• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 The problem and methods of...
 DCT and the socio-economic...
 Review of related literature
 The study
 Summary, conclusions and recom...
 Bibliography
 Appendix






Title: Follow-up study of diversified cooperative training graduates.
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 Material Information
Title: Follow-up study of diversified cooperative training graduates.
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Bunyan, Eddie Birmingham Jr.
Affiliation: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
Publisher: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
Publication Date: 1955
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Bibliographic ID: AM00000007
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Source Institution: Florida A&M University (FAMU)
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Resource Identifier: notis - AAA0799

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Title Page
        Title page
    Acknowledgement
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
        Page iii
    List of Tables
        Page iv
        Page v
    The problem and methods of procedure
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    DCT and the socio-economic setting
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Review of related literature
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    The study
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Summary, conclusions and recommendations
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 53-a
    Bibliography
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Appendix
        Page 55-a
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
Full Text







A FOLLOW-UP STUDY OF DIVERSIFIED

COOPERATIVE TRAINING GRADUATES







A Thesis

Presented to

The Faculty of the Graduate School

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University











In Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements for the Degree

Master of Science in Industrial Education









by

Eddie Birmingham Bunyan, Jr.

August 1955








A FOLLOW-UP STUDY OF DIYVERaSED

COOPERATIVE TRAINING GRtADUAT5S







A Thees

Prested t

The Faculty of tIm Graduat Scha

Floride Agricutural mad chaaluaI Umnivwerty
fa Parti FulfUllwa

of the Requtbmeas tr te DuFgtd
Maste of Sce.c. to IadAtrial Eusaties

AWpt'rods7 1



^: ^ ^^ (I










ACKNOWLE.DGEMENTS


The wrUter acknowledges wlth appreciatiO the asistace giv

to him by the prtinipal s ad the DCT Coordinaors of Carver aad

Dermy High ScBools to MiamI, Florid. Theo individuals were most

helptl ia hbepiag to locate be gdutMs who sa emON iastcem hbad

m noud anmy times *iac graduate. The writer also ackeawlodgee

the assistance giva to bhm by hil pinclpal and the fa&tuy of the

Boeeor T. Washiagteo Hig Scheol

For tavatuabe assistance and many helpful *geutse s i the

preparation of this study I am deeply indebted to my committee:

Mr. M. 8. Thomas, Mr. Worrel Gatttr and Mr. Harold Jeukias.

Without t g ac o tth ge uUidce ter this gIprject eoold hae ever

been a eed.

To more than anyot I am deeply grateful to my wife, Floreace

for her aecomraemeut and paetoml durtag tse pwront of thi project

E.B.S.









TABLE OF CONTENTS


CHAPTER

I THE PROBLEM AND METHODS OF PROCEDURE

The Problem

Statement of the problem

Problem Analysis

Basic Assumptions

Need for the Study

Delimitations

Definition of Terms

Methods and Procedures

Sources of Data

Development of the Questionnaire

U DCT AND THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC SETTDIG

The Florida Plan for Diversified Cooperative Training

What is Diversified Cooperative Training

The Miami Area DCT Program

Operation of the Program

Kinds of Traning in the Greater Miami Area

Kinds of Training

II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Nature. Uses, and Benefits of Follow-up Studies

IV THE STUDY


PAGE

1












CHAPTER

V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


Summary

Conclusmons

Recoznmeandtions

BIBLIOGRAPHY

APPENDIX


PAGE

49

49

51

52









LIST OF TAbLJS


TALtb PAGE

1. Job air tion of Graduates from Business

Education Departmoat at Abreas High School a8

IL Persroal Information ea Graduates by years with

respect to Sex, present location aad present

activities 32

5.L Possoal bnfranSati oa graduates by years with

respect to Sex, Marital Status, and average age 34

IV. Occupatioal Distribution of Employed Graduate 35

V. A Tabulation of Employers Who Rataiaed Graduates

after graduatioa 37

VI. Present employment of graduates with respect to

number do occQation1 aroe", number Sttll ia

occupations trained for and years of service

ia preset Job.

V. Xoasao given by graduates for Mnmployment stats 38

VII. Tabulatio of Senior Righ School Rcords of graduates 40

IX. Reaseas why Graduates selected DCT 42

X. Graduate' evalatlon of the DCT program 43

XL Graduates' suggestions for improving the DCT

program 44

XI. Tabulao of the number of employers who trained

students and number willing to coatia training

students 45










List of Tablo (CoCtnu*d)

TAILE PAGX

XIg Tadlalttoa oampores ratings ed graduates

working in September ad October d 1954 47

XIV Tabulamtin f employers' reason wy graduates

dAd net rimaia with em after gradtim 48











CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM AND METHODS OF PROCJDURi


If one is to maintain and improve standards for any type of
I
program or class in education, evaluation is needed. With this

fact in mind, the writer undertook this study to actually find out how

effective has been the training received by the Diversified Cooperative

Training graduates of Carver, Dorsey, and Booker T. Washington

High Schools of Miami. Florida. The study is a follow-up of graduates

who completed the program during the five school terms from 1949*50

through 1953-54.

The problem of developing criteria that would be valid in mea-

suring the effectiveness of this training to the graduates presented

itself at the very beginning of the study. After intensive research on
2
this initial problem, the writer in accord with range concluded that:

since the students in a class are the center of the whole program they

should be the first to say whether it was good or not. This meant then

that a survey of graduates had to be made. A second means of measuring

the effectiveness of the training received by Diversified Cooperative

Training graduates is to evaluate the effectiveness on the basis of


William B. Runge. Work Experience in High School. New York:
The Ronald Press Company. p. 407, 1951.


ibid., p. 408.










opinions and judgments expressed in statements from employers
3
in charge of the training stations. The facts presented would indicate

that the most valid criteria to be used in the study to determine the

effectiveness of the training would be opinions from graduates and opinions

from employers.

I. THE PROBLEM

The study is devoted to the collection, analysis and interpretation

of data necessary to the successful evaluation of the effectiveness of the

training received by the Diversified Cooperative Training graduates of

Carver, Dorsey and Booker T. Washington High Schools during the

terms 1949-50 through 1953-54.

Statement of the Problem. How effective has been the training

received by the Diversified Cooperative Training Graduates of Carver,

Dorsey and Booker T. Washington High Schools of Miami, Florida during

the school terms 1949-50 through 1953-547

The problem analysis. Upon analyzing the problem it was found that

it presented several subordinate problems that had to be considered before

the study could be concluded. These subordinate problems were as follows:

1. To what extent have Diversified Cooperative Training
Graduates been successful in maintaining regular
employment since graduation?

2. How do graduates appraise the program?

3. How do employers appraise the program?

3Ibid., p. 414.











4. What changes should be implemented to make the
Diversified Cooperative Training program more effective?

Basic Assumptions. The study was based upon the following

assumptions:

1. That & follow-up study will reveal successes and failures
as experienced by Diversified Cooperative Training
Graduates.

2. That a follow-up study will reveal strengths and weaknesses
of the Diversified Cooperative Training Program.

3. That a follow-up study will provide valuable information
necessary in appraising and finally improving the program.

Meed for the Study. The need for this study is rooted in the
4
acceptance of the following significant statement by Runge: If one is

to maintain and improve standards for any type of program or class

in education, evaluation is needed.

Delimitations. This study is concerned with the opinions reported

by the 124 graduates who continued to work after graduation, and the

forty-seven employers who at the time of the survey still had these

graduates on their staffs. The opinions were secured through question-

naires and interviews. Only graduates for the terms 1949 to 1954

inclusive participated in the study.


4
Ibid. p. 407.










I. DEFINITION OF TERMS
5
The following terms have been used frequently throughout

this study and in order that the reader will have a thorough understanding

of the meaning of these words, their definitions are placed herein.

