• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Introduction
 Related literature
 Procedures, presentation, and interpretation...
 Summary and recommendations
 Bibliography
 Appednixes
 Preliminary questionnaire
 Map showing geographical areas...
 Detailed questionnaire






Title: Survey of the standardized testing programs in Negro schools of Florida and their implications for guidance
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Title: Survey of the standardized testing programs in Negro schools of Florida and their implications for guidance
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Allen, Robert Allen Sr.
Affiliation: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College (FAMU)
Publisher: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College
Publication Date: 1953
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title page
        Title Page 2
    Acknowledgement
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
        Page iii
    List of Tables
        Page iv
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Related literature
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Procedures, presentation, and interpretation of data
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Summary and recommendations
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Bibliography
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Appednixes
        Appendixes
    Preliminary questionnaire
        Page 34
    Map showing geographical areas and where testing programs are located
        Page 35
    Detailed questionnaire
        Page 36
        Page 37
Full Text









A SURVEY CF THE SiTAINDAIZED TESTIM PRGRAuS IN NmSO SCHOOLS

OF FLORIDA AND TIEIR IMPLICATDNS FOR GUIDANCE










A Thesis

Presented to

The Graduate Comittee of the

Florida Agricultural and Mechaical College


In Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements for the Degree

Master of Science in Education




by

Robert Edwin Allen, Sr.

July 1953






273
10005


A SURVEY OF THE 8tL DARDIZE TESTIP PROGRAMS IN NEGRO SW0018

OF FLORIDA AND THEIR IMPLICATIDNS FR GUIDANCE





A Thesis

Presented to

The Graduate Committee of the

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College


In Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements for the Degree

Master of Science in Education


by

Robert Edwin Allea, Sr.

July 1953













ACKNOWIEDGMINIS


The writer is deeply grateful to Mr. J.F. Condell who served

as chairman of the study, for his stimulating guidance and interests

to Mr. A.W. Wright and Mr. Matthew H. Estaras who so generously

served as committee members; to Mrs. Gustarva Hussain for her critical

analysis of the first draft of this thesis; to the many school adminis-

trators and supervisors who made this study possible, and finally, to

ay dear wife and the five little angels, who gave the writer encourage-

ments to go on when the task seemed impossible,


Robert Edwin Allen, Sr.












TABLE OF CONTENTS


CHAPTER

I. INTMRDUCTO N .ID .

Ihe problem .

Importance of study

Delimitations . .

Definitions of terms

Description of situation

Basic assumptions 0 .

Organization of study

II. ELATED LITERATURE .

Importance of testing


* . *

* . .

* * *


* C C C *4 *

* a C C C *

* C C C *

C. C C C *


* C *

* .


Use of tests as a guidance technique

Differences in abilities .

Interest Inventories .

Making a testing program function

Subjectivity of teacher judgment

Tests as a predictor of success .

Personality Inventories ... .

Study habits and achievement .....

Selected guidance patterns *


. . 7

. . 7

. . 8

. . 10

. . 11

. . 12

. . 12

. . 13

. . 1$

. . . s

. . 35
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PROCEDURES, PRESITATION, AND INTERRETATIIC OF DATA

SUMMARY AND RECOMENDATIGCS . .


III.

IV.


17

27












CHAPTER

BIBLIOGRAPHY

APPENDIX A.

APPEDIX' B.



APPENDIX C.


PRELIMINARY QUESTIONNAIRE .

MAP SHOWING GEOGRAPHICAL AREAS AND WHERE

TESTING PRORAMS ARE ICATED .

DETAIIFD QUESTIONNAIRE . .


PAGE

.. 31


. .. 36











LIST OF P&BLES


TABLE PAGE

I. County Supervisors Responding to Questionnaire . 18

II. Counties having Testing Programs by Geographical

Areas ". 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 . 19

III. Schools having Standardized Testing Programs by

Geographical Areas . * .* 19

IV. Grade Areas where Testing Programs are Carried on 20

V. Types of Tests Used in Schools having Testing

Programs . ...... ....... 21

VI. Titles of Tests Used in Negro Schools of Florida

and their Rank . . . . 21

VII. Purposes for Administering Tests . . 22

VIII. Length of Time Testing Programs have been in Effect 23

IX. Academic Training of Personnel, Including Guidance

Techniques, Administering Testing Program *. .. 23

I. School Norms having been Set Up Based on Three or

More Years of Testing . ... . 24

XI. Period of the Year Standardized Tests are Administered 25

XII. Schools having Testing Programs as a Part of the

Guidance Program . . ........ 2.









CHAPTER I


INEIRDUCTION

It is generally conceded that some form of guidance is essential to
each individual in all aspects of life. Tb develop the necessary concepts

and beliefs to enhance a program for all social groups necessitates a format

of techniques applicable to the situations.


THE PROBLW

Statement of the probe. The problem of this study is (1) To de-
termine to what extent standardized tests are used in the Negro schools of

Florida. (2) To determine what part these tests plq in the guidance

program in these schools. (3) To determine what-part tests play in curri-

culxat construction and revisions in these schools. (4) To determine what

ime of year that tests are given, ad ($) To determine the competency of

the personnel administering the testing program.

Importance of the study. Planning a program of guidance in Negro
schools of Florida that will enhance the development of youth, offers a

challenge to all school administrators and personnel. .Providing for indi-

vidual differences to meet the many complexities of personality in our

schools, necessitates that our philosophies be revised and adjustments

made in our programs of studies to meet these needs.

