185-96
184-95
183-94
182-92
181-91
180-90
179-89
178-88
177-86
176-85
175-83
174-82
173-81
172-80
171-79
170-78
169-76
168-75
167-74
166-72
165-70
164-69
163-67
162-66
161-64
160-63
159-63
158-62
157-61
156-60
155-59
154-58
153-58
152-57
151-56
150-56
149-55
148-54
147-54
146-53
145-53
144-52
143-52


142-51
141-50
140-49
139-48
138-48
137-48
136-47
135-47
134-47
133-46
132-46
131-46
130-45
129-45
128-44
127-44
126-43
125-43
124-42
123-42
122-42
121-41
120-41
119-41
118-40
117-40
116-39
115-39
114-38
113-38
112-37
111-37
110-37
109-36
108-36
107-35
106-35
105-35
104-34
103-34
102-33
101-33
100-33
99-32
98-32
97-32
96-31
95-31


J.J ___________


* See Examiner's Mnual, page 8.


94-31
93-30
92-30
91-30
90-30
89-29
88-29
87-29
86-29
85-28
84-28
83-28
82-27
81-27
80-27
79-26
78-26
77-26
76-25
75-25
74-25
73-24
72-24
71-24
70-23
69-23
68-23
67-22
66-22
65-22
64-22
63-22
62-22
61-21
60-21
59-21
58-21
57-20
56-20
55-19
54-19
53-19
52-19
51-18
50-18
49-17
48-17
47-17


46-16
45-16
44-15
43-15
42-15
41-14
40-14
39-13
38-13
37-13
36-12
35-12
34-12
33-11
32-11
31-11
30-10
29-10
28-10
27-10
26-10
25-10
24-10
23-10
22-10
21-10
20-10
19-10
18-10
17-10
16-10
15-10
14-10
13-10
12-10
11-10
10-10
9-10
8-10
7-10
6-10
5-10
4-10
3-10
2-10
1-10
0-10


(LAST NAME)


(FIRST NAME)


Sex __ Grade Date
(BOY or GIRL)

Age on Last Birthday Number of Months
(YEARS) Since Last Birthday

Town or City


School


Teacher -


PART
I:


PUNCTUATION


II: CAPITALIZATION


III: USAGE


IV:


SPELLING


SCORES
Poss. Raw Grade
Score Score Equiv.

(35)


(40)


(40)


(40)


V: SENTENCE SENSE (35)


TOTAL


(190)


Copyright, 1940, by State University of Iowa.
Also Licensed under U.S. Patent 1,586,628
Persons who, without authorization, reproduce the material in this Test or any
parts of it by any duplicating process whatever are violating' the author's copyright.
The material contained herein, or modifications of it, may not be reproduced
except by special arrangement with the publishers and the payment either of a
permission fee or of a royalty on all copies made.


HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY

BOSTON NEW YORK CHICAGO
DALLAS ATLANTA SAN FRANCISCO

tbe kiberotibe trets Cambtibge
Pr k t IN ='Bs OLA.


1 4&




2 2
i PART I. PUNCTUATION I
Directions: In these exercises all punctuation marks such as periods, commas, question ma
quotation marks, and apostrophes have been left out. You are to put in the punctuation me
that are needed.
Sample: Jacks hat is large


Mr Brown took the scouts of Evansville Indiana to visit Li

colns birthplace near Hodgenville Kentucky The scouts notic

the rail fences the log cabins and the curio shops along the ro


Dont you like to play in the snow

That book was written by T A Wilson

Georges car is a Ford

I am not going said Ellen

Havent you ever been to Des Moines Iowa

I like to read about scouts Indians and pioneers


336 Stone Street

Grand Island Nebras

May 29 1939

Ohio State Department of Agriculture

Columbus Ohio

Gentlemen

We are studying about soils in our science class What bulletin


do you have that give information about soils

Respectfully yours score
Part
Dan Lane
(Do not go on to the next page until you are told to do so.)

S ::




3 4 3
I PART II. CAPITALIZATION
sections: In these exercises all capital letters have been left out. If you think that a wora
would begin with a capital letter, draw a line through the first letter of that word, as has been done
ith the first word in the sample.

Sample: /hat girl's name is mary.



