A FOLLOW-UP STUDY OF DIVERSIFIED
COOPERATIVE TRAINING GRADUATES
The Faculty of the Graduate School
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science in Industrial Education
Eddie Birmingham Bunyan, Jr.
A FOLLOW-UP STUDY OF DIYVERaSED
COOPERATIVE TRAINING GRtADUAT5S
The Faculty of tIm Graduat Scha
Floride Agricutural mad chaaluaI Umnivwerty
fa Parti FulfUllwa
of the Requtbmeas tr te DuFgtd
Maste of Sce.c. to IadAtrial Eusaties
^: ^ ^^ (I
The wrUter acknowledges wlth appreciatiO the asistace giv
to him by the prtinipal s ad the DCT Coordinaors of Carver aad
Dermy High ScBools to MiamI, Florid. Theo individuals were most
helptl ia hbepiag to locate be gdutMs who sa emON iastcem hbad
m noud anmy times *iac graduate. The writer also ackeawlodgee
the assistance giva to bhm by hil pinclpal and the fa&tuy of the
Boeeor T. Washiagteo Hig Scheol
For tavatuabe assistance and many helpful *geutse s i the
preparation of this study I am deeply indebted to my committee:
Mr. M. 8. Thomas, Mr. Worrel Gatttr and Mr. Harold Jeukias.
Without t g ac o tth ge uUidce ter this gIprject eoold hae ever
been a eed.
To more than anyot I am deeply grateful to my wife, Floreace
for her aecomraemeut and paetoml durtag tse pwront of thi project
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I THE PROBLEM AND METHODS OF PROCEDURE
Statement of the problem
Need for the Study
Definition of Terms
Methods and Procedures
Sources of Data
Development of the Questionnaire
U DCT AND THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC SETTDIG
The Florida Plan for Diversified Cooperative Training
What is Diversified Cooperative Training
The Miami Area DCT Program
Operation of the Program
Kinds of Traning in the Greater Miami Area
Kinds of Training
II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Nature. Uses, and Benefits of Follow-up Studies
IV THE STUDY
V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
LIST OF TAbLJS
1. Job air tion of Graduates from Business
Education Departmoat at Abreas High School a8
IL Persroal Information ea Graduates by years with
respect to Sex, present location aad present
5.L Possoal bnfranSati oa graduates by years with
respect to Sex, Marital Status, and average age 34
IV. Occupatioal Distribution of Employed Graduate 35
V. A Tabulation of Employers Who Rataiaed Graduates
after graduatioa 37
VI. Present employment of graduates with respect to
number do occQation1 aroe", number Sttll ia
occupations trained for and years of service
ia preset Job.
V. Xoasao given by graduates for Mnmployment stats 38
VII. Tabulatio of Senior Righ School Rcords of graduates 40
IX. Reaseas why Graduates selected DCT 42
X. Graduate' evalatlon of the DCT program 43
XL Graduates' suggestions for improving the DCT
XI. Tabulao of the number of employers who trained
students and number willing to coatia training
List of Tablo (CoCtnu*d)
XIg Tadlalttoa oampores ratings ed graduates
working in September ad October d 1954 47
XIV Tabulamtin f employers' reason wy graduates
dAd net rimaia with em after gradtim 48
THE PROBLEM AND METHODS OF PROCJDURi
If one is to maintain and improve standards for any type of
program or class in education, evaluation is needed. With this
fact in mind, the writer undertook this study to actually find out how
effective has been the training received by the Diversified Cooperative
Training graduates of Carver, Dorsey, and Booker T. Washington
High Schools of Miami. Florida. The study is a follow-up of graduates
who completed the program during the five school terms from 1949*50
The problem of developing criteria that would be valid in mea-
suring the effectiveness of this training to the graduates presented
itself at the very beginning of the study. After intensive research on
this initial problem, the writer in accord with range concluded that:
since the students in a class are the center of the whole program they
should be the first to say whether it was good or not. This meant then
that a survey of graduates had to be made. A second means of measuring
the effectiveness of the training received by Diversified Cooperative
Training graduates is to evaluate the effectiveness on the basis of
William B. Runge. Work Experience in High School. New York:
The Ronald Press Company. p. 407, 1951.
ibid., p. 408.
opinions and judgments expressed in statements from employers
in charge of the training stations. The facts presented would indicate
that the most valid criteria to be used in the study to determine the
effectiveness of the training would be opinions from graduates and opinions
I. THE PROBLEM
The study is devoted to the collection, analysis and interpretation
of data necessary to the successful evaluation of the effectiveness of the
training received by the Diversified Cooperative Training graduates of
Carver, Dorsey and Booker T. Washington High Schools during the
terms 1949-50 through 1953-54.
Statement of the Problem. How effective has been the training
received by the Diversified Cooperative Training Graduates of Carver,
Dorsey and Booker T. Washington High Schools of Miami, Florida during
the school terms 1949-50 through 1953-547
The problem analysis. Upon analyzing the problem it was found that
it presented several subordinate problems that had to be considered before
the study could be concluded. These subordinate problems were as follows:
1. To what extent have Diversified Cooperative Training
Graduates been successful in maintaining regular
employment since graduation?
2. How do graduates appraise the program?
3. How do employers appraise the program?
3Ibid., p. 414.
4. What changes should be implemented to make the
Diversified Cooperative Training program more effective?
Basic Assumptions. The study was based upon the following
1. That & follow-up study will reveal successes and failures
as experienced by Diversified Cooperative Training
2. That a follow-up study will reveal strengths and weaknesses
of the Diversified Cooperative Training Program.
3. That a follow-up study will provide valuable information
necessary in appraising and finally improving the program.
Meed for the Study. The need for this study is rooted in the
acceptance of the following significant statement by Runge: If one is
to maintain and improve standards for any type of program or class
in education, evaluation is needed.
Delimitations. This study is concerned with the opinions reported
by the 124 graduates who continued to work after graduation, and the
forty-seven employers who at the time of the survey still had these
graduates on their staffs. The opinions were secured through question-
naires and interviews. Only graduates for the terms 1949 to 1954
inclusive participated in the study.
Ibid. p. 407.
I. DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following terms have been used frequently throughout
this study and in order that the reader will have a thorough understanding
of the meaning of these words, their definitions are placed herein.
Coordinator The individual responsible for the operation of
the local Diversified Cooperative Training Program.
Diversified Cooperative Training A high school program in
which facilities of selected business and industrial establishments are
utilized to provide specific manipulative work experience for students
in their chosen vocation or occupation.
D. C. T. a commonly abbreviated designation for the term
"Diversified Cooperative Training."
Employer rating chart a record by the employer of the student
learner's proficiency on the job.
Follow-up study A detailed study to determine what has become
Related study Any information provided in class that is desirable
for the student-learner's personal development.
Schedule of processes A listing of the stp through which a
student-learner should progress in order to become proficient in his
State Department of Education. Diversified Cooperative Training
in Florida Public Schools, June 1948, pp. 55-56.
