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The effect of "facilitative responding skill" training on selected behaviors of emotionally handicapped adolescents

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Title:
The effect of "facilitative responding skill" training on selected behaviors of emotionally handicapped adolescents
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Slade, David L ( David Lloyd ), 1947-
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English
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ix, 148 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.

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Youth with mental disabilities -- Education -- Florida ( lcsh )
Interpersonal communication ( lcsh )
Special Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Special Education -- UF
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bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1980.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 138-147.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by David l. Slade.

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Full Text
THE EFFECT OF "FACILITATIVE RESPONDING SKILL" TRAINING
ON SELECTED BEHAVIORS OF EMOTIONALLY
HANDICAPPED ADOLESCENTS
BY
DAVID L. SLADE
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1980




ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to recognize those individuals who have contributed to my professional growth. Gratitude is expressed to my major adviser, Dr. Rex Schmid, for his guidance and support. Special thanks are extended to my program committee members, Dr. Kern Alexander, Dr. Robert Algozzine, Dr. Steve Olejnik, and Dr. Bill Reid for their contributions. For her secretarial assistance, I would like to thank Mary Hatcher. Connie Smith's help during the data collection stage was greatly appreciated. The support and suggestions provided by Bill Evans during the time that I spent in his resource room helped to make the experience not only productive but also enjoyable. Special recognition is given to Tim Callaghan for his many hours of proofreading the manuscript and providing invaluable guidance. Finally, special appreciation is expressed to my mother, Marion Slade, for her confidence and encouragement..




TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ..................................... ii
LIST OF TABLES ....................................... vi
LIST OF FIGURES ...................................... vii
ABSTRACT ............................................. viii
CHAPTER
I INTRODUCTION ................................. 1
The Problem ............................... 3
Purpose ................................ 3
Variables .............................. 3
Related Questions ...................... 4
Assumptions ............................ 4
Importance of the Study ................ 5
Delimitations .......................... 7
Limitations ............................ 8
Definition of Terms ....................... 3
Summary ................................... 11
II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ..................... 12
Selection of the Relevant Literature ...... 12 Nature of the Literature .................. 15
Facilitative Skills Training
with Adolescents ....................... 15
Summary ................................... 27
iii




III METHODS AND PROCEDURES ....................... 28
Subjects .................................. 28
Setting ................................... 28
Research Questions ........................ 30
Experimental Design ....................... 31
Treatment Procedures ...................... 32
Treatment Phases ....................... 36
Experimental Conditions ................ 39
Data Collection ........................... 40
Dependent Variables .................... 40
Observers .............................. 44
Data Analysis ............................. 51
Summary of Experimental Procedures ........ 52 IV RESULTS ...................................... 55
Inter-Observer Agreement .................. 55
Analysis of Data .......................... 56
Raw Score Totals ....................... 56
Graphic Presentation of Data ........... 56
Proficiency Analysis ................... 63
Analysis of Data for Each
Research Question ................... 65
Summary ................................ 76
V CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND
RECOMMENDATIONS ........................... 80
Conclusions and Implications .............. 80
Findings and Interpretations ........... 81
Limitations of the Study ............... 83
Methodological Limitations ............. 85
iv




Practical Implications .................... 85
Recommendations for Future Research ....... 87 APPENDICES
A FACILITATIVE RESPONDING ...................... 89
B FEELING WORDS ................................ 92
C GROUP DISCUSSION: SKILL USE ................. 93
D BEHAVIORAL OBSERVATIONS FORM ................. 94
E SKILL PROFICIENCY ............................ 95
F DAILY REPORT ................................. 96
G DAILY REPORT DATA FORM ....................... 97
H RAW DATA ..................................... 99
I GRAPHIC PRESENTATION OF
PROFICIENCY LEVELS ........................ 109
i GRAPHIC PRESENTATION OF
SKILL USAGE ............................... 119
K GRAPHIC PRESENTATION OF
SELECTED INTERPERSONAL BEHAVIOR
AND RULES COMPLIANCE ...................... 129
REFERENCES.: ......................................... 138
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .................................. 148
v