216 sunset avenue

leeds, maine

november 3, 1939

ear friend,

your letter was enjoyed by all of the family. we were glad to

now that you like your work at franklin school, will you tell

s more about the school in your next letter?

your friend,

kate



on wednesday morning mr. d. simms, the sixth grade teacher

Sadams school, gave a talk at the school assembly. pictures

aken during his visit to boulder, colorado, last august and sep-

ember were shown. from his room on chestnut street he had

aken pictures of the snow-capped rocky mountains, the moun-

ains reminded me of the book named "heidi," which tells about

/he swiss mountains.

after the talk he asked, "are there any questions?" there were

o many questions that he said,."come to see me during christmas


action, and i'll tell you the rest." Score on Part
Correct (A)
Superfluous (B)
SScore = A B
(Do not go on to the next page until you are told to do so.)




4


5
-.-.
!I


PART III. USAGE
Directions: In each of the following sentences, only
one of the two words in heavy type is used correctly.
Place an X in the box in front of the word which you
think is used correctly.

Samples:

The marbles i is large.
Share


S am going.
me



1. He D did the work himself.
done

Sis
2. The cow with the black spots eating grass.
Share


3. The stick was D broke
D broken


into two pieces.


D drawn
4. The heavy sled was F drawn over the ice.
] drawed


5. The bell had already D rang,
Srung

w Went
6. He has went home.
D gone

7. Jack D climbe theladder.
Sdcumb

8. Mary and are going together.
L me

9. I knew it would come true.
knowed


10. She is going with Alice and L
LJ me

11. They had L saw the whole show.
L seen


6

12. In the whole group there was
D were
only a few third grade pupils.


13. It was D she who
D her


14. He had D drawn
D drawed


15. She gave me D a
Man


opened the door.



two pictures.



large orange.


16. Will you j sit with me?
D set


17. That job is D to hard for me.
D too


18. I want you to teach me that trick.
D] learn


19. Have you didall your assignments?
Done


20. Dorothy D



21. Jane likes to


came to my house yesterday.
come


D sit the table.
] set


22. She L- don't like to play hide-and-go-seek.
Li doesn't


23. The dog has already eaten your lunch.
Sate


24. It was a old wagon.

(Go on to the next page.







25. This bicycle belongs to Bill and
Sme


26. Have you spoke toyour mother?
I spoken


27. Isn't the color of the roses beautiful?
Li Aren't


28. Beneath the tree ] is many dead leaves.
are


29. There was a chance for him to get away.
D were


30. He looked around and then went to his desk.
L gone


31. He L rung the bell twice.
] rang


2. The song they sang -was an old ballad.
Ssung


33. Jerry seen the first bird.
esaw


4. He O threw it out of the window.
[ throwed


15. Wasn't there L no
Sany


more candy?


$6. The boy fell off the chair.
off of


87. The hat was almost L blown into the river.
blowed


8. While I was asleep, they bringed me a book
brought


8


8


n come in woodenboxes.
39. The books usually com inwoodenboxes
comes


40. Everyone 0-isn't here yet.
Aren't








































(Do not go on to the next page until you are told to do so.)


Score on
Part III
i





6 9
-'7"--
PART IV. SPELLING
Directions: In each exercise, the
word in heavy type is spelled in four
different ways. Only one of these
spellings is correct. Place an X in
the box in front of the spelling which
you think is correct.


Sample:
0. There is my


F-I
LI


booke
buk
book
boke


1. A library book
librery
library
library

2. Do reveew your work
review
S review
reveiw

3. I dair you
daer
dare
dayre

4. A groop of boys
group
] grupe
] gruop
5. An Indian I cheif


6. This is




7. The [
E


chief
cheaf
chief

my dawter
E dauter
E] daughter
H daughter


lth row
th
fthe
vth


~ fil
tfit
fil
fil


8. A bord is hard
Sborde
Sbourd
[ board


10
-"T-
9. I knue he would come
new
knewe
knew

10. The losse is small
looze
Slots
E loss
11. Read the newspaper
E newspaper
E nuzpaper
Snewspeper


12. I -

El


refuz to go
refuze
refuse
refews


13. A El square has four sides
squere
Ssquar
] skware

14. Flowers are beautifool
Sbeautifull
beautiful
[E beautiful
15. I went to the hospital
Shospetal
Hospital
F] hospital


16. I have


El
O
El
El
El


nown him
known
knone
known


17. My opinyun is this
Sopineon
] openeon
Opinion
18. The scout's H I couridg


19. He has E


El courage
- courege
Scouredge
already gone
all ready
already
already


re


20. A language book
language
language
language
21. John is my brudder
Brother
El brother
] brother
22. Close the windew
E window
Swinder
window

