A NORMATIVE-SURVEY OF THE PROGRAM OF ACADEMIC COUNSELING
AT FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL UNIVERSITY
the Faculty of the Graduate School
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science
Addie Flora Brown Crutcher
A NORMATIVE-SURVEY OF THE PROGRAM OF ACADEMIC COUNSELING
AT FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL UNIVERSITY
August 7, 1964
To My Husband and Children
Wanda Merle and Stephen Timothy
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITION OF TERMS
Statement of the Problem
Delimitation and Scope
Importance of the study
Sources of data
Definition of Terms Used
Identification and Selection of Criteria
Selection and Construction of Data-Gathering
Selection of Samples of Students and Graduates
The Administration of Research Instruments
Description of Routines of Analysis
II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 18
Philosophical points of view underlying academic
counseling programs in colleges 18
Prevailing organizational patterns in college
academic counseling programs 26
Representative academic counseling procedures
and practices in American Colleges 38
III. PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA RELATIVE
TO THE PHILOSOPHY UNDERLYING ACADEMIC
COUNSELING PROGRAMS 61
Summary and Conclusions 64
IV. PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA RELA-
TIVE TO THE ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERNS OF
ACADEMIC COUNSELING 66
As Viewed by deans 66
As Viewed by faculty-advisers 73
V. PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA RELA-
TIVE TO PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES
EMPLOYED IN ACADEMIC COUNSELING 84
As viewed by the idean 84
As viewed by the faculty-advisors 85
As viewed by the students and graduates 91
Summary and Conclusions
VI. PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
RELATIVE TO SUGGESTED IMPROVEMENTS OF
THE ACADEMIC COUNCIL PROGRAM AT FLORIDA
A AND M UNIVERSITY
As pointed out by the Deans
As pointed out by the faculty-advisors
Summary and Conclusions
VII. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
LIST OF FIGURES
I. AN ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERN OF THE
PROGRAM OF ACADEMIC COUNSELING AT
FLORIDA A AND M UNIVERSITY AS VIEWED
BY THE DEANS 71
LIST OF TABLES
I. A COMPARISON OF THE PHILOSOPHY OF ACA-
DEMIC COUNSELING AT FLORIDA AGRICULTU-
RAL AND MECHANICAL UNIVERSITY 63
II. THE PERSON RESPONSIBLE FOR THE COORDI-
NATION OF ACADEMIC COUNSELING AS INDI-
CATED BY FACULTY MEMBERS OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL UNIVERSITY 73
III. BASES OF SELECTING THE INDIVIDUAL WHO
COORDINATES THE PROGRAM OF ACADEMIC
COUNSELING AT FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL AND
MECHANICAL UNIVERSITY AS INDICATED BY
FACULTY MEMBERS 74
IV. THE PERSONS) RESPONSIBLE FOR THE ACA -
DEMIC COUNSELING OF STUDENT MAJORS
WITHIN THE VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS 76
V. A NUMERICAL RANK OF THE DESIRABLE
PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION FOR FACULTY-
ADVISERS AS INDICATED BY FACULTY
VI. A NUMERICAL RANK OF THE PROCEDURE OF
TECHNIQUE USED BY ACADEMIC COUNSELING AT
FLORIDA A AND M UNIVERSITY 89
VII. DEGREES TO WHICH COUNSELING WAS CARRIED
OUT IN MEETING STUDENT NEEDS AT FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL UNIVERSITY 93
Gratitude and appreciation are expressed to all of the persons
who contributed to the success of this study.
I am very deeply indebted to the following persons: Dr. J. D.
Beck, my advisor, who recommended me for the graduate scholarship,
thus, making it possible for me to have matriculated toward the Master
of Science degree; the thesis committee, Dr. L. L. Boykin, Dr. A. A.
Abraham, and Dean Melvin O. Alston,whose high academic standards,
patience, and devotion to the educating of students have motivated and
stimulated me to the endless search for knowledge; deans, faculty
members and students who interrupted their busy schedules to react to
questionnaires and give constructive criticisms which were helpful to
this study; my friend and typist, Mrs. Bessie E. Harris, whose expert
typing and encouragement assisted me tremendously; my husband,
Rev. J. T. Crutcher, whose love, devotion, understanding and counsel
motivated me in ;times of despair and my children, Wanda Merle and
Stephen Timothy whose adaptability made it possible for me to spend
longer and more successful hours at study.
A NORMATIVE-SURVEY OF THE PROGRAM OF ACADEMIC COUNSELING
AT FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL UNIVERSITY
THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITION OF TERMS USED
Academic counseling is no new aspect of personnel services.
Perhaps counselors, and faculty-members on many college and univer-
sity campuses can point to students who because of their guidance have
made academic adjustments and entered occupations in which they have
both made contributions and achieved happiness. On the other hand, we
can look at quite a few students who have not set their goals in line with
their aptitudes, abilities, and interests. It is felt that all too often
human talent is loss because of the haphazard way in which this service
is both used and rendered.
I. The Problem
Statement of the problem.
The purpose of this study broadly
stated was to make a normative-survey of the program of academic
counseling at Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University. It sought
to determine and ascertain the status of the academic counseling proce-
dures and practices utilized in the various schools and colleges within
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University. More narrowly stated,
the objective of the study was to evaluate the extent to which the aca-
demic counseling program of the University is in keeping with the
criteria of an acceptable personnel program. It was limited to that phase
of the personnel program which deals with academic counseling.
Four preliminary problems which were
basic to the major purpose of the study may be stated as follows:
1. the identification of the basic philosophy underlying the
academic counseling program of Florida A and M Uni-
versity as revealed in the responses of the Deans, instruc-
tors, students, and graduates to a check list.
2. A determination of the prevailing organizational plan of
academic counseling at Florida A and M University
through an analysis of the responses of deans and
instructors to a questionnaire.
3. the identification and recording of the frequency of inci-
dence of the prevailing practices and procedures used in
academic counseling at Florida A and M University.
4. the pointing ofdt of the educational implications of the
findings in 1 3 above for the program of academic coun-
selling at Florida A and M University.
Sub-problems. The following sub-problems were identified from
an analysis of the preliminary problems.
(1) What are the coordinator's, faculty-advisers', counselors',
former students' and students' basic point of view concerning
(2) What type of organizational plan exists?
(3) What are the procedures and practices used in: (a) making
referrals, (b) counseling the academic probate, (c) counseling
the student who is trying to decide on a major field, (d) coun-
seling the transfer student concerning curricular offerings,
(e) counseling foreign students in making academic adjust-
ments, (f) counseling students whose job is interfering with
his academic achievement, (g) counseling students who achieve
below capacity, (h) counseling students whose goal is set
exceedingly higher than his abilities and aptitude; (i) counseling
students whose parental expectations conflict with the student's
aim, and (j) counseling students who have an overloaded
(4) What are the counselor's, faculty-adviser's, and students role
in academic counseling?
(5) How are the faculty-advisers selected?
(a) Have they had any specialized training in this area?
If so, how much?
(b) What kinds of in-service training activities are pro-
(c) What is the time allotted them for counseling?
(d) What level of counseling is the faculty-adviser expected
(6) Are students assigned or free to select their faculty-
(a) How are students assigned?
(7) What kind of information is made available to faculty advisers
(8) What kinds of facilities and equipment are made available
(9) How many students is each faculty adviser responsible?
(10) Are student counselors used in this program? If so,
(a) how many?
(b) how are they selected?
(c) what is their responsibility?
The study was delimited to a sampling
of 800 students of all classifications in the summer school session, 100
former students enrolled in Florida Agricultural and Mechanical Uni-
versity during previous years, and 100 faculty members. The faculty
members included, deans of the various schools, professors, instructors,
deans of men and women, dormitory counselors and faculty advisers.
This study did not attempt to compare approaches or techniques
used. Nor, did it attempt to support or present any particular approach
as "the approach or technique" to be used by persons involved in the pro-
gram of academic counseling.
Therefore, this investigation was limited to a study of the status of
the academic counseling practices and procedures of Florida Agricultural
and Mechanical University.
Importance of this study.
One of the major factors which affect
the total development of students is the success or lack of success in
their academic endeavors. Since this is a major factor in his total
development, administrators, personnel workers and faculty-members
should be acutely aware of the importance of an integrated, well
coordinated and functioning program of academic counseling practices
and procedures at the University. Students often face academic
difficulty in the university which in many cases result in failure and the
Delimitations and scope.
destruction of the self-confidence which is so vital in the total develop-
ment of the individual. The reasons for this difficulty are often
deep-seated and multiple. Various studies have pointed out that the
college community has lost many students who possessed high abilities
and talents because of the lack of adequate assistance in making academic
plans and adjustments.
This study, therefore, might prove significant in assisting the
entire University and College with common insight, and knowledge,
thereby, leading to a better understanding of the purpose and need for
Certain basic assumptions were pertinent to the study.
1. Providing for academic counseling is a primary and
legitimate function of the American College and
Florida A and M University.
2. The literature of the American Personnel and Guidance
Association and representative research studies are valid
sources of criteria for surveying the status of the program
of academic counseling at Florida A and M University.
3. There is a need to determine the strengths and weaknesses
in the current programs of academic counseling at Florida
A and M University.
4. The research instruments used are valid sources of
data on the status of a program of academic counseling
at Florida A and M University.
5. There is a need to incorporate into the academic counseling
program of Florida A and M University selected promising
procedures and practices described in the literature.
The general hypothesis of the study was that the academic coun-
seling program of Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University is
in keeping with the criteria of an acceptable personnel program for a
university of its size, kind, and type.
Among the more specific hypotheses of this study are the follow-
(1) The basic philosophical point of view with regard to academic
counseling which exists among the coordinator, faculty-advisers, and
students is in keeping with the conceptions of authorities in the field of
(2) The academic counseling program is not a separate entity
but involves the cooperation and active participation of personnel at
(3) The procedures and practices used in counseling students
are adopted from the point that seems to be most suitable for the
counselee's particular problem.
(4) The role of all persons involved in the academic counseling
program is similar in that it involves assisting the student in making
the best possible use of his abilities, interests, talents, and time in
an effort of his total development.
(5) Counseling is done by both counselors and faculty-advisers
but at different levels of complexity and completeness.
Sources of Data
The one thousand subjects in this normative-survey represented
an incidental sampling of deans, faculty advisers, students and graduates
of Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University's 1964 summer school
session. Data-gathering instruments were administered to over one
half of both the student and faculty population enrolled in summer school.
Every student and graduate subject were given Form 1-C of the question-
naire. Questionnaire, Form 1-B, was administered to faculty advisers
and the structured interview Form 1-A was used in the interview of the
deans of the various colleges within the university. The subjects
checked pertinent information which provided generally information
with regard to the status of the program of academic counseling here at
the university. Data was received from seven hundred and fourteen
students and graduates, thirty-seven faculty-advisers, five of the
seven university deans and the coordinator of academic counseling.
Books, periodicals, essays and articles, unpublished studies and
cumulative and available records in the colleges within the university
were used as research data.
Some of the more widely used research data were:
1. Berdie, Ralph F. Counseling and The College Program.
2. Good, Carter V. Dictionary of Education.
3. Hardee, Melvene D. The Faculty in College Counseling.
4. Jones-Lloyd, Esther. A Student Personnel for Higher
5. Pepinsky and Pepinsky. Counseling Theory and Practice.
6. Rogers, Carl R. Client-Centered Therapy.
Counseling and Psychotherapy.