LIST OF TABLES
PAGE
1 Description of the Fifteen Studies
Accepted for Critical Review ................... 16
2 Demographic Data for Subjects ..................... 29
3 Inter-Observer Agreement:
Proficiency Level .............................. 57
4 Inter-Observer Agreement:
Dkill Usage .................................... 58
5 Inter-Observer Agreement:
Selected Interpersonal Behavior ................ 60
6 Mean Proficiency Levels for
"Open Questioning" ............................. 64
7 Proficiency Levels for
"Clarifying and Summarizing" ................... 66
8 Proficiency Levels for
"Reflecting and Understanding Feelings" ........ 67
9 Mean Frequencies of
"Open Questioning" Usage ....................... 69
10 Mean Frequencies of
"Clarifying and Summarizing" Usage ............. 71
11 Mean Frequencies of
"Reflecting and Understanding Feelings" ........ 72 12 Mean Frequencies of "Selected
Interpersonal Behaviors" Exhibited ............. 74
13 Mean Rules Compliance Points Earned ............... 77
vi




LIST OF FIGURES
PAGE
1 Treatment Schedule for Subjects Si, S2 and S3..33 2 Treatment Schedule for Subjects S4, S5 and S6..34 3 Treatment Schedule for Subjects S7, S8 and S9..35 4 Selected Interpersonal Behaviors................... 45
5 Observer Agreement Check
Skill Proficiency............................... 48
6 Observer Agreement Check
Skill Usage...................................... 49
7 Observer Agreement Check
Behavioral Observations......................... 50
8 Projected Celeration Line
and Variability Envelope........................ 62
vii




Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
THE EFFECT OF "FACILITATIVE RESPONDING SKILL" TRAINING
ON SELECTED BEHAVIORS OF EMOTIONALLY
HANDICAPPED ADOLESCENTS
By
David L. Slade
December 1980
Chairman: Rex E. Schmid
Major Department: Special Education
This study was conducted to determine the effects of
training emotionally handicapped adolescents in three facilitative responding skills: "open questioning," "clarifying and summarizing" and "reflecting and understanding of feelings." Nine emotionally handicapped seventh and eighth graders were randomly selected and assigned to one of three different treatment schedules. A single-subject, multiple baseline design was followed. Three replications were done for each of the three treatment schedules.
To ascertain the effects of instruction in the three facilitative skills, data were collected and recorded on five dependent measures. Three measures were obtained for the frequencies of usage of the three skills in a peer discussion group. One measure was obtained for the
viii




frequency of a selected interpersonal behavior and one measure was obtained for the frequency of rules compliance.
The data obtained indicate that instruction in the
three facilitative responding skills resulted in increased usage of the three skills in a structured peer group. All subjects exhibited a reduction in the frequency of a selected (inappropriate) interpersonal behavior that exceeded a 10 percent criterion established to reflect "meaningful" behavior change. In addition, all subjects surpassed the 10 percent criterion in reduced non-compliance to class rules.
ix




CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Contemporary youth live in a world filled with technological complexities and international crises. Understanding and coping with this world is a challenge. Adolescents, in attempting to deal with the rapidly changing demands placed upon them, often find their own resources limited and insufficient. In an attempt to deal with their frustrations, youth turn to their peers for support and direction. The peer group becomes the center of attention during the early adolescent years (Dacey, 1979).
Peers have a strong influence on the behaviors of most adolescents. During the junior high school years youth seek new relationships from within the peer group (Rogers, 1977). They conform to their peers in dress, speech, behavior and values. Adolescents become very aware of what is expected of them and for the most part respond accordingly.
For most adolescents the process of adjusting to and
depending upon the peer group may be smooth and non-disturbing, but for others it is a time filled with turmoil. Emotionally handicapped adolescents often find the transition from dependence on family to peers traumatic. Disturbed youth often have not developed those skills necessary to cope with the demands of adolescence and adulthood.
1




2
To develop interpersonal skills during early adolescence, teenagers must be able to communicate effectively. Lower ability and disturbed adolescents are less accurate than normal adolescents in understanding communications (Bellante, 1970; Chasser, 1977; McGlannan, 1977, Zabel, 1977). Disturbed adolescents become confused when unable to communicate or understand the communications of others (Elkind, 1971). Problems arise when a young person is unable to determine either the content or the feelings expressed in his interactions. He may misperceive advice given to him by adults or peers (Reagor, 1973; Smith and Austrin, 1974). To determine an adolescent's understanding of a communication, his response to a particular message must be examined (McClusky, Niemi and Albas, 1978).
Various programs have taught facilitative communication skills to normal adolescents (Cherchia, 1973; Emmert, 1977; Erney, 1979; Felton, 1975; Frye, 1976; Gouze, 1975; Gumaer, 1975; Hamdorf, 1975; Nesbit, 1976; Rowzee, 1976; Rustad, 1974; Wunderlin, 1973). Some studies have demonstrated that training in facilitative skills has positive results with non-disturbed adolescents (Erney, 1979; Myrick and Erney, 1978). Since emotionally handicapped adolescents have not participated in this training, similar information is not available for emotionally disturbed adolescents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of facilitative responding skills training on the emotionally handicapped adolescent.