Coordinator The individual responsible for the operation of

the local Diversified Cooperative Training Program.

Diversified Cooperative Training A high school program in

which facilities of selected business and industrial establishments are

utilized to provide specific manipulative work experience for students

in their chosen vocation or occupation.

D. C. T. a commonly abbreviated designation for the term

"Diversified Cooperative Training."

Employer rating chart a record by the employer of the student

learner's proficiency on the job.

Follow-up study A detailed study to determine what has become

of graduates.

Related study Any information provided in class that is desirable

for the student-learner's personal development.

Schedule of processes A listing of the stp through which a

student-learner should progress in order to become proficient in his

occupation.


5
State Department of Education. Diversified Cooperative Training
in Florida Public Schools, June 1948, pp. 55-56.










State Plan for DCT An agreement between the State Board

for Vocational Education, and the Office of Education, Federal

Security Agency, for the conduct and promotion of vocational education

within the state.

Student-Learner or Trainee any student selected by the coor-

dinator and enrolled in the Diversified Cooperative Training Program.

Training Agency Any approved business or industrial establish-

ment in which student-learners are employed to receive on-the-job

training.

III. METHODS ND PROCEDURES

In analysing the effectiveness of the training received by the

graduates, it was necessary to conduct personal interviews with the

subjects locally, this group included, working graduates and employers.

Questionnaires were developed which sought to extract specific informa-

tion. These questionnaires were filled out during the time of the interview.

A copy of the questioanaire was mailed to all out-of-town subjects with an

explanation of the purpose of the study and instructions for filling out the

questionnaire. The nature of this study in light of the writer's knowledge

of the research methods, very definitely suggested the use of the norma-

tive survey method of research.

Sources of Data. The sources of data held to be valid and perti-

nent to this study were the opinions of graduates and employers and

previous studies bearing on this problem.










Development of the Questionnaires. In beginning the investigation

required for the success of this study, the writer found it necessary to

prepare a questionnaire for collecting information from graduates and

employers. The results of other studies bearing on this problem were

also considered.

Samples of the questionnaire were submitted to coordinators and

principals of the schools participating in the study. In light of their

suggestions the final form of the questionnaire was developed.

In September and October of 1954, questionnaires to the graduates

still working in the Miami area were delivered and interviews were held

to complete the survey process. Questionnaires were mailed to those

graduates who were out of town. Information as to location of subjects

out-of-town were secured from: parents, guardians, neighbors, and

friends.

The questionnaire developed for the graduates covered seven

informational areas, these were as follows: (1) Personal information,

(2) present employment, (3) past work experience, (4) vocational subjects

evaluation, (5) DCT course evaluation, (6) suggestions for improving the

program and (7) further help the school could have rendered to graduates.
6
The contents of this questionnaire is discussed later in this chapter.

Employers, of the graduates who were working at the time of the


See Appendix.








7

survey, were interviewed and given two questionnaires. Questionnaire

number one asked employers to rate the graduate who was in his employ

at the time on the following factors: (1) attendance at work, (2) punctual-

ity to work, (3) quality of work. (4) quantity of work, (5) personal appearance.

(6) skill, (7) ability to follow instructions, (8) ability to take criticism,

(9) resourcefulness.

Questionnaire number two to employers was developed to extract

from employers, general opinions as to the effectiveness of the training

received by the graduates of the DCT program.

A review of the contents of questionnaire number one to graduates

reveals that the first informational area considered in the questionnaire

was that of personal information. Each graduate was asked to fill in

carefully the even sections of the questionnaire. Section one required

the filling in of graduates name, present address, year married, number

of children, whether buying or renting home, and the type of training

received while in the DCT program. Section two of the questionnaire

dealt with present employment of graduates. They were asked to list

present employment, whether that was the same occupation they were

trained in while at school, did they like the work, and the number of years

they have been in it. Section three asked for a resume of the previous jobs

held by the graduate. They also stated their reasons for leaving these

jobs, and skills developed while in them.









Section four of the questionnaire to graduates considered the

graduates academic school record while in high school. Permanent

record cards were checked by the writer to determine the averages and

unite earned for all classes taken in the senior high school department.

These were placed on the questionnaire by the writer and during the

interview the graduate was asked to indicate the reason why they took

these courses. There were some suggestive reasons listed on the ques-

tionnaire and graduates had the privilege of adding others. The suggestive

ones were: (1) citizenship, (2) others advice, (3) advancement, (4) pub-

licity, (5) interest, (6) personality, (7) easy subject, (8) popular teacher,

(9) required subject, (10) education and (11) influenced by home room

teacher.

Section five allowed graduates to give their reasons for taking DCT.

Again suggestive reasons were given and also they had the privilege of

giving their own. The suggestive reasons listed were as follows: (1) to

learn a trade or business, (2) to finance high school education. (3) to

make extra money, (4) to learn about different Jobs (5) to be out of

school part-time, (6) because it involved less sitting, (7) because it

meant less studying.

Section six permitted graduates to evaluate the program in terms

of benefits derived from participating in it. A 0-5 point scale was

devised for this evaluation. Graduates scored themselves on the factors

listed or stated their own benefits. Those listed were: (1) increased








9
skills, (2) adjustment to job, (3) increased observation, (4) pay more

attention to details and directions, (5) increased responsibility, (6)

gave me more earning power.

Section seven of the questionnaire to graduates permitted

graduates to offer their suggestions for improving the DCT program.

Some suggestive improvements were listed on the questionnaire and

graduates were permitted to suggest their own. Those listed were as

follows: (1) more related work, (2) less related work, (3) more super-

vision, (4) less supervision, (5) more vocational subjects. (6) less

vocational subjects. Also in this section students gave their general

opinions as to whether the school could have been of further help to the

graduate in affording better guidance, better training and better

follow-up.

Questionnaires one and two to the employers were developed

after the writer carefully reviewed the findings of related literature.

Evidence found substantiates the fact that an excellent mons of measuring

the effectiveness of *he training offered through the DCT program is to

obtain opinions, statements and judgments from the employers in charge

of the training stations. These persons are in the best position to judge

the ability and progress of the student trainees and to test the effective-

ness of the training program as a whole. Evidence of this nature can be

gathered in at least three ways. These are: (1) find out whether or not












the employer is ready and willing to take students year after year;

(2) obtain letters or written statements or letters about the program from

employers; (3) make note of oral remarks made by the employer about
7
the program and its training. Questionnaire one to employers was

designed to extract from employers their opinions on the work habits

and the attitudes of the workers or graduates that they still had in their

employ. Questionnaire two to employers was developed to get the

employers general opinions as to the effectiveness of the training received

by graduates of the DCT program.
8
The questionnaires asked employers to list the year that the first

DCT trainee was employed in his business, the number of trainees worked

with to-date, whether he is willing to take students in the future or not.

If his answer to this question is yes or no he is asked to state why. The

final section is used for the employer to record his opinion as to the worth

of the program in light of his experiences in working with trainees and the

coordinator.

A look at the next chapter of this study reveals that Chapter II

concerns itself with the history and background of DCT, the area in which

the three high schools are located, the people, types of industries, busi-

nesses and job opportunities for Negroes are all taken into consideration.


8
See Appendix.










CHAPTER U

DCT AND THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC SETTING

A study to determine the effectiveness of the training received

by the graduates of Carver, Dorsey and Booker T. Washington High

Schools would be incomplete without a consideration of the DCT

program as a whole, the area in which these programs were developed

and that areas influence on the total success of the program.