State Plan for DCT An agreement between the State Board
for Vocational Education, and the Office of Education, Federal
Security Agency, for the conduct and promotion of vocational education
within the state.
Student-Learner or Trainee any student selected by the coor-
dinator and enrolled in the Diversified Cooperative Training Program.
Training Agency Any approved business or industrial establish-
ment in which student-learners are employed to receive on-the-job
III. METHODS ND PROCEDURES
In analysing the effectiveness of the training received by the
graduates, it was necessary to conduct personal interviews with the
subjects locally, this group included, working graduates and employers.
Questionnaires were developed which sought to extract specific informa-
tion. These questionnaires were filled out during the time of the interview.
A copy of the questioanaire was mailed to all out-of-town subjects with an
explanation of the purpose of the study and instructions for filling out the
questionnaire. The nature of this study in light of the writer's knowledge
of the research methods, very definitely suggested the use of the norma-
tive survey method of research.
Sources of Data. The sources of data held to be valid and perti-
nent to this study were the opinions of graduates and employers and
previous studies bearing on this problem.
Development of the Questionnaires. In beginning the investigation
required for the success of this study, the writer found it necessary to
prepare a questionnaire for collecting information from graduates and
employers. The results of other studies bearing on this problem were
Samples of the questionnaire were submitted to coordinators and
principals of the schools participating in the study. In light of their
suggestions the final form of the questionnaire was developed.
In September and October of 1954, questionnaires to the graduates
still working in the Miami area were delivered and interviews were held
to complete the survey process. Questionnaires were mailed to those
graduates who were out of town. Information as to location of subjects
out-of-town were secured from: parents, guardians, neighbors, and
The questionnaire developed for the graduates covered seven
informational areas, these were as follows: (1) Personal information,
(2) present employment, (3) past work experience, (4) vocational subjects
evaluation, (5) DCT course evaluation, (6) suggestions for improving the
program and (7) further help the school could have rendered to graduates.
The contents of this questionnaire is discussed later in this chapter.
Employers, of the graduates who were working at the time of the
survey, were interviewed and given two questionnaires. Questionnaire
number one asked employers to rate the graduate who was in his employ
at the time on the following factors: (1) attendance at work, (2) punctual-
ity to work, (3) quality of work. (4) quantity of work, (5) personal appearance.
(6) skill, (7) ability to follow instructions, (8) ability to take criticism,
Questionnaire number two to employers was developed to extract
from employers, general opinions as to the effectiveness of the training
received by the graduates of the DCT program.
A review of the contents of questionnaire number one to graduates
reveals that the first informational area considered in the questionnaire
was that of personal information. Each graduate was asked to fill in
carefully the even sections of the questionnaire. Section one required
the filling in of graduates name, present address, year married, number
of children, whether buying or renting home, and the type of training
received while in the DCT program. Section two of the questionnaire
dealt with present employment of graduates. They were asked to list
present employment, whether that was the same occupation they were
trained in while at school, did they like the work, and the number of years
they have been in it. Section three asked for a resume of the previous jobs
held by the graduate. They also stated their reasons for leaving these
jobs, and skills developed while in them.
Section four of the questionnaire to graduates considered the
graduates academic school record while in high school. Permanent
record cards were checked by the writer to determine the averages and
unite earned for all classes taken in the senior high school department.
These were placed on the questionnaire by the writer and during the
interview the graduate was asked to indicate the reason why they took
these courses. There were some suggestive reasons listed on the ques-
tionnaire and graduates had the privilege of adding others. The suggestive
ones were: (1) citizenship, (2) others advice, (3) advancement, (4) pub-
licity, (5) interest, (6) personality, (7) easy subject, (8) popular teacher,
(9) required subject, (10) education and (11) influenced by home room
Section five allowed graduates to give their reasons for taking DCT.
Again suggestive reasons were given and also they had the privilege of
giving their own. The suggestive reasons listed were as follows: (1) to
learn a trade or business, (2) to finance high school education. (3) to
make extra money, (4) to learn about different Jobs (5) to be out of
school part-time, (6) because it involved less sitting, (7) because it
meant less studying.
Section six permitted graduates to evaluate the program in terms
of benefits derived from participating in it. A 0-5 point scale was
devised for this evaluation. Graduates scored themselves on the factors
listed or stated their own benefits. Those listed were: (1) increased
skills, (2) adjustment to job, (3) increased observation, (4) pay more
attention to details and directions, (5) increased responsibility, (6)
gave me more earning power.
Section seven of the questionnaire to graduates permitted
graduates to offer their suggestions for improving the DCT program.
Some suggestive improvements were listed on the questionnaire and
graduates were permitted to suggest their own. Those listed were as
follows: (1) more related work, (2) less related work, (3) more super-
vision, (4) less supervision, (5) more vocational subjects. (6) less
vocational subjects. Also in this section students gave their general
opinions as to whether the school could have been of further help to the
graduate in affording better guidance, better training and better
Questionnaires one and two to the employers were developed
after the writer carefully reviewed the findings of related literature.
Evidence found substantiates the fact that an excellent mons of measuring
the effectiveness of *he training offered through the DCT program is to
obtain opinions, statements and judgments from the employers in charge
of the training stations. These persons are in the best position to judge
the ability and progress of the student trainees and to test the effective-
ness of the training program as a whole. Evidence of this nature can be
gathered in at least three ways. These are: (1) find out whether or not
the employer is ready and willing to take students year after year;
(2) obtain letters or written statements or letters about the program from
employers; (3) make note of oral remarks made by the employer about
the program and its training. Questionnaire one to employers was
designed to extract from employers their opinions on the work habits
and the attitudes of the workers or graduates that they still had in their
employ. Questionnaire two to employers was developed to get the
employers general opinions as to the effectiveness of the training received
by graduates of the DCT program.
The questionnaires asked employers to list the year that the first
DCT trainee was employed in his business, the number of trainees worked
with to-date, whether he is willing to take students in the future or not.
If his answer to this question is yes or no he is asked to state why. The
final section is used for the employer to record his opinion as to the worth
of the program in light of his experiences in working with trainees and the
A look at the next chapter of this study reveals that Chapter II
concerns itself with the history and background of DCT, the area in which
the three high schools are located, the people, types of industries, busi-
nesses and job opportunities for Negroes are all taken into consideration.
DCT AND THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC SETTING
A study to determine the effectiveness of the training received
by the graduates of Carver, Dorsey and Booker T. Washington High
Schools would be incomplete without a consideration of the DCT
program as a whole, the area in which these programs were developed
and that areas influence on the total success of the program.
As background information the writer wishes to include in this
chapter a discussion of the history, purpose and operation of the DCT
program as whole. Data also will be presented to reveal the
customs and traits of the people as a whole; the economic conditions
and living patterns; and the economic opportunities present in this
The fourth Cardinal Principle of Secondary Education states
"Every goy and girl should have the opportunity to discover
and develop to the fullest his latent aptitudes, interests and
abilities which will enable him, in due course of time, to
take his place in society as a more valuable citizen with a
satisfying feeling of confidence and vocational securit-",
This has not always been possible. On the high school level youth
has not always had the opportunity to develop vocational skills and
abilities as were prescribed in the fourth of the Seven Cardinal Aims
Bureau of Education, Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education,
Bulletin No. 35. Washington D. C.: U. S. Office of Education. 1918. p. 11.