3
The Problem
Many emotionally handicapped adolescents have difficulty in interpersonal relationships because of faulty communication skills (Committee on Adolescence, 1968). The problem may involve an inability to effectively send or receive messages. Professionals responsible for the personal growth and development of these adolescents are made aware of many affective techniques purporting to improve the communication skills of disturbed youth. Most approaches have not been systematically investigated to determine their relevance to disturbed youth. This study investigated the effects of "facilitative responding skills training" on selected behaviors of emotionally handicapped adolescents.
Purpose
The purpose of this study was to train emotionally
handicapped adolescents in "facilitative responding skills": "open questioning," "clarifying and summarizing," and "reflecting and understanding of feelings." Corresponding changes in selected behaviors were also examined. The frequency with which individuals in a peer group situation used responding skills was investigated. In addition, the effects of each skill on the frequencies of a selected interpersonal behavior and rules compliance were examined. Variables
The dependent variables in this study are: (1) "open questioning," (2) "clarifying and summarizing,"




4
(3) "reflecting and understanding of feelings," (4) selected interpersonal behaviors and (5) rules compliance.
The independent variables consist of training in the "facilitative responding skills." Training included direct instruction, role playing, and feedback. Related Questions
The following research questions received special attention:
1. Does training in "open questioning" affect rate
of use in a peer discussion group?
2. Does training in "summarizing and clarifying"
affect rate of use in a peer discussion group?
3. Does training in "reflecting and understanding of
feelings" affect rate of responding to feelings in
a peer discussion group?
4. What happens to the frequency of a selected interpersonal behavior during and after trainin.a?
5. Does facilitative skills training affect the frequency with which students comply with class rules? Assumptions
The assumptions necessary in this investigation reflect the ideas and beliefs upon which the research problem is formulated. These assumptions are an essential element in logically developing the research investigation, and thus directly relate to the philosophical and procedural rationale incorporated. The following assumptions are made:




5
1. Training normal adolescents in facilitative responding skills will have a positive effect on
both peer facilitators and those students who
receive their help.
2. Adolescents who are labeled emotionally handicapped and placed in programs for the emotionally
handicapped are properly identified and placed.
3. Classrooms for the emotionally handicapped provide situations in which peers have the opportunity to interact.
4. Emotionally handicapped adolescents can learn in
a one-to-one instructional situation.
5. Emotionally handicapped adolescents have difficulty in interpersonal communication.
6. Emotionally handicapped adolescents influence
each other.
7. The facilitative responding skills can be taught
to emotionally handicapped adolescents.
8. The facilitative skills model as presented by
Wittmer and Myrick (1974) accurately presents the skills in order from least to most facilitative.
Importance of the Study
Educators are well aware of the influence adolescents have on one another; as a result school systems have implemented programs which train young people in basic human




6
relations and counseling skills. Included in these training programs are facilitative responding skills (Gumaer, 1975).
By selecting and training those who were academically, socially, emotionally, and behaviorally outstanding, researchers have explored the impact that facilitative responding skills have had on students (Brown, 1965; Buck, 1977; Erney, 1979; Gumaer, 1973; Lippitt and Lippitt, 1970; McCann, 1975; Pyle, 1977; Ryan and Varenhorst, 1973; Schweisheimer and Walberg, 1976; Vassas, 1971; Vreind, 1969). Selected students were high in group status and leadership ability. These students were trained to serve as peer counselors in "peer facilitator" programs. In one study, students experiencing academic difficulties were trained in the facilitative skills (Rowzee, 1976). Another study which emphasized tutoring selected students having academic problems (Erney, 1979). With these students, a noncounseling role was stressed.
"Facilitative responding skills" training packages
have been made available to school systems. Many teachers of the emotionally handicapped adolescent will be exposed to these materials, yet researchers have not examined the effects of training disturbed youth in facilitative skills. Emotionally handicapped adolescents have not been subjects in studies that have emphasized these skills. This investigation trained disturbed youth in responding skills and observed the effects this training had on their behavior.