8. Robinson, Francis R. Principles and Procedures in Student
9. Strang, Ruth. Counseling Technics in College and Secondary
10. Williamson, E. G. Counseling Adolescent@.
Student Personnel Work.
12. Wrenn, C. Gilbert. Student Personnel Work in College.
13. The Fifty-eighth Yearbook of the National Society for the
Study of Education.
14. The Personnel and Guidance Journal.
15. American Council on Education Studies.
16. Journal of the National Association of Women Deans and
II. Definitions of Terms Used
Rogers states that counseling is ". a definitely
structured, permissive relationship which allows the client to gain an
understanding of himself to a degree which enables him to take positive
steps in the light of his new orientation. "1 Strang says that "counseling
is a face-to-face relationship in which a person who needs help in
developing his most acceptable self or in solving personal problems -
given the opportunity to gain insight by thinking through the situation
himself in an accepting i; os'phev, e"2 Counseling is defined by
Williamson as ". .. a face-to-face situation in which, by reason of
ICarl R. Rogers, Counseling and Psychotherapy (Boston: Hough-
ton Mifflin Company, 1942), p. 18.
2Ruth Strang, Counseling, Technics in College and Secondary
School (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1949), p. 11.
training, skill or confidence vested in him by the other, one person
helps the second person to face, perceive, clarify, solve, and resolve
adjustment problems. "
Wrenn feels that "counseling is a personal
and dynamic relationship between two people who approach a mutually
defined problem with mutual consideration for each other to the end
that the younger, or less mature, or more troubled of the two is aided
to a self-determined resolution of his problem. Arbuckle says that
"counseling is considered. to be a process by means of which the
counselee can come to understand himself so that he can solve his
own problems. "
In this study, the term "counseling" will vary in definition
according to the approach used or supported. However, for the general
purpose of this study college counseling is considered as Crowley says:
E. G. Williamson and J. D. Foley, Counseling and Discipline,
(New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1949), p. 192.
4C. Gilbert Wrenn, "Counseling with Students," Student
Personnel Work in College, (New York: The Ronald Press Company,
1951), p. 59.
Dugald S. Arbuckle, Teacher-Counseling, (Cambridge,
Massachusetts, 1950), p. 3.
S. a broad educational function engaged in by almost
all instructional and administrative staffs and yet it
is more than a broad function. During the past decade
a concept of counseling and its functions has developed
emphasizing two characteristics; (a) counseling is a
distinct student personnel function within the total personnel
program not to be considered as synonymous with good
teaching nor to be confused in terminology with the total
program of personnel services; b) counseling is a complex
function demanding a high degree of skill and utilizing
many and varied procedures of diagnosis and therapy.
Academic/or educational counseling. Educational counseling
according to Lloyd Jones is the process of aiding ". .. students to de-
fine their objectives sharply, to plan their programs in the light of
their abilities, interests, and objectives, to discover inadequacies,
lacks and deficiencies that may condition academic progress. .. ."7
Strang says that academic counseling is focused ". on helping a
student to make and carry out educational plans in line with his abilities
vocational interests, and financial limitations. According to Bennett
academic counseling is a term ". .. used to cover assistance in making
choices, plans, and adjustments in any phase of educational life and in
C. H. Crowley, "A Preface to the Principles of Student Counsel-
ing", Encyclopedia of Educational Research, (New York: The MacMillan
Company, 1950), p. 1312.
7Esther Loyd-Jones and Margaret Ruth Smith, A Student Per-
sonnel Program for Higher Education (New York: McGraw-Hill Company,
Inc., 1938), p. 134.
8Ruth Strang, Couneeling Technics in College and Secondary School,
(New York: Harper and Brothers, 1949), p. 102.
evaluating educational experiences." Educational counseling according
to the Dictionary of Education is "the phase of the counseling program
that is concerned strictly with the student's success and well-being in
his educational career and is designed to aid him in making choices and
adjustments relating to schools, courses, and curricula."
Counselor. Good says that a counselor is: "(I) one who assists
individual students to make adjustments and choices especially in regard
to vocational, educational, and personal matters; (2) an adviser or person-
nel specialist. "
Coordinator. "A person who has the responsibility of bringing
about a harmonious adjustment of the activities of the various counselors
of a given system. "
9Margaret E. Bennett, "Functions and Procedures in Personnel
Services", The Fifty.-eighth Yearbook of the National Society for the
Study of Education, Part II (Chicago, Illinois: The University of Chicago
Press, 1959), p. 120.
Carter V. Good, Dictionary of Education, (New York: McGraw-
Hill Book Company, Inc. 1959), p. 138.
IIbid. p. 139.
Faculty Adviser or faculty counselor.
to whom a student is assigned for advice and assistance with academic,
vocational, extra-curricular, and personal problems. .
The general procedures followed in this study falls within the
category of normative-survey studies. More specifically, the methods
employed were the interview and questionnaire.
Identification and Selection of Criteria
A comprehensive survey of the review of the related literature
revealed no single instrument. However, one of the most comprehensive
studies of academic counseling was done by Hardee. Since no single
instrument of criteria was revealed, the literature of the American Per-
sonnel and Guidance Association and representative research studies
were selected and used as valid sources of criteria on which to base
this normative survey.
Selection and Construction of Data-Gathering Instruments
The questionnaire and interview were selected as methods
13Ibid. p. 17.
"A member of the faculty
employed in the data-gathering process. Items for the questionnaire
were constructed so as to: (1) have enough face appeal so that the re-
spondants were inclined to respond to it and complete it, (2) obtain
some depth to the response in order to avoid superficial replies,
(3) avoid over suggestiveness and unstimulating items with reference to
choices, (4) form questions that were not embarrassing to the respon-
dants, (4) not be too narrow, restrictive, or limited in its scope or
philosophy, (5) assure valid responses and (6) assure that the entire
body of data taken as a whole answered the bas"4 for which the question-
naire was designed. Before the final form was prepared and distributed
to the respondents tryouts and protesting of the questionnaire was made,
for the purpose of validation in terms of practical use. The tryout
led to revision of certain questions, deletion of useless questions, and
addition of other items. Tabulation of the tryout responses in rough
tables indicated whether the answers could be tabulated satisfactorily.
In order to avoid a haphazard series of questions and answers of a
pleasant conversation, the interviewer had a set of carefully prepared
questions. These questions served as a thread of conversation,
although the interviewer varied the order of questions to adapt to special
Selection of samples of students and graduates
An incidental sampling of 800 undergraduates and 100 graduates
were selected as subjects in this normative-survey. They were drawn
from both sex, all classifications, and from the schools and colleges
of (1) Arts and Sciences, (2) Education, (3) Nursing, (4) Pharmacy,
(5) Agriculture and Home Economics and (5) Graduate. This sampling
comprised over half of the population enrolled in the 1964 summer
school session. Seven hundred and fourteen students and graduates
responded to the questionnaire. Of this number, 614 (99 per cent) were
undergraduates and 100 (1 per cent) were graduates of Florida A and M
University during previous years. Of the the undergraduates 92 (14. 99
per cent) were freshmen, 162 (26. 38 per cent) were sQphomores, 170
(27.69 per cent) were juniors and 190 (30.94 per cent) were seniors.
The administration of research instruments
Appointments were made with the various deans in order to get
permission to interview them and to distribute questionnaires to both
faculty members, students and graduates. With the granting of this
permission, questionnaires were administered to 800 students and
graduates enrolled in the various schools and classes and to 100 faculty
members employed in this year's summer school. Before administering
the questionnaire to the subjects, a brief introduction stating the purpose
of the survey was made, directions were given and various questions were
answered. Five deans were interviewed. The interviewer's initial step
was that of establishing the type of rapport which was permissive in nature.
The interview began with the idea that an interview is a process of com-
munication or interaction. Being aware of this, the interviewer and the
respondent shared a common language and terminology which permitted
easy communication. An attempt was made by the interviewer to motivate
frank and complete answers from the respondent. Asfar as possible, the
interviewer sought to identify and control psychological forces present
which affected respondent and herself.
Description of routines of analysis
Upon receipt of the data it was coded, and tabulated; the findings
were presented and analyzed. The data ~we summarized and general
conclusions were made. Educational implications growing out of the
findings were cited.
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
I. Philosophical Points of View Underlying Academic Counseling Pro-
grams in Colleges
In reviewing the related literature, it was felt that it would be
very significant to the study to review some of the beliefs concerning
the student personnel program.
Lloyd-Jones, in attempting to explain the lack of concern and
understanding of the personnel program by non-personnel workers
The failure of those writing in the personnel field to
related student personnel work to some understood
philosophy of higher education has automatically de-
prived many educators in the latter field of an interest
in, and appreciation of what a student personnel program
is and how it can contribute to the development of youth
in our colleges and universities. 1
In reviewing some of the works, a number of conflicting points
of view were revealed.
Flexner said that "secondary education involves a responsibili-
ty of an intimate kind for the student, for the subject-matter he studies,
1Esther Lloyd-Jones, A Student Personnel Program for Higher
Education, (New York: McGraw-Hill Company, Inc., 1930), p. I.
even for the way in which he works, lives, and conducts himself--for
his manner, his morals, and his mind" but that "the university has
no such complicated concern. "
Hutchins supported the idea that the "university is intellectual.
It is wholly and completely so. "
Other writers supported quite a different point of view than that
of Flexner and Hutchins.
Wriston proclaimed: "College is an experience both individual
and social; it is intellectual, physical, emotional, spiritual. It is a
time for the maturation of personality."
It was pointed out by Lowell of Harvard: "Aristotle remarked
that man is by nature a social animal; and it is in order to develop his
powers as a social being that American colleges exist. The object of
the undergraduate department is not to produce hermits, each im-
prisoned in the cell of his own intellectual pursuits, but men fitted to
2Abraham Flexner, University: Anerican, English, German,
(New York: Oxford Press, 1930), pp. 27-28.
3Robert Maynard Hutchins, The Higher Learning in America,
(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1936), p. 118.
4Henry Merritt Wriston, "The Integrity of the College,"
School and Society, 43: 183-193, February 8, 1936.
take their places in the community and live in contact with their fellow-
Dewey stated in 1902 that "personality and character is more
than subject matter, "that we must take our stand with the child and
our departure from him, and that "it is he and not subject matter which
determines the quality and quantity of learning. "
It was revealed that public school guidance had its start in Boston
about 1908 with Frank Parsons and the vocational guidance movement.
After 1910 as psychological test developed, it continued with even greater
force. However, student personnel work had its birth sometimes before
this with the coming of personnel deans. With the use of psychological
test during World War I for the classification and assignment of men, we
are led to the work of Taylor, Scott, Bingham, Paterson and even others.
These men felt that man could and should be scientifically managed
S. In spite of different emphases, various degrees of expert-
ness, different approaches and even limited views of the total field, those
A. Lawrence Lowell, in W. H. Crowley, "The College Guaran-
tees Satisfaction, Educational Record, 16 (1): 27-28, January, 1935.
6John Dewey, The Child and The Curriculum, (Chicago: Univer-
sity of Chicago Press, 1902), pp. 13-14.
7Ester Lloyd-Jones, Student Personnel Work as Deeper Teaching,
(New York: Harper and Brothers, 1954), p. 1.
8Ibid., p. 2.
who profess themselves as student personnel workers have seemed able
to agree on certain common beliefts:
1. A belief in the worth of the individual; that the common good
can be promoted best by helping each individual to develop to the ut-
most in accordance with his abilities.