However, in recent years a work experience program as part of
the regular education process was developed. Our school leaders in
Dade County, of which Miami is a part, were quick to grasp the
significance of the importance of this type of educational process and
approved the inauguration of this program in several of the local high
It is known as the Diversified Cooperative Training program or,
The Diversified Cooperative Training program as defined in an
earlier chapter of this study may be described briefly as a plan for
offering work training to high school junior and senior students of
employable ages, in a variety of occupations, by utilizing the business
and industrial establishments within the community as training agencies,
this becomes part of their regular high school education.
THE FLORIDA PLAN FOR DIVERSIFIED COOPERATIVE TRAINING
The Florida plan0 for Diversified Cooperative Training (the
federal title is part-time Cooperative Training in Diversified occupations)
had its beginning in Jacksonville, Florida. in 1933, under the guidance and
direction of Robert D. Dolley, then Director of Vocational Education for
During the first year of the Jacksonville program, there were
twenty-six student-learners enrolled. This beginning program met with
State Department of Education, Diversified Cooperative Training
Program in Florida Public Schools: 1948 Florida.
such gratifying success that in a few years DCT had expanded
extensively throughout the state. In September of 1954 the Florida
State Department of Education announced a total of ninety-eight DCT
programs in operation, with an enrollment of 015 student-learners.
WHAT IS DIVERSIFIED COOPERATIVE TRANINIG?
Diversified Cooperative Training is a combined school and
work training program in which the school and the employer cooperate
to train a high school student for an occupation which he intends to
follow as a means of earning a livelihood after school days are over.
DCT gives the high school boy or girl an opportunity to begin
learning a trade or occupation as part of his high school work, by
attending school in the morning and receiving training on the job in the
THE MIAMI AREA DCT PROGRAM
"The first DCT program in the Miami area was opened at the
Miami Edison High School in 1938. Then followed Miami Senior High
School in 1939 and Miami Jackson High School in 1941.
No additional programs were opened until after World War II.
With the beginning of the second semester of the 1949-50 school term
programs were inaugurated at Booker T. W ashington High School and
Dorsey High School. Carver High School's program was inaugurated
at.the beginning of the 1951-52 school term. In addition to the program
at Carver, five new programs were opened in white schools during the
same year. These programs were opened in Edward L. Constance
High School, (now known as North Miami High School), the Lindsey
Hopkins Vocational School (this program ended after operating for
one term), the Miami Beach High School, the Coral Gables High School,
and the Redland High School in South Dade County."
The rapid growth of these programs may be attributed to the
many benefits they offer to youth, the school and the community. The
advantages of the DCT program to youth, the school and the community
are very vividly pointed out by Haft as follows:
To develop an understanding of democratic princi-
ples by actually participating in the work-a-day world.
To realize the importance of academic and cultural
subjects as tools for success in business and industry.
To develop salable skills in a chosen occupational
field and, at the same time, to complete high school
To make a gradual transition from school to employment.
To establish desirable work habits and attitudes.
To participate in activities designed to create leadership
To develop knowledge and appreciation of his civic
Haft. A. M. "Report of DCT Programs of Dade County."
Florida: Board of Public Instruction 1952 (Mimeographed, p. 1.
1Ibid. p. 3.
To the Community, the advantages may be stated as follows:
To obtain at a lower cost a thorough and extensive
training of youth for future full-time employment.
To have access to students with special abilities,
interests, and aptitudes and who have been care-
fully screened, selected, and placed with bona
fide shops, offices and stores for the purpose of
To train future labor market to exact job specifica-
tion with the help of the public schools.
To provide up-to-date and timely training.
The DCT program offers the following advantages to the high
To reach those students whose interests and abilities are not
met by the traditional education programs.
To reach and to hold a greater number of youths in school
To keep the school abreast with business development and
To better meet the training needs of the community.
OPERATION OF THE PROGRAM
The very nature of the DCT program dictates that very definite
policies must be set up and adhered to by all of those who help in its
administration. We established in an earlier chapter the fact that the
students were the center of the program. We must, therefore, be concerned
about the qualification of those entering the program.
The Florida Plan for DCT has established seven basic
requirements a student must meet in order to be eligible for admittance
into the program. These requirements are:
(1) The student may be male or female and at least sixteen years
of age or older.
(2) He must be a regular eleventh or twelfth grader with at least
nine and ene-half high school units.
(3) His scholarship must be satisfactory.
(4) He must have the consent of his parents or guardian to enroll.
(5) He must be interested in learning a trade or an occupation.
(6) He must have acceptable character traits or habits.
(7) He must be in good health.
After a student has been accepted into the DCT program, his
school and work schedule must then be arranged. According to the Florida
Plan for DCT a student must be scheduled for a minimum of four periods
at school in the morning. Two of these periods must be spent in taking
required high school courses, Language Arts and a Social Study class.
The other two periods are spent in DCT related classes.
The student receives one unit of credit for each of the four periods
of school. Job and school work are closely related. The student spends
his afternoons in training on the job where he receives one unit of school
credit each year. A total of six units of credit may be earned by a DCT
student during the school year.
Ibid., p. 4.
The employer also plays a very important part in the over-all
operation of the DCT program. He agrees to cooperate with the program
by assuming certain responsibilities. These responsibilities are as
(I) He agrees to provide an opportunity for DCT student-
learners to receive work training in his place of businrs.
(2) He agrees to assist in selecting student-learners and matching
them with training jobs.
(3) Aid the coordinator to prepare a schedule of processes which
will identify jobs that will provide continuous training for at least one
(4) Assist the coordinator to provide related study material for
use in school by the student-learner.
(5) Pay prevailing hourly wages commensurate with work done.
(6) Provide suitable working conditions.
(7) Furnish adequate supervision.
EINDS OF TRAINING IN THE GREATER MIAMI AREA
Greater ?4I'i has a considerable need for office workers. Approxi-
mately fifteen per cent of the graduates during the period of thick study
were trained in some phases of this field.
Similar opportunities are found in the general field of sales work.
Approximately twenty-five per cent of the graduates selected this area
for the type of work they wanted to learn. Since Miami is primarily in
14d., pp. 4-5.
Ibid., pp. 4-5.
the business of dispensing services of many types to its thousands
of yearly tourists, many attractive work opportunities in the sales
field were made available to our youth.
It is to be remembered that the foremost objective of the DOT
program is to give the high school youths the opportunity to begin
learning a trade or occupation as part of their high school work and at
the same time to receive regular high school credit. The kinds of
occupations listed below represents the type of training available to
graduates of the DCT program during the period of this study:
KINDS OF TRAINING
Auto Body Repairman
Cashier. Grocery Store
Clerk, General Office
Grocery Store Manager
KINDS OF TRAINING
Hotel Manager (Assistant
Salesperson, Children's Wear
Salesperson, Department Store
Salesperson, Drug Store
Salesperson, Dry Goods
Salesperson. Home Appliances
Salesperson, Infants Wear
Salesperson. Ladies Wear
Salesperson, Men's Wear
Ibid. pp. 8 .
