• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Introduction
 Review of related literature
 Analysis and presentation...
 Summary, findings, conclusions,...
 Bibliography
 Questionnaire to county supervisors...
 Questionnaire to county superintendents...
 Questionnaire to teachers
 Topical outline






Title: Status of unemployed Negro teachers in central Florida
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 Material Information
Title: Status of unemployed Negro teachers in central Florida
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Brooks, Rufus Clinton
Affiliation: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
Publisher: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
Publication Date: 1955
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Volume ID: VID00001
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Resource Identifier: notis - AAA0803

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Title Page
        Title page
    Table of Contents
        Page i
    List of Tables
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page5
        Page 6
    Review of related literature
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Analysis and presentation of data
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Summary, findings, conclusions, and recommendations
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Bibliography
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Questionnaire to county supervisors of negro education
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Questionnaire to county superintendents of public intstruction
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Questionnaire to teachers
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Topical outline
        Page 61
        Page 62
Full Text








STATUS OF UNEMPLOYED NEGRO TEACHERS IN CENTRAL


FLORIDA










A Thesis


Presented to

the Faculty ob the School of Education

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University










In Partial Fulfillment


of the Requirements for the Degree

Master of Science in Education







by


Rufus Clinton BrooWs

May 1955


I.-
-" -/


/-











STATUS OF UNEMPLOYED NEGRO TEACHERS IN CENTRAL
FLORIDA








A Thesis

Presented to

the Faculty of the School of Education

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
In Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements for the Degree

Master of Science in Education
/


Date:


Approved








V 7i3


TABLE OF CONTENTS


CHAPTER
I. INTRODUCTION . .
The problem ....
Problem analysis . .
Importance of the study .
Delimitations .. .
Further needs of the study
Methods of procedure .
Sources of information .
Definitions of terms used
Counties in Central Florida

II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE .
III. ANALYSIS AND PRESENZATION OF DATA
IV. SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS
AND RECOMMENDATIONS .

Summary .
Findings .........
Conclusions .... ......
Recommendations . .


BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDIX


PAGE

1

3
3
3
4
4

5



6

7
7


S 47
. +47
. +49

. 50
. 51










LIST OF TABLES

TABLE PAGE

I. Population of Counties which were in-
cluded in this Study . .. 18

II. Number of Schools in Counties of
Central Florida . . 21

III. Number of Cities in Central Florida and
Main Industry of each County 24

IV. Number of Employed and Unemployed
Teachers in Counties of Central
Florida . 26

V. Number of Unemployed Teachers by Areas
of Specialization in Central
Florida . 28

VI. Age, Marital Status, and Years of
Teaching Experiences of Unemployed
Negro Teachers in Central Florida 30

VII. Past and Present Status of Unemployed
Negro Teachers in Central Florida 32

VIII. Opportunities in Central Florida and
Their Prerequisites in the Profes-
sional and Technical Fields 34

IX. Opinions of Superintendents, Super-
visors and Unemployed Teachers with
reference to the High Rate of Un-
employment in Central Florida 37

X. Numbers and Percentages of the
Responses to Questionnaires sent
to the County Superintendents
of Public Instruction 40

-XI. Numbers and Percentages of the
Responses to Questionnaires sent
to Supervisors of Negro Education 42

XII. Numbers and Percentages of the
Responses to Questionnaires sent
to the Unemployed Teachers 44













XIII. Sum Total of the Responses to Question-
naires sent to the Superintendents,
Supervisors and Unemployed Teachers
in Central Florida .*










CHAPTER I


INTRODUCTION

The unemployed teacher portrays that area of
educational labor whereby workers come to.take into
consideration the idea of readjusting their lives to
cope with society. The goals toward which they direct
their energies, the barriers which,are placed across
their paths, and the practices they develop in an
effort to circumvent these barriers are typical examples
of the attempts to set conditions -wherein such will not
exist.
For those who wish to prevent this matter, it
would become necessary to face the opportunity and danger
involved. The opportunity for distribution of income
to be settled in a truely democratic manner. The danger
that democratic procedures may be sacrificed through the
efforts of those who object to submitting this question
at the bar of public opinion. The attempt to realize this
opportunity and avoid this danger will put to test much
that is fundamentally part of our philosophy.1





LDouglas, Paul H. and Director Aaron The Proble
of uneffloyment. New York: McMillan publishing o.. 1931
p, 365.


48065












hieaployment is comparable to slavery in that it
is the source of intolerable waste. The amount of money
paid out to the jobless over the past years can be counted,
the enormous losses from goods and services that might
have been produced can not be measured, but the misery
caused by it can never be determined because there is no
disease that could cause more, directly or indirectly,
than unemployment.
Unemployment in any business or industry is often
the measure of inefficiency and neglect. Due to the lack
of sufficient attention to the problem on the part of the
guidance leaders aid sociologists in regards to future
trends, many have been and still are destined to exist
within the realms of suffering and want.

As a result of the lack of equal job opportunities
and correct guidance, our attention as citizens of Florida
has been directed into the channels of teaching. Other
areas in our immediate environment could offer unlimited
employment opportunities if only one would be hired on the
basis of his qualifications alone. Of course, some posi-
tions are available if only one would ly after being
informed of these opportunities, 'lved that lack
of initiative, unwillingness tc-Sg"inra- ttite pttom, and
lack of interest outside of the iachgh areas aresome of
the causes of the high rate of tenp.oyingt *iong Negro
teachers. -












THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED

In recent years there has been.much alarm con-

cerning the reasons for so many persons being unemployed
in the teaching profession. The majority of the opinions
was based on limited observations and were biased con-
cepts. In no known instances had any research work been
completed to substantiate any of these reasons or to pre-
sent facts to counteract the opinions.