23. His spelling lessen
lessn
[] lossen
E] lesson
24. It is tow years old
too
two
L to
25. I am threat years old
Sthre
thrie
] three
26. The [ boxses are gone
Sboxs
boxes
] bocks
27. He brought his coat
brought
bright
brought
28. The new I I automobile


Sautomobele
Sautamobile
Sautomoble
29. The E children play
E] children
childern
children

30. The funney paper
Sfuny
funnie
funny
(Go on to the next


t ;
n
r
.4
.'i


t


I


'





31. A minite after 3
L] minute
Sminit
L minute

32. The school building
] biulding
l builden
L building


A piece treaty
L peace
] peice
L] peece


34. Yours F sinserelly
Ssincerelly
Sincerely
Ssinserely


35. A


sowing needle
sewing
soing
soweing


16. I want to be a solder
Ssoldiere
L soldier
Ssoldeir


My -

1-
EL


throet is sore
throt
throat
throte


a8. A capital letter
A| capital
Capital
capital

9. You're writing a letter
Swritting
Writing
] riteing

0. A thousand trees
Sthouzand Score on
Sthousend Part IV
thowsend
not go on to Part V until you are told to do so.)
*i .. ,'


7
PART V. SENTENCE SENSE
Directions: This is a test to show how well you can
recognize good sentences. Read each exercise and
decide whether or not it is a good sentence. If it is a
good sentence, place an X in the R (Right) box. If
the exercise is not a good sentence, place an X in the
W (Wrong) box.
Some of the exercises are wrong because they are
only parts of sentences; others are wrong because they
should be written as two separate sentences; and still
others are wrong because parts of sentences are added
to good sentences where they do not belong. All such
exercises should be marked in the W box.
Samples:
R W
D D John is a boy

R W
D D The big dog

R W
F -] ]I am sleepy and I went to a movie


R W
DD
R W

RD
R W


R W
nD
R W

R W

R W
DD


R W
DD


1. The long dreary summer day

2. Go into the house

3. The time has come


4. I'm going down the
the old house


winding stairway of


5. Come with me

6. John and his sister came to school together

7. Who gave you that pencil?

8. Yes, I will come

9. Because the rain was so cold


(Go on to the next page.)


Score

Li
! .f


33.











DE
R W


R W
nn[


RLW


10. For an hour and a half he waited


11. The man with the cane came next


12. It is she


13. The boy with the large bundle of rags
waited

14. Here is the very thing I want


15. A desk, a glove, some maps, and a ruler
across the room from me

16. January the month of snows and cold
north winds

17. In Kansas there are oil wells and Topeka
is the state capital

18. In the little white doll house


19. When Jack came back from town


20. The dog was very quiet


21. It was time to go and I am glad to see you


22. The car that was seen in the parade


23. Let us go


24. Daniel Boone the scout and Davy Crock-
ett the bear hunter


25. If you have ever played a hard game


R W
DD




E-i


8


34. The desk is made of
like to play checkers

35. Mother liked my tie
scarf which


walnut wood and


and went to find


26. Te the will come


(Tt*n Emur boolet or and~4 waited ui the pap are


14
-F-
27. From behind the hedge at the side of
road

28. Because of a cold he stayed at home

29. What is there to see?

30. Next came the elephants

31. The meeting is to begin at three o'c]
and I shall be there

32. Nearly everybody in the room

33. The band in white coats, blue trousers,
big blue caps


R W
DD
R W.
DD
R W


R W


R W


R W
DE]]


R I


R W
DD

R W
DD









16WA EVERY-PUPIL TESTS OF BASIC SKILLS
New Edition

TEST C: BASIC LANGUAGE SKILLS- FORM L

ADVANCED BATTERY -GRADES 5-6-7-8-9
By
H. F. SPITZER, in collaboration with ERNEST HORN, MAUDE MCBROOM, H. A. GREENE, and E. F. LINDQUIST (General Editor), all of the
College of Education, State University of Iowa, with the Assistance of the Faculty of the University Experimental Schools.


