A SURVYT OF TEACHERS' ESTIMATES OF HIGH INTELLIGENCE
IN GRADES FOUR, F;VI, AND SIX OF BOND, ORIFFIN,
LINCOLN, AND LUCT MOTHER SCHOOLS
the Graduate Comitee of the
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science in Education
Juanita Cobb Bailey
A SURVEY OF TEACHERSt' WTIMATES OP HIGH INTELLIGENCE
IN GRADES FOUR, FIVE, AND 'IX OF BOND, GRIFFIN,
LINCOLN, AND LUCY MOTEN SCHOOLS
the Gradvpte Coaaittte of the
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College
In Partial Fulillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Soience in Education
Juanita Cobb Bailey
\^.fCbel J f-Ak
7 ^' /j ^d~ e~
I wish to wwprness y gratitude to
HiSm EStly A9 Copolmtg ad lr, Janea Condon
for the valubl 14olp ren ivod in the writinS
of thie thesti,
speolal Olacnwloedmcnt for *aeletanic
asht a be mada to ay huabaut Mr. Pow o Bla, Uw
To The Maory
Robert Lee Cobb
Barbara Ann Cobb
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. THS PROBLEM AD DEFINITIONS
Statement of the problem
Importance of the study
Definitions of terms used
Superior . .
Enrichment . .
Delimitation or scope of
Basic assumptions s
Sources of the data .*
Method of procedure *
Limitationsof the data*.
Statement of organisation
II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE a
a 9 v 0 *
Selection of superior children ..
Teacher's estimates of intelligence 0
Race and intelligence . 9 .
Effects of environment on intelligence
Socioeconomic trends and intelligence
III. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA .
Results of the test * *
OF TERMS UJED .
0 # 0 0 0 0
a OSC 6 a0
Result of the checklists .. 28
Summary of findings . . 37
IV. SUI4OART, CONCLUSION, AND IRECOWSNDATIONS 9, 39
Smnmary ....... *....... 39
Conclusion &. . 40
Recommendations . . . 40
BIBLIOORAPH .. ......... 42
LI:T OF TABLES
I. I. Q.'s of the Seventy-two Pupils to Whom The
Otis Quick-Sooring Mental Ability Test
(Beta Test Form A) Was Administered . 17
II, I. Q.'s Litted By Grade ,... 19
III. I. Q.'s Listed By Sohools A, B, C, and D 20
IV. I. Q.'s Listed By the Age of Pupils . 22
V. R*)Cer and Range of I, Q.a . . 23
VI. I. .'s Listed By Orades in Sohools A, B, C,
and D .* *. .* * 24
VII. Methods Used By Teachers to aSlect Superior
Children e *.. .* * 30
VIII. Factors Which Affect the Organisation of
Tour School *. . . . 31
IX. Does the Currioulum Provide for Superior
Children *. .*. . 34
X, Methods of Instructipn Used By Teachers of
Superior Pupils . . 35
XI. Methods of Evaluation Used By Teachers of
Superior Students .* ... . 36
THE PROBLEM AND DEFINXTIONS OF TERMS USED
The public schools need to give the superior pupils an
opportunity to develop their abilities as adequately as other
pupils ore permitted and helped to develop theirs. These
children are the future leaders who will contribute greatly
to the building of a better world. In order to discover
superior children, a testing program should be initiated for
all children who enroll year by year in all elementary
Statement gL ra Probhm
It was the purpose of this study (1) to identify
pupils having superior mental abilities in grades four, five,
and six, and (2) to find out if the teachers of these grades
are providing suitable stimulating educational experiences
in their classroom teaching for such pupils.
Imorsan t L Atd
The capable pupils of today must become the teachers
and thinkers of tomorrow* For this reason their education
should be guided intelligently and with the keenest of in-
sight. The nation needs capable pupils and capable pupils
need the right kind of help through classroom= instruction
Definition 1fg Tajs Egug
2MSrEa The term superior as used in this investi-
gation wae interpreted as meaning pupils superior in intel*
ligence to their classmates.