I. TIM PROBLEM

Statement of te problem .It is the purpose of
this stu d to determine the nature and scope of unemployed
Negro teachers in Central Florida and to present attitudes
with regards to the causes of those conditions.
Problem analysis. (1) To what extent are these
instructors qualified in other professional areas, (2) to
what extent are these jobs available, (3) would these
instructors be willing to enter other fields provided that
opportunities permit and, (4) what are their temporary
occupations?
Importance of the study. The phenomenon which led
to this study grew out of the alarming number of unemployed
Negro teachers in Central Florida and the similarity of












their areas of concentration while in college. Many of
these individuals possessed qualifications in areas other
than that of teaching, but were not hired because of
their racial status or their negligence in making attempts
to destroy these barriers so as to elevate their own
economic standings. any persons entered these various
teaching areas with inadequate guidance and are still con-
fused as a result of not being able to find employment.
Further needs of the stusy. (1) Studies of Job
opportunities, correlating training with job placement,
(2) evaluation of present status necessary for determina-
tion of future improvement, (3) study of a better guidance
program in the colleges based on future outlooks and, (4)
fair practices in employing individuals.
In view of these needs, it was deemed necessary to
make a study of the status of unemployed Negro teachers
in Central Florida.

Delimitations. It is realized that from the time
this study was initiated to the period of its completion,
many changes may have occurred. Therefore, (1) this study
was limited to conditions as they existed in 1953-54 and,
(2) the counties studied were restricted to those desig-
nated by the state of Florida as comprising Central Florida.












Methods of procedures. To determine the nature
and scope of unemployed Negro teachers in Central Florida,
it was necessary that specific information be gathered.
This information pertained tos (1) the availability of
employment for all teachers that needed it, (2) qualifi-
oations in other areas, (3) attitudes of unemployed teachers
toward other opportunities in various professional fields,
and (4) attitudes of employers in teaching and non-teaching
areas.
sources of information. It has been found that
the following sources were most accurate and reliable for
gathering data on the problem studied: (1) County super-
intendents of public instruction, (2) County supervisors
of Negro education, and (3) the unemployed Negro teachers
in the counties of Central Florida.

II. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED

Status. One's status was interpreted as meaning

the mode of existence with respect to some special set of
circumstances.
Unemployed. Throughout this investigation, the
term employed shall be interpreted as meaning the existing
without a regular occupation or a means of earning a live-
lihood.












Central Florida. Since this study was limited to
one state, the term Central Florida was interpreted as
that area designated by the state as comprising the middle-
most region of the state. The counties making up this
region termed Central Florida are as follows:

III. COUNTIES OF CENTRAL FLORIDA

1. Brevard
2. Citrus
3. Hernando
4. Hillsborough
5. Lake
6. Levy
7. Marion
8. Orange
9. Osceola
10. Pasco
11. Pinellas
12. Polk
13. Seminole
14. Sampter
15. Volusia











CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

At the close of the second World's War, many per-

sons having served as soldiers returned to school to in-
crease the enrollment to an all-time high. Not only did
they profit, but the economic status of the country as a

whole was elevated to a degree. Many persons were enter-

ing college who had no prior thought of so doing. With

a sharp increase in the birth rate, our educational insti-
tutions set out to prepare teachers in areas where they

would be most needed in the future.

This was one major step in guaranteeing full em-
ployment for all, as well as better educational opportu-
nities for the children. As stated by Douglas and

Director,2 "America must affirm that no person or persons
in this country shall directly or indirectly hold monopoly

in dispensing that most fundamental of opportunities--the

opportunity of making a living.

In the state of Florida, there was a tremendous in-
crease in the enrollment of students in the colleges which



2Douglas, P. H. and Director, A., The Problems of
Unemployment. New York: McMillan Publishing Co., 1934.
P. 365.












served the primary purposes of supplying teachers. The
future outlook in other areas were neglected and complete
concentration was placed in the area of teaching.
Many veterans entered high schools in order to
prepare themselves for future positions after going on to
college. This brought about an increase in the number of
high schools as well as a shortage of adequate teacher
personnel.
There vas a continuous cry for teachers in all areas.
As soon as one received his degree, a Job was available.
The number of teachers almost tripled. Many were guilty
of having deserted the field for better paying Jobs, but
returned as a result of the attractive salaries which were
elevated in the profession. As stated by Pierson,3
"Domestic economic measures alone can bring full employment
and permanent prosperity. Without it, unemployment will
mount the saddle of life and reign supreme over those in
need. For the causes of such are deep rooted in our society.
The overflow in any one specific area creates these problems".
As a result of the keen interest in the teacher
training program, the majority of the students in the col-
leges of Florida were trained in this area. During the


3Pierson, J. H., ll Emloyment. New Haven, Conn.
Yale University Press, Wl.












years 1950, 1951 and 1952, the bulk of the veteran
students who were enrolled in the colleges of the state
of Florida, graduated and as a result jobs were becoming
scarce. The police action in Korea somewhat eased the
situation through the induction of some of the young men
into service. This was not expected to last forever,
so after having served approximately two years in the
armed forces they returned to find their rightful places
in society. But to their surprise, there were no jobs
available and the outlook for the future was uncertain.
The remaining students continued to study in areas
that were already crowded without regards for future
positions. Such actions could only lead to unemployment
on a larger scale and create the necessity of setting up
services or agencies that would help in placing the indi-
viduals in a place in society, Thus they had to affiliate
themselves with the United States Employment Service in
order to receive compensation until work could be secured.
As stated by Rugg, "He who owns what men must have,
owns the men that must have". The same holds true for the
unemployed teacher who has given years toward preparation


Ruigg, Harold, Foupdation for 2 erican Education.
New Yorks World Book Co., 179. p. 821.