Directions: The back page of this booklet is an answer sheet on which you will mark your answers to the exercises in Parts II-
[V of this test. Turn the booklet over and print your name, grade, etc., in the proper blanks at the top of the answer sheet


PARTS II-IV
Each exercise in Parts II-IV of this test is of the multiple-choice type; that is, for each exercise there are two or more
possible answers, only one of which is correct. To mark an exercise, you are to put an X in one of the boxes in the correspond-
ng row on the answer sheet. You will be told later how to mark these boxes for each part of the test.
Answer the exercises in the order in which they are given, but do not linger too long over difficult exercises. Skip them,
nd return to them later if time permits. If you do skip any exercise, be sure to skip the corresponding row of boxes on the
answer sheet also.
Never mark more than one box for an exercise. If you change your mind about the answer, erase your first mark very
roughly. Make your marks on the answer sheet neat and heavy, so that they may be plainly seen.

Do not begin work until you are told to do so.

PART I
directions: The punctuation test which is printed on the other side of this page consists of a number of sentences in which
any of the punctuation marks have been omitted. These sentences are like the sample that is given below. At each place
here there is a bracket above the sentence, decide what punctuation, if any, is needed at that place. If no punctuation at
is needed at the place to which the bracket points, place a small x in the box above the N at the left end of the bracket.
some punctuation is needed, place an x in the box above the correct punctuation. If you think two punctuation marks
would be used, be sure to place your x in the box above the parentheses that contain both of these punctuation marks in
e correct order.
Some situations involve the apostrophe. For example, choices (N) ('s)(s') above the word its would indicate that the
ord might need no apostrophe at all, or that it might be written it's or its', respectively.
The first bracket in the sample has been marked correctly. Try marking the other brackets in the sample.

E E Dl DL L D DF LI
(N) (",) (,") (,) (;(N)(,) (N) (,) (.")(".)(.)(?)
Sample: John said that he used a soft blunt pencil


Copyright, 1940, by State University of Iowa. Also Licensed under U.S. Patent 1,586,628
Persons who, without authorization, reproduce the material in this Test or any parts of it by any duplicating process whatever
are violating the author's copyright. The material contained herein, or modifications of it, may not be reproduced except
by special arrangement with the publishers and the payment either of a permission fee or of a royalty on all copies made.
HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY
BOSTON NEW YORK CHICAGO DALLAS ATLANTA SAN FRANCISCO
jbte Ribersibe tres Cambribgt
PRINTED IN THE U.B.Ao





PART I. PUNCTUATION
O 1 E D 1 ED D D F 01 E
S 64) ) (N) ('s)(s') (N)()(?) (? (N)(.)(?)
Where is my fathers car parked now asked Elizabeth
D O RI F-1 El D 1 R El El E
(N)(I's) s') (N) () (N) ) (N)( ,) (N
On her mothers grocery list were these items 2 lbs butter 1 doz eggs
and 1 loaf of bread.
LD OiD LI
(N) (,) (N) ('r) (r')
John please take off your cap

(N) (") (N) (,")(") (N) (",)I ,(,") (N)(.") (.) (")
If you do that said Mary I may have to change my plans
D D ODD D
(N) (:) (.) (;) (N) (,)
The tour included the following national parks Glacier Yellowstone and
000D D D E
(N) (.) (-) (N) (,) (.)
Mt Rainier Yellowstone was enjoyed most.

(N) (,)(,)(;) (N)(,)(.)
Mr. Phelps the newest teacher was introduced by the Rev Mr. Wade.
0 -O R Y] El 0
(N)(,) (N)(,) (N)('s)(s)
Because of that I doubt whether its strength will hold out.
O E E 0 E 0 OF1 El E0D -F1F-1f 00]
(N) (,) (N)('r)(r') (N)(,) (N)(n)(n) (N)(-)(:) (N)(:) (.)
The man whom you're expecting surely wont be here until 9 00 P M

(N) (,) (-) (N)('s)(s')
Our tent stood the wind but theirs went down.