Acletration. Acceleration was interpreted as mean-
ing the moving of a child from one level of instruction to
another, but only after h has mastered the. ork of the
level of instruction from which he is moving.
Lria~hgent The term enrichment was interpreted to
mean the modification of the curriculum by providing more
diversified material and richer experiences.
elihtMitatn S e Aa rE s2 Inv ItstlQnB1
This investigation us confined to grades four, five,
and six, of Bond, Griffin, Lincoln, and Lucy Moten Elemen*
1. Teachers fail to identify pupils with superior
2. Teachers neglect to offer in their classroom
teaching suitable stimulating educational experiences.
pi Aamc r 1tionm
1. Emphasis is placed upon the identification and
treatment of the below average rather than the superior
2. The superior child needs stimulating and chal.
lenging experiences that he rarely gets in the classes
of most schools today.
3. The superior child needs more effective guidance
than he is now receiving.
Sources gL tje 2Mta
.s sa Si li&&
The data were obtained from the Otis Quick-Scoring
Mental Ability Test, Beta Test: Form A, the distribution of
a checklist to the teachers of grades four, five, and six,
of the four schools in question, and from the literature
cited in Chapter II.
BMat" aL p nrMdura
A survey was made of grades four, five, and sixof
Bond, Griffin, Lincoln and Lucy Noten Schools of teachers'
estimates of the superior abilities of their pupils. A
sampling was obtained by having the teachers of these grades
select pupils that they believed to be superior in iftelli-
gence. Seventy-two pupils were selected. In view of the
fact that there is a possibility that teachers' estimates of
intelligence may not always be reliable, the Otis Quick-
Scoring Mental Ability Test was administered as a counter
cheek. The intelligence test is the best single source of
discovering the superior child, However, according to the
instrument used, none of the seventy-two pupils tested fell
into the category of superior pupils.
Limitations f t he Dta
TJI.S Testing alone is not sufficient despite its
importance. Negro children as a group, so often, are found
in substandard environments and have not had an opportunity
to gain the experiences presupposed by standardized tests.
Therefore, pupils are sometimes found to have relatively
low test scores but high levels of achievement. The pupils
who manifest surpassing educational performance should be
included as members of the superior group.
Checklists. The checklists were checked and filled
in by teachers. In some instances the data may have been
inaccurately reported. This factor is an inescapable
weakness of the checklist, however, it probably does not
seriously affect the accuracy of the total compilation.
Statement o QOranijation iKt Cha terms
Chapter One, the problem and definitions of terms
used; Chapter Two, a review of literature; Chapter Three,
analysis and interpretation of the data; and Chapter Four,
summary, conclusions and recommendations.
UEVIEW OF LITERATURE
While the average child neds good attention, the
really important child is the boy or girl who is quicker
brighter and surer than the average. It is from this class
of children that we muat draw our leaders for the future.
alMtioSa L bSIma c ahldran
There are three general methods used to select or
identify superior children. These methods are standardized
tests, teacher' judgments, and class performance. Each of
thee methods supplement the other and when taken together
provide an excellent program of identification.
Reokl stated that a systematic toting of all school
children should be arranged. In syetas unable to give
these tests universally, a systmatio selection should be
made of all pupils wbo seem to have some talent, based
upon the cumulative record and upon teacher observation.
These pupils should then be tested,
Soehidamann2 saye, experienood teachers are fairly
Ar h 2h0. seduc n o U..
2ran (eav TorkA e Yor P
2Noras Valentine Schaidmann,
2fP i i 9hilidr (Bostons Houghton MaIfnIn co1po
19511 p pP 232405#
good Judges of a child's ability, but that they do not
appreciate the superior child's ability. Therefore, on
account of the unreliability of personal judgment, the in-
telligence tests are used as the best single source for seo
looting superior children*
learns3 concluded, though few children are geniuses,
all children possess gifts which nay become their special
distinction* Talents await recognition. Someone should
stand by in the early years to watch for and footer these
Suaption, Norris, and Terman4 found that a combina-
tion of teachers' judgments and the results of standardized
test is much better than the use of tests alone as a means
of choosing the bright child.