It is axiomatic in the field of guidance, that some scientific data
is pertinent to the enhancement of the program by school personnel. Scien-

tific data in itself does not assure proper guidance techniques, but there


99133












can be little assurance of success without it. The implications of this

statement are obvious especially for a program of guidance.

The curriculum revisions as well as methods of helping youth make

wise choices, should have some criteria for evaluating these choices and

outcomes.

The program of guidance must be so inclusive as to establish rapport

with society. To do this, it should contain some valid and reliable meth-

ods of obtaining objective data. This is emphasized by Edmonson et al who

states

PThe right kind of guidance strives to help pupils help
themselves. Those in charge of the guidance program mast
have a sympathetic understanding of the pupils interest,
aptitudes, needs, abilities and opportunities together with
a conscious effort to help each pupil make $he most of these
and direct them towards wartly objectives.*

From this point of view, it seems reasonable to state that testing

provides one method and technique for obtaining the facts and evaluative

data necessary for valid guidance.


Delimitations of the problem There are certain limitations to

this study, but they are not of too great significance and the findings

of this study should prove valuable to the overall enhancement of the

guidance program.

The limitations areas


ldDonson, J.B.; Roemer, Joseph, Bacon, Francis L. The Administra-
tion of the Modern Secondary School, lacXUlan Co., (New To t1 P.I41.












1.

located in








2.

1951-1952.


This study is limited to schools with six teachers or more
2
four geographical areas of Florida known as:

(a) Northwest Florida

(b) North Florida

(c) Central Florida

(d) South Florida

It is further limited to Negro schools for the school year


DEFINITIONS OF TEMB


Guidance. This shall be interpreted to mean the process of assist-

ing individuals to make wise choices, adjustments and interpretations to

meet the critical situations in their lres.3


Curriculum. This refers to all the experiences that the school

provides for its pupils.


Grouping. This is that process by which individuals, as accurately

as possible, are organized and placed within grades based on achievement,

abilities and social development.


geographic areas. his refers to characteristics of certain regions

of Florida.


S See appendix B.

3Jones, Arthur J., Principles of Guidance, McGrOw-Hill Book Ce.,
Inc., (New York 1951) p. 96.












Norms. These are standard performances on specific tests, that

have been proven over a period of time.


Standardized tests. These shall be interpreted for this study as

that type of tests having established norms, set up by long and diligent

research.


Attitude. This refers to measures of a probability of success of

an individual with training in a certain type of situation which embodies

intelligence, abilities of various kinds and personality factors necessary

for success.


Personality. This is the dynamic organization within the individual

of those psycho-physical systems that determine his unique adjustments to

his environment.


Description of the situation. Florida is located in the South-

eastern part of the United States; it is blessed by nature by having

great natural resources and a wonderful climate. It has more than one-

thousand miles of coastline and thousands of lakes that provide excellent

sport and commercial fishing the year round. It boasts of the fact that

it has the second largest fresh water lake within the continental United

States Lake Okeechobee which is only surpassed in size by Lake Michigan.

Its land area comprises approximately three-million acres.


4Bingham, Walter V., Aptitude and Aptitude Testig, Harper Bros.,
(New York 1937), pp. 15-23.

Allport, Gordon W., Personality, Henry Holt Co., (New York 1937),
p. 48.












Its climate makes the tourist industry one of importance. This

natural factor also enhances the citrus industry which is supported by

some twenty-eight million citrus trees. This climatic factor also makes

it the most important vegetable growing area of the Southeastern United

States.

Florida has sixty-seven political divisions known as counties,

fifty-seven of which have Negro High Schools and sixty-one have schools

containing six or more teachers.

It has five-hundred and thirty-four Negro schools staffed by four

thousand-four hundred and five Negro teachers, and have an enrollment of

more than one-hundred thousand pupils. A large number of these pupils

come from homes of low income families who earn their living from citrus

and agricultural pursuits.


Basic assumptions aret (1) That this study will stimulate a cri-

tical analysis of this phase of the guidance program in all Negro schools

of Florida, and that it will help all school personnel to rethink their

philosophies for the development of the whole child. (2) That curricula

offerings of the Negro schools are made in the light of objective data.

(3) That good guidance and proper utilization of standardized tests cor-

relate highly, and (4) That testing programs are pertinent to well organ-

ized guidance programs.


Organization of the study. This study is composed of four chapters.



6State Department of Education, Office of the Supervisor of Negro
Education, 1952.












Chapter one gives the introductory statements which include the

problem, the statement of the problem, importance of the study, delimita-

tions of the study, description of the situation, and definition of terms.

Chapter two is a review of Related Literature*

Chapter three gives the procedures, presentation and interpretation

of data.

Chapter four is a summarization and recommendations.


SUMIULY


The data in this chapter have an important relationship to this

study.

The introduction includes the general background of the study; it

gives the origin and statement of the problem; it gives a description of

the situation and definitions of terms, and sets up certain limitations,

and relates the organization of the study.









CHAPTER II


RELATED LITERATURE


As guidance methods have grown, students in the field have developed

interest in many areas.. The interview, counseling, anecdotal records, ob-

servations, measurement of interest and attitudes, test scores, academic

marks, success and failure, cumulative records, wide curricular activities,

co-curricular activities, and home life have become highly significant.

The developers of various curricula have long been aware that tests

play an important part in their construction. Brown lends pertinent em-

phasis here by pointing out that the main reason for giving tests is to

give aid to teachers; to serve as a guide and leader of youth, and to

make instructions serve the child better.