-10-


and finds no employment outlet after completion of this
preparation. As further stated by Rugg,5 in explaining

the Principle of the Sustained Yield, "Put back into the
people and the land as much as you take out". These un-
employed teachers should have opportunities to make a
livelihood and they should further be given a chance to
utilise their training to the fullest extent.
In the state of Florida, many of these were denied
the right to enter into other professional areas as a
result of their racial status. This was implied through
the medium of unions and state licenses of which the
Negro cannot join or receive certification. Unions were
organized for the purpose of protection, in so far *a
wages and over-crowding conditions were concerned and not
serve as a barrier to people of different races. They
were established for three main purposes with reference to
job securities--namely, (1) the general availability of
jobs as a whole, (2) the security of various jobs in the
production process and, (3) individual possession of the
job.6 But it was felt that if Negroes were allowed to enter


Ibid. p. 415.
6Lester, R. A., and Shister J., Inights I"14
Labor Issues. New York: McMillan Pub. Co., 919. P. 368.









-11-


these unions, there would be cheaper labor and a short-

age of work. Those in these unions held to the idea that
skilled work was beyond the comprehension of the Negro
and that he should eater only to common labor. There
were many of these unions operating throughout the United
States, including Florida.
A few of these unions were as follows: (1) United

Mine Workers, (2) Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners,

(3) American Newspaper Guild, (4) The Railroad Uhion, (5)
The United Automobile Workers, and (6) The American Federa-
tion of Musicians. Some of these organizations accept
Negroes, but the majority bars them.7 As an example, we
may look into the work of the Industrial Arts student. If
he finishes school with a major in electricity, brick
masonry, or carpentry, it would be very difficult for him
to receive a license from the state department. He is
unable to secure a teaching position, therefore, finds

himself in a critical condition as far as employment is
concerned.
It is hard to conceive, that after playing such a

role in the development of the south and the states


7Harris, Herbert, American Labor. New Haven, Conn.,
Yale University Press, 1938. p 451.









-12-


Negroes were treated as foreigners or unequals. Through
the sweat of their forefathers, whose work served as a
part of the backbone of this nation, this great empire
was built. Slavery in itself served not only as a means
of making a contribution, but also it clearly revealed
that so much is due to then for their payless days of work.
The after effect of the slavery regime was so penetrating
that the master realized the importance of having someone
to do the work that was shunned by the whites.8 In his
efforts to insure him cheap labor, the Negro was barred
from all work with the exception of common labor.
On the other hand, many of these unemployed teachers
were reluctant toward accepting common labor or domestic
jobs. This also depended upon factors as educational status,
family influence, and the individuals own initiative,
temperament, and character. This would necessitate the
venturing into jobs which are not offered to Negroes easily.
As an example many firms today are hiring Negro salesman
in furniture stores, breweries and tobacco organizations.
These jobs didn't present themselves, but rather are re-
suits of pressure and knowledge of the Negro market. If


8Parkine, e Gouth., New York: John Wiley & Sons,
1938. p. 451.










-13-


all positions were thus opened, it would not be of neces-
sity or by per chance for anyone and especially in the
end for the child to follow in the footsteps of the parents
in order to make a fair livelihood. For the child actually
has little convictions about the advantages of additional
schooling. School is something through which he must past
before entering life. When he drops out, there is no
realization that he is sacrificing future opportunities.9
But if he is in a position to see the various opportuni-
ties without restrictions, he would be stimulated to con-
tinue to make a decent and worthwhile living in the commu-
nity in which he lives.
One of the greatest problems confronting the teacher
is how to secure a position or the steps in influencing
or winning over the employer. The first of these according
to Kinnaman10 is to be a good mixer or know how to get
along with people. In conversation one should know what
to say and how to say it as well as be a good listener.
Therefore, it is necessary to have counseling in
order to meet the challenging needs of the day. Because


9Reynolds, L. G. and J. Sisterr, Jo Horizons,
Harper Brothers: New York. 1949. p. 96.
lOKinnaman, D. B., How to sure a Position, Christo-
pher Publishing Houses Boston, IwV p. 121.









-14-


of this, the attitudes of high school students are subject
to change as a result of seeing those who spent their
time in college unable to find a job. Some schools have
placement bureaus so as to assist their students in
securing employment in the schools of Florida. This is
the overall area wherein some type of job-guiders built
around the placement of unemployed workers, vocational
guidance for youth and technical information.11
Thus, it becomes the job of all concerned to bind
forces and face the evils of unemployment so as to offer
a livelihood for all concerned. The unemployed teacher
must be willing to meet any challenge, to accept work in
his area of training regardless of location and realise
the efforts by the country at large to assist him.
The state should render all assistance in giving
aid to these teachers, to help schools set-up programs of
training and guidance in order to lead these students:
into various professions and to help set up placement
bureaus in order to secure jobs for all.
The nation at large should consider all these oc-
curences in all states and should render assistance in
overcoming these problems.


1U. S. Department of Labor. 2ployent SecM ity
Review, April, 1954, Vol. 21 No. 4.









-15-


As stated by the Employment Security Review, "In
order to insure a prosperous America today and good
leaders tomorrow, we must have an outlook for our youth
today".12
Thomas D. Bailey, state superintendent of Public
Instruction stated in an address to teachers and citizens
of Ft. Lauderdale and Pensacola, Florida in 1951, "Our
feeling of insecurity stems from a deeper level than atomic
warfare. It is the moral strength of moral accountability
that will make us worthy to survive".13 But what of one's
moral character when there is hunger or want? This too,
can and should be eliminated by giving work to all regard-
less of race, creed or color.














12U. S. Department of Labor. Employment Service
Bureau, February, 1954. Vol 21. No. .
1Bailey. Thomas D., Shool Make Ls Ziee, State
Pub. Department, Tallahassee, 1951.










CHAPTER III


ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF DATA

Questionnaires were sent to the superintendents
of the fifteen counties comprising Central Florida, to
the fifteen supervisors of Negro education, and to two
hundred twenty-eight unemployed teachers. Included in
these questionnaires was a section which was intended
to poll the opinions of the superintendents, supervisors
and teachers with regards to the reasons for such unem-
ployment.
Information was further sought from the question-
naires to determine the overall population of each county,
the population of the rural and urban sections, and the
approximate number of people per square mile. This was
an attempt to show the population of Central Florida and
the distribution of individuals in these regions.
According to the census figure of 1950,14 it was
found that there were 914,088 residents of Central Florida,
with 581,657 persons living in urban areas as compared
to only 332,431 persons living in the rural areas. There
were approximately 90.59 persons to the square mile.


census Report, United States, 1950.