As background information the writer wishes to include in this

chapter a discussion of the history, purpose and operation of the DCT

program as whole. Data also will be presented to reveal the

customs and traits of the people as a whole; the economic conditions

and living patterns; and the economic opportunities present in this

metropolitan area.
9
The fourth Cardinal Principle of Secondary Education states

that:

"Every goy and girl should have the opportunity to discover
and develop to the fullest his latent aptitudes, interests and
abilities which will enable him, in due course of time, to
take his place in society as a more valuable citizen with a
satisfying feeling of confidence and vocational securit-",

This has not always been possible. On the high school level youth

has not always had the opportunity to develop vocational skills and

abilities as were prescribed in the fourth of the Seven Cardinal Aims

of Education.

9
Bureau of Education, Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education,
Bulletin No. 35. Washington D. C.: U. S. Office of Education. 1918. p. 11.








12

However, in recent years a work experience program as part of

the regular education process was developed. Our school leaders in

Dade County, of which Miami is a part, were quick to grasp the

significance of the importance of this type of educational process and

approved the inauguration of this program in several of the local high

schools.

It is known as the Diversified Cooperative Training program or,

simply, DCT.

The Diversified Cooperative Training program as defined in an

earlier chapter of this study may be described briefly as a plan for

offering work training to high school junior and senior students of

employable ages, in a variety of occupations, by utilizing the business

and industrial establishments within the community as training agencies,

this becomes part of their regular high school education.

THE FLORIDA PLAN FOR DIVERSIFIED COOPERATIVE TRAINING

The Florida plan0 for Diversified Cooperative Training (the

federal title is part-time Cooperative Training in Diversified occupations)

had its beginning in Jacksonville, Florida. in 1933, under the guidance and

direction of Robert D. Dolley, then Director of Vocational Education for

Duval County.

During the first year of the Jacksonville program, there were

twenty-six student-learners enrolled. This beginning program met with

10
State Department of Education, Diversified Cooperative Training
Program in Florida Public Schools: 1948 Florida.










such gratifying success that in a few years DCT had expanded

extensively throughout the state. In September of 1954 the Florida

State Department of Education announced a total of ninety-eight DCT

programs in operation, with an enrollment of 015 student-learners.

WHAT IS DIVERSIFIED COOPERATIVE TRANINIG?

Diversified Cooperative Training is a combined school and

work training program in which the school and the employer cooperate

to train a high school student for an occupation which he intends to

follow as a means of earning a livelihood after school days are over.

DCT gives the high school boy or girl an opportunity to begin

learning a trade or occupation as part of his high school work, by

attending school in the morning and receiving training on the job in the

afternoon.

THE MIAMI AREA DCT PROGRAM

"The first DCT program in the Miami area was opened at the

Miami Edison High School in 1938. Then followed Miami Senior High

School in 1939 and Miami Jackson High School in 1941.

No additional programs were opened until after World War II.

With the beginning of the second semester of the 1949-50 school term

programs were inaugurated at Booker T. W ashington High School and

Dorsey High School. Carver High School's program was inaugurated

at.the beginning of the 1951-52 school term. In addition to the program

at Carver, five new programs were opened in white schools during the








14

same year. These programs were opened in Edward L. Constance

High School, (now known as North Miami High School), the Lindsey

Hopkins Vocational School (this program ended after operating for

one term), the Miami Beach High School, the Coral Gables High School,
11
and the Redland High School in South Dade County."

The rapid growth of these programs may be attributed to the

many benefits they offer to youth, the school and the community. The

advantages of the DCT program to youth, the school and the community
12
are very vividly pointed out by Haft as follows:

To Youth:

To develop an understanding of democratic princi-
ples by actually participating in the work-a-day world.

To realize the importance of academic and cultural
subjects as tools for success in business and industry.

To develop salable skills in a chosen occupational
field and, at the same time, to complete high school
graduation requirements.

To make a gradual transition from school to employment.

To establish desirable work habits and attitudes.

To participate in activities designed to create leadership
characteristics.

To develop knowledge and appreciation of his civic
responsibilities.


11
Haft. A. M. "Report of DCT Programs of Dade County."
Florida: Board of Public Instruction 1952 (Mimeographed, p. 1.

1Ibid. p. 3.











To the Community, the advantages may be stated as follows:

To obtain at a lower cost a thorough and extensive
training of youth for future full-time employment.

To have access to students with special abilities,
interests, and aptitudes and who have been care-
fully screened, selected, and placed with bona
fide shops, offices and stores for the purpose of
this training.

To train future labor market to exact job specifica-
tion with the help of the public schools.

To provide up-to-date and timely training.

The DCT program offers the following advantages to the high

school:

To reach those students whose interests and abilities are not

met by the traditional education programs.

To reach and to hold a greater number of youths in school

until graduation.

To keep the school abreast with business development and

trends.

To better meet the training needs of the community.

OPERATION OF THE PROGRAM

The very nature of the DCT program dictates that very definite

policies must be set up and adhered to by all of those who help in its

administration. We established in an earlier chapter the fact that the

students were the center of the program. We must, therefore, be concerned

about the qualification of those entering the program.











The Florida Plan for DCT has established seven basic

requirements a student must meet in order to be eligible for admittance

into the program. These requirements are:

(1) The student may be male or female and at least sixteen years

of age or older.

(2) He must be a regular eleventh or twelfth grader with at least

nine and ene-half high school units.

(3) His scholarship must be satisfactory.

(4) He must have the consent of his parents or guardian to enroll.

(5) He must be interested in learning a trade or an occupation.

(6) He must have acceptable character traits or habits.
13
(7) He must be in good health.

After a student has been accepted into the DCT program, his

school and work schedule must then be arranged. According to the Florida

Plan for DCT a student must be scheduled for a minimum of four periods

at school in the morning. Two of these periods must be spent in taking

required high school courses, Language Arts and a Social Study class.

The other two periods are spent in DCT related classes.

The student receives one unit of credit for each of the four periods

of school. Job and school work are closely related. The student spends

his afternoons in training on the job where he receives one unit of school

credit each year. A total of six units of credit may be earned by a DCT

student during the school year.

13
Ibid., p. 4.









17

The employer also plays a very important part in the over-all

operation of the DCT program. He agrees to cooperate with the program

by assuming certain responsibilities. These responsibilities are as

follows:

(I) He agrees to provide an opportunity for DCT student-

learners to receive work training in his place of businrs.

(2) He agrees to assist in selecting student-learners and matching

them with training jobs.

(3) Aid the coordinator to prepare a schedule of processes which

will identify jobs that will provide continuous training for at least one

year.

(4) Assist the coordinator to provide related study material for

use in school by the student-learner.

(5) Pay prevailing hourly wages commensurate with work done.

(6) Provide suitable working conditions.
14
(7) Furnish adequate supervision.

EINDS OF TRAINING IN THE GREATER MIAMI AREA

Greater ?4I'i has a considerable need for office workers. Approxi-

mately fifteen per cent of the graduates during the period of thick study

were trained in some phases of this field.

Similar opportunities are found in the general field of sales work.

Approximately twenty-five per cent of the graduates selected this area

for the type of work they wanted to learn. Since Miami is primarily in

14d., pp. 4-5.
Ibid., pp. 4-5.











the business of dispensing services of many types to its thousands

of yearly tourists, many attractive work opportunities in the sales

field were made available to our youth.

