A SURVEY CF THE SiTAINDAIZED TESTIM PRGRAuS IN NmSO SCHOOLS
OF FLORIDA AND TIEIR IMPLICATDNS FOR GUIDANCE
The Graduate Comittee of the
Florida Agricultural and Mechaical College
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science in Education
Robert Edwin Allen, Sr.
A SURVEY OF THE 8tL DARDIZE TESTIP PROGRAMS IN NEGRO SW0018
OF FLORIDA AND THEIR IMPLICATIDNS FR GUIDANCE
The Graduate Committee of the
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science in Education
Robert Edwin Allea, Sr.
The writer is deeply grateful to Mr. J.F. Condell who served
as chairman of the study, for his stimulating guidance and interests
to Mr. A.W. Wright and Mr. Matthew H. Estaras who so generously
served as committee members; to Mrs. Gustarva Hussain for her critical
analysis of the first draft of this thesis; to the many school adminis-
trators and supervisors who made this study possible, and finally, to
ay dear wife and the five little angels, who gave the writer encourage-
ments to go on when the task seemed impossible,
Robert Edwin Allen, Sr.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. INTMRDUCTO N .ID .
Ihe problem .
Importance of study
Delimitations . .
Definitions of terms
Description of situation
Basic assumptions 0 .
Organization of study
II. ELATED LITERATURE .
Importance of testing
* . *
* . .
* * *
* C C C *4 *
* a C C C *
* C C C *
C. C C C *
* C *
Use of tests as a guidance technique
Differences in abilities .
Interest Inventories .
Making a testing program function
Subjectivity of teacher judgment
Tests as a predictor of success .
Personality Inventories ... .
Study habits and achievement .....
Selected guidance patterns *
. . 7
. . 7
. . 8
. . 10
. . 11
. . 12
. . 12
. . 13
. . 1$
. . . s
. . 35
PROCEDURES, PRESITATION, AND INTERRETATIIC OF DATA
SUMMARY AND RECOMENDATIGCS . .
PRELIMINARY QUESTIONNAIRE .
MAP SHOWING GEOGRAPHICAL AREAS AND WHERE
TESTING PRORAMS ARE ICATED .
DETAIIFD QUESTIONNAIRE . .
. .. 36
LIST OF P&BLES
I. County Supervisors Responding to Questionnaire . 18
II. Counties having Testing Programs by Geographical
Areas ". 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 . 19
III. Schools having Standardized Testing Programs by
Geographical Areas . * .* 19
IV. Grade Areas where Testing Programs are Carried on 20
V. Types of Tests Used in Schools having Testing
Programs . ...... ....... 21
VI. Titles of Tests Used in Negro Schools of Florida
and their Rank . . . . 21
VII. Purposes for Administering Tests . . 22
VIII. Length of Time Testing Programs have been in Effect 23
IX. Academic Training of Personnel, Including Guidance
Techniques, Administering Testing Program *. .. 23
I. School Norms having been Set Up Based on Three or
More Years of Testing . ... . 24
XI. Period of the Year Standardized Tests are Administered 25
XII. Schools having Testing Programs as a Part of the
Guidance Program . . ........ 2.
It is generally conceded that some form of guidance is essential to
each individual in all aspects of life. Tb develop the necessary concepts
and beliefs to enhance a program for all social groups necessitates a format
of techniques applicable to the situations.
Statement of the probe. The problem of this study is (1) To de-
termine to what extent standardized tests are used in the Negro schools of
Florida. (2) To determine what part these tests plq in the guidance
program in these schools. (3) To determine what-part tests play in curri-
culxat construction and revisions in these schools. (4) To determine what
ime of year that tests are given, ad ($) To determine the competency of
the personnel administering the testing program.
Importance of the study. Planning a program of guidance in Negro
schools of Florida that will enhance the development of youth, offers a
challenge to all school administrators and personnel. .Providing for indi-
vidual differences to meet the many complexities of personality in our
schools, necessitates that our philosophies be revised and adjustments
made in our programs of studies to meet these needs.
It is axiomatic in the field of guidance, that some scientific data
is pertinent to the enhancement of the program by school personnel. Scien-
tific data in itself does not assure proper guidance techniques, but there
can be little assurance of success without it. The implications of this
statement are obvious especially for a program of guidance.
The curriculum revisions as well as methods of helping youth make
wise choices, should have some criteria for evaluating these choices and
The program of guidance must be so inclusive as to establish rapport
with society. To do this, it should contain some valid and reliable meth-
ods of obtaining objective data. This is emphasized by Edmonson et al who
PThe right kind of guidance strives to help pupils help
themselves. Those in charge of the guidance program mast
have a sympathetic understanding of the pupils interest,
aptitudes, needs, abilities and opportunities together with
a conscious effort to help each pupil make $he most of these
and direct them towards wartly objectives.*
From this point of view, it seems reasonable to state that testing
provides one method and technique for obtaining the facts and evaluative
data necessary for valid guidance.