-17-

Data presented in Table I shows the population
by counties in the study, and the sum total of the rural

and urban population as well as the number of persons

per square mile.









-18-


TABLE I

POPULATION OF COUNTIES WHICH WERE INCLUDED IN
THIS STUDY


No. of
People
Name of Per Sq.
County Povalation MileA Urban Rral


Brevard
Citrus
Hernando


Hillsborough


Lake
Levy


Marion
Orange
Osceola
Pasco
Pinellas


Polk


Seminole
Sumpter


23,653

6jlll
6,693


22.9
10.7
13.7


249,894 24+0.3


36,340
10,637
38,187


36.5
9.6
23.6


114,950 125.5


11,406
20,529


8.6
27.3


159,249 603.2


123,997
26,883
11,330


66.6
83.7
20.2


11,072




188,565
14,428


11,741
76,666


7,311
3,806


137,702
67,167
11,935


:12,581
6,111
6,693
61,329
21,912
10,637
26,446
38,284
4,095
16,723
21,547
56,830
14,948
11,330


Voluslia 74229 66.6 1.2642236
Total: 91,088 135u. 551-657 3320431
Median: 60,931 90.59 38,777 22,162
Range, 243,783 594.6 184,759 57,234








-19-


Citrus County, with a population of 6,111, was
the smallest having 10.7 persons per square mile. It
was not considered as being urbanized. Hillsborough
County, with a population of 249,894, was the largest
county included in this study having urban and rural
residents.
Of the total population of 914,088 persons, most
counties provided one senior and junior high school for
the entire aggregation. There were elementary schools
in practically every community. These were arranged in
various orders. Some included grades one through six,
some carried grades one through eight, and others grades
one through three.
A glance at the overall population, in comparison
with the number of schools provided, revealed that there
was a need for additional schools and teachers.
As shown by data presented in Table II, there were
101 elementary schools, thirty-eight junior high schools,
and thirty-three senior high schools. This revealed an
educational shortage in so far as the population is con-
cerned. As a result of this presentation, the situation
made it necessary for many of the students to go to school
in shifts. With such occurances, students were being
deprived of adequate educational opportunities and college
graduation with the possibility of being unemployed.









-20-


Many of these teachers were engaged in work in

other areas until opportunities in the teaching profes-

sion were presented. Most of these cities offered

attractive occupations in areas other than that of teach-

ing. Some of these were salesman, clerks, and printing.

Many persons in these areas have made tremendous progress

in proving that ability is not relegated to one race.









-21-


TABLE II


NUMBER OF SCHOOLS IN COUNTIES OF CENTRAL FLORIDA


Account
Brevard

Citrus
Hernando

Hillsborough

Lake

Levy
Marion

Orange
Osceola

Pasco

Pinellas

Polk

Seminole

Sumpter

Volusia


EUlementary
_ Schools
6

2

1

13
11

3
14

6

1

3
8

11

6

14

12


uimior High Seniodf igh
School Schools

1 3
1 1

1 1




1 1
4 4

3 2
1 1

1 1

3 2

1 1
2 1

2 1

4- 3


Totals 101 38 31

Median: 6.7 2.5 2.0

--ne: 134 -


-- ~~---- -


-- -~-










-22-


As shown by data presented in Table III, there

were 49 cities in the counties included in this study.

The major occupations of these local communities varied

to some extent. These included citrus farming, truck

farming, resort centers, and industry. There were many

openings in these professions as a temporary means to

an end. Many unemployed teachers have taken advantage

of these opportunities and they have also kept in contact

with the teaching profession. Some opinionated that they

are not actually employed while engaging in these positions,

although their work pays more than the teaching profession.

Polk County had the largest number of cities with

five and is followed by Merion and Brevard counties.

Citrus, Osceola, Hernando, and Seminole counties comprise

the citrus and truck farming areas.

Osceola County is the only one that relies solely

upon the cattle industry as a major occupation.

Most of these counties were designated as resort

centers as a result of the great tourist trade that is

carried on in the state. Some of the unemployed teachers

have taken positions in these resort areas as bell hops,

bus boys, and waiters. Their salaries were equal to and









-23-


in some cases better than that of those engaged in the

teaching profession.
In the citrus regions there were processing plants

and other types of canning factories that employed

technicians and skilled individuals. In some cases per-

sons were trained to do various jobs and in others only

persons that have had a thorough training in colleges or

special schools were hired.
So in knowing the main industries and urban

settlements, one may readily estimate the various oppor-

tunities that are offered in professions other than that

of teaching.










-24-


TABLE III

NUMBER OF CITIES IN CENTRAL FLORIDA AND
MAIN INDUSTRY OF EACH COUNTY


Country
Brevard
Citrus

Hernando

Hillsbo-
rough

Lake


Levy
Marion

Orange
Osceola

Pasco

Pinellas

Polk

Seminole

Sumpter

Volusia

Totals
Median:
Range:


J-amber of
Cities

5
1
1

2

1.
4






6
1
4

4

6

1

3
4


Main Industries of Counties

Citrus Farming, Tourist

Citrus Farming
Citrus Farming, Tourist

Industry, Tourist, Citrus Farming

Citrus Farming, Dairy Farming,
Tourist

Farming General, Tourists

Citrus Farming, Resort, Industry
n n It Hi

Cattle Industry, Tourist

Truck Farming, Citrus Farming

Industry, Resort, Citrus Farming

Citrus Farming, Industry, Resort

Truck Farming, Citrus Farming

Truck and Citrus Farming

Resort, Citrus Farming, Industry


~ -- II Ir -r I -r









-25-


The number of unemployed teachers in the counties
chosen for this study was 228 as shown by data presented
in Table IV. This gave an average of 15.2 unemployed
teachers to the county. These figures include only those
teachers whose homes were located in the county and had
applied for positions there. There were many applica-
tions from out of town residents and counties not included
in this study.
The total number of employed teachers was 1,467
or an average of 98.7 per county.