(N)____)__"__" (N)('s) (s') (N)(?) (?") (.)
The driver asked if all the pupils were in the bus
I-OI [0 [ [ ] -O [O [3O O
(N) (,) (-) (N) ('s) (s') (N) (,) (N)('m) (m')
Nevertheless Jack knows its the truth and Im not going to give in.
LD O LL I LIO


(N) ((N) (r) (r') (N) (,)
Having been fooled once I know were going to be very careful this time.
DL L ID L D
(N) (' s) (N) (,) (N)(, )
Edgar Guests poems however do not compare with those of Eugene Field.
(Go on to the next page.)






PART II. CAPITALIZATION
Directions: Only a few of the words in the sentences
below have been capitalized. You are to decide
whether or not the numbered words should be capital-
ized. After reading each sentence, study each word
that has a number printed below it. If you think the
word should begin with a capital letter, place an X in
the "C" box on the answer sheet opposite the number
of the word. If you think the word should begin
with a small letter, mark the "s" box.
Look at word number 1 and then see how it is
marked on the answer sheet.

We met John this morning.
1 2
The book that i lost was new.
3 4


We spent the summer in the famous green moun-
tains. 6 7

I like to row out to that lighthouse and watch the
8
ocean liners pass.
9 10

At tuscaloosa on the black river is the university of
11 12 13 14

alabama.
15
The doctor says he doesn't like poetry, but we found
16 17

him reading skeleton in armor.
18 1920

At the celebration held on the fourth of july in
21 22 23

backbone state park, senator hanna said, "we shall
24 25 26 27 28 29

always need places for recreation."
30

James asked, "who borrowed my copy of popular
31 32

mechanics last tuesday?"
33 34
Balboa was the first of the spanish explorers to see
35 36
the pacific.
37


Some people think that potatoes must be planted
on good friday. others laugh at this superstition.
38 39 40 41


314 olive street
42 43
windsor, ohio
44 45
april 15, 1939

Hall brothers
47
Ogden, utah
48
gentlemen:
49
Please send me a list of articles on aviation.
50 51

yours very truly,
52 53 54
J. R. Tally


The chinese have lived in asia for centuries, until
55 56 57 58


1912 they were ruled by emperors,
59


but at that time


they set up a republic.
60


"That beautiful star," said the
planet venus." 61
64 65


captain, "is the
62 63


In the south the baptists are stronger than any other
66 67


religious group.
68 69
most numerous.


in the northwest the catholics are
70 71 72


Jack wants to study physics in high school.
73 74 75

When you visit the metropolitan museum, be sure
76 77

to look at the antique furniture.
78 79

The mighty redwoods make one think of god.
80 81

"A representative of the territory of hawaii," my
82 83 84

brother answered, "gave a good talk on democracy."
85 86 87
(Do not turn this page untiW told to do so.)


(Iowa Every-Pupil Tests of Basic Skills, Test C, Advanced, Form L)




2


PART III. USAGE
Directions: In each of the following sentences there
are two numbered words or phrases enclosed in
brackets. If you think the first word or phrase is
correct, place an X in the first box of the row that is
numbered the same as the sentence; if you think the
second answer is correct, place an X in the second box
of the row.
Study the first two exercises carefully and see how
they are marked on the answer sheet. Mark the
other exercises in the same way.

1. The ball hit I
(2 me)


2. That j1
2


isn't the way to do it.
ain't)


3. They 1 began to work early.
S 2 begun) r
4. She pointed toward Mary and 2

5. Sport is 1 a old dog.
12 an


me


(1 teach)
6. Will you 1 teach John how to skate?
2 learn

7. That 1 doesn't make any difference.
12 doesn't

8. There 1 go Henry and Fred.
2 goes
9. They won't even let us try.
2 let
10. Everybody was asked to close 1 is book.
12 their
11. He will ish that part first.