Chapter three which follows is devoted to a review of literature
that has some bearing on the study, and in part, assists in finding the
solution of the subordinate problems listed in Chapter L
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Much has been written in regard to the nature, benefits and uses of
follow-up studies of former graduates by people who have had charge
of educational classes or programs. Reports of other follow-up studies
are numerous, too, but only brief report on the nature, benefit, and
uses of follow-up studies and a brief summary of the findings of actual
studies made that closely relate to the study of the writer, will be given
in this chapter.
Nature, Uses and Benefits of the Follow-up Study. Runge
gave a good description of the nature and the uses of the results of
follow-up studies in regards to educational programs as a whole.
"A follow-up study of former graduates is to obtain actual
facts regarding Jobs and the effectiveness of school training
received by former students and graduates in preparing them
for these Jobs. Information collected should be used by the
Coordinator, teachers, and the school in adjusting future
plans to fit actual situations."
Froehlich, in his studies of guidance services for analler schools
has emphasized five good uses for results of follow-up studies. They are:
(1) The follow-up study gives the school a basia for judging the
extent to which it meets the life needs of the youth it serves. It also
suggests the kind of needs which must be met. The follow-up study can pro-
vide information of value to the school in planning its curriculum.
16William B. Runge, Work Experience in High School, New York:
Clifford P. Froehlich. Guidance Services in Smaller Schools, New York:
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 1950, pp. 309.
(2) The results of follow-up studies may be used for improving
the guidance program. Results of a follow-up study made of school
leaves can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the school's
Information pertaining to a person's vocational and personal
adjustment should be collected. In addition, his opinions of the
counseling is another clue to the effectiveness of the program.
(3) The follow-up study may be used to identify those graduates
who are in need of further service. The school has a continuing
responsibility for its students. For example, it may discover that a
student with promise in mechanical work is clerking in a drugstore.
He undoubtedly would welcome help in finding a more suitable job.
(4) The results of a follow-up study may be used to predict
what present students will meet when they get out of school.
(5) The interpretation of collected data to the faculty should
result in a close scrutiny on the part of teachers of their courses, aims,
and methods of teaching.
Further research findings bearing on the follow-up study of
DCT Graduates reveal that many significant studies have been made in
other areas and types of educational programs.
lIbid. p. 313.
In September, 1947, the guidance department of Jay High School
checked the records of some of its graduates. It was discovered that
very few of them had continued their education in institutions of higher
learning. Many of the students were found to have accepted employment
in the community. Some had very good positions, others mediocre
ones, and still others were working in routine jobs having very little
future. From the data collected by the guidance staff, the following
statements were prepared for presentation to the faculty and the students:
(1) Less than four per cent of our graduates had furthered
their education beyond the high school level.
(2) Sixty per cent of the student body were enrolled in the
commercial course while local industry was in need of skilled workers.
(3) We do not have a vocational course designed to meet post
high school needs of boys in the high school.
(4) The present senior class had an enrollment of forty-two in
September. 1944. On September 12. 1947, the same class had only
(5) Former students contacted in a spot survey had remained
in unskilled employment and common labor.
(6) Local industry was not receiving a fair share of local
labor qualified to assume responsibility.
Nell V. Sullivan. Follow-up Study of Graduates of Jay High School,
(7) A lack of understanding existed within the student body con.
cerning the integral part local industry had in the life of the community.
(8) Progressive exclusion by local industry of students without
a high school education.
The faculty, after considering these findings, decided that,
"If the majority of the students must confine their education to high
school, it was the place of the school to make it possible for these stu-
dents to get the most from their high school years." After exploring
the program with students and businessmen of the community, it was
decided to offer cooperative work study to the seniors.
These research findings furnished information to the writer in
determining the answers to the subordinate problem number one, to what
extent have DCT graduates been successful in maintaining regular
employment since graduation? and subordinate problem number four,
what changes should be implemented to make the DCT program more
The guidance department of Jay High School found through its
study that most of its graduates were remaining at home to work. Some
were successful and some were not in making the necessary adjustments.
As a result of knowing these facts, it was determined that a cooperative
training program could be put in the curriculum and thereby improve the
school's offerings to its students.
Another study that has some bearing on this problem was made
by the St. Joseph High School of St. Joseph, Michigan. A follow-
up study was conducted of its graduates. It is interesting to note
that results of the study substantiated the need for several changes in
the high school program which had already been proposed, and intro-
duced many new suggestions. The findings served an important place
in presenting the program to the Board of Education and to the community.
"As a result of this survey and its findings:
(1) There was an incree*e in community aid faculty interest
in the total high school program.
(2) The high school English program was revised.
(3) Eight new subjects were added to the curriculum.
(4) Four additional teachers were added to the high school staff.
(5) A counseling program was established with four teacher-
(6) Senior commercial students were given an opportunity to work
in local offices afternoons and Saturdays under supervision of the high
school commercial department. "
Again this study provided information on which the program of
the St. Joseph High School was improved.
Additional research findings helpful to the writer in determining
2Henry Weyland, Follow-up Study of St. Joseph High School
Graduates, Michigan: 1948.
answers to subordinate question one, to what extent have Diversified
Cooperative Training Graduates been successful in maintaining
regular employment since graduation? and subordinate question number
three, how do employers appraise the program? were contained in a
study of recent graduates of Ahrens Trade High School, Louisville,
Kentucky. A portion of the questionnaire used in the survey was devised
to determine the nature of the employment of graduates in the immediate
years after graduation from high school.
Business education graduates of Ahrens in 1948, 1949, and 1950
were selected for the follow-up study. The questionnaire was mailed
in May. 1951 to 148 girls and six boys. Results of the survey were
based on the answers received from one hundred of the 149 graduates
who received the questionnaire.
The permanent school record was used to obtain the last known
address of each of the graduates. The results of the survey as shown
by the returned questionnaires showed that the large majority of the
graduates used their office training to earn a living. Upon graduation,
ninety four of the one hundred graduates were employed in work that
required the skills they had obtained in the business education courses.
One graduate married immediately after graduation and devoted her time
to making a home. Two of the graduates entered schools of advanced
training and used their office training on part-time jobs.
John W. Tabb, "Vocational Status of Business Education Graduates,"
The Balance Sheet, May, 1953. pp. 386-387.
After periods of one, two, and three years, many of the
graduates were still employed as office workers. Three years after
graduation from high school twenty-two of the thirty-one 1948 graduates
were employed in office work, six were housewives, two were attending
school, and one was unemployed because of poor health. Of the twenty-
six 1949 graduates, nineteen were employed in an office, five were
house wives, one was attending school, and one was employed in work
other than office work. Forty of the forty-three 1950 graduates were
employed in office work and three warehouse wives.