7
Researchers have trained young people in programs of human relations and counseling skills. At the completion of the training packages, the students conducted either discussion groups or individual sessions. Researchers have not examined the effects of the individual skills taught in the training programs, nor have they isolated changes in behavior effected by specific skills. Three skills were examined here so that their individual effects on behavior could be investigated.
Although researchers are concerned with behavioral changes in those students trained in facilitative communication skills, they typically use non-behavioral means to assess change. To determine behavior change, measurement instruments as opposed to direct observation are incorporated in a pre- and post-test analysis. With the national concern for accountability, "individual education plans" have evolved. With such plans, one must maintain a data base upon which program decisions can be made. The design incorporated in this study provided for direct observation and measurement of behaviors which arenecessary to provide an adequate data base. Delimitations
This study was delimited to the following:
1. Emotionally handicapped adolescents who are in
either seventh or eighth grade.
2. Adolescents who have been identified as emotionally
handicapped according to the regulations of the




a
Florida State Department of Education.
3. One school in Alachua County, Florida. Limitations
The subjects of this study may not represent all
seventh and eighth grade emotionally handicapped students. The adolescents were identified as emotionally handicapped according to the regulations of the Florida State Department of Education. Since identification criteria differ from state to state, emotionally handicapped students in other areas of the country will not necessarily have the same characteristics as the subjects.
Observation rooms are not available in Alachua County Schools; thus, additional time was allocated prior to the initiation of baseline so that the students could become accustomed to having an observer in the room. The observer's presence during discussion sessions may have affected the frequency of facilitative skills usage.
In addition, on a number of occasions students failed to obtain all of the required "Daily Report" signatures. Consequently, some forms had to be returned to teachers for completion. The ratings obtained in this manner may differ from those obtained immediately following the class.
Definition of Terms
In order to avoid ambiguity, it is necessary to present the definitions of terms used in the study. The following terms which appear in the study are applied according to these definitions:




9
Peer facilitators are students who have successfully completed basic training in the skills of listening, responding, decision-making, and confronting, and who are currently participating in or have participated in a supervised program in which they served as facilitators (Erney, 1979).
Emotionally handicapped refers to those students, who after having received supportive educational assistance and counseling which is available to all students, still exhibit persistent and consistent severe behavioral disabilities which consequently disrupt the students' learning process. These are the students whose inability to achieve adequate academic progress or satisfactory interpersonal relationships cannot be attributed primarily to physical, sensory, or intellectual deficits (Florida Statutes, 1978).
Facilitative responding is a type of communication in which a speaker is provided with information and feedback that will help to promote his emotional growth and development. It is the process of listening, gaining an impression, and using that impression not only in formulating a response to the speaker but also in reaching an understanding of the relationship the speaker has with the responder (Wittmer and Myrick, 1974).
"Open questions" are facilitative responses designed to solicit additional information, provoke further discussion, or to query an individual regarding a particular matter. The open question is broad and invites the




10
speaker to answer the question from his own perceptual field. It is designed to solicit a wide range of thoughts and feelings.
"Summarizing and clarifying" refers to a statement that attempts to understand accurately what a person has said or to identify the most significant ideas that have emerged from what was said. The responder focuses on the content of the discussion and rephrases or simplifies what the speaker has said.
"Reflecting and understanding feelings" consists of a response that conveys to the speaker that the listener is aware of how he is feeling (Wittmer and Myrick, 1974).
Adolescent refers to individuals between the ages of 11 and 19 who are progressing through those developmental tasks which are necessary to acquire the skills needed for healthy adjustment during adulthood (Dacey, 1979).
Communication consists of verbal and non-verbal messages between two or more people.
Role playing is the process by which a trainer or trainee assumes the role of a particular individual for the purpose of demonstrating particular training techniques.
Peer group is a group of individuals who are either the same age or grade level in school.
Helpee is a person with a personal concern.
Helper is an individual assisting a person with a personal concern.