It is to be remembered that the foremost objective of the DOT

program is to give the high school youths the opportunity to begin

learning a trade or occupation as part of their high school work and at

the same time to receive regular high school credit. The kinds of

occupations listed below represents the type of training available to
15
graduates of the DCT program during the period of this study:


KINDS OF TRAINING

Appliance Repairman
Auto Body Repairman
Auto Mechanic
Baker
Bookkeeper
Butcher
Cabinet Maker
Candy Maker
Cashier. Grocery Store
Cashier, Theater
Child Nurse
Clerk, Accounting
Clerk, File
Clerk, General Office
Clerk, Insurance
Clerk, Typist
Cook
Dental, Assitant
Doctor's Assistant
Dry Cleaner
Florist
Fountain Girl
Grocery Store Manager


KINDS OF TRAINING

Hotel Maid
Hotel Manager (Assistant
Housekeeper
Jeweler
Nursing, Pre.
Orderly
Photographer
Porter
Printer
Restaurant Manager
Salesperson, Candy
Salesperson, Children's Wear
Salesperson, Department Store
Salesperson, Drug Store
Salesperson, Dry Goods
Salesperson, Gifts
Salesperson, Hardware
Salesperson. Home Appliances
Salesperson. Hosiery
Salesperson, Infants Wear
Salesperson, Jewelry
Salesperson. Ladies Wear
Salesperson, Men's Wear
Saleepersc, Shoes


Ibid. pp. 8 .









19

Chapter three which follows is devoted to a review of literature

that has some bearing on the study, and in part, assists in finding the

solution of the subordinate problems listed in Chapter L









CHAPTER III

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


Much has been written in regard to the nature, benefits and uses of

follow-up studies of former graduates by people who have had charge

of educational classes or programs. Reports of other follow-up studies

are numerous, too, but only brief report on the nature, benefit, and

uses of follow-up studies and a brief summary of the findings of actual

studies made that closely relate to the study of the writer, will be given

in this chapter.
16
Nature, Uses and Benefits of the Follow-up Study. Runge

gave a good description of the nature and the uses of the results of

follow-up studies in regards to educational programs as a whole.

"A follow-up study of former graduates is to obtain actual
facts regarding Jobs and the effectiveness of school training
received by former students and graduates in preparing them
for these Jobs. Information collected should be used by the
Coordinator, teachers, and the school in adjusting future
plans to fit actual situations."
17
Froehlich, in his studies of guidance services for analler schools

has emphasized five good uses for results of follow-up studies. They are:

(1) The follow-up study gives the school a basia for judging the

extent to which it meets the life needs of the youth it serves. It also

suggests the kind of needs which must be met. The follow-up study can pro-

vide information of value to the school in planning its curriculum.

16William B. Runge, Work Experience in High School, New York:
Ronald Press.

Clifford P. Froehlich. Guidance Services in Smaller Schools, New York:
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 1950, pp. 309.









21

(2) The results of follow-up studies may be used for improving

the guidance program. Results of a follow-up study made of school

leaves can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the school's

guidance program.

Information pertaining to a person's vocational and personal

adjustment should be collected. In addition, his opinions of the

counseling is another clue to the effectiveness of the program.

(3) The follow-up study may be used to identify those graduates

who are in need of further service. The school has a continuing

responsibility for its students. For example, it may discover that a

student with promise in mechanical work is clerking in a drugstore.

He undoubtedly would welcome help in finding a more suitable job.

(4) The results of a follow-up study may be used to predict

what present students will meet when they get out of school.

(5) The interpretation of collected data to the faculty should

result in a close scrutiny on the part of teachers of their courses, aims,
18
and methods of teaching.

Further research findings bearing on the follow-up study of

DCT Graduates reveal that many significant studies have been made in

other areas and types of educational programs.

lIbid. p. 313.








22
19
In September, 1947, the guidance department of Jay High School

checked the records of some of its graduates. It was discovered that

very few of them had continued their education in institutions of higher

learning. Many of the students were found to have accepted employment

in the community. Some had very good positions, others mediocre

ones, and still others were working in routine jobs having very little

future. From the data collected by the guidance staff, the following

statements were prepared for presentation to the faculty and the students:

(1) Less than four per cent of our graduates had furthered

their education beyond the high school level.

(2) Sixty per cent of the student body were enrolled in the

commercial course while local industry was in need of skilled workers.

(3) We do not have a vocational course designed to meet post

high school needs of boys in the high school.

(4) The present senior class had an enrollment of forty-two in

September. 1944. On September 12. 1947, the same class had only

seventeen members.

(5) Former students contacted in a spot survey had remained

in unskilled employment and common labor.

(6) Local industry was not receiving a fair share of local

labor qualified to assume responsibility.



Nell V. Sullivan. Follow-up Study of Graduates of Jay High School,
Maine: 1947.












(7) A lack of understanding existed within the student body con.

cerning the integral part local industry had in the life of the community.

(8) Progressive exclusion by local industry of students without

a high school education.

The faculty, after considering these findings, decided that,

"If the majority of the students must confine their education to high

school, it was the place of the school to make it possible for these stu-

dents to get the most from their high school years." After exploring

the program with students and businessmen of the community, it was

decided to offer cooperative work study to the seniors.

These research findings furnished information to the writer in

determining the answers to the subordinate problem number one, to what

extent have DCT graduates been successful in maintaining regular

employment since graduation? and subordinate problem number four,

what changes should be implemented to make the DCT program more

effective?

The guidance department of Jay High School found through its

study that most of its graduates were remaining at home to work. Some

were successful and some were not in making the necessary adjustments.

As a result of knowing these facts, it was determined that a cooperative

training program could be put in the curriculum and thereby improve the

school's offerings to its students.










Another study that has some bearing on this problem was made
20
by the St. Joseph High School of St. Joseph, Michigan. A follow-

up study was conducted of its graduates. It is interesting to note

that results of the study substantiated the need for several changes in

the high school program which had already been proposed, and intro-

duced many new suggestions. The findings served an important place

in presenting the program to the Board of Education and to the community.

"As a result of this survey and its findings:

(1) There was an incree*e in community aid faculty interest

in the total high school program.

(2) The high school English program was revised.

(3) Eight new subjects were added to the curriculum.

(4) Four additional teachers were added to the high school staff.

(5) A counseling program was established with four teacher-

counselors.

(6) Senior commercial students were given an opportunity to work

in local offices afternoons and Saturdays under supervision of the high

school commercial department. "

Again this study provided information on which the program of

the St. Joseph High School was improved.

Additional research findings helpful to the writer in determining



2Henry Weyland, Follow-up Study of St. Joseph High School
Graduates, Michigan: 1948.











answers to subordinate question one, to what extent have Diversified

Cooperative Training Graduates been successful in maintaining

regular employment since graduation? and subordinate question number

three, how do employers appraise the program? were contained in a
21
study of recent graduates of Ahrens Trade High School, Louisville,

Kentucky. A portion of the questionnaire used in the survey was devised

to determine the nature of the employment of graduates in the immediate

years after graduation from high school.

Business education graduates of Ahrens in 1948, 1949, and 1950

were selected for the follow-up study. The questionnaire was mailed

in May. 1951 to 148 girls and six boys. Results of the survey were

based on the answers received from one hundred of the 149 graduates

who received the questionnaire.

The permanent school record was used to obtain the last known

address of each of the graduates. The results of the survey as shown

by the returned questionnaires showed that the large majority of the

graduates used their office training to earn a living. Upon graduation,

ninety four of the one hundred graduates were employed in work that

required the skills they had obtained in the business education courses.

One graduate married immediately after graduation and devoted her time

to making a home. Two of the graduates entered schools of advanced

training and used their office training on part-time jobs.

21
John W. Tabb, "Vocational Status of Business Education Graduates,"
The Balance Sheet, May, 1953. pp. 386-387.










After periods of one, two, and three years, many of the

graduates were still employed as office workers. Three years after

graduation from high school twenty-two of the thirty-one 1948 graduates

were employed in office work, six were housewives, two were attending

school, and one was unemployed because of poor health. Of the twenty-

six 1949 graduates, nineteen were employed in an office, five were

house wives, one was attending school, and one was employed in work

other than office work. Forty of the forty-three 1950 graduates were

employed in office work and three warehouse wives.