The stability of the office employees during their period of
employment prior to May, 1951, was shown by these facts. Of the twenty-
eight office workers who graduated in 1948, sixteen were working for
their original employer, nine had worked for two employers and three
had worked for three different employers. Over fifty-seven per cent
of the full-time office workers from the class of 1948 were employed
in the same organisation that hired them upon graduation.
There were twenty-four office workers of the forty-two graduates
in the class of 1950 who were with their initial employer, fifteen had
held positions with two organizations and two had worked for three
employers. Fifty-seven per cent of the 1950 graduates had not changed
jobs since completing their high school course. Since the majority of the
graduates will remain with their first employer for several years, it is
important that the students be guided in the selection of a place of employment.
The reason for changing from one employer to another were
given on the questionnaire. Some of the graduates gave more than one
reason for changing jobs. The most frequent reasons given for changing
employers were: (1) limited opportunities, (2) insufficient pay, (3) and
dissatisfaction with working conditions.
Z2 bd., p. 388.
JOB CLASSIFICATION OF THE GRADUATES TABULATED
BY YEAR OF GRADUATION FROM THE BUSINESS EDU(jCTION
DEPARTMENT AT AHRENS TRADE HIGH SCHOOL
JO8 CLASSIFICATION 1948 1949 1950 Total
Stenorapher 5 5 13 23
Secretary 7 7 4 1F
Typist 6 1 10 17
General Clerk 1 5 3 11
Bookkeeper 2 4 2 8
Billing Clerk 2 2 3 7
Comptometer operator 1 0 1 2
Cashier 1 0 1 2
File Clerk 0 0 1 1
Payroll Clerk 0 0 1 1
Medical Stenographer 1 0 0 1
Cost Clerk 1 0 0 1
Assistant publicity Director 1 0 0 1
Telephone operator 0 0 1 1
iart-time office work 1 1 0 2
Other 2 1 0 3
Not employed 0 0 1 1
Total 31 26 43 100
Ibid., p. 389.
The example given below is a striking one to show how
important a follow-up study can be. The literature read stated that:
A company manufacturing automobiles finds it not only possible but
profitable to spend a large sum of money each year in providing free
service for a time on every car it turns out. After driving a new car
one thousand miles the purchaser is asked to bring it in for free
inspection and to report any defects that he has discovered. He is
expected to do the same thing again when the car has completed two
thousand miles. Any defective parts or any adjustments needed within
the first three months or four thousand miles (whichever is reached
first) are cared for by the manufacturer without charge to the pur-
chaser. In other words, automobile companies consider it good
business to make ample provisions for following up their product, as
well as for producing and selling (or placing) it. They are so much
concerned about how their product performs and how it pleases their
public that they are willing to spend freely on this follow-up service.
Surely youth deserve as much consideration on the part of the
social institution which prepares them to function in an adult society,
especially when it is realized that the first few years of this functioning
really contribute enormously to the very process of education which
the schools have been fostering in these same youth. Ultimately the
schools must be expected to go to great oains and expense in order to
George E. Myers. Principles and Techniques of Vocational
Guidance. New York. 1941.
perform a comprehensive follow-up service for their product. This
service will no doubt concern itself with other aspects of life as well
as with vocational adjustments.
These research findings provided the writer with the necessary
techniques and data pertinent to the successful solution of the problem.
In keeping with the methods and procedures previously outlined
the following chapter (Chapter IV) is devoted to a presentation and
interpretation of the findings of the study.
CHAP TER IV
The problem of determining the effectiveness of the training
received by the Diversified Cooperative Training Graduates of
Carver, Dorsey, and Booker T. Washington High Schools during the
school terms 1949-50 through 1953-54 finds its solution in an analysis
of the data collected by the writer. The purpose of the study was to
provide answers to the problem and the subordinate problems stated in
Chapter I, they were as follows:
(1) To what extent have Diversified Cooperative Training
graduates been successful in maintaining regular employment since
(2) How do graduates appraise the program?
(3) What are the factors that also help in determining the
effectiveness of DCT training?
(4) What changes should be implemented to make the DCT
program more effective ?
In this chapter, findings are presented, analyzed and interpreted within
the framework established by the problem and its subordinate problems,
purpose of the study, and the basic assumptions of the study.
Questionnaires designed to provide criteron for the evaluation
of the effectiveness of DOT training of the graduates of Carver, Dorsey,
and Booker T. I ashington High Schools were delivered to 124 graduates
and, mailed to eighty-four. As shown in Table II, of the two hundred
eight eligible to participate in the study seventy-seven or thirty-seven
per cent were boys. One hundred thirty-one or sixty-three per cent
were girls. Out of an attempt to contact the two hundred eight graduates
from the school terms 1949-50 through 1953-54, 124 or 59.6 per cent were
still living in the Miami Area: twenty-six or 12. 5 per cent were in
college or professional schools, thirty-two or 15. 4 per cent were in the
armed forces, fourteen or 6.7 per cent were unaccounted for at the time
of the survey, and twelve or 5. 8 per cent were living in other states.
PERSONAL INFORMATION AND PRESENT LOCATION OF DCT GRADUATES
Graduated Boys Girls Total Greater Other Oollege Military Un-
_Miami States Service known
1950 14 21 35 21 3 3 4 4
1951 15 21 36 19 0 3 12 2
1952 18 35 53 34 4 3 9 3
1953 11 24 35 23 2 8 1 1
1954 19 30 49 27 3 9 6 4
TOT-.L 77 131 208 124 12 26 32 14
One hundred twenty four completed questionnaires from graduates
who were still living in the Greater Miami area were received by the writer.
This number was 59.6 per cent of the total sent out or delivered.
Twenty-three of those away in colleges returned questionnaires, and
fifteen of thoee in military service returned theirs. It is interesting to
note that a larger number of girls participated in the program than boys.
It appears reasonable to assume that a larger number of girls participa-
ted in the DCT program for the following reasons:
(1) There were more girls in the total enrollment of the
schools than boys.
(2) Boys were more successful in finding part-time jobs
on their own than girls.
(3) Boys thought in terms of entering military service after
graduation, rather than in planning for careers.
The data analysed and interpreted from this point is based on the reports
of those graduates who have had no interruptions in work since leaving
school, and employers of these graduates.
It is shown in Table III that, of the thirty-eight boys and eighty-
six girls who graduated and were living in the Miami area at the time
of the survey in September and October of 1954; fifty-two or 41. 9 per cent
were married, and each of them had an average of .2 children. Seventy-
two or 58 per cent were single and average age ranged from nineteen
to twenty-nine. One hundred twelve or ninety per cent were still living
with their parents.
A TABULATION OF THE NUMBER OF BOYS AND GIRLS
WHO CONTINUED WORK AFTER GRADUATION
IOTALS3 38 86 124 52 72 1 .2 21.7 19-29
Data obtained from grad
Table IV presents
occupations in which the
or seventy-five per cent
a composite picture of the broad variety of
DCT graduates found employment. Ninety-three
of the group of one hundred twenty-four who
continued work after graduation were working at the time of the survey.