2. The belief in the equal dignity of thinking and feeling and
working; that these aspects are inseparable. Personnel work is interested
in the whole person and not merely in his mind or his economic produc-
tivity or some other one of his aspects.
3. The belief that the world has a place for everybody: a place
in the social world, a place in the civic world, a place in family life,
and a place in the voational world; that is education's task to offer
youth not only an invitation but also positive stimulation carefully adapted
to his needs to help him to grow to full stature in all of these roles.
4. The belief that what an individual gathers from his experiences
continue on in time; it is not what is imposed, but what is absorbed that
persists. Personnel workers see the person--at whatever age--not as a
single moment independent of the past and the future, but as a transition
point in a stream of experience that goes back to infancy and will con-
tinue on into the future; they believe that each person can move progres-
sively from dependence toward independence. .
9Ibid. p. 5.
A review of the literature revealed that in order to gain a
deeper understanding of the underlying philosophy of personnel work
it is significant to look at the main philosophies of education.
Taylor categorized these main philosophies into three general
divisions. He called them the rationalist, the neo-humanist and the
He pointed out that:
No philosophical concept or philosophy of education ever
appears in actual existence as a pure form, and no
matter how an educator tries, he cannot build an educa-
tional institution upon conceptions when then reproduce
themselves in reality. Any idea for education. ..
becomes so modified in practice by the character of the
individuals who make up the institution that it would be
fairer to say that what we have is a set of leading ideas
which are then recreated in various forms by those who
teach and those who learn.
Lloyd-Jones in a description of these main philosophies and
their relationship to personnel work pointed out that:
The rationalist holds that the sole aim of education
is to cultivate man's reason. In spite of the high
sounding pretensions of personnel workers, if they work
in a situation largely rationalistic in nature, and
especially if they themselves have not critically explored
the educational outcomes of the various philosophies of
education, they will probably find themselves consigned
to certain roles that support the rationalistic character of the
10Lloyd-Jones, op. cit., pp. 8-9.
educational program and also provide a narrow and inade-
quate scope for their efforts as personnel workers who
are interested in "the whole man. They will find them-
selves using tests to sift out only those with the highest
amount of academic intelligence. They will find them-
selves using tests to sift out only those with the highest
amount of academic intelligence.
There are many educators, however possibly the
majority at the present time who cannot accept the
rationalistic as an adequate philosophy of education.
They cannot overlook the fact that the young person who
comes to them has a body that may be energetic and full
of life, or feeble and even sick. They recognize the
strong influence that motivation has on their students'
learning, and that motivation is inseparably tied up with
the student's emotional life. They support the idea, .
that the school or college should provide for these other
aspects of their student's lives.
The neo-humanists are essentially dualistic in their
philosophy; they recognize both mind and body, reason
and emotion, thought and action. They also tend to think
in terms of classroom and extra class activity, curricu-
lum and student personnel work teaching by faculty on one
hand and counseling by student personnel workers on the other.
This is the philosophy that prevails most widely
in education at the present time. It provides a situation
that has given personnel work a wide open field.
One of the outstanding characteristics of the neo-humanist
is his reliance on the fitting together asgernally of pieces
and parts to bring about the desired result of inner unity
and harmony. The personnel worker who holds a
neo-humanistic philosophy believes that students' needs
can be met by analyzing each special need, supplying a
specialist to meet that need, and then relating these speci-
alists in some kind of firm pattern of relationship that
appears administratively logical.
The instrumentalist philosophy of education puts its
chief emphasis on the uses of knowledge and experience.
The ultimate value upon which it rests is the quality of
experience within the individual. 11
Taylor cited the Report of the Presidents' Commission on
Higher Education, which he believed gave one of the most recent ex-
planations of the underlying ideas of instrumentalist philosophy.
The first goal in education for democracy is the full
rounded, and utilization of individual talents is of funda-
mental importance in a free society. To liberate and
perfect the intrinsic powers of every citizen is the central
purpose of democracy, and its furtherance of individual
self-realisation is its greatest glory. 12
Further quoting Taylor:
If this is the goal for democracy and for educa-
tion which rests on a philosophy of individualism, not
individualism as the full development of the individual in
the development of his society. In order to fulfill
himself in the context of this moral philosophy, the in-
dividual must give part of himself to the others with whom
he lives and works. 13
Lloyd-Jones maintained that: "The instrumentalist philosophy,
much more than that of rationalism or neo-humanism, seems to repre-
sent the principles in which student personnel workers have protested
they believe. "
Lloyd-Jones, op. cit., pp. 9-12.
12Harold Taylor, op. cit., pp. 42-43.
131bid., p. 43.
14Lloyd-Jones, op. cit., p. 12.
Many individuals have played important roles in the formation
of the personnel worker's belief that individual differences are signifi-
cant. "The dynamic emphasis of Freudian psychoanalysis has per-
meated our concepts of individual behavior, Ebbinghaus, Book, Bryan,
and Harter, Thorndike, and others have depicted the learning process. rl
It is presently agreed that:
The student personnel point encompasses the student
as a whole. The concept of education is broadened to in-
clude attention to the student's well-rounded development
physically, socially, emotionally and spiritually, as well
as intellectually. The student is thought of as a respon-
sible participant in his own development and not as a
passive recipient of an imprinted economic, political, or
religious doctrine or voational skill as a responsible
participant in the societal processes of our American
democracy, his full and balanced maturity is viewed as a
major end-goal of education, and, as well, a necessary6
means to the fullest development of his fellow citizens.
14Lloyd-Jones, op. cit., p. 12.
15E. G. Williamson, J. G. Darley and Donald G. Paterson, Student
Personnel Work, (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 1937),
16The Student Personnel Point of View, (American Council on
Education Studies, Washington, D. C.: Series VI, Vol. XIII, No. 13, 1949),
Academic counseling, which is an aspect of the personnel
program, should not be thought of as a separate entity or "fifth wheel"
It is an integral part of higher education, bringing
to bear the findings of psychology, biology, and socio-
logy to help higher education actually realize its ob-
jectives by adpating them to the needs, capacities,
abilities, and potentialities of each student.
Higher education finds prepared to its hand, in the
personnel program, tools, methods for understanding
individuals so that education can be effectively indivi-
dualized and, consequently, students may become
increasingly self-directing and successful in making
and realizing worthwhile plans for themselves and for
II. Prevailing Organizational Patterns in Colleges Academic Counseling
The organization, administration and coordination of the
.,.ur.seling program is a matter of special importance and one that has
proved quite difficult for many college administrators. Because of the
significance of this area to the study, many works were reviewed and
The problem of organization has been analyzed at some length
by Spindt, who would place all faculty advisors under a dean of students
17Lloyd-Jones, op. cit., p. 14.
but would have this administrator in turn under the dean of the college.
This organization is seen by some to be confusion of instructional
and student personnel functions and therefore undesirable. Shafer stated
thAt ". traditional organizational structure of colleges and universi-
ties has led to an artificial separation of duties.1
The counseling program as pointed out by Brown ". involves
the whole school and depends upon the understanding cooperation of
teachers, counselors, administrators, and experts and upon flexible
humane administrative policies."
In reviewing Brumbaugh's work, it was revealed that:
Some deans and presidents, fortunately few, have
disposed of the whole issue by disclaiming any interest
in educational counseling. Other administrators
take the position that educational counseling is so in-
timately related to good instruction that every member
of the faculty should be a counselor--no other provision
H. A. Spindt, "Various Plans for the Administrative Organiza-
tion of Faculty Advisers," Journal of American Association Collegiate
Registrars, 17: 89-92; 1941.
H. Shafer, "Student Personnel Problems Requiring A Campus-
Wide Approach, The Journal of College Student Personnel, December,
1961, p. 60.
20Marion Brown, "Educational Guidance in A Secondary School, "
Journal of the National Association of Deans of Women, Vol. II, No. 1,
October, 1938, p. 8.
for counseling being necessary. Still a third point of view
prevailing in some institutions regards counseling as such
specialized service that it must be put into the hands of a
few specially trained members of the staff. The most
prevalent plan of administration, imposes on all
members of the faculty the responsibility of counseling
students regarding questions that naturally grow out of their
instructional relationships to students. The plan pro-
vides for a staff of counselors, preferably members of the
faculty who are relieved of some teaching responsibilities.
This staff is expected to deal in a more thorough going and
professional manner with questions that cannot be dealt with
adequately by the faculty members as a lay counselor. The
institution. makes available to the semi-professional
counselors the services of professionally trained re-
source persons as the needs of the students may demand. 21
Since counseling is a specialized service, Norem maintained that
should be set up under the direction of a director or
coordinator of counseling services. This officer
should be responsible to the head of the college, or to a
dean or coordinator of all student personnel services who
has the basic training required for personnel work in addi-
tion to the necessary administrative abilities.
Faculty committees can render a valuable service
in stimulating more democratic organization, wider faculty
participation and interest, and more effective planning and
service. A faculty committee which includes key-personnel
in related student service areas should work closely with the
director in setting up policies and plans. 22
SAaron John Brumbaugh, "Educational Counseling in College,"
Journal of the National Association of Deans of Women, Vol. II, October,
1938, p. 6.
22G. M. Norem, "Faculty Organization for Counseling in the
Small College," Peabody Journal of Education, Vol. 29, No. 1, July,
1951, pp. 42-43.
Norem further described the organization of counseling services
under these three headings:
1. The counseling center
2. The faculty adviser
3. Special Personnel Services23
He further describes the service thusly:
The Counseling Center: The director of counseling services
should supervise the activities of the central counseling office.
A major function of this office should be to provide a staff of
trained counselors to be available for consultation with indi-
vidual students who need these services. Among the more
important activities directed by this office through the director
of counseling services and an appropriate faculty committee
are the in-service training of the advisory and counseling staff
and the co-ordihition of the whole faculty advisory and coun-
The Faculty Adviser: The work done by the faculty adviser
should be determined to a high degree by the objectives of the
college and the extent and effectiveness of the college program
for the in-service training of advisers. The institutional
philosophy that governs counseling in the school will influence
what the staff members will add as an adviser. In the light of
these considerations the general sphere of the faculty adviser
might be to set forth somewhat as shown in the following four
1. Assisting students in registration and in the selection of
2. Serving as a humanizing and personalizing influence in
the students' contact with the college.
3. Program planning in terms of the student's educational
and vocational objectives, his interests and aptitudes as
23Norem, loc. cit.
measured by entrance tests and background of school
experience in high school and college.
4. Interpretation of entrance test profiles to the
student when this testing program provides for measures
of interests, aptitudes and achievements and can be inter-
preted in terms of the student's school and home experience.
Special Personnel Services. These services will vary
from institution to institution. typical examples are
the Speech Clinic, The Student Activities Center, the
Study Skills and Reading Clinic. and the Student Health
Nygreenin pointing out the vitalness of the counseling center,
stated that "counseling centers should function increasingly at the center
of the campus. (They) must be modified for greater sensitivity to
every aspect of the campus environment."25
Academic counseling may be focused in a "student counseling
bureau, student counseling center, committee or committee
of counselors. The faculty are traditionally counselors of students
but at a level which is not proving to be intensive enough for many types
of problems. 26
24Norem, loc. cit.
25Glenn T. Nygreen, "The Counseling Center of the Future,"
The Journal of College Student Personnel, October,1962, p. 34.
Z6Walter S. Monroe (ed.), Encyclopedia of Educational Research,
(New York: The Macmillan Company, 1950), p. 1312.