Delimitations of the problem There are certain limitations to
this study, but they are not of too great significance and the findings
of this study should prove valuable to the overall enhancement of the
The limitations areas
ldDonson, J.B.; Roemer, Joseph, Bacon, Francis L. The Administra-
tion of the Modern Secondary School, lacXUlan Co., (New To t1 P.I41.
This study is limited to schools with six teachers or more
four geographical areas of Florida known as:
(a) Northwest Florida
(b) North Florida
(c) Central Florida
(d) South Florida
It is further limited to Negro schools for the school year
DEFINITIONS OF TEMB
Guidance. This shall be interpreted to mean the process of assist-
ing individuals to make wise choices, adjustments and interpretations to
meet the critical situations in their lres.3
Curriculum. This refers to all the experiences that the school
provides for its pupils.
Grouping. This is that process by which individuals, as accurately
as possible, are organized and placed within grades based on achievement,
abilities and social development.
geographic areas. his refers to characteristics of certain regions
S See appendix B.
3Jones, Arthur J., Principles of Guidance, McGrOw-Hill Book Ce.,
Inc., (New York 1951) p. 96.
Norms. These are standard performances on specific tests, that
have been proven over a period of time.
Standardized tests. These shall be interpreted for this study as
that type of tests having established norms, set up by long and diligent
Attitude. This refers to measures of a probability of success of
an individual with training in a certain type of situation which embodies
intelligence, abilities of various kinds and personality factors necessary
Personality. This is the dynamic organization within the individual
of those psycho-physical systems that determine his unique adjustments to
Description of the situation. Florida is located in the South-
eastern part of the United States; it is blessed by nature by having
great natural resources and a wonderful climate. It has more than one-
thousand miles of coastline and thousands of lakes that provide excellent
sport and commercial fishing the year round. It boasts of the fact that
it has the second largest fresh water lake within the continental United
States Lake Okeechobee which is only surpassed in size by Lake Michigan.
Its land area comprises approximately three-million acres.
4Bingham, Walter V., Aptitude and Aptitude Testig, Harper Bros.,
(New York 1937), pp. 15-23.
Allport, Gordon W., Personality, Henry Holt Co., (New York 1937),
Its climate makes the tourist industry one of importance. This
natural factor also enhances the citrus industry which is supported by
some twenty-eight million citrus trees. This climatic factor also makes
it the most important vegetable growing area of the Southeastern United
Florida has sixty-seven political divisions known as counties,
fifty-seven of which have Negro High Schools and sixty-one have schools
containing six or more teachers.
It has five-hundred and thirty-four Negro schools staffed by four
thousand-four hundred and five Negro teachers, and have an enrollment of
more than one-hundred thousand pupils. A large number of these pupils
come from homes of low income families who earn their living from citrus
and agricultural pursuits.
Basic assumptions aret (1) That this study will stimulate a cri-
tical analysis of this phase of the guidance program in all Negro schools
of Florida, and that it will help all school personnel to rethink their
philosophies for the development of the whole child. (2) That curricula
offerings of the Negro schools are made in the light of objective data.
(3) That good guidance and proper utilization of standardized tests cor-
relate highly, and (4) That testing programs are pertinent to well organ-
ized guidance programs.
Organization of the study. This study is composed of four chapters.
6State Department of Education, Office of the Supervisor of Negro
Chapter one gives the introductory statements which include the
problem, the statement of the problem, importance of the study, delimita-
tions of the study, description of the situation, and definition of terms.
Chapter two is a review of Related Literature*
Chapter three gives the procedures, presentation and interpretation
Chapter four is a summarization and recommendations.
The data in this chapter have an important relationship to this
The introduction includes the general background of the study; it
gives the origin and statement of the problem; it gives a description of
the situation and definitions of terms, and sets up certain limitations,
and relates the organization of the study.
As guidance methods have grown, students in the field have developed
interest in many areas.. The interview, counseling, anecdotal records, ob-
servations, measurement of interest and attitudes, test scores, academic
marks, success and failure, cumulative records, wide curricular activities,
co-curricular activities, and home life have become highly significant.
The developers of various curricula have long been aware that tests
play an important part in their construction. Brown lends pertinent em-
phasis here by pointing out that the main reason for giving tests is to
give aid to teachers; to serve as a guide and leader of youth, and to
make instructions serve the child better.
Lee and Lee further emphasizes this by stating
"Most standardized tests, which the teacher is likely
to use, yield a diagnostic profile that provides an analysis
of the abilities of each individual pupils
Tests may be used to discover the difficulties of each child in
fundamental skills. They further provide a basis for a remedial program;
a basis for grouping pupils according to their needs, and a basis to study
the adjustment of the children problems.
Adams has a very significant opinion about the frustration caused
by inadequate data in meeting the needs of children. She states:
Brown, Edwin John, Managing the Classroom, Ronald Press Co.,
(New York 1952), p. 309.
2Lee, Dorris and May Lee, The Child and His-Curriculu=, Appleton
Century-Crofts, Inc., (New York 1~ M.d.-), p680,-'
"Mar emotional problems and mental conflicts have caused
countless children defeat in their struggle for success.
Their inability to read adequately or the lack of skills, may
create anti-social behavior. Many teachers have accepted
this atmosphere of pupil difficulty and defeat as inevitable.