Lee and Lee further emphasizes this by stating

"Most standardized tests, which the teacher is likely
to use, yield a diagnostic profile that provides an analysis
of the abilities of each individual pupils

Tests may be used to discover the difficulties of each child in

fundamental skills. They further provide a basis for a remedial program;

a basis for grouping pupils according to their needs, and a basis to study

the adjustment of the children problems.

Adams has a very significant opinion about the frustration caused

by inadequate data in meeting the needs of children. She states:


Brown, Edwin John, Managing the Classroom, Ronald Press Co.,
(New York 1952), p. 309.
2Lee, Dorris and May Lee, The Child and His-Curriculu=, Appleton
Century-Crofts, Inc., (New York 1~ M.d.-), p680,-'












"Mar emotional problems and mental conflicts have caused
countless children defeat in their struggle for success.
Their inability to read adequately or the lack of skills, may
create anti-social behavior. Many teachers have accepted
this atmosphere of pupil difficulty and defeat as inevitable.
This has been largely due to their inability to use testing
devices to identify and meet these significant needs."3

Waters, in his study of two-hundred and eighty-eight high school

seniors in nine counties along the eastern shore of Maryland, found that

the schools' guidance services were not adequate in meeting the most im-

portant needs of these youth. Using a check list form devised by Bender

for Rural Youth, which was taken from Mooney's check list, discovered

that the curricula offerings, vocational and otherwise, needed to be re-

vised.

Jacobson, Reavis and Logsdon made a very pertinent contribution

to the use of tests in guidance:

"The prerequisite of guidance for any teacher is ac-
curate knowledge of the persons to be served ....Tests should
be used in the diagnostic study of pupils' abilities and
disabilities and in evaluating their progress. *

Many testing programs, as carried out by various schools, are found

to be of no definite significance to the total guidance program. The



3Adam, Fay, Educating America's Children, Banald Press Co., (New
York 1946), p. 170.

waters, E.W., #Problems of Rural Negro High School Seniors on
the Eastern Shore of Maryland; A Consideration for Guidance," Journal of
Negro Education, Volume 2, Spring 1950, pp. 115-125.

5jacobson, Paul B.; Reavis, William C.; Logsdon, James D.; Duties
of School Principal, Prentice-Hall, Inc., (New York 1950), p. 167.







L < *











reason for this is pointed out by Erickson, who states that whenever this

condition exists, it is largely due to the inadequacy of planning a system-

wide series of tests rather than from failure to give an adequate number

of tests.

It was reported by Hartsfield,7 in his study of one-hundred-seventy-

one high school pupils, that (1) Most of them did not achieve up to their

ability; (2) fifty-two percent of these pupils were at a loss when it came

to selecting courses; and (3) the group had an average intelligence, but

there was a very low correlation between their intelligence and achieve-

ment

A comparative study of the vocational interests of two high schools

with differentiated socio-economic backgrounds by Evans, revealed that

there were no significant differences in the mental abilities of the

pupils in these two high schools, but overall achievement, reading abili-

ties and vocational preferences were different.

Assurance that there is a significant relationship between guidance

and testing, Bingham succinctly points out that "Tests are one of the in-

dispensable hand maids of guidance."9


Erickson, Clifford, Organiation and Administration of Guidance,
McGraw Book Co., (New York 197), P, 157.

7Hartsfield, Walter E., A Proposal for Developing A Guidance Pro-
gam at Central Acadey Senior i chol_ aorTda, Unpub aed
masters Thesis, Florida A. and M. College, August 1950o

8Evans, Lillian Juanita, A Comparative Study of the Vocational In-
terest of Seniors of Lincoln Higi School, pblheTas ers Thesis,
Florida i and I. o'.eige, 1950.

9Bingham, Walter V., "A National Perspective en Testing and Guidance,"
Educational Record, 20139, Supplement No. 12, January, 1939.











Tillman10 found that there was a greater individual difference in

non-migratory pupils than in migratory pupils. This was evidenced by the

homogeheousness of the intelligence quotients for the migratory group.

He further found that there was no significant difference in the mean in-

telligence quotient, but there was a significant difference in the mean

achievement.

The educator with the guidance point of view, sees every child as

an individual with special potentialities, capacities, talents, and needs.

He sees the school as a place in which these potentialities are discovered.

He makes changes in the objectives of education and in the materials and

methods of instructions as they are needed to meet these potentialities.

Ross gives much support to the use of tests in the guidance pro-

gram. He says: "It may be confidently asserted that evaluating in some

form is implicit in guidance function. Properly used tests are indispen-
12
sable in self analysis.N

Dale, in a study of teacher judgment as to well adjusted and mal-

adjusted pupils, utilizing fourteen different types of tests, found that


oTillman, James A., A Comparative Study of the Mental Ability and
Scholastic Achievement of Seasonal Migratory and Non-Mira pil
rolled at the incoln oriaHi School uYear Scol
ri UIpublished Hastersn thesis, d A. M o Co ge, August 1950*
IlStrang, Ruth May, An Introduction to Child Study, MacMillan Co.,
(New York 1951), p. 51.
12Ross, C.C., Measurements in Today's Schools, Prentice-Hall, Inc.,
(New York 1947), Second Ed., p. 19.

1Dale, George A., "A Comparison of Two Groups of ELementary School
Children Classified far School Adjustment on Basis of Teacher Ratings,"
Journal o Educational Research, Vol. 35, December 1941, pp. 241-250.