Responsibility for organizing, executing, and coordinating the
work of the faculty members who counsel may be assigned to: "(1) a
single individual in either the student personnel area or an academic
area; (2) several individuals within an area or from different areas
working in conjunction; (3) a board, committee, or council; (4) a
counseling center; or (5) an individual aided by a committee. The
administrative arrangement adopted by the institution is probably the
one that best fits the local situation in view of institutional philosophy
and purpose 27
Beck,in agreement with Hardee's organization and execution
of the program, briefly described the five practices mentioned as
1. Administration By An Individual in Student Personnel Area
or In An Academic Area.
The coordinating authority for the faculty counseling
program may be the Dean of Students, an academic dean
or any qualified person in either of the two areas.
2. Administration by Two or More Individuals Working in Con-
In this type of organization the responsibility for the ad-
ministration of academic counseling rests with two or more
individuals working in conjunction; one being in the area of
student welfare and the other in the academic area.
2Melvene D. Hardee, The Faculty in College Counseling. (New
York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1959), p. 45.
3. Administration by Board, Committee, or Council
The responsibility for organizing, executing and
coordinating the work of faculty members who counsel
students is vested in a committee composed of faculty
administrators and representatives from all offices
on the campus which do personnel work. The
committee is a policy-forming group and is generally
appointed by the president. A committee so constituted
does much to insure an effective "bridge" of understand-
ing, support and active participation between those
teachers assigned specific counseling responsibilities
and other vital areas in the institution.
4. Administration by a Counseling Center
The responsibility of the administration and co-
ordination of academic counseling is carried out by a
counseling center with its functions being directly
responsible to the president of the college.
5. Administration by An Individual Working in Conjunction
with a Committee
The coordinating authority may be the Dean of
Students, Dean of a school. The coordinator is
assisted by a committee. Of one faculty member
from each academic area. and permanent members
from the student welfare program.
No matter how well organized the academic counseling program
may be, the effectiveness of it greatly depends on its coordination.
28J. D. Beck, "Coordination of Academic Counseling", Bulletin
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University, Research Issue, 15:
12-13, September, 1962.
". .. Coordination comes about not by accident but, by intelligent,
vigorous, persistent and organized effort."29
Described as a theory of guidance administration, "coordination
is a process in which the interaction of relationships takes place.
For such behavior to occur requires the bringing together in collabora-
tion of two or more relative autonomous people for the attainment of a
goal which neither can reach alone. Such behavior is goal-directed,
interactive and highly cognitive. "
"Coordination is necessary if each service is to make its
maximum contribution, if overlapping is to be avoided and
if decisions affecting the student are to be made after con-
sultation with all individuals able to make contribution.
Coordination is also necessary to avoid a feeling of com-
petition between the various services. 31
The conditions of change which many colleges and universities
are experiencing demand that they develop and organize a strong
coordinated campus-wide academic counseling program. "If, .
coordination is to become a pervasive reality and not simply a matter of
9Luther Gulick, "Notes on the Theory of Organization" in
Luther Gulick and L. Urwick (eds.), Papers on Science of Administra-
tion, Institute of Public Administration, (New York: Columbia Univer-
sity, 1927), p. 3.
30Dorothy J. Dobruskin, "A Process Theory of Guidance Ad-
ministration" in J. D. Beck, "Coordination of Academic Counseling, "
31Donald J. Shank, et al, "The Teacher as Counselor", American
Council Education Studies, Series 6. No. 10, Washington, D. C., October,
1948, p. 35.
esoterical educational jargon associated with a faculty committee, or
an individual, a great deal of understanding and appreciation must be
developed of the rationale underlying the concept as well as certain
insights into operational aspect of the function. "
"Coordination is related to and affected by both the function
and organization within a program. It is felt, that coordinative effec-
tiveness. is more related to function than to organization. 33
The over-all functions of the coordinator of counseling are:
1. that of architect and engineer for the program of
2. that of observer
3. that of appraiser or critic
4. that of student of an expert in human relations
5. that of sMttategist or ethical promoter
6. that of interdisciplinary faculty member.
The academic counseling program that is effectively coordinated
according to Hardee, maintains the following: (1) provide and maintain
a spirit of unity or "oneness, (2) build understanding among professional
staff with professional counselors; (3) decreases or eliminates duplication
3ZBeck, op. cit.,
33Ibid., p. 151.
34Hardee, op. cit., p. 157.
responsible for counseling is provided, and when these
channels of information are used.
7. When there is mutual deliberation on problems of indi-
vidual students by those who counsel.
8. Where there is a systematic evaluation of the counseling
opportunities offered to students.
Wrenn noted that an "adequate coordination means placing certain
student personnel services under a director, as well as developing
appropriate staff relationships with other services and other departments
of the institution. "
A centralized form of coordinative organization is advantageous
providing the coordinator counts heavily on the assistance and counsel
of individual faculty members and students and committees. Problems
of centralization often occur because of the personnel involved rather
than because of the method of organization. "A centralized form of or-
ganization does not mean that all control and authority are taken away
from the various heads of different personnel departments."
36bid. pp. 151,152.
Gilbert C. Wrenn, "Counseling with Students", The Thirty-
Seventh Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education,
Part I (Bloomington, Illinois: Public School Publishing Company, 1932),
38Dugald S. Arbuckle, Student Personnel Services in Higher
Education, (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1953) p.
Brouer emphasized the primary importance of human relations
in the counseling program when he wrortef:
Democratic administration. .. is the use of power
to attain the ends of the group when these ends are
determined freely by members of the group .
The primary problem of administration, therefore,
regardless of who is the administrator, involves the
integration of human effort toward the achievement of
common ends. The secondary problem involves the
devices by which this desirable integration may be
"Coordination involves unification of information, decision, and
action upward, downward, and crossward."
The wholeness or unification of the academic counseling program
is a significant factor in its operation.
Gulick pointed out that "the purpose of this unification is to keep
intact the 'central design' of the operating relationship. "Certain
relationships are built in order to facilitate this operation. The central
design is that pattern envisioned by the institutional planners for accom-
plishing this wholeness of operation. "
39p. J. Broawer, Student Personnel in General Education
(Washington, D. C.: American Council on Education, 1949), p. 157.
40Henry Niles, Principles or Factors in Organization", The
Faculty in College Counseling, Melvene D. Hardee (ed.), p. 90.
41Luther Gulick, "Notes on the Theory of Organization," The
Faculty in College Counseling, Melvene D. Hardee, (ed.), p. 151.
42Hardee, op. cit., p. 151.
III. Representative Academic Counseling Procedures and Practices in
If a major goal of education is the optional development of the
individual to meet contemporary life needs, then the function of counsel-
ing in meeting this goal should be apparent. Counseling is not only a
most important means of relating curricular opportunities to pupil needs
and of facilitating adjustment, but it is an important method also of
discovering those very pupil needs that are the focus of the entire school
Shank noted that "counseling involves assisting the student to
discover facts pertinent to his problems, to examine and evaluate these
facts, to examine and evaluate his own motives, and to reach a workable
decision. Counseling is not a matter of 'telling' the student what he shall
do, but of helping him to reach objective, reasoned solutions for his
Although academic counseling function is generally recognized as
part of the educational process, however, the review of literature
revealed that to many it is broadly and erroneously synonymous with the
43Wrenn, op. cit., p. 122.
44Donald J. Shank, "The Teacher As Counselor", American
Council on Education Studies, Vol. XII, No. 10, October, 1948, p. 10.
whole of student personnel services.
The counseling office function can service effectively in:
1. Interviews with students desiring to withdraw from
School, often assisting in solutions which are con-
2. Working with faculty and students on problems con-
cerning scholastic probation, time scheduling, study
habits, and other factors which may be causes of
3. Stimulating students of superior ability who are not
achieving up to capacity.
4. Analyzing causes of excessive absence ...
5. Providing members of faculty and staff with
background information concerning individual students .
Bragdon stated that:
From the time. a prospective student addresses his
first inquiry to college until he leaves it--and even after--
he is confronted by questions whose satisfactory answer
depends, in some measure, on the information and
assistance given him by the college.
"Is this a gocd college for me?" "Am I qualified for
admission?" "What course of study should I select?"
"How many subjects should I carry?" "Do Ihave good
These are a few of the common questions for which
each student must find a workable answer. Since
each student is a unique individual, the answer in each
case has to be determined in the light of relevant
45Janiel D. Feder, et al, "The Administration of Student Per-
sonnel Programs in American Colleges and Universities, American
Council on Education Studies, Vol. XXII, No. 19, February 1958.
facts about the particular student in the particular situation.
". .. Counseling involves the following six specific functions,
awareness of a problem, establishing a counseling relationship, under-
standing the problem, cooperative advising, carrying out the plan of
action and follow-up. The educational counselor. serves as
a coordinator for the student of all the various personnel services avail-
able on the campus. "
One of the areas of the personnel program includes "those
activities and aids that bear directly upon the student's definition of
educational objectives and upon his progress in the achievement of
those objectives. .This area is coming to be designated as educa-
tional counseling. "
Bragdon pointed out that "educational counseling. .. necessarily
demands consideration and correlation of many other aspects of student
personnel work. "
Helen D. Bragdon, et al, "Educational Counseling of College
Students," American Council on Educational Studies, Vol. III, April
1939, pp. 1-5.
48Brumbaugh, op. cit., p. 3.
49Bragdon, op. cit., preface p. iv.
to develop a student-centered program. The counseling staff must not
isolate itself from the instructional staff if it is to achieve such an ob-
jective The instruction staff must be considered as a group of
professional colleagues, with somewhat different proficiencies. .. ."
Brumbaugh, Browwer and Robinson noted the following as
purposes of academic or educational counseling.
Brumbaugh stated that:
The first purpose. is to aid the individual to
make accurate an appraisal as possible of his aptitudes
for college work. Its second purpose is to aid him to
achieve to the fullest his educational goals. It need
hardly be added that the implication of this statement
is not that anyone shall tell the student what or the how
of his education but that the counselor shall aid him in
his self-evaluation and self-realization.
It was noted by Brouwer that: "Basic to all purposes in counsel-
ing is the objective of the student's total development."1
Robinson stated '. the goals of counseling are to increase
a client's feeling of personal adjustment and his actual effectiveness
in society--not only in immediate but also later situations. "
53Paul L. Dressel, "Counseling As A Function of General Edu-
cation, Counseling and the College Program, Ralph F. Berdie (ed.)
(Minneapolis: Minnesota Studies in Student Personnel Work, 1954), p. 36.
54Brumbaugh, op. cit., p. 4.
5Brd-wer, op. cit., p. 157.
56Francis P. Robinson, Principles and Procedures in Student
Counseling (New York: Harper and Brothers, Publishers, 1950), p. 20.
Sturtevant, Strang, and McKim pointed out that it is the aim of
academic counseling to aid the students in three ways: "(1) by the
careful selection of matriculants in accordance with their objectives,
(2) by gathering and pulling into useful form many kinds of data relative
to students, and (3) by assisting the individual student to do work suited
to his abilities under the best available :conditions both in college and
". .. delivering the student to the classroom in the optimum
condition for profiting by instruction"58 is the purpose of counseling as
stated by Bradshaw.
Gardner maintained that there are three fundamental aims of
First, aiding students to select courses of study that
are fitted to their abilities and interests; second, aiding
students to solve difficulties which may arise in the course
of their studies; and third. promoting in all students
a desire to better themselves scholastically. 59
Sarah M. Sturtevant, Ruth Strang and Margaret McKim, Trends
in Student Personnel Work, (New York: Teachers College, Columbia
University, 1940), p. 80.