The stability of the office employees during their period of

employment prior to May, 1951, was shown by these facts. Of the twenty-

eight office workers who graduated in 1948, sixteen were working for

their original employer, nine had worked for two employers and three

had worked for three different employers. Over fifty-seven per cent

of the full-time office workers from the class of 1948 were employed

in the same organisation that hired them upon graduation.

There were twenty-four office workers of the forty-two graduates

in the class of 1950 who were with their initial employer, fifteen had

held positions with two organizations and two had worked for three

employers. Fifty-seven per cent of the 1950 graduates had not changed

jobs since completing their high school course. Since the majority of the

graduates will remain with their first employer for several years, it is

important that the students be guided in the selection of a place of employment.










The reason for changing from one employer to another were

given on the questionnaire. Some of the graduates gave more than one

reason for changing jobs. The most frequent reasons given for changing

employers were: (1) limited opportunities, (2) insufficient pay, (3) and
22
dissatisfaction with working conditions.


Z2 bd., p. 388.









28

JOB CLASSIFICATION OF THE GRADUATES TABULATED
BY YEAR OF GRADUATION FROM THE BUSINESS EDU(jCTION
DEPARTMENT AT AHRENS TRADE HIGH SCHOOL


JO8 CLASSIFICATION 1948 1949 1950 Total

Stenorapher 5 5 13 23

Secretary 7 7 4 1F

Typist 6 1 10 17

General Clerk 1 5 3 11

Bookkeeper 2 4 2 8

Billing Clerk 2 2 3 7

Comptometer operator 1 0 1 2

Cashier 1 0 1 2

File Clerk 0 0 1 1

Payroll Clerk 0 0 1 1

Medical Stenographer 1 0 0 1

Cost Clerk 1 0 0 1

Assistant publicity Director 1 0 0 1

Telephone operator 0 0 1 1

iart-time office work 1 1 0 2

Other 2 1 0 3

Not employed 0 0 1 1

Total 31 26 43 100

3Id.. .
Ibid., p. 389.










The example given below is a striking one to show how

important a follow-up study can be. The literature read stated that:

A company manufacturing automobiles finds it not only possible but

profitable to spend a large sum of money each year in providing free

service for a time on every car it turns out. After driving a new car

one thousand miles the purchaser is asked to bring it in for free

inspection and to report any defects that he has discovered. He is

expected to do the same thing again when the car has completed two

thousand miles. Any defective parts or any adjustments needed within

the first three months or four thousand miles (whichever is reached

first) are cared for by the manufacturer without charge to the pur-

chaser. In other words, automobile companies consider it good

business to make ample provisions for following up their product, as

well as for producing and selling (or placing) it. They are so much

concerned about how their product performs and how it pleases their
24
public that they are willing to spend freely on this follow-up service.

Surely youth deserve as much consideration on the part of the

social institution which prepares them to function in an adult society,

especially when it is realized that the first few years of this functioning

really contribute enormously to the very process of education which

the schools have been fostering in these same youth. Ultimately the

schools must be expected to go to great oains and expense in order to


George E. Myers. Principles and Techniques of Vocational
Guidance. New York. 1941.











perform a comprehensive follow-up service for their product. This

service will no doubt concern itself with other aspects of life as well

as with vocational adjustments.

These research findings provided the writer with the necessary

techniques and data pertinent to the successful solution of the problem.

In keeping with the methods and procedures previously outlined

the following chapter (Chapter IV) is devoted to a presentation and

interpretation of the findings of the study.









CHAP TER IV

THE STUDY


The problem of determining the effectiveness of the training

received by the Diversified Cooperative Training Graduates of

Carver, Dorsey, and Booker T. Washington High Schools during the

school terms 1949-50 through 1953-54 finds its solution in an analysis

of the data collected by the writer. The purpose of the study was to

provide answers to the problem and the subordinate problems stated in

Chapter I, they were as follows:

(1) To what extent have Diversified Cooperative Training

graduates been successful in maintaining regular employment since

graduation?

(2) How do graduates appraise the program?

(3) What are the factors that also help in determining the

effectiveness of DCT training?

(4) What changes should be implemented to make the DCT

program more effective ?

In this chapter, findings are presented, analyzed and interpreted within

the framework established by the problem and its subordinate problems,

purpose of the study, and the basic assumptions of the study.

Questionnaires designed to provide criteron for the evaluation

of the effectiveness of DOT training of the graduates of Carver, Dorsey,

and Booker T. I ashington High Schools were delivered to 124 graduates


See Appendix.













and, mailed to eighty-four. As shown in Table II, of the two hundred

eight eligible to participate in the study seventy-seven or thirty-seven

per cent were boys. One hundred thirty-one or sixty-three per cent

were girls. Out of an attempt to contact the two hundred eight graduates

from the school terms 1949-50 through 1953-54, 124 or 59.6 per cent were

still living in the Miami Area: twenty-six or 12. 5 per cent were in

college or professional schools, thirty-two or 15. 4 per cent were in the

armed forces, fourteen or 6.7 per cent were unaccounted for at the time

of the survey, and twelve or 5. 8 per cent were living in other states.

TABLE II

PERSONAL INFORMATION AND PRESENT LOCATION OF DCT GRADUATES


Present Location
Graduated Boys Girls Total Greater Other Oollege Military Un-
_Miami States Service known

1950 14 21 35 21 3 3 4 4

1951 15 21 36 19 0 3 12 2

1952 18 35 53 34 4 3 9 3

1953 11 24 35 23 2 8 1 1

1954 19 30 49 27 3 9 6 4

TOT-.L 77 131 208 124 12 26 32 14


One hundred twenty four completed questionnaires from graduates

who were still living in the Greater Miami area were received by the writer.










This number was 59.6 per cent of the total sent out or delivered.

Twenty-three of those away in colleges returned questionnaires, and

fifteen of thoee in military service returned theirs. It is interesting to

note that a larger number of girls participated in the program than boys.

It appears reasonable to assume that a larger number of girls participa-

ted in the DCT program for the following reasons:

(1) There were more girls in the total enrollment of the

schools than boys.

(2) Boys were more successful in finding part-time jobs

on their own than girls.

(3) Boys thought in terms of entering military service after

graduation, rather than in planning for careers.

The data analysed and interpreted from this point is based on the reports

of those graduates who have had no interruptions in work since leaving

school, and employers of these graduates.

It is shown in Table III that, of the thirty-eight boys and eighty-

six girls who graduated and were living in the Miami area at the time

of the survey in September and October of 1954; fifty-two or 41. 9 per cent

were married, and each of them had an average of .2 children. Seventy-

two or 58 per cent were single and average age ranged from nineteen

to twenty-nine. One hundred twelve or ninety per cent were still living

with their parents.























Year


1950

1951

1952

1953

1954


Total


Married


Single


TABLE III

PERSONAL INFORMATION

A TABULATION OF THE NUMBER OF BOYS AND GIRLS
WHO CONTINUED WORK AFTER GRADUATION


Average
No. of
Children


Average
Age


Age
Range


21,29

21-25

21-24

20-24

19-22


IOTALS3 38 86 124 52 72 1 .2 21.7 19-29


Data obtained from grad

Table IV presents

occupations in which the

or seventy-five per cent


Boys


8

3

6

9

12


Girls


13

16

28

14

15


uates.

a composite picture of the broad variety of

DCT graduates found employment. Ninety-three

of the group of one hundred twenty-four who


Divorced


0



0

0

0


.3

.2

.3

.1

.1


continued work after graduation were working at the time of the survey.

The ninety-three graduates now working in the Greater Miami Area were

in twenty-three occupational areas. It may be noted that the larger

number of graduates were working as stock room clerks, nurse aides and

cafeteria workers.