This has been largely due to their inability to use testing
devices to identify and meet these significant needs."3
Waters, in his study of two-hundred and eighty-eight high school
seniors in nine counties along the eastern shore of Maryland, found that
the schools' guidance services were not adequate in meeting the most im-
portant needs of these youth. Using a check list form devised by Bender
for Rural Youth, which was taken from Mooney's check list, discovered
that the curricula offerings, vocational and otherwise, needed to be re-
Jacobson, Reavis and Logsdon made a very pertinent contribution
to the use of tests in guidance:
"The prerequisite of guidance for any teacher is ac-
curate knowledge of the persons to be served ....Tests should
be used in the diagnostic study of pupils' abilities and
disabilities and in evaluating their progress. *
Many testing programs, as carried out by various schools, are found
to be of no definite significance to the total guidance program. The
3Adam, Fay, Educating America's Children, Banald Press Co., (New
York 1946), p. 170.
waters, E.W., #Problems of Rural Negro High School Seniors on
the Eastern Shore of Maryland; A Consideration for Guidance," Journal of
Negro Education, Volume 2, Spring 1950, pp. 115-125.
5jacobson, Paul B.; Reavis, William C.; Logsdon, James D.; Duties
of School Principal, Prentice-Hall, Inc., (New York 1950), p. 167.
L < *
reason for this is pointed out by Erickson, who states that whenever this
condition exists, it is largely due to the inadequacy of planning a system-
wide series of tests rather than from failure to give an adequate number
It was reported by Hartsfield,7 in his study of one-hundred-seventy-
one high school pupils, that (1) Most of them did not achieve up to their
ability; (2) fifty-two percent of these pupils were at a loss when it came
to selecting courses; and (3) the group had an average intelligence, but
there was a very low correlation between their intelligence and achieve-
A comparative study of the vocational interests of two high schools
with differentiated socio-economic backgrounds by Evans, revealed that
there were no significant differences in the mental abilities of the
pupils in these two high schools, but overall achievement, reading abili-
ties and vocational preferences were different.
Assurance that there is a significant relationship between guidance
and testing, Bingham succinctly points out that "Tests are one of the in-
dispensable hand maids of guidance."9
Erickson, Clifford, Organiation and Administration of Guidance,
McGraw Book Co., (New York 197), P, 157.
7Hartsfield, Walter E., A Proposal for Developing A Guidance Pro-
gam at Central Acadey Senior i chol_ aorTda, Unpub aed
masters Thesis, Florida A. and M. College, August 1950o
8Evans, Lillian Juanita, A Comparative Study of the Vocational In-
terest of Seniors of Lincoln Higi School, pblheTas ers Thesis,
Florida i and I. o'.eige, 1950.
9Bingham, Walter V., "A National Perspective en Testing and Guidance,"
Educational Record, 20139, Supplement No. 12, January, 1939.
Tillman10 found that there was a greater individual difference in
non-migratory pupils than in migratory pupils. This was evidenced by the
homogeheousness of the intelligence quotients for the migratory group.
He further found that there was no significant difference in the mean in-
telligence quotient, but there was a significant difference in the mean
The educator with the guidance point of view, sees every child as
an individual with special potentialities, capacities, talents, and needs.
He sees the school as a place in which these potentialities are discovered.
He makes changes in the objectives of education and in the materials and
methods of instructions as they are needed to meet these potentialities.
Ross gives much support to the use of tests in the guidance pro-
gram. He says: "It may be confidently asserted that evaluating in some
form is implicit in guidance function. Properly used tests are indispen-
sable in self analysis.N
Dale, in a study of teacher judgment as to well adjusted and mal-
adjusted pupils, utilizing fourteen different types of tests, found that
oTillman, James A., A Comparative Study of the Mental Ability and
Scholastic Achievement of Seasonal Migratory and Non-Mira pil
rolled at the incoln oriaHi School uYear Scol
ri UIpublished Hastersn thesis, d A. M o Co ge, August 1950*
IlStrang, Ruth May, An Introduction to Child Study, MacMillan Co.,
(New York 1951), p. 51.
12Ross, C.C., Measurements in Today's Schools, Prentice-Hall, Inc.,
(New York 1947), Second Ed., p. 19.
1Dale, George A., "A Comparison of Two Groups of ELementary School
Children Classified far School Adjustment on Basis of Teacher Ratings,"
Journal o Educational Research, Vol. 35, December 1941, pp. 241-250.
(1) Pupils labelled as well adjusted were above the average in intelligence
and achievement, but average in social standards; (2) pupils labelled as
maladjusted were below the average in intelligence, achievement and social
standards, but both groups were average in personality. (3) He further
found that teachers were favorable to academically successful students as
being well adjusted, and unfavorable to the non-academically successful
pupils, thereby causing frustration to this group.
Testing materials must be provided by the school so that the pupils
can be measured when the need for information is recognized.
Because of the transient nature of interest, it is desirable for
teachers to do something more than merely guess at an individual's inter-
est. A single inventory test, which requires fifteen to thirty minutes to
give, is often a revelation, and these results may replace teachers' esti-
mates and guesses as a point of departure in aiding those in difficulty.