Taahara Esatinhulat IntllUKeU 2
Te man5 says there is a tendency on the part of teach*
ere to overestimate the intelligence of children.
3 Hughes Nearns, "very Child Has A Gift," Bn
gagarn a Dirast. July, 1952, p. 22.
Mrlae R. BSuption. et al, "Spcial Education For
The Gifted Childs" troa1 U_4 AIil
SLewis M. Termaen, intullzIAga t hf i uamb l
(Bostonu Houghton Mifflin company, 99 p 9
Pintner6 states that every teacher knows that children
possess all degrees of intelligence. Some are slow in learn-
Ing and some are quick. A teacher is constantly rising up
her pupils from this standpoint of ability to learn. Many
errors and gross mistakes are made.
Terman7 says one of the most common errors made by
the teacher is to overestimate the intelligence of the over-
age pupil. This is because she fails to take account of age
differences and estiu tes intelligence on the basis of the
child's school performance in the gra:ie where he happens to
be located. She tends to overlook the fact that quality of
school work is no index of intelligence unless a'e is taken
into account. Because of this fallacy, one or more feeble-
minded children have been found in a class where the teacher
had confidently asserted that there was not a single ex*
ceptionally dull child present.
Vitherington assumes that the validity of an intelli-
gence test is usually estimated by comparing its results with
6 Rudolf Pintner, E natinnal pnahnann (New Torki
Henry Holt and Company, 1929) p. 90.
7 Lewis M. Terman, anurant Inte llanc
(Boetont Houghton Kifflin Company, 1916), p. 25,
SHenry Carl WitherinCt 3dutiSeBl BrhOloai
(Bostont Ginn and Company, 19), pp. 5455
other criteria or estimates of intelligence, Teachers who
know children intimately and watch their behavior for
months and years have a fairly sound opinion of their capsc-
ity to do school work.
Averll9 says the judgment and estimate of the class-
room teacher of a pupil's probable abilities to succeed
eoholaetically should be given much weight in initiating a
program of differential education.
BassI aI Xantllisna
Jenkins10 found that superior Negro children exhibit
the same characteristics that typify other racial groups of
Stroud1 concluded that although the average test per*
formance of Negro children is low, there are many bright
children among them. Perhaps 15 or 20 per cent of the Negro
children equal or exceed the median score for white children,
that is, earned I. .'s of 100 or above,
9 Lawrence A, Averill, JiTM Pshalog rv aL all 2a$Mlu
aohpl gMiL (New Torki Lonagana, en Company, 19t
10 martin D. Jenkinse, A Socio-Peychological Study of
Negro Children of Superior Intelligence," J=ar gf 2i UC
IEduatianL 5t190, April, 1936*
11 James Stroud, Pvhol4 j cation (Nev Tork
Longean, Green and Company, 1946, p. 333
Witherington2 say differences among individuals
of any race are greater than the difference between any two
races That is, members of any race differ more from one
another than they differ from seabers of other races with
respet to native capacity. After all, the major problem
is not to speculate upon what the racial differences are
and how they originated but rather to discover capacities
which can be utilised in the education of all races.
Plnt9er1) found that the meat extensive comparisons
have been made between the American white and Negro children
The white children aake a higher average score. In term of
I. Q. where the whites rake an average of 100, the Negro
child nakes an average of from 85 to 95. In te m of total
distribution about 25 per cent of the Nagroes reach or ex*
ceed the median score of the whites About 25 per cent of
the Negroes have more intelligence than the average white
and a great number of white and Negro children have the same
amount of intelligence,
Boyntona4 concluded that the remarkable demonstration
of learning ability by Negroes assigned to special training
12 Witherington, n gnSALS Ppe 154-?55
1 Pintner, a&. aL., p. 158.
14 Paul L. Boynton, ot aXl. IlMelMantan adutiga l
AZalaM (mNew Yorkt Premtice-lah, Inc., 1950'10 PP 14550
units during World War II is an indication of the positive
results that can be secured when appropriate opportunities
are offered under stimulating conditions.
Averil115 found the I.Q.'s of Negro children in the
deep South to be somewhat below those of white children.