TABLE IV

OCCUPATIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF EMPLOYED DCT
GRADUATES



OCCUrP. TIONAL AREA NUMBER IN AREA


Maid 3
Sale* Girl 4
Cushier 3
Teacher 2
Secretary 1
Musician 3
Grocery Clerk 6
Physical Therapist 2
Cafeteria Worker 7
Funeral Home Attendant 5
Stock Clerk 9
Truck Driver 6
Mechanic 6
Tast Driver 5
Salesman 6
Nurse Aide 8
Waitress 4
Factory Worker 2
General Office Clerk 2
Dental Technician 2
Baker 3
Garbage Collector 1
Police (School) I
Seamstress 1
Radio Announcer 1


Twenty-three Different Areas TOTALS 93











Table V reveals that out of the one hundred twenty-four

students who continued work after graduation forty-nine or thirty-nine

per cent were working in the same occupational areas for which they had

taken their DCT training. Forty-four or thirty-five per cent were

working in fields that were different from those they were trained in.

Graduates surveyed had spent an average of four years in their

present jobs. It was gratifying to note that seventy or 56.4 per cent

stated that they liked their present jobs, while only twenty-three or

24. 7 per cent were not entirely satisfied with their present occupational

choices. Reasons given for liking their jobs were as follows: variety

of work, good wages, good place, meet people, requires skill, like

co-workers, and helping others. Reasons given for not liking their Jobs

were as follows: poor wages, no advancement, not what I wanted.

At the time of the survey thirty-one or twenty-five per cent were

unemployed temporarily. Some reasons stated for their unemployment

status were: seasonal changes, wanted to rest, looking for a better

type of job.







TABLE V


PRESENT EMPLOYMENT OF GRADUATES

NUMBER OF OCCUPATIONAL AREAS, NUMBER STILL IN OCCUPATIONS TRAINED FOR


WHILE IN DCT,


YEARS OF SERVICE AND LIKES OR DISLIKES FOR PRESENT JOB


NUMBER.WORKING IN AREAS
Year Occupational Number Number Average Liking Work Unemployed
areas Similar to Different front years
Graduated represented training training on job Yes No temporarily


1950 16 9 7 6 12 4 5

1951 12 8 8 5 13 3 3

1952 10 11 12 4 18 5 11

1953 11 9 7 3 10 6 7

1954 12 12 10 2 17 5 5


TOTALS 61 49 44 4 70 23 31


---











Table VI shows the reasons for the unemployment status

of the thirty-one graduates who were unemployed at the time of

the survey m September and October of 1954. Reasons as given

by the graduates, bear a close resemblance to those given by their

employers. This fact indicates a good degree of validity in the

reasons. It is noteworthy to point out that only two graduates had

to be separated from their employment for reasons of dishonesty.



TABLE VI


No. of times
REASON FOR GRADUATES'UNEMPLOYMENT Reason given


Marital 3

Seasonal employment only 10

Wanted to rest some 2

Poor Health 5

Desired job with better opportunities 6

Discharged for dishonesty 2

Failed to reveal reason 3










Table VI reveals that of the ninety-three graduates who

were employed at the time of the survey, forty-seven or 50. 5 per

cent of them were working in the same type of job for which they

were trained, while forty-six or 49. 4 per cent were working in

occupations different from those trained in while in the DCT program.

It was further gratifying to note that the average number of

payroll jobs participated in by these ninety-three graduates while

in the DCT program was 1. 5. It is reasonable to assume that this

low figure substantiates the facts that student selections were good

and also guidance services to students in selecting occupations.

It may be further noted from Table VII that the average number of pay

roll jobs that graduates worked on since school were 1. 3. This fact

would indicate that students didn't change jobs very often after

graduation.

Reasons were also tabulated as to why graduates are in

different jobs from those trained in. Getting married, health reasons.

and being promoted were the reasons most checked by the graduates.







TABLE VII


Year of Job Same as Job Difmfe Average No. Average No. No. Checking
one from one of Payroll of Payroll Job changed since
Graduation Trained for Trained for Jobs while jobs since Graduation Reasons
students Graduation

1950 5 11 1.7 1.6 Promotion 7

1951 9 7 1.5 1.4 Married 10

1952 11 12 1.6 1.2 Didn't like Boss 2

1953 9 7 1.4 1.2 Business Recession 6

1954 13 9 1.2 .9 Health Reasons 10

Became own 2
Boss

Better opportuni-
ty 5

Had to work
nights 2

Got fired 2

47 46 1. ( .) 1.3(Av.) 46










In one of the subordinate problems for the study, the question

of how did graduates evaluate other school subjects w a asked. After

getting transcripts of the records of the one hundred twenty-four students

participating in the study from their permanent record cards, these

records were used in that part of the survey where other school subjects

were evaluated. As shown in Table VII, all of the graduates had taken

language arts and the reasons for taking the course wese given as

required for graduation and for the educational value gotten from it.

All of the graduates had taken DOT.

Some of the graduates had taken courses in each of the eleven

departments listed, ranking in eleven students in foreign languages to

one hundred twenty-four in Social Studies. The average number of

units ranged from one in Home Economics to four in DCT. The average

grades earned ranged from 71.1 per cent in Mathematics to 84. 1 per

cent in Music. The study also revealed that the one hundred twenty-four

students earned an average of 79. 1 per cent in all the departments com-

bined.

In their evaluation of subjects taken the 0-5 point scale was used,

again their evaluation of subjects varied from 2.4 per cent in foreign

languages and commercial education to 3. 3 for music and DCT. The

overall average evaluation for all classes was 2.6 points.







42
Graduates also stated reasons for taking courses. There were

suggestive reasons on the questionnaire and graduates could make up

their own. The table will show that the two reasons that were checked

by more graduates for each subject appears in the chart with the number

of times checked beside it. The chief reasons for taking courses by the

graduates were : because they were required, for education, and advance-
ment.


TABLE VII


TABULATION OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL RECORDS OF ONE HUNDRED
TWENTY-FOUR DCT GRADUATES

Number Averagege Averae Average Reaaon for Taking
SUBJECTS TAKEN Taking Evalua-
Course units grade tion course
Language Arts 124 3. 77.8 3. 0 Required subject 124
Education 101
Social Studie 124 3.0 79. 1 3.0 Required subject 124
Citizenship 85
Science T24T 1.9 74.9 2.9 Required subject 124
Advancement 71
Mathematics 86 2.0 71.1 3.1 Education 84
Advancement 68
Language(Foreign) 11 1.6 76.4 2.4 Education 9
Popular Teacher 7
Industrial Arts 25 1.7 80.5 2. 8 Interest 58
Advancement 45
Commercial Advancement 25
Education 25 ). 81. 1 2. 4 Publicity 17
Music (Chorus- Advancement 10
sand) 15 1. 1 84. 1 3.3 Publicity 15
Physical Education 124 2.0 84.0 2. 1 Easy subject 99
Required 124
DCT 124 4.0 82.4 3.3 Required 124
_____Advancement 86


Home


Economics


79.0

79.


Interest
Advancement








43


Tabuh J.X sho's tav -:wi.ina ha', .ut-:. ,a-e -- taking DCT

training. One hundred Tw.Vlve of the one hLunred twensty-four ha. parti-

cipated in th DCT pr.-jra- to learn a trade o; business. Ninety seven

graduates stat. thr!?.t they had t:-:en -'" o Ct financZ t'eir high cooll

education.