Physical aggression consists of such abusive behaviors as hitting, biting, scratching, poking, kicking, or pinching.
Verbal aggression consists of such verbal behavior as teasing, name-calling, swearing, or bossing.
Frequency is a count of the number of times a behavior occurs.
Interpersonal behavior refers to interactions between two or more individuals.
Summary
Emotionally handicapped adolescents often have interpersonal communication problems. Professionals working with these youths must determine which of the affective techniques that have been found to have positive results with normal adolescents will also have positive results when applied to disturbed youth. The facilitative responding
sil-"oe questions," "summarizing and clarifying," and "reflecting and understanding of feelings"--have been found to be effective when used with normal adolescents. These same skills have not been investigated with emotionally disturbed adolescents. This study trained emotionally handicapped adolescents in these three facilitative responding skills and examined the effects of this training on the frequency of skills usage. The effects of training in each of the skills on the frequency of selected interpersonal behaviors was examined. In addition, the effects of facilitative skills training on the frequency with which students complied with class rules was observed.




CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
The facilitative responding skills--"open questioning," "summarizing and clarifying," and "reflecting and understanding of feelings"--have been used with normal adolescents to improve their ability to communicate. Since emotionally handicapped adolescents often have an inability to constructively respond in interpersonal situations, it is important to determine if facilitative skills training can benefit this population. The following is a review of the literature related to facilitative skills training and the emotionally handicapped adolescent. A critical examination of the nature and extent of the literature is provided.
Selection of the Relevant Literature
Included in this review is the literature that was located through the following sources: ERIC computer search, the Current Index of Journals in Education, the Psychological Abstracts, and the Doctoral Dissertations International. Descriptors used in the search include emotionally handicapped adolescent, facilitative responding, interpersonal communication skills, social skills, and peer facilitator.
12




13
Once the identified reports were retrieved, the bibliography of each was examined for additional references. Initially the search consisted of locating those studies published from 1974 to 1980. The year 1974 was chosen because it was the year that Wittner and Myrick first published their model of the levels of facilitative responding. From the bibliographies of the articles that were published during the identified years, a number of related articles dating as early as 1957 were also identified. The bibliographies also provided valuable information about which journals most frequently published articles of relevance. Among the journals identified were The School Counselor, Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Journal of Consulting Psychology, Elementary School Guidance and Counseling, Adolescence, The Journal of Counseling Psychology, Personnel and Guidance Journal, and Journal of Learning Disabilities. The indexes of each of these journals from 1965 to 1980 were also examined.
A survey of the card catalog at the University of Florida's College of Education library revealed several books directly related to the facilitative communication skills. Among these was Beyond Counseling and Therapy by Carkhuff and Berenson (1967). This work contained an excellent review of the facilitative skills along with the most significant research related to these skills. Other books that provided valuable information include Facilitative Teaching .Wittmer and Myrick, 1974), Caring and




14
Sharing (Myrick and Erney, 1978), Youth Helping Youth (Myrick and Erney, 1979), and Human Relations Development (Gazda, Asbury, Balzer, Childers and Walters, 1977).
Criterion for selecting reports to be included for critical review were established. First, the report had to be data-based and had to contain the following: single or group design, identified dependent and independent variables, and specified research strategy. Second, the subjects had to be adolescents. Third, either the treatment or the dependent variable(s) had to involve facilitative communication skills. Finally, information on the effectiveness of the treatment had to be provided.
Many reports failed to meet the stated criteria for inclusion. The majority of those rejected were nonresearch articles (Cuvo, 1979; Gumaer, 1973; Kobak, 1977; Lippitt and Lippitt, 1968; Lippitt and Lippitt, 1970, Lippitt and Lohman, 1965; McCann, 1975, Pyle, 1977; Ryan and Varenhorst, 1973; Scott, 1979; Sprinthall and Erickson, 1974; Strain and Shores, 1979; Vassas, 1971; Wallbrown, Fremont, Nelson, Wilson and Fischer, 1979). More were excluded because the subjects were not adolescents (Blume, 1977; Bornstein, Bellack and Hersen, 1977; Bower, Amatea and Anderson, 1976; Brown, 1965; Carkhuff and Truax, 1965; Gumaer, 1975; Hersen and Bellack, 1976; Hetrick, 1979; Lobitz, 1970; Resnik, 1972; Walter, 1977; Zunker and Brown, 1966). Those articles that did not involve training in facilitative skills were rejected (Caditz, 1963; Caplan,