Fransden,16 used seven of the eleven inventories found in the Gordon
and Harkness report of Inventories on fifty twelfth grade boys whose intel-
ligence quotients' ranged from 110 upward. He found that something about a
person is reliably measured by interest inventories, but they were found to
correlate negligibly with achievement, aptitude, and possible curriculum
4Jacobson; Reavis; Logsdon, op. cit., p. 167.
Adams, o. cit., p. 156.
16Fansden, Arden, "Appraisal of Interest in Guidance," Journal of
Educational Research, Vol. 3C, September 19,45 No. 1, pp. 1-0. -
"Making a test program function, depends on how well the
testing program is administered. Teachers alone cannot make
testing function adequately. They need to be shown a number
of things...how to become sensitive to pupil errors...to ex-
haust test for purposes of diagnosis...to interpret test
,cores in terms of differential norms locally determined.
But most of all, making test results function consist of find-
ing out by means of test where the educational squeaks are and
then following up the-Testig program adequately by putting
oil where the squeaks are."'I
Since guidance should always be based upon a thorough understand-
ing of the individual, a second requisite of an elementary school guidance
program is a well planned and carefully executed testing program. A
test of mental ability or of scholastic aptitude should be given to each
child near the time of school entrance and preferably, each year there-
after. Such tests should be given, as a minimum, not less frequently
than every three years. Ordinarily the tests of scholastic aptitude and
the reading tests should be given in the fall and achievement tests bat-
teries should be administered in the spring. Achievement tests may be
administered in both the fall and spring.
A recent study by Alexander, reveals that teachers are inaccu-
rate 40% of the time in judging pupils' intelligence, and 75% of the time
in predicting pupils' achievement.
17Canpbell, Harold L., "Making Test Results Function in Teaching,"
Education, 66:415, pp. 411-15. (Italics are the writers)
18Traxler, Arthur E., "Essentials of Guidance Services," Elementarg
School Journal, December, 1953, Vol. 53, No. 4, pp. 207-8.
19Alexander, A.M., "Teacher Judgment of Pupils Intelligence and
Achievement is not Enough," Elementary School Journal, March, 1953, Vol.
53, No. 7, pp. 396-hOl.
If guidance is to be functional, there mast be some methods by which
reliable data my be obtained. This is substantiated by Jones:
"One of the greatest needs in all forms of guidance as
well as in other phases of education, is that of obtaining
riable information, facts that can be tested and upon
which we can work with confidence ....no guidance worker can
for a moment, afford to neglect this means for securing in-
formation or minimize its value.n20
Jones,2 further states that in spite of the faet that our present
testing program must be considered as incomplete and entirely inadequate
to meet our needs, it is the most encouraging part of our entire educa-
tional system, and with all of the limitations to tests, they are inval-
uable instruments in guidance.
Fontella, in his study of twenty-five college freshmen, concluded
that a good aptitude or achievement test, administered at the beginning of
the first semester in college, is a valid predictor of initial academic
Investigators do not at all times agree as to what may be expected
from prediction scales. Snider23 tried to predict the success of freshmen
in the mathematics sequence of the school of engineering at the University
Jones, E.B., Principles of Guidance, McGraw-Hill Book Company,
(New York 1951), p. 162.
21Ibid., p. 162.
22Fontella, M.A., "Predictive Tests and Initial Classroom Achieve-
ment," School and Society, 73,395, June, 1951, pp. 394-395.
238nider, David M., Prediction of Success in Freshmen Engineering
at the University of Miam, Unpublished Masters Thesis, University of
i rS ; Jime 1950.~
of Miami, from data available at the time of registration based on their
grades in mathematics in high school. Utilizing the records of 110 fresh-
men, he found that he was unable to work out a predictable ratio due to
the faot that he was not in possession of pertinent information relative
to immeasurable quantities.
Personality estimates are many, but there is an unanswered question
as to what are the best types to use; personality estimates, with all of
their imperfections, are very valuable in ary plan of guidance.
Alexandra25 made an effort to prove that leadership demands not
only organized effort, but also extended training. She made a study of
500 girls scouts in three counties of northern Maryland, whose ages ranged
from 11-15, by using tests of mental ability, and measurements of develop-
ment and personality. She found that the selected leaders were different
from the non-leaders in age, weight, school grades, mental development,
personality, adjustment, and socio-economic background. They had also
been subjected to a functional guidance program.
The procedures used for counseling students should help one to
take cognizance of students' interest as early as possible.
Mallinson et al report that students may be counseled at the
ninth grade level on the assumption that the interest ranking at that
24Jones, oP. cit., p. 213.
25Aleandra, Sister M., "Personality Adjustment and Leadership,"
Education, 66:584, May, 1946.
26llison, George Greisen; Crumrine, William M., "An Investiga-
tion of the Stability of Interest of High School Students," Journal of
Educational Research, Vol. 79, January, 1952, pp. 78-85.
level will remain the same at the twelfth grade level. They further state
that this may be reliably done provided that the two or three highest
levels of interest and the tw or three lowest levels of interest are con-
sideAd in such counseling.