The differences may be largely accounted for in terms of en-
vironmental stimulation and opportunity, which are inferior
Oarth16 concluded that racial differences in intelli-
gence are due to factors of nurture and selection and are
not due to racial germ plasmn
Thorndike17 concluded that, what the mental ability
of a race actually achieves is due to the conditions under
which it operates, and a race may put on or put off such
conditions or have then imposed or removed by other races,
for all sorts of reasons
Wlkersonl8 concluded that racial diffeernces in
15 Averill, s. fai., p. 310.
Thomas R. Oarth MduIaliealS Prcholaig (New Torks
Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1937), pp. 262W6,.
17 Edward L. Thorndike, dMution Pnarhaol vZ (New
Torki Teacher's College, Columbia University, 19101, p. 67.
18 Doxey-A, Wilkerson "Racial Differences in Scholasr
tic Achievement," JRurd o2 Nh Emt education. 3i470, Jahuary,
socio-economic status may be listed as an extremely probable
aouse of racial differences in scholastic achievement.
EffeSta af Enironment on Intelliaenta
Boynton19 says that poor environment retards develop*
ment. Ratings are shown to improve when various types of
opportunities are provided.
Preasey2 found .that the more able individuals tend
to be found In the cities, and that of professional men and
their children. These individuals had more native capacity
than laborers and their children.
Cole21 stated that children of unskilled day laborers
are 10 to 20 points lower than those of the professional
Terman22 concludes that the question is always raised,
whether in estimating a child's intelligence on the basis of
the I. Q., it is not necessary to make allowance for the
influence of social environment. The I. '. can have little
19 Boynton, oa. *9., pp. 142-43.
0Sidney L. Preasev, P holg And The iS EAuatin
(New Yorki Harper and Brothersp, 19) p 235.
21 awrence B. Cole and William F. Bruce, f-1aaan
Psva v (New York World Book Company, 1950), p, 15.
22 Lewis M. Terman, Intellignc L School Children,
significance except possibly as an index of the subject's
social and educational environment.
Witheringtonv found that considerable variation in
I. Q. does occur under variable environmental conditions.
Intelligence tests are not perfectly reliable, due to the
limited sampling of the total responses which a person is
capable of making. This sampling error is observed when a
second test is given, using a different set of items.
Witty24 says environment is the greatest factor in re-
leasing or in hemming in innate ability. It is on this prin-
ciple that school systems are now establishing the best
possible environment for all grades of intelligence.
Crow25 states that an improved environment helps a
child to do more with whatever potentiality he may possess
than would be true if his environment were meager and inm
Klineberg26 says environmental handicaps faced by the
23' itberington, fl,. fi P. 149.
2 Paul Witty "Gifted Children Our Ration's Greatest
Resource," da LAgailth, December, 1952, p. 233.
25 Lester D. Crow and Alice Crow. national Pcha-
g1X (New Yorkt American Book Company, 198), pp9 150151-
26 Otto Klineberg, "Cultural Factors in Intelligence-
Test Performance," Joua M 2L IiBM fduetion, )348), January,
Negro more particularly his unsatisfactory social and eoo
naate status and his inadequate schooling especially in the
South, definitely and significantly penalize his in the teat
Averill27 found from studies of Negro children in the
South that their I. Q. was somewhat belov those of white
children. The difference may be largely accounted for in
terms of environmental stimulation and opportunity which are
inferior among non-whites.
SAnalasima Traa aag I nteall ena
Witherington28 found considerable difference in the
mental test scores of children according to the occupations
of their parents. On the Army Alpha Test it was found that
the highest scores were made by soldiers who were formerly
In the higher professional groups. At the lowest stood the
Averill2 says children coming from homes of varying
cultural and economic status reflect the sane trend, chil-
dren of engineers, managers, and professional groups having
the highest I. Q.'s; those from work.t-day groups having
Averill, qaR a2l", p, 310,
2 Witherington, oi. cit., p. 13
29, l, P
Averill. asd., Po 310.