15
1957; Erickson and Cromack, 1972; Shaver and Nuhn, 1971; Wehr, 1978; Wright, 1978).
Nature of the Literature
A critical review of the related research indicated that only fifteen selections met the four criteria established for inclusion. Table 1 presents a brief description of the reports critically reviewed. All of the studies were group designs. Although the researchers claimed to be interested in subjects' behavioral changes, no direct observation of behavior occurred. Behavioral change was determined by comparing pre- and post-experiment ratings on a measurement instrument purporting to assess the qualities of interest to the experimenter. There was no clear relationship between the results obtained on the scale and the actual student behavior in a social situation.
Facilitative Skills Training with Adolescents
Following Carkhuff's Human Resource Development Model, Frye (1976) studied the impact of a one semester course in counseling skills on adolescents. Randomly selected junior and senior high school students were the subjects. The students were randomly assigned to either the treatment or control group.
The Tennessee Self-Concept Scale was used to determine changes in the students' self-concepts. To determine the effect of the course on the students' abilities to oommunicate empathy, respect, and genuineness in a counseling situation, the experimental students made video tapes of




Table 1
Description of the Fifteen Studies Accepted for Critical Review
Investigator Design Treatment Dependent Variable Measurement Results
buck group peer interpersonal scale impression
(1977) counseling relationships &
self-esteem
Cherchia group facilitative facilitative scale mixed
(1973) skills communication
training
Emmert group peer-helper expression of scale mixed
(1977) training empathy a
Erney group peer or morals scale mixed
(1979) counselor led self-esteem
guidance school attitude
Felton group interpersonal communication scale mixed
(1975) skills course skills & moral
judgement
Frye group counseling facilitative scale positive
(1976) skills training skills & selfconcept
Gouze group empathy level of scale positive
(1975) training empathy




Table 1 Extended
Hamdorf group communication level of scale mixed
(1975) skills training facilitative
communication
Nesbit group social skills empathy scale positive
(1976) training & self-perception
counseling
discussion
Rowzee group interpersonal facilitative scale mixed
(1976) communication communication
training skills
Rustad group facilitative facilitative scale positive
(1974) skills course skills
Schweisheimer group peer school scale mixed
& Walberg counseling related
(1976) behaviors
Speisman group empathy facilitative scale mixed
(1972) training skills
Vriend group group counseling school scale mixed
(1969) & tutoring related behaviors
Wunderlin group communication verbal interaction scale mixed
(1973) skills & relationship
training rating




18
their counseling sessions, which were rated using the Facilitative Interpersonal Functioning Scales. The BarrettLennard Relationship Inventory was used to measure change in the adolescents' interpersonal effectiveness.
As a result, the students in the experimental communications course were perceived by their parents and peers as showing increased empathic understanding. At the .05 level, significant positive changes in self-concepts and interpersonal effectiveness occurred following participation in the curriculum-based counseling course.
In a study to investigate the effects of two forms of treatment on self and peer perceptions of psycho-social characteristics of adolescents, Nesbit (1976) used modeling, role playing, and feedback to provide training in social skills. From a stratified random sample, subjects were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. One treatment consisted of counseling discussion, while the other consisted of social interaction skills. The treatment groups met for two one-hour sessions each week for six weeks. Six control groups did not meet. The subjects were a mixture of anglo, black, and Mexican-American ethnicities.
The Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale,
Adjustive Self-Description, and Peer Jury Sociometric Behavior Rating Scale were administered to measure the subjects' self-perceptions. The results indicate that at the .05 level of significance the treatment subjects (1) rated themselves to be less anxious and more serene, and




19
(2) were rated by their peers to be more responsive to and supportive of others' needs. No such changes were reported for the non-treatment students. The treatment students took more initiative in sharing their feelings with others and lost their tempers less often than did the controls. Participation in social interaction skills treatment resulted in significantly higher gains for the students than did participation in the counseling discussion treatment in all variables.
Rowzee (1976) trained low socio-economic level secondary underachievers (Upward Bound Students) in interpersonal communication skills to determine the effect of such training on the self-concept levels of the students. Both black and white students were included in the stratified random sample and randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. Two groups of students received training in facilitative communication skills over a three week period. Students were trained in Carkhuff's Systematic Human Relations Training Model for Lay Helpers. The two experimental groups were compared to a third group who received problem-solving training but no communication skills training, and a fourth group who met but received no training.
The subjects were tested with the Communication Index and the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale. The two groups who received training in communication skills scored higher on the Communication Index than the two groups who received no communication skills training. The groups receiving