3 T (1 has
12. Jack hasnt no pencil.
12 hasn't

13. I believe 1 their the men.
2 they're)


14. He has j
2 "


swam the Mississippi twice.
swum


15. When the two of us worked together,
1 better
always the 2 best
12 best


16. The man (
(2


I was


threw ), ,
threw down his shovel.
throwed


17. The choice is between Joe and I I
(2 me)
18. Either Alice or Frances 21 is in the lead.
(2 are)


19. That rock has 2 lain there for centuries.
20. He lain
20. He had never 1 went to a movie.
12 gone


21. It must be 12


their dog.
they're dog.


22. The ducks 1 rose into the air.
(2 raised)
23. Alvin is the 1 quicker of the two boys.
2 quickest
24. The fifth grade pupils were
divided 1 among the two rooms.
2 between


25. The wounded rabbit |1
bushes.
bushes.


dragged itself into th
drug


26. Sue and her sister 1 plays together often.
(2 plays)


27 11
272


These )
These here men are the leaders.
These here)m


28. The delivery man had 1 set the milk in th
.2 sat
ice box.

29. There is t o much talk in the room.
2 too
30. Of the two games, the last one was by
far the 1 mor exciting.
2 most


31. He needs help 1
ca ( libe o hebrdnet


bad
badly


32. The cat mbed to the bird nest.
2 clumb
1 is
33. Everyone e enjoying the play.

34. Has he wrote his report?
2 written)

35. The team has already 1 ame into the room.
12 come
36. The struggling dog sunk beneath the sur-
face.
Willy (1 lend
37. Will you 1 rrow me your knife?
2 borrow
l knowed
38. Had he knod of the accident, he wouldn't
(2 known
have come.
39. Ralph was talking to Homer and I
(G o 2 me )
(Go on to the next page.)




3


. There 1 come Bob and Dick.
0. There 2 comes)

I1. My ankle doesn't feel so 11 well today.
r 2 good
(1 she
12. It was 2 he who opened the door.
2(1 herscooter
13. Where did you get that I scooter at
(2 scooter atw
14. The children 1 write s good letters.
(2 writes)
(1 who
45. That was the oldest who you met.
2 whom
16. Please let 1 W boys do it.
2 US)
17. The herd had already been 1 dro many
driven
miles.

48. I could n hardly hear the boy.
12 couldn't
S1 anywhere
49. I couldn't see them 1 anywhere
12 nowhere I
1 tore
50. He has tore his new sweater.
12 torn
il. Small fish are often 1 ate by their parents.
(2 eaten
1 himself .
52. Jack could see self in the mirror.
12 hisself
53 Tharm I did
53. The army 1 don a good job.
(2 done
1 to
54. I too am anxious to hear.

55. That surely must be interesting.
2 surely)r
56. That perfume smells too 1 strong .
S(2 strongly) 1

57. The diver jumped 2of the pier.

58. The waiter had I the package too close
to the edge of the counter.

59. There wasn't 1 anybody at home.
(2 nobody )


60. Have you ever seen a fox?
12 seen)
Sr, C1~, (l themselves)
61. They did the work I themselves
(2 theirselves


62. At that moment the tardy bell 1 rang
S2 rung)
63. Of the three machines, number 2 is
the 1 noisier
(2 noisiest)
64. Each of the boys did thi own work.

65. He (1 had a, barely opened the door when the
trap snapped.
1( How come.
66. Why d you do it that way?

~ ,T (1 excited
67. He spoke excited to the crowd.
2 excitedly

68. Neither of them have ever paddled.

69. Haven't you noy money?

70. Will you set the chair here?
12 set

71. 1 Besides the marbles, what did you get for
12 Beside
your birthday?
72. Neither her teacher 1 nor her principal knew
that she was absent.

73. He can easily1 ru that far.
2 ran

74. If you we older, you could go.

go1 go
12 were
75. Why do you want to gofo ?
2 go forl
76. The choir had just ,g the first song.
S(2 sung)
77. Weareallasbigas 4 he.i

78. I am going with Bob and he *

79. I wonder where he is going.

80. The bicycle can be 1 boughten for ten dollars.

81. Where did it j1 go to ?
(2 go to)


82. He is playing very poorly today.
(Do not turn this page until told to do so.)






PART IV. SPELLING
Directions: Each exercise below con-
tains three incorrect spellings and one
correct spelling of the same word. De-
cide which spelling is correct and then
place an X in the corresponding box on
the answer sheet. Exercise number 1
has been marked correctly.