11

(1) Pupils labelled as well adjusted were above the average in intelligence

and achievement, but average in social standards; (2) pupils labelled as

maladjusted were below the average in intelligence, achievement and social

standards, but both groups were average in personality. (3) He further

found that teachers were favorable to academically successful students as

being well adjusted, and unfavorable to the non-academically successful

pupils, thereby causing frustration to this group.

Testing materials must be provided by the school so that the pupils
1k4
can be measured when the need for information is recognized.

Because of the transient nature of interest, it is desirable for

teachers to do something more than merely guess at an individual's inter-

est. A single inventory test, which requires fifteen to thirty minutes to

give, is often a revelation, and these results may replace teachers' esti-

mates and guesses as a point of departure in aiding those in difficulty.

Fransden,16 used seven of the eleven inventories found in the Gordon

and Harkness report of Inventories on fifty twelfth grade boys whose intel-

ligence quotients' ranged from 110 upward. He found that something about a

person is reliably measured by interest inventories, but they were found to

correlate negligibly with achievement, aptitude, and possible curriculum

satisfaction.

Campbell says:


4Jacobson; Reavis; Logsdon, op. cit., p. 167.

Adams, o. cit., p. 156.

16Fansden, Arden, "Appraisal of Interest in Guidance," Journal of
Educational Research, Vol. 3C, September 19,45 No. 1, pp. 1-0. -












"Making a test program function, depends on how well the
testing program is administered. Teachers alone cannot make
testing function adequately. They need to be shown a number
of things...how to become sensitive to pupil errors...to ex-
haust test for purposes of diagnosis...to interpret test
,cores in terms of differential norms locally determined.
But most of all, making test results function consist of find-
ing out by means of test where the educational squeaks are and
then following up the-Testig program adequately by putting
oil where the squeaks are."'I

Since guidance should always be based upon a thorough understand-

ing of the individual, a second requisite of an elementary school guidance
18
program is a well planned and carefully executed testing program. A

test of mental ability or of scholastic aptitude should be given to each

child near the time of school entrance and preferably, each year there-

after. Such tests should be given, as a minimum, not less frequently

than every three years. Ordinarily the tests of scholastic aptitude and

the reading tests should be given in the fall and achievement tests bat-

teries should be administered in the spring. Achievement tests may be

administered in both the fall and spring.
19
A recent study by Alexander, reveals that teachers are inaccu-

rate 40% of the time in judging pupils' intelligence, and 75% of the time

in predicting pupils' achievement.


17Canpbell, Harold L., "Making Test Results Function in Teaching,"
Education, 66:415, pp. 411-15. (Italics are the writers)

18Traxler, Arthur E., "Essentials of Guidance Services," Elementarg
School Journal, December, 1953, Vol. 53, No. 4, pp. 207-8.

19Alexander, A.M., "Teacher Judgment of Pupils Intelligence and
Achievement is not Enough," Elementary School Journal, March, 1953, Vol.
53, No. 7, pp. 396-hOl.










13
If guidance is to be functional, there mast be some methods by which

reliable data my be obtained. This is substantiated by Jones:

"One of the greatest needs in all forms of guidance as
well as in other phases of education, is that of obtaining
riable information, facts that can be tested and upon
which we can work with confidence ....no guidance worker can
for a moment, afford to neglect this means for securing in-
formation or minimize its value.n20
21
Jones,2 further states that in spite of the faet that our present

testing program must be considered as incomplete and entirely inadequate

to meet our needs, it is the most encouraging part of our entire educa-

tional system, and with all of the limitations to tests, they are inval-

uable instruments in guidance.
22
Fontella, in his study of twenty-five college freshmen, concluded

that a good aptitude or achievement test, administered at the beginning of

the first semester in college, is a valid predictor of initial academic

achievement

Investigators do not at all times agree as to what may be expected

from prediction scales. Snider23 tried to predict the success of freshmen

in the mathematics sequence of the school of engineering at the University


20
Jones, E.B., Principles of Guidance, McGraw-Hill Book Company,
(New York 1951), p. 162.

21Ibid., p. 162.

22Fontella, M.A., "Predictive Tests and Initial Classroom Achieve-
ment," School and Society, 73,395, June, 1951, pp. 394-395.

238nider, David M., Prediction of Success in Freshmen Engineering
at the University of Miam, Unpublished Masters Thesis, University of
i rS ; Jime 1950.~












of Miami, from data available at the time of registration based on their

grades in mathematics in high school. Utilizing the records of 110 fresh-

men, he found that he was unable to work out a predictable ratio due to

the faot that he was not in possession of pertinent information relative

to immeasurable quantities.

Personality estimates are many, but there is an unanswered question

as to what are the best types to use; personality estimates, with all of
2U
their imperfections, are very valuable in ary plan of guidance.

Alexandra25 made an effort to prove that leadership demands not

only organized effort, but also extended training. She made a study of

500 girls scouts in three counties of northern Maryland, whose ages ranged
from 11-15, by using tests of mental ability, and measurements of develop-

ment and personality. She found that the selected leaders were different

from the non-leaders in age, weight, school grades, mental development,

personality, adjustment, and socio-economic background. They had also

been subjected to a functional guidance program.

The procedures used for counseling students should help one to

take cognizance of students' interest as early as possible.
26 -
Mallinson et al report that students may be counseled at the

ninth grade level on the assumption that the interest ranking at that


24Jones, oP. cit., p. 213.