20
the skills training scored in the minimally facilitative range of interpersonal functioning. Thus, the results indicate that low socio-economic level underachievers are able to learn interpersonal communication skills at a minimally facilitative level. The acquisition of facilitative communication skills, however, did not result in a significant positive change in self-concept.
To ascertain the effects of a course in counseling on
the moral reasoning, discrimination and communication skills, and selected attitudes of a group of adolescents and adults, Felton (1975) taught a one semester course in interpersonal skills. The course was modeled after a program by Carkhuff. All subjects were volunteers and were randomly assigned to treatment groups.
Subjects were tested on the Kohlberg Moral Judgement Interview and the Carkhuff Scales of Discrimination and Communication. The Attitude Questionnaire and the Generalized Effects Test were administered. The results indicate that both groups improved their ability to discriminate (though not at a statistically significant level). Both groups did improve significantly in communication skills. The group that contained adolescents and adults had a significantly higher attitudinal change at the end of the course.
In 1973, Wunderlin studied the impact of communication skills training on adolescents and their parents. Fourteen families volunteered to participate and were randomly




21
assigned to treatment groups. Sessions were held weekly for four weeks. Listening, sending, problem solving and assessment skills were practiced. Role playing was incorporated to teach the skills.
Two measures were used to determine behavioral change: verbal interaction and relationship ratings. Verbal interaction (communication) included listening responses, sending statements, and dysfunctional expressions. Four categories of relationships were rated: positive regard, empathic understanding, genuineness and unconditionality. The families were observed four times using taped conflict-resolution discussions and the Barrett-Lennard Relationship Inventory. Families significantly increased listening and decreased dysfunctional communication. Significant differences were found in the mother's listening and the teenagers' sending communication skills.
In an attempt to determine if an interpersonal communication skills training group changed the perceived level of communication in the parent-adolescent relationship after parents had received communication skills training, Hamdorf (1975) included volunteer parents and adolescents as subjects in his training program. The subjects were randomly assigned to treatment groups. Training consisted of lecture-discussion and role playing of communication skills, followed by reading and activity assignments done at home.




22
To determine the perceived level of communication in the parent-adolescent relationship, the Parent-Adolescent Inventory Forms A and P were used. The data indicate that the parents felt the training program had a positive impact on their perceived level of communication. The adolescents did not note any positive change in their perceived level of communication with their parents.
Cherchia (1973) trained randomly selected high school students in communication skills to determine if they would function at significantly higher levels than untrained students. Tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grade students were involved in the study and were randomly assigned to treatment groups. The experimental group received training in Carkhuff's Systematic Human Relations Training Model for Lay Helpers. The control group received no training.
The Communication Index was implemented to measure trainees' ability to use the facilitative core conditions when responding to standard helpee stimuli. The Discrimination Index was used to assess ability to discriminate between effective and non-effective communication. The trainees responded to a role-playing client to measure their ability to communicate in a real situation. The results indicate that the students who received training in communication skills were able to communicate and discriminate at significantly higher levels than the untrained students on both written and taped measures. Thus,




23
according to Cherchia, communication skills training produces positive results with secondary students.
Speisman (1972) measured the effectiveness of teachers who used facilitative communication skills with secondary school students. To provide training in empathy, respect, concreteness, genuineness, confrontation and immediacy for their secondary students, the teachers followed Carkhuff's model after receiving training in the facilitative skills. Eight classes were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The experimental classes were taught the facilitative skills. Carkhuff's Index of Communication was used to determine the students' levels of facilitative communication. The Tennessee Self-Concept Scale was used to measure student self-concepts. As a result of the training, the experimental classes were significantly higher in their level of facilitative communication than the control groups, but showed no significant difference in self-concept.
A number of studies conducted at the junior high
school level have explored the impact and effectiveness of peer-facilitators. One early example is the peer facilitator program developed in an inner-city school by Vriend (1969). Using a stratified random sample of high performance eleventh-grade students as peer leaders, group counseling sessions were conducted. The peer facilitators were told to support behaviors associated with achievement. Each randomly selected and assigned group met for three 40-minute sessions each week. During group activities the




24
students were provided with information about careers, educational planning, self-improvement, and self-evaluation. This study indicated a significant difference in the grade point averages of those students in the peer-led groups. Students in the peer-led groups showed significant improvement in attendance and punctuality. The study indicated that short-term intervention is insufficient to maintain lasting positive results.
Rustad (1974) developed a twelve week course that met three hours per week to teach counseling skills to high school juniors and seniors. The students, although not randomly selected, were randomly assigned to treatment conditions. The curriculum consisted of learning to actively listen and empathically respond to the concerns of others through peer counseling. Practicum sessions consisted of role-playing, examination of counseling tapes and counseling with peers.
Counseling skills achievement was measured by the
Porter Communication Procedures Inventory. As a result of the intervention, the students improved significantly in their counseling skills, ego development, and moral judgement.
Schweisheimer and Walberg (1976) performed a peer
counseling experiment with high school students as smallgroup leaders. A stratified random sample of one hundred and twenty-two potential drop-outs (educable mentally handicapped, socially maladjusted, and regular mainstreamed