Wiltkeron30 found data available in several investi-
gatlons which esee to show that the sootio-oonoaic status
of children significantly influence their scholastic achieve
Wilkersont, a* ,ui* v, P46,
ANALYSIS AND INTlEPRETATION OF DATA
Raeul t 2L la Test
Tbh Otis Quick-Scoring Mental Ability Test (oeta Test)
was administered to the seventy-two pupils who had been seo
looted by their teachers as having superior mental ability*
The purpose of the test was to determine the level of in.
telligence of these pupils.
The tests were scored and the I. Q.t' were determined.
It was found that the I. Q.'s ranged from seventy-two to one
hundred and fourteen According to the performance on the
toat, none of the pupils shoved superior mental ability.
One test administered can never indicate a persons' true
The results of the toot could possibly have been oin
fluenced by the conditions under which it was given. There
were disturbing distractions outside of the room where the
test was being administered.
Pupils from two of the schools had to be transported
to a third school and there they had to wait for the avail-
ability of space for the toot to be held. During this
interval of time, these pupils showed evidences of fatigue.
The fallacy of teachers' estimates of intelligence
has often been noted. Many times teachers tend to over-
estimate the intelligence of children; this could have
been operating in the case of the seventy-two pupils sof
looted by these teachers as being superior.
Six tables were used to show the variations in the
I*, .'as Table I shows the I. Q.'e of each of the seventy-
two pupils tested; Table II lists the I. Q.'s by grades;
Table III gives the I. Q.'W by schools; Table IV shows the
I. Q.'s by the age of each pupil; Table V contains the
I. Q. range and number; and Table VI lists the I. Q.'s by
the grades in each of the schools used in the investigation.
The names of the pupils were not used, instead num-
bers were used to refer to them. Likewise, the names of
the schools were referred to as A, 8, C, and D.
Table I shows the I* Q.'s of the seventy*two pupils
tested. The I. Q. of each pupil is listed individually.
I. Q.'S OF THE SEVENTT.Tll PUPILS TO W[OM THE
OTIS 'UICK.SCORINO MENTAL ABILITY TEST
(BETA TFST FORM A) WAI ADMINISTERED
Pupil I, Q. Pupil I. Q.
i iII1 111 1 I I 1 I I L ,I q I ., I L U I I I I
------- -------------- --~------- --I---~~~'
Table II, page 19, shows the I, Q.'s of the aeventy-
two pupils listed by grades. There were twenty-one pupils
tented in grade four whose I. Q 's ranged from seventy-two
to one hundred seven. There were twenty-six pupils tested
in grade five wvose I. Q.'s ranged from seventy-six to one
hundred twelve. There were twenty-five pupils in grade six
whose I, .'s ranged from seventy-three to one hundred four
In Table III, page 20, the I.Q.'s are listed by
schools. There were eight children tested from School A
with I. Q.'s raning from eighty-seven tr, one hundred nine.
There were eight children tooted from School B with I.Q.'s
ranging from eighty-seven to one hundred twelve. From
School C, there were twenty-one children t sted. Their
. Q,'s ranged from seventy-two to one hundred fourteen.
Prom School D, thirty-five pupils were tested, with I. QW.'
ranging from seventy-three to one hundred seven.
Table IV, page 22, lists the I. Q.'s of the seventy-
two pupils tested by their ages. Bach pupil, his age, and
i, Q. are !inted separately.
The data from this table indicated that the pupils
who were eleven, twelve, and thirteen years old have an
I. Q. somewhat lower than those who were eight, nine, and ten
Grade 4 rade 5 Orad 6
No. of I. Q. No. of .Q of I. Q.
Children Children Children
Tated Tested Tested
I. Q.tf LISTED
P4N t .4 m4 NWo
M ^ r<
I. Q.'S LISTED BT THE
AGE OF PUPILS
Pupil ..AM.... I. Q pi .,
Tr. 1. t Tr. a o.
Table V gives the number and range of I. Q.' of the
seventy*two pupils tested. This means the number of chil-
dren who" I. Q.'s fell within the categories listed below
as Uaggeated by Charles Benson, et al. Out of the seventy-
two pupils tested, forty-seven of them had I. Q.'s to range
from ninety to one hundred nine. The next highest number
was sixteen whose I. Q.'s ranged from eighty to eighty-nine.