A disclosure of the relationships between achievement and high
school pupils' study habits was made by Wilson,27 of a group of tenth
grade pupils. Wilson revealed that there was no relationship between the
students' achievement and study habits; little or no relationship between
intelligence and study habits, but there was some relationship between
achievement and intelligence.
Brown,2 made a study of selected guidance patterns of twenty-seven
schools of New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut and found that more than
fifty percent of these schools rated tests, observation, records and re-
ports, in that order, as essential techniques of guidance. She definitely
pointed out that 66% of the elementary teachers were favorable to the use
of tests as compared to 35% oT the high school teachers.
27Wilson, Fred C., A Stuy of the Relationships between Study Habits
as Measured by the Wren St S I entry and school achievement T A
roup o Tenth Grade ouoents ai ne de Leon g choolCoral Gables,"
Florda7 publsed Masters Fesis, UnIVer y o June
Brown, Marion Rayburn, The Diffusion of Certain Selected Guidance
Patterns as Revealed through the of the orts of their Actaal Prac-
tice by the Staffs of went-seven of t Financi y avo School y s
inew Yor metropolitan Area the aion for Guidance W Admini-
o r e a rc0 f
r'ra7's- nd for Teacher TrMng, Unpublished Dissertation for the Doco=ro
Education Degree Advanced School of Education, Teachers College, Columbia
University, June 1950.
The foregoing points of view and studies have anphasized the im-
portance of test utilization in schools as a guidance technique.
This literature definitely points out further that there is a need
for a testing program beginning in grade one and continuing through grade
It further points out and emphasizes the fact that testing programs
are neglected in the high school area, but are highly accepted and utilized
in the elementary school.
PROCEDURE, PRESETATIDN AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
The procedure followed in this study unfolded in the following man-
ner: (1) A search was made through the Florida Educational Directory for
the names of all County Supervisors of Instructions; (2) a preliminary ques-
tionnaire was sent to each of these Supervisors in order to ascertain what
counties carried on a testing program within its Negro Schools on a county-
wide basis or if any schools within the county carried on a testing pro-
gram. (3) a farther search was made through the Educational Directory
for schools that contained six or more teachers. (4) The state was divided
into four geographical areas known ass (a) Northwest Florida, (b) North
Florida, (c) Central Florida, and (d) South Florida.2 (5) A more detailed
questionnaire was sent to each school of these schools within these stipu-
lated areas having six or more teachers. (6) These data have been criti-
cally analyzed in the light of the criteria set up in the statement of the
problem. (7) Frequency tables have been worked out showing the percen-
tages or rank wherever it was expedient to use either.
PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
Sixty-one County Supervisors were contacted in the preliminary
survey and forty-six or 75.4%, responded. Table I, shows these counties
1See appendix A.
2See appendix B.
3See appendix C.
responding by geographical areas. The percentages shown in this table
represent the parts of the total counties responding and not of the entire
COUNTY SUPERVISORS RESPONDING TO PRELIMINARY
QUESTIONNAIRE BY GROGRAPHICAL AREAS
Geographical Areas County Supervisors Percent
Northwest Florida 13 28.9
North Florida 13 28.9
Central Florida 9 19.6
South Florida 11 23.8
Totals 46 100.0
This table is of great interest to the writer as it reveals a unique
situation; the two areas having identical responses as to having testing
programs, are geographically parallel.
There were thirty-eight counties that indicated having testing pro-
grams. This constitutes 56.7% of the total counties of the State. These
Counties are shown, by geographical areas, in Table II. The percentages
shown in this table are of the total Counties responding.
COUNTIES HAVING TESTING PROGRAMS BY GEOGRAPHICAL AREAS
Geographical Areas Counties Percent
Northwest Florida 9 23.7
North Florida 9 23.7
Central Florida 9 23.7
South Florida 11 28.9
Totals 38 100.0
It might be of note here, that the preceding table reveals that the
Southern Geographical Area had the highest percentage of testing programs,
28.9, and that of the total counties responding, forty-six; that thirty-
eight or 82.9 percent of them had testing programs.
A more critical look into these geographical areas, as to the number
of schools within each area having testing programs, reveals itself in
SCHOOLS HAVING STAIDARDIZED TESTING PROGRAMS BY GEOGRAPHICAL AREAS
Geographical Areas Frequency Rank
Northwest Florida 10 4
North Florida 17 2
Central Florida 15 3
South Florida 25 1
This table points up the fact that the Southern Geographical Area
again leads the State in.that it ranks number one as to the number of
schools having testing programs; the Northern, Central, and Northwestern
areas ranked tio, three, and four respectively.
The grade areas of these schools There tests are used became a con-
cern of the investigator. In Table IV, the findings of this study are re-
GRADE AREAS COVERED WHERE TEST~I PROGRAMS
ARE CARRIED ON
Grade Areas Covered Frequency of Schools Rank
1-3 5 4
1- 6 26 1
1-9 12 2
1-12 8 3
7-9 0 0
7-12 3 5.5
4-12 2 7
1o-12 3 5.5
This table reveals that the testing is done in the first six grades
and that the junior and senior high schools get very little consideration.