25Aleandra, Sister M., "Personality Adjustment and Leadership,"
Education, 66:584, May, 1946.
26llison, George Greisen; Crumrine, William M., "An Investiga-
tion of the Stability of Interest of High School Students," Journal of
Educational Research, Vol. 79, January, 1952, pp. 78-85.










15

level will remain the same at the twelfth grade level. They further state

that this may be reliably done provided that the two or three highest

levels of interest and the tw or three lowest levels of interest are con-

sideAd in such counseling.

A disclosure of the relationships between achievement and high

school pupils' study habits was made by Wilson,27 of a group of tenth

grade pupils. Wilson revealed that there was no relationship between the

students' achievement and study habits; little or no relationship between

intelligence and study habits, but there was some relationship between

achievement and intelligence.

Brown,2 made a study of selected guidance patterns of twenty-seven

schools of New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut and found that more than

fifty percent of these schools rated tests, observation, records and re-

ports, in that order, as essential techniques of guidance. She definitely

pointed out that 66% of the elementary teachers were favorable to the use

of tests as compared to 35% oT the high school teachers.


27Wilson, Fred C., A Stuy of the Relationships between Study Habits
as Measured by the Wren St S I entry and school achievement T A
roup o Tenth Grade ouoents ai ne de Leon g choolCoral Gables,"
Florda7 publsed Masters Fesis, UnIVer y o June
Brown, Marion Rayburn, The Diffusion of Certain Selected Guidance
Patterns as Revealed through the of the orts of their Actaal Prac-
tice by the Staffs of went-seven of t Financi y avo School y s
inew Yor metropolitan Area the aion for Guidance W Admini-
o r e a rc0 f
r'ra7's- nd for Teacher TrMng, Unpublished Dissertation for the Doco=ro
Education Degree Advanced School of Education, Teachers College, Columbia
University, June 1950.










16

smma r


The foregoing points of view and studies have anphasized the im-

portance of test utilization in schools as a guidance technique.

This literature definitely points out further that there is a need

for a testing program beginning in grade one and continuing through grade

twelve.

It further points out and emphasizes the fact that testing programs

are neglected in the high school area, but are highly accepted and utilized

in the elementary school.









CHAPTER III


PROCEDURE, PRESETATIDN AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA


The procedure followed in this study unfolded in the following man-

ner: (1) A search was made through the Florida Educational Directory for

the names of all County Supervisors of Instructions; (2) a preliminary ques-

tionnaire was sent to each of these Supervisors in order to ascertain what

counties carried on a testing program within its Negro Schools on a county-

wide basis or if any schools within the county carried on a testing pro-

gram. (3) a farther search was made through the Educational Directory

for schools that contained six or more teachers. (4) The state was divided

into four geographical areas known ass (a) Northwest Florida, (b) North

Florida, (c) Central Florida, and (d) South Florida.2 (5) A more detailed

questionnaire was sent to each school of these schools within these stipu-

lated areas having six or more teachers. (6) These data have been criti-

cally analyzed in the light of the criteria set up in the statement of the

problem. (7) Frequency tables have been worked out showing the percen-

tages or rank wherever it was expedient to use either.

PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA


Sixty-one County Supervisors were contacted in the preliminary

survey and forty-six or 75.4%, responded. Table I, shows these counties


1See appendix A.

2See appendix B.

3See appendix C.












responding by geographical areas. The percentages shown in this table

represent the parts of the total counties responding and not of the entire

state.

TABIE I

COUNTY SUPERVISORS RESPONDING TO PRELIMINARY
QUESTIONNAIRE BY GROGRAPHICAL AREAS



Geographical Areas County Supervisors Percent


Northwest Florida 13 28.9
North Florida 13 28.9
Central Florida 9 19.6
South Florida 11 23.8


Totals 46 100.0


This table is of great interest to the writer as it reveals a unique

situation; the two areas having identical responses as to having testing

programs, are geographically parallel.

There were thirty-eight counties that indicated having testing pro-

grams. This constitutes 56.7% of the total counties of the State. These

Counties are shown, by geographical areas, in Table II. The percentages

shown in this table are of the total Counties responding.












TABLE II

COUNTIES HAVING TESTING PROGRAMS BY GEOGRAPHICAL AREAS


Geographical Areas Counties Percent


Northwest Florida 9 23.7
North Florida 9 23.7
Central Florida 9 23.7
South Florida 11 28.9


Totals 38 100.0



It might be of note here, that the preceding table reveals that the

Southern Geographical Area had the highest percentage of testing programs,

28.9, and that of the total counties responding, forty-six; that thirty-

eight or 82.9 percent of them had testing programs.

A more critical look into these geographical areas, as to the number

of schools within each area having testing programs, reveals itself in

Table III.


TABLE III

SCHOOLS HAVING STAIDARDIZED TESTING PROGRAMS BY GEOGRAPHICAL AREAS



Geographical Areas Frequency Rank


Northwest Florida 10 4
North Florida 17 2
Central Florida 15 3
South Florida 25 1










20

This table points up the fact that the Southern Geographical Area

again leads the State in.that it ranks number one as to the number of

schools having testing programs; the Northern, Central, and Northwestern

areas ranked tio, three, and four respectively.

The grade areas of these schools There tests are used became a con-

cern of the investigator. In Table IV, the findings of this study are re-

vealed*


TABIE IV

GRADE AREAS COVERED WHERE TEST~I PROGRAMS
ARE CARRIED ON


Grade Areas Covered Frequency of Schools Rank


1-3 5 4
1- 6 26 1
1-9 12 2
1-12 8 3
7-9 0 0
7-12 3 5.5
4-12 2 7
1o-12 3 5.5


This table reveals that the testing is done in the first six grades

and that the junior and senior high schools get very little consideration.

The types of test used in these testing programs should be given

some consideration. Within Table V, may be seen the types of test used

by these schools.









TABLE V

TYPES OF TEST USED IN SCHOOLS HkVIN3 TESTING PROGRAMS


Types of Test Used Frequency Rank


Achievement 56 1
Aptitude 27 3
Diagnostic 9 4
Readiness 45 2
Interest Inventory 7 5
Personality Inventory 4 6
Prognostic 2 7
\

that are the names of the many types of tests that these schools

use? This was a relative question in which the writer became interested,

The data revealed the answer which is found in Table VI.

ABLE VI .

TITLES OF TESTS USED IN NEGRO SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA AND THEIR RANK


Titles Frequency Rank


Metropolitan Achievement 26 1
California Test of Mental Maturity 25 2
Bow-Peterson Readiness 18 3
New Standford Achievement 12 4.5
Otis Quick Scoring Test of Mental
Ability 12 4.5
Iowa Every Pupil Test 6 6
Kuder Preference Record 5 7
Detroit Mechanical Aptitude 3 9.5
Progressive Achievement 3 9.5
Cooperative Achievement 1 15
Gates Readiness 1 15
Kulman-Anderson Test of Mental
Maturity 1 15
Lee-Clark Arithmetic 1 15
General Achievement-Gray-Votar-Rogers 1 15
Personality Ratio by Association of
Secondary School Principals 1 15













This table points out that the administrators and personnel of

these schools have somewhat of a continuity in choosing readiness and

achievement tests and that the use of them rank highest. This high fre-

quency of these test, obviously points to the elementary schools as being

the area where test are being widely used.

Any function that a school performs as a part of its program, should

have some value or purpose. A testing program as a part of the school's

function, should likewise have some value attached. The following table

points out the purposes for which testing programs, as found in these

schools, are conducted.


wTBLE VII

PURPOSES FOR ADMINISTERING TEST



Purposes Frequency Rank


Grouping
A. Reading levels 36 1
B. Age levels 16 4
Diagnostic 31 2
Curriculum Revision Needs 18 3
Vocational Guidance 23 5
No Purpose 1 6



The high frequency of test being used for grouping as to reading

levels, diagnostic purposes, and curriculum revision needs, which rank one,

twD, three respectively, again lends strength to the elementary schools as

being the schools that make the most use of tests.












Making a test program function may depend on the period of time

that the program has been operating. The length of time that these testing

programs have been in effect within these schools is shown in Table VIII.

TABLE VIII

LENGTH OF TIME TESTING PROGRAMS HAVE BEEN IN EFFECT


Years in Effect Frequency of Schools Rank


1 year 9 3
2 years I 5
3 years 7 4
4 years 10 2
5 years 11 1


The implications as shown by the preceding table, provoked thought

as to the academic training of the personnel, including guidance techniques,

that is administering these testing programs. The writer thought that this

problem was conducive to a careful analysis of the data. Within Table IX,

may be found what the data revealed.

TABLE IX
ACADEMIC TRAINING OF PERSONNEL INCLUDING GUIDANCE TECHNIQUES ADMINISTERING
TESTING PROGRAMS

Academic Training Including Frequency of Schools Bank
Guidance Techniques

1 year 2 3.5
2 years 1 $.5
3 years 1 5.5
4 years 2 3.5
5 years 22 1
Unknown, 6 6












This table shows that twenty-two of the thirty-four schools answer-

ing this question, had personnel with five years of academic training which

included guidance techniques. This constitutes 64.7% of these schools.

Where testing programs are in effect, school norms should play an

important role as they may point out to administrators and school person-

nel, the effectiveness of the criteria set up for eliminating weaknesses

that were revealed on previous tests. According to Table X, only a small

number of schools have attempted to set up norms.


TABLE I

SCHOOL NORMS HAVING BEEN SET UP BASED ON UHREE OR M)RE YEARS OF TESTING



School Grade Organization Three Years Five Years


1-6 4 2
1-9 1 0
1-12 4 0
7-12 1 0


Totals 10 2



This table points out that this phase of the testing program has

been highly neglected.

The period of the year that tests are administered was of great value

to the investigator. The findings of this study are pointed out in Table II.













TABLE XI

PERIOD OF TE YEAR STANDARDIZE TESTS ARE ADMINISTERED


Period Tests are Administered


Frequency of Schools


In the Fall 23 1
In the Spring 6 4
In the Fall and Spring 21 2
End of First Semester 10 3



This table reveals that the time of year for administering tests is

quite in keeping with recommended procedures as prescribed by various authors.

Testing programs may have little value unless they are a part of the

overall guidance program. This point of view is supported by the schools

participating in this study as revealed in Table XIII


TABLE XII

SCHOOLS HAVING TESTING PROGRAMS AS A PART OF THE GUIDANCE PROGRAM



Testing a Part of Guidance Program Frequency Percent


Yes 14 86.3
No 7 13.7


Totals 1 100.0



Fifty-one schools that answered the question relative to the testing

program as being a part of their guidance program, show that some considerable


Rank











26

thought had been given to this question. It is of pertinent value to mte

that forty-four, or 86.3 percent answered this question in the affirmative,

and seven, or only 13.7 percent answered it negatively.


SU&WARY


In this chapter, the procedures, presentation, and interpretations

of the data utilizing tables and descriptive narration, have been made in

order to facilitate the readers efforts to comprehend the findings.

Chapter IV will consist of a summarization of this studr and recom-

mendations.










CHAPTER 17


SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS


The data assembled and analyzed here were secured from questionnaires

coming from sixty-seven schools within thirty-eight counties of Florida;

from periodicals, books and the office of the State Supervisor of Secondary

Education for Negro Schools. A more extensive study of this problem would

encompass many factors not revealed by these questionnaires; however, this

study may have value notwithstanding its limited scope.

The purposes of this study were:

1. To determine the extent standardized tests are used in Negro

Schools of Florida.

2. To determine what part these tests play in the guidance in

these schools.

3. To determine what part these tests play in curriculum con-

struction and revision in these schools.

4. To determine what time of year these tests are given.

5. To determine the competency of the personnel administering the

testing programs.

This outline form is a summarization of the findings of this study:

1. Thirty-eight counties of the state carry on testing programs in

their Negro Schools. This constitutes 56.7% of the total counties of the

state.

2. There were sixty-seven schools reporting from these thirty-

eight counties as having testing programs.













3. The southern geographical area has the highest number of coun-

ties with testing programs, 11; or 28.9%.

4. The southern geographical area leads the State in number of

schools conducting testing programs, 25; the northern area is second with 17.

5. The elementary grades get wide attention in these programs with

the junior and senior high schools being highly neglected.

6. Achievement, reading readiness, and mental abilities are the

most frequently used tests in the order named.

7. The highest ranking purposes for giving tests are for grouping

according to reading levels; secondly, for diagnostic purposes, and third,

for curriculum revision needs.

8. Most of these schools have carried on testing programs for four

or more years.

9. Most of the personnel administering these testing programs have

five years of academic training including guidance techniques.

10. School norms have been given little consideration.

1. Most of these schools conduct the testing programs as a part

of their guidance programs.

12. Only one county has set up county wide norms, Dade.

13. Some senior high schools consider the Senior High School Tests,

as administered by the University of Florida, as being an adequate testing

program.

h1. Dade County conducts the broadest testing program within its

Negro High Schools, in the State.











29
15. Most literature in the field of guidance and testing and measur-

ing, point out the need and value of using tests as a guidance technique.


RECOMMENDATIONS


In so far as the results of this thesis are valid, the following

recommendations are made:

1. That testing programs be functional, starting at grade one and

continuing through grade twelve.

2. That a program of in-service training in testing techniques be

instigated in each school taking under consideration all grade levels.

3. That each school should set up, as far as possible, a guidance

program under competent personnel having a philosophy for guidance, and

training in testing techniques.

4. That achievement, aptitude, special aptitude, interest and per-

sonality inventories should be given at various grade levels.

5. That records should be kept of all tests results by charts,

graphs, summarizations, and profiles, and these results with their inter-

pretations, be presented to each individual teacher and to the entire Staff.

6. That an item analysis be made through tests for frequency of

errors, omissions, reading difficulties, and percent of items failed.

7. That achievement tests for diagnostic purposes be given in the

Fall and followed up with a scholastic aptitude and achievement tests in

the Spring or early in the second semester at the elementary level.













8. That scholastic aptitude, subject area tests, and interest and

personality inventories, be given at the ninth grade level.

9. That interest inventories and subject area tests be given at

the eleventh grade level.

10. That personality inventories and college aptitude tests be given

at the twelfth grade level.

11. That manuals of test interpretations be prepared for local use

based on the tests that are being used.

12. That norms be set up for each school, and on a county-wide and

possibly regional basis.

13. That the teacher-training institutions of Florida broaden their

curriculum offerings to include functional training in guidance, leading

to certification, with emphasis on test administration, tests interpreta-

tion, and techniques in educational and vocational counseling.

14. That the Negro Colleges of Florida reveal to each high school,

the percentile rank of its freshmen on the freshman testing program, as a

mean toward helping these high schools strengthen their curriculum offer-

ings.

15. That other students consider further investigations into the

testing programs as carried out in the Negro Schools of Florida, taking

under consideration the effect that economic and cultural background have

on the testing programs.












BIBLIOGRAPHY

Books

Adams, Fay, Educating America's Children, Ronald Press Company, (New York
19Z2)

Brown, Edwin John, Managing the Classroom, Ronald Press Company, (New York
1952)
Erickson, Clifford, Organization and Administration of Guidance, McGraw
Book Company, (New York 19U7T"

Jacobson, Paul B.; Reavis, William C.; Logsdon, James D., Duties of the
School Principal, Prentice-Hall, Inc., (New York 1950 -

Jones, E.B., Principles of Guidance, McGraw-Hill Book Company, (New York
1951)
Lee, Dorris and May Lee, The Child and His Curriculnu, Appleton-Century
Crofts, Inc., (New Yor-, second edi-ton 1950)

Lefever, Welty D.; Turrell, Archie M; Weitzel, Henry I., Princiles and
Techniques o Guidance, Ronald Press Company, (New 15

Lindquist, E.F., Educational Measurements, American Council on Education,
(Washington, D.C. 1951)

Ross, C.C., Measurements in Today's Schools, Prentice-Hall, Inc., (New
York, second edition 94l7)

Strang, Ruth May, An Introduction to Child Study, MacMillan Company, (New
York 1951)

Periodicals

Alexander, A.M., "Teacher Judgment of Pupil Intelligence and Achievement
is not Enough," Elementary School Journal, March 1953, Vol. 53, No. 7

Alexandra, Sister M., "Personality Adjustment and Leadership," Education,
66:584, May 1946











Bingham, Walter V., "A National Perspective on Testing and Guidance," Edu-
cational Record, Vol. 20, No. 139, Supplement No. 12, January 193T
Caapbell Harold L., "Making Tests Results Function in Teaching," Education,
66:415
Dale, George A., "A Comparison of Two Groups of Elementary School Children
Classified for School Adjustment on Basis of Teacher Ratings," Journal
of Educational Research, Vol. 35, December 1941
Fontella, MLA., "Predictive Tests and Initial Classroom Achievement,"
School and Society, 73:395, June 1951
Fransden, Arden, "Appraisal of Interest in Guidance," Journal of Educational
Research, Vol. 34, September 1945, No. 1
Traxler, Arthur E., "Essentials of Guidance Services," Elementary School
Journal, December 1953, Vol. 53, No. 4
Waters, E.W., "Problems of Rural Negro High School Seniors on the Eastern
Shore of Maryland; A Consideration for Guidance," Journal of Ngro
Education, Vol. 2, Spring 1950

Unpublished Literature

Brown, Marion Ryburn, The Diffusion of Certain Selected Guidance Patterns
as Revealed through the Stuy ofie Reprts of their Actual Practice
5 the Staffs of rrent-seven o? 'Fea rinanciaIy 5-red ScEool Systems
n ew York Metropolitan Area; the iTnlicaton for Guidance Workers,
nistrators and Teacher Training Unpublished dissertation for the
doctor of education degree, advanced school of education, Teachers
College, Columbia University, 1950
Evans, Lillian Juanita, A Comparative Study of the Vocational Interest of
Seniors of Lincoln igh School, Unplishedmsters thesis, Florida
A. and College,s Agusti 9
Hartsfield, Walter E., A Proposal for Developing A Guidance Program at
Central Acadear Se4or col, Piaatka, Florida, Upublish
asters thesis, Flor-da A. and College, August 19-0
Snider, David M., Prediction of Success in Freshmen Engineering at the Uni-
rs of Mam, Unpub Th masters thesis, University of Miami,










33
Tillman, James A., A Comparative Stucr of the Mental Ability and Scholastic
Achievement ofSeasonal Migrato and Non- ratry i Enrolled at
the Lncoln eorial g School During the Year 9Schol Tera,
t published masters thsis Forida a M.- C-l Augus
Wilson, Fred C., A Study of the Relationships between Stuy Habits as Meas-
ured g the iren Suits 3Inentoy and ScMoo Acievement oIf
r of~ en -Gre tuntsat Ponce de Leongh Shol, CorA
esU Fori, published masters thesis, University of
June 195T


































APPENDIXES






QUESTIONNAIRE

Dear M;

This questionnaire is being sent to you in order to

determine -what counties in Florida carry on a testing

program in the Negro schools. Your consideration of this

questionnaire will be gratefully appreciated.

Sincerely yours,


Robert E. Allen



Please answer each question:

1. Is their a county-wide testing program carried
on in the Negro Schools?__

2., If not, is there a testing program carried on

in any of the Negro Schools?_

(a) Number of elementary?_

(b) High Schools?_

3. Please give the names of the schools where the
programs are conducted if not done on a county-

wide basis:









OUTLINE MAP OF FLORIDA


SHOWING GEOGRAPHICAL AREAS


LEGEND

*- Counties having testing
programs.


I- Northwest Florida

I- North Florida

3- Central Florida

4- South Florida


0*
@P&r 0 *.q






QUESTIONNAIRE
Dear M _:
This questionnaire's purpose is to make a survey of the
Standardized Testing Programs as conducted in the Negro
Schools of Florida. The information sought herein will pro-
vide answers to pertinent questions relative to the field of
guidance. The reliability and validity of the information
.urnished by you, will be conditioned, in a large measure,
by your attitude as an administrator.
Your und'onditional responses to these questions and co-
operation in the project is urgently asked.

Sincerely yours,


Robert E. Allen


1. County School. Grades
2. Is tLure a standardized testing program carried -on in your
school? Yes No
3. How many years has this program been in effect? 1 2 3 4
5 or more
A.. Have norms been set within the school Yes No
1. Were they based on 1 3 5 or more years of
testing?
4. Check the grade areas where standardized tests are used:
1. 2. 4.. 5. 6, 7. 9. 10, 11. 12.
5. Check the types of tests used: Names of Tests

(a) Reading readiness
(b) Achievement
(c) Inventory
(d) Aptitude
(e) Personality___

(f) Diagnostic
(g) Prognostic__ _









7. When are these tests given?
(a) In the fall (d) In the fall and
spr ing_
( In the spring ) O r
(e) Other
...(c) End of first-semester
9. For what purposes are tests. given?

(a) Grouping
(1) Reading levels
(2) Age levels
(b) Diagnostic purposes

(e) Curriculum revision

(d) Vocational guidance
9.. Is the testing program planned by a committee?. Yes No__.

20.. Is this committee supervised by a person skilled in Gui'dance
tec.hriqc?. Yes No

11.. To what extent has this training be-n? 1. 2. 3. 4, 5 yrs,
12. Is the testing program a definite part of your guidance
pro gram? Yes N




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