The ninety-three graduates now working in the Greater Miami Area were
in twenty-three occupational areas. It may be noted that the larger
number of graduates were working as stock room clerks, nurse aides and
OCCUPATIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF EMPLOYED DCT
OCCUrP. TIONAL AREA NUMBER IN AREA
Sale* Girl 4
Grocery Clerk 6
Physical Therapist 2
Cafeteria Worker 7
Funeral Home Attendant 5
Stock Clerk 9
Truck Driver 6
Tast Driver 5
Nurse Aide 8
Factory Worker 2
General Office Clerk 2
Dental Technician 2
Garbage Collector 1
Police (School) I
Radio Announcer 1
Twenty-three Different Areas TOTALS 93
Table V reveals that out of the one hundred twenty-four
students who continued work after graduation forty-nine or thirty-nine
per cent were working in the same occupational areas for which they had
taken their DCT training. Forty-four or thirty-five per cent were
working in fields that were different from those they were trained in.
Graduates surveyed had spent an average of four years in their
present jobs. It was gratifying to note that seventy or 56.4 per cent
stated that they liked their present jobs, while only twenty-three or
24. 7 per cent were not entirely satisfied with their present occupational
choices. Reasons given for liking their jobs were as follows: variety
of work, good wages, good place, meet people, requires skill, like
co-workers, and helping others. Reasons given for not liking their Jobs
were as follows: poor wages, no advancement, not what I wanted.
At the time of the survey thirty-one or twenty-five per cent were
unemployed temporarily. Some reasons stated for their unemployment
status were: seasonal changes, wanted to rest, looking for a better
type of job.
PRESENT EMPLOYMENT OF GRADUATES
NUMBER OF OCCUPATIONAL AREAS, NUMBER STILL IN OCCUPATIONS TRAINED FOR
WHILE IN DCT,
YEARS OF SERVICE AND LIKES OR DISLIKES FOR PRESENT JOB
NUMBER.WORKING IN AREAS
Year Occupational Number Number Average Liking Work Unemployed
areas Similar to Different front years
Graduated represented training training on job Yes No temporarily
1950 16 9 7 6 12 4 5
1951 12 8 8 5 13 3 3
1952 10 11 12 4 18 5 11
1953 11 9 7 3 10 6 7
1954 12 12 10 2 17 5 5
TOTALS 61 49 44 4 70 23 31
Table VI shows the reasons for the unemployment status
of the thirty-one graduates who were unemployed at the time of
the survey m September and October of 1954. Reasons as given
by the graduates, bear a close resemblance to those given by their
employers. This fact indicates a good degree of validity in the
reasons. It is noteworthy to point out that only two graduates had
to be separated from their employment for reasons of dishonesty.
No. of times
REASON FOR GRADUATES'UNEMPLOYMENT Reason given
Seasonal employment only 10
Wanted to rest some 2
Poor Health 5
Desired job with better opportunities 6
Discharged for dishonesty 2
Failed to reveal reason 3
Table VI reveals that of the ninety-three graduates who
were employed at the time of the survey, forty-seven or 50. 5 per
cent of them were working in the same type of job for which they
were trained, while forty-six or 49. 4 per cent were working in
occupations different from those trained in while in the DCT program.
It was further gratifying to note that the average number of
payroll jobs participated in by these ninety-three graduates while
in the DCT program was 1. 5. It is reasonable to assume that this
low figure substantiates the facts that student selections were good
and also guidance services to students in selecting occupations.
It may be further noted from Table VII that the average number of pay
roll jobs that graduates worked on since school were 1. 3. This fact
would indicate that students didn't change jobs very often after
Reasons were also tabulated as to why graduates are in
different jobs from those trained in. Getting married, health reasons.
and being promoted were the reasons most checked by the graduates.
Year of Job Same as Job Difmfe Average No. Average No. No. Checking
one from one of Payroll of Payroll Job changed since
Graduation Trained for Trained for Jobs while jobs since Graduation Reasons
1950 5 11 1.7 1.6 Promotion 7
1951 9 7 1.5 1.4 Married 10
1952 11 12 1.6 1.2 Didn't like Boss 2
1953 9 7 1.4 1.2 Business Recession 6
1954 13 9 1.2 .9 Health Reasons 10
Became own 2
Had to work
Got fired 2
47 46 1. ( .) 1.3(Av.) 46
In one of the subordinate problems for the study, the question
of how did graduates evaluate other school subjects w a asked. After
getting transcripts of the records of the one hundred twenty-four students
participating in the study from their permanent record cards, these
records were used in that part of the survey where other school subjects
were evaluated. As shown in Table VII, all of the graduates had taken
language arts and the reasons for taking the course wese given as
required for graduation and for the educational value gotten from it.
All of the graduates had taken DOT.
Some of the graduates had taken courses in each of the eleven
departments listed, ranking in eleven students in foreign languages to
one hundred twenty-four in Social Studies. The average number of
units ranged from one in Home Economics to four in DCT. The average
grades earned ranged from 71.1 per cent in Mathematics to 84. 1 per
cent in Music. The study also revealed that the one hundred twenty-four
students earned an average of 79. 1 per cent in all the departments com-
In their evaluation of subjects taken the 0-5 point scale was used,
again their evaluation of subjects varied from 2.4 per cent in foreign
languages and commercial education to 3. 3 for music and DCT. The
overall average evaluation for all classes was 2.6 points.
Graduates also stated reasons for taking courses. There were
suggestive reasons on the questionnaire and graduates could make up
their own. The table will show that the two reasons that were checked
by more graduates for each subject appears in the chart with the number
of times checked beside it. The chief reasons for taking courses by the
graduates were : because they were required, for education, and advance-
TABULATION OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL RECORDS OF ONE HUNDRED
TWENTY-FOUR DCT GRADUATES
Number Averagege Averae Average Reaaon for Taking
SUBJECTS TAKEN Taking Evalua-
Course units grade tion course
Language Arts 124 3. 77.8 3. 0 Required subject 124
Social Studie 124 3.0 79. 1 3.0 Required subject 124
Science T24T 1.9 74.9 2.9 Required subject 124
Mathematics 86 2.0 71.1 3.1 Education 84
Language(Foreign) 11 1.6 76.4 2.4 Education 9
Popular Teacher 7
Industrial Arts 25 1.7 80.5 2. 8 Interest 58
Commercial Advancement 25
Education 25 ). 81. 1 2. 4 Publicity 17
Music (Chorus- Advancement 10
sand) 15 1. 1 84. 1 3.3 Publicity 15
Physical Education 124 2.0 84.0 2. 1 Easy subject 99
DCT 124 4.0 82.4 3.3 Required 124
Tabuh J.X sho's tav -:wi.ina ha', .ut-:. ,a-e -- taking DCT
training. One hundred Tw.Vlve of the one hLunred twensty-four ha. parti-
cipated in th DCT pr.-jra- to learn a trade o; business. Ninety seven
graduates stat. thr!?.t they had t:-:en -'" o Ct financZ t'eir high cooll
As e result of irter *.ier held .ith ,radZatca Lh writer was able
to learn from them that getting through hi h school wo ldi have been very
difficult for them had it not been for this chance tu help finance their
indiv, -i e u:at n t s' i eir r :: a t. i.e
extra money, whereby they could have exttas which wo',; have been
inmposzible otherwise while i hligh school. Seventy-fiJ, -' thern) caid
they w.ni-eu to learn what a jobi demanded of them and what it takes on
their part to adjust to a real job. The last of their reasons were give-s.