There were only three pupils whose I. Q.'s ranged from one
hundred ten to one hundred nineteen.
NUMBER AND RANGE OF I. Q.'S
Number I. Q. I. Q. I.. I. Q.
Tested Between Between Between Between
110-119 90.109 80.89 70.79
72 3 47 16 5
Table VI, page 24, lists the I. Q.'s of the seventy-
two pupils by grades in each of the four schools in quest.on.
There were eight pupils tested from School A. There
were three pupils in grade four whose I. Q.'s were eighty
seven, ninety-one, and one hundred seven respectively. There
were five pupils in grade five whose I. Q.'e ranged from
ninetyothree to one hundred five. There were no pupils in
I. Q.'S LIbT3D
BY GRADES IN SCHOOLS A,
1. Q. Grade 5
B, C, AND
I, Q. Grade 6
There were eisht pupils tested froa School B, There
wee none tested in grade four. There vere four pupils test-
ed in grade five whose I. Q.'s ranged from one hundred five
to one hundred twelve. Four pupils were tested in grade esi
with 1. Q.'s ranging from ninety-two to one hundred two*
The pupils with the highest I. Q.'s as a result of the teet
case from School B.
I ___ _~ ___ __ __
TABLE VI (continued)
I, Q.'S LIrTED lY GRADES IN SCHOOLS A,
B. C, AND D
School B Grade 4 I. Q. Grade 5 I Q. Grade 6 I. Q.
No. of No. of Ro. of No. of
esps Pupils Pupils Pupils
8 None 1 112 1 102
2 105 2 110
3 107 3 87
4 105 4 98
There were twenty-one pupils tested from School C.
They were distributed as follows six pupils in grade four
with I. Q.'s ranging from seventy-two to one hundred-seven;
eight pupils in grade five with I. Q.'s ranging from eighty-
six to one hundred-four; sevon pupils in grade six with
I. Q.'s ranging from eighty-nine to one hundred-fourteen,
I. Q*'S LISTED
TABLE VI (continued)
BY GRADES IN SCHOOLS A, B, C, AND D
School C Grade 4 I. Q. Grade 5 I, Q. Grade 6 1. Q.
No. of No. of No. of No. of
Pupils Pupils Pupils Pupils
21 1 97 1 103 1 111
2 72 2 79 2 114
3 93 3 92 3 105
4 100 4 89 4 106
5 107 5 104 5 89
6 87 6 90 6 96
7 89 7 93
There were thirty pupils tested from School D. They
were distributed as follows: twelve pupils in grade four
with I. Q.'s ranging from eighty-seven to one hundred seven;
nine pupils in grade five with 1. Q.'s from eighty-two to
one hundred four; fourteen pupils in grade six with I. Q.'s
from seventy-three to one hundred one. The lowest I. Q.'s
as revealed by the test came from School D.
TABLE VI (continued)
I. Q.'S LISTED BY GRADES II SCHOOLS
A, B, CS AND D
I. Q, Grade 5
I. Q. Orade 6
I II I I -
Results Of The Checklists
The checklists were given to each principal of the
four schools involved to distribute to the teachers of
grades four, five, and six. The total number distributed
Two tripe were made to three of the schools before all
of the checklists were secured. Only one trip was made to
one of the schools for them. The total number returned were
The checklists cntained five sets of questions. The
information obtained from them wnn tabulated and put into
tables. The headings of the five sets of questions were
used as table headings. The items listed under each heading
were placed in the tables.
The tables were listed as follows: Table VII,
Methods Used By Teachers to Select Superior Students; Table
VIII, Factors Which Affect The Organisation of Tour School;
Table IX, Does The Curriculum Provide For Superior Students;
Table 1, Methods of Instruction Used By Teachers of Superior
Pupils; and Table XI, Methods of Evaluation Used By Teachers.
The tables listed above follow in sequence.
Table VII shows the methods teachers use to select
superior pupils, Nine teachers indicated that they used
individual tests to select bright pupils, while two indi-
viduals indicated that they did not use individual tests.