The types of test used in these testing programs should be given
some consideration. Within Table V, may be seen the types of test used
by these schools.
TYPES OF TEST USED IN SCHOOLS HkVIN3 TESTING PROGRAMS
Types of Test Used Frequency Rank
Achievement 56 1
Aptitude 27 3
Diagnostic 9 4
Readiness 45 2
Interest Inventory 7 5
Personality Inventory 4 6
Prognostic 2 7
that are the names of the many types of tests that these schools
use? This was a relative question in which the writer became interested,
The data revealed the answer which is found in Table VI.
ABLE VI .
TITLES OF TESTS USED IN NEGRO SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA AND THEIR RANK
Titles Frequency Rank
Metropolitan Achievement 26 1
California Test of Mental Maturity 25 2
Bow-Peterson Readiness 18 3
New Standford Achievement 12 4.5
Otis Quick Scoring Test of Mental
Ability 12 4.5
Iowa Every Pupil Test 6 6
Kuder Preference Record 5 7
Detroit Mechanical Aptitude 3 9.5
Progressive Achievement 3 9.5
Cooperative Achievement 1 15
Gates Readiness 1 15
Kulman-Anderson Test of Mental
Maturity 1 15
Lee-Clark Arithmetic 1 15
General Achievement-Gray-Votar-Rogers 1 15
Personality Ratio by Association of
Secondary School Principals 1 15
This table points out that the administrators and personnel of
these schools have somewhat of a continuity in choosing readiness and
achievement tests and that the use of them rank highest. This high fre-
quency of these test, obviously points to the elementary schools as being
the area where test are being widely used.
Any function that a school performs as a part of its program, should
have some value or purpose. A testing program as a part of the school's
function, should likewise have some value attached. The following table
points out the purposes for which testing programs, as found in these
schools, are conducted.
PURPOSES FOR ADMINISTERING TEST
Purposes Frequency Rank
A. Reading levels 36 1
B. Age levels 16 4
Diagnostic 31 2
Curriculum Revision Needs 18 3
Vocational Guidance 23 5
No Purpose 1 6
The high frequency of test being used for grouping as to reading
levels, diagnostic purposes, and curriculum revision needs, which rank one,
twD, three respectively, again lends strength to the elementary schools as
being the schools that make the most use of tests.
Making a test program function may depend on the period of time
that the program has been operating. The length of time that these testing
programs have been in effect within these schools is shown in Table VIII.
LENGTH OF TIME TESTING PROGRAMS HAVE BEEN IN EFFECT
Years in Effect Frequency of Schools Rank
1 year 9 3
2 years I 5
3 years 7 4
4 years 10 2
5 years 11 1
The implications as shown by the preceding table, provoked thought
as to the academic training of the personnel, including guidance techniques,
that is administering these testing programs. The writer thought that this
problem was conducive to a careful analysis of the data. Within Table IX,
may be found what the data revealed.
ACADEMIC TRAINING OF PERSONNEL INCLUDING GUIDANCE TECHNIQUES ADMINISTERING
Academic Training Including Frequency of Schools Bank
1 year 2 3.5
2 years 1 $.5
3 years 1 5.5
4 years 2 3.5
5 years 22 1
Unknown, 6 6
This table shows that twenty-two of the thirty-four schools answer-
ing this question, had personnel with five years of academic training which
included guidance techniques. This constitutes 64.7% of these schools.
Where testing programs are in effect, school norms should play an
important role as they may point out to administrators and school person-
nel, the effectiveness of the criteria set up for eliminating weaknesses
that were revealed on previous tests. According to Table X, only a small
number of schools have attempted to set up norms.
SCHOOL NORMS HAVING BEEN SET UP BASED ON UHREE OR M)RE YEARS OF TESTING
School Grade Organization Three Years Five Years
1-6 4 2
1-9 1 0
1-12 4 0
7-12 1 0
Totals 10 2
This table points out that this phase of the testing program has
been highly neglected.
The period of the year that tests are administered was of great value
to the investigator. The findings of this study are pointed out in Table II.
PERIOD OF TE YEAR STANDARDIZE TESTS ARE ADMINISTERED
Period Tests are Administered
Frequency of Schools
In the Fall 23 1
In the Spring 6 4
In the Fall and Spring 21 2
End of First Semester 10 3
This table reveals that the time of year for administering tests is
quite in keeping with recommended procedures as prescribed by various authors.
Testing programs may have little value unless they are a part of the
overall guidance program. This point of view is supported by the schools
participating in this study as revealed in Table XIII
SCHOOLS HAVING TESTING PROGRAMS AS A PART OF THE GUIDANCE PROGRAM
Testing a Part of Guidance Program Frequency Percent
Yes 14 86.3
No 7 13.7
Totals 1 100.0
Fifty-one schools that answered the question relative to the testing
program as being a part of their guidance program, show that some considerable
thought had been given to this question. It is of pertinent value to mte
that forty-four, or 86.3 percent answered this question in the affirmative,
and seven, or only 13.7 percent answered it negatively.