As e result of irter *.ier held .ith ,radZatca Lh writer was able

to learn from them that getting through hi h school wo ldi have been very

difficult for them had it not been for this chance tu help finance their

indiv, -i e u:at n t s' i eir r :: a t. i.e

extra money, whereby they could have exttas which wo',; have been

inmposzible otherwise while i hligh school. Seventy-fiJ, -' thern) caid

they w.ni-eu to learn what a jobi demanded of them and what it takes on

their part to adjust to a real job. The last of their reasons were give-s.

by a group which falls broadly iito that general class wvo do ot 'ant'.n

to atte*.i school but realizes the disadvantages encountered without a

diploma.
TABLE IX
REASONS WHY ONE HUNDRk.D TWENTY-FOUR GRADUATES
i, UK iTHL DGT COUISiA

INo. Times /c of Graduates
Graduates' Keason for taking UCTs of Gra
f- Locked Checking
Learn A Trade or business 112 90
To Finance High School Educaticn W7 ,$
To ', E!x L:tra Mljoney 57 46
To Learn About Different Jobs 75 60
To Be Out of School Part-tire 21 j
Because it Required Less Formal Study 32 2
;eca-ime t -s "a i New Course in Schonol 10 _











Table X is a tabulation of an evaluation of DCT by graduates

of the program. The 0.5 point rating scale was used. It may be

observed from looking at the table that all items were checked as being

quite valuable to the graduates. The range on this tabulation was from

3.4 on the quality of teaching to observe to 4.7 on teaching how to adjust

to a job. The average of points for all items listed was 4. 2 This brings

out the fact that graduates place a high value on the training received

under the program.

TABLE X

EVALUATION OF THE DIVERSIFIED COOPERATIVE TRAINING PROGRAM
BY GRADUATES



ITEMS TO BE EVALUATED Average
Points 0.5

As guidance factor 4. 2

In helping to teach better human relations 3. 9

For learning skills 4. 4

Teaching how to adjust to a job 4.7

Training to Observe 3.4

Teaching how to take and follow directions 4. 5

Developing responses 4. 5


AVERAGE 4.2











Table XI shows a tabulation of graduates' opinions of possible

ways to improve the DCT program. The suggestions receiving the

largest number of checks were mcre vocational subjects with one

hundred twenty-one and more lguid ce with one hundred ten.

TABLE XI



Graduiats' Suggestions for mp roving the Progra m Nu:--ber Checking Sug-
gestions

More related work 72

Less related work 21

More supervision 17

Less supervision 3

More vocational subjects 121

Less vocational subjects 17

More guidance 110


TOT. 361


Table XII shows the forty-seven employers who started training

DCT students during the years 1950 to 1954 inc' iaive. These forty-seven

employers trained fifty DCT students during the five year period. There

were forty-seven graduates or ninety-four per cent of them still in the

same business place in which they were trained. Data collected revealed

that some five or 2. 3 per cent of them have been given more responsible

positions within the place of business.








46
Of the forty-seven employers who still had graduates they trained,

working for them, forty or eighty-six per cent were willing to continue

training DCT students in the future. Seven of the forty-seven, however,

were not willing to continue training students. Their chief reason for not

centered around students not being dependable and their not being able to

afford the expense of having an additional employee.

TABLE XII

A TABULATION OF EMPLOYERS WHO RETAINED GRADUATES AFTER
GRADUATION









As shown in Table XIII, the employers who participated in

the study reported having had quite a share of success in working with

the DCT program. Most employers thought that the program was

worth while.

TABLE XII

TABULATION OF EMPLOYERS RATINGS ON THE NINETY-THREE
GRADUATES WHO WERE WORKING IN SEPTEMBER AND OCTOBER
OF 1954


Factors graduates were E NUMBEt Of GRAIlUATES iArEl
rated on by their em.
players Excellent Satisfactory Unsatisfactory

Attendance to work by
graduate 68 14 11

Punctuality to work 51 21 21

Quality of work 71 18 4

Quantity of work 61 23 9

Personal Appearance 82 5 6

Skill 70 16 7

Ability to follow instruc-
tions 54 20 19

Ability to take criticism 67 15 11

Resourcefulness 49 22 22

Initiative 53 27 13

Ability to get along with 22 41 30
other employees


TOTAL 648 222 143










Table XIV shows that the thirty-one graduates not working

at the tim of the survey were for the most part uemployd because

business had fallen off and for health reasons. It is gratifying to note

that only a fow graduates wre unemployed for reason unbecoming to

good employees.

TABLE XIV

TABULATION OF EMPLOYERS RE POaTS AS TO WHY THIRTY-ONE
GaADUATES ARLE NO LONGER EMPLOYED WITH THSM


REASONS REPORTED. BY EMPLOYERS AS TO NUMBER OF EMPLOYERS
WHY GRADUATES AR3 NO LONGER EMPPLOY- REPORTINGG
ED BY THEM &RASONS

Graduate married 3

Business fll off 11

Health of graduate 6

Discharged

For dishonesty 4

For graduates failure to work 3

For graduates failure to show interest 1

For graduates failure to assume
reesponibility 3
TOTAL 31. .











CHAPTER V

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The problem as stated in Chapter One was that of determining

the effectiveness of the training received by the DOT graduates of

Carver, Dorsey. and Booker T. Washington High Schools.

Chapter One of this report stated and analysed the problem.

Out of the analysation evolved four subordinate problems. These were:

(1) To what extent have Diversified Cooperative Training Graduates

been successful in maintaining regular employment since graduation?

(2) How do graduates appraise the program? (3) What are the other

factors that help in determining the effectiveness of DCT training?

(4) What changes should be implemented to make the DCT Program more

effective?

To help provide some of the answers to these subordinate problems

and the major problem. questionnaires were developed and delivered

to graduates and employers.

The results are given in summary form later in this chapter.

In Chapter Two the writer presented the history and other background

information on the DCT program and the Greater Miami area. The

chapter shows that the DCT program was developed to serve a very definite

need in the lives of high school students. Evidence further showed that the

Miami area was conducive to this rapid development of local DCT programs.









50

In Chapter II, the Review of Related Literature, revealed that

follow-up studies should be conducted to serve in the evaluation of

educational programs. Studies of this type will help to say how good

has been the offerings of a school or a DCT program.

Chapter IV presented the study and the results are summarized

as follows: The total number of DCT graduates of Carver, Dorsey.

and Booker T. W ashington High School participating in the follow-up

study were seventy-seven boys and one hundred thirty-one gids or a

total of two hundred eight graduates. One hundred twenty-four of this

number were contacted and questionnaires were completed.

In September and October of 1954 there were one hundred

twenty-four graduates or 59.6 per cent of them living in the Miami Area.

Twenty-six or 12. 5 per cent of the graduates were continuing their

education at institutions of higher learning. Thirty-two or six per cent

were in military service. Out of the two hundred eight graduates only

fourteen or 6. 7 per cent were unaccounted for at the time of the survey.

The study revealed the fact that one hundred twenty-four or 59.6

per cent of the graduates chose to continue work after graduation.

Ninety-three of the working graduates were employed in twenty-

three occupational areas, while forty-seven or 37. 9 per cent of the one

hundred twenty-four were working at the same place where they were

trained.








51

The evidence of the study showed that seventy or 56. 4 per cent

stated that they liked their present job, and were happy in them.

Working graduates had an earned average of 1. 1 per cent skills that

were developed in school and now are applied in their present jobs.

Only thirty-one or twenty-five per cent of the graduates were

unemployed at the time of the survey. Most of the unemployment was

accredited to seasonal employment, health, and desire for better jobs.

Forty-seven employers still had graduates they trained and

forty of these or eighty-six per cent are willing to continue training

students. They rated the program favorably.

In evaluating school subjects taken on a 0-5 point scale, averages

ranged from 2. 4 per cent in foreign language to 3. 3 in Music and DCT.