Six teachers did not check either yes or no. There were
four teachers who did not consider the choice of reading
matter as a criteria for selecting superior pupils. The
question in my mind is,"Why"?
Table VIII, page 31, lists factors which affect the
organisation of the school in question.
Maximum assignment has to do with the greatest
quantity attainable. Eleven teachers indicated that they
gave such assignments, while five teachers indicated that
they did not vive maximu x assignments.
Minimau assignment has to do with the least quantity
or amount assignable. Further, twelve teachers indicated
that they required only minimum requirements for all
pupils. Only three said that they did. It will be further
found from these data that many teachers did not indicate
either yes or no in many instances.
METHODS U:LD BY T ACHERS TO SELECT SUPERIOR PUPIXL
Nuber lNuber Teah ers
Items Teache.? Teahero Who Did
Checked Chocked ot Chek
Individual test supple-
aented by group test
Grade marks only
Rank in class
Rank in class abd
Thorough physical exami-
Age of friends
Choice of reading matter
Two or more teachers work-
One teacher judgment only
Previous teacher's opinion
Criteria for superior
students well defined
FACTORS WHICHH AFFECT THE ORGANIZATION OF YOUR SCHOOL
.imber Number Teachers
Items Teachers Teachers Who Did
Checked Checked Bot Cheek
Coached to permit grade
Other methods indicated by
Taught in groups
Given individual instruction
Other methods indicated by
1. Assignments suited to
2. Extra work and longer
3. Extra work given
1. Superior students mixed in
groups to help dull students.
2. Placed in an advanced group
to serve ae student leaders.
3. Progress along with bright
4. Maximum work at present
Movable desk and chairs
TABLE VIII (continued)
FACTORS WHICH AFFECT THE ORGANIZATION OF YOUR SCHOOL
Number lumber Teachers
Items Teachers Teachere Who Did
Checked Checked Not Check
Liberal number of
Other equipment listed
ph Sound Pro.
Grouped by themselves
Sit together as a group
No special group
Higher standards of
Minimum requirements for
Table IX shows how the curriculum provides for
superior students in the schools used in this study.
From the examination of the data shown in this table,
teachers have indicated the use of some items which might
not appear in the curriculum. Example journalism,
sculpture painting, and debating societies.
Ten teachers indicated that they used an intensive
study of the same subjects* This method is not within
keeping with the proper provisions that should be made for
STable X, page 35, shows methods of instruction used
by teachers of superior pupils.
There were seven teachers who Eaid the usual amount
of drill for superior students wee not reduced. How could
this be true? Ten teachers indicated that the explanation
time of new work was not reduced also. There was one teacher
who did not use socialized recitations.
Still, there were some teachers who did Indicate
either "yes" or "no" for various items.
DOES THE CURRICULUM PROVIDE FOR SUPERIORR
Number Number Teachers
Teachers Teachers Who Did
Itew Checked Checked Not Cheek
"Jfli" "e" ,.
Intensive study of same
subjects 10 6 1
Projects or special topics 17 0 0
Appreciation of literature 15 2 0
Writing or prose or poetry 12 2 3
Journalism 4 7 6
Music 15 1 1
Dancing 8 6 3
Sculpture painting 2 10 5
Dramatics 10 3 &
Clubs 16 0 1
Debating Societies 2 7 8
Research problems 8 6 3
Field trips 17 0 0
METIODS OF INSTRUCTION USED BT TEACHERS OF SUPERIOR PUPILS
Number Number Teachers
Teachers Teachers Who Did
Items Checked Checked Not Check
3" I "" I ,
Usual amount drill reduced 10 7 0
Explanation of new work
produced 7 10 0
Socialized recitations 12 1 4
Ability to genernlise 15 0 2
Self-criticism 15 0 2
Initiative and originality 16 0 1
Retention of purpose 11 4 2
Power to assume responsibility 16 0 1
Self-rovernment 15 0 2
Cooperation 17 0 0
Self-assurance 15 1 1
Correct habitn of study 15 1 1
Love of knowledge 16 0 1
Toleranct and understanding 16 0 1
The majority of teachers indicated that they were
using the items listed in the table below to evaluate
their pupils. The other methods which were suggested by
teachers are vague in meaning.