In this chapter, the procedures, presentation, and interpretations
of the data utilizing tables and descriptive narration, have been made in
order to facilitate the readers efforts to comprehend the findings.
Chapter IV will consist of a summarization of this studr and recom-
SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The data assembled and analyzed here were secured from questionnaires
coming from sixty-seven schools within thirty-eight counties of Florida;
from periodicals, books and the office of the State Supervisor of Secondary
Education for Negro Schools. A more extensive study of this problem would
encompass many factors not revealed by these questionnaires; however, this
study may have value notwithstanding its limited scope.
The purposes of this study were:
1. To determine the extent standardized tests are used in Negro
Schools of Florida.
2. To determine what part these tests play in the guidance in
3. To determine what part these tests play in curriculum con-
struction and revision in these schools.
4. To determine what time of year these tests are given.
5. To determine the competency of the personnel administering the
This outline form is a summarization of the findings of this study:
1. Thirty-eight counties of the state carry on testing programs in
their Negro Schools. This constitutes 56.7% of the total counties of the
2. There were sixty-seven schools reporting from these thirty-
eight counties as having testing programs.
3. The southern geographical area has the highest number of coun-
ties with testing programs, 11; or 28.9%.
4. The southern geographical area leads the State in number of
schools conducting testing programs, 25; the northern area is second with 17.
5. The elementary grades get wide attention in these programs with
the junior and senior high schools being highly neglected.
6. Achievement, reading readiness, and mental abilities are the
most frequently used tests in the order named.
7. The highest ranking purposes for giving tests are for grouping
according to reading levels; secondly, for diagnostic purposes, and third,
for curriculum revision needs.
8. Most of these schools have carried on testing programs for four
or more years.
9. Most of the personnel administering these testing programs have
five years of academic training including guidance techniques.
10. School norms have been given little consideration.
1. Most of these schools conduct the testing programs as a part
of their guidance programs.
12. Only one county has set up county wide norms, Dade.
13. Some senior high schools consider the Senior High School Tests,
as administered by the University of Florida, as being an adequate testing
h1. Dade County conducts the broadest testing program within its
Negro High Schools, in the State.
15. Most literature in the field of guidance and testing and measur-
ing, point out the need and value of using tests as a guidance technique.
In so far as the results of this thesis are valid, the following
recommendations are made:
1. That testing programs be functional, starting at grade one and
continuing through grade twelve.
2. That a program of in-service training in testing techniques be
instigated in each school taking under consideration all grade levels.
3. That each school should set up, as far as possible, a guidance
program under competent personnel having a philosophy for guidance, and
training in testing techniques.
4. That achievement, aptitude, special aptitude, interest and per-
sonality inventories should be given at various grade levels.
5. That records should be kept of all tests results by charts,
graphs, summarizations, and profiles, and these results with their inter-
pretations, be presented to each individual teacher and to the entire Staff.
6. That an item analysis be made through tests for frequency of
errors, omissions, reading difficulties, and percent of items failed.
7. That achievement tests for diagnostic purposes be given in the
Fall and followed up with a scholastic aptitude and achievement tests in
the Spring or early in the second semester at the elementary level.
8. That scholastic aptitude, subject area tests, and interest and
personality inventories, be given at the ninth grade level.
9. That interest inventories and subject area tests be given at
the eleventh grade level.
10. That personality inventories and college aptitude tests be given
at the twelfth grade level.
11. That manuals of test interpretations be prepared for local use
based on the tests that are being used.
12. That norms be set up for each school, and on a county-wide and
possibly regional basis.
13. That the teacher-training institutions of Florida broaden their
curriculum offerings to include functional training in guidance, leading
to certification, with emphasis on test administration, tests interpreta-
tion, and techniques in educational and vocational counseling.
14. That the Negro Colleges of Florida reveal to each high school,
the percentile rank of its freshmen on the freshman testing program, as a
mean toward helping these high schools strengthen their curriculum offer-
15. That other students consider further investigations into the
testing programs as carried out in the Negro Schools of Florida, taking
under consideration the effect that economic and cultural background have
on the testing programs.