58F. F. Bradshaw, "The Scope and Aim of a Personnel Pro-
gram", Educational Record, January, 1936, 17:121.
59Donfred H. Gardner, "Student Personnel Service", The
Evaluation of Higher Institutions, Volume 5 (Chicago, Illinois: The Uni-
versity of Chicago Press, 1936), p. 74.
It seemed particularly pertinent that attention be given to the
various methods, approaches and techniques of counseling.
Brorwer maintained that "prescriptive" and "permissive"
counseling are the two basic methods of counseling. He points out that:
The aim of permissive non-directive counseling is .
to help the student "to become a better organized person
oriented around healthy goals which /he / has clearly
seen and definitely chosen. In permissive counseling, the
faculty member plays a unique role. He mirrors the
student's feeling emotions. He does not add to, nor sub-
tract from, the feeling; he does not affect the kind or in-
tensity of feeling. He reflects, mirror-fashion, what
the student is so that the counselee can see himself more
Prescriptive counseling. is counselor-controlled.
S. .The faculty member aims to change the student's
behavior in ways which he, thinks desirable. He
prescribes the alternatives and urges the selection of the
most appropriate one.60
Tolbert said the following about the problem of classifying
counseling points of view. He pointed out that:
Warters, Smith, Hamrin and Paulson, and Froelich
use three classifications: directive, non-directive,
and elective. Their emphasis is on the directive-
non-directive continuum; that, Bordin defines approaches
as either emphasizing instrumental behavior or dynamic
aspects of behavior and presents his own point of view
and synthesis of personality, which emphasizes concepts
from psychoanalytic theory, self-psychology, and a
counseling process that involves understanding the needs
60Paul J. Bro wer, Student Personnel Services in General
Education, (Washington, D. C.: American Council on Education, 1932),
pp. 13 and 16.
of the client and flexible approach in meeting them.
Pepinsky and Pepinsky identify five approaches to
counseling: trait and factor, communications, self-
theory, psychoanalytic concepts; stimulus-response
reinforcement theory; client-center theory; and a
general behavior systems theory .
Tolbert described briefly counseling according to the six following
(1) Directive or trait-centered approach. The assess-
ment of psychological traits, predictions about per-
formance, and a rather definite degree of counselor
directiveness are characteristic of the approach.
(2) Client-centered or self-theory point of view often
described as "non-directive" counseling, this approach
is based upon a psychology of self actualization drives, the
self concept as a major factor in behavior, and counseling
or therapy to help the individual utilize growth potential.
(3) Dimensions or communications approach. This approach
merits separate consideration because of the research
approach which involves the study of "dimensions", the
efforts of the counselor varying these dimensions in the
counseling process, and the adapting of dimensions and
counselor roles to various sorts of counselee problems.
(4) Eclectic approach. Eclectism is the systematic and
purposeful utilization of procedures and techniques from
other points of view to serve best the needs of the counselee.
(5) Learning Theory Approach. Principles of learning
derived primarily from experimental studies are used as
bases of personality formation and change and activities
to help the client relearn effective ways of behavior.
61E. L. Tolbert, Introduction tb Counseling, (New York: McGraw-
Hill Book Company, Inc., 1959), pp. 13.
(6) Psychoanalytic approach.
served as the source %fone theory of personality or, .
a number of theories.
A review of the directive or trait-centered approach revealed
that the counselor's techniques and roles are varied to present the
situation needed in the solution of the client's problem. Williamson
maintained that: "It does not seem likely that a single system of boles
and techniques will suffice for all problems and all clients. The
method of science is employed. .. experimental, statistical, and con-
ceptualizational, to the process of human adjustment. The work of
the clinical counselor is divided into six steps: analysis, synthesis,
diagnosis, prognosis, counseling (treatment) and follow-up. These
steps do not necessarily follow in sequence. The sequence is
adapted to counselee needs at the time of counseling.
The literature revealed that the client-centered approach
emphasized fact that "the individual has a sufficient capacity to deal
constructively with all those aspects of his life which can potentially
come into conscious awareness."
Ibid. pp. 13-14.
63E. G. Williamson, Counseling Adolescents, (New York:
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1950), pp. 101-2, 108-9.
6Carl R. Rogers, Client-Centered Therapy, (Boston: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 1951), p. 24.
Psychoanalytic practice has
In this approach the counselor does not collect data or diagnose.
Roger stated that "when the counselor assumes the information getting
attitude which is necessary for the assembling of a good case history,
the client cannot help feeling that the solution of his problems is being
taken over by the counselor. "
He further expressed the point by saying, "Our experience has
led to the tentative conclusion that a diagnosis is not only unnecessary
but in some cases detrimental or unwise. "
In emphasizing the applicability of the approach when he said
". .. client-centered therapy is widely applicable--that indeed in one
sense it is applicable to all people.
Rogers described the process of counseling as follows:
1. The individual decides that he nedds help and comes in
to see the counselor.
2. The counselor defines the nature of the counseling pro-
cess indicates that he does not have the answer, but
that he and the client can work cooperatively to find them.
65Carol R. Rogers, Counseling and Psychotherapy, (Boston:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 1942), p. 81.
Op. cit. p.
67Ibid. p. 230.
3. Counselor helps the client to express feelings and
4. The counselor does not evaluate but accepts feelings
(usually negative) and clarifies them. He attempts
to understand the feelings underlying the client state-
5. Following expression of negative feelings, positive
feelings begin to emerge. These are indications of
6. Positive feelings are recognized and accepted as were
negative feelings. The individual begins to understand
the sort of person he is.
7. As he begins to understand himself and accepts ad-
mirable self-aspects as well as the less admirable
8. The client begins to gain an understanding of the possible
courses of action or choices open to him. The counselor
helps him to understand these choices and his feelings
9. Faint positive actions are instituted by the client.
10. Further growth, insight and positive actions are in evi-
11. The client becomes more able to make choices and take
action and he becomes more self-directing. He may
become interested in the counselor as a person. He is
less defensive and shows considerable acceptance of
himself. The counselor may supply him with information
12. The counselor indicates that he feels a decreasing need for
help, and while he may feel ambivalent about leaving 68
counseling, he is actually ready to terminate contacts.
68Ibid., pp. 31-44.
These steps are ". not mutually exclusive, nor do they
proceed in a rigid order. .
69 ut, this is generally the process
But, this is generally the process
in the non-directive approach of counseling. It is a process of .
disorganization and reorganization. .. "
In reviewing the communications approach which was developed
by Robinson, it was revealed that the emphasis are the concept of di-
mensions of counseling. Robinson maintained that the nature of the client's
problems calls for three different types of counseling: "first, to help
with adjustment problems, emotional or non-emotional; second,
to teach a skill, such as a study skill; and third, to develop maturity. "71
The literature pointed out that the eclectic approach to counseling
involves the adoption and use of procedures and techniques from any
other point of view that appears to be suitable for the individual client's
particular approach. This approach is limited to" the attempting
to improve adaptive behavior in specific areas without altering basic
personality structure. "
69Ibid., p. 41.
700p. cit., p. 193.
71Francis P. Robinson, Principles and Procedures in Student
Counseling, (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1950), p. 64.
72Frederick C. Thorne, "Principles of Personality Counseling,"
Journal of Clinical Psychology, Brandon, Vt., 1950, p. 80.
The learning-theory approach is very useful for work with normal
persons who can manage their lives outside of the counseling situation but
those persons who have come to be aware of a question as to whether they
can make appropriate decisions or behave in an appropriateinanner.
This approach ". provides a permissive atmosphere in which the
client feels free to bring out ideas and attitudes. In order to promote
client learning, the counselor plays various roles, beside that of. faci-
litor of learning. such as father, friend, or alter ego. 73
The literature revealed that psychoanalytic therapy is aimed at
aiding persons with emotional disorders. It is perhaps the most intensive
therapy used today.
There are various methods or procedures used to achieve the
student's total development. "Some counselors will use injunction, advice-
giving, and "fatherly" methods. others will dig for the causes. ..
The aim of both. is the same. but the methods are entirely
A few of the more common techniques which Strang presented are:
observation, rating scales, autobiography and other personal documents,
73Harold B. Pepinsky and Pauline Nichols Pepinsky, Counseling
Theory, and Practice, (New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1954),
74Browwer, op. cit., pp. 9-10.
the interview, projective techniques, cumulative personnel records,
the case study and therapeutic method.
Strang maintained "that perhaps the best. method is to blew
the individual in different situations by means of various technics .
Observation is a basic technic. Observation may be verified by the
results of standardized tests. Personal documents add to the under-
standing of an individual. Some individuals write more freely than
talk, they reveal their ideas of themselves and their view of their world
Strang maintained that: "Technics must never interfere with the
essential warm human relationship that should exist between counselor
and counselee. Technics are servants; they implement the philosophy
behind counseling. ,76
". .. When one considers counselor role from the frame of
reference of student needs and the unique characteristics of the situation
S. one begins to doubt that role is a singular noun. "
7Ruth Strang, Counseling Technics in College and Secondary
School, (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1949), pp. 18-19.
76Ibid. p. 29.
77Nathaniel J. Pallone and Peter P. Grande, "Perception or
Client Need: The Counselor "Role" or "Image"? The Catholic Educa-
tional Review, Vol. LXII, No. 1, January, 1964, p.
Wrenn pointed out that:
The function of the counselor is to assist the student
to insight and decision so that he, is better equipped
to make similar decisions in the future. The counselor's
function is to provide for an analysis of the situation,
understanding, suggestions of alternative solutions and
an outlet for self-expression and release, each in varying
degree from client to client.
Brown stated that "the counselor assists the student to recognize
the direction in which he is going and to map out in general the highways
that have greatest promise of leading to his goals. An important
part of the counselor's responsibility lies in making the best possible
approach to understanding the individual."
Feder pointed out that:
More important than any category of techniques
which a personnel worker can "shake out of his sleeve"
are the deep psycho-social understandings of individuals
and processes which will enable him to develop and devise
techniques in day-to-day relations and operations. The
counselor must learn to adapt techniques to his own
personality, interest, and needs.80
7Wrenn, op. cit., p. 60.
7Brown, op. cit., p. 10.
80Daniel D. Feder, "The Emerging Role of Professional Person-
nel Worker", Personnel Services in Education, The Fifty-eight Yearbook
of the National Society for the Study of Education, Part II (Chicago;
Illinois: The University of Chicago Press, 1959), p. 207.
A review of the literature revealed that the counselor's role
extends to the why something is done as well as the how it is done.
Arbuckle pointed this out when he said: "We need more counselors,
possibly, who know how to do things, but we need those who know why
they do what they do. "
One aspect of the role of the counselor is the recognition of the
basic conflicts which may be produced by the environmental atmosphere
in the solution of academic problems.
Wrenn stated that:
If a student is under overwhelming family pressure to
secure high grades the father or the mother should realize
what this pressure is doing to the student's health and self-
confidence. Great care must be used at this point to avoid
violating a student's confidence or having parents react
If a student is in college "on a shoestring" and is working
too many hours to enable him to study enough or to have any
social life, the counselor 8ay be able to float a loan or se-
cure work for him. .
These are some illustrations of the responsibility borne by the
counselor in the positive alterations of the environmental situations.
The literature revealed the counselor's role in aiding the foreign
student with academic adjustment is?. to assist the newly arrived
81Dugold S. Arbuckle, "Counseling: Philosophy or Science", The
Personnel and Guidance Journal, September, 1960, p. 14.