METHODS OF EVALUATION USED BY T;ACH I~. OF UP~RIOR STUDENTS
r Nwber Teachers
Its Teachers Teachers Who Did
Checked Checked Not Check
How well subject matter
is learned 15 0 2
Pupil observation 13 1 3
Classroom achievement 17 0 0
Results in unified
teaching 12 1 4
Achievement test results 13 1 3
Objective studies and
surveyed 12 0 5
Other methods indicated
by teachers 1. Child's ability to adjust
himself to "whole" curric-
2, Intelligence tret results.
3. Pupilb ability to perform
at a hig~hr rrade level.
R, .... I II I -~.~.I I'i ,,,,,,,,
S.mar ao Findinsg
Although, the tests did not reveal high I, Q.'s,
those test-d appeared to hive been the mount alert students
that the teachers of these grades had. Due to the fact
that Negro pupils, so often, are found in substandard
environments, they have not aeinid the experience needed to
rank high on an intelligence test.
From the data secured from the checklists, most
teachers recognize their responsibility to the superior
students and attempt to provide for them in some way.
The hypothesis that teachers neglect to offer in
their classroom teaching suitable stimulating educational
experiences was found to be true. For many teachers indi-
cated on the checkli t that they provided in the following
manner for superior students: By grouping; superior sttu
dents placed in groups to help the dull students; extra
work and longer assignments; more work of the same nature;
optional work; placed in groups to serve aa leaders; and
tests. Statements like these prove the hypothesis to be
What is being done for superior students Is being
done through the initiative of the teacher. The school
administration does not provide as such for the superior
Many of the items checked "yea" by teachers are
carried on in a very wr;ager way and some are not provided
at all. For an example of this many t-achers checked
"yes" that journalism, sculpture painting, dancing, debating
societies, and research problem were being provided. This
is far from being true. Further, in most instances where
the teachers did not check, the items are not being pro-
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
It was the purpose of this investigation (1) to
identify pupils with superior abilities in grades four,
five, and six, and (2) to find out if tho teachers of
these pupils are providing them with suitable stimulating
The Otis Quick-Scoring Mental Ability Test (Beta
Test, Form A) was administered to the seventy-two pupils
selected by their teachers as having superior ability.
The results of the test did not reveal any high
I. Q.'s. The I. Q.'s ranged from 72 to 114. There were
only three pupils with an I, Q. above 110.
The teachers' judgments of the intelligence of these
students were in error. Fifteen of the seventy-two students
selected were over-age for their grade. These teachers had
not taken into account age differences and estimates of
Checklists were distributed among the seventeen
teachers involved in the study. Examination of the data
presented in the chuckliets indicated that these teachers
are not providing suitable stimulating educational experi-
ences for the superior pupil. However, these teachers were
making an effort to provide for the superior pupil in some
The data which have been presented in this study
justify the following conclusions
Teachers have a long way to go first in recognizing
superior ability and second in providing suitable stimu-
lating educational experiences for same.
In general, teachers are fairly good judges of a
child's ability. However, the dull and problem child
demands so mach of the teacher's attention and energy that
she neglects the superior child*
Before estimating the intelligence of pupils,
teachers should take into consideration a*e differences
and estimates of intelligence on the basis of the child's
school performance in the grade where he is located. The
quality of school work alone is not an index to intelli-
The classroom must rely upon acceleration and enrich*
ment in the regular classroom to provide adequately for
Teachers should employ more comprehensive and
effective methods of evaluating growth.
Regular classroom teachers should enrich the curricu-
lum by providing more diversified materials and richer ex-
The frequent page by nage assignment and the customary
recitation should be displaced by directed group work.
Likewise, care must be taken in the kind and amount
of additional work assigned to superior pupils Teachers
often allocate to them such tasks as running errands and
distributing materials because they complete their work
sooner than other members of the class.
It was further recommended that school administra-
tors arrange for the systematic testing of all school
A more extensive study should be made of all the
schools of Leon County in an attempt to identify superior
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