1. 1
2
3
4

2. 1
2
3
4

3. 1
2
3
4

4. 1
2
3
4

5. 1
2
3
4

6. 1
2
3
4

7. 1
2
3
4

8. 1
2
3
4

9. 1
2
3
4


skool
school
school
schule

exactly
exsackly
exactly
esactly

naturally
natural
natchuraly
naturally

proccedes
proceeds
procieds
proceeds

telephone
telephone
telephone
telephone

available
available
availabul
available

secretary
secretary
secretary
secretary

special
speshial
specail
speshal

courts
courtesy
curtisey
courtisy


10. 1
2
3
4

11. 1
2
3
4

12. 1
2
3
4

13. 1
2
3
4

14. 1
2
3
4

15. 1
2
3
4

16. 1
2
3
4

17. 1
2
3
4

18. 1
2
3
4


19. 1
2
3
4


specific
specific
specific
specific


20. 1 abscence
2 abscense
3 absence
4 absense


assured
assured
assured
asurred

determined
determined
determined
deturmind

usually
usually
usely
usually

lititure
literature
literature
litature

library
libuary
libery
library

quior
chior
quier
choir

announced
anownced
announced
announced

ableity
abilety
ability
ability

envelope
envelope
envelope
envelope


28.




29.


1
2
3
4

1
2
3
4


21. 1
2
3
4

22. 1
2
3
4

23. 1
2
3
4

24. 1
2
3
4

25. 1
2
3
4

26. 1
2
3
4

27. 1
2
3
4


30. 1 referred


2
3
4

31. 1
2
3
4

32. 1
2
3
4

33. 1
2
3
4

34. 1
2
3
4

35. 1
2
3
4

36. 1
2
3
4

37. 1
2
3
4

38. 1
2
3
4


disapoint
dissapoint
disappoint
dispoint

lunchun
lunchion
luncheon
luncheon

asinement
assignment
assignment
assignment

aviasion
aviation
aviashun
aviashion

gorgeous
gorgousg
georgeous
gorgeous

solemn
solem
solom
solomn

across
acrost
across
across

sencerly
sincerly
sincerely
sinserly

nessary
necessary
nessery
necessary


1
2
3
4


40. 1
2
3
4


refferd
refured
referred

quantity
quantitie
quantity
quanity

described
described
described
disscribed

attendance
attendance
attendance
atendence

sirtificate
certificate
certificate
certificate

tragedy
tragedy
tragedy
tragidy

laboratory
laboratory
laboratory
laboratory

dispair
despair
despare
dispare

materally
materially
material
materialey

pashion
pasheon
passion
passion

abzurd


abserd
absured
absurd


41. 1
2
3
4

42. 1
2
3
4

43. 1
2
3
4

44. 1
2
3
4

45. 1
2
3
4

46. 1
2
3
4

47. 1
2
3
4

48. 1
2
3
4

49. 1
2
3
4

50. 1
2
3
4


committees
commities
committees
committees

intervue
interview
interview
interview

indefinate
indefinet
indefinite
indefinite

apology
apology
apology
apoligy

intelligent
intelligent
intelligent
intelligent

curiosity
curiosity
curiosity
courisity

receive
perceive
percieve
precieve

mislayed
misslayed
mislaid
misslaid

approximately
approximately
approximately
approximately

occurred
occurred
occurred
occurred


51. 1 guarantee
2 guarantee
3 guarantee
4 garentee
(Do not go on until told to do so.]


4


39.





T









Mr, Charles Johnson
DLI
(N)(,)
518 May Avenue

(N) (,)
Richmond Indiana
D 1
(N) (:) (,)


(N)(,) (.)
118 E Leonard St.
DD
(N) (,)
Tacoma Washington

(N)(,) (N) (,)
April 10 1939


(N) (,) (N)(.) (,)
Thank you for the sample materials you sent to our school' We used
E O
(N) (,)
them in our assembly program and in our bulletin board exhibit.
SDND
(N) (,)
Yours truly
Helen Fields