Data relating to the unemployed teachers in four
counties was not available as a result of no breakdown
between the teachers according to race and other factors.

Levy County was the only one that had provided em-
ployment for all of its teacher residents.
Hillsborough County had the highest number of un-
employed with 40, being followed by Marion County with
32.
As further revealed by data presented in Table IV,
the larger counties had the largest number of unemployed
teachers, and the smaller counties, the smallest number
of unemployed teachers.









-26-

TABIE IV

NUMBER OF EMPLOYED AND UNEMPLOYED TEACHERS IN
COUNTIES OF CENTRAL FLORIDA


Iamber of Employed umber of unemployed
County Teachhrs Teaohers
Brevard 59 DEK
Citrus 16 2
Hernando 15 UNK
Hillaborough 302 40
Lake 78 10
Levy 40 NONE
Marion 150 32
Orange 129 111
Osceola 13 UNK
Pasco 26 2
Pinnellas 170 UNK
Polk 199 10
Seminole 93 9
Sumpter 33 1
Volusia 144 21
Total: 1467 238
Median: 97.8 15
Sanges 289 110










-27-


It becomes necessary for those who were not
fortunate in securing employment in the teaching pro-
fetsion to locate positions in areas that were similar
to their training. Many individuals were not able to
do so, as a result of environmental offerings and racial
barriers which continued to mar their means of existence.
The majority of these unemployed teachers received
training in the field of elementary education, wherein
a shortage existed only a few years ago. Today, the
field of elementary education is overcrowded in the state
of Florida as a result of too many persons preparing for
it at the time of the shortage.

According to data presented in Table V, this study
revealed that there were 174 unemployed females and 64
unemployed males or a ratio of 2 to 1. This showed that
the males specialized in more different areas than the
females. In the meantime female concentrations were
centered more around elementary education than any other
area.

Elementary and physical education were the fields
most crowded with speech and drama being the least
crowded.

In some instances there were persons who met quali-
cations in more than one area.

Thus the total unemployed teachers by area of
specialization was 238.









-28-


TABIE V

NUMBER OF UrEMPLOYED TEACHERS BY AREA OF SPECIALIZATION
IN CENTRAL FLORIDA


FieloT joff elaj laton Male Femal4 otal
Agriculture 6 6
Business Administration 2 2
Education (Elementary) 4 66 70
Education (Industrial) 5 5
Education (Secondary) 2 15 17
English 3 12 15
Foreign Language 3 5 8
Home Economics 10 10
Mathematics 4 7 1
Music 5 7 12
Physical Education 18 10 28
Science 6 5 11
Social Studies 6 19 25
Speech and Drama 2 2

Total 64 1714 238*
Medians 5.3 14.1 19.5
Range: 16 61 68

*Bome were qualified in more than one area.









-29-


Information shown by data presented in Table

VI indicates that most of these persons were married
and had to provide for needs of the immediate family.
Those of single status were recent graduates of colleges
and fell in the younger age bracket. The older ones
had previous teaching experiences but left to secure
positions prior to the raising of teachers' salaries.
They were attempting to re-enter the profession in order
to reap the benefits of the efforts they exerted before
departing for better jobs.

There was a total of 542 years of teaching Oz-

perience with the older teachers making the greatest
contribution.
There was an age range from 20 years to 60 years.
Of the age group 20 to 25, most of the females were
married with the male making up the greatest percentage

of those unmarried.
Twenty-three of the unemployed teachers contributed
nothing with reference to teaching experience.
Two hundred twenty-eight teachers were used in the


table.









-30-


TABLB VI

AGE, MARITAL STATUS AND YEARS OF TEACHING EXPERIENCE
OF MUNMPLOYED NEGRO TEACHERS IN CENTRAL FLORIDA


Age Maraital Years of Teach
Range No. of Teachers Status inT Eletrien
20 21 8 NONE


14
13
NONE
62
6
82
NONE
11
124
32
72
11
78


Total: 228 $42
Median: 12 28.5
Range a 28 Al 124










-31-


As compiled by data presented in Table VII,
the present occupations of unemployed teachers within
the state varied to a great degree as well as their
salaries. Some salaries were based on number of days
worked, some by the week, and others by the year. There

were 95 persons included in the study who did part-
time work. The majority of these teachers were employed
in veteran training and adult education.

Only two persons were satisfied with their pre-
sent occupations and still possessed the desire to teach.

A large percentage of the teachers, who were
included in the study, did not wish to seek employment
out of town or the country. Sixteen of the seventy-seven
that had no type of employment, refused to work outside
of their fields. They felt that their primary occupations

should be that of teaching and teaching alone.

On an overall summation, it can be plainly seen
that the means of making a living were very hard for these

unemployed teachers.







TABLE VII
PAST STATUS AND PRESENT STATUS OF UNEMPLOYED NEGRO TEACHERS IN CENTRAL FLORIDA (FINANCIAL)


Grad. of Fla. Salary of Satis-
Coollees Others Present OccuRation Salary Last Job fld
9 1 Sub-Teaching $ 8/da. None No
77 None None
31 Vet-Training 3000/yr. "
28 Adult Education 135/mo. 120/mo.
15 Kindergarten 225/mo. None
1 Boy Scout 3200/yr. 76/mo. Yes
1 Sewing 120/mo. 45/mo. "
23 Adult Education (Part-
time) 120/mo. None No
11 Bus Drivers 2700/yr.
7 Business 260/mo. "
24 General Work 200/po.
Total a 226 2 24 ,,loo* 2892*
Medians 22.8 1 2,190.90 262.90
Range 76 o 1 7690.00 900
*Computed on yearly basis










-33-


The state of Florida offers many job opportuni-
ties in the professional and technical areas of which
most were muknown by these unemployed teachers. They
were to be challenged. Of course there were prerequi-
sities for these various positions that could not have
been met by many of these teachers. Data presented in
Table VIII, shows the various fields that teachers may
enter and the prerequisites for each.
There were approximately ten general fields and
thirty-three specific areas. They covered all of the
fields of the teachers that were unemployed. The prere-
quisites covered thirty general courses which were offered
in the educational institutions of the state.