In conclusion the writer wishes to point out the following facts

that were revealed as a result of the study:

(1) Since seventy-five per cent of the DCT graduates of Carver,

Dorsey and Booker T. Washington High Schoole of Miami. who

continued to work after graduation were still employed in some occupation

were still em d n om cu action at the time of the survey; their

training is considered to have been effective.

(2) Since graduates for the most part felt that the DCT program

and their schools had equipped them for successful living, their training

is considered to have been effective.









52

(3) Since the employers who helped in training these students

were quite pleased with results attained through working with the DCT

program. The training received by graduates is considered to have

been effective.

(4) Since graduates suggested no major changes for improving

the DCT program and few minor changes. The training with suggestions

given for improvement is considered effective.

RECOMMENDATIONS

In light of the findings of this study, it is reasonable to

assume that recommendations offered by the writer are in order, since

it has been established that a study of this type affords information

necessary in improving a DGT program. These recommendations are

given in hopes that they may serve as a basis for the continuous improve-

ment of these and other DCT programs.

Recommendations are as follows:

(1) More vocational subjects should be offered to those students

of Carver, Dorsey, and B. T. Washington High Schools who do not plan to

attend college

(2) Better guidance services should be provided for all students

in these high schools irrespective of their fields of interest.

(3) Students taking DCT should be provided with more and better

related study.








53
(4) Finding better type agencies should be the constant goal

of administrators of these programs.

(5) Students should be carefiJly selected and matched to jobs

used for training in the program.

(6) A constant followr-r program should be instituted by all

coordinators.

(7) The selection of better traiinng agencies should be given

consideration at all times.

(8) All school pers?'Z rn hod be informrvd as to the objectives

cf DCT.

(9) The support of the community at large should be solicited

at all tires.





































BIBLIOGRAPHY










BIBLIOGRAPHY


Books

Campbell. William Giles. Thesis VWriting, Boston: Houghton Mifflin

Company, 1954. 114 pp.

Froehlich, Clifford P., Guidance Services in Smaller Schools. New York:

McGraw-Hill Book Corapai ,, .c.. 0141.

Ivae, Wilson H. Williaixi B. iunge, Work ixperi ii Hig. h School.

New York: Ronald Press Company, 1950.

Jones, Arthur J., Principla of Gd-anci. rwll Yox-: viLcGraw-Hill Book

Company, Inc. 1945.

Myers, George L., Principies and Techniques of Vocational Guidance,

New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1941.

Rakestraw, C. E., Training Higl School Youthi for riployne:.t. Chicago:

American Technical Society, 1947.

Periodicals

Brewster. Royce E., and Zeran, Franklin R. "Techniques of Follow-up

Study of School Leavers Los Angeles: CaiL -i Test Bureau,

Educational Builetin No. Seventeen, 1947.

Camp, Dolph, "Suggestions for Making a Community Survey, Little Rock:

State Occupational Irbrmnation and Guidance Service, Bulletin No.

Thirty-two, 1946, p. i.

Haft. A. M. "Report of DCT Programs oi Dade County', Florida: Board

of Public Instruction, 1952.










Isaaceon, Lee E., "Predicting Success in Work Experience Program,"


The Personael and Guidance Journal, January 1955, pp.


Z70-


273.


National Association of Manufacturers, '' working Together:


York, pp.

Shatto, Paul C.,


1955, New


15-43.

Jr., "Steelton High School's Work-Experience Program,"


The Balance Sheet,


Vo-. XXVI No. 7 ('arch 1955), Ip.


303-305.


State Department of education, Diversified Cooperative Training Program

in Florida Public Sc -ool : 13' 2 1orii!a.


United States Bureau of Census, cenaus of Population

I: (Washington: Government Printing Offices (I


1950 Florida,


17. 93, 98-106.


Zapoleon, Marguerite W. "Community Occupational Surveys. "


1952). pp.


14, 16.


W ashiagton,


D. G.: Gozrnment F printing Office, 1942, :. 3.


































APPENDIX












QUESTIONNAIRE NUMBER ONE

To employers

DIVERSIFIED COOPERATIVE TRAINING
EMPLOYER RATING OF GRADUATE

Rating of the Student on the Job


Student's Name


School


Training Agency


NOTE: In rating the student excellent, eatis-
factory or unsatisfactory, please 4
indicate if development i f ''n ovrv. 9

0 *




ATTENDANCE Compare actual attendance
with hours assigned.

PUNCTUALITY Consider times late. Do not
let reasons influence this
part of your estimate.

GENERAL ATTITUDE Toward the job,
superiors, other employees,
the public.
OUALITY OF WORK Compare with other
workers of equal age,
length of service and hours
assigned.
QUANTITY OF WORK Compare with other
workers of equal age,
length of service and hours
assigned
APPEARANCE Compare with standard set by
other employees in the occupa-
tion, but consider that student
is handicapped by small' income.














ATTITUDE TOWARD CRITICISM



ABILITY TO FOLLOW INSTRUCTIONS










R.SOURECI ULNESS



REMARKS


Signature of Supervisor


Date











DCT FOLLOW-UP STUDY

QUESTIONNAIRE NUMBER TWO TO


Name


Years in BusinessZ

Year First DGT Trainee Place w

Number Yoo HAav, Traiae t!o i)te

Nu-ber with You Now


Na--, o-f Trai-e-2 :


ears


Comment. Briefly on Lach
As to Work Habits.
Attitudes, and General
Progress


Signature


Please c-rr;-.-en orjn -`c merits of our DC.T oprogra):










FOLLOW-UP STUDY OF DIVERSIFIED COOPERATIVE TRAINING

GRADUATES OF CARVER. DORSEY AND BOOKERa T. WASHINGTON

HIGH SCHOOLS OF MIAMI, FLORIDA 1950-54, INCLUSIVE -










QUESTIONNAIRE


Name of Graduate


Present Address of Graduate


Graduate of What School













SURVEY OF DCT GRADUATES OF TH I
MIAMI AREA

Personal

Name Present Address

Year Graduated Year Married

Number of Children Buying Home? Renting?

Type of Training Received through DCT

Present Employment

What is your present employment?

How long have you been employed here?

Did you train here under the DCT program?

What is your reason for entering this kind of work?

Do you like this work?

Why or why not

In College or Professional School

In Military Service

Work Record (Since School)

Year of employment

Place of employment

Skills developed

Evaluation











Reason for Change

(Circle)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9


Promotion
Married
Didn't like boss
Want to College
Business fell off
Health
Became own boss
Too much routine
Had to work nights


Year of employment

Place of employment
Skills developed
Evaluation
Reacon for Change


(Circle)
123456


789


High School Record

Place Units and average
in front of subject








Vocational Subjects


1. Promotion
2. Married
3. Didn't like boss
4. Went to college
5. Business fell off
6. Health
7. Became boss
8. Too much routine
9. Had to work nights

Place reason to right
(Reason for taking course)
English 1. Citizenship
Social Science 2. Other advice
Mathematics 3. Advancement
Language (foreign) 4. Publicity
Ind. Arts 5. Interest
Comm. Ed 6. Personality
Phy. Ed. 7. Easy subject
Science 8. Popular teacher
DGT 9. Required
Music 10. Education
11. Others
12. Home room Teacher
Influenced











Reason for taking DCT


Learn trade or business
Finance High school Education
Make extra money
Learn about different Jobs
Be out of school part time
Less sitting
Lees study
List others

Suggestions for improving DCT


DCT evaluation
score benefits 0-5


Increased skills
Adjustment to job
Increased observation
More attention to
directions
Increased responsibility


Others


More related work
Less related work
'A ore supervision
Less supervision
More vocational subjects
Less vocational subjects
Others


Increased
power


my earning


Remarks
What further help could the school have given you?


in follow-up?


In guidance ?


In training?




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