82Wrenn, op. cit., pp. 174-175.
student in meeting members of the faculty who can advise him concerning
his courses in the academic field of his choice. "
Hobbs maintained that the counselor. .. "is a person trained
to help children, and to help others help children, to gain deeper under-
standings of themselves, to extend personal horizons, to get information
and experience needed for personal problem solving. 84
It is felt by Williamson, that the counselor is a ". teaching
assistant, who aids in the learning process of the client pupil. The
counselor states his point of view with definiteness, attempting through
exposition to enlighten the student. If the student shows unwilingness
to accept the implications of the facts. a useful technique is to tell
him to think it over. .
Williamson further pointed out that the role of the counselor
in this approach is that of the source of authority.
83Edgar J. Fisher, "Counseling the Foreign Student", Institute
of International Education, New York, No. 5, March 15, 1943, p. 8.
84Nicholas Hobbs, "Some Notions About Guidance," Peabody
Journal of Education, Vol. 29, No. 4, January 1952, p. 232.
85Williamson, op. cit., pp. 109, 230.
He maintained that:
If there appear to be equally desirable alternatives
actions the counselor says so frankly, adopting the
attitude of working with the student in solving the pro-
blem. He avoids a dogmatic position and reveals to
the student an attitude of bringing knowledge, and judge -
ment to the students assistance.
Rogers revealed the role of the client-centered counselor when he
said that "over the years the emphasis has moved from directiveness. .
questioning, interpreting, reassuring, encouraging, suggesting. .. to
the counselor's devoting his attention to accepting and understanding
the client and concentrating. .. his whole effort upon achieving a deep
understanding of the private world of client. "87
Robinson maintained that the counselor listens and uses accep-
tance, clarification, and general leads, in which she encourages the
client to ". .. tell me a little more about your job. ."
The literature revealed the role of both the faculty-member and
the student counselor in the academic counseling program.
Wrenn stated that "the contribution of the faculty to the counsel-
ing function is all-important. Both as advisers and counselors, the
86Ibid. pp. 230-231.
87Rogers, op. ci., p. 31.
Rogers, op. cit., p. 31.
88Robinson, op. cit., p. 168.
faculty are indispensable in a counseling program."
Wrenn further pointed out that "counseling is. performed
by both faculty counselors and specialists. at different levels of
complexity and completeness. Trained and specialized counselors work
with students on complex and long-term needs, while administrative
staff and faculty counsel more specific needs at a lower level of inten-
"Often the teacher thinks of counseling as a process which
entails the giving of advice and information,,offering of sympathy,
correction of the child's character, or the indication of the correct
answers to problems which disturb the child. It is questionable whether
any of these activities fits into the category of counseling. "91
Evans pointed out that "the teacher's role includes counseling
as an integral part of the educational process. "Members of the
teaching faculty may be used part-time as semi-trained counselors,
but they should be carefully selected, given the benefit of in-service
Wrenn, op. cit., p. 70.
91Arbuckle, op. ci, p. 3.
Arbuckle, op. cit., p. 3.
92Robley D. Evans, "You and Your Students," A Publication of
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, April, 1952, p. 30.
training and released from some portion of their teaching or committee
Beck maintained that
The faculty advisor. must not only develop
a sensitivity to student needs relative to intellectual
aspects, but must also be alert for the needs of students
in other areas of development. The faculty advisor
must function individually within the limitation of his
academic role and in combination with others within the
large scheme of a comprehensive program."94
Hardee pointed out the following as duties of the faculty member
who serves as faculty-adviser:
1. The faculty adviser explains to the student the program
of general or basic education as it relates to the first
two years of college, to the major of the student (if
he has expressed interest in a major), and to prepara-
tion for life pursuits generally.
2. The faculty adviser plans with the student a schedule
of courses with a consideration of the over-all year's
3. The faculty advisor assists the student in exploring
his major field. To accomplish this, he will interpret
the various departmental publications of the university,
he may refer the student to a special consultant
in the field. .
4. Likewise the faculty assists the "undecided" student in
exploring a major field. This is accomplished by re-
93Walter S. Monroe (ed.) Encyclopedia of Educational Research,
The MacMillan Company, 1950, p. 1313.
94Beck, op. cit., p. 9.
ferring him to experts in several fields of speciality to
counselors in the vocational guidance office, to the bureau
of testing for supplementary testing, and to various extra
class activities wherein interests may be explored and
5. The faculty adviser serves as a "faculty friend" to the
student by demonstrating a personal interest in him and
in his adjustment to college; by serving as a central con-
tact person in obtaining suggestions, which can be used
to help the student .
6. The faculty adviser serves as a link between the student
and the administration by counseling the student on matters
of failure, on the procedures for dropping or adding courses,
or eligibility for the various exemption examinations in
general education. 95
Wrenn stated that:
Students can be of much help to other students. A great
deal of advice. is passed on to the new student by the
old student. Students may become aware of other
students' difficulties much sooner than staff. If they are
charged with responsibility to do so and have been informed
as to procedures, they can... refer Aim to the proper source
for help in a very effective manner.
Aschenbrenner stated that:
Upperclassmen are not expected to counsel freshmen in
depth. Rather, they are expected to recognize certain sign-
posts and danger signals which indicate adjustment problems.
95Melvene D. Hardee, "General Education and General Educational
Counseling," School and Society, 74:4, July 7, 1951.
96Wrenn, op. cit., p. 74.
Students 'ive advice" to other students, and they week and
and take advice from other students. The principle duties,
are to assist freshmen in working out their trial
programs, to keep students on a "steady course" through
the curriculum, to prepare and/or approve study lists for
students ... "97
A review of the literature revealed that considerable research
had been done in the area of counseling.
The literature revealed that regardless to the philosophy one has,
or the approach, method, or technique used or the various degrees of
expertness, the aim of each counselor or academic adviser is the
same--that of aiding the individual in an adequate appraisal of his aptitude,
ability, and skill and aiding him to adjust to his total academic life so that
he may develop in body, mind, and character.
Review of the literature showed that college students have a
need for "academic" or "education" counseling frcm the time they decide
to enter college until they graduate and even after graduation. In order
97A. J. Aschenbrenner, "The Role of Upperclass Students as
Academic Advisers for College Treshmen," The Journal of College
Student Personnel, Volume IV, No. 3, March, 1963, pp. 184-85.
to effectively meet the needs of these students the college or university
program of academic counseling must be well coordinated and involve
individual students, faculty-members, committees and administrator.
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA RELATIVE TO THE
PHILOSOPHY UNDERLYING THE ACADEMIC COUNSELING
PROGRAM AT FLORIDA A AND M UNIVERSITY
In order to ascertain specific information which was basic to the
survey, a questionnaire and interview guide questions were designed.
Presented herewith and analyzed are data collected with reference to the
philosophical points of view of academic counseling here at the Univer-
Table I more specifically reveals the philosophical points of
view of deans, faculty advisers, students and graduates with reference
to the program of academic counseling at Florida A and M University.
Of the total number of persons responding to this item, four or 80 per
cent of the deans, 22 or 59.46 per cent of faculty-advisers, 200 or
32. 57 per cent of students and 90 or 90 per cent of graduates indicated
that item A of the questionnaire and interview guide best represented
their philosophy of academic counseling; one or 20 per cent of the deans,
13 or 35. 15 per cent of faculty advisers, 300 or 48. 88 per cent of
students and 8 or 8 per cent of graduates indicated that item B of the
questionnaire and interview guide best represented their philosophical
point of view of academic counseling and 2 or 5. 45 per cent of faculty
advisers, 114 or 18.55 per cent of students and 2 or 2 per cent of
graduates indicated that item C of the questionnaire and interview guide
as having best revealed their philosophical point of view of academic
o 5 W P- &a W ( >
o c~ o
C o i
o o a 0 0
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o 0 0
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Summary and Conclusion
The major findings of this portion of the survey revealed that
316 of 48. 80 per cent of the 756 respondents indicated that item A best
represented their philosophical concept of academic counseling. Of
this number, majority of the deans, faculty advisers, and graduates
selected item A as their choice. However, majority of the students,
300 or 48. 88 per cent, indicated that item B best represented their philo-
sophical points of view with regard to academic counseling. A total of
322 or 42.60 per cent selected item B as the number best representing
their philosophical point of view. A minority number of the subjects,
118 or 15. 60 per cent, felt that item C represented best their philosophy
of academic counseling. The data further revealed that majority of
subjects felt that academic counseling is a personnel function which
involves faculty members and specialists (trained counselors, coordina-
It is suggested by this data that a small majority of the philoso-
phical points of view with reference to academic counseling at the
University is not in keeping with the conceptions of authorities in the
field of counseling. On the other hand, the data revealed that many of
the subjects' philosophical conceptions were in line with those as revealed
in the literature which represented valid sources of criteria for this
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA RELATIVE TO THE
ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERN OF ACADEMIC COUNSELING
AT FLORIDA A AND M UNIVERSITY
This chapter deals with the organizational patterns of academic
counseling as indicated by the deans of the various colleges within the
University and the faculty advisers.
Organizational Patterns of Academic Counseling as Viewed by
Figure 1 reveals the organizational pattern of the program of
academic counseling at Florida A and M University as indicated in the
responses by the deans to the items on the interview guide which were
primarily concerned with this aspect of the program. The data revealed
that 4 or 80.00 per cent of the deans indicated that there was an appointed
person in charge of coordinating the program of academic counseling
for prospective teachers. Whereas, 1 or 20.00 per cent stated that "the
dean of students at the University coordinated the program. It was
pointed out by the 5 deans interviewed that there was no person designed
for the coordinating of academic counseling for all students regardless
of academic preparation. However, 3 or 60. 00 per cent of the deans
indicated that approximately 90.00 per cent of the University's students
were preparing to be teachers. The data revealed that there existed
within this organizational pattern an Inter-Area Preparation Council. It
was indicated by 4 or 80. 00 percent of the deans that the function of this
Council is that of "recommending and considering policies relative to
standards governing the admission of all students to teacher education
curricula." There was no response from 1 or 20. 00 per cent of the
deans with regards to the functions of the Inter-Area Preparation Council.
The data revealed that 5 of 100 per cent of the deans interviewed
agreed that "the deans of the various schools or colleges coordinated
the program of academic counseling within their particular school. "
It was indicated by 1 or 20. 00 per cent of the deans that the relationship
between the office of the coordinator of academic counseling and the dean's
office was that of a "liaison relationship"; 2 or 40. 00 per cent of the
deans indicated that the relationship between the coordinator's office and
dean's office was that of ". .. receiving information from the coordina-
tor's office"; and 1 or 20.00 per cent of the deans stated that the relation-
ship between coordinator's office and the dean's office was ". one of an
advisory relationship, in the sense that his office: (1) prepares pertinent
information on the successes and failures of students, (2) relates or
passes on information concerning students and (3) assembles from his
office information about students. "
Data relative to the functions of the deans in the program of
academic counseling at the University revealed that: 4 or 80. 00 per cent
of the deans indicated that iftirprimary function was that of coordinating
the program within their particular school or college. More specifically,
the data revealed that 1 or 20. 00 per cent of the deans indicated that
the dean's functions were: (1) planning a program overview, (2) systema-
tically keeping student records and other records pertinent to the students'
scholastic endeavors, (3) counseling with transfer students and other stu-
dents with academic problems who have either been referred by "self" or a
faculty adviser, and (4) meeting with department heads in regards to
academic problems of students and possible procedures used in the attempt
to assist students in the solution of their problems; and 1 or 20 per cent
of the deans indicated the functions of the dean in this program were: "(1)
explaining the summary rating sheet to all students and (2) counseling
with students with unsatisfactory grades and with all students within this
particular school at the end of their second year. "
Data revealed that within the graduate school of Florida A and M
University the staff personnel involved in the organization of academic
counseling was the department head. The Dean of the Graduate School
indicated that the department head "counsels the student on his program
of courses, provides the students with a channel of communication to the
major and other departments of the Graduate School, approves the student's
program before registration and approves any changes made within the
student's program." As revealed in Figure 1, the data indicated that the
next personnel involved in the program of academic counseling within the
School of Agriculture and Home Economics was the Guidance Committee
whose major functions were to "work cooperatively with department heads
in planning procedures to be followed in the guidance of students within
thisschool. The data revealed, as indicated by the Dean of the school,
that the functions of the faculty advisers are: "submitting grades of the
students' academic progress, administering the rating scale for personnel
and professional abilities to all students each trimester, and counseling
with failing students.