TABLE VIII


OPPORTUNITIES IN CENTRAL FLORIDA AND THEIR PREREQUISITES IN

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL FIELDS1"


Field.


etgpfqqereyP


Physical Therapy


Office Clerks, Clerical Typists, General
Accountants, Bookkeepers, Secretaries,
Stenographers

Dental and Medical Technicians

Kindergarten Schools


Counselors and Personnel Managers

Radio Announcers and Sales Occupations

Medical Assistants and Receptionists


1Morris, Allen, The lorida Handbook,
Publishing Company, 195"3


Nursing, Physical Education, Biologi-
cal Sciences, Physical Sciences
Business Administration, Secretarial
Science

Basic understanding of Science, High
School Diploma, Pre-medicine

Counselors and Personnel Training Ele-
mentary Education, Early Childhood
Education

Administration, Psychology, Political
Science, Statistics, Supervision

English, Social Studies and Pure Arts

Typing and Bookkeeping


Tallahassee, Florida: Peninsular


_ ___ _. __ __


.. P _4 24 +














TABLE VIII CONTINUED


-.Field Pr.. ertai tes
Cashiers, Grocery Checkers, Food Business Administration, Supervision,
Checkers, Storage Managers English, Psychology
Servtoe Superintendents Airplane Mechanics, Supervision, Mathematics
Inspectors, Craftsmen, Foremen, and Electricity
Electricians, Carpenters, and Windov
Trimmers
Bus Operators, Motion Picture Pro- Mechanics, Mathematics and English
jectionists, and Industrial Truck Drivers












The unemployed teachers along with the superin-
tendents and supervisors of Negro education of the
fifteen counties were asked questions with reference to
the causes of such widespread unemployment among Negro
teachers in Central Florida. It was found that many
different reasons were given and they were in accordance
with the three kinds of questionnaires returned. Most
superintendents held that too many persons were being
trained in the same areas where shortages existed a few
years ago, but are no longer in demand. Secondly, it
was stated that there was a lack of initiative on the part
of the teachers to secure work and, thirdly, most teachers
were not willing to work in other areas until an opening

occurred in the teaching profession.
The supervisors stated that these teachers did not
wish to leave home to serve in other communities. It was
further stated that these teachers would rather returnto
school and qualify themselves in other areas than to work
out of their respective communities. It has been found
that this prevents those who specialize from securing a
position in fields of which they were more adequately trained.
The unemployed teachers presented many reasons for
being unemployed as is shown in data presented in Table
IX.









TABLE IX


OPINIONS OF SUPERINTENDENTS, SUPERVISORS AND UNEMPLOYED TEACHERS WITH REFERENCE


TO THE HIGH RATE


OF UNEMPLOYMENT IN CENTRAL FLORIDA


1. Too many teachers trained
in same area
2. Lack of initiative on part
of the teachers to seek
occupation in other areas

3. Inability to get along
with others

4. Attempts at re-entering
field after quitting for
jobs paying more than the
teaching profession before
pay was elevated.


1. Desire to remain at
home

2. No turn-over in ed-
ucational system

3. Refusal of teachers
to retire when eli-
gible

4. Refusal to take part-
time work until full-
time work is avail-
able


1. Lack of adequate guid-
ance while in college
2. Too many persons in
the teaching profession

3. Too many persons teach-
ing out of their fields

4. Refusal of principals
to hire hometown persms


-nerintendent Su-bervisos Unaemloved Teaehers
.... L4















TABLE IX CONTINUED


Unemwlovyid Teachers


5. Lack of classroom space


5. Lack of classroom space 5. Hiring cliques where-
and facilities by one must pay for


6. Community dispositions


6. Lack of equal opportu-
nities in Central


Florida
-- -- -- -- -' --J -;- ,j ,,


ru. rMlntsdn s









-39-

In making this study valid, it was necessary to
have a certain percentage of questionnaire returns.
As shown by data presented in Table X, there were
15 questionnaires sent to the county superintendents of
public instructions. Of these 15,11 were returned with
one being incomplete. None were too late for the study
and a total of ten were used in this study. Therefore,

73% of the total questionnaires were returned with 66%
being eligible for participation.












TABI X
NUMBERS AND PERCENTAGES OF THE RESPONSES TO
QUESTIONNAIRES SENT TO COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS


Results of Eligible
Returns of for Par- Not
Question- Number Number Incom- Too ticipa- Re-
naires Sent Returned plete Late tion turned

Numbers 15 11 1 0 10 4
Percentages 73 6 0 66 26









-41-


Data shovn in Table XI reveals that there were 15
questionnaires sent to the supervisors of Negro education.
Of these, 12 or 80% were returned, 2 or 13% were incom-

plege, and 10 or 66% vere used in this work. Only 3 or
20% were not returned.













TABLE XI

NUMBERS AND PERCENTAGES OF THE RESPONSES TO
QUESTIONNAIRES SENT TO SUPERVISORS OF

NEGRO EDUCATION


Results -
of Re- Eligible ber
turns of for par- not
Question- Number Number Incom Too ticipa- fe-
naires Sent Returned plete Late tion turned

Numbers 15 12 2 0 10 3

Percentage 80 13 0 66 20
... 1 'II









-43-

According to data as presented in Table XII,
there were 228 questionnaires sent to the unemployed
teachers. Of the total, 172 or 75.5% were returned
with 56 or 24.5% not being returned. All 172 were
complete and used in this study.