Adams, Fay, Educating America's Children, Ronald Press Company, (New York
Brown, Edwin John, Managing the Classroom, Ronald Press Company, (New York
Erickson, Clifford, Organization and Administration of Guidance, McGraw
Book Company, (New York 19U7T"
Jacobson, Paul B.; Reavis, William C.; Logsdon, James D., Duties of the
School Principal, Prentice-Hall, Inc., (New York 1950 -
Jones, E.B., Principles of Guidance, McGraw-Hill Book Company, (New York
Lee, Dorris and May Lee, The Child and His Curriculnu, Appleton-Century
Crofts, Inc., (New Yor-, second edi-ton 1950)
Lefever, Welty D.; Turrell, Archie M; Weitzel, Henry I., Princiles and
Techniques o Guidance, Ronald Press Company, (New 15
Lindquist, E.F., Educational Measurements, American Council on Education,
(Washington, D.C. 1951)
Ross, C.C., Measurements in Today's Schools, Prentice-Hall, Inc., (New
York, second edition 94l7)
Strang, Ruth May, An Introduction to Child Study, MacMillan Company, (New
Alexander, A.M., "Teacher Judgment of Pupil Intelligence and Achievement
is not Enough," Elementary School Journal, March 1953, Vol. 53, No. 7
Alexandra, Sister M., "Personality Adjustment and Leadership," Education,
66:584, May 1946
Bingham, Walter V., "A National Perspective on Testing and Guidance," Edu-
cational Record, Vol. 20, No. 139, Supplement No. 12, January 193T
Caapbell Harold L., "Making Tests Results Function in Teaching," Education,
Dale, George A., "A Comparison of Two Groups of Elementary School Children
Classified for School Adjustment on Basis of Teacher Ratings," Journal
of Educational Research, Vol. 35, December 1941
Fontella, MLA., "Predictive Tests and Initial Classroom Achievement,"
School and Society, 73:395, June 1951
Fransden, Arden, "Appraisal of Interest in Guidance," Journal of Educational
Research, Vol. 34, September 1945, No. 1
Traxler, Arthur E., "Essentials of Guidance Services," Elementary School
Journal, December 1953, Vol. 53, No. 4
Waters, E.W., "Problems of Rural Negro High School Seniors on the Eastern
Shore of Maryland; A Consideration for Guidance," Journal of Ngro
Education, Vol. 2, Spring 1950
Brown, Marion Ryburn, The Diffusion of Certain Selected Guidance Patterns
as Revealed through the Stuy ofie Reprts of their Actual Practice
5 the Staffs of rrent-seven o? 'Fea rinanciaIy 5-red ScEool Systems
n ew York Metropolitan Area; the iTnlicaton for Guidance Workers,
nistrators and Teacher Training Unpublished dissertation for the
doctor of education degree, advanced school of education, Teachers
College, Columbia University, 1950
Evans, Lillian Juanita, A Comparative Study of the Vocational Interest of
Seniors of Lincoln igh School, Unplishedmsters thesis, Florida
A. and College,s Agusti 9
Hartsfield, Walter E., A Proposal for Developing A Guidance Program at
Central Acadear Se4or col, Piaatka, Florida, Upublish
asters thesis, Flor-da A. and College, August 19-0
Snider, David M., Prediction of Success in Freshmen Engineering at the Uni-
rs of Mam, Unpub Th masters thesis, University of Miami,
Tillman, James A., A Comparative Stucr of the Mental Ability and Scholastic
Achievement ofSeasonal Migrato and Non- ratry i Enrolled at
the Lncoln eorial g School During the Year 9Schol Tera,
t published masters thsis Forida a M.- C-l Augus
Wilson, Fred C., A Study of the Relationships between Stuy Habits as Meas-
ured g the iren Suits 3Inentoy and ScMoo Acievement oIf
r of~ en -Gre tuntsat Ponce de Leongh Shol, CorA
esU Fori, published masters thesis, University of
This questionnaire is being sent to you in order to
determine -what counties in Florida carry on a testing
program in the Negro schools. Your consideration of this
questionnaire will be gratefully appreciated.
Robert E. Allen
Please answer each question:
1. Is their a county-wide testing program carried
on in the Negro Schools?__
2., If not, is there a testing program carried on
in any of the Negro Schools?_
(a) Number of elementary?_
(b) High Schools?_
3. Please give the names of the schools where the
programs are conducted if not done on a county-
OUTLINE MAP OF FLORIDA
SHOWING GEOGRAPHICAL AREAS
*- Counties having testing
I- Northwest Florida
I- North Florida
3- Central Florida
4- South Florida
@P&r 0 *.q
Dear M _:
This questionnaire's purpose is to make a survey of the
Standardized Testing Programs as conducted in the Negro
Schools of Florida. The information sought herein will pro-
vide answers to pertinent questions relative to the field of
guidance. The reliability and validity of the information
.urnished by you, will be conditioned, in a large measure,
by your attitude as an administrator.
Your und'onditional responses to these questions and co-
operation in the project is urgently asked.
Robert E. Allen
1. County School. Grades
2. Is tLure a standardized testing program carried -on in your
school? Yes No
3. How many years has this program been in effect? 1 2 3 4
5 or more
A.. Have norms been set within the school Yes No
1. Were they based on 1 3 5 or more years of
4. Check the grade areas where standardized tests are used:
1. 2. 4.. 5. 6, 7. 9. 10, 11. 12.
5. Check the types of tests used: Names of Tests
(a) Reading readiness
(g) Prognostic__ _
7. When are these tests given?
(a) In the fall (d) In the fall and
( In the spring ) O r
...(c) End of first-semester
9. For what purposes are tests. given?
(1) Reading levels
(2) Age levels
(b) Diagnostic purposes
(e) Curriculum revision
(d) Vocational guidance
9.. Is the testing program planned by a committee?. Yes No__.
20.. Is this committee supervised by a person skilled in Gui'dance
tec.hriqc?. Yes No
11.. To what extent has this training be-n? 1. 2. 3. 4, 5 yrs,
12. Is the testing program a definite part of your guidance
pro gram? Yes N