Figure 1 shows that within the College of Arts and Sciences, the
department heads are next in line in the organizational pattern of the
program of academic counseling within the College. The data revealed
that the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences indicated that the
department heads appointed faculty advisers and coordinated the program
within his area. It was pointed out by the Dean that the faculty advisers
were next in line in the organizational pattern of this program. The data
showed that the dean indicated that the functions of the advisers are to:
"systematically assist students with class schedules and acquaint students
with the vocational opportunities within their major areas.
It is revealed in Figure 1 that within the School of Education, the
next personnel involved in the program of academic counseling after
the dean of the school is the Inter-Departmental Academic Council. It
was indicated that this council consists of members representing the three
departments within the School of Education. Data revealed that the major
function of the Inter-Departmental Academic Council is to: "develop
policies governing the various programs within this school. Data re-
vealed that the department heads were next in the organizational pattern
of the academic counseling within the School of Education. The data
indicated that the department heads major functions in this program
are that of "coordinating and furnishing advisory services. It was
revealed as shown in Figure 1, that the faculty advisers ware the next
staff personnel employed in the program of academic counseling in the
School of Education. The data pointed out that the Dean of the school
indicated that the functions of the faculty advisers in this program was
that of "helping the student to see himself in light of academic facts and
referring him to other personnel when needed. "
THE INTER-AREA TEACHER.
School of Argiculture and
College of Arts and Sciences
Head Head Head
Voc. Home Agric.
Agric. Econ. Science
Faculty Faculty Faculty
Advisers Advisers Advisers
School of Education
Head Head Head
Ele. Educ. Ind. Ed, Phy. Ed.
Faculty Faculty Faculty
Heads of Depts. of
Chemistry and Physic:
i Faculty Advisers
Heads of Depts. of
Drama and. Speech
! Faculty Advisers
Heads of Depts. of
History and Geography
1 -aculty Advisers [
AN ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERN OF THE PROGRAM OF ACADEMIC COUNSELING AT
FLORIDA A AND M UNIVERSITY AS VIEWED BY THE DEANS
Heads of Depts. of
Philosophy & Religion
)ORDINATOR OF ACADEMIC COUNSELING
The data revealed that 1 or 20. 00 per cent of the 5 deans inter-
viewed indicated that within the School of Pharmacy the program of
academic counseling was coordinated by the Dean of the School. The
data indicated that as coordinator of this program the dean's functions
were: "(1) assigning the students to faculty advisers, (2) checking
academic forms periodically, (3) checking conference reports coming
from faculty-advisers, (4) keeping a Summary Cumulative Sheet of grades, (5)
counseling with the more serious problems, and (6) assisting students who
have financial problems through the school's Student Loan Fund. "
Within the School of Pharmacy, the data revealed that the faculty
advisers were the next personnel involved in the program of academic
counseling. The data pointed out that the Dean of this school viewed
the following as functions of the faculty advisers: (1) helping students
make class schedules, (2) assisting students with the five year program-
ing, (3) making recommendations to the dean's office with reference to
academic counseling, (4) studying student's grade report and entering
it on his record and (5) counse'ing students with unsatisfactory mid-term
Organizational Patterns of Academic Counseling as Viewed by
the Faculty Members.
The data With regard to the coordination of the academic counseling
program are revealed in Table II. More specifically, Table II reveals the
person responsible for the coordination of academic counseling as indicated
by the faculty members at the University. It is seen in this table, that 1
or 2.70 per cent of the responses indicated "none",
16 or 43.25 per cent
of the responses indicated "dean", 5 or 13. 51 per cent indicated "depart-
ment head," 7 or 18.92 per cent indicated "department teacherss),
18. 92 per cent indicated specially designated person (data revealed this
group of responses listed this person as coordinator, adviser, or
counseling officer) and 1 or 2.70 per cent responded with "unknown to me."
THE PERSON RESPONSIBLE FOR THE COORDINATION OF ACADEMIC
COUNSELING AS INDICATED BY FACULTY MEMBERS OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL UNIVERSITY
Person responsible for coordination of Nu r
None 1 2.70
Dean 16 43.25
Department Head 5 13.51
Department Teacher(s) 7 18,92
Specially designated person (Title: Coordinator,
adviser, counseling officer) 7 18.92
Other comments: "Unknown to me" 1 2.70
TOTAL 37 100.00
Table III shows the bases for selecting the individual who
coordinates the program of academic counseling at the University as
indicated by faculty members. Table III reveals that 5 or 7. 43 per
cent of the responses indicated "aptitude", 20 or 29. 90 per cent indicated
"training", 15 or 22. 38 per cent indicated "leadership ability", 1 olf
22. 38 per cent of the responses indicated "point of view" and 12 or
17. 91 per cent indicated "maturity" as the bases for selecting the indivi-
dual responsible for the coordination of the program of academic counseling
at the University.
BASES FOR SELECTING THE INDIVIDUAL WHO COORDINATES THE
PROGRAM OF ACADEMIC COUNSELING AT FLORIDA AGRICUL-
TURAL AND MECHANICAL UNIVERSITY AS INDICATED BY
Bases Number Percent
Aptitude 5 7.43
Training 20 29.90
Leadership Ability 15 22. 38
Point of View 15 22. 38
Maturity 12 17.91
TOTAL 67 100.00
The data reveal, as indicated by faculty members, the extent
to which the individual in charge of coordinating the program of aca-
demic counseling encouraged faculty participation in planning the coun-
seling functions. According to the data, 13 or 36.00 per cent of the
responses indicated that this individual regularly seeks faculty sugges-
tions for planning, 15 or 42.00 per cent indicated that this individual
occasionally seeks faculty suggestions, and 8 or 22.00 per cent
indicated that this individual never asks for faculty suggestions.
In regards to the persons) whoisaire::aponsible for the academic
counseling of student majors within the various departments, Table IV
shows that 5 or 9. 80 per cent of the responses indicated dean, 2 or
3. 82 per cent indicated assistant dean, 20 or 43. 24 per cent indicated
department head, 16 or 31. 57 per cent indicated department teachers
and 8 or 1. 57 per cent indicated a designated person (the Chairman of
and the Committee on Guidance).
THE PERSONS) RESPONSIBLE FOR THE ACADEMIC COUNSELING OF
STUDENT MAJORS WITHIN THE VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS
Person(s) responsible for academic
counseling of student major within Number Percent
Dean 5 9.80
Assistant Dean 2 3. 82
Department Head 20 43.24
Department Teachers 16 31.57
A Designated Person (Title: The
Chairman of and the Committee
on Guidance) 8 1. 57
TOTAL 51 100.00
The data revealed that 37 or 100 per cent of the subjects who
responded to the questionnaire indicated that there is a group of faculty
members (not necessarily trained in counseling) who spend part of their
time offering personalized services such as registration and curriculum
advising or acting as general sponsor for a group of students. Of the 37
responses, 32 or 86.49 per cent indicated "none and 5 or 13. 51 per cent
indicated as their reaction to item "L", page 11 (on the average how mtrh
release time is provided for the academic counselors or advisers to work
In the faculty members' response to the bases on which persons
are selected for faculty advising duties, the data revealed that 1 or 1. 00
per cent ranked aptitude as number 1, 2 or 2. 00 per cent ranked aptitude
as number 2, 2 or 2. 00 per cent ranked aptitude as number 3, 4 or 4. 00
per cent ranked aptitude as number 4, and 1 or 1. 00 per cent ranked apti-
tude as number 5; that interest in advising was indicated as number 1 by
2 or 15. 38 per cent of subjects, 5 or 38.46 per cent ranked interest in
advising as number 2, 4 or 30. 76 per cent ranked interest in advising as
number 4 and 2 or 15.38 per cent ranked it as number 5; pe-rsonality traits
were ranked as number 2 by 3 or 25. 00 per cent of the responses, number
3 by 4 or 33. 33 per cent, 1 or 00. 83 per cent, 5 by 3 or 25. 00 per cent,
and 6 by 1 or 00. 83 per cent of the responses; training was ranked as number
1 by 20 or 55. 55 per cent, number 2 by 10 or 27.77 per cent, number 3 by
4 of 11.11 per cent and number 2 by 2 of 00. 56 per cent of the responses;
maturity was ranked as number 1 by 1 or 00. 91 per cent, number 2 by 2
or 1. 82 per cent, number 3 by 2 or 1. 82 per cent, number 4 by 1 or 00. 91
per cent, number 5 by 3 or 27. 27 per cent, and number 6 by 2 of 18. 18
per cent of the responses; point of view was ranked as number 1 by 1 or
1. 66 per cent, number 4.by 2 or 33. 33 per cent, number 6 by 5 or 83. 33
per cent and number 6 by 1 or 16.66 per cent; and free time was ranked
as number 2 by 1 or 11.11 per cent, number 3 by 1 or 11.11 per cent, number
six by 1 or 11. 11 per cent and number 7 by 6 or 66.66 per cent.
Table V reveals the numerical rank of the desirable professional
preparation for faculty-advisers as indicated by the faculty members who
responded to the questionnaire. This table reveals that 37 or 100 per cent
of the subjects responded to all but two of the areas under the column
professional preparation. It further reveals that subject matter ranked as
number 1 by 15 or 46. 88 per cent, number 2 by 7 or 21. 88 per cent, num-
ber 3 by 9 or 28. 13 per cent and number 5 by 1 or 00. 31 per cent; knowledge
of counseling techniques ranked as number 1 by 22 or 59.46 per cent,
number 2 by 7 or 18. 92 per cent, number 3 by 6 or 16. 22 per cent, number
4 by 1 or 2.70 per cent and number 5 by 1 or 2.70 per cent; knowledge
of tests and measurements ranked as number 1 by 4 or 10. 81 per cent,
number 2 by 5 or 13.51 per cent, number 3 by 7 or 18. 92 per cent,
number 4 by 14 of 37. 84 per cent, and number 5 by 7 or 18. 92 per cent;
knowledge of principles of vocational guidance ranked as number 1 by
3 or 8. 10 per cent, number 2 by 14 or 37.84 per cent, number 3 by
13 or 35. 14 per cent, number 4 by 5 or 13. 51 per cent and number 5
by 2 or 5.40 per cent; psychology of individual differences ranked as
number 1 by 8 or 21.62 per cent, number 2 by 5 or 13. 51 per cent, number
3 by 9 or 24. 32 per cent, number 4 by 5 or 13. 51 per cent, number 5 by
7 of 18. 92 per cent and number 6 by 3 of 8. 10 per cent; and others ranked
as number 1 by 1 or 33. 33 per cent, number 3 by 1 or 33. 33 per cent and
number 6 by 1 or 33. 33 per cent of the subjects who responded to this item.