TABLE XII


NUMBERS AND PERCENTAGES OF TEE RESPONSES TO
QUESTIONNAIRES SENT TO SUPERVISORS PO
NEGRO EDUCATION


Results
of Re- Eligible
turns of for par- Nuber
Question- Nmber Number Incom- Too ticipa- not
naires Sent Beturned plete Late tion RetupMd

Numbers 228 172 0 0 172 56

Percentages 75. 0 0 7. 5 24.5












Table XIII summarizes the numbers and percent-
ages of the total responses to the questionnaires sent.
There were 258 questionnaires sent and 195 or 71.6%
returned. 3 or 1% were incomplete, and 192 or 78%
were eligible for participation with 63 or 24.4% not
being returned.












TABIE XIII

SUM TOTAL OF THE RESPONSeS TO QUESTIONNAIRES

SENT TO THE SUPERINTENDENTS, SUPERVISORS,

AiD UNEMPLOYED EBGRO TEACHERS IN

CENTRAL FLORIDA


Results
of Re-
turns of
Question-
naires


Number Number
Sent Returned


Incom- Too
le1te Latae


Eligible
for Par- Number
ticipa- not
tion Ratrind


numbers 258 195 3 0 192 63

Percentages 71.6 1 0 78 22











CHAPTER IV


SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, FINDINGS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

SUMMARY

It was found that there were 914,088 persons re-
siding in Central Florida with an average of 1,358,8
per square mile. To serve this large population, the
educational facilities and number of teachers were as
follows one hundred-one elementary schools, 38 junior
high schools, and 31 senior high schools. These schools
were located in a total of 49 cities having 1,467 em-
ployed teachers and an excess of 238 unemployed teachers.
This group of unemployed teachers was comprised
of 64 male personnel and 174 female personnel, making a
total of 238 by areas of specialization. In this group
there was an age range of 33 years with the youngest being
20 years of age and the oldest being 60 years of age. The
salaries of these unemployed teachers ranged from nothing

to $3,200 per year with occupations varying from that of
driving school vehicles to that of boyscout work. There
were 77 persons without any kind of employment.
There were 10 major occupations in central Florida
of which these persons were qualified provided that they










-48.


were hired on the basis.of their qualifications alone.
These ranged from physical therapy to service superin-
tendents with the prerequisites ranging from elementary
education to pre-medical courses.

A total of 258 questionnaires were sent to super-
intendents, supervisors and the unemployed teachers so
as to poll their opinions with reference to the causes
of this high rate of unemployment. They varied from
lack of guidance while in college to lack of initiative

and the desire to remain at home. Of the total number
of questionnaires sent, there was a return of 71.6% and

of this total, 78% was used in making this study.










FINDINGS


In 1953-~4, there were approximately 228 unem-
ployed teachers. Seventy-seven or 33% of the 228 teachers
were not engaged in any type of work, while 66% or 151
held variable jobs. Most of the unemployed persons
were women whose ages ranged from 20 to 25 years. Thirty
persons who were included in this group were single. The
largest area of unemployment was in the realm of elemen-
tary education. There were 1,467 teachers employed in
the counties of Central Florida or 97.8 teachers per

county.
With reference to conditions that caused this high
rate of unemployment, too many people were found to have
received training in the same areas or fields. Others
were too bent on working at home rather than going into
other communities to render service. Many refused to serve
in other areas until openings could be found in their
respective fields, and still others were not brave enough
to weather the storm in so far as making attempts to enter
into areas where Negroes had no prior occupation.
It was also found that there were not enough schools
to serve the growing population thereby causing many quali-
fied persons to idle in so far as employment is concerned.











CONCLUSIONS


The following are conclusions made from the
results of the findings of the study:
1. In terms of preparing students to take their
place in society, there was a lack of guid-
ance in adequate proportions in our educational
Institutions.
2. The principles and practices employed in
hiring teachers were not comparable to our
democratic policies in Central Florida.

3. Most professional jobs other than that of

teaching were based on one's racial status
rather than merits and qualifications.
4. The majority or 77% of the unemployed Negro
teachers in Central Florida refused to leave
home in order to find employment.











RECOMMENDATIONS


On the basis of the findings of the study, the
following recommendations were made:
1. That fair practices be employed in
hiring teachers.
2. That other professional areas be opened
/to all citizens irregardless of their
racial status.

3. That students receive adequate guidance
while in college with reference to em-
ployment in the future.
4. That job placement bureaus be established
in the colleges.
5. That teachers, who are eligible for re-
tirement, give up jobs so that others may
have work.
6. That future studies be made with reference
to availability of jobs in areas where
training is offered.
7. That teachers with specialized training

be hired in fields of individual concentra-
tion.









BIBLIOGRAPHY


Bailey Thomas Schools to Kee U Free. Tallahassee,
Floridas Deptartmen~of Pblication, 1951.
Barke E W., Citizens Without o. New Haven, Conn.:
sale University Press, 197.
Barthett, R. W., Security for the People. Champaign,
Ill.: Gerrard Press, T199-
Douglas, P. H. and Director, A., The Problems g Unem
ployment. New York: McMillan publishing Co., 193
Draper, L. S. et.al. Can Business Pevent Unemployment.
New York: Alfred A. Knopt Printing Co., 1925.
Fish, E. H., Psychology of mlomnt Scranton, Penn.:
International Textbook Co., 192U.
Hopkins, W ., Labor in Americal Eono. New York
McGraw-Hill Publishing Co,, 194.
Hoppock, R., Job Satisfaction. New York: Harper Bros.
Publishing Co., 1935.
Kinnamin, D. B., How to Secure a position. Boston: The
Christopher Pulishing House, 1946.
Ovens W. V., Labor Problems. New York: Ronald Press Co.,
1946.
Pierson H., Full Employment. New Haven, Conn.: Yale
University Press, 19li.
Reynolds, L. G. and Shister, J., Job Horizons. New York:
Harper Bros., 1939.
Selekman, B. M., Lai&r Relations ad e man Relations.
New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Co., 19l7.
Shartle C. L., Ocuptional Information. New Haven, Conn.,
Yale University Press, l195.
U. S. Armed Forces Institute, Labor Problems in American
Industry. Madison, Wis., 19i.
U. S. Bureau of Census, Poulation (in Seventeenth Census
of the United States: 1950), U. S. Government
WFinHng- Offce, Washington, D.C., 1951, Vol. II.