by a group which falls broadly iito that general class wvo do ot 'ant'.n
to atte*.i school but realizes the disadvantages encountered without a
REASONS WHY ONE HUNDRk.D TWENTY-FOUR GRADUATES
i, UK iTHL DGT COUISiA
INo. Times /c of Graduates
Graduates' Keason for taking UCTs of Gra
f- Locked Checking
Learn A Trade or business 112 90
To Finance High School Educaticn W7 ,$
To ', E!x L:tra Mljoney 57 46
To Learn About Different Jobs 75 60
To Be Out of School Part-tire 21 j
Because it Required Less Formal Study 32 2
;eca-ime t -s "a i New Course in Schonol 10 _
Table X is a tabulation of an evaluation of DCT by graduates
of the program. The 0.5 point rating scale was used. It may be
observed from looking at the table that all items were checked as being
quite valuable to the graduates. The range on this tabulation was from
3.4 on the quality of teaching to observe to 4.7 on teaching how to adjust
to a job. The average of points for all items listed was 4. 2 This brings
out the fact that graduates place a high value on the training received
under the program.
EVALUATION OF THE DIVERSIFIED COOPERATIVE TRAINING PROGRAM
ITEMS TO BE EVALUATED Average
As guidance factor 4. 2
In helping to teach better human relations 3. 9
For learning skills 4. 4
Teaching how to adjust to a job 4.7
Training to Observe 3.4
Teaching how to take and follow directions 4. 5
Developing responses 4. 5
Table XI shows a tabulation of graduates' opinions of possible
ways to improve the DCT program. The suggestions receiving the
largest number of checks were mcre vocational subjects with one
hundred twenty-one and more lguid ce with one hundred ten.
Graduiats' Suggestions for mp roving the Progra m Nu:--ber Checking Sug-
More related work 72
Less related work 21
More supervision 17
Less supervision 3
More vocational subjects 121
Less vocational subjects 17
More guidance 110
Table XII shows the forty-seven employers who started training
DCT students during the years 1950 to 1954 inc' iaive. These forty-seven
employers trained fifty DCT students during the five year period. There
were forty-seven graduates or ninety-four per cent of them still in the
same business place in which they were trained. Data collected revealed
that some five or 2. 3 per cent of them have been given more responsible
positions within the place of business.
Of the forty-seven employers who still had graduates they trained,
working for them, forty or eighty-six per cent were willing to continue
training DCT students in the future. Seven of the forty-seven, however,
were not willing to continue training students. Their chief reason for not
centered around students not being dependable and their not being able to
afford the expense of having an additional employee.
A TABULATION OF EMPLOYERS WHO RETAINED GRADUATES AFTER
As shown in Table XIII, the employers who participated in
the study reported having had quite a share of success in working with
the DCT program. Most employers thought that the program was
TABULATION OF EMPLOYERS RATINGS ON THE NINETY-THREE
GRADUATES WHO WERE WORKING IN SEPTEMBER AND OCTOBER
Factors graduates were E NUMBEt Of GRAIlUATES iArEl
rated on by their em.
players Excellent Satisfactory Unsatisfactory
Attendance to work by
graduate 68 14 11
Punctuality to work 51 21 21
Quality of work 71 18 4
Quantity of work 61 23 9
Personal Appearance 82 5 6
Skill 70 16 7
Ability to follow instruc-
tions 54 20 19
Ability to take criticism 67 15 11
Resourcefulness 49 22 22
Initiative 53 27 13
Ability to get along with 22 41 30
TOTAL 648 222 143
Table XIV shows that the thirty-one graduates not working
at the tim of the survey were for the most part uemployd because
business had fallen off and for health reasons. It is gratifying to note
that only a fow graduates wre unemployed for reason unbecoming to
TABULATION OF EMPLOYERS RE POaTS AS TO WHY THIRTY-ONE
GaADUATES ARLE NO LONGER EMPLOYED WITH THSM
REASONS REPORTED. BY EMPLOYERS AS TO NUMBER OF EMPLOYERS
WHY GRADUATES AR3 NO LONGER EMPPLOY- REPORTINGG
ED BY THEM &RASONS
Graduate married 3
Business fll off 11
Health of graduate 6
For dishonesty 4
For graduates failure to work 3
For graduates failure to show interest 1
For graduates failure to assume
TOTAL 31. .
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The problem as stated in Chapter One was that of determining
the effectiveness of the training received by the DOT graduates of
Carver, Dorsey. and Booker T. Washington High Schools.
Chapter One of this report stated and analysed the problem.
Out of the analysation evolved four subordinate problems. These were:
(1) To what extent have Diversified Cooperative Training Graduates
been successful in maintaining regular employment since graduation?
(2) How do graduates appraise the program? (3) What are the other
factors that help in determining the effectiveness of DCT training?
(4) What changes should be implemented to make the DCT Program more
To help provide some of the answers to these subordinate problems
and the major problem. questionnaires were developed and delivered
to graduates and employers.
The results are given in summary form later in this chapter.
In Chapter Two the writer presented the history and other background
information on the DCT program and the Greater Miami area. The
chapter shows that the DCT program was developed to serve a very definite
need in the lives of high school students. Evidence further showed that the
Miami area was conducive to this rapid development of local DCT programs.
In Chapter II, the Review of Related Literature, revealed that
follow-up studies should be conducted to serve in the evaluation of
educational programs. Studies of this type will help to say how good
has been the offerings of a school or a DCT program.
Chapter IV presented the study and the results are summarized
as follows: The total number of DCT graduates of Carver, Dorsey.
and Booker T. W ashington High School participating in the follow-up
study were seventy-seven boys and one hundred thirty-one gids or a
total of two hundred eight graduates. One hundred twenty-four of this
number were contacted and questionnaires were completed.
In September and October of 1954 there were one hundred
twenty-four graduates or 59.6 per cent of them living in the Miami Area.
Twenty-six or 12. 5 per cent of the graduates were continuing their
education at institutions of higher learning. Thirty-two or six per cent
were in military service. Out of the two hundred eight graduates only
fourteen or 6. 7 per cent were unaccounted for at the time of the survey.
The study revealed the fact that one hundred twenty-four or 59.6
per cent of the graduates chose to continue work after graduation.
Ninety-three of the working graduates were employed in twenty-
three occupational areas, while forty-seven or 37. 9 per cent of the one
hundred twenty-four were working at the same place where they were
The evidence of the study showed that seventy or 56. 4 per cent
stated that they liked their present job, and were happy in them.
Working graduates had an earned average of 1. 1 per cent skills that
were developed in school and now are applied in their present jobs.
Only thirty-one or twenty-five per cent of the graduates were
unemployed at the time of the survey. Most of the unemployment was
accredited to seasonal employment, health, and desire for better jobs.