I LDD DL E LI
(N) (.) (N) (.) (N) (,) (N) (,)
Supt Roy T Helmer who is one of my best friends has been head of
I ] O O D Do D DE O I D
(N)('s)(s') (N)(,) (N)((N) N) (;) (.)(,) (N) (,)
Freetowns schools for twenty three years he is very popular with the
pupils.
0 OF] O O11O OM
(N)('s)(') (N)() (-) (N) (,) (N)(,)
While the other boys waited for the parade I visited a sporting store a
D D
(N) (,)
book shop and a radio shop.
OEO OF-O E 0- 0 0 El 1 0 E E
(N)(") (N)(,) (N) (,(",)(,") (N)(,) (,") (",)(.")(")
When you entered the room Johnny said our principal did you see any-
El D D 0 L
(Ng strange
thing strange





ANSWER SHEET: LANGUAGE TEST
NTAMR. RADE0"e
(LAST NAME) (FIRST NAME)
AGE ON LAST NUMBER OF MONTHS
BIRTHDAY L//L SINCE LAST BIRTHDAY -_. SEX ./N/
(YEARS) (BOY OR GIRL)
TOWN OR CIrTY. / )


S-- p 7 i


~,C~niuu' j/--~ -'-


-/


DAT -/


SCORES


Poss. Raw
Score Sce
Part I (76) I I
Part II (83)
Part III (80)
Part IV (50)
Total (289) l


sr- //-
_ _ _


Ir


Part II-Capitalization
C C C
1E 30 D 59
C C B C
2DD 31 ED 60W
3DD 320 61W
40 [ ] 33 -] 62 [-]

C sC aC c
5W1 34QEl 63W
60 E] 35] 64WQ
70 [F *36L E 65
C 8 C B c
8 E 37R 66
C B C ra c
90 38I- D 67W
10 ~0 390 L 68
11 4 40 D 69W]
120 41D D 70
130 42 n n 71W
14 D 43nW 72W
15C a Ca C
15 [ 445 6] 73n
16i0 E 45 E 74W
17I[: 46 n 75Wi
C C c
18 [] 47 [E 76
19 480 [ 770
200 49 r j 78
21 E 0 5O E 79W
22 n0 51D n 80
23 E][ 52Dn 81W
Ca C B C
24~j 54 D 82W
25L[W6 5Di1J 83W
26 1] s 55 84
27D E] 56[E 85E]
C 5c a c
29W a s oDD 87D


Part III-Usage


8
F[]




8





I-1
F-1



8













a
L]
8














El


2[ [



3El[








12W1
13E
14F-M
15WM
16 [-]
17E]q1

19[-
20 1
211
22
230
24 D
26 5


27
28 D
290 ,
29 01


E

I
I
I

I








Fl



0



El
[E




[E
n











n









3
D
D
OD
0D


30 M
31 1
32--]
33



36
37F
380
39W
-40 E
41'0
42
43 5]
44 L:
45 l
46
47 -
480E
49 [
50 E]
51 0
52-
53
54 r
55 F-
56 T

58 a


59 1 -I
60 --
6100

62 E
63 -I
64 D -
650 D
66W] [I
670 [
68W -
69 -
70W[]
71R0
72[] []E]
72WWD

73 R
74 D W]
750 RD
76W [W]
77 W -
78 0 [F
790 DW
80so ]
81W[]
82W F


Grade
Eqlart*
r3' n


7'
p

S-.


El

El





a







D




El

0
F-1



[]


D

a
El
El


El
D
D
OD
D


* See p. 11 in Examiner's Manual for Conversion Table for Form L..


Part Il-;Spe


0-



-1W
SL-


0W
CO




0W
DD13
DDo
DDa

DDn


F3



El




D.
D-


10]
20
30
40
50
60
7W
8 1
90
102
11 D
122
130
14
15
16 [
17F
18 E]
19 F
208
21 9
22 0-
23 7
240
25 0
26 0
270
280
29 0


.30o
310
32-
33 ]
34 I
35 W
36 ]
387
38 D


l I
WIF

0[





DE



u
r-I]
FI

[D
a

D




D


F-]






D-I

El

0
D
D
0
D


El


0
El
El


El



El
El
Dl


41 -
420
43
44
45
46 Q
47 0 ]
48 0]
49 0
50 W
51


O
I
I






IF

El
13








E]
0
D
0D


D
D
0B
D
0


El
El
I-I
Fl










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