-53-


U. S. Department of Labor. Occupational Outlook Hand-
book. 1951, Bulletin Nmber 998.
































APPENDIX










QUESTIONNAIRE


to
COUNTY SUPERVISORS OF NEGRO EDUCATION

Directions:
The following questions refer to the number of appli-
cants for teaching positions in your count. Please
answer all questions and return in the enclosed self-
addressed envelope.

1. Name of County ___
2. Number of cities in county _
3. Number of schools in county
(Note: Elementary, Junior & Senior High)
4. Number of employed teachers in county
5. Number of unemployed teachers in county by
area of specilization as follows:

MALE FEMALE
Agriculture
Art -- --
Business Administration
Education (Elementary)
Education (Industrial)
Education (Physical) -
Education (Secondary)
English -
Foreign Languages
Home Economics
Music
Mathematics
Psychology
Science
Social Studies
Speech & Drama










-56-


6. Please list possible reasons for teachers being
unemployed.

a. *_ -


b.


c.


d.


e.


7. Names and addresses of unemployed teachers in
your county.


Name


Address


8. Comments.










QUESTIONNAIRE


to
COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION

Directions: The following questions refer to the
number of applications on file for teaching positions
in your county. Please answer all questions and
return in the self-addressed envelope.

1. Name of county ___
2. Number of cities in county

3. Number of schools in county
(Note: Elementary, Junior & Senior High)
4. Number of employed teachers in county
5. Number of unemployed teachers in county by
area of specialization as follows:

MALE FEMALE
Agriculture -
Art
Business Administration
Education (Elementary)
Education (Industrial)
Education (Physical)
Education (Secondary)
English
Foreign Languages
Home Economics
Music -
Mathematics
Psychology
Science
Social Studies
Speech & Drama

6. Please state your opinion of the over-all unemploy-
ment situation among Negro teachers in your county.









-58-


7. Names and addresses of unemployed teachers with
applications in your county.
Names Addresses

1. _______________--------
2.


6.
6.: _- -,,,_,,,,

lIe_
10. __________ ______
11. ....
12.

1 _________
1 5 .. ... .... _


8. Comments.










QUESTIONNAIRE TO TEACHERS

Directions;
Below is a list of questions pertaining to you. Please
answer all questions as accurately as possible and re-
turn in self-addressed envelope. All information is con-
fidential and a summary of study will be sent upon re-
quest.
1. Name Sex
2. Are you married Age Place of Birth,

City County State

3. Did you graduate from a high school in Florida
college in Florida If so, please
name school
Location .If not, where
and what school ___
Location
Are you a veteran .
4. What was your major
Minor in college.
5. In what other areas are you qualified
Are tre e openings in this area at present
If so what are the major hinderances preventing
your being employed at present __





6. What is your present occupation
Salary _
7. Are you satisfied with this job ___
8. List salary of last teaching job _
9. Where was your last job


10. Last year employed










-60-


11. Please indicate reasons for leaving last job.

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

12. Please list number of years of teaching experience.



b. -

C. -


e. -

13. Comments. (With reference to unemployment in teach-
ing profession).










-61-


Topical Outline

1. Title study--The status of Unemployed Negro Teachers
in Central Florida.
2. Hypothesis--Unemployment among Negro teachers is at
an all-time high.


3. Basic Assumptions--l.


4. Delimitations--(1)





5. Objectives of
Investigation--(1)


There is a high rate of V a-
ployment among Negro teachers
in Central Florida


2. Many of these teachers are
qualified in other professional
areas.

3. The professions should be
opened to qualified personnel
irregardless of racial status.
4. These teachers have to accept
work that is below the level of
their training.
Limited to conditions as they
existed in 1953-54 and (2) the
counties studied were limited to
these designated by the state of
Florida as comprising Central
Florida.

To determine the status of unem-
ployed Negro teachers in Central
Florida (2) to study the need for
improvement of the system of
employing individuals in Central
Florida.


6. Outline of procedures:

Research techniques--Normative Survey Method,
questionnaire inquiries,
interview studies.
Source of data--County Superintendents, Principals,
local Supervisors, unemployed teachers.









-62-


7. Methods of securing data: questionnaire and inter-
views
Limitations of techniques--
1. Teachers away for summer
2. Refusal to tell the truth
3. Refusal to return question-
naires
4. Refusal to give true facts
in interviews
8. Selected list of references--
1, Douglas, Paul H. and Director, Aaron, T Problem
1 2 Unemployment, New Yorks McMillan Pu. Co., 1931,
p. 307.
2. Pierson, John H., NFu EmPloyaent New Haven,
Conn.: Yale University Press, 19'7, p. 307.
3. Barke, E. W., Citizens Without or, New Haven,
Conn.: Yale University Press, 1947, p. 307,
4. Barttett, R. W., e ecrity for the People, Champaign,
Ill.: Gerrad Press, 19W9, p. 13r
5. Shartle C. L. Occational portion New
Havens Yale University ress, 19, p. 323.
6. Lewis 8. Draper, E. G. and others Can business
Prve, New York Alrid A. Knopf,
1925, pp. 1-219.

7. Selekman, B. M., Labor Relations anad gman
Relations, New York McGraw-ill Book Co., Inc.,
19W7, pp. 141-249.
8. Kinnaman, D. B., How to Secure A ositin, Boston:
The Christopher P.BET ~. I 19 6. pp. P-21,
9. Fish, E. H., Pschology of mMloyment Scranton,
Penn: International Txtook Co., 1928, pp. 1-.
43.
10. Reynolds, L. G. and Shister Joseph, Jb Horizons,
New York: Harper Brothers, 1949, pp. 1-96.




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