0 0. >
U) mT CD
Summary and Conclusions
The major findings as indicated in this study with reference to
the organizational patterns of the program of academic counseling were
1. The data revealed that 4 or 80. 00 per cent of the deans pointed
out that there was a designated person who was responsible for the
coordination of the program of academic counseling for the preparation
of prospective teachers.
2. The data revealed that 5 or 100 per cent of the deans and 16
or 43. 25 per cent of the faculty members indicated that the deans coordi-
nated the program of academic counseling within their various schools
3. The data revealed that 4 or 80 per cent of the deans and 20
or 29. 90 per cent of the faculty members indicated that department
heads coordinated the program within their departments and counseled
students majoring within their departments.
4. All of the deans (5 or 100 per cent) indicated that the faculty
adviser's general functions in the university's organizational pattern of
the program of academic counseling was that of checking and keeping
systematically the student's academic record, and counseling him in
reference to academic problems.
5. Majority (32 or 86.49 per cent) of the faculty members
indicated that on the average no release time was provided for the
fac-ilty members who worked with students as faculty advisers.
From this data the following conclusions were made:
1. It seems apparent from the facts revealed in the data that
the organizational patterns of the program of academic counseling at
Florida A and M University leans very heavily toward the lineand-
staff organization in that the program is coordinated and administrated
by one individual.
2. In view of the facts revealed in the data, the organizational
pattern of academic counseling at Florida A and M University includes
(a) a coordinator of academic counseling for the preparation of prospec-
tive teachers, (b) The Inter-Area Teacher Preparation Council, (c)
The Deans of the Various Schools and Colleges, (d) A Guidance Committee
and the Inter-Departmental Academic Council, (e) Heads of Departments
and (f) faculty advisers.
3. In light of the facts which the data revealed, it is concluded
that release time needs to be provided for many of the faculty members
who are serving as faculty advisers.
4. In light of the facts revealed by the data, it is concluded
that generally the staff involved in the program of academic counseling
at Florida A and M University is responsible for giving academic
assistance to the students within the various schools and colleges.
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA RELATIVE TO PROCEDURES
AND PRACTICES EMPLOYED IN ACADEMIC COUNSELING AT THE
FLORIDA A AND M UNIVERSITY
In this chapter, data relative to the procedures and practices
employed in the program of academic counseling at the University is
presented and analyzed. This chapter, more narrowly, deals with
the procedures and practices involved in this program as indicated
by deans, faculty members, students and graduates.
Presentation and Analysis of Data Relative to Practices and
Procedures Employed at the University as Viewed by Deans The
data revealed that the interview guide gastio6s which were addressed
to the deans with reference to practice and procedures were of an
administrative nature. More specifically, the data revealed (1) the
practices and procedures used to assure systematic meeting of the
faculty advisers and the advises, and (2) the procedures employed in
the evaluation of the program of academic counseling. The data
revealed that 4 or 80. 00 per cent of the deans listed the following as
procedures, practices or methods used in assuring that the faculty
advisers systematically met with their advises.
(1) "Systematically checking the conference report forms of
faculty advisers. "
(2) "There is no particular method employed. However, faculty
advisers are requested to post conference hours and participate in
pre-registration and registration activities." (1 dean)
(3) "The faculty adviser fills out a form indicating that counseling
has been done. (1 dean)
The data showed that 3 or 60.00 per cent of the deans indicated
that the follow-up method was generally employed in the evaluation
of the program of academic counseling,
1 or 20. 00 per cent of the deans
pointed out that no systematic method or procedure was employed,
that usually the coordinator of academic counseling is responsible for
planning the evaluation of the program of academic counseling.
Presentation and Analysis of Data Relative to Practices and
Procedures Employed at the University as Viewed by Faculty Members.
The data revealed that in reference to the in-service training
procedures employed in the various departments, 28 or 75.68 per cent of
the faculty respondents ranked "group discussion" as number 1, 5 or
13.51 per cent ranked "group discussion'sas number 2, 4 or 10.81
per cent ranked it as number 3, 9 or 24. 32 per cent ranked "Others
(casual discussions)" as the number 1 method employed in in-service
training, 20 or 54. 05 per cent ranked others as number 2 and 17 or
45. 95 per cent ranked other s as number 3.
With reference to the practices and procedures utilized in the
intra-departmental corrdinative activities relative to the program of
academic counseling, the data revealed that 15 or 40. 54 per cent of the fa-
culty respondents indicated that "regular and consistent attempts made
to plan and provide for academic counseling function"; 19 or 51. 35
per cent indicated "occasional and sporadic attempts made to plan and
provide for academic counseling functions" and 3 or 8. 11 per cent indi-
cated that "no attempt made to plan and provide for academic counseling."
In describing the interdepartmental practices utilized in the
academic counseling services offered students, the data revealed
that 5 or 13. 51 per cent of the faculty respondents indicated "hold
regular meetings with other departments within the school or division,"
14 or 37. 83 per cent indicated "meet with other departments on occasions
for purposes of discussion" and 18 or 48.65 per cent indicated "work
in isolation; never meet with other departments within the university". In
regard to the procedures by which faculty-advisers within the various
departments function as resource people for faculty members on common
student problems, the data revealed that 4 or 10.81 per cent faculty re-
spondents indicated that the procedure used was an "organized and
systematic exchange of student information, 21 or 56.76 per cent indi-
cated that "causal and informal exchange of student information was the
procedure most often used and 12 or 32.43 per cent felt that faculty-
advisers were not used as resource people. "
The data revealed that 28 or 75. 68 per cent of the respondents
indicated that it is generally the practice of the faculty-adviser to stay
with the student throughout his college course. There were 9 or 20. 32
per cent of the respondents who indicated that the faculty advisers did
not normally stay with the student throughout his college course.
The data pointed out that 13, or 38. 23 per cent of the rhirty
four faculty members who responded to this questionnaire item indicated
that "giving advice" was the method used in counseling students, 2 or
5. 88 per cent of the responses indicated that the "fatherly method was
employed, 18 or 52. 94 per cent indicated that the method employed
,as "dig for the course" when counseling students with problems of
academic adjustment and 1 or 2. 94 per cent indicated "objectivity in
evaluation" as the method used in counseling students who have problems
of academic adjustment.
Table VI reveals the numerical rank of the procedures which
are utilized by faculty-advisers in the academic counseling of students
at Florida A and M University. The data showed, that 6 or 25. 00 per
cent ranked "observation" as number 1, 12 or 50. 00 per cent of respon-
dents ranked "observation" as number 2, 3 or 12.50 per cent of the
respondents ranked "observation" as number 3, 2 or 8. 33 per cent
ranked "observation" as number 2 and 1 or 4. 16 per cent ranked
"observation" as number 5; "rating scales" was ranked as number 2
by 2 or 50.00 per cent of faculty respondents, and 2 or 50.00 per cent
ranked it as number 4; personal documents, i. e. autobiographies was
ranked as number 1 by 2 or 16.66 per cent of the faculty members who
responded to the questionnaire, number 2 by 3 or 25. 00 per cent,
number 3 by 4 or 33. 33 per cent, and number 4 by 3 or 25.00 per cent
of the faculty respondents; the interview was ranked as procedure number
1 by 9 or 25.00 per cent of the faculty respondents, as number 2 by 5 or
13. 89 per cent, as number 3 by 17 or 47.22 per cent, as number 4 by
4 of 11. 11 per cent and as number 5 by 1 or 2.78 per cent of the faculty
members who responded to the questionnaire~.the case study procedure
was ranked as number 2 by 1 or 25.00 per cent, number 3 by 1 or 25.00
per cent and number 4 by 2 or 50. 00 per cent of respondents; faculty
respondents indicated that 20 or 50. 00 per cent felt that cumulative
personnel records ranked as the number 1 counseling technique employed
in the academic counseling of students. It was ranked as number 2
by 8 or 20.00 per cent of the respondents and as number 3 by 12 or
30. 00 per cent of the faculty sampling who responded to the questionnaire.
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The data pointed out that the faculty members who responded
to the questionnaire indicated that one of the procedures used in an
attempt to gain a deeper knowledge of the advisee is the utilization of
various sources of data. Herewith, as revealed by the data, is the ranking
in order of importance the sources that are used within the department
for obtaining information about the students, 6 or 27.27 per cent
ranked standardized achievement tests as number 1, 17 or 54. 83
per cent ranked end-of-course examinations as number 1, 4 or 50.00 per
cent ranked case conferences or faculty group discussion as number 1,
2 or 28.57 per cent ranked anecdotal records, rating scales, checklist,
etc. as number 1, 15 or 42. 86 per cent ranked personnel conferences as
number land 3 or 100 per cent ranked others (grade point averages
and grades from the Admissions and Record4; StandardJAdhievement
tests were ranked as number 2 by 3 or 100.00 per cent, end-of-course
examinations were ranked as number 2 by 4 or 12. 90 per cent of 2 or
25.00 per cent ranked case conference or faculty group discussion as
number 2, anecdotal records, rating scales, checklist, etc. ranked as
number 2 by 2 or 28.57 per cent of faculty respondents, and personal
conference was indicated number 2 by 11 or 31. 43 per cent of the faculty
members who responded to the questionnaire; 5 or 22.73 per cent of the
respondents ranked standardized tests as number 3, 10 or 32.26 per
per cent ranked end-of-course examination as number 3, case conference
or faculty group discussion was ranked as number 3 by 2 of 25. 00 per
cent; anecdotal records, rating scales, checklist, etc. were ranked as
number 3 by 3 or 42.86 per cent; personnel conferences were ranked as
3 by 4 of 11.43 per cent of the respondents; 8 or 25. 81 per cent of the
faculty members who responded ranked end of course examinations as
number 4, and 5 or 14.29 per cent ranked personnel conferences as
number 4, 3 or 100 per cent ranked others (grade point averages and
grades from Admissions and Records) as number 1.
Presentation and Analysis of Data Relative to Practices and
Procedures Employed at the University as Viewed by Students and
With reference to the practices employed'by the counse-
lor and/or faculty adviser in the counseling process, item X of the
questionnaire in revealing the role of the counselor indicates to some
extent these practices. The data revealed that of the 614 students respon-
dents, 67 or 10. 01 per cent of the students, indicated that the faculty
adviser "gives solutions to counselee's problems;" 200 or 32. 57 per
cent indicated that the counselor "points out possible solutions to his
problems", and 347 or 56.51 per cent indicated that the counselor
achieves a deep understanding of the world of the counselee and assists
him in such a way that will enable him to recognize his problem, make plans and
follow a course of action in the solution of his problems. Of the 100
graduates who responded, 42 or 42. 00 per cent indicated that counselor
"points out possible solutions to counselee's problems" and 58 or 58. 00
per cent indicated that the counselor achieves a deep understanding of
the counselee's world and assists him in such a way that he will recognize
his problem, make plans and follow a course of action in the solution of
his problem. "
In consideration of the practices involved in the number of
conferences provided the advisee, the students checked the degree to
which he felt most nearly indicated the degree of counseling carried out
in meeting the student's needs.
Table VII reveals the degree to which counseling is carried out
in meeting the needs of students. The data revealed that 12 or 1. 96 per
cent indicated minimum 210 or 34. 20 per cent indicated a little, 301
or 49. 02 per cent indicated medium and 91 or 14. 82 per cent indicated
quite a bit.
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