25
students) were used in the study and were randomly assigned to treatment groups. The potential dropouts received counseling from peer counselors twice a week for ten weeks. The counseling was aimed at improving students' selfconcept, school learning performance, attendance, classroom behavior patterns and attitudes. At the end of the ten week period those students who had received counseling from peer counselors were significantly higher in decisiveness and attendance than those who had not received help from peer counselors. There were no differences in the other areas that were considered. Thus, the impact of peer counselors was modest in this situation.
Examining the effects of a peer counseling program in an urban high school setting, Buck (1977) selected a stratified random sample of twelve junior and senior high school students who were high in leadership ability and used them as counselors for students who were having difficulties. After nine weeks of counseling with the peer counselors, an analysis of a questionnaire completed by the referring teachers indicated that counselees were less aggressive, and also more effective in solving conflicts with peers and adults. Both counselors and counselees felt that they had gained in problem-solving ability and in communication skills as a result of the experience. Although the author states that peer counseling is one technique for increasing the effectiveness of psychological and counseling services within a school, there is little support for such a conclusion in her study.




26
Emmert (1977) investigated the effectiveness of large group peer-helper training with pre- and early adolescents, to determine if such training would facilitate their ability to identify and communicate effective levels of accurate emphatic understanding. Fifty-eight randomly selected and assigned sixth and eighth graders were the subjects. The experimental group received peer-helper training for five weeks.
To assess the levels of empathic understanding and communication, both experimental and control groups were administered the Scale to Assess Interpersonal Communication. The group of students who received peer-helper training had significantly higher empathy scores than the group who did not receive training. Thus, large group, developmental peer-training using high school students as co-trainers can be effective in facilitating middle school students' understanding and communication of empathy.
Erney (1979) conducted an investigation to determine the effects of a peer facilitator-led group on middle school students in Alachua County, Florida. In this study, eighty students were randomly selected from the eighth grade. Fifty of the students received counseling from a peer or professional counselor while the other thirty served as a nontreatnent control. The groups met for ten sessions (45 minutes each) over a six week period. At the end of that time, the different groups were compared on the following: moral reasoning, self-esteem, school attitude.




27
The peer-led group had higher moral reasoning scores than the other groups, the only significant difference found.
In an attempt to determine the effects of an empathy training program, Gouze (1975) trained adolescents to respond to preschoolers. Adolescents from a high school psychology class received training in empathy skills and a practicum experience with preschoolers. The adolescents practiced active listening and empathic responding with the preschoolers during playschool time.
Several scales were used to measure changes in the
students' behavior: the Borke and Feshback Instrument for Measuring Empathy in Children, the Irwin Affective Tasks and the Indexes of Responding. The results indicate a significant increase in empathic responding level of the preschoolers and adolescents. Thus, secondary students cannot only learn to respond more empathically with preschoolers, but can teach preschoolers to respond more empathically.
Summary
Of the fifteen studies examined, ten contained randomly selected and/or assigned subjects; the remaining five used volunteers or naturally occurring units. Emotionally handicapped adolescents were not included as subjects in the studies. Scale scores were used to determine behavior change. Direct observation and measurement of behaviors were not incorporated. Four of the studies provide positive results, while the remaining eleven show either inconclusive evidence or mixed reactions to training in the facilitative skills.




CHAPTER III
METHODS AND PROCEDURES
Researchers are investigating the benefits of using youth to facilitate the emotional growth of other youth. Prior to determining the viability of this approach with the emotionally handicapped, a number of questions need to be answered, one of which is examined in this study: what effect does "facilitative responding skills training" have on the behavior of emotionally handicapped adolescents?
This chapter describes the subjects and setting of the study and outlines the experimental design. The research questions explored are delineated, and treatment and independent variables are presented.
Subjects
The population consisted of all seventh and eighth graders classified and enrolled in programs for the emotionally handicapped at Lincoln Middle School, Gainesville, Florida. From this population, a sample consisting of nine students was randomly selected. Three students were then randomