Citation
Richard Barrett's Journal

Material Information

Title:
Richard Barrett's Journal New York and Canada, 1816 : critique of the young nation by an Englishman abroad
Uniform Title:
Journal
Added title page title:
Journal
Creator:
Barrett, Richard, 1789-1839
Brott, Thomas
Kelley, Philip
Place of Publication:
Winfield, Kan
Publisher:
Wedgestone Press
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xv, 128 pages : illustrations ; 21 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
1800-1899 ( fast )
British -- History -- North America -- 19th century ( lcsh )
British ( fast )
Travel ( fast )
Description and travel -- New York (State) ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- Canada ( lcsh )
Canada ( fast )
New York (State) ( fast )
North America ( fast )
New York ( gnd )
Kanada ( swd )
Barrett, Richard, 1789-1839 ( fast )
Victorian
Genre:
History. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
autobiography ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references and index.
Statement of Responsibility:
edited and introduced by Thomas Brott and Philip Kelley.

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University of Florida
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Resource Identifier:
11469241 ( OCLC )
0911459073 ( ISBN )
Classification:
F123 .B34 1983 ( lcc )
971.3 ( ddc )
cci1icc ( lacc )

UFDC Membership

Aggregations:
Digital Library of the Caribbean

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t J RICHARD BARRETT'S JOURNAL Mobile mutatur semper cum principe vulgus. The fickle mob ever changes with the prince. Claudian

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Co urt esy of Edward R M o ult on-Ba r retf Richard Barrett RICHARD BARRETT'S JOURNAL NEW YORK AND CANADA 1816 CRITIQUE OF THEY OUNG NATION BY AN ENGLISHMAN ABROAD Edited and Introduced by Thomas Brott and Philip Kelley Wedgestone Press

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Copyrigh t 1983 by Wedg es tone Pre ss All ri g hts re se rved No part of th is publica ti o n may be reprod u ced in any form w it hout prior permiss i o n For information address: W edgesto n e Pr ess, P O. Box 1 75. Winfi eld, Kan sas 67 15 6 Librar y of Co ngre ss Ca t a l og u e Ca rd N umb e r: 83 50936 I SBN 0-9 114 59-07 3 Manufactu r ed in the Unit ed Sta t es of America Contents Introdu ct ion ........... New York City. Th e Hud so n ............. .. .......... Upper New York State ... The Niagara Frontier Upp er Canada .. ..... T h e St. Law ren ce ........ Lower Cana da ..... .... Lake C hamplain Expense L i st .... Additional Notes o n the Young Nation .................. . Appendix: "A Jamaican Story" .. ... Ind ex .. .. ......... ............ i x 17 23 37 55 69 81 91 95 97 121 125

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Illustrations Richard Barrett . . . . . . . . frontispiece Lord Wellington . . . . . . . . . . viii City Hall in New York, by Baron Klinckowstrom . . . 6 George Washington, by John Trumbull...................... 13 New York State Capitol at Albany, by H Walton............. 18 Stephen Van Rensselaer . . . . . . . . 20 Route of author's journey . . . . . . . 24 View of Canandaigua, by Agnes Jeffrey . . . . . 32 Niagara Fall s, by John Vanderlyn. . . . . . . 38 Battle of Lundy 's Lane by Strickland . . . . . 46 The Dickson Hou se . . . . . . . . . 56 Car icature of Sir George Prevost . . . . . . 62 Rapids on the St. Lawrence . . . . . . . . 85 Montreal and the St. Lawrence River, by E Wal sh.. .......... 88 Battle of Lake C hamplain, by H. Reinagle........ .......... 92 Page from the Journal . . . . . . . . . 96

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Introducti o n As an Englishman reporting on America and Americans, Richard Barrett cannot be regarded as an unbiased authority. However, as a young man with an impeccable education and diverse interests, Barrett proves excep tionally able at depicting the unfolding culture of America in its youth. From the style of his commentary it appears that pe r haps he inte n ded to publish his journal fo r the benefit of fellow Britishers. They wou l d surely want to know whether America was indeed the freest nation under t he sun, as her proud cit i zens claimed. Richard Barrett's viewpoint is definitely one-sided and extremely crit i cal of A m erican attitudes. Yet it is because of this that the journal has merit: Richard Barrett's eye delves a n d his pen records in an extremely thorough man ner. No American institution seems immune from his ex acting criticism. H is op i nion is offered unhesitatingly, and in many cases he anticipates the direction of American affairs. When R ichard Barrett v i sited t h e United S t ates in I 8 I 6 he was a twenty-six-year-old Jamaican plantation owner who was just beginning his second term in the col ony's House of Assembly. Although Richard's surviving documentation of his journey doesn't begin until after his arrival in New York City, deta i ls of the earlier part of his trip have been determined from other sources. He em barked from Montego Bay, Jama i ca, about J u ly 6, 18 1 6, on the British ship Lord Wellington. The ship probably stopped at var i ous ports of cal l including Havana, Cuba, and it arrived at New York City about August 4, twentyix

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X Barrett Journal eight days after leavin J (possibly from one of Ba~ret ~maica. I ts cargo of rum Gilbert Robertson a Brit" h t s b~states) was consigned to chant who condu~ted bu;~ne:t ~ect and N~w York merRobertson aided the Barrett at 7~ Was~mgton Street. New York by paying the p~rty m their entra n ce to h Ir security bonds and t d t em to the British consul. m ro ucmg Ace ompanymg Richard Barrett on hi relative and two servants. Althou h h s tour _were a companions by name the I g e never ment10ns his half-brother Martin Will. re aTtthv~ ~as probably his elder h iams. is1sonlyas f t e numerous entries to "M W ,, urm1se rom pense list and a study of wll"r. I~ the author's ex Th i iams service records e extant Journal begins N August 8. After stayin abou m ew York City on author travels up the H~ds _ten days m the city the ship, a novel mode of t o n iver_ to Albany by steam then proceeds across Ne~nstortat10n at th at ti1:1e. He following the route of th rrk Slat~, approximately visiting Niagara Falls he e uture Ene Canal. After on -th e -L ake), O n tario angdoe~ to Newark (n~w Niagara cross Lake Ontario to' K. oards a sh ip m order to mgston Ontario F h Journeys up the St L rom ere he f awrence River to M t l a ter a short stay beg" h" o n rea and, New York Cit/ ff msl is ~eturn to Jamaica by way of September 19 aboards a ::! JO~~nal entry is made on so the rec?rded part of his tri~~~t~ledo~3 ~ake Champlain The Journal is distinctive because th?! his personal experiences (wh. h uthor spices "run-of-the-mill") "th ic cannot be referred to as wi interludes of so I d commentary His cia a n po l itical British gove~nmen;:v/twi:~i lompar i so_n of t~e U.~. and Americans) and his g rom a unique viewpoint (to rounded The I arg um ents are startlingly well. recent y-concluded W f frequent obiter dicta in th ar o 1812 receives h e text of the Jour I h aut or v 1 s 1ts battle sites a d ~a as t e onlookers Perhaps Ba ttn. mterv1ews par1Ic1pants and rre is at his finest with evident distaste the t bl in recounting of America n s. a e manners and social habits Introduction xi Adding to the special attrib ute s of the journal is the number of impo r tant personages with whom Richard Barrett meets and converses. Among his New York ac quaintances were Charles Wilkes and his nephew also named Charles The uncle would later become president of the Bank of New York and a founder of the New York Hi s torical Soc i ety. The nephew would become famous for his involvement in the Trent Affair dur i ng the U.S. Civil War and for his polar expedition. Also in New York the author meets the Briti sh Consul James Buchanan and Major-General Sir Frederick Robin so n. In upstate New York he meets two men who would later serve as members of the U.S. House o f R epresentatives, namely, Stephen Van Rensselaer and John Grieg. The former was one of the wealthiest men in New York State and one of its major landholders. Ri chard's accounts of his visits with these men enrich the diary. Also of interest are narratives concerning modes of transportation wh i ch the author is compelled to use. In t h e course of his journey he boards sailing vessels, steam s hips bateaux hackney coaches, stages, and a farmer's wagon. He travels the Hudson and St. Lawrence water ways, the Mohawk and Seneca Turnpikes, as well as roads paved with the trunks of trees. Through a diverse treatment of the American scene Ri chard Barrett puts forth a viv i d picture of a nation on the verge of greatness. Richard Barrett himself at the time of this writing was at the threshold of s ucce ss He was born on October 11 1789, the second of four sons of Samuel Barrett. Since the late seventeenth century the Barrett family had accumulated plantation estates on the Northside of the Briti sh colony of Jamaica. Richard's grandfather Edward Barrett was owner of the large Cinnamon Hill estate. Although Richard's father's official residence was in London, where he was captain of the Royal Horse Guard s, he had business in Jamaica and along with Richard 's uncle was a member of the House of Assembly. Upon the deaths of hi s father and grandfather while he was still in his youth, Richard inherited several Jamaican

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xii Barrett Journal plantations and his schooling was provided for. He was educated and trained in England as a lawyer. Shortly after gaining his majority in late I 8 IO, Richard Barrett sailed to J amaica and assumed control of the pr_operty to which he was heir, and soon was recognized as an astute businessman and successful planter .. He began a prestigious political career by representing the pansh of St. James in the House of Assembly. In 18 I 6, just prior to the commencement of the journal, Richard was elected to a second term. In later years he sat in additional assemblies and was three tunes elected Speaker of the House. I n addition he became Custos Rotulorum, editor of the Jamaica !ournal, an? Supre~e Court _judge. His wealth steadily mcre ased, his plantations Hounshed, and he was respected ?Y h t s ~laves. In time he was regarded as one of the most influential and important men on the island. He had a n~tural appeal one man, after becoming acquainted with Richard, described him as "one of the handsomest and most agreeable men I ever saw." Yet o~hers found him unpleasant and distressing, notably, his close relatives the Barretts of Wimpole Street. Richard Barrett engaged his first cousins Edward and Samuel Moulton-Barrett in a legal dispute seeking to reco~er property he considered rightfully his The pro ceedings were drawn out over many years much to the consternation of both sides. In fact, the conflict was not settled until after Richard's death. The best known member of the Moulton-Barrett fa_mily, Elizabeth ~arrett Browning, recorded meeting Richard o_n one of hts frequent visits to England. Writing to her fnend Mary Russell Mitford in 1842 Elizabeth described him as ... a cousin of ours, between whom and us there was no love a man of talent and ~iolence and some malice, who did what he could, at one time to trample poor Papa down ... He was a hand some man ... after a fashion-good features and the short upper lip, full, in his case of expression. Still it was a face, that I as a child, did not care to look upon. The Introduction xiii perpetual scowl spoilt it-and. the smile was worse:" From this and other accounts, Richard Barrett emerges in later life as a somewhat ruthless figure, ruthless in achiev ing his goals and not deficient of the necessary faculties for conquering. One cause which Richard Barrett championed and which ended in defeat was that of s l avery. Although he detested the v i ces of slavery and the subjugation of a race, as a plantation owner he recognized Ja~aica's economic dependence on the Negro slaves. Hts own slaves received fairer treatment than any others on the island and were respectfu l toward their owner. Richard strove to keep slavery on the island of Jamaica, and in May 1833 he was chosen to represent his fellow colonists, most of whom shared his conviction, before the House of Commons in London. H i s speech was described as "one of phenomenal ability, based as it was upon large knowl edge of Negro traits, extended political experience and the technique of a brilliant legal mind." But the mother country was insistent and the British government abol ished slavery in December 1833. Even with changes brought about by abolition, Richard survived and managed to keep his property in tact. His distinguished career was at the pinnacle of suc cess when it came to an abrupt and mysterious halt. At Montego Bay, in the midst of conducting business. on the morning of May 8, 1839, he suddenly became tll and died. Family tradition is that he was po i soned, probably by political enemies. From the outline of Richard Barrett s career given above, it appears that at the time of the journal he possessed latent talents necessary to excel in ma n y avoca tions. Thus he emerges as a well-qualified critic of the various American institutions which he chooses to de nounce or uphold in his journal: as a well-bred Englishman he relates the slove nl y manners ~f. t h e Americans; as a legislator and slave-owner he cnt1ques the American stand on slavery; as a lawyer and judge-to be he acutely compares the American judicial system with

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xiv Barrell Journal that of th e British; a nd as a futur e new spa per e ditor h e ce n sures th e American pr ess. Ri c hard B arrett r ecorde d his journ ey in a sma ll (3 inches by 5 in c he s) unprinted di a ry. Th e manuscript i s ow ned by Edward R Moulton Barr e tt scion of both Barrett and Moult o n B a rr e tt families ( hi s g r eat -grandfath er Alfred M o ulton-Barr ett m a rried Georgina Eli zabe th Barrett in 1855) with whom Jamaican family muniments hav e come to rest. The j ourna l was preserved until r ece ntl y in Jamai ca Now in En g land it i s s t o red with numerou s Barr e tt family paper s, i ncluding in sc rib ed book s and l e tt e rs of Elizabeth B a rr e tt Br ow nin g. The pr ese nt co nditi o n of the manu sc ript i s be s t de sc ribed as det erio rat ed." The first few pages are ac tually missing; lu c kil y th eir absence is almost un notic eab le textually Certain phy s i ca l c h a ract er i s tic s of the manuscript besides it s size hin dere d the transcript i on pr ocess: seve ral pages have worm h o l es in th em; the handwrit i n g varies in s i ze and in mo s t cases i s very sma ll ; the ink used was often very weak; a nd in th e few pla ces w h ere pencil was used no transcription was possi ble The main text of the j o urnal cove r s fo r ty nine pag es. In the rear of the diary th e a uth or rec o rd ed an ex p e n se list for the trip, plus fiftee n pages of random n o t es whic h we hav e entitled Additi o n a l N o t es on the Y o ung Na tion." The manuscript i s unsigned but th e provenance, handwriting a nd internal r efe r e n ces of t h e journal pro vide c ircum s tantial a nd co nclu s iv e ev id e nc e that the a uth or was Ri c h ard B arrett. W e have appe nd ed a n o th e r shor t composi ti on by Ri chard Barrett here e ntitl ed "A Jamaican Story" which h e gave hi s co u s in Elizabeth Bar rett Br own in g, providing her with a subject for a poem based on slavery. Some m e nti o n must be mad e of th e g uid el in es u sed in putting the jo urn al into print. Very few changes from the o ri g in al manuscript were m ade. Add i tions and dele tions which were made were done to make th e journal mo r e easily understa nd ab l e for the modern aud i e n ce, Intr od uction xv w h ile retaining the s tyle of the author a n d the perio~. In order to make the work easily readable, cha pt er headings, pa ragra ph s, and sco r es (at the end of each date's e ntr y) were added. Some misspelli n gs we r e corrected, redunda~t words were deleted, and mi ss in g word s we r e ad d ed m square brackets. In co rr ect spelli n gs o~ proper nouns were maintained in the t ext but corrected m the foo tn ot~s ~nd ind ex. The au thor 's somew hat er r a tic u sage of cap itali za tion and punctuation ( inclu d in g the use of a n e n dash as a full stop) was kept intact. A spec ial expression of gra titud e is due Edwa~d R. M oulton-Barrett who is directly r es p onsib le fo r bnngmg th e journal to our a ttention and_ co ns e nti~ gto it s pub)i ~a tion. F or in valuable assistance m transcnbmg a nd ed 1t1n g the document we wis h t o thank R o nald Hud son, Arthur V. Coyne a nd Thomas K. Myer. Thank s are also due the principals and staff of the libraries inst itu!i ons where much of our research was done: Bnt1 sh National Army Mu se um ; British Public Record Office ; Buffal o & Eri e Coun t y Hi storical Society; McKinney Libr ar~, Albany In s titute of Hi story and Art; Mu seu m of the C it y of New Y ork National Li brary of Jamai ca; New York G e n e~ l ogical Society; Niagara Falls Publi ~ Libra ry; Niagara-o n -the-Lake Publi c Li bra r y; Ontario C ounty Hi sto rical Society; Sen ate Hou se Mu se um Kingst o n New York; a nd the Special Collec ti o n s Libr ary, Boston College.

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New York City August 8 1 ~ [18 16 .] We accompanied m y friend Cu llen to the co untry house of MT Chas Wilkes 1 h e having been kind enoug h to pro c ure us an invitation from th i s Gent l eman's family. MT C ha s Wilkes was not at home, & we were welcomed by hi s so n & two daughter s There was a l so another young ge n tleman the so n of MT Chas Wilke s's brot h erThe two fat her s are n e phews of the famous John Wilkes1 We soon observed that the two young men were go od Americans but not s o the young ladiesOne of t h em, t h e Elde s t, a very se n si ble & a co mpli s hed girl, played for us "God Save t h e King" & Rule Britannia," but on being a s ked for t he American nationa l tune "Hail Columbia" 1 she declared herself unabl e to play it We pas se d a delightful eve ning & thi s first s p ecimen of the Ladie s of t h e C ountr y made on us a favourable im pression. Th e two ladie s I have mentioned & another their c ompanion, we r e q ui te f r ee from tha t I. Charles Wilkes (17641 833) was a prominent official in the Bank of New York, of which he became preside n t in 1825. Known as "the Habsburg of the Wilkes family," he was also a rounder of the New-York Hi storical Society and was its treasurer for many years. H e initially resided in the city at 31 W all Street but afterwards removed to Greenwich Village. Hi s country place, Woodlawn," wa s located in Bloomingdale. Parties he gave there, as well as those at Greenwich Village, were important socia l events. 2. John Wilkes (1727-97) became famous as an English political leader. He s erved as lord mayor of London and was a member of Parliament, but he wa s twi ce expelled from the House of Co mmons. After three re-elections which were each annulled he again took hi s sea t in 1774 a nd remained until 1790. 3. "Hail Columbia," written by Joseph H opkinson in 1798, was th e mo st no t able American national anthem of the t ime. "The Star-Spangled Banner," although written in 1814, did not become popular until years later during the Civil War.

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2 Barrell Journal mauvaise honte which foreigners complain of in English womenWe were not annoyed with that reserve which requires so many advances before it can be overcome & which makes a bashful Stranger so long a Stranger. Th~y, however, on the contrary were easy & affable in their ma_nners & entered with s pirit into any subject of conver sation that presented it selfWe were invited by the son of Mr Ch~s Wil~es to dine at his Aunt's, Mr s McAdams, ~t ~lo~mm~dale the following Sunday. We accepted the mv1tat1on with pleasureOn the 9 th we dined with Mr Gilbert Robertson, a native of Sco tland & merchant of N York. He had rendered hi?1self obnoxious to the American government by his faithful attachment to the British, so much so, that when he was appoin_ted by t~e British Government Commissary ~eneral of prisoners m N York, he was not received. It did not r~~uire this disappointment to confirm his loyalt y to the British crown, but it certainly has not increased his reverence for t he American Administration. This Gentle ma~ was of great service to us on our landing-he as~1~ted us thro' the custom hou se & introduced u s to the Bnt1sh Consul, & performed for us other acts of kindness the !11ore g~ateful to us as we were till then totally una quamted wtth him. W _e me~ at his ~ouse Major Gen 1 Robin son, his lady & family. S1r Fredrick was on hi s way to Tobago where he had been appointed to the government. 1 The B. Con ~ul Mr Bu~hanan J _was ~lso there. He had been but lately m ~ossess1on of his office. In the cou r se of conversation he mformed us that upwards of three thousand British 1 Bloomingdale was located on the west side of Manhattan I sland about six miles from the southern lip of the i sland Jn 1816 Bloomingdale was four miles ou1s1de New York's city limits 2 Major-General Sir Frederick Robinson led a ba11alion a1 the baule of ~la11sbur~ during the War of 18_12 From 1816 10 1821 he commanded troops in the Windward and Leeward islands and for a time served as governor of Tobago. 3. Jame s Buchanan was a p pointed British Consul 10 New York in November 1815. He pro~ably assumed his office early in 1816 and soon after began reporting the distressed s1a1e of British immigrants in America. New York City 3 subjects, principally hi s own countrymen from Ireland, had applied to him either for mea n s of returning to Europe or of proceeding to the B. Colonies. He had already forwarded some ship loads to Canada. Mr Buchanan expressed, with praiseworthy feeli ng the strongest com passion for these ill fated wretches-they had perhaps so ld all their little property at home to enable t hem to amend their condition in a strange l and, on their arrival there they had found themselves without resources or employment in their diff erent callings. Unhappily for them, N York was already overcrowded w i th emigrants, & the inhabitants do not willingly employ Iri shmen; they prefere [sic} the natives of eve r y other part of the globeThis prejudice towards the lower orders of Irish extends over the whole United S tates. August 11. We drove, accompanied by my friend Cullen (who is a grandson of the famous or Cullen, author of several medical works)' to Bloomingdal e in a hackney coach. I could not but admire the superior neatness & cleanliness of these ca rriage s over those of the same description i n London. They are built very light & con tain four or five passengers with ease. The roof is sup ported by ir on pillars, & the sides and front are left open. To excl ud e the sun t h ey have curtai n s to be rai sed or l et down at pleasure. This kind of ca rriage i s very airy & pleasa nt in fine weather, but not at all adapted for wet or blowing weather. They are laid aside in Winter & Sledges are used The ca rri ages of the gentry are of the same form & scarcely more e legant. The traveller in such vehicles must depend more on hi s cloathing for protec tion than on any shelter they can afford. The horses of the hackney coaches are exce llent & su r pass the hacks in England even more than the coaches do. We met at the house of Mr s McAdams, besides the re s pectable o ld l ady herself, the same party we had seen at Mr Wilkes' s. Mr Chas. Wilkes we were happy to find I William Cullen ( 1 7 1 0-90) was a Scouish physician and medical teacher. He wa~ a talented lecturer said 10 have been unrivalled in his day.

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4 Barrett Journal had returned from Philadelphia; 1 he was one of the party & was kind enough to express pleasure at seeing two of his countrymen at s uch a distance from home. The age of this Gentleman appeared to approach 50, he ha s a daughter married to Mr Jeffrie s, the Editor of the univer sally read Edinburg Review. 2 This admirable publication is as much read in America as in England, altho' its rival the Quarterly Review has a great circulation. J They are reprinted at the price of a dollar & a quarter the sing le number. There was also present Capt Baker of the Royal Navy, a son of Sir R. Baker. We had a great deal of conversation with the young Americans, one of whom is studying the lawThe lawyer was by no means deficient in talent, but full of prejudice towards England. He was kind enough to lament for our sakes that the administration of justice there was so op pressive. H e fancied that our judges & inferior magistrates were merely the tool s of power, & that the of fender against administration or even against the higher classes had little chance of justice in our Courts of Law We endeavoured to explain to him that we were par ticularly well guarded on that point for our judges being appointed for Life, & chosen from the most em inent bar risters, & having besides very liberal salaries of which they could not be deprived even on retiring from office, were quite independant both of the crown & the ministry. Nor was any injustice or undue bias to be apprehended from them, unless constitutionally judiciousWe told him that the inferior magistrates, called by us justices of the peace, were chosen in general from among the landed I. According 10 a public no1ice in The New-York Evening Posr, he had been al a banking conven1ion in Philadelphia on Augusl 6, 1816. 2 Francis Lord Jeffrey cdi1cd the Edinburgh Review from 1803 10 1829. He apparently me1 Charlotte Wilke s in Europe. 1 n la1e 1813 he followed her 10 America and lhe y married soon afterwards. 3. The Edinburgh Review was established in 1802 by Francis Lord Jeffrey among 01hers. Though Torie s wro1e for it, it assumed gradually a completely Whig attitude. It ha s been acclaimed as the first high-class critical journal. The Quarrerly Review was founded by John Murray in 1809 as it s Tory competitor. 4. Sir Henry Lorraine Baker ( 1787-1859), son of Sir Robert Baker was a Vice Admiral in the R oyal Navy. New York City 5 interest, & called wi thou t profit of any kind. & as the country Gentlemen were genera lly in opposition to the Court, & had nothing to desire from it, it was to be presumed that in such petty cases as came before them, they decided with impartialityI heard afterwards so many ex tra ordinary ideas of the British jurisprudence & constitution expressed by men w h o ought to have been better informed that I could not but wonder to what point the ed u cation of American youth was directedThey acknowledge that their law is the Common Law of England, & that all their 19 con stitutions 1 are as closely imitative of the English constitu tion as the different situations of t he two people will ad mit. Our literature is theirs, as well as our lan guage. & yet with all these inducemen ts to make Great Britain a study, they are as ignorant of manners & customs of the coun try, its jurisprudence, & of the division of power among the legislature & executive, as they are of t he Court of Japan. It appears to me, that little is required of American youths, but to ha ve knowledge enough to fit them for a counting house. As soon as they leave school they are placed with a merchant to learn hi s trade, & the labours of the school room are forgotten. It was but seldom that we found an American whose knowledge of constitutions extended farther than his own state, indeed we have put a simple question on the General Govern ment when severa l were present, & have received answers diametrically opposite, & they little guessed the amuse ment they afforded us by wrangling among t hem selves about a fact, of which perhaps we were previous!) well informed. Ornamental education is qui t e disregarded, & what is useful to every man & necessary to every patriot seems to be confounded in the mass with dead languages & similar accomplishmentsIt is only by the study of the British constitution that they can discover the beauties or defects of their own & s in ce every American citizen claims to a share of the government, he shou ld as far as I. The 19 consti1utions were those of 1he federal governme n1 and the 18 stales tha1 made up the Union in August 1816.

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6 B arrett Journal New York City 7 possib l e r e nd er him se lf compete nt to judge of hi s own rights & those of hi s rulers. He is however satisfied to p i n his faith on the m isrepresentations of the worst public prints in the wo rld, & as t h ese prints daily contradict themselves & eac h other, he in a short time h as not one dist i nct idea of either his own country's policy or t h e policy of foreign states. But to ret urn to our dinner partyWe h ad when t h e cloth was r emoved s ome co n versatio n on the le tters of Junius. I was desirous of kn ow ing from so ne ar a relation of M r John Wilkes if he had eve r heard hi s uncle give an opinion on this di sp uted s ub ject.' H e i n formed us that he had co nver sed with hi s uncle o n these famou s writ in gs & was told by him that he never could find any clue to d i scove r the a uth o r, nor did hi s suspic ion point at any partic ula r per s on. Mr Cu ll en gave hi s opinion i n favour of the American revolutionary General !Charles] Lee. He said t hat the sa m e question once aro se in the General's compa n y, & man y men being named as t h e probable author, he sa id, "A nd why may not I hav e been the writer," but on the s ubject b ei n g further pressed, h e wrappe d him se lf up in a my ste rious s il e n ce, leaving hi s hear e r s to form the ir own conclu si ons. So me ot h e r rea s ons were adduced by Cullen but to me they appeared weak, reason s of a su perior force ha ving b ee n offered & rejected re s pecting ot h er men. The observations of Mr C h a rl es Wilke s who posses ses his Uncle's tal e n ts without his v i ces, confi rm ed me in m y opinion of Ge nl Lee's claims. H e thoug h t the Gen 1 s talent s by no means equa l to the composit ion s of Junius; & a s to the words t hat a p peared to de c ide in hi s own favour, hi s exce ss ive va nit y might make him not unwilling to acc ept t h e h o nour if it co uld be acq uir ed witho ut an ab s olut e untruth & the fear I The letters of Juniu s were poli1ical l e tter s written under the pen name of Junius. These 69 mas1erful letters, which attacked the leading figures in the Bri1i s h governme nt, appeared in the most popular newspaper in England of the period, the Publi c Advertiser, from 1769 to 1 772. When the election of J o h n Wilke s 10 parliament wa s annulled, Junius supported Wilke s's case. Specula tion as 10 1he au1horsh ip of the letters r an rampant for many years; t h ey h ave been attributed to no fewer than 50 different persons. It is now generally ac cep t ed that they were written by Sir Ph ilip Francis.

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8 Barrett Journal of detection by the real author stepping forward. He was too regardful of character to boldly assume tha t to which he had no claim; but Mr W. considered that so vain a man would not have hesitated to establi s h his right to the papers, when every thing that is most dear to man (posthumous fame) was to be gained & nothing to be lost. Mr Wilkes pursuing the conversation relating to Gen 1 Lee favoured u s with an ane c dote of that General & WashingtonIt is well known that when General Washington attained high command he added to the natural austerity of his disposition great haughtiness of demeanour. Even the Generals of his army were kept at a great distance. Lee had hopes of himself heading the revolutionary armies, & the disappointment made him the bitter enemy of WashingtonHis enmity was not lessened by his rival's want of courtesy. Lee once in s peaking of Wa s hington was heard to exclaim, "Damn the fellow, no Gentleman can be intimate with him." In the se few words, the private character of Washington is more distinctly drawn, than if pages had been devoted to him. The fate of Gen 1 L ee is a lamentable proof that even successfu l treason is not always happyHe held high rank in the Briti sh army, but the violence of his passions, or the overweaning opinion of his own merits s oon made him a discontented subject. He joined the Enemies of his cou ntr y which he had sworn to protect, & gained in the serv ic e of Rebels, rank one degree higher than that he before heldStill dissatisfied even with the g ov ernment he had preferred [to] hi s own, he continued to intrigue for some thing more than nominal powerHi s ambition lost him his suba ltern command, & he was dismi s sed from that army, with the disgrace he deserved for deserting the army of his king. At last this unfortunate man died in poverty at Philadelphia. 1 I. Originally the author co nfu sed th e detai l s of Charles Lee s death with those of another American Revolutionary genera l, H enry "Light Ho rse H arry" Lee, as he had written of the former: "was killed by the d emocratic mob of Baltim ore" and "fell the vict im of a popular tumult, and was murdered by those men in whose ca u se h e had fought aga in s t his oath, hi s allegiance, & his coun tr y." Mr. Barrett lat er realized hi s error and deleted both of these New York C ity 9 In s tancing the barbarous customs still prevalent in the back parts of these States, Mr Wilkes related to us the following fact. A successful Member for Tennessee & the toppled candidate fought a duel with knive s, till one was s o se verely wounded as to be carried off the field into a neig hbo uring houseThe wounded man was placed w i thin reach of a rifle, & watching his o pp ortu nity when his antagonist turned his back to leave the place, h e caught it up & s hot him with too fatal an aim-he expired in stantly. I have heard another instance of ferocity, still more horrible, of these people. The act to which I allude was co mmitted by one of that sex to whom softer feelings are attributed in every age & countryA Tennessee & an English woman were travelling in the Stage and stopt [sic) at an Inn on the roadThe Tenne ssee woman began to lament the death of some relation or friend who had fallen at N Orleans. 1 The English woman unhappily too partial to her countrymen & also enraged at their defeat, declared her wish that they had all been killed by the English. The Tennessee woman, mad with this retort, s natched up a knife and stabbed her to the heart. The assassin was permitted to resume her seat in the stage, & s he proceeded on her journey triumphing in the revenge she had takenWe remained to a late hour enjoying the s ociety of this amiable family & were happy before we went away to accept Mr Wilkes' invitation to dinner for the following T u es day. The house where we had bee n so hospitably & agreeably entertained is s ituated on the Hudson River. Nat ure has by a just taste received but l i ttle assis t ance, & t h e place in consequence is the pre tt ie st we had met with. Thi s sw eet li tt l e place & Mr Chas Wilke s's re s idence s iatement s H enry Lee was ser iou sly injured by a mob shortly after the War of 181 2 began, but did not die as a result of these injuries until 1818. Charles Lee did indeed die in Philadelphia in 1782. I. Th e battle of New Or l eans too k place on Ja n uary 8, 18 1 5, and was t he las t battle of the Wa r of 1812. Be ca use of slow c om munications, it took place over two wee k s after the war's outcome had already been determ i ned by the s igning of the T r eaty of Ghent. Nevert h e l ess, the victory of the Un i t ed States troop s under Genera l And r ew Jackson ove r a Br itish fo r ce of vastily superior number wa s a so urce of great pride for Americans.

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10 Barrett Journal where we visited him a few days after, are, with few ex ceptions, more in the style of Eng li s h gardeni n g, w h ere Nature is only checked in her exuberance, than all t h e villas of the N York merchants. Straight rows of fruit trees & lan es of frightful poplar s are most the objects of admiration & of care from the city of New York to Buf falo; the preference given to t he formal poplar, lookin g more like the emblematic rod of a school ma ster, than a natural productio n must strike the v i s itor of N York with astonishmentIt is indeed most extraordinary that t h ey s hould choose this foreign & hideous t re e rather than so many of real beauty with which their own forests aboundThe first obj ect t he str an ge r perceives off this coast is the poplar t he streets are lined with them, they annoy him in th e country & on the banks of the river; he crosses over to Jer sey, it still presents itself; h e travels five hundred mil es to the West & he cannot escape it Thus doe s Fa shion triumph over taste, & thus are the deformities of other c limat es preferred to the beauties of our ownOn the 13t~ we dined at the house of Mr Charles Wilkes. He was as before very entertaining & fu ll of anecdotes; he delighted & instructed us at the sa m e time, & did it without an effort. I could not but regret that our short stay at N York made it impo ssib l e to improve an ac quaintance s o happily begun, & from w hi ch I had already derived so much pleasureMy estee m for this Gentleman was increased by hearing from m y friend Cullen t hat the Dau g ht er of the late John Wilkes had left him heir to her larg e prop e rty H e nobl y d i vided with hi s brot h er Mr John Wilkes. Such acts of generosity are so uncommon that we wonder a t whi l e we adm ir e themOur entertainer had been acquai nt e d with General Moreau when he was in Am erica.' The General once said to him, talking of the I. Jean V i ctor Marie Moreau was a French Revolutionary general exiled in 1 804 for an alleged consp ira cy against Napoleon. After his banishment he emigrated to the Un i ted S tate s Eventually he r e tu rned to Europe, jo ined the allied forces against Napoleon. and was k illed on the bat1 l efield of Dre sden in 1813. New York City 11 victories of the French" My countrymen fight badly unle ss the Plume is in advance; the word of their officer s must be 'A lions me s En fan ts' not Allez Sold a ts. '''' I was s orry to find that malt liquor is very little drunk by the lower orders in America, & yet there is a vast tract of country on the shores of the Atlantic better adapted for the growth of barley (& hop s thrive in all the weste rn country) than of any other gra in Stronger li quors, such as brandy rum, gin, whisky are liked better Malt liquors are certainly more wholesome than arden t s pirits, & eve n when ta ken to excess the consequence is neither so dangerou s to the drunkard or to those about him. But Spirits taken but in a proportionate small quan tity madden s for the time & r enders mischievous the per son who indulge s in them-& often a total loss of reason e nsu es Malt liquors stupify the passions rather than inflame themA melancholy circumstance happened at N York a s hort time before we came there The st ory to the be st of my recollection was related to us a s follows. Major Green of the British army of Canada arrived from thence to v iew the city, & a quarrel took place between him & a y oung American at the PlayhouseThis quarrel was, however, by the interference of friend s & mutual explana tion accommodated, & Major Green returned to hi s regi ment. Some time after he again vi s ited New York on hi s route to England. While there h e heard that the Gentleman with whom he had before differed had b oa ste d in Company that Major Green had made him a very humble apologyThe British officer who in a foreign country had not only his own character to s up port, but al so that of the Army he belonged to was indig nant at this misrepre se ntationHe complained of the assertion & required it to be contradicted. This being r ef u se d b y the other party, a meeting took place. The un fo r tu nate Ameri c an was s hot thro' t he head & died in sta ntly Major Green had taken hi s pas sage on a vessel at that very moment under s ail for England, he went on I. Literally: "Let's go my lads" not "Go, soldiers

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12 Barrett Journal board in s tantly. learnt that the unfortunate vi c tim wa s much e s teemed by hi s a ss ociate s, but it mu s t be admitted that hi s fate wa s due to hi s own ra s hness. We visited during our stay at this city a building said to be the fine s t in Ameri c aIt i s c alled b y the one part y Federal Hall, & by th e other the City Hall' It ha s 19 window s in front very dose together & consists of a cen tre & wing s It i s two s tories high from the groundThe basem e nt i s of a dark fre e stone & the s uperstru c ture of unpoli s hed white marble; it has a portico reaching to the 1 s t row of windowsThe dark ba s ement has a bad effect making the building appear mu c h le ss lofty than it i The white marble cover s the front & two sid es & the back part is entirely of the same material as the base. Had th e whol e been rai s ed of marble & the portico reached the whole way to the roof, the beauty would have been greater. But as it s tands, it is a fine edifice & does credit to the founders the Corporation of the cit y. We were s hewn into the c ouncil c hamber a large room furnished with great expen s e. Among other picture s of American state s men & warrior s there is a full length portrait of Wa s hington-he i s represented at lea s t eight feet highI could not admire the taste of the Arti s t who has put into the back panel of hi s picture a broken pedi ment & the surrounding house s c opied from a s quare of the city In thi s s quare & on thi s pediment on c e s tood a s tatue of George 3d-it was during the revolutionary war taken down by the mob & melted into bullet s 2 The de s truction of a lifeles s image b y an angr y mob could add but little to the fame of the arti s t 's hero in s tead of it, h e throw s a blemish on the man he meant to exalt, for we I. The Ci1y Hall of New Yo r k Ci t y was comple1ed in 18 1 2 and. despi1e a fire and several renova1ions. 1oday appea r s essen1ially as ii did "hen 1he au1hor sa w i i. A rch i1 ec 1ur al cri1 i cs ha ve 1er m ed i1 th e m os 1 h a n dso m e ci 1 y h a ll i n 1he na ti o n 2. The por1r a i1 of George W ashi n g1o n w hich now hangs in 1he Governor's Room of 1he same Ci1y H all, was painied by John Trumbull in 1790. I n 1he background of the pain1ing, Trumbu ll represenie d the evacua t ion o f Bri1ish 1ro o p s f ro m New Yo r k a nd a view o f Br oa dw ay i n ru i n s i ncludin g 1h e bro k en ped irn en1. T h e s1a1ue of Ge o rge J 11 w a s pu ll ed d ow n by jubila n 1 pa 1 r i o 1 s on Ju l y 9, 1 776, 1he day that the Declaration of I ndependence was read publicly in New Yor k Ci1y for 1he firs1 1i m e. N e w Y o rk City 1 3 Co 11r1 esy of th e A rt Co mm issio n of th e Ci t y of N e w Yo rk John Trumbull' s p o rtrait o f G eo rge Wa s hin g ton

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14 Barrett Journal must consider that no better emblem than a brok en pedi ment offered itself to point out the great action s of the pri n c ipl e figureThe sp lendi d drapery with w hi c h thi s ap artme nt is ornamented struck me as more appropriate for the au dience c hamb er of an Eastern King & the r aised seat more like a Throne, than fit for t he meeting room of the Mayor & Aldermen of a moderate s ized city of republican AmericaTher e was littl e worthy of notice in the rest of the building except that a wide marbl e st aircase under a s uperb dome lead s to a miserable wooden panneled passage, & that the room s where the courts of justice are held were well provided w ith s pitting boxesB efore I left the Hall I found m yse lf near a s mall room partl y under gro und. "Justices' court" was in scri bed over the door. On e nt ering I saw a s habby looking man divided from a dirty crow d by a wooden ra ilin g & hi s seat ra ised a foot or two f rom the gro und He mu st ha ve been t h e justic e, for a s hort man was on tiptoe to rea ch hi s wor sh ip 's ea r & was ta lk ing wit h excee din g ea rne st n essThis sc en e was s uf ficie ntl y ludicrou s, & lik e any thing but a c ourt of justic e The city hall is very badly placed-before it is a three corne r ed piece of land of perhap s an acre or two & on t h e l e ft i s t he debtors' prison, [at] the right t here sta nds the poor house, two ugly brick buildings-behind are some lot s of unoc cup i ed land where all t h e n eighbours d e po s i t the filth of their yards & houses. Opp os i te the debtor's prison i s an hotel where the D emocrats meet 1 & on it i s mount e d f ull in the sig ht of the poor debtors the gi ld ed ca p of LibertyW e went to t he State's pri so n s ituated some distance fro m the city. 2 The ed ific e i s proper for w h at it is I. Thi s hotel was probably Tammany Hall built in 1811 on Frankfort S1rect. The Tammany Socic1y was a polilica l organiza1ion in New York Ci ty which claimed 10 be 1he regular represen1ativc of 1h c Democratic parly !here. Later during the I 870's, the Socie1y became no1orious for its illegal activi1ies in 1he city government. 2. Thi s was 1he s tate prison on Washington Streel in G r eenwich Village. I n 1816 Greenwich Village was a suburb of New Yor k Ci1y. New York City 15 intendedThe criminals were all at different trades, & are said to maintain themselves by t heir own labour, & those who are industrious have a balance to receive on being releasedCertainly the Philanthropist must rejoice in t h e opportunity thus given the depraved to amend thei r habits, instead of cutting them off with all their sins unrepented of. Here if the culpr it has not a l ready the Knowledge of a trade, he is compelled to learn one, & supplied with tools & materials, thus when he is again sent back to soc iet y he has acquired the means of sup port, & industrious habits to use themWe learnt that the inhabitants amounted to 675. They are confined from 6 months to the period of their natural lives according to their degrees of guilt. None are put to death, but those who have shed the blood of their fellow creaturesBy much the greater part of th e prisoners are Iri s h We were much amused during our stay at New York & our journey thro' the country in seeing how many shifts the trades m en resort to, to raise t heir importance above that of an ordinary shopkeeper. This little vanity is so universal, that the Glover, Baker Hatter, &c is nowhere to be found. There are instead Glove factors Hat Manufactu r ers, & dealers in flourThe Stationer & b?okbinder writes over his door "Paper makery and Bmdery done h ere-" The Furrier keeps a "Fur Store," the Grocer a "Grocery Store," the Blacksmith i s a n "Iron worker," Snip is a "Merc hant Tailor," & the Gunsmith keeps a "Gu n Sm i thery But these Gentr y know very well how to c h arge for their goods. I paid ten dollars for a hat of American manufacture, ten dollars for a pair of Wellington boot s & three dollars for a pair of shoes If suc h are the prices to be paid for arti~Jes of dress, & provision in proportion and houses of but a moderate size are let from 1,400 to 4,500 dollars, the ex penses of residing in New York are greater than a Lon don Establis h mentThe board of my relation & myself & two servants was 42 dollars per week, every thing was provided but wine & fuel for t h e bedrooms in Winter For this money we had one common sitti n g room with

PAGE 18

16 Barrett Journal the other boarder s & but one double bedded roomI do not know what accomodations our servants had, but as they did not co mplain I suppose they liked them. The city and I sland of N York contain by the census of 1816 100 ,619 inhabitants, about 7000 of which are slaves, but by an act of the legi slature they are gradually emancipatingThe free peop l e of colo r have eve ry civil privilege & may vote for members of the state legi slature & of congress. The Slaves & free people of colo ur in the Sout hern States have neither civil or political privileges nor are the Slaves protected from the crue lt y of their masters. Thus we find that in free America the rights of these unfortunate beings are les s conside red than in the British colony of JamaicaI was so mewhat surprise d to hear that by the laws of New York every s tranger must on arriving there procure security to the amount of 300 dollar s that he does not within a speci fied time come upon the parish. Our new friend Mr Robert so n entered into this security bond for us. There being little company in N York at this seas on of the year & no public amusements we were anxious to begin our journey towards Niagara, but our clothes were detained at the Quarantine pound 2 where they had been ordered to be washed until the 13 in s t. I. Ac cording 10 a conte mporary New Yor~ Ci1y guide book. the city's population in 1 816 was indeed 1 00,6 1 9. How ever i1 li sts only 617 slaves and 7,774 "coloured inhabitants not s laves ." New York State adopted a law in 1799 which provided for the gradual emancipation of slaves and in 1817 an act was passed 10 free all s la ves i n the state by l 827. 2. The New York quarantine buildings were lo cated on Staten I s land The Hudson On the 15 th we left N York in the steam boat it was crowded with pa ss engersNo doubt many of th~m were of the lower orders, yet all were well dressed-indeed I have observed this to be very generalOn Sunday sc arcely is a labourer's frock or shabby coat to be seen thro' all the country I have seenI observed many of the passengers had brought books with them, to w hi c h they were very attentive-one Iri sh man had a volume contain ing the Psalms & proverbs of So lomon. All the_ I an~ on the left si de of the North river up w~1ch we sailed 1s of the poorest quality & nothing but it s neighbourhood to a great city can m ake it tolerably va luab le. I. was told that one gentleman who ha s a large estate m thi s part of the State derived all his income from the sale of fire wood, corn not being worth c ultivation. At Newburg which we reached at night I was informed by our intelligent land lord that the farmers would have deserted their land s had not the pla s ter of Pari s y ielded them a cheap manure which enab l es t hem t o procure a tolerable ~ropThe left hand bank is too bold to give any prospect mto the country but I wa s told that the whole of t?is part of the state is of poor qualityOur accomoda t1o ns were bad ind eed at this little townNext morning, the 16. We crossed over in a hor s e boat to the opposit e s hore called the Landing. There are seve ral I. At t h at time the Hud so n Riv e r wa s also re ferre d 10 a s the Nort h Ri ver. 17

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18 Barrett Journal The Hudson 19 of these horse boats employed on the river to cross from one bank to the other. They are not employed as being cheaper to navigate with horses than with steam but because the family of Fulton have a monopoly of the Steam Engine as used on the United States waters 1 & all interlopers must pay the patentee a considerable duty. At the landing we procured a Carriage to proceed to Poughkeepsie, a distance of 15 miles from Newburg & 75 from N YorkFor this vehicle which was by no means commodious & a pair of horses we paid 5 dollars. The country we passed was of very indifferent soil but had many fine situations for Gentlemen's seats & parks however, the traveller who expects to meet with them in the U.S. will be sadly disappointedWe were well ac commodated at Poughkeepsie which is a pretty & thriving town. Early next morning we rejoined the Steam boat. We had left it to see something of the more inland part of the Country & to avoid travelling in the dark & thereby los ing some fine scenery we were taught to expect in that part of the river we were now sailing up. We had not been deceived-the views in many places were pretty, in some grandWe passed this day a military college founded by the general government. 2 I was not able to learn how it is supported, or how the Art militaire is here taught. But I saw on a rock on the opposite side of the river evident marks of a correct artillery aim-every ball, & they were numberless, had struck a rock very few yards in diameter. This rock was surrounded by others which did not exhibit the mark of a single ball. It was dark a short time before we reached Albany distant 160 miles from New York. & vast numbers of I. Robert Fulton and Robert Livingstone were granted a monopoly in J 808 to navigate the waters of New York State with stea m -po wered vessels. 2. The author i s almost certainly referring to West Point but he would have passed it on the 15th, so his ch ronolog y is slig htly confused. The United States Military Academy at West Point was estab li shed in 1802 by an act approved by President Jefferson.

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20 Barrett Journal Courtesy of th e Al/Jany Inst itute of Hisrory and Arr Stephen Van Rensselaer The Hudson 21 porters were awaiting our arrival in expectation of employment in the way of their trade, & in so great a hurry were these Gentry to give a cast of their office, that scarcely was the board thrown out to the Landing place before it was choaked [sic] up with them. We however proved to them the just right the passengers of the boat had to make their escape from it, before others could be admitted, & they harkened to so forcible an appeal. Albany is the capital of the StateThe State Legislature here holds it s sittingsThe inhabitants are about I 2000 & buildings are rising in all directions. Near our hot e l were two banks faced with marble-one was lighted by a glass dome in the roof-both buildings are smallThe Capitol is built of a dark colou red free stone wh i ch at a distance look s like brick-' It also exhibits some ornaments of marble & some of woodTo my eye the contrast between brown stone & white marble & wooden pillars also painted white was not pleasing. Having a letter of introduction to Mr Van Rensselaer t he day after our arrival, Sunday the 18 we procured a car riage to wait on t hat GentlemanHe was not at home In the afternoon he called on us at our hotel & politely in vited us to dine with him the following day. Mr Van Rensselaer's ancestors brought the first sett ler s from Holland to this place & his common appellation is "the Patron" in his own district; at distant places he is called "the Patron of Albany." We were informed that he possessed a great part of the land on which the city is built & he is possessed of lands 24 miles square running on both sides of Hudson's river. 1 It is w ith plea s ure I relate the excellent character borne by this Gentleman. All his neighbours seemed happy in praising hi s good qualitiesA Great part of his income is expended in I. The fi r s t o f three capitol buildings at Albany, this state ly edifice was com pleted in 1808 served until 1867, and was demolished in 1883. 2. Stephen Van Ren sse la e r (1764 1829), "last of the patroons," was a political leader and so ldier. At the age of five he inherited his father' s extensive lands and on rea c hing maturity was among the wealthiest and mo s t landed per sons in the state of New York. "Patroon" was the Dutch colonial title for the landlord of a large estate. However, Patroon of Albany" wa s a misleading

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22 Barrett Journal private and public acts of beneficenceHe possesses con siderable Estates in other parts of the unionOn Monday the 19 we dined with Mr Van Rensselaer & we met several gentlemen of the neighbourhood, among them a member of Congress The dinner was excellent & Champagne, Burgundy, Madeira, &c very fineI own that on rising from table we were in hopes of again meeting the ladies we had seen at dinner, one of whom, Mrs Paterson, was very clever & communicative, but alas! we were woefully disappointedThe ladies did not make their appearance & we followed the example of the males who had all preceded us in their departure & made our bow; highly delighted with the urbanity of our_ enter tainer, but much displeased at a custom that deprived us of the best part of our entertainment, namely female con versation over a cup of teaIt is true we had before known that this was the fashion of the city of N York, where merchants are never happy but in their counting houses but as neither Mr Robertson or Mr C Wilkes had enforc;d it towards us, we had a reasonable hope that it did not extend so far into the country. We were but indifferently lodged at Albany. The house was incommodiously crowded with lawyers & others in attendance on the court then sitting in the townOur sense of cleanliness was a little alarmed at observing attached to a long string & near a long looking glass a hair brush for the benefit of all who might require its assistance. I must however in justice to the company there assembled allow that I only once saw it usedWe walked into the Court of common pleas & heard three lawyers plead but their accent was so very provincial & the causes so dry that we were glad to escapetitle. The Patroon's domain never i ncluded the city of Albany desp i te the ef fort s of the Van Rensselaers to make it so. Mr. Van Rensselaer began a distinguished political career as he served in various New York State pub l ic offices from 1789 10 1801. He was a member of the United States House of Representatives from 1821 10 1829 where he cast the deciding vote for John Quincy Adams for the presidency. He was a major general in the War of 1812 but resigned after his defeat at Queenston Heights. He was one of the most ardent supporters of the Erie Canal project. Upper New York State We endeavo ured to procure a private carriage on the 20 th to continue our journey, but failing in this object we left Albany that afternoon on the public stage & arrived in a few hours at SchenectadyWednesday the 21. We proceeded on our journey in the same vehicle very much against our inclination for it was by no means a pleasant conveyanceWe had room eno ugh for every part but our legs & they were jammed between innumerable boxes & packages in the bottom of the carriage. The bottom is too deep to rest the feet upon with any comfort, & appeared designed to contain the luggage, but the luggage made our case still worse for it raised our knees to our chins. This was not the lea st of our troubles-some of our fellow passengers had provided themselves with a bottle of Whisky to which they paid their devoirs very often, & the odour arising from it was so offensive that I got a severe cold & pain in my neck by keeping my head stretched out of the window to imb ibe the fresh airI am concerned to say that the dram drinkers were not Americans but English mechanics who had left their own country to seek a better co ndi tion in this. This day we pa ssed thro' Amsterdam, Tripes hill Palatine bridge, Manheim, Little Falls, (where the scenery is most romantic) & Herkimer-all thriving towns or villages-& arrived about 9 pm at Utica. The country along this route is thickly settled; we were never out of 23

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24 Barrett Journal --J Route of Richard Barrett's journey Upper New York State 25 sight of houses, all commodiously builtThe soil is ex cellent, far superior to any we observed between N York and AlbanyThe great number of taverns on this road, almost every house on the road side having a sign, speaks the vast number of emigrations to the Western country & the quantity of commodities that are exchanged between that country & N YorkWe were now 263 miles from N York & we resolved to remain a day at Utica to rest ourselves & consider our future route. Never having seen tin so used before I was surprised to find almost every church we passed with a cupola covered with tin & sometimes the whole upper part of the spireAt Albany some houses are entirely roofed with this metalIt is all from the mines of Cornwall [England], & possesses a great brilliancyOn entering Utica we passed over the second wooden bridge we had found covered with a roof of the same material. No doubt this is a necessary precaution to prevent the too rapid decay of the more important parts. On Friday the 23rd we left Utica in a private carriage very roomy, & comfortable. We felt ourselves in heaven after the horrible punishment of the Stage. We paid for ourselves & two servants from Schenectady to Utica 24 dollars-a distance of 80 miles-& our present vehicle was engaged to carry us to Canandaigua in three days for 48 dollars, the distance 112 milesIt was on this road that we heard the following story of an adventurer to this part of the country whose neat house we saw from the roadThe man was a Dutchman & quite ignorant of reading, writing & of course Arithmetic, but his natural acuteness had supplied this defect & enabled him to realize a considerable property In all his concerns he used a kind of Hieroglyphics only understood by himselfThe anecdote I am about to relate will explain his method. He made application to a neighbour for the repayment of a cheese he professed to have lent him some time before. The neighbour denied

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26 Barrell Journal having ever borrowed a cheese from him & the argument grew warm. At last the Dutchman desired him to recollect i f he had borrowed any thing of him at such a date, at last the neighbour re co llected that he had been accommodated with a grindstone"Ah," says the Dutchman, "so it was-I chalked the ring, but forgot to mark t he hole in the middle-" While at Poughkeepsie we were highly diverted with the manners of our Landlord, so different from any thing we had ever known in England. He was a very civil and communicative man, but perhaps his manners may give a better idea of American feeling of independence, now quite involuntary, & by no means intended to be offen sive. Finding from our questions that we were inclined to know someth ing of his town he prepared to answer our interrogatories. With his hat on his head & no coat on his back, he seated himself on the tableHe smoked his segar, & quite unconscious of any impropriety squirted its saliva to all parts of the room. Yet with all t hi s the man was attentive & obliging & answered our questions with civilityOn the 25th of August we arrived at Canandaigua, a beautiful village situated on a lake of the same name. We had passed thro' a very rich count r y, thronged with in habitants; houses & villages rose on either side of the road & the houses, tho of wood, have a character of neatness highly pleasing. They we re all painted white, & generally of good size & in excellent repair. We met on one part of this road great crowds of people going to what is called a camp meet in gOld & young men & women & even infants at the br east were hurrying a lon g in carts, wagons, coaches & on horseback & on footWe also overtook vast numbers going to settle in the back country. These emigrants are principally from the N. England statesThe lands in their own country are thickly settled & poor, & the young man may with a few hundred dollars find in t h e West a fertile piece of land Upper New York State 27 for sale & if he is industrious in a few years he is com fortably established in a good house & productive farmThe road was quite as good as could be expected in such a new settled country & the view of the lake s Skaneate les Owasco, Cayuga, Seneca & Geneva 1 & their cultivated banks gratified us greatly. Our hosts were in varia bly civil, & our accomodations far better than we had been led to expectI cannot be supposed to know the sta te of society & the civility of the lower orders to travellers & strangers in other parts of the union, but so far as we have yet gone we have found the people enter readily into conversation, respecting their particular district, its soil, inhabitants & politics & also into discus sions regarding their rulers & general government. In no case did we meet a rebuff to our inquisitiveness-& not only were we agreeably deceived in the good disposition of the inhabitants, but we were s urprised to find we had been misinformed in another respectThey did not retort question for question, they satisfied our curiosity freely & demanded no payment in returnThey appeared to hear with interest the contrasts we sometimes drew between our country & theirs, & listened t o the information we gave, but they expressed no desire to be acquainted with what related only to ourselves-they did not pester us with questions as to where we came from, where we were going to, & what was our businessEvery one I had heard, & all the books I had read l ed me to expect this rudeness, & I was therefore the less prepared for conduc t so opposite. Nor is this praise confined to the higher order, it is due to all classes, & having conversed with men of every condition I may be permitted to relate the truth as I found it. On the 25 th of Aug. we dined at Lake Geneva-the Hotel at w hi ch we put up belongs to the Heirs of Sir William Pulteny who are the proprietors of a great tract of country round the lakeThey have disposed of a great I. The Finger Lakes of central New York State include Skaneateles, Owasco, Cayuga, and Seneca lak es, but there is no Lake Geneva. The town of Geneva i s near Lake Seneca.

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28 Barrett Journal dealWe did not enquire the name of their agent, but someone volunteered to tell us that he, like most other representatives of Absentees, was making more money of the lands than the proprietors1 Our Host of the Canandaigua was a federalist. He complained loudly of the Government for entirely ex cluding one part of their fell ow citizens from officeIt is unfortunately the fact that in this nation so free in theory but in practice so overbearing, one entire part of the peo ple is n ot only excluded from power but also from every office of honour or emo l ument under the general govern mentSuch must ever be the case when the head of that government is chosen by one set of citizensThe Federalists are as completely shut out from all office in the United States as the Roman Catholics are in Eng l and & Ireland or the Protestants in SpainThe view I have taken of the political disposition of the people, of their party feeling, & of the actual policy & conduct of their rulers, have more than all the books I have read on the subject, compelled me to give a decided preference to the British constitution and of course to a monarchial head A King of England is not exalted so high over the ranks of his subjects as to become dizzy with the con templation of his own grandeur, his power & his splen dour rise & fall with the prosperity of t h e nation, with whose free will he reigns, the interests of the Nation are identified with hisAs King he possesses no extraor dinary attributes, except those of doing good Wise laws have placed evil beyond his reach He beholds himself, not the creation of a faction, but the chief magistrate of a great nation; He is too weak to govern by ministers ob noxious to the people, yet strong enough to resist idle clamour till reason resumes her swayHis reasonable desires are gratified by a generous people almost before they are known; even h is partialities are respected. He does not want the means of rewarding personal attachI. The Pulteny Estate incl uded 1,200,000 acres along Lak e Ontario and the Genesee River. The inheritor s referred to were probably members of the family of Sir Frederick Johnstone. Upper New York State 29 ment. But when the passions of a bad prince may become dangerous to his subjects & himself, the Law & the Con stitution oppose a barrier neither to be undermined or leapt over A Kingly crown so limited, yet so endowed, has no thorns. He, who wears it, is beyond the power of faction to terrify or enslave, the voice of his people is his guide, & the law is sacred to him, popular tumult en dangers not his person, & discontented nobles embarrass not hi s governmentHappy is the people who possess suc h a King & happy the King who knows hi s authority & is content. How different is the situation of the American Presi dent! But we will first consider the beautiful part of the PictureHe is elected to rule his fellow citizens & his eq uals by them whom he is to governHe is placed over them by their laws, his powers are defined by a written codeThe term of his power is limited to four years, when if not reelected, he again sinks into the ranks. His mind has not been poisoned by flattery in his youth, he is, or ought to be chosen for his virtues & his talents, he is not likely to abuse a power which may afterwards be used by another against himself He will listen to the wishes of the people, because he has been & will again be one of them-his authority n ot being hereditary he wi!E have no temptation to overrun it Such is a President as he s hould be, but not the President as he is. He is elected to his chair by a great faction, of which he is but one, he is offered to the peo ple by the heads of the faction, not called for by their own unbiased voice. These heads meet together in secret conclave on the eve of an election, the question is which among themselves s hall have the support of the party They know very well that a divided house cannot stand, that their opponent s are numerous & active & watching the opportunity to s upplant themThus whatever may be the pretensions of other candidates, & among so many ambitious men there must be many, as soon as the future president i s fixed on by the majority, all opposition ceasesThe whole might of the whole party now has but

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30 Barrett Journal one objectThey succeed, & behold the President of the U States, not the chosen of the people, not the chief magistrate of a nation, but the tool of a factionHe is considered by those who have raised him to the Presiden tial chair not as a superior, but as a comrade, as a man whom they have chosen rather to be the organ of his par ty, than the representative of the interests & powers of the people. Woe unto him if he attempts to throw off his trammels or even to assume a larger share of influence than his fellows are inclined to give him, he cannot back down the ladder t hat he rose byAn authority of 4 years duration cannot be strong, the constitution of the country gives ample prerogatives to its head but the prerogatives can only be safe ly exercised in conjunction with the leading demagogues. In a country where wealth & rank hav e no influence, where the rights of Electors are not confined to those who know how to exercise them, where men who have least to lose have the loudest voice, it is not difficul t to guess in whose hands the means of directing this mass will fall. Ambitious & bold men have here a wide field to exercise their talents inThey know well how to stir up the passions of the people, & guide them to their pur posesIn America Riches are looked on with an eye of jealousy. Even talent is disregarded except of a certain class. A boisterous & angry eloq uence, panegyrizing the virtues of the Americans, exalting their valour & prowess, & debasing their political foes is the only successful talentThe more tumid the praise, & the more horrid the invectives against domestic or foreign enemies, the greater the impression on an ignorant & vain glorious mobThe faction who have by such means acquired an influence among the people possess not solely the ability of raising one of themselves to the Presidential honours, but they have the same power to punish him on the first appearance of resistance to their sovereign mandates Their eagle eyes are ever on t he watch should they discover an effort to strengthen his power by attaching a party to hi s own person, they would consider it as a Upper New York State 31 dereliction of duty not to be forgiven, & the whole body of his former friends would in stantly be opposed to him. But it is not difficult in the first instance to guard against the election of a man who may afterwards become dangerous. The Pre s ident of moderate talents is more likely to be grateful for an honour he could not have ex pected, he will more readily submit to dictation, & have less influence to form a third party in the state; such therefo r e will be the object of their choiceIt will someti mes happen, that in their management of the p eople, the party may not always be able to guide the passions they have raisedIt is then hurried on in spite of itself to the commission of errors, dangerous to the well being of the Commonwealth. Nor is the party blind to the consequences of its evil policy; but the leaders know not how to retrograde, without confess ing their baseness & laying themselves open to the assaults of their political opponents: Their power is dearer to them than their country. They depend on chance to extricate them from their embarrassments, & they depend still more on the suspicion & hatred in which one part of the citizens hold the other. In fact so violent is party spir it in these states that if any measure is proposed on one side it is sure to be reviled on the other; the Editors of newspapers and ruling pamphleteers are enlisted, di sputes grow warmer, till at last the measure itself is forgotten in personal altercationIf the measure is successful, the op posers do not confess themselves defeated, if it fails, the cause is attributed to some influence not to be counter acted, or to any thing rather than the imbecility of its supporters: The whole people ha s id entified itself with certain leader s, no man is neuter, & no man let what will happen will admit that his opinions were wrongThe measures of his leaders have been extolled before they were executed, he feels himself pledged to defend them; nor can he distinguish between the passions which have been incited by ambitious demagogues, & the better feel ings he would have owned had he been left to his own sober reason: He is desirous of exc u sing disasters,

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32 Barrett Journal Upper New York State 33 because he supposes himself in some degree a promoter of the causes that led to them, he forgets from whence he received the first impulse, & is too honest in remembering that with the same power he would have used it to the same endNor will this appear surprising to those, who know the fickleness of the lower & more numerous classes of European nations, when they also know that in the United States every man considers himself as in dividua lly important to his partyHe is one of the sovereign people, he is almost daily called on to give his voice in the election of his ruler s, he is courted by those who have need of his vote, & reads in every newspaper (for they can all read) that all authority is lodged in the peop le, that every government but self government is tyrannical, that he & his compatriots only are free, & that all other nations are s lavesVain of his fancied im portance & taught to hate even his coun trymen if out of his own pale, we cannot be surpr ised, if no bad fortune enduces him to forsake his friends, or extorts from him a confession of their fallibilityBesides there is no middle way for the citizen to take, he must be a Democrat, a Federalist or nothing. If these remarks are just, it follows that it is the power of the party, not the power lodged in the President by the constitution, which governs AmericaThe mem bers of the Public [Offices] must be chosen from that par ty & all the influence of Government exerted, all its patro nage distributed with the view to s upport & enlarge it. Aug 26. Arrived about dark at Canandaigua' by much the prettiest village we have seen in AmericaIt is situated on the lake after which it is named. I. It will be noticed that this is the author's second mention of an arrival at Canandaigua, but a day later. Either chronology wa s once again confu s ed as earlier with West Point or the author made a short trip around the lakes and did indeed arrive twice in Canandaigua.

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,.., !.::::..... 34 Barrett Journal Aug. 27 1 ~ We called on Mr Grieg, a Gentleman of the law, to whom we had a letter of introduction & we ac cepted his invitation to dine with himWe were much pleased with Mr Grieg's conversation, he is a shrewd, sen sible man. He is originally from Scotland, & if I may judge from his hospitality displayed towards us, has suc ceeded like most other emigrants from his country' We met at his house one of his countrymen, but of a very opposite description to our entertainer. He took pains to inform us that he had an Estate in Scotland, that he had been a great traveller, & that he possessed 5000 acres on Lake OntarioWe pressed him pretty hard on the causes that induced him to forsake his native land, where according to his own confession he had sufficient to maintain himself & family in comfort. He complained of the weight of taxes yet was obliged to acknowlege th em necessary, & that England had saved the world by her perseverance in a good causeAt last we succeeded in wringing from him an idle story of a tax gatherer, who had accepted his invitation to drink wine & while the g la ss was at his lips, asked to whom a pony belonged that was passing by the house, the poor host confessed it to be his son's & that it was not given in for, because when purchased ponies of that height were not taxable. The honest taxgatherer finished his bottle & added the pony to the list of carriages, horses, servants &c before entered. The pomposity with which this story was told & the evi d ent delight he felt in talking of his carriages, horses & servants, &c were exceedingly entertainingWe afterwards got him to walk with us to a fine house that was building in the same street. The owner's son was there & was kind enough to s how u s over the roomsThe Scot was in raptures. My relation & myself could not admire it & were too polite to censure, but our commendation was not missed in the profusion of the I John Greig (1779 1858) came to the United States from Scotland in 1 797 He s tudied law and after being admitted to the bar in 1804 he began hi s prac tice in Canandaigua He later became president of Ontario Bank and served briefly in the United States House of Repre se ntative s in 1841. Upper New York State 35 Scot's praises o f the taste, design, convenience &c &c but no sooner did we turn our backs on th e house & the young gentleman before he lifted up his hands in astonishment that so much money should have been squandered to so little purposeWe had great difficulty in getting a carriage from Canandaigua, & at last thought ourselves fortunate in procuring a machine somewhat better than a Covent Garden fruit cart, 1 with three seats in what may be called a box this box rested upon springs placed in the cart & was convenient enough to the owner, as on removing the seats he had a cart to go to market & on replacing them, he had a coach for himself & family to go to churchThe driver, who was also the proprietor, altho' on his return home to Batavia 50 miles on our journey, whence he had brought passengers & had as usual been paid already for returning, & altho' he was master of so wretched a machine, would have the stage fare. Findi n g conveyances so difficult to be had & disliking st ill more a crowded stage we hired him on to Buffalo a distance of 88 miles for 26 dollars. Our road lay thro' a low country. The greater part was a causeway formed of trunks of trees & so spar.ing had the inhabitants been of their soil, that we could by our feelings have counted every tree we jolted overA coachman had too much love for his horses & vehicle not to wish the road better, & once after a long silence turned round to us & exclaimed, ''This road is quite as good as an electur ising [sic] machine."We arrived about 10 at night at the house of our driver in Batavia who kept a tavern & it was a tolerably good one, & he the civilest of beings. Altho' on the road he had favoured us with his company at table, as soon as he was in his own house, he kept a due distance, & permitted us to eat aloneI. Cove nt Garden was the principal flower, fruit, and vegetable market in London.

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The Niagara Frontier We proceeded after breakfast, and reached Buffa l o about s un s et. The road was op e n on both sides the greater part o f the journey & the settlements appeared thicker & more flouri s hing as we approached the frontier, a proof of the gr e at trade carried on down the St LawrenceWe found allmost (sic] the whole crop of oats disposed of to the C anadians & we called at several stores before we could get a feed for our horses Buffalo was burnt in the l ast w a r in revenge for the destruction of Newark.' I l ooked in vain for walls black with fire, & for half-consumed b e ams, none were to be seen The town is better built t han e ver & the houses as numerous & increasing rapidly At our inn we were attended by a waiter, who im mediately struck us as having once been a British soldier To our questions he replied that he wa s from Dubli n & w ith 9 others had deserted the 37 th Reg He also told us that 350 men had deserted the 37 R I alone. They got nothing from the A[merican] governor no r did he believed a n y of hi s companion s got any thingHe profe s sed not to like America but to be afraid to returnWe c ro sse d the River Niagara at Black Rock the n e xt m o rning the 29th Th e road wa s v e ry good on th e Canada I. Bu f f a l o a n d Bla c k R ock, New Yo rk, we r e bu rned to the g ro un d b y t h e Br i tis h o n D ece mb e r 30 1 81 3, 2 0 d a ys af t er the Am er i c an s had burne d Newa rk. On t ari o ( n ow Niaga rao n-th e -Lak e). wh i c h h a d pr eviously bee n t h e cap i tal of Uppe r Ca n a d a. 37

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38 Barrett Journal The Niagara Frontier 39 side & the country well cultivated & thickly settledWe passed what had once been a wooden building, the two chimneys alone remained standing, a melancholy memen to of the ferocity with which the last war was carried on. Our driver stopped to bait at an Inn, & we took the op portunity of conversing with the first Canadian we had yet met, in the person of the masterHe expressed the bitterest animosity against the Americans, & longed for another trial of strength between the two nationsWe asked him if he was not afraid of having his house burnt & his crops destroyed, he said they had already burnt one house for him & carried away all he had, but altho' he had built another house, he would hazard a second con flagration to retaliate the injuries he had suffered. We afterwards found among all those with whom we conversed a similar animosity against the Yankees as they call them, & it is to be feared that in case of another war, it will rage in all its horrors-Fire will prove more de s tructive than the sword. About five miles from the falls, we saw the dark vapour which marks them in the distance-& shortly after we heard the roar of the waters Altho' our expec tation was wound up to the highest pitch by the numberless accounts we had heard of this great wonder, yet did the reality far exceed the description. Feeling so strongly as I do, that no depicter of this scene has suc ceeded in his attempt to do justice to the grandeur & sublimity of Niagara, that there [is] nothing in the world with which to compare it, I would be guilty of inex cusable vanity were I to offer a description. None but those who have seen them can form an idea of these cataracts, nor can any one without the ginious [sic] of a Shakespeare assist the imagination of the admirer of such scenes. I saw in N York a painting of these falls by Mr Vandilin, an American artist who received from the Societe D 'Artists in Paris the first prize of painting given by the late Emperor Napoleon for his picture of Marius sitting amidst the ruins of CarthageThis prize picture was admirable, but the falls appeared to me tame, &

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40 Barrett Journal wanting the character of Awful greatness my fancy had led me to expect & had as it proved to be of the truth-' But at this moment when but few hours have gone by since I stood on the very edge of the precipice & was giddy with the sight of the mighty mass of waters rushing down it, when I saw beneath my feet a t hou sand whirlpools throwing up a white vapour so dense as to conceal, as with a veil of snow, the torrent before it reached the rocks beneath, I can no longer wonder that his art failed him. I remember the lines of the Poet. What skilful limner e'er would choose To paint the rainbows varied hues Unless to mortals it were given To dip his brush in dyes of Heaven. 2 Here too the rainbow is to be painted. The reflection of the sun on the foam forms a rainbow as complete, tho' not as extended & as varied in its hues as that which st r et ches over the arch of heaven Nature laughs at the ef forts of Art, to delineate the brilliant green she gives to this great river when it has reached the edge of the gulph {sic] & which s h e continues to one fourth of the descent She then exhibits the purest white, & throws her colours & her works into shades & forms such as no pencil can catch, & no imagination equalWe walked from this glory of t he New world, to an Inn kept by a Canadian, Mr Forsythe. 3 We found here a large company, who as well as ourselves were also on a visit to the falls. We were comfortably situated, & our host was as commun i cative as we could desire. He had been in several of the actions, & his house having been I. John Vanderlyn (I 776-1852), portrait and historical painter, rendered various views of the Niagara Falls during hi s career. Four views of the Falls were done in 1802 03, two of which he had engraved in 1804 and were subse quently exhibited in America. In all of these paintings his choict: of including the river and the surrounding landscape above the cataract resulted in unspec tactular portrayals which failed to convey the awesome power of the Fall s. For the painting of "Marius s ittin g amidst the ruins of Carthage," the Emperor Napoleon (who abdicated in June 1815) had presented Vanderlyn with a gold medal in 1808. 2. Marmion, canto vi, stanza 5, by Sir Walter Scott, fi r st published in 1808. 3. William Forsyth wa s an e nterprising Canadian who in later years built the famou s Pavilion Hotel and attempted to monopolize the view of the falls. The Niagara Frontier 41 the head quarters several times, & British officers con sta ntly with him, he was able to give a very particular description of the battles. His account agreed so minutely with what I recollected of the official details that I place the utmost reliance on his veracity. He was describing to us the battle of Lundie Lane, when a Quaker of N York, who had come with his pretty wife to visit some "friends" on this s ide the line observed that the American force advanced the following day & offered battle to the British. This was so promptly denied by our host, who declared that they retreated that night three miles & the following day to Fort Erie I 8 miles from the fieldH e admitted that a few dragoons had next day burnt some mills in the neighbourhood. "Why," said the honest Canadian, "I must be allowed to know someth ing about it. I had been assured that no fighting was to be apprehended & had gone to the woods to bring home my cattle. In the mean time the Americans advanced & on my return I learnt that the bat tle was then fighting on my own landI staid where I was for fear of losing my cattle, but next day hearing we had drubbed the Yankees, I came home & if they had ad vanced I must have seen them from my windowsAsk my wife there & the women, they were here the whole of the fight, & they will tell you the house was riddled with cannon & musquet balls. Give the devil his due, say I, I confess the Yankees beat us at Chippeway, 2 but when we have our turn & thresh them I will not allow any man to claim the victory from us without saying it is fib whoever told him so. Why," he continued, "I took two Americans myself the day after the battle & carried them to the Gen~" The Quaker said it was universally believed thro' the United States that General Ripley had advanced & of1. The battle of Lundy's Lane was a fierce confrontation of the War of 1812, which took place a shor t distance west of the Niagara Falls on July 25, 1814. Although the Americans were in the ascendancy f?r much of the e~rly part of the battle and many have chron icled it as an American victory, the final outcome is now generally accepted as a Brit is h victory. 2. The battle of Chippewa took place on July 5, 1814, less than a month before the battle of Lundy's Lane. The Americans g ained an important victory in the attack on the Niagara frontier and the campaign against Canada

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i,,, 42 Barrett Journal fered battle the day following the action, 1 & he next observed that the Americans had but 800 men remaining & the British had a force of 5000I asked him if he thought any General in his sober senses would lead a defeated army of 800 men to the face of 5000 conquerorsThe Quaker was silent, but the Canadian sa id, he wished to God they had advanced, that not a man could have escaped, & that as it was, they would all have been taken, had the British pursued the next morning-but they had marched the day of the battle 13 miles at double quick time, & the General Drummond 2 thought it advisable to rest his troopsIn the mean time the Quaker had stepped out of the room, & interrogated the landlady & two other females of the family they agreed in their evidence so exactly with the Landlord, that he could no longer deceive himself, & he came back to us candidly confessing his conviction that the American gen 1 had given an incorrect report, & had suc ceeded in blind i ng the whole people of the U States to the real truth of the matter. After thus on the very spot prov ing the little dependance that can be placed on American official dispatches, what Englishman or unprejudiced stranger can hesitate w he re to fix his b elief when these dispatches differ in their own favor from those of the British Commanders by sea or by landWe were de siro us of knowing the extent of desertion from the British troops & colonists-Our host did not profess himself able to give any positive information, but on being further asked if the desertions accounted to 3 or 4000 he said certainly not, not half that number-& that many Americans had come over to us. There were deser tions on both s id es. Some Canadian settle r s had gone over to the enemy, among them our poor host's eldest son. He lamented his depravity greatly, said he was a very smart lad of about 15 or 16. He could not guess his in1. General E l eazar Wheelock Ripley removed 3 miles to an encampment following the battle. In view of his troops' condition, he retreated to Fort Erie despite hi s commanding officer's order to renew the attack. 2. Sir Gordon Drummond was the general in command of British troops at Lundy's L ane. Later in the same year he laid siege to and occupied Fort Erie. The Niagara Frontier 43 ducement for deserting his family & countryH e further said he never could forgive him, he had immediately on hearing of the fact, destroyed t h e will by which he was provided for, & had never enquired what had been his fate. He had 200 acres of fine land in right of his mother, which he should not have if he could help it. He said [he] had never ill-treated him, nor had they any quarrel at the time, & I believed him, for never did I see a more affec tionate husband or fatherH e has eleven children, & one or other of the younger ones was constantly in his armsHe had a thorough dete st ation of the American s & felt strongly the ble ss ings of Briti s h protection. He ex pressed great triumph in compar in g the two governments at having learnt from U.S. travellers that the war had been followed by heavy taxes & that they were likely to be increased, their finances being in a disorganised state. He observed that the Canadians had little or nothing to pay to government, while they enjoyed the protection of per sons & property & mild lawsHe relied with confidence on being remunerated for his losses during the invasion by the Powers at homeHe complained that the U.S. Army had robbed his house of every moveable article & even the baby linen of his infant in the cradle was taken. Hi s wife to ld us (his 2d w if e & a very lively pretty woman) that she had begged the soldiers to leave the property un molested & that she would give them all she had to eat & drink, but they called her a damned Canadian bitch & continue d their search. Th e officers were as bad as the men. There was a man in the house who had lost his right arm, thinking it might have been shot off in the war we asked him about it. He had lost it by an accident in shooting squirelsBut we were afterwards told that t h is man had behaved most gallantly, that with his left arm he loaded & discharged his piece as readily as the soundest limbed among themHis property being so considerable as to put him above receiving a pecuniary residence, a fort which was built lately has been called by his name.

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44 Barrett Journal He said the honour was dearer to h i m than any compen sation in money. I have before spoken of a Canadian who expressed great enmity against the Americans & was desirous of another warIt was the first Canadian we conversed with, but I forgot to state a better reason for this animosity than even the destruction of his property. The Americans on their Retreat from the battle of Lundie Lane had taken him & 7 more men prisoners on their march they carried them into Fort Erie which was short ly afterwards bombarded by the BritishOur informant & his unfortunate comrades were exposed to the fire of their own troops equally with the AmericansThey repeatedly begged either to be set at liberty or be sent to the opposite shore, for they justly thought it a hard case to run the hazard of death by the hand s of their coun trymen Their request was repulsed with great har shness & not complied with. Surely this act is contrary to all the laws of civilised nations War if not a necessary is an unavoidable evil & he who does not less en its evils by conforming to the laws of modern warfare, deserves t he execration of all good men, whatever may be their coun tryGen 1 Ripley commanded the Fort. The man from whom I had this account said he had not been taken in arms. We passed Grand Isle in this day's route, an Island formed by the separation of the Niagara into two branches. It is st i ll undecided to which nation it belongs-& is among the other unsettled points in dispute referred to the Commissioners provided by the treaty of peace-' The Niagara is the boundary between the two countr ie s on this part of the line & the question is which of the two branches is to be considered the main channel of the river The Americans claim it because the stream that flows along the B. coast is deeper & therefore must be the principal channel, the British found their r i ght on I. The Trea1y of Ghen1. which officially 1ermina1ed 1he War of 1812 on December 24, 1814, designa 1 ed 1ha1 boundarie s s hou l d reiurn 10 1heir s1 a1c before the war began and 1ha1 comm i ssioners s hould be appoi111ed 10 se11le boundar y dispu1cs. Grand I sla nd is 1oday a pan of 1he s1a1e of New York. The Niagara Front i er 45 the river being much wider on the other side than on theirs. I t will be difficult for casuists to determine this knotty case, but in the mean time, the State of N York have proved that they have no doubt about the right, for they have actually purchased the Indian claims, & this while the question is still pending between the two governments This haste is at least indecent & prematureOur host informed us that he had entertained the head surgeon of the US Army that fought at Lundie Lane. He learnt from h i m that the wounds of 1500 men were dressed after the battle-500 men were found dead on the fie l d & some prisoners were taken. He represented our loss at about 700 men in all-' August 30. This day we had intended to pay a second visit to the falls, but the morning opened with a heavy [rain) & it continued till the afternoonWe got our host to show us the field of Battle called by the Americans the Battle of Bridgewater & by us the Battle of Lundie's Lane. I have before stated that the Tavern we are in was struck by many balls, but the hot test of the engagement was some hundred yards distant We walked to a rising where the British were posted in force & from whence their artillery commanded the ground on their right & front & part of that to the left. The position was well chosenThe Glengary fencibles 2 were posted in a small ravine in a field of standing oats in advance of the main body on the hill. The American s pushed on a force towards the hill, but as soon as they came within musquet shot they were checked by a well directed fire from the Glengarians-eighteen men are said to have fallen by the first volley besides wounded. They then marched round to the right of the Glengarians with the intention of outflanking them, but the latter threw I. The Americans reponed 101al l osses 10 be 853 men including 171 killed, wh i le General Drummond rcponed British losses of 878 men 111clud111g 84 killed. 2. The Glengary (or Glengarry) fencible s were a regimen! of Canadian regu lar s recrui1ed from Sco1smen i n Canada.

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46 Barrett Journal The Niagara Frontier 47 back their right & gave the enemy a second fire as destructive as the former. The Glengarians were so well covered by the ravine concealed from view by the stand ing grain, that only 3 or 4 were killed by the American shot. Foiled in this attack, the e nemy now marched behind a small rising that lay to the left of the British position & which protected them from the fire, in this at tack they succeededA party of them got in the rear of the British & took prisoner the gallant Genl Riall,' who had received a wound and retired to get it dressedFrom the commanding position held by the British troops, no doubt there must have b een a great slaughter among the Americans before they could reach the cannon, but they did reach them & were for a few minutes in possession of them. 2 But Gen 1 Drummond had by t hi s time reached the scene of the actionHe had been marching that day in an opposite direction & had proceeded three miles, when an order came from Gen 1 Riall to join him a t the falls, as he i ntended to make a sta nd there; he was obliged to counter march these three miles & was still seven miles from the field of battle. It was late at night when he arrived the moon gave so me light but the roar of t he cannon & musquetry was his best guideUnfortunately in marching up Lundie's Lane the first troops he met were the Glengary fencibles, they were mistaken for enem ie s & fired upon. Some few were wounded by this mistake, but the brave Glengarians were soon discovered to be friends. The Enemy had not advanced from the spot where the cannon had fallen into their hands, & the British being now equal in number the Americans re treated as fast as they could. Night was favourable to them but out of 3000 I. Sir Phinea s Rial! was seco nd-in-command of the British troops at Lundy's Lane. He later led the Briti s h and Indian s in the sack of Buffalo and Blac k Rock. 2 General Drummond reported that the Americans were in control of the British artillery for a "few minutes." According to historian Henry Adams, "Drummo nd' s 'few minutes' were three hours." The Americans held the guns until they retr eated at midnight and left them with the intention of retrieving them later. When men were sent back the next morning, the Briti sh were a lready in possession of the guns.

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48 Barrett Journal men only 800 escaped. They carried with them the brave Riall & one piece of brass artillery & left behind three of their ownThey pretended to have had the power of car rying off the artillery had they possessed horses, but this is not to be believed-SO men had they been as long in possession of the Guns as they pretend could have carried them off, the fact however is that they had not even time to spike them. Our troops were too much fatigued with their rapid march & the subsequent action to pursue the enemy far & they had but three rounds of ammunition re mainingOur host pointed out to us the funeral pyres of the American dead. They were consumed in two heaps, & many were thrown into a well & covered with earth Their countrymen who visit the spot have dug up the bones nearer the surface & carried them away as reliques On the spot where the well had been we saw several bones that had been dug up this way & left behind to be taken no doubt by the next visitors. This battle took place on the 25 of JulyThe Americans doubled our number in the early part of the engagement, it began three quarters of an hour before sunset & las ted till IO at night. We left Fort Erie to which the enemy retreated the day after the action on the left in passing the Niagara, & we learnt that the fort had not been rebuilt since it was blown up by the US Army' & that only a few men were stationed there. A mud fort has been thrown up at Chip peway, where the creek of that name falls into the Niagara, since the war, & a detachment of the 37th is sta tioned there. The British, Canadians & Indians were defeated here just 20 days before the battle of Lundie's LaneThe Indians ran away after the first fire. Indeed these savages, who are only terrible to a retreating enemy or a defenceless country are represented to have been of little service during the warOn one oc casion only was their assistance important. In the act ion I. Fort Erie was occupied for over a year by the United States but on November 5, 1814, the officer-in-command decided to abandon and b l ow up the fort. The Niagara Frontier 49 of Beaver dams a few regulars & militia & a large party of Indians took prisoners near seven hundred Americans The Americans were surrounded in a field enclosed on all sides with woodsThe Indians were now quite at home, being concealed behind trees, they were able to take aim at their enemies witho ut being exposed to thei r shot. The slaughter was dreadful, the Americans were huddled together like a flock of sheep as our host observed, who was in the action. They stood the fire some time, but finding their ranks thinning every moment they hoiste~ the white flag & submitted to t he regulars. Perhaps t heu surrender was delayed from their fears of the Indian ferocity, for al tho' they did not see their eneil1:ies t~eir yells informed them what they had to dread, & m laymg down their arms, they entreated the British officers to protect them against the Indians-' The hill on which the British were posted at the bat tle of Lundie Lane is the burying ground of the neighbouring districtsHere our host pointed out to us the tomb of the lamented Colonel Bishop who fell at the attack of Black Rock2 He has no stone to mark where he lies but tradition will point out the spot as long as the Bri;ish name is respected in Canada, & as long as it i s thought noble to die for our country. Lieut Andrew lie s near him. He died of hi s wounds received while gallantly leading his company to the assault of Fort Erie. 3 If we lament the death of the brave, even when led by their leaders to unjust war, how much more ought we to regret the fate of those who fall in defence of an unof1. The battle of Beaver Dams (also known as the battle of the Beechwoods) occurred on June 24, 1813, in a heavy beech forest west of Queenston, Ontario. About 570 Americans were besieged by about 80 British regulars, 200 militiamen and 500 Indians. Afterwards, the British officer in-command gave full credit 'for the victory to the Indians and stated that his chief contribution had been to prevent them from abusing the surren~~red A~ericans. 2. Lieutenant-Colonel Cecil Bisshopp was a British officer with a seemingly promising future whose death was greatly mourned by t~e Br_itish servic~. It was especially lamentable that his fatal wo unds were received m the relatively unimportant raid on Black Rock of J uly 11, 1813. 3. Lieutenant Andrews of the 6th Foot was listed by the ~nt1sh as severely wounded after their unsuccessful attempt to recover Fort Erie on August 15, 1814.

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50 Barrett Journal fending people. The unprovoked invasion of these prov inces b y their more powerful neighbour, when t h eir protectors were engaged in a tremendous contest at home, lays open to the wor ld the ambitious designs of the American democracyIt is believed that t he governmen t of the United States were never se riou s in their threats of conquering Canada-that war which had been so long the watchword became at l ength the political Engine of the party. The want of preparation & the feeble force employed to execute their threats warrant this belief. And how long will it be before, to secure the election of another Pre s ident, it may be necessary a third time to in vade Canada, to plunder & destroy the houses of the peasantry, & to Jay Newa rk a second time to ashes? What wi ll that government be in its old age that is so depraved in its youth? 2 It is to be feared that only the danger of a terrible retaliation will keep the se proud republicans tranquil; their immense frontier of land & sea, & the thin & un warlike popu l ation by which it is defended are the o nl y safeguard of the Canadians again st their cruel n eig hbour. I am humane enough to wish that many Washington s had been destroyed. 1 It is better that the works of man shou l d peri s h, than that the hands that raised them s ho uld be employed against a people who have done them no wrong, & who are too weak to meditate anyIn justice to the Canadians, whom Eng lan d is bound in duty to pro tect, in gratitude to t h e people, who so brave l y & s uc cessfully defended her possessions & their own, the British administration must in the event of another war use the vast means of annoyance she possesses in teaching this new Empire all its horrors. America ha s many fine cit i es, s he offers more than one Copenhagen to her enemies."A long war & a merciful one" is said to have I It has frequently been conjectured that Jame s Madi so n really desired peace but in 1812 opted for war with Great Britain in order 10 appease the ex tremists of his party and to secure his renomination for the presidency. 2. This discomforting question the author later judged to be too severe and the entire sentence was crossed out. 3. The public buildings in Washington were burned by the British in a raid carried out in August 1814, in retaliation for the destruction of Newark by the American forces. The Niagara Frontier 51 been the common toast at the officers' tables during the revolutionary war, when Sir W Howe had the command, I trust that neither our mini ste r s, nor our commanders will voice this sa rcasm. Let me not be supposed from these observations to wish for another war. Enough of brothers' blood ha s been shed by two nation s descended from our parent stockBut Eng l and was no t the agg r essor la st war, & t_he conditions on which peace was concluded prove her will ingness to cultivate friendship with the U States. What those Sta t es have once done, t h ey may aga in d?, & the forbearance of England will only encourage new m su lts: England h as been too mild & te mp erate Unapt to stir at th ese indignities & they have found her so-&c. &c The Canadians are ju stly dissatisfied with the terms on which the late treaty was made, they have neither in demnity for the past, nor security for the future. They talk however with pleasure of the burnings of Buffa!~ & Washington, & justly consider them event s ~f more u~ portance to their interest s & more conducive to their future safety, than all the battles that were fought. A def eat by l and they say, is easily made pal_a~able to American vanity, as was the Slaughter of Lun?1e s Lane, but the conflagration of t h e ir towns & dwelling s c?mes home to all. Then the grim f ea tu re s of war appear m all their terrors, & they learn forbearance to others, from dread of the consequences to themselvesThe 31 s_ t Saturday we descended the ladder placed against the precipice by Govr Simcoe's lady & walked a con siderab le distance along a narrow path over rough loose stones. In some parts we were obliged to u se both ha nds & feet. I was s urpri se d to learn that many ladie s are bold enough to despise the fatigue & danger & that so me have I. Elizabeth Simcoe (1766-1850), wife of John Gra vcs Simcoe (first lieuten ant governor of upper Canada) visited Niagara Falls m 1795 and. had a ladder put in place so visitors could view the cataract from below. Thi s ladde r was fastened to a tree at the top and was anc hored 10 a rock at the lower end. II re mained in use until 1818

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52 Barrett Journal eve n ventured under the sheet of water. Altho' the sce ne viewed so near the bed of the river was amazingly grand & terrific yet I think it still grander from the place we first saw it, the Table rock. We passed under th e vast sheet as far as we could penetrate, the Spray fell in tor rents on our h eads & drenched us in an in s tant, causing some difficulty of breathing. The spray here is so great as almost to co nc eal the falling river above us, but every now & then a gust of wind cleared away the mis t & displayed to us all the majestyThat evening we were joined at our Tavern by a Virginian & two Ladies-the patriotism of the Ladies was amusingOne of them thought that the English might possibly be as brave as the Americans, but the other rebuked her for this admission & asked her with ev i dent astonishment if she really thought any people so brave as the Americans? I assured this fema l e patriot that her countrymen in all parts of the world were allowed to be the most valian t race that ever drew the sword. Nothing less would have contented t hi s Southern Lady. As to their companion the Virginian youth, he was a fiery democratNever did the domain of Party & Prej udice so entirely possess a human being. He could not hear with patience the praise of any nation but hi s own. Still less cou ld he endure that the beauty of her institu tions should be called in questionIf in support of our argument we quoted the opinion of his own countrymen, he answered, "Oh, they must have been federalists, & we hold them in the utmost contempt & abhorrence. Nothing is true tha t comes from them." H aving permitted him to run on some time in praise of the US army & navy during the last war in support of which glory he unfortunately hit on some battles w h ere they had been well drubbed, I replied to him, "Why it is possible that your army & navy may have obtained great honours during the con fli ct, & I lament that their glory has no t spread further. But unfortunately for them the attention and efforts of the British government & people were directed to objects of so much more importance to the world at large, that were then occurring in Europe The Niagara Fronti e r 53 that their eyes were scarcely turned for an instant from those stupendous events' to the petty s kirmishing in a dis tant & unknown province of the Empire, & I apprehend that the rest of Europe then struggling for Existence, knows but little of the fame of your victories-" The Virginian 's pale face reddened at this sarcasm brought on him by his abused nationality, & he endeavoured to retort it by saying-that American affairs must certainly have drawn the attention o f England si nce there was a co nfes sio n of their fear of America in the univer sal illumina tions that took place in celebration of the Shannon's vic tory over the Chesapeake 2 Our grav it y could not resist this attack, & as soo n as we could s tifle our laughter, we assured him that the capture of the Chesapeake had not ca used the increased consumption of a single rushlight His amazement at our denial of what he considered an undisputable fact was as laughable as the triumph with which he had stated it. Thus are these poor people deceived by the press they glory in, & I really think that in spite of our assurances the Virginian yet be l ieves in his illumination in commo~ no doubt with the rest of his compatriots. This man regretted much the overthrow of Buonaparte, it was his opinion & the opinion of all the demo c r ats who had not official situations to connect them close enough with the French Government, to know Napoleon better, tha t he intended when he had modelled Europe into a rep ublican form, to resign his power & leave the people to the enjoyment of unrestrained liberty. His alliance with Austria, the coronation of the King of Rom!, his division of Kingdoms amongst his own family prove nothing against this speculation in favor of their h ero, their hero in their eyesI Grea t Britain and her a lli e~ struggled against France and Napoleon from 1808 t o 1814 in th e Peninsular War 2. The British frigate Slw11no11 captured the United States frigate C hesap ea ke on June I, 1813 After th e many American naval victories in the war up to that time. this victory at l east helped to offset t he mora l effec t of the previou~ disasters on the British

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Upper Canada Leaving the Virginian & Niagara falls on the 1 st of Septr (Sunday) we proceeded in a cart & pair to NewarkThis town is rapidly rising from its ashes, its unwarrantable destruction by the American Gen 1 McClure, 1 by birth a N. Briton, gave a destructive character to the war that ultimately proved most injurious to the enemy himself Buffalo, Washington & much private property on the sea & land frontier followed the fate of Newark by a just retaliation. The Americans on the Canada frontier ex press the greatest animosity towards Gen 1 McClure. They consider him as the Author of the miseries they endured, his person was not safe among them, & he r equired a body of soldiers to escort him thro' their country on his return homeThe U States government are said to have disapproved of his conduct, & he was dismissed from his command. This was all the punishment they dared to in flict on this wanton incendiary.We called at Mr Dickson's to whom we had letters of introduction, he was not at home but we saw his wife & two sons. Mr & Mrs Dickson remained in their house at the breaking out of the war expecting to be l eft un molested. He however was carried away prisoner & kept so with many others not found in arms till the peace'. Mrs Dickson still remained in her house to take care of her I General George McClure's attempted justification for burning Newark was that he was depriving the British of winter quarters. This seems unlikely, since he left enough tents to accommodate a whole a rmy when nearby Fort George was abandoned. 55

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56 Barrett Journal 0 "' :::, 0 ::r: C 0 "' .!,( () i5 0 .c EUpper Canada 57 property. When the Americans were firing the town, she hoped that her house would escape being near a mile from the village, but a party advanced with fixed bayonets, & gave her but 10 minutes to removeShe had protection from Gen 1 Brown & Col Seal I who had lodged in her house, & from Gen 1 McClure himself, also one of her self invited guests but the::y availed nothing. Her house of brick & almost the best in that district, 2 was committed to the flames & with it her husband's papers, who being a Counsellor at Law, had in his charge many important deeds A large Library was also consumed. Mrs D attributed this misfortune to the ma l ice of Col Wilcox, once the editor of a Newark newspaper & colonel of Canadian militiaHe fought on the B side at Queenstown & distinguished himself, but taking disgust at not being promoted as he expected, he deserted to the enemy & held the same rank in their army. He fell in ac tion with the B troops, a fate too fortunate fo r so vile a traitor3 We had the pleasure of meeting a party of B Officers of the 3 7th Reg 1 at dinner, & we became acquainted without the formality of an introductionAfter having been some weeks in the midst of men, who, tho' speaking the same language have but few ideas in common with Englishmen we were highly delighted at falling into the society of sensible & well informed men, who could enter into our feelings, & whose habits assimilated to oursThe first intimation we had of having English Gentlemen near I. General Jacob Brown was the commanding officer of the United States campaign against Canada on the Niagara frontier. Col. Seal has not been iden tified. 2. This house was constructed by the Honourable William Dickson and was probably the first brick structure in Upper Canada. In the Report of Loyal and Patriotic Society giving a contemporary account of houses burned by the Americans, the Dickson's brick house was valued at The house was rebuilt some years after its destruction and is now known as the Randwood and Dickson House, headquarters of the Niagara Institute. 3. Joseph Willcocks was a member of the Upper Canadian legislature, who became sympathetic to the American cause. He went over to the American side along with a group of Canadian volunteers in 1813. One observer of Newark in flames reported that McClure, aided by the renegade Willcocks, led the men through the town, torch in hand.

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58 Barrett Journal was the dinner hour they had appointedInstead of three we sat down to a table between 5 & 6 & we enjoyed tolerably good Madeira & port, & much merriment respecting our neighbours on the other side till eleven oClock, when we separated mutually satisfiedWe gave them an account of our Virginian, & th eir risibility was moved by a complaint he had made to us-he had sa id that foreigners came to the States full of prejudice against the manners & customs of the people, & that after re maining s ome time they returned home with greater pre judices than before& what was worse they published them to the world. He knew but one correct description of America by a traveller, & that was given by a French manThe Frenchman had represented America as another Arcadia. We could have told the Virginian that the quid con stantly rolling in his mouth & the juice dying the part where mustachios might have grown, & the trouble he took to remove the salt spoon with one hand while he helped himself to salt with a greasy knife in the other were not calculated to do away [with) any prejudice that exists concerning their cleanliness. It is their universal habit to make the knife they are using themselves answer other purposes. We often by means of our own people procured a spoon for salt & a knife for the butter, but they were disregarded. A plate of butter stands on the table, & it is not cut but picked away, each helps himself with his own knife to as much as will butter a mouthful of bread or toast & when he wants another mouthful he returns to the plate, so that by the t ime the meal i s half done what remains exhibits a most forbidding aspect Other di s he s have infrequently a similar fateWe were told by our new acquaintances some extra ordinary traits in the character of the Republican officersThey represented them as generally boorish in their manner & quite ignorant of the little decencies of LifeWhen some of them hav e dined at the mess of the B. Officers, they did not follow or perhaps did not know the rule of Horace "Nil admirari" but expressed all the Upper Canada 59 won der they felt at the profusion of silver plate, & the regularity & elegance of the dinner. Surely they ex claimed, "you do us too much honour in taking so much troub le to entertain us-" They were howe ver assured that they saw nothing more than the ordinary fare. Every din ner was as well regulated & conducted with as much decorum"Indeed", they cried, "why we have nothing of the kind among us, we dine where we can get a dinner, & care nothing about its neatness or regularityBut however we guess all that plate is given you by the King." They were answered, no, that every regiment had more or less plate & other table furniture belonging to it, pur chased by its own private funds. A capta in was at Amherstburg from Detroit on the American sideConversing with some B. Officers on t he Nature of the military se r vice, "I guess as how," said he, "if I doesn't like the next General orders as comes out, I will get clear of the army-right off. I expect a store of goods at Detroit & I guess as how I'll set up store & turn merchant-" Another Officer happened to be at the s ame place & the British officers took compassion on him & in vited him to dine with them at the Reg! mess. He returned many thanks for the honor & consented most readily Just before dinner came in, when they were all assembled, a note was handed to the American. "Mister," said he addressing his neighbour, "I have got a letter from the merchant over the way with whom I have been Coniacking (dealing in sm ug g led brandy) to ask me to dine with him. I hope Mister you'll have no ob jection to my dining with him, as I can then talk over my business with him & eat at the same time." Of course the permission was given him to dine with his Cogniac friend, & he left the Co mpany much amused at the novelty of his excuseWe were informed by these military Gentlemen that it was only at Lundie's lane the two armies came into contact with the bayonet. In that action the American sold ier s galled by the British fire demanded to be led to the charge sayi n g they were of the same case with their

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60 Barrett Journal enemy & therefore equal in the exercise of this formidable weapon. They were led to the charge, but it was fatal to them. Our troops had evidently the advantage both in steadiness & power of arm. We were sorry to learn that great desertion takes place from the B. Troops on the lines to the United StatesThe temptation held out to lab ourers & mechanics of all classes is too strong to be resistedGreat numbers deserted from the United States Army since the warThe cause assigned is the long arrears of pay due. Some com plained that nothing but Ration s had been given them for from 6 to 18 months. Their men did not enter the B. Army but took the first opportunity to recross the fron tier & retire to their several homes. We see from thi s plain Fort Niagara on the other side of the River. This fort is very strongIt was taken during the war by 800 men altho' garrisoned by 500This was done by a night surprise, the sentry was seized on & forced by threats of instant death to give up the counter sign, & the place & garrison were taken without resistance. When the news of peace arrived in Canada, the Americans did not possess a foot of ground there. The English held Fort Niagara, Detroit, Michilimackinac & other places on the opposite sideThe only desertion that took place from the B. Army during the war was during the retreat from Plattsburg. The British soldiers who had se rved in the Peninsula con sidered themselves disgraced in retiring before a foe s o contemptible as they considered the Americans After having e nga ged & beaten double & treble their own number of the finest troop s on the continent of Europe th ey were mad with rage at the conduct of S ir G. Prevost who turned his back on an inferior enemy without firing a shot. 2 Many of these men threw down their arms on the I. The Bri1ish captured Fo rt Niagara in 1he ear l y morning of December 19. 1813. The pic ker s and se n1rie s were seized and, af1er y i e l ding the password, bayonetted 10 d ea1h. The Briti s h dashed i nto 1h e fort wh il e the unsuspecting Americans were yet asleep and ~asily 1 00 k comma n d. 2. Si r George Prevost was commandi ng genera l of the Brit i s h forces in the ca mpa ign to i n vade New York from Lake Champ lain al 1he end of t h e War of Upper Canada 61 impulse of the moment, & went into the American fort. De Watteville's regiment composed of foreigners behaved shame fully before Fort Erie & had not the same excuse.' They were ordered to charge, & threw down their arms to the great mortification of their officers, who were as will ing & able to do their duty as any officers of the se rvice But the lamentable conduct of Sir Geo. Prevost is most inexcusab le, his retreat from Plattsburg lost us the service of men who had become veterans in t he Spanish & French campa igns, & gave the enemy a cause of triumph, no event of the contest had before afforded them. It is impossible to conceive the hatred & contempt universally expressed both by officers & by provincials respecting the behavior of this General during the whole war. A layforce was kept in lower Canada where they were useless, except for the pageants of parade while the Com manding officers in the Upper Province 2 loudly demanded reinforcementsGen 1 Sheaff 3 once requested two additional battalions & th e governor sent him a flank com pany It is a fact that just after the Capture of Hulls army by the Gallant Gen 1 Brock, Gen 1 Brock received orders not to pass the frontierHe expected these orders, & so devoted was he to t he service, that he declared he would 1812. After hi s naval support was defeated at Plattsburg Bay, he withdrew hi s vast l y super i or army to the chagrin of his countrymen. One of his subordinate generals at this encounter was Sir Frederick Robin s on with whom the au1hor became acquainted in New York City. I. The regiment under the command of Major-General Louis Charles De Watteville, which was composed of German, Polish, and Spanish mercenarie s, was blamed by General Drummond for the failure of the anack on Fort Erie on Au2ust 1 5, 1814. 2. By the Constitutional Act of 1791, the Englis h province of Quebec was divided; the predominantly English-speaking area became known as Upper Canada while the French-speaking area took the name of Lower Canada. 3. Sir Roger Hale Sheaffe assumed command of Briti sh forces in the fall of 1812 after the death of General Brock. 4. General William Hull s urrendered the garrison and troops at Detroit to the British general Sir Isaac Brock on August 16 1812. Brock had used Hull' s fear of an Indian massacre to advantage and frightened him inlo giving up without a figh t. The loss wa s received with disbelief by Americans and abruptly put an end to the offensive campaign in the Northwest. Aft er this achie ve men t, Brock was hailed as the "hero of Upper Canada."

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62 Barrett Journal Court e s y of the Metropolitan Toronto Libra ry Board Caricature of Sir George Prevost Upper Canada 63 not open them; should they arrive before he had executed the designs he meditated. This brave Commander & humane man is spoken of by the Canadians with the regret of Children for a beloved father, he knew well how to attach this hardy race to the service of his country, he was not too proud to be advised by men, whose long residence among the Canadians had enab l ed them to judge every individual's character & designs, he respected the local knowledge of Gentlemen whose loyalty was un doubted, & profiting by this information, he distrusted the evil disposed, confirmed the wavering & added spirits to the loyal. Nor was his humanity less than his discrimination & courageThe married men of his regi ment had in their colonel a generous benefactor; the paymaster has been heard to declare that one half of his pay was divided among the wives & the chi l dren & his soldiersHe had but one fault, an unfortunate one for his country, he was too prodigal of his own life & he fell by the hands of the enemy rather than retreat, altho' his small force was opposed to an army 1 But so unaccountable was the Conduct of Sir G. Prevost throughout his whole command in the war, that it was at one time thought his known birth at New York & education in that state had encouraged the enemy to tempt him to betray the British cause that suspicion has subsided into one more reasonableIt is now believed that two causes operated on h is mindHe was desirous of protracting the war because of his great emoluments, said to have amounted to 30,000 annually & he was destitute of personal courageIt is left for others to judge which of these accusations is true, if both or neitherWe may however lament that Sir George disappointed by his death the enquiry into the causes of his failure2 I. General Brock died on October 13, 1812, at the battle of Queenston H e ight s while hi s men were r e pulsing the Ameri c an s under Genera l Van Ren ss elaer, the s ame man whom the author met in Albany. 2. Prev os t wa s h e a v ily critici z ed and charged with t rea s on. He left Canada 1 0 meet the s e charges, but he died in London on January 5, 1816, one week before the court-martial convened. :I

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64 Barrett Journal o r Kerr made one of our dining party, the third instant. Thi s Gentleman had 4 sons & two sons of Law in arm s for his King on this frontierH e him self has been 40 years in the co untry attached to the medi ca l staff, & was one of the unfortunate army taken at Saratoga in 77T_wo of his so ns were taken prisoners, one of them made his escape from Bo sto n with another B. officer-partly by force & partly by bribery He & his companion arrived safe at Ogdensburg & were during this time almost half a day with Gen 1 Wilkinson's army. 1 On going down to the sea-side at Ogdensburg they found but one boat, & the boat man refused to take them to the opposite side Yo~ng Ke~r offered a considerable bribe in vain, upon which having no time to lo se he seized him with great f?rce for he wa s 6 ft 2 inches high, & strong in propor tion & threatened him with instant death. The American was intimidated by his threats, & carried them over Nearly the whole of Dr Kerr' s sons were wounded during the war, & all distinguished them selvesThe D~ had his house & property destroyed at the conflagration of Newark. Se pt 4 1 ~ We breakfasted at our Inn & repaired on board the Boat with transport2 This vessel had brought the 99 1h reg 1 late the 100 1 ~ to Fort George (situated near Newark & at the mouth of the Niagara) & had now on board 4 companies of the 37 th reg!The Officers of the l atter ~eg 1 had been kind enough to invite us to partake of th~tr mess & quarters in our voyage down the OntarioThe offer was pressed on u s with so much earnes tne ss,_ that it needed not our anxiety to proceed, & the uncertainty of an early passage, to indu ce readily to accept the invitationIt is with the livelie st feeling of I. James Wilkinson was an American major-general in 1he War of 1812. H e ~ad commands first in the South a1 NeN Orlean s and Mobile bu1 lat e r s aw ac llon along the St. Lawrence River. 2. The Beckwith was probably the sh ip on which the author and hi s fellow travellers took passage across Lake Ontario, judging from a later reference in t~e Journal. The ship sailed from Newark to King ston, Ontario, near the loca llon where Lake Ontario join s the St. Lawrence River. Upper Canada 65 gratitude & friendship that I recollect the politeness with which we were treated. They deprived themselves of their own bedding & state rooms to accommodate us, & insisted on our compliance with their arrangements so warmly that we were obliged to s ubmit to be better ac co mmodated than we expected or indeed desired. Our passage was of three days. Sept 7th We moved alongside the wharf at Kingston DockyardTowards the afternoon my relation & myself crossed an arm of the lake to KingstonThis p l ace is ris ing fast into importance, many new buildings are rising, & some few of stoneIndeed the large naval establish ment here & the garrisons of the two fort s by which the Harbour is defended mu st cause great sums to be ex pended hereThe fort of William Henry, called after the D[uke]. of Clarence is besides Quebec the only regular fortification in the Canadas. The building commenced during the war & has been continued since, it want s now but little to complete itI am too little read in the scie nce of fortification to give an opinion of my own on it s s trength, but I was told that it may bid defiance to a long s iegeTwo strong towers of stone & bombproof are s ituated within the walls-1000 or 1200 men are required for its defenceThis place has been built by the Briti sh sol dier s, as have mo s t of the fortifications raised in the provinces. Th ey receive tod per day while so employed Their officers consider the use thus made of the military injurious to their discipline as so ldier s but unles s it is car ried too far, I incline to approve of the plan on many ac counts, but more especially on this forcible one, that in no other way ca n fortifications be raised-the expense of labour would be ruinous, & labourers in suffic ient number for a considerable wage cannot be procured. Th e bad discipline of the B. Army in Canada i s with more justice attributed to the separatio n of the regiments in small detachments. The young suba lt e rn cannot be supposed to have so much authority over his men as of ficers of more experience, and discipline must relax and

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66 Barrett Journal be imperfect when the troops are not in sufficient number to form a drillThe discipline ha s also been less rigid of lat e in hopes of stopping the desertion of soldiers and even of Noncommi ss ioned officers to the opposite side. Unhappily the consequence has been different to what was expected, the desertion has increased, in proportion as discipline has been d i spensed withSir John Sher broke lately appointed to the Government of the B. N. American provinces' made a tour thro' part of the upper province while we were there, his Excellency met a party of soldiers on their march many of whom were in a state of intoxicationHis displeasure was so decidedly ex pressed to the commanding officer of the regiment, that it must operate a change, & restore the character of the B. soldier by enforcing the duties of his officersCertain ly it was very mortifying to us, passing as we did thro' the States with scarce a single instance of drunkenness to disgust us, to find in our own province that beastly vice in all its deformity, to see every public house filled with drunken soldiers, & every now & then one carried from the scene of riot by his companions, as lifeless as if ac tually deadA good motive, that of attaching the so ldier to his co l ours by indulgence, has caused this unseemly conduct, but it has proved a mistaken one, it has led to insubordination on duty, & has not checked desertion, therefore the sooner it is amended the betterWe went on board, the s th inst., the St. Lawrence-an immense vessel carrying 104 guns, 32 and 68 poundersIt is near 720 ft long and 53 ft 6 i across the beam. Till this ship was built the Americans held the undisputed com mand of the LakeTheir Squadron almost daily ap peared off Kingston harbour & fired guns of defiance But the St. Lawrence was no sooner on the water than they retired to their own port of Sackett's Harbour & resigned without a struggle the sovereignty of Lake On tarioIt was feared that this great mass would no t have I Si r John Coa pe Sherbrooke (1764 1830) was governor -g eneral of Canada from 1816 to 1818. Upper Canada 67 been manageable, & that if by storm or in action she had lost her masts or suffered much injury she would not have answered her helm & mu st have fallen an easy prey to the enemy. These fears proved unfo unde d. Great as she is the St. Lawrence is the best sailor on the lakeThe Americans had boasted they would not yield the lake without a contest, relying pt:rhaps on the supposed un wieldiness of the St. Lawrence, but they were wise enough to try the fact with as little danger to themselves as possible. Their fastest sailing vessel The Lady of the Lake was thrown in her way, & narrowly escaped capture from the superior swiftness of her mightier foeBut they did not give up the hope of recovering their superiority. The keels of two ships said to be even greater than the St. Lawrence were laid down at Sackett's Harbour, & two ships almost as great put on the stocks at Kingston, the peace put an end to these efforts. The four vesse l s ar~ yet in an unfinished state; each side watches the other with a jealous eye, if a hammer is heard on one part of the Lake it is reechoed on the other. It is doubtful if the war had continued which wou ld have gained the preponderance. The Americans had in the action of Lake Erie a frigate whose keel had on l y been laid 32 day s before, & all their vessels were built with equal activity, but their finances were no match for the resources of England, they were nearly exhausted the last year of the war. But on the other hand the expense of sh i pbuilding to the English Government is enormous, the St. Lawrence is confidently said to have cost a million sterling, & smalle r vessels in the same ratio. The ships are all brought from Eng l and, and have to pass a most intricate navigation after reaching Quebec; but above all the ignorance of the B. ministry respecting the Lakes i s most surprising & palpableOne or two instances of undeniable truth will be suffic ie nt to demonstrate thisThe frigate Psyche of 32 guns was built in England for the service of the lakes. She reached Quebec, but could go no farther & was I. The British frigate Psyche, which reported ly carried 55 guns, also_ had a siste r s hip which was never put into u se because of the great cost of freighting from England to Canada

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68 Barrett Journal obliged to be taken to pieces & carried to her destination over the rapids of the St. Lawrence at an immense ex pense of time & moneyShe was provided with abun dance of water casks & special orders were given that no salt water should be put in them, a machine was put on board to extract the salt from the Lake water & make it potableIn short the board t hat fitted out this vessel & her appendage s, did not know that only boats could navigate the St. Lawrence up to Lake Ontario & that all the water of all the lakes is as sweet as the river Thames. This ignorance of the quality of the lake water may belong to the builder only, who perhaps was ordered to fit out a frigate of 32 guns with all the usual necessaries, but the mistake has thrown a ridicule on his majesty 's ministers, & will not add to the respect the Canadians bear towards the parent stateOne individual of England contracted to convey cer tain stores from thence to Niagara on Lake Ontario, & it was only on his arrival with them at Quebec that he discovered the magnitude of his undertakingHad his agreement been fulfilled, the consequences must have been inevitable ruin, but the provincial government ab solved him. They justly considered his error to have arisen from the t otal want of information at home re spect ing the Canadas & particularly the navigation of the St. Lawrence. I was happy to learn the probability of an end to this disgraceful ignorance. The late war ha s forced upon G. Britain the consideration of the present state, the geography, the navigation, the resources & future destination of these important territoriesCapt Owen of the R. Navy is appointed Surveyor of the Lakes,' & proper persons are named for other objects of im portance and projects are talked of for the improvement of internal navigation -great stores of timber are seaso ing on the lakes, fortresses are constructing & improving, & settlers are encouraged. 1. Sir Edward Campbell Rich Owen served briefly as commander of British ships on the lakes near the end of the war. The St. Lawrence On the 9t~ Saturday afternoon we took leav e of our kind hostsWe had expected to have been allowed to sett le with their me ss man for the eating & drinking expenses of our passage, & my relation having served IO ye~rs in the army begged to be considered as a brother officer, such when isolated from their own corps being generally per mitted to take the advantage of a regimental mess already established, upon bearing their share of the cost However they would hear of no repayment, & we were obliged to content ourselves with inviting them to our own houses should chance ever bring them near to us: It is our hope that at some future day we may h~ve an op portunity of returning a small part of the attention shown to us who were entire strangers to them all & had no fur ther ~!aim on their politeness & hospitality than that of being English travellers, but altho' this satisfaction may be denied, we can & surely will return to their brother of ficers of whatever corps the debt we owe to the gentlemen of the 37t~ whenever fortune places it in our power. We left Kingston about su nset in a Batteau. This was a flat bottom'd boat, capable of carrying 24 barrels of flour some are considerably larger, it was navigated by 4 CanadiansThe wind was against us, & the current is not strong at the source of the St. LawrenceIn two hours we had advanced but 4 miles, & our boatmen stopped at a place where there was no other acc?mn:iodation but fi~e to cook their suppers. We were at fust ignorant of theu intention of remaining all night on this dismal spot, for 69

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70 Barrett Journal finding they could not speak a letter of English & we hav ing some difficulty in comprehending their curious French, we had given up all hope of any conversat ion with them. At last observing that their supper of pork & bread was cooked & disposed of, & that they were laying themselves down to sleep round their fire, we made in quiry of when we were to proceed. We learnt to our sur prise that they proposed remaining where we then were till two oClock, if we had no objection & that if we wished to sleep they would pitch a tent for us. We readily assented to stay where we were altho' the night was fro~ty, & we were but Ii ttle u se d to such lodgings, but our desire to know in what manner these people li ved over came all other objectionsThey presently pitched a tent for us, made of canvas & supported by four poles. It was open at both ends, & incapable of keeping out either wind or rainA buffalo hide lent to us by Mr Ham mersby, an Officer of the 19 dragoons, & one of our fellow passengers in the Beckwith, served us for a mat tress, & our great coats were our only coveringHere we slept till morning at intervals, for the cold forbade a sound napAs we had provided ourselves with cold provisions at Kingston & had dined in the boat, we were at leisure to examine our travelling companions the French CanadiansThey were of the middle stature of slender make, with countenances not forbidding, altho' harsh & weather beaten. In their manners to each other they were polite. We did not hear any quarrelsome expressions, & no oaths, but sacre & sacre DieuTo us, the strangers, all were attentive, making room for us at the fire & bringing a log of wood as a seat for us. In number there were twelve, the crews of three Batteaux, for they sel dom sail singlyTheir supper consisted of salt pork & sh ip bread of the coarses t sort, this they cooked together in two or three Iron pots, hung to the fire by means of three poles placed across & meeting in the middle over the fire The river supplied them with water. This soup was eaten out of wooden platters with wooden spoons & if I may The St. Lawrenc e 71 judge from their appetites, it was very goodA few had wheaten breadThis honest & laborious race of people form a very large part of the Canadian population, very few of them speak any English, & their French is seldom well understood by the best scholars in tha t language, as now spoken in EuropeTheir principle characteristic, common indeed to all classes of the French colonists, is an insurmountable attachment to the customs of their progenitors. Sixty years possession of the country by the English has not sufficed to teach them t h e language of the ir conquerors, & the prospect of their acquiring it is as distant as ever. Nor perhaps is it to be wished that they adopt another languageI t is no longer France & Frenchmen that are dangerous to these provinces, it is Americans speaking the English tongue, who are most to be dreaded. The French Canadians have not forgotten the injur ie s mutual ly suffered & inflicted in the wars between France and England for the preponderance in N America prior to the Revolution of the B. Co loni es. They can have no hopes of rejoining their parent state, & England for the better part of an age has been endeavouring by a mode of Government best suited to their habits, to make them contented under her rule. But by the Americans they have been twice invaded during this period, neither the customs, manners, language or laws of t he two people assimilate, & they [have] not a single interest or connec tion in commonIn consequence the Canadian French fear & detest the English Americans, & if they do not love the English, they are at least used to them, & are not op pressed by themI know of no em i grations of these peo ple to the U. States, nor did any of them join the army of the States i n th e late war, on the contrary many were engaged in defence of their country, & all were ready to take up arms when called upon. On the other hand many settlers speaking th e English language are from the United States, & it is to be feared would not oppose an invading force of their Countrymen: Many more from the B. Islands would remain neuter, rather than suffer in

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72 Barrett Journal their property, should the army of the enemy be decidedly superior: And all would more readily reconcile themselves to forming an independent state of th e American Union should the provinces be once over powered, than would the foreigner, the French Canadian In the late war this people readily enliste d among the British troops & formed good soldiers, this I heard from Col. Macdonald who commanded the Glengary fencibles-' Their prie sts take great pains to prevent the ir learning the English language, dreading perhaps that with the language they may leave their reli gionAltho' they perhaps are among the hardiest people of the globe, & can endure as much fatigue on land & water, yet are they the least enterprising, the son cultivates the field of his father & in the same mannerThe children follow the parent's profession whatever it may be, & seldom quit the spot where they were born When the proprietor of land dies, his Estate is divided among his children, it makes no difference if it consists of a thousand or of 10 acres, 10 families will continue to exist on what formerly main tained but oneThey never admit of new modes or new instruments of cultivation; it is reason enough for them, that t heir parents did the same, to induce them to con tinue methods, however injuriou s, but rendered sacred to them from long usage. We left our Bivouac early on the morning of the l 0 1 ~ & stopped to breakfast at a place called GonanoqueOur landlord Brownson was an old A. Loyalist. & very oblig ingHe procured for our breakfast Eggs, venison, fish, Bread, tea &c &c at the moderate charge of half a dollar each, & something less for our servants Our n ext stop was a loghouse where there was nothing to eat, so we brought out our own store. We proceeded with a foul I. Alexander Macdonnell ( 1 762 1840) raised the r eg im en t of G lengar y fen cibles which saw action in the War of 1812. He was also 1hc firs! Roman ca rh o li c bishop in Upper Canada. The St. Lawrence 73 wind to a sec ond log house, & the boatman informed us t hat they could proceed no further that night the breeze being stro ng as well as contrary. Soon after we had taken up our quarters Lt. Col. Wells arrived from the lower Province with his wife a very handsome woman & two lovely child r enWe were happy to have been the first ?C cupiers of our Loghouse, being thereby ~nable~ to give up the only bedroom in the house to this fa~mly-:Col. Wells informed us he was appointed to the situat10n of Inspecting field officer & was repairing to _assume its duties at KingstonThe Colonel was conversible & well informedWe were this night somewhat better lodged than the night before, Col. Wells in exchange for_ t~e bedroom relinquished lent us a mattress, we placed 1t m the kitchen before a large fire, & then with our clothes on slept sound enough till the fire went out & the cold awoke usIn the same kitchen in the only bed lay our hostess & her daughter a full grown girl & some dozen of boatmen &c &c. But they did not interrupt our reposeWe were hardly sorry to hear next morning the Colo_nel called early with to him the gratifying news that the wmd was fair & enough of itWe b egged him on his dep~rtu_re to send back the wind to us when he had done with it. Altho' the weather was equally unfavourable for us as fair for him for we were detained at this miserable hovel all day, we ~ould not but rejoic e that an am~able man & British officer was on the point of concluding prosper ously a voyage tedious & disagreeable at all times, ~ut more especially when encumbered with 4 females, two in fants & a hundred packages all tightly stowed in two open' boatsThe people with whom we were had neither bread or liquors of any description, but as w_e had bo~h & they supplied us with good tea & excellent fish & venison we managed very well. During the day crowds of visitors of all descnpt10ns called going up & down the river; among others_ Colonel Macdonald on his route to England. We entered mto con

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74 Barrett Journal versation with him & found him able & willing to give us much information respecting the inhabitant s of the coun try: from him we learnt that not less than 19000 Cana dians (French) were employed on the river & Lakes dur ing the war navigating batteaux & Gun boats here. He spoke of t hem as to a man well disposedIn the afternoon we went over to an Island in the river to see a company of Indians, who had chosen it as their fishing place to lay in their winter store of smoked fishThey were all dirty & the women far from in vi ting One among them belonging to the 6 nations' spoke ex cellent English. The others spo ke English but not so well One of our company asked if he had sca lped any Yankees during the late combat; he said no, that the British gave them 5 dollars for every prisoner they brought in, & hi s ~ation were civilised enough to prefer the money to glut ting a barbarous revengeOther nation s he admitted had killed & scalped vast numbers-but these he called "wild Indian s"! here proved one trait of the Indian character which I had heard of. I gave one of the most sensib l e or at least the most talkative so me money, he received it without any emotion or expression of pleasure & handed it to a SquawIt is never that a gift of any magnitude draws from them more than a smile of satisfaction, they do not return thanks, & seem rather to receive presents as a tribute due them, than as requiring acknowledgmentThe Indians from their general gait would be by a casual observer consi der ed a very inactive race, they are seen to walk most leisurely, indeed with a pace more like a saunter than a walk, yet when employed by the whites as special messengers, & government often so make use of_ them, t~eir rapidity & ca lib e r are astonishing-80 mJ!es a day 1s no very un common journeyIt is true that a hundred miles in 24 hours has been attempted & per formed within a quarter of a mile by an Englishman, but what one European will perform out of millions of men I. A confederation of six North American I ndian tribe s namely t he Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Senecas, Cayugas, and Tuscaror'as. The St. Lawrence 75 every young & healthy Indian can do with ease to himselfThe quarter to which he must direct his steps is pointed out to him, he examines the sun & trees for an in stant, & pursues his route in an undeviating line till he reaches it. Roads are useless to him, & hi s provisions are to be found in almost every tree, the bark of which sup plies him with bread. I knew a young Englishman settled as a merchant at Kingston in upper Canada, & attached I believe to the Commissariat in the late war. This young man had to perform a long journey thro' the woods where Europeans had never trod, & his guides of course were IndiansHe had made a false calculation of the length of his journey & provisions failed him & hi s party at a great distance from any settlement. They had failed to kill any game, & he began to be se riou s ly apprehensive of starving in this wildernessThe Indians however relieved him of his ala rm the y stripped a tree of its bark, & he found this food by no means disagreeable. H e informed me that neither in this instance nor in any other he had heard of, did these people utter the smallest complaint on the fa ilure of the provision, they did not accuse him of negligence or thrift in not bringing a sufficiency, al tho' engaged to do so, but without grumbling, set about sup plying his wants & their own in the best way they couldOn the 11 t~ the wind was still foul, but impatient at being detained so long, we assented to the proposal of our boatman to proceed 3 miles farther to a place called La Rouse's mill, a man of that name keepin g a mill there & loghouse tavern. This place i s just before the en trance in to a part of the river, which here spreads into a lake, upon which the wind has power e n ough when blow ing strong to prevent the passage of boatsAs the bat teaux must necessarily make very s low progress to La Rouse's, we resolved to walk t here along the banks of the River & being put in the road by a son of our host, we pushed on walking fast to keep ourselves warm. Our leader was the person mentioned before, who we con sidered well used to the woods & an old farme r. We

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76 Barrett Journal th ought these Gentlemen must know something about such travelling & placed ourselves with confidence under their guidanceThe Eng li sh merchant having been left to make en quiries at t he loghou se took the lead, & in a very short time we were completely lost, we found & lost track after track, they neither led us to the river or to any sig ht of human habitationAt length after walking at a great ra te upwards of an hour we struck into a path, which I knew very well was the one we had taken at first & soon lost, but our guide would not admit it, till we arrived at the end of it, or rather the beginningAt this place we had hesitated at first, there being two roads, one leading from the other towards the river, our guide took the road l eading from the river observing he had been warned to avoid a large swamp. When we arrived again at this point we were all quite sure that we had no thing to do but to take the other road this time, & into we entered with as much confidence as we had started with. Alas! We had to meet with greate r disappointment, in a short time no path remained, & we found ourselves in the snare of an im mense forest without even the sun to guide usFor three hours we wandered about, clambering up high & steep rocks & descending them again to avoid swamps, & look for a road. At length we had been for a long time without a trace of human being having ever penetrated in that directionOur situation was now alarming, we hurried on sometimes in one direction & sometimes another, chance was all we had to trust toEvery part where th e grass ap peared to have been trodden on was pursued with anxie ty, they only perplexed us more, the foot of man had never pressed it, but we distinctly perceived the traces of wolves bears & deerAt last one of our number cried out with an exultation that betrayed his former terror "it is cut with an axe." He had met with a piece of timber evidently felled by man. After a short search we found a track with the marks of human beings & cattleOur Mer chant proposed to march to the left, as he expressed The St. Lawrence 77 himself confident that was the way down the river, but the path was little worn in that direction, & we h~d already been deceived too often to trust ourselves agam to an uncertain route. Besides our object was no longer La Rouse's mill, but extrication from our wilderness, at any trouble & to any place where man was to be found. Marching therefore to the right at a great pace we entered at the end of less than an hour a field bound ed by a log houseFrom the good people inhabiting it, we learnt that we were 3 miles from the place we had left 5 hours before, & instead of having gone down the river we were that distance on our journey back to KingstonWe had now to choose whether we would walk over the same ground to overtake the batteau, or make our way to the main road & there procur e a carriage to take us to some place on the river where it was likely the b~tteau would stop & wait for usWe chose the la tter plan m pre~erence to again trusting ourselves in the woodsLuckily the road we now took was sufficiently marked & we reached the main road in 31/2 miles rapid walkingIt lay thro' a great deal of swamp, up to our ankles in mud & ~ate~ at every stepWhere it would have been otherwise im passable a single tree was laid across requiring a very s teady foot to prevent tumbling & being suffocated in the mireWe passed two settlements with loghouses partly destroyed, & on enquiring I found they had belonged to settlers from the States, who had left them on the declaration of war, & had never returned. We stopped at a miserable Inn on the high road, we could procure nothing but bread butter & cheese, these wit h a little milk composed our dinner. nor was it despicable to people half famished. We here made useless attempts to procure a vehicle of any description-not even a horse was to be procuredWe sent a messenger two miles back for_ a waggon but he returned without itWe h~d no cho~ce left us but to continue our march till we did meet with oneI for my part had been a long time compl~tely tir~d. We had now walked 23 miles by our computation & with

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78 Barrett Journal our whole strength, nine tenths of the distance was thro' swamps ankle deep, thick woods & rocky hillsI should have said in the morning that I could not possibly have gone thro' this fatigue, never having in my life walked near so much, & having for the last six years resided in a hot climate where that exercise is unknown among the whitesBut wearied as I was, the example of my com panions, the inconvenience of having my baggage carried 140 miles from me, & the chance of its being lost, above all the emulation of not being outdone, determined me to proceed We continued our journey as rapidly as ever without see in g a house for 7 miles, we then came to a saw mill & the loghouse of the proprietorIt was now quite dark, & as it had rained for the last ten miles at in t ervals we were wet as well as tiredNo carriage was to be pro cured here to the great annoyance of all but myself for I felt totally incapable of going on even in a comfortable vehicle, still less in such a jolting machine as I knew the waggon to be, & which was the only carriage we expected to procure. My companions would readily have walked 2 miles farther to a place where they were assured a waggon could be got, but I was positive in my determination to stay where I was. Our merchant was going to Quebec to buy goods, & had papers of value, & 1200 hard dollars in his trunk, it was therefore with great re l uctance that he consented to remain till morningI cannot say I felt much pity for the anxiety of this gen_tleman. He had led us into our error by boldly under takmg to lead us to our destination, & knowing that he had made enquiries respecting the road, & having heard him detail his journeys thro' immense forests we were in duced a reliance on his knowledge, not borne out by the event This self confidence did not forsake him even after we had evidently lost our way, & he continued to bewilder us more & more till we were taught what reliance to place in him as a guide by finding ourselves at the entrance to the two paths I before made mention of. When we made what may be called our second start, he slunk to the rear, & did not again assume his office of The St. Lawrence 79 leader. Had we not placed in him this confidence we should have returned to the log house as soon as we lost the road to make more particular enquiries. We ought to have done this before we made the second start, but unluckily my relation was out of temper at the dance we had been led, & as soon as we had retraced our steps, he hastily struck into the other road, which as he said & we all thought must be the right road, as we had observed no otherWhereas had he stopt to make enquiries, our ser vants would have told him, they had observed another pass that seemed to lead more along the river, so~ewhat farther behind us. We afterwards learned that was m fact the road we ought to have taken. The farmer, he appeared to be about 45, accustomed as he was to fatigue was quite overcome with this days journey, & went to bed with an agueOur landlord was very civil & gave us tea & a tolerable supper He found beds for us all. I was in a three bedded garret with my companion & the farmerThe merchant & our servants slept in the family room. They told us that as soon as they were between the sheets in came the landlady & her two grown daughters, & undressed before them w i thout an idea that they thereby violated any rule of decorumWe started early next morning in a drizzling rain, I felt stiff & ill from the preceding day's fatigue, but fortu nately at the end of two miles we procured a waggon, to my great joy, for I cou l d not have walked much farther My companions as if in defiance of fatigue walked on while this vehicle was getting ready, & l did not overtake them till we had gone over six miles of ground. At the end of 13 miles we reached an Inn within sight of the river 13 mile s from the spot from whence we had set out the day beforeTo come these 13 miles we had made a detour of 43 milesOur landlord's name was Coles, he had 20 childrenWe had some fear that our batteau might have passed us, as the wind tho' still from the wrong point,

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80 Barrett Journal was much lulled, we had for the last 24 hours been as anxious for a heavy foul wind, as we had before prayed lustily for a fair oneOur anxiety induced us to hire a man & canoe to go up the river to look after our vesse l, he soon returned with the joyful news that he had met the batteaux making to that very point in search of u sBy this time we had breakfasted & we went exultingly to the landing placeIt was doubly fortunate for us that we were not left on this road by the batteaux for among us all there was not money enough left to pay for our breakfast even our pocket books being among our bag gage in the boats. We now expected a period to all our troubles, the wmd tho' not favourable was sufficiently lulled to enable us with the current & our oars to make some progress, but we we re still doomed to meet with disappointment & vexation One of our servants was missingWe sent the other back to the Inn we had just left to look for him, he came back saying he had looked everywhere and holla 'd, but to no purposeWe had now been stand ing an hour in a drizzling rain, our boatmen were impatient & so were weMy relation went back himself & at the close of another hour we were once more collected for reembarka tio~. The poor fellow quite spent wit h weariness, had retired to a place where he hoped to find least interrup tion to his s lumber s He was discovered snoring in a barn half covered with ha yWe this day dined at Brockville, a small flourishing town, & got a wretched dinner. We rowed on till quite dark when we reached a small town ca lled Presscott. Here we sleptLower Canada The 15. We set off before breakfast & in a short time reached the first rapid-Whether or not the wind had oc casioned a greater swell than usual or our boatmen were careless I do not know, but the boat in an instant had her broadside to the waves, & a large wave broke over her wett ing us to the skin, as well as our buffalo skin great coats &c so as to render them uselessOur Canadians were evidently alarmed, they drew in thei r oars & in another moment would have begun to cross themselves & call on their saints, but the current had already carried us beyond the danger & relieved them from the ir fears-:For tunately this first rapid was the shortest of all, & 1t was still more fortunate to meet with our mishap so early in the voyage-it taught our boatmen more caution in others of far greater length & difficulty, & where the same accident or carelessness must in evitab l y have swamped the boat & cost us all our livesAll the danger to be apprehended in the rapids is having the head of the vessel forced from the direct line with the currentIf the broadside of the batteau is opposed to it the vessel fill s in an instant & all are hurried away to certain destruction Accidents of t hi s nature very se ldom occur, & were it not for the inconvenience of getting wet, the batteau is full as pleasant & safe a vehicle as the farmer's waggon or the French Canadian's Calashlt was half past 2 before we stopt to Breakfast. The people were uncivil & the bread half baked. We p~oceed ed in our voyage till dark, having stopt once with the hope of dining at a house on the riverside, but on asking 81

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82 Barrell Journal for a fire to dry our wet clothes the woman said it was not the time of year for fire s & that besides it wa s the business of the man to light themWe asked for the man but no one was thereAt length we discovered that the inhabitants two females, young & not ugly, were somewhat elevated with the bottl e. They had perhaps taken advantage of the absence of their lord s to s ip some of their favorite beverage. As no comfort was to be ex pected here, we returned to our batt ea ux, leaving some hearty curses with the ladie sThe next place was a thriving little town ca lled Pt Clair,' here we found a good supper & excellent beds. The Inn is kept by an Engli sh man who quite understands his tradeInstead of immense rooms to contain all the guests in the same apartment both at dinner & in bed, this man 's house was properly divided into sma ll & neat parlours & bed roomsSurely few inconveniences are so much felt by the traveller who ha s just closed a long & fatiguing journey as being u s hered into a large room cr ?w~ed with strangers of all descriptions, smo king drmk10g & quarelling; to sit down to his uncomfortable meal in the same way, obliged to scramble for what he wants, perhaps to help twenty people to some favourite dish, h e ha s indiscreetly placed himself opposite to, & if he ha s not his own se rvant to starve of hunger & thirst because he has le ss impudence than others in hollaing for the wa i ter. But it i s still worse to occupy a bed s urround ed by from three to a dozen more the fumes arising from the pores of their tenants & from gin & tankard breaths amounting almost to suffocationBoth these horrors, for so they are to the man of delicate nerves, are ine vitable to the single traveller; the last may be avoided with good luck by two, most of the Inns are provided with small rooms having two beds, & the traveller may make s hift to lodg e with his comrade & friend, but one man ha s but small chance of avoiding the I. Pointe Claire, Quebec, is a small town about 20 miles southwe s t or Mon treal on the St. L awrence River. Lower Canada 83 evil, none of the Inns have single bedded rooms, or will give them to any but married couples & females, he mu st make one of the litter in the common sty. W e were told that in the more thickly settled parts of this conti nent, & where the inhabitants are les s civilised it is as difficult to procure a bed to oneself as thro' the co untr~ we travelled to procure a single roomThey have sleep 1~ g rooms at the public hou ses into which every stra nger _is _shown t? shift for him self, if there are beds e nough 1t 1s well, if not two or even three must huddle under the same bla~ketsThe man who has thought him se lf at night happy in having a bed to himself, will so ~etim es on wak ing in the morning find a male compam~n comfortab~y lodged beside him. He shou l d ever th10k himself_ happy 10 having had a soun d s leep unconscious of the mtrus1on, for resistance would have brought on a battle, & unle ss he had been a better pugilist than his would be chum, he must have got a good drubbing as well as lo s ing half hi s couchThe Americans give to this double & treble oc cupancy the expressive name of bundling My compan ion & the mer cha nt were ea~ly on the morn i n g of the I 6 1 ~ to continue their voyage 10 the Batteaux For my part having had a violent co ugh & slow f~ver eve r since our 30 miles wa l k, I was resolved to cont 10ue the rest of my journey by land, rather than run the hazard_ of being again drenched in the rapids, &_ perhaps of bemg taken i ll in a distant cou ntry & obliged to delay my journey hom eward. H av ing procured a Ca la s h, an 10descnbable so rt of carriage I left our civil Landlord about 9 on Monday mornini the 16. The morning was beautiful & the country very thickly sett l edWe met a great number of carts _tak ing goods across the portage from Montreal to Pt Cla1_r t? avoid the rapids of the St. LawrenceEvery cart had m 1t a stove, proving as I thought the r apid increa~e of dwell ings & of course inhabit ants in the Q. prov10ce. I was

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84 Barrett Journal much pleased with the politeness of the French, who bowed to me as I passed & wished me "bon jour" We drove 3 leagues to the ferry where we had to cross an arm of the river to the Island on which Montreal is situatedI waited here some time, the ferry being on the other side, & walked into the hut of a French family who keep it. The Grandmother of the family placed a chair for me near her fire & in return I offered her my snuffbox. I was highly pleased to see the effect of this cheap civility on the Old Lady, she assured me m y s nuff was "tres bon, excellent," & she watched with great ap pearance of interest the return of the ferryAs soon as it came in sight she ran to tell me, & I & my servant being the only arrivals waiting for a passage, s h e hurried h er sons to get ready their canoe, & had my baggage carried to it, even the little children assisting in an instant. I could not but draw a comparison between this old French woman, who r et urned so many good offices for my little attention in presenting my box to her & the American boors I had met with. These people the mo ment they see the box in your hand, introduce their dirty fingers without ceremony, & squeeze the snuff into a yet finer powder before you can get quit of their pawsOf course one of them carries a box yet all take it when they can get it from another's, they dive into it one after another as if one of t heir democratic privileges, & as they have not the grace to ask for it, so have they not the civ ility to thank you even by a bend of the neckThese remarks have been drawn from me by having this hour that I am writing been thus annoyed, till I am obliged to take my own s nuff by stealth. It took two stout lads upwards of an hour's rowing or paddling to get our canoe to the opposite shoreThe charge only a dollar. I procured a calash w ithout dif ficulty & in two parts of 9 miles each came to La Chine-' Beyond this point to Montreal the river is very l ittle navigated, the rapids being here too dangerous. I. Lachine, Quebe c is now a su burb of Montreal. Lower Canada I 85 C 0
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86 Barrett Journal At La Chine I met my relation, he represented the Cedars as the last rapids are called as much worse than the preceding, they had on board a pilot for this par ticular part, he had got ent irely soakedI was glad I had escaped it. The Long Su was qui te bad enough & quite fine enough to satisfy my curiosity-' Certainly it is well worth the inconvenience to the curious traveller to make a voyage down this supe rb river Its innumerable I slands in some parts, its broad lakes in others, flowing sometimes in a s mooth unruffl ed stream, at others with amazing sw iftness only confined by unshapen masses of rock, presenting at one time a rude uncu l tivated shore, & at others a fertile country studded with houses & cottages form a scene of grandeur far surpassing any I had hither to beheldAltho' well aware that no danger is to [be] ap prehended in passing or rather ru shing thro' the rapids, yet it is impossible to see yourself hurried along in an im mense mass of waters roaring with a tremendous noise on every side of you, with[out] some secret sensation of awe The boatmen, who have passed them so often without ac cident, for one accident is fatal, here lose all their gaiety, no voice is h eard but that of the "Governeur" every eye is fixed with de ep attention on hi s countenance as if t he y would know his commands before he speaks them, & when at last they have passed the peril the relaxation of the muscles, the return of gaiety & often the shout of joy proves if not an escape from actual danger, a relief from overstrained exe rtionWe left La Chine & entered Mon treal about duskOur Inn afforded us anything we wanted. 17th We walked about the city & saw the French church. 2 There was nothing to admire on the outside of t hi s edifice except the spire-it being covered with tin & gilt in many parts, the effect was light & pleasingThe I nterior was I. The Long Sault (pronounced "soo") Rapids were encountered by the author earlier on his journey down the St. Lawrence River. They are nine mile s long and are located twelve miles upriver from Cornwall. 2. Probably the old church on St. Deni s Street which was de s troyed by fire in 1852 and replaced by the cathedral of St. James. Lower Canada 87 adorned like other Roman churches, with guilding & pic tures. The latter were bad, but the guilding was in far bet ter taste than that of the Hav ana churchesThe streets of the town are narrow but clean with good houses of stone. New house s were ~very whe_re ~is ing. This place from its situation must mcrease m im porta nce as the upper cou ntr y becom es settled. It has already considerably [sic] trade, ships of large burthen ca n sail up the St. Lawrence to its port where they must unload. & the produce of the Upper country must also center here, where it is reembarked on board of Larger vessels to proceed to its ulterior destination. On returning from our walk we began to consider what we ought to have done before how we were to pur sue our journey to N York. My relation was anxious to return to his family in England, & I was in duty bound to be in Jamaica at the meeting of the ho use of Assembly the end of October-' Under these c ircumstance s it was necessary for us to make but little stay at Montreal. On Enquiry we found that a steamboat left St. John' s 2 the next day at 8 in the morning, & that another would not sail till the following Saturday. We determined on mak ing the be st of our way to St. John's to proceed by the steam boat down Lake Champlain to Whitehill, 3 if possi ble the next dayOur servan t s having delivered our clothes to the Laundry, we were compelled to r eca ll them & wet as they were to pack them up, & having dined we set off nearly at dusk in a boat to cross the river-_ It was some disappointment to us that we had not time. to deliver our letters of introduction, & to learn somethmg of the inhabitants, but time was now precious to us. The country round Montreal is thickly settled & about a league before we reached it from La Chine t he view is one of the prettiest in America, on suddenly 1. Richard Barrett was a member of the Jamaica H ouse of Assembly which had been dismissed in May l 8 I 6, and he had been re-elected to the new Assembly which was to convene in October 1 816. 2. An anglicized form of St. Jean, Quebec, a town sou th east of Montreal on the Richelieu River. 3. Whitehall New York, wa s the destination of Lake Champlain steamboats.

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88 Barrell Journal Lower Ca nada 89 descending a hill you se e a beautiful plain to the left with severa l Gent lemen' s se at s in the English sty le & to the right is a rising crowded with many more handsome hou sesCottages, villages, & the city of Montreal with its sh ining tin s pires & roofs of the sa m e bright metal glitter ing in the sun, & the immense St. Lawrence complete the viewBut to return to our voyage on up the river, which I would rather admire from its banks than be to ssed about by its waves, we found it by no means so trivial & short a voyage as we expectedAfter rowing a short distance, our three watermen took to their poles, for we were now in a swift current running with a great noi s e over a shallow rocky bottomIt was dark & had we not possessed great confidence in our boatmen, shou ld not have thought ourse l ves quite safe. The boat was urged by the united force of these able men armed with poles, not so much thro' the water, as over rocks that rumbled under her bottomThis exertio n was continued upward s of an hour & a half & we were very glad to find ourselves safe on land without another drenching. It is fortunate for a ll who are obliged to navigate the river St. Lawrence, that the Canadians are the soberest of people: during the s hort acquaintance I had with them, I never met with one instance of drunkenn ess, their profe ss ion indeed will not adm it of this vice, for one fal se s troke of the oar will pre c ipitate all to eternity To our great satisfactio n we found on th e Landing place a carriage, ready to carry us immediately to St. John 's, we set off in a few minutes & arrived at the end of the Land journey at 1 A.M. The first Inn we drove to there were no beds to be had, we were as unlucky at the 2d and Jd, we now began to dread sleeping on the floor, & called to mind our bivouac in the woods under a tent to reconcile ourselve s to the evil we apprehended, but at the 4. & la s t Inn we were more s ucce ss ful & procured a l arge room & excellent beds with curtains, the third so ac commodated in which I had slept during this tour

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Lake Champlain On the I St~ Wednesday, we got on board the steam boat after breakfasting, & about 9 were sailing down the Lake Champlain at the rate of 6 miles an hour. W e soon passed the naval arsenal of the English,' & I observed one large keel laid down, but nothing appeared to have been done to it for some time. A large quantity of guns was on the wharf When we approached the frontier an U States custom house officer came on boardThe trunks were opened for his inspection, he was remarkably civil & did nothing more than raise the lids without diving into the contentsAt two o'clock we sat down to a pretty good dinner, & with a young Irish Gentleman & a Bostonian federalist, finished two bottles of very fair Madeira. We were for tunate in meeting these two young men, they gave us much information, the one concerning his own state, the other re spect ing his travels, which had been very exten sive thro' the countryWe had on board a furious democrat, & I suffered him to believe he was displaying great knowledge of his native country imparting to me who was ready to learn. He entered into a comparison of England & America or rather between America & the whole worldHis beloved States had the superiority in all the art s of war & peace Gen1 Macomb at Plattsburg would have beaten Gen 1 I Probably the British defense works on I s le aux No ix in the Richelieu River. 91

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92 Barrett Journal {l u Q' .., :.; :: '<: ::, i:: "" :;t ::, i:: ; 0. 6 "' .c: u G.) .lo: "' ..J .... 0 cii Lake Champlain 93 Prevost with 1 500 men against 1 0,000' & 1 0,000 British troops under Gen 1 Ross ran away from 3000 mil i tia at Baltimore. 2 Frank l in was a greater man than Sir I saac Newton, his discovery of the lightning rod was grander & more original than any invention of modern Europe Fulton t h e steam boat inventor or patenter, maintained by that invention the American superiority in Science up to the present day, to discover that steam might be ap plied to machinery was nothing that might be learnt from the force with which it issued thro' the spout of a tea kettle but to apply the steam to the impulsion of boats thro' the water, was the effort of a mind vast in its com prehension & perfect in executionThis rapsody [sic] of nonsense was at first amusing, but one soon tires of the ridiculous, & I was glad to l eave him to the w i ndy con templation of his n ational importanceThis man I soon learnt was employed in a mer chant's office at Mont r ea l & I heard a B. Canadian tell him, he ought to be ashamed of himself to abuse a Coun try which s upported him when it was evident his own could not, or with such violent predilections in its favor, he would never h ave left it He also told him he pre sumed he had left his employer for a time to have an op portunity of venting his spleen more safely aga i nst G Britain on the other side of the lineIn truth the young man's zeal was so turbulent that it issued forth with all the violence of a long pent vapourAfter tea & supper we retired to our bedsTho s e who have never been in a steam boat will hardly be able to conceive how 60 people or more can be l odged in one apartment, leaving room for all the tables chairs &c in the m i ddle necessary fo r the accommodat i on of doub l e that number at their mealsThere are two tier s of bedplaces divided by partitions of wood looking somewhat like the s helves of an open pressEach pa ss enger has one to I Alex a n de r Ma c omb w as the ge n e ral a t Pla ttsb ur g w h e re Pr e vo s t re tre a t ed wi th hi s v a s tl y s u pe ri o r tro o p s 2. R o bert Ro ss wa s killed in the Briti s h a ttac k o n Baltimore o f Se p t emb e r 12 1 8 14 T h e a tt a ck w as a fa ilure.

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94 Barrett Journal himself of about 5 ft IO in in length & two ft in bred th fsic). These are provided with a mattress, bed blankets & quilt all quite cleanperhaps the whole room so divided, has more the look of a playhouse than anything else familiar to an EnglishmanIn one of these birth s [sic) 1 laid down in my clothes, & in spite of the novelty, & noise of the machinery, I enjoyed a profound sleep. The ladies have always a separate cabin to themselves often fitted up with elegance, as all the cabins are with neatness & cleanliness. We this morning passed the scene of the famous action (naval) called the Battle of Champlain in which the B. squadron was destroyed We were told that Macomb would have surrendered Plattsburg had he been sur rounded, & that Gen 1 Macomb had said so-but I cannot think it likely that a commander would wait for his enemy in an indefensible fort for the purpose of sur rendering 1500 men, stores &c to his enemy, while the country was open behind him & great reinforcements ad vancing to support him. Expenses M.B. to N. 88 25 City Hotel 17 0 H.B. to L.P. 44 Expenses at Falls 28 0 Mrs King 54 0 Guide L O Albany 30 0 Carriage to Newark 6 0 Inn Dinner L75 Soldiers Baggage 25 Utica 9 0 Passage 50 Dinner &c. 2 0 Kingston Hotel 7 60 Bed &c. 4 25 M:W 100 0 Dinner I O Break fast 1 80 Bed 2_50 Servants LO Break fast 1 37 Saturday Dinner 2_50 Mrw. LO Coachman 48 00 Youngtown 80 Canandaigua 7 00 Sunday Dinner L 75 Beds &c L60 T ea 75 [illeg ible word] 8 0 Batavia 2 50 S Pr escott 4 60 Dinner 2 0 Cornwall 2 40 Carriage 28 0 Montreal 12 30 Expenses. Buf fa lo 3_50 Boat L 80 Carriage 10 0 to st Johns 12_0 Ferry 4 0 M:W 12 0 Expenses of carriage st Johns & horses at Niagara 6 50 StBoat 27_0 [illegible word) 2_5 I. The first entry i s probably an abbreviation for Montego Bay. Jamaica, to New York with the co st of the pa ss age. It ha s been determined from correla tion s with the journal that these expenses are given in dollar s. The list was originally written in pencil and later all but a few word s were inked over. 95

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96 Barrett Journal Page from the Journal Additional Notes on the Young Nation The Territory watered by the Miss i ssippi is of im mense extent & great FertilityIt is now for the most part in possession of the Indians, but their rights will be no check to the aggrandiz i ng views of the U n ited States. This great Country is capable of maintaining several hundred millions of Inhabitants & affords a fie l d to drain off the bad humours of the States for a thousand generations, & to place at a n immense distance t h e thic k population of any partsWe were informed by a Virginian that in his native county the inhabitants had diminished of l ate years a third part from emigrations to the West & it was equalled in other parts. Thi s fine count ry as yet is reported scarce inhabitable from Mosquitoes. A traveller there wrote to his friend that of 7 horses 6 had already perished by mosquito b i tes & the last was just expiringAt Albany our eyes were caught by rather a novel objectIn the public room of our Inn we perceived a hair brush pendent near a looking glass, nor was it merely or namental, a decently dressed man while we st ill admired the convenie n ce, composed hi s locks with it before the mirror. This was the principal I nn of the place, where Generals, members of Congress & barri s ters were lodging & actually seated in the roomGeneral Jackson, called by his Countrymen the hero of New Orlean s, commanded so me time before the attack 97

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98 Barrett Journal on that. cit.y an expedition against the Indians. 1 Thi s force was prmc1pally composed of Tennessee militiaThese men u_nused to military duties were fatigued by the length of their march & the privation of their usual comforts& after some days, the Tennesseeans refused to proceed. General Jackson enraged at seeing a large part of them face about towards their homes, seized a rifle from one of the malcontents & swore he would shoot the first man who retrograded-instantly a hundred musquets were presented at him. "Oh, you base scou ndrels, s aid the General, "you can threaten & put on a bold face when opposed to one man, but when a few trifling difficulties stand in yo ur wa~, & a p~rcel of disorderly savages are near you, you beg_m to thmk of home & your wives, & would not hesitate to run away over the body of your GeneralGet along th~n you cowards, go home & wait quietly in your hous~s till these barbarians come & burn your fields & dwellings, & massacre your wives & childrenIt was at yo~r own desire that I have come so far to yo ur assistance & to chastise the cruelties of your enemies, but now your dastardly fears get the better of your prudence, & you choose rather to perish with your families in tor tures one by one, than bravely to face your enemies col lected in a body & with arms in your hands. Go' yo u home, & tell your wives & sweethearts that you have left your General in the woods to be scalped by the Indians Go, & court your girls with the history of yo ur baseness-for my part I will keep onward with the few brave men who accompanied me to your help, it shall not be told that we joined in your panic & ran away before we saw our enemy." Th_is ki~d of discourse enriched with oaths & vulga r expressions m the style of his half civilised Tennesseeans had the effect he hoped for. The army co ntinu ed it s march & the Indians were defeatedL Thi s e~ped ition too k place late in the year of 1813, as part of 1he war against t he Creek Indian s in what is now Alabama and western Georgia. Additional Notes 99 If you look in the American Newspapers for well writte n discussions on the intere sts of their country & its relations with foreign powers, or if you expect to see the party adopted by the editor ably defended & its adver saries refuted or ridiculed, you will be generally deceivedThe Stranger expects to meet in a conspicuous part of the paper a well digested summary of Ne~s ~r politics, instead of it, he is disgusted day after day with 111 written & intemperate attacks on so me cotemporary print. This coarse abuse is retorted, & in ~he heat of a~g~ ment the rival new smonge r s forget how httle the pubhc 1s interested in the dispute, & continue it without end & wit hout aim to the exclusion of more important matter The popularity of a Newspaper depends very little or not at all, on the literary qualifications of its editorHe has only to secure his share of public patronage to abuse Great Britain & the Royal family-the more virulent & ly ing these attacks are the better for the paper. I remember an insertion in a Democratic paper, put at the end of a list of marriages"Married. In London on the 2d of May. Mr Leopold George Coburg to Miss Charlotte Louisa Guelph daughter of Mr George Augustus Guelph sometimes called Prince Regent of England.'" Another paper observes "We were kicked by England into a war, & we kicked her out of it again-" It is believed by all but the high er classes & these even on the Democratic side affect to believe that G Bri tain was terrified into a peace by their victories over our Frigates & on the LakesAn account appeared wh~le I was in America of a searc h by a B. Vessel of an Amencan trader on the lakesIt brought forth the following letter 1. Leopold I, king of the Belgian s, was married in May 1816, to Charlotte, the on l y ch ild of the Prince Regent afterwards George IV.

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100 Barrett Journal "Sir I see with indignation the conduct of the B. officers on the Western lakes, & as I am of the peace party, I take the l iberty to pro pose my plan for preserving peace, maintain1?g our ~ational honor & vindicating our na tional rightsThe B. officers have the in solence to overhaul our vessels on Lake Erie & to enforce the rig h t of search even in our own waters, th i s ought not to be borne Truly, Si r the mo r e we bear from these fe ll ows, the more we mayI propose therefore that an armed vessel be sent aga in st t~e Tecumseh, which shall without ceremony smk her, _but save h er crew This is my plan & there 1s no man of sense or spirit who would not j u stify the reta li ation-" The following ~ppeared in one of t h ese pape r s-" It 1s tru e that ou r cla i m to the Floridas is doubtful, but a Sp~msh wa r wo u l d be po p u l ar."' There is every reason to b~heve t~at the A. Government would readily go to war "'.1th Spam It would be popular for two reasons. In the first p l a~e the_y have long looke d w i t h an eye of disire [sic] on ~lo~ 1 da lymg as t h at country [is] in the midst of their terntone~, & so situated as to be a powerful engine of an noyance m the hands of an enemy. The war would also be popu l ar, as tending to emancipa t e the S. Co l onies fro~ the control o_f the Mother countryThe Republican vamty. wou l d be h ighly flatte r ed to have it said that they gave hberty to so large a portion of the human race Per_ha~s deeper Policy would wish Sp. America to re main m its present weak state; this immense Cou n try under good government may produce powerful rivals to the~ States even on their own continent, but it is a waste of ~1me to seek in the American councils for that science which rules the Statesmen of Europe. I. T~e territory of Flo rida was a Spanish possession before it was ceded to the Unned States by the Treat y of 1819 Additional Notes 101 We heard from a Colonel, who was in the town when N Orleans was assaulted that the inhabita n ts were not inclined to resist the B troopsThe delay of the at tack was fatal, had our troops advanced as soon as disembarked, t h e place must have submitted, t h e enemy not having organized the means of res i stance. But while our commanders were deliberating troops from all quarters were pouring into the town, the Tennesseeans a r rived & Jackson the Ge n 1 made everyone wo r k n i ght & day at the fo r tificationsWe were to l d by our Landlord of Albany that a Gentleman then i n the house consumed regularly half a dollar's worth of segars a day. T h is habit is said to have taken its rise at New York & P h iladelphia to avert the yellow fever & perhaps it would have in some degree that effectI h a ve see n boys of 1 2 years of age and younger with segars. The fo ll ow i ng Pa r agrap h copied verbat i m from an US pape r will amuse the Englishman who reads it "From info r mation wh i c h we r eceived from the highest authority we sho ul d n o t be surprised if the Pri n cess Charlotte never becomes Queen of Engla n d-" If Prince Leopold who intended to marry the heiress of three k in gdoms had seen this grave information fro m the highest authority, we know not what part his Serene Highness would h ave taken, perhaps our P r incess would have still pined in s i ngle blessednessThe Captain of an United States Frigate in high mindedness of spirit caused it to be proclai m ed to hi s crew, that if there was a British Subject on board, who felt reluctant to engage his countrymen, he was free to depart the s hi p without molestationOne Englishman availed him se lf of this encouragement to declare himself 1. Yellow fever epidemics occurred in New York City in 1795 and 179~ _and in Philadelphia in 1793. These outbreaks wer e due 10 the unsanitary conditions or the cities and left thousands dead.

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102 Barrett Journal such, & shame t o the commander of the frigate, his crew was permitted to tar & feather & otherwise maltreat the unfortunate man. There is a very brisk traffic in slaves carried on at the Havana. In July I 8 I 6, 7 Slave ships arrived in two days These vessels are for the most part American property manned & commanded by Americans, sailing under the Spanish flag to mask their illegal comme rce1 We were informed by a Gentleman from N. Orleans that negroes sold there for from 1500 to 3000 dollarsWe enquired of several Gentlemen of Virginia, Georgia, &c if the local governments had taken any steps to ameliorate the condi !ion of the slaves, & if the free coloure d population en Joyed any civil or political privilegeWe were informed that the power of the master over his s lave was absolute, he only could not directly put him to death. The punishments to be inflicted on them are not limited the magistracy of the country have no power to interfere between the master & his slave for the protection of the latter. Altho' by law the owner must not kill his slave & death is the punishment, yet this law has never been ex ecuted altho' the crime has been committedInde ed where the power yet exists to torture the negro to death br _c~ains and _la shes, there is little humanity in pro h1b1tmg a more immediate murder. The free people of colour were represented to us as the very dregs of society useless to themse lve s & the com ~unityThey preferre d a wretched & precarious ex istence to labouring either in agriculture or mechanic tradesThey possessed no civil or political rights, nor did they desire themWe cannot be surprised that these be ings continue in so degraded a state, they have no motive to excite them to exert ion When we are despised by others, we soon lose all respect for ourselves & what in the first instance was lawless & oppressive, sdon finds its excuse in the consequences of the oppression. The Person l. The par~icipation by American c i tizens in the stave trade to foreign coun tries was forbidden by the United States government in 1794. Additional Notes 103 of the free man of colour is safe from the lash of the master, & he cannot be forced to labour, but his property is at the mercy of every white, who has baseness enough to take advantage of his fair skinIf the black man labours for the white, & the reward is withheld, the _blac _k man has no redress, he cannot be evidence ev~n m his own cause in any court of justice against the white man It naturally follows that men kept so low in the sc~le of society who are co n sidered unworthy of the protectio n ~f the law will give themselves little trouble to a~end theu condition, or to cultivate their intellectual facult1e~-: In the British Island of Jamaica, the cond1 t10n of both Slaves & free people of colour has been improved by many legislative enactmentsThat Island has drawn th_e displeasure of many philanthropists at home for w_hat i t has not done in favor of these people, but what 1t has done & is still doing for them does not appear to be at all considered. Let the regulations of that Island for t~e pro tection of its colo ur ed population be compared with the system still pursued in a country calli~g itself_ the freest under heaven. The master or manager m Jamaica can n~t exceed the infliction of 39 lashes for any faults. He _is obliged by law to cloath & feed his negroes & certain houses are set apart for the cultivation of his own Grounds & for relaxationIf the manager does not co~ ply with these restrictions & reg~lations, the negr~ has h~s redress in an appeal to the magistrate, & the magistrate 1s bound to attend to & redress his complaintThe Laws are naturally well in tended to define the duti~s of Ma~ter & Slave & they are executed with as much stnctness & im partiality as laws are executed in any quarter o_f the world With respect to the free man of colour, he 1s not like the Virginian, w i thout any incitement to lab~ur, without any protect ion for his property or p ers o_n agam_st the rapacity or violence of the wh i te, but he_ 1s free m fact, his property is protected as well _as h1_s wealthy neighbour's barns, his evidence is received m all ~he courts & in consequence the people of color m Jamaica are generally industriou s, & many of them well educated & possessors of large property.

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104 Barrett Journal At New York a Clergyman of the Episcopal Church published a work called "The Triangle or a series of numbers on three Theological points."' A Clergyman should be somewhat more grave than to give a work on divinity so absurd a name, but as the title of a book is often of more importance to the sale than its matter, the Clergyman may have judged wisely in suiting the title to the taste of the public. I cannot withhold from the Americans the praise to which they justly are ent i tled for the Virtue of Sobriety Perhaps no nation in the world indulges less in the pleasures of the bottle among the better ordersIt is not their custom to sit after dinner as we do in England, but they dine early, at 2 or 3 oClock & afte r dinner return to their counting houses, & pass the evening i n visits to their neighbours It being the general practice to visit in the evening, the young men, who are fond of female society (& few are not) cannot make one at the tea-table of the ladies in a state of intoxication, they would not be en duredThis is one great advantage of early hours, & evening visits, it withdraws the American youth from the temptations of the table, & affords the females the society of their friends & lovers, without feeling disgusted with noisy riot & improper conversation I am not told that this praiseworthy temperance extends to the slave holding states, the wealthy planter has more idle time to fill up than the enterprising merchants of the sea coast & he be st enjoys the company of his friends over a bottle~ It is said that when the famous Cooke first made his appearance on the stage of N York' he was received with the usual honor of clapping and with the national tune of "Hail Columbia". Cooke's patriotism was offended in stead of flattered his vanity being better [illegible passage] I. The author of this work was the Rev. Samuel Whelpley and the t hree points are those of the Ca l vinistic Tr i angle, namely, Original Sin, Liabil i ty and Atonement. 2. George Frederick Cooke was an English actor, notorious for his in temperate habit s He v i s ited th e United States in 18 10 and died in New York in I 8 I I. Additional Notes !OS expected to play without the tune to which he had been so many years accustomed. The American audience, rather than lo se the treat they expected & had paid for, a~sented to the su b st itution, "God save the King" was agam after a lapse of 33 years heard in the N Y ?rk thea~reI ne~d not say that it wanted the usual gr:etmgsIt 1s also said that Cooke was reque ste d tu keep himself sober for a 1:'ar ticular night as one of their great men intended th~t night to honor the theatre with his presence. Cooke_ rephed that he had been used to play for Nobles & prmces & h~d played while drunk before _them, ~e knew no one 1!1 America having an equal c l aim on his forbearanceTh_is eccentric actor came on the stage more tipsy than. usual m spite of the great man & the warnings he had receivedColonel Wilcox had the command of some American troops stationed at or n ear Fort ErieHe had placed a sen tinel at an outpost, the British having tro~ps at s_o~e distance. On going his rounds he met the se_ntmel ret1~mg from his post, he declared that the Glenganans had f ir~d at him. Wilcox damned him for a cowa rd & ordered him to return declaring that no Glengarian would venture _so near the American linesHe rode back to the. spot with the sentinel when a seco nd shot struck the traitor, & he died the same night. These Glengarians had the glory of this action by which they bani she d a Rebel, & struck ter ror into th~ EnemyA few Glengarians have been known to put ten times their number to flight. I read in N Y a pamphlet written in answer _to an A~ ticle which had appeared in the Quarterl;r ReVIew This pamphlet was intended to punish the Reviewer s for some coarse language they had used respect i ng Com~odore Porter & the American government, but while the Author complained of the personality that h~d b:en made use of he himself fell into the same stram. Takmg 1 Captain David Porter's Journal of a Cruize Made to the Pacific Ocean was. given a har s h review in the July 1815 issue of the Quarterly Rev1e\ T_he comments in the pamphlet in response to the review we~e included m t e in troduction to the seco nd edition of Porter' s Journal, published m 1822.

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106 Barrett Journal Southey the Laureate for the Author, by a natural transi tion he laid his rough hand on the Kings of Great Britain & in descr i bing the office & origin of Poet Laureate the Author says that their Majesties originally maintained a buffoon in the court, but that office had become a si necure, their Majesties genera ll y act in g that part themselves The poet Laureate had therefore been substituted It is thought by the Federalists that the Government were never serious in their attempts upon CanadaHad these provinces been conquered, they must have been ad mitted into the Union & being from their situation already connected wit h the Eastern states they would have thrown a weight into that scale which would proba bly have overturned the power of the Democrats whose strength is in the South, & the event would have been the hastening [of] that division already universally appre hended. There is little doubt but that New York & New Jersey will in case of two powers dividing N America form part of the Eastern government. While England is exerting all her power & influence to induc_e. the rest of the world to follow her example in the aboht10n of the Slave trade, it is renewed in a part of the world where perhaps her philanthropists apprehend the least dangerAmerica had the glory of being the first sta te to throw from her the ignominy of this traffic. She boasts continually of her freedom, & looks down upon every state whose government is different from he r own yet has this new & virtuous nation set the example of ren ewal of th i s abhorred commerce, made still more hor rible, as it is not under the sa nction & restrictions of Jaw Slaves are imported into Louisiana if not with the concurI. In December 1814, Federalists representing five New England states met at the_ Hartfo rd Convention to discuss the situation caused by the in competent handling of the war by the Democratic administration. Although the action of the ~onvention came t o nothing as the war soon ended, nine sta t es officially reprimanded the part1c 1pant s at Hartford for sowing the seeds of disunion. Additional Notes 107 rence at least in defiance of the Government-' When we consider the immense extent of that region, we must shudder at the number of miserable beings who will be torn from their country to colonise a strange_ la~d. It is thought that the European con~t~tut10n 1s not adapted to the Southern climate of_ Lou1S1ana t~at the white man cannot there labour & hve. Such bemg the opinion of Americans can we wonder,_ that_ th~ ad vantages held out by the cultivation _of t?1s reg10n 1s too tempting to their ambition to be rel!n_qms~ed from feel ings of humanity or of sham_e:Loms1~na 1s adapted for all the productions of the Bnt1sh colome~, & to a greater extent-sugar, Indigo, cotton, tobacco yield vast returns not only prom i sing to enrich the individual adv~ntu~er but also to render the whole Empire of N Amenca dependent of the British colonies for Sugar and Rum. So profitable are the Estates of the settlers, that I was assured that one gang of Negroes seasoned to the climate & labour of the country was sold for 120,000 dollars. If the landholder can afford such a price, he need not fe~r that the slave market will be empty. The sugar ~ade_ m Louisiana i s equal to Jamaica sugar, & as the n_av1gat10n is short to the other American states & the article bears no duty, while the duty on foreign produce is enormous, the profit of the grower mu st be very greatWe found great attention paid to us as strangers-all such are admitted to the reading room at N York & altho natives must have tickets to see the orations of the young collegians, here called the commencement, we were ad mitted without them on saying we were StrangersWhen we entered the church where the young orators were ex hibiting, a young man of about 17 was on ~. temporary stageThis speech was of hi s own co mpos1t1on & very verbose & florid as was to be expected from a school bo~ His action was by no mean s ungraceful but ~1 s phraseology in England would have been called provm 1. The importation of slaves from Africa into United States dominions was prohibited by an act which went into effect in 1808.

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108 Barrett Journal c ial & many c ommon words were improperl y pro nouncedThese defect s are exc usable & easily remedied und~r proper instruction, but I own that I did not so r~ad1ly make a ll owance for hi s monotonou s pronuncia tion & want of animationI heard another who had more than these defectsI afterwards observed in a Newspaper the li st of the oration s which had been prepared for this occasio n & I observed that each s peaker was the author of hi s own di sc our sePerhaps it would s hew more att e ntion to t he patience o f their auditors in th~ Profe ss or~ & more good taste in them se lves if two pnzes ~~re given to_ the scholars for the be st piece s of co m~o s1t1on, these pi eces mi gh t be then introduced at the opening & clo se of the Exhibition & those of the boys who po ss essed the talent of speaking would afford more rational e ntertainment to th e company b y taki n g s elect part~ from au~hors of Established r ep utation, than they po ss ibly can give by their own & crude attempts at elo quence. A canal is contemp la ted by t h e State of New York in the hop e of dr awi ng not only the products of the back part of that State to the city but also of obtaining a large s hare of t~e trade of U. Canada.' Co mmi ssio n ers have been appointed & beside s pre vi ous s ur veys one had been ma_de just ~efore we travelled thro' the Western country. This canal tf ever completed w ill give a boat navigation from Lake Ontario to Schenectady & from then ce in L~rge~ vesse ls to N. York. Th e cana l will be 200 or 300 miles in l e ngth & must cost many million s of d o llar s nor do I think that the population of the countries ihro' which it is to pa ss is sufficiently den se to secure that first r eq ui s ite a s uffi c ien cy of LabourersIf this ca nal is ex ec u te d no doubt mu c h of the produ ce which now goes down the St. Lawrenc e will find its way to N York but the greater part wi ll continue in it s pre se nt t ra ct ~here there w ill in all probability be a l ways the be st market. l. !he Erie C~na l wa s begun in 1817 and did indeed sti mul ate tra d e. Soon after_ 11s complellon m 1825 New York City gained dramatically in po p ulation and importance as a center of commerce. Additional Notes 109 I wo uld not know what ma y be the final _regulati?n s in the other British C olonie s, but I know that m Jamaica, United States flour bear s a duty of two dollars a barrel & othe r produce from thence in prop~rt i on. That _from the Briti s h N. A. Provin ces pay s no duti es Thu s thi s ~ounty of two dollar s on Canadian produ ce will as long as tt con ti nue s, & I hop e it eve r will, mu st operate to s_end acr?ss the frontier s much of the produ ce of the ne1ghbounng c ountry, it t h e n pa sses as of Canadian ~rowt~ f!t, the duty i s evaded. In return the Am eric an s r ece i ve Bnt1 s h goods It is not difficult to smuggle t h em into s o e~tended a front i er & thus the dut ie s are again eluded whi c h wou ld be l evied if introduced thro' the Atlantic po rts American e l ections expen s ive A N En g lander can cut down the thick timb~r of an acre in three days & junk it. A Fa rm was ~dvert1sed ~or sale, & among other advantages, that o_f haymg a run~mg s tream thro' the yard was dwelt upon, tt bemg convenie nt to carry off the dirt dung, &cT he Ma yors of State of N Y are nam ed by th e Coun c il of Appointment not by the citizensM~ P. Van R e n sa la er wa s s uper sede d by this co un~i~, alt~o ve ry & deservedly popular among his fellow c1ttzens T~e C?~n cil of appointment is thus const itut e d. The State ~ d1 v 1d ed into four distri c t s & the lower hou se of Le g1_s la~ur e elect from the Senate one member for each d1stnct Th ese four wit h th e Governor form the counci l of_ ~p pointment. Their duty i s to name the Ma y or s of c1t1es, judges, magi st rate s, &c. The judges of the Supreme Co urt are appointed ull they attain the age of 60 Their sa lary_ is 4500 dollar ~ & the sa lary dies with t h e officeThe Judge th e n retire s 1 Philip Schuyler Van Rensselaer (1766 1824), b r other of Stephe n, had bee~ mayor of A l bany since 1799 when he was removed in July 1 816. H e was o nc e again appointed in I 819 but resigned in 1821 becau se of an ac t of the New York State Legislature which transferre~ the po~er of appointing th e mayor from the governor 10 the co mmon council of the c ity

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I 10 Barrett Journal a~ong the ~itiz~n~It _is difficu l t to see the possibility of a Judge mamtammg his rank on an income of about a thous~nd_ guineas, for whateve r may be thought of it, Amenca 1s by no means a cheap country, but he must not only do that, but also lay by a provision for the time h e may_ unf~rtunate l y live after the age of 60If he has a family, his case is hard indeedThe reason that is given for the superannuation of its judges at the particular age of 60 by the State of N York, is, that at the latter per i od o_f the o~d G?vernment they had a judge whom they co n sid~red m his dotage but whose salary only continuing while he kept his seat on the bench, would not resign When the N Yorkers came to possess the Sovereign power t~e?1_selves they provided against this grievance by hm1tmg the sound senses of their judges to the attaint ment of 60 years. It would perhaps have answered the in tended pu:pos~ quite as well, if they had continued his salary d~rmg hfe, & placed him on the same footing with t~e Enghsh Judges. A Judge will not willingly resign of f1c_e & sala:y ~ogether, but the same object i on would not exist to res1gnmg the office & retaini n g the emolument. !he late w~r was declared on the Eve of an Election. Madison & C l mton were the candidates & the election ~as doubtful.' The mass of the people was known to be m favor _of war, & war was declaredIt had the effect that was mtendedClinton was averse to a declaration of wa: & the que~ti~n was only carried in the Represen tatives by a maJonty ~f 8, & in the Senate by a majority of t~oNot only did the favourers of war support 1':fad1son, but ma_ny who_ were before doubtful, they con sidered that to eJect their war president would have the appearance_ of being opposed to the war, & wo u ld give cause of tn_umph & of courage to the enemyMadison also by this manner acquired all that strength every g_overnment must possess in time of warAdditional of ficers were to be appointed to collect the additional l. _Jame_s Madison was re -elected to the presidency in 1812 as he defeated DeWitt Clinton by an e lector a l vote of 128 10 89. Additional Notes 111 revenuesHe was in immediate possession of the patronage of the Army & NavyThe Editor of a Federa l paper complains that the people have quite forgotten the abuses of t?eir Govern ment altho' at one time they were so glarmg as to be noticed by many of the Democratic prints. "There was," he observes "a trifling affectation of bluster by a Democratic 'paper, the Editor of which like the sinner mentioned in the Bible, has a throat like an open Sepulchre, & of course can swallow any thin~ & every thing that is corrupt & tainted-" But it soon died away, & all is now silent & sad, not a breath to be heard on the subject. AgainAt a late meeting of the Dem~crat~ m Tennessee convened for the purpose of taking mto con sideration certain public grievances under which the peo ple of that state Jabour, a considerable n~mber of persons addressed the meeting in warm & ammated speeches, relative to certain proceedings of the government, & they nearly one & all charged them with having ~ade an un constitutional treaty with the Cherokee Indians, & the language of the Gentlemen on this & other subjects was loud & l ofty, calculated we should think, considering the quarter of the country from whence it proceeds to shake the nerves of some of the bold & daring members of the cabinet, who so manfully fled on a certain occasion from the renowned field of Bladensburg.' One of them, a Mr Hannum went very much at l ength into the catalogue of Tennesse~ grievances, & among other things, i:nade the remarks which we have subjo i ned. We should hke much to see, whether this does not force some of the Treasury leeches into the fieldCharges about money, come home to men's business & bosoms-they are easily understood & generally pretty sensibly felt. There follows the speech of Mr Hannum before Alluded to. 1. On August 24, 1814, at Bladen sburg, Maryland, America n resistance quickly faded as British troops approached Washington. President James Madi son and severa l Cabinet members, present at the scene, had to flee.

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112 Barrett Journal "Again Mr Ch airman-how have the T nessee Troops been treated by the G enment of the United States? I don't h -~vern say that their rights have been mo s t s ~te ~o ~rostrated. I well recollect that bunJu st Y time Genl 1 ackson 's a out the Or_lean s when all the a~te~etuSrt?etd from animated b h a es were B Y t e1r Gallant deeds that Mr rent wrote to the then country th t h paymaster of this a e would so on send out to pay the troops, & that he wished th money to be paid before they were disbanded.:__ a;~.Y true. that there was not a s ingle dollar ~; public money at Nashville b sold & if all th '. i s were to be e money m T ~==~ ~~~;.c~ed in one pile, it woeu~~e~:t tro icient to pay off one third of the s ile~psThey s uffered, but they suffered in d. ce; many poor fellows were cut down b iseases contracted in the army th f Y they were unable to k ere ore h ma e a note man ot ers were in debt or trusted to th. Y for relief but the h 1 s country ir opes were vain th were deceived, but still they b r d ey government was unable to pay b~t:oeuldthdat so when the t o Th reasury shou ld be replenished e treas~ry has been replenished b augmentation of JO 000 000 f d Y an the money is still withheld." o ollars, yet Some idea may be formed f Government & the d i stres o the poverty of this close of the war s ince s to which It was reduced at the 1816 the Tenne ss~e Milit:a a~~ears by this speec h that in defence of New Orleans h;d n o wer~ so pop~lar for their promises were made to ind ot rece1v~d _t heir pay. Great uce men to mlJst but they (sic! l. Prob ably William Leigh Brenc ( 17 d_ent M adison a s deputy a11orne ener84 1848) who wa s appoinced by Pre si ruory of Orleans. H e later repr~s!n1 d al fo~ !he western district of the Ter Un11ed States House of R epresentative:. Lou1s1ana from 1823 to 1829 in the Additional Notes 113 government could not fulfill them in many cases not even the full rations were afforded & for several days the US troops mutinied at Detroit, & refu sed to obey their of ficers, till paid up their arrear sSome of these arrear s we re of 1 8 months standingThe officers commanding companies are permitted by their military laws to flog the men without the formality of a court martial & 30 & 40 & even more lashes are given at the discretion of an in dividualVery few of the 8. deserters enter the US army, they detest the se rvice, it promises more but ha s fewer comforts t han their own. I copy the definition of Democratic freedom from a Federal paper-" In the Hartford Mercury of l ast week is the following paragraph. France thou too once enjoyed the sweets of freedom, But, alas! not even the semb lance of Liberty is now left you"Thou art no more Queen of the East! thy l and of Liberty, Thy soil of heroe s, & thy seal of Virtues, Is now in the tomb-" When did France enjoy the sweets of Freedom? Wa s it under an unbroken s uccession of abso lu te monarchs, or, was i t whi l e victorious foreign armies during a s hort interval, occupied part of the French territory? If so, then France is now free & the se mblance of Liberty has not left herFo r she is governed by her hereditary prince, while the enem i es of his authority are kept in awe by the surrounding nations. France then did not enjoy the sweets of Freedom under the old l ine of monar c hs When the Horror s of the R evolut ion burst forth, & France, like the Volcano of the Apocalypse, fell upon the neighbouring nations, & turned them i nto blood, was France then a land of Liberty & a seat of virtues? Was this Queen of the East labouring in the benevolent work of se nd ing her li berty & v i rtues abroad for "the hea l ing of the nation s"? When anarchy & wild mi srule usurped the Sceptre of lawful authority, when the blood of her butcherie s flowed in torrent s from the Guillotine, when

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114 Barrett Journal her religion was infidelity, & her worship blasphemy, was s he enjoying the sweets of FreedomUnder Buo n aparte, rightly ca lled "T he Nig h tmare of the World" was France "a Land of Liberty & sea t of virtues"? While her so n s were torn from the little happine ss t hat they might have e njoy e d in the bosom of their fami li es by a mercile ss con scr i ption & driven by millions to peri s h by t h e p l agues of Egypt, the poi so n of J affa, & t h e frosts of Russia did they or their re l at i ves enjoy the sweets of Freedom & what virtue could the tortur ed eye of the trave ll e r discover in France, un l ess s ullen s ubmission to th e iron rule o f a d espot w hom t h ey dare not res i st is accounted a virtue? But France once enjoyed the swee t s of Freedom. Now t h e semb l ance o f Liberty is not to be found there. O u r Con n ecticut Democrats mu st t h erefore find t h e ble ssi ng s of lib erty either in the anarchy, the carnage, & Blasphemy of the French Revolution or in the horror s of a C onscription & t h e t yranny of a m ilit ary despotism. They doubtless find i n bot h these condition s of France s uch lib erty a s they wis h thei r own country to e n joy. In the French revolution they saw the d iabol ical machina tion s of vile Jacobinism triumphing ove r law, order & religio n & the vilest of the vile exalted to wealth & powerUnde r the Despotism of Buonaparte they saw the sa me mi sc reant s in cre a si ng their wea l t h & strengt hen ing t h ei r power sp r ead ing their conquests & multiplying their trophies, rioting on the spoi ls of nations, & sporting wit h the tear s & c ri es of widows & of orphans. Seeing this, they were filled with joy & their hearts burn with desire to imitate the exampleSuch i s the Spi ri t & Genius of Democrat i c Freedom. Al th o' every one must admire & s upport the true Liberty of the P r c::ss in any co untry yet i t must be feared that the adva nt ages of a Free press are sac rifi ced when pub li c officers a re individually & by name accused of crimes in the perfo rm ance of th e i r of ficia l dutiesAdditional Notes 115 f aragraphs from a letter that appeared I take a_ ew P bl"shed durin g the war, & adin an Amencan pape r pu dressed to the SecY of th e Navy. h e to fill the depart"The party in pow e r c os b"lities f Governme n t, m en whose a I ments o d t fear whose influence t h ey they ~ee no t d;ead Sir t h ey were n o t need m no even l d th doubts in the se ecuonem b ar~sse m;' with decided prefer e~ce-& You, ir, d t twinkle in the have been permitte O f h fifth h a star o t e pohucal onzon I to the unenvied magnitud e. You are we come . tis a distinction more likely to d1stincuon, f friends with ff the chee ks o yo ur su use to ale with envy t h ose of your blushes, than P d d lived to present to enemiesYou have in ee f Id an extraordinary instance o the wor f a man advanced t o power modern pohcy 0 f his p o li tica l thro' the naked nothingnes s o characterd f e quality You are however pos sesse o. o~ which can n ot fail to excite admirauo;:I~ is manifested in t h e se lection of yo~: ;'~; Most of them are me~, who moru ':ith c on negle ct of those in offic~, & treated f their t mpt b y the wise & virtuous part o f:llow cit i zens; feel strong l y attached _to yo~~ & while your pow e r remain s, w 1 patronage, f of t he aspect they give you sub m1 ss 1 ve proo h i th feel for the office you tenant, s are w 1 dacity in all you r carousa s, generous au d 1 & at I h loudly at your inebnat e w1 :s~!mblies, parties, &c g i ve an opportunity for t he charitab l e to observe that you a~e no~ th e o nly person who ha s unhappily pre e~e a cha plet of the vine to a laurel wreath. d"nde m s to have stu 1e of these gent l emen see have your character with peculiar care, & to ---------

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116 Barrett Journal p;ofited by his attention; he has declared t_ at the path to the head of Mr Jeff hes th h' b erson ro is ram; the high road to your ~~ro your throat. H e has given yo u man; mners_ & much wine, you have paid him protecti?n & profitable privileges~erm1t m~ now Sir, to ask you a few ~erious questions relative to your conduct as ecY of the Navy. Have you not lent the In f~~ence of Y?~r office to gratify the friend s ips. & enm1t1es of persons with whom ou associate, & disregarded the most sol:mn ~on:i~acts entered in to between your office & m/;v1d~als? Did you not disregard all rule s ~h ~st1ce & checks upon abuses, in allowing e urgeon of the marines to give orders to h!mself for medicines; making hi s receipts to ~If self the vouchers for quantities said to be e ivered?_ And did you not, after havin granted ~1m t_his privilege, permi t him to at~ ~~n_d to his private business & appoint an ad1t1onal mate to the Hospital at a t when f 1me too ewer men were in Garrison than had been for years before?" &c, &c, in th~u~~: r ciusations as ~he above against an officer high duties g& pri~~;r~ha:r~~~ng ~ 0th 1 ~n respect to hi s official noticed in a well order:d s ou not have p~ssed un charged upon men in stateIf s uch crimes are & unenquired into if t~~wer, & pass unpu~ished if false, into contempt wf th thee, te nd to bring their rulers defamer & libellerP Pe, & to encourage the .. take this paragraph from an A M1ht1a are to be paid at th f P~per. If the e rate o one officer for every I This le11er wa s probably aimed at p Secretary of rhe Navy ar rhe b aul Ham,hon, who was Madison's i1 egrnnrng of rhe war H ipp er, was arracked as incompetent d am, ton was known to be a an re s igned on Dec e mber 3 l' 1812. ---Additional Notes 11 7 two & a half men-for that was about the relative pro portion of Genl Mooers' division,' at the date of our return, & o ur future progress in the conquest of Canada is to be calculated by the past, how much money & time will be required to effect that operation?" It was pro posed to correct this abuse, but Government shrunk from the responsibility of the measure, fearing its effect up on t h e e l ection for PresidentI was told that the men of the US regular army receive 8 dollars per month & the en signs 30, the lieutenant s 40 & so on in proportion, besides 150 acres of land at the end of 5 years service & sti ll more for the officers. Such pay wh i ch is rendered necessary from the great price of labour & the great allowance of rations far greater than in our service, must render it very difficult for these States to maintain a respectable army In time of war t heir revenue is almost annihilated from the interrupt i on of trade, & the fact has been already stated that they could not pay their troops when on actua l service, or even give them the full rationTecumseh s kin mad e into ra zor strop s. The Ken tuckyans the first that scalped. Their horrid brutality to an Indian revenged by the scalping o f 70 men & I 8 or 20 officers one woman & one child killed at Lewiston, magnified into a massacre of 100 women & 200 children. 1 The capture of Fort Niagara was the most dashing enterprise of the late war. The Americans were foiled by their own weapons Cunning & Stratage m, weapons in deed but seldom used by Briti s h officers, & when used but rarely successfu lThe Americans apprehended an atI. Major-General Benjamin Mooers com manded the New Y or k Militia in volved in the defense of Plarrsburg. 2. The great Indian leader Tecum se h, who wa s allied w i th the Briti s h, died at the battle of the Th ames on October 5, 1813 The Kentu c kian s reportedly found the chief's body and took strips of skin as souvenirs. However, the In dians maintained that Tecumseh was invulnerable 10 the white men and had in stead been raised to the s ky The Lewiston massacre took place on December 19, 1813, when the British were unable to control the Indian s who had found much liquor in the conquered town.

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118 Barret t Journal tack on Fort Niagara & kept a Sc h ooner s ailing up & down the Lake watching the motions of their enemy, & thei r whole garr i so n of 500 men was kept to their arms for four days & nights. In t h e mean t im e the British General watched hi s opportun i ty, boats were brought severa l miles overland unperceived by t h e enemy & con cealt:d behi nd a point of land To deceive the America n s as to the means we had, an excuse was found to s end over an officer w i th a flag of truce i n so miserable a canoe that it drew on t h e office r t h e derision of the enemy. Com pletely deceived by t h is manoevre, believing the Briti s h to have no means of crossing the rive r & seeing no prepara tions on their part, they r esigned themselves to a security as blind as th e ir watc h f ul ness had before been extreme Their Com mand a n t left hi s post to vis i t a new purcha se of land at a few miles distance & the sold i ers & officers wearied out with fou r night s successive wakefulness resig n ed themselves to s le ep. Our boat s crossed in t he night, a sentry was se ized before h e co uld fire his pi ece or give the ala r m, threats of instant death ext ort e d from him the cou nt ersign & t h e place was taken with no lo ss on the part of the conquerors & but little on t ha t of the con quered. The attack in g party was scarce l y e qu a l t o the gar rison. O n the following morning the co mmand ant ente r ed the fort without s uspicion of the c hange, the US flag be ing s till d i splaye d & was m ade pri so ner1 We observed at Newark a New Fort lately built, ca ll ed Fort M ississagaFort George is commanded by the US Fort Niagara & is of co u rse quite d ef enceles s by any number of men Sir Jo hn Sherbroke ri ghtly co n si dered that a fort so situated cou l d on l y b e of service to an invading e n e m y or ca u se a useless sacrifice of men in attempting to defend it: he orde r ed i t to b e in s tantly l. The offical Briti s h return of their losses in the a ssa ult on Fort Niagara was s ix killed and five wounded. They also reported s ixty -five Americans killed and fourteen wounded. The United States commanding officer, Captain Nathaniel Leonard, wa s reportedly vi s iting hi s family about two miles from the fort. There ar e s everal different a ccoun ts of hi s capture. Additional Notes 119 ll nes of the new work to be greatly de stroye d & the enlarged. h Canadas we saw several On our ~oute thro dt 'th orchards & fields that de se rted dwelltngs s urrou _n e_ wt had once been under cu lt1 vat 1on.

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Appendix "A Jamaican Story" Th e poe1ess Elizabe1h B arrell Browning was Richard Barr e11's (fi r s!) cousin once removed. She met him at least once, as a young gir l during one of his visits to Engl and. S h e recalled th i s mee1ing in a let1er to Mary Ru sse ll Mitford, dated January 1 2, 1842, and disclosed that "he gave me a subject for a poem about a run away negro which I s till have somewhe r e, in his handwriting." Circumstantia l evidence allows that the piece which follows is probably that manuscript. It was amongst the be l ongings which E li zabeth left at Wimpole Street and the han w r iting is unmistakably Ri cha rd Barretl's. Although the writing obvious l y isn't about a runaway, the principa l c h aracter is a negro Jamai can s lave. The original is four qu arto pages in length and is printed here in full. I t is reproduced with grateful acknow l edgement to the owner, The Henry W and Albert A. Berg Collection, The N ew York Publi c Library, A stor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations. Aus tin was a c r eole negro slave, & liv ed on his ma ste r's prope r t y i n the I sland of Jamaica. Hi s good co ndu ct had sec ured him the confidence of seve ral s ucce ssive over see r s, & he became the head driver or black overseer of the estate. His authority over hi s fellow n egroes wa s great both from his office & his deter mined c hara cte r: h e was faithful to the i nteres ts of his owner, wilhou1 being oppressive to the s la ves under hi s control: they l ove d and feared him. But the time came, when a new Supe r intendant of petty mind, became jeal ous of an influen ce, which he thought on l y himself shou ld posse ss & he would will in g ly have degraded Austin had not the ma ste r of both known the value of hi s negro, & that the power he held was beneficial ly exercised. Austin, however, was c ompelled to be very cautious in hi s conduct that t h e white overseer might have no caus e of complaint agains t him ; he wa s more than ever regular in the performance of his duties, but took ca r e no t to excee d them. 121

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122 Barrett Journal To a n eig hbour! ng estate there bel o n ged an African negro, whose hard y robberies had procured for him the nick-name of Copperbottom among the ot h er s laves. He was the terror of all the watchmen in t h e vicinity, & so emboldened by impunity t~at he was often known to give notice of his intended depr e da ~ t1on s. l ong b efo re h e co mmitted them-he would even appo in t t he ni ght & the hour when he might be ex pec ted. He had killed & wou_nded severa l watchmen who had ventu r e d to defend their ya m pieces and planta! n wa l ks, till a t length, a s of by universal co n sent, he wa s permitted to take without question, whatever h ~ had a fancy to. One day he made his appearance in t h e p la t am walk of the estate to which Au st in was attached, & told the watc hm a n D a_vy, t~at the plantain s were fit to gat her & t hat he would su p with him at night when the moon was up. Da vy kne':" very well t h at to invite _himself to supper, was Cop p e rbo to m s c h allenge to protect h i s ma ste r's pr op er ty if he dared & not feeling ~t ~II disposed to engage hand to hand wi th' so desperat~ a vlllam, h e made a ll po ss i ble ha ste to Austi n. H ~v1 ~ g heard hi s s_tory, A u s ti n was not long in taking hi s r ~so lu11 o n. h e_ determm~d to watc h t h e province ground h i mself. H e might have informed the superintenda nt of Cop p~rbottom' s estate, but he feared that means of prevention ~1ght be (OO publicly ~dop!ed, that t h e marauder having timely n?t1ce, "".ould rehnqu1sh hi s des i gn for t h e present. Thi s w~>Uld give the Jealous
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Index Albany, New York, 18-23, 25, 97,101,109; Capitol building, 18, 21 American institutions: commerce, 1 07, 108-9; Constitution, 5, 33; education, 5-6, 107-8; elections, 29-33, 50, 109, 110-1 117;government, 28-33, 43, 50; judicial system, 4-5, 14,22, 10910; newspapers 6, 31, 33, 53, 99, I ll, 113,114, 115;party politics, 29-33, 50; patriotism, 9, 52; public, 31, 33; taxes, 43 American manners and cus tom s, 22,26,27,58-9,82-3,84,97, JOI, 104 Amherstburg, Ontario, 59 Amsterdam, N e w York, 23 Andrews, Lieutenant, 49 Baker, Captain, 4 Baltimore, attack on, 93 Barrett, Richard, ix-xv, 87n, 121 Barretts of Wimpo l e Street, xi i, xiv Batavia, New York, 35 Beaver Dams, battle of, 48-9 Beckwith (ship), 64n, 70 B eechwoods, battle of, (see Beave r Dams, battle of) Berg Collection, 121 Bisshopp, Cecil, 49 Black R ock New York, 37, 49 Bladensburg, battle o f 11 1 Bloomingdale, In, 2, 3 Brent, William Leigh, 112 Bridgewate r ba t tle of, (see Lundy's Lane, battle of) British Army in Canada, 60, 65-6; desertion, 42-3, 57, 601 Brock, Sir I saac, 61, 63 Brockville, Ontario, 80 Brown Jacob, 57 Browning, Elizabeth Barrett, xii-xiv, 12 1 Brownson (American Loyalist), 72 Buchanan, James, 2-3 Buffalo, New York 35-6, 51, 55 Canandaigua, Lake, 26, 33 Canandaigua, New York, 25, 26, 28, 33-35 Cay uga Lak e, 27 Cedars Rapids, 86 Cha mplain, battle of (see Plattsburg, battle of) C hamplain, Lake, 87, 91-94 Charlotte, Princess, 99n, 101 Cherokee I ndians, 1 1 1 Chesapeake (ship), 53 Chip p ewa, battle of, 41 City Hall (New Yo rk), 1 2-14 C linton, DeWitt, 110 Cob ur g, Leopold George (see Leo pold I ) Co les (la ndlord) 79 commerce, 1 07 1 08 9 Con ia c king (dealing in smuggled brandy), 59 Constitution, 5, 33 Cooke, George Frederick, 104 125

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126 Barrete Journal Cornwall, England, 25 Covent Garden, 35 Cu ll e n Mr., I, 3, 7, IO De Watteville, Louis Charles, 61 Democratic party, 14 33, 106, 1 1 3-4 Detroit, M i chigan, 59, 60, 61n, 113 Dickson, William, 55 -7 Drummond, Sir Gordon, 42, 45n, 47 Edinburgh Review, 4 education, 5-6, 107-8 elections, 29-33, 50, 109, 110-1, I 17 Eng l and, 50I, 106 Erie, Lake, 67, 100 Erie Canal, x, 22n, 108n Federalist party, 28, 33, 52, 106 Finger Lakes, 27 Florida Territory, 100 Forsyth, William, 40-3 Fort Erie, 41, 42n, 44, 48, 61, 105 Fort George, 55n, 64, 1 1 8-9 Fort Mississaga, 118 For t N i agara, 60, 117-8 Fort Will i am Henry, 65 France, I I 3-4 Fran k lin, Benjam i n, 93 Frenc h Canadians, 70-2, 74, 84 Fulton, Robert, I 9 93 Ganonoque, Ontario, 72 Geneva, Lake, 27 George III statue of, 12 George IV, 99n Glengary fencibles, 45, 47, 72, 105 government, 28-33, 43, 50 Grand Island, New York, 44 5 Green, Major, 1 1-12 Gree n wich Village, In, 14n Greig, John, xi, 34 Guelph, Charlotte Louisa (see Charlotte, Princess) Guelp h George Augustus (see George IV) "Hail Columbia," I, 104 Hamilton, Paul, 116n Hammersby, Mr. 70 Hannum, Mr., 1 1 1 2 Hartford (Conn.) Convention, 106 Hartford Mercury, 113 Havana, Cuba, ix, 87 Herkimer, New York, 23 Horace, 58 House of Assembly (Jamaica), ix, xi, xii, 87 Howe, Sir William, 51 Hudson Rive r 9, 17, 21 Hull William, 61 Indians, 45, 48 9, 74 5, 97, 98, 111, 117 Isle aux Noix, Quebec, 91 Jackson, Andrew, 9n, 97 -8, IOI, 112 Jamaica, ix-xiv, 78, 87, 95, 107 109, 121; slavery, xiii, 16, 103 Jefferson, Thomas 116 Jeffrey, Francis, Lord, 4 judicial system, 4-5, 14, 22, 109-10 Junius, letters of, 7-8 Ker r Dr., 64 King of England, 28-9, 106 Kingston, Ontario, 65, 66, 69, 70, 73, 75, 77 LaChine, Quebec, 84, 86 La Rouse's mill, 75, 77 Lady of the Lake, The (ship), 67 Lee Charles, 7-8 Leonard, Nathan i el, 118n Leopold I, 99n, IOI Lewiston, New York, 117 Little Falls, New Yor k 23 Long Sault Rapids, 86 Lord Wellington (ship), viii, ix Louisiana Territory 97, I 067 Lundy's Lane, battle of, 41 2, 45-8, 51, 59-60; burial ground, 49 McAdams Mrs., 2 -3 McClure, George, 55, 57 Macdonnell, Alexander, 72, 73-4 Macomb Alexander, 91, 93, 94 Madison, James, 50, 110 l Index 127 Manheim, New York, 23 manners and customs, 22, 26, 27, 58-9, 82-3, 84 97, IOI, 104 Michilimackinac, Michigan, 60 Mi ss i ss ippi River, 97 Mitford, Mary Ru sse ll, xii, 121 Montego Bay Jamaica, ix, xiii, 95 Montreal, Quebec, 83, 84, 86-89, 93 Mooer s, Benjamin, 117 Moreau, Jean Victor Marie, 10 11 Moulton-Barrett Edward R. xiv, xv Napoleon, 39, 40n, 53, I 14 Na s hville, Tennessee 112 New Orleans, battle of, 9, 97, IOI, I 12 New York City: commerce, 25, I 08; cost of living, 15 16; gardening, 10 1 1 ; population, 16; quarantine, 16 ; s ecurity bond, 16; slave ry 16; social habits, 22; theatre, 105; tradesmen, 15; yellow fever, 101 New York State, 108, 109, 110 Newark, Ontario, x, 37, 50, 55-7, 64, 118 Newburg, New Yo r k, 17, 19 newspapers, 6, 31, 33, 53, 99, 111, 113, 114, 115 Newton, Sir I s aac, 93 Niagara, River, 37, 44 5, 48, 64, 68 Niagara Falls, 38-40, 41 n 45, 51 2 North River, I 7 Ogdensburg, New York, 64 Ontario, Lake, 34, 64, 66 -8, 108, 118 Owasco, Lake, 27 Owen, Sir Edward Campbe ll Rich, 68 Palatine Bridge New York, 23 party politics, 29 33, 50 patriotism, 9, 52 Peninsular War, 52 -3, 60 Philadelphia Penn sy lvania, IOI P l attsburg, battle of, 2n 60 -1, 91, 93, 94 Pointe Claire, Quebec, 82, 83 Porter, David, 105 Poughkeepsie, New York, 19, 26 presidency of the United States, 29-33 Pre ssc ott, Ontario, 80 Prevost, Sir George, 60-1, 63, 91, 93 Psyche (ship) 67-8 Pulteny, Sir William, 27 Quarterly Review, 4, 105 Quebec, 68, 78, 83 Queen sto n Height s, battle of, 57, 63n Randwood and Dickson House, 57n Rial!, Sir Phineas, 47 48 Ripley, Eleazar Wheelock, 41-2, 44 Robertson, G i lbert, x, 2, I 6 22 Robin so n, Sir Frederick, 2, 60-ln Ro ss, Robert, 93 Sackett's Harbour, New York, 66-7 St. Jean, Quebec, 87, 89 St. Lawrence(ship), 66 -7, 108 St. Lawrence River, 68 69, 86, 89; rap i d s, 68, 8 1 83, 84, 86; trade, 37, 87 Schenec t ady, New York, 23, 25, 108 Scott, Sir Walter 40 Seal, Colonel, 57 Secretary of the Navy, I I 5-6 Seneca, Lake 27 Shannon (ship), 53 Sheaffe, Sir Roger Hale, 61 Sherbrooke, Sir J ohn Coapc, 66, 118-9 Simcoe, Elizabeth, 51 Simcoe, J ohn Graves, 51 n Six Nations, 74 Skaneateles, L a ke 27 slavery, xiii, 16 102-3, 1067

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128 Barrett Journal Southey, Robert, 105 6 Spain, 100 state prison, 14I 5 steamship, 17, 19, 21, 91, 93 4 Tammany Hall, 14 taxes, 43 Tecumseh, 117 Tecumseh (ship), 100 Tennessee militia, 97 8, 112 Thames, battle of the, 117n Treaty of Ghent, 9n, 44 Triangle or a series of numbers on three Theological points (Whelpley), 104 Trumbull, J ohn, 1 2n, 1 3 Utica, New Yo r k, 23, 25 Van Rensselaer, Philip Schuy l er, 109 Yan Rensselaer, Stephen, xi, 21-2 63n Vanderlyn, John, 38-40 Virginian, 52 3, 58, 97, 103 War of 1812, 37, 39, 40 57, 59 68, 74, 77, 91-2, 94, 99 101, 105, 106, 116 9; shipbuilding, 66 8 Washington, D.C., 50, 51, 55 Washington, George, 8; portrait of, 12 14 Wells, Lieutenant Colonel, 73 West Point Mili t ary Academy, 19 Whelpley, Rev. Samuel, 104n Whitehall, New York, 87 Wilcox, Colonel, 57, 105 Wilkes, Charle s xi, 1 2, 3 4, 7 10, 22 Wilkes, Charlotte, 4 Wilkes, John, I, 7, 10 Wilkes, John de Ponthieu, I, 10 Wilkinso n James, 64 Willcocks, Joseph, 57, 105 W i lliams, Martin, x, 95 yellow fever, 101