Forty-seven employers still had graduates they trained and
forty of these or eighty-six per cent are willing to continue training
students. They rated the program favorably.
In evaluating school subjects taken on a 0-5 point scale, averages
ranged from 2. 4 per cent in foreign language to 3. 3 in Music and DCT.
In conclusion the writer wishes to point out the following facts
that were revealed as a result of the study:
(1) Since seventy-five per cent of the DCT graduates of Carver,
Dorsey and Booker T. Washington High Schoole of Miami. who
continued to work after graduation were still employed in some occupation
were still em d n om cu action at the time of the survey; their
training is considered to have been effective.
(2) Since graduates for the most part felt that the DCT program
and their schools had equipped them for successful living, their training
is considered to have been effective.
(3) Since the employers who helped in training these students
were quite pleased with results attained through working with the DCT
program. The training received by graduates is considered to have
(4) Since graduates suggested no major changes for improving
the DCT program and few minor changes. The training with suggestions
given for improvement is considered effective.
In light of the findings of this study, it is reasonable to
assume that recommendations offered by the writer are in order, since
it has been established that a study of this type affords information
necessary in improving a DGT program. These recommendations are
given in hopes that they may serve as a basis for the continuous improve-
ment of these and other DCT programs.
Recommendations are as follows:
(1) More vocational subjects should be offered to those students
of Carver, Dorsey, and B. T. Washington High Schools who do not plan to
(2) Better guidance services should be provided for all students
in these high schools irrespective of their fields of interest.
(3) Students taking DCT should be provided with more and better
(4) Finding better type agencies should be the constant goal
of administrators of these programs.
(5) Students should be carefiJly selected and matched to jobs
used for training in the program.
(6) A constant followr-r program should be instituted by all
(7) The selection of better traiinng agencies should be given
consideration at all times.
(8) All school pers?'Z rn hod be informrvd as to the objectives
(9) The support of the community at large should be solicited
at all tires.
Campbell. William Giles. Thesis VWriting, Boston: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 1954. 114 pp.
Froehlich, Clifford P., Guidance Services in Smaller Schools. New York:
McGraw-Hill Book Corapai ,, .c.. 0141.
Ivae, Wilson H. Williaixi B. iunge, Work ixperi ii Hig. h School.
New York: Ronald Press Company, 1950.
Jones, Arthur J., Principla of Gd-anci. rwll Yox-: viLcGraw-Hill Book
Company, Inc. 1945.
Myers, George L., Principies and Techniques of Vocational Guidance,
New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1941.
Rakestraw, C. E., Training Higl School Youthi for riployne:.t. Chicago:
American Technical Society, 1947.
Brewster. Royce E., and Zeran, Franklin R. "Techniques of Follow-up
Study of School Leavers Los Angeles: CaiL -i Test Bureau,
Educational Builetin No. Seventeen, 1947.
Camp, Dolph, "Suggestions for Making a Community Survey, Little Rock:
State Occupational Irbrmnation and Guidance Service, Bulletin No.
Thirty-two, 1946, p. i.
Haft. A. M. "Report of DCT Programs oi Dade County', Florida: Board
of Public Instruction, 1952.
Isaaceon, Lee E., "Predicting Success in Work Experience Program,"
The Personael and Guidance Journal, January 1955, pp.
National Association of Manufacturers, '' working Together:
Shatto, Paul C.,
Jr., "Steelton High School's Work-Experience Program,"
The Balance Sheet,
Vo-. XXVI No. 7 ('arch 1955), Ip.
State Department of education, Diversified Cooperative Training Program
in Florida Public Sc -ool : 13' 2 1orii!a.
United States Bureau of Census, cenaus of Population
I: (Washington: Government Printing Offices (I
17. 93, 98-106.
Zapoleon, Marguerite W. "Community Occupational Surveys. "
D. G.: Gozrnment F printing Office, 1942, :. 3.
QUESTIONNAIRE NUMBER ONE
DIVERSIFIED COOPERATIVE TRAINING
EMPLOYER RATING OF GRADUATE
Rating of the Student on the Job
NOTE: In rating the student excellent, eatis-
factory or unsatisfactory, please 4
indicate if development i f ''n ovrv. 9
ATTENDANCE Compare actual attendance
with hours assigned.
PUNCTUALITY Consider times late. Do not
let reasons influence this
part of your estimate.
GENERAL ATTITUDE Toward the job,
superiors, other employees,
OUALITY OF WORK Compare with other
workers of equal age,
length of service and hours
QUANTITY OF WORK Compare with other
workers of equal age,
length of service and hours
APPEARANCE Compare with standard set by
other employees in the occupa-
tion, but consider that student
is handicapped by small' income.
ATTITUDE TOWARD CRITICISM
ABILITY TO FOLLOW INSTRUCTIONS
Signature of Supervisor
DCT FOLLOW-UP STUDY
QUESTIONNAIRE NUMBER TWO TO
Years in BusinessZ
Year First DGT Trainee Place w
Number Yoo HAav, Traiae t!o i)te
Nu-ber with You Now
Na--, o-f Trai-e-2 :
Comment. Briefly on Lach
As to Work Habits.
Attitudes, and General
Please c-rr;-.-en orjn -`c merits of our DC.T oprogra):
FOLLOW-UP STUDY OF DIVERSIFIED COOPERATIVE TRAINING
GRADUATES OF CARVER. DORSEY AND BOOKERa T. WASHINGTON
HIGH SCHOOLS OF MIAMI, FLORIDA 1950-54, INCLUSIVE -
Name of Graduate
Present Address of Graduate
Graduate of What School
SURVEY OF DCT GRADUATES OF TH I
Name Present Address
Year Graduated Year Married
Number of Children Buying Home? Renting?
Type of Training Received through DCT
What is your present employment?
How long have you been employed here?
Did you train here under the DCT program?
What is your reason for entering this kind of work?
Do you like this work?
Why or why not
In College or Professional School
In Military Service
Work Record (Since School)
Year of employment
Place of employment
Reason for Change
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Didn't like boss
Want to College
Business fell off
Became own boss
Too much routine
Had to work nights
Year of employment
Place of employment
Reacon for Change
High School Record
Place Units and average
in front of subject
3. Didn't like boss
4. Went to college
5. Business fell off
7. Became boss
8. Too much routine
9. Had to work nights
Place reason to right
(Reason for taking course)
English 1. Citizenship
Social Science 2. Other advice
Mathematics 3. Advancement
Language (foreign) 4. Publicity
Ind. Arts 5. Interest
Comm. Ed 6. Personality
Phy. Ed. 7. Easy subject
Science 8. Popular teacher
DGT 9. Required
Music 10. Education
12. Home room Teacher
Reason for taking DCT
Learn trade or business
Finance High school Education
Make extra money
Learn about different Jobs
Be out of school part time
Suggestions for improving DCT
score benefits 0-5
Adjustment to job
More attention to
More related work
Less related work
'A ore supervision
More vocational subjects
Less vocational subjects
What further help could the school have given you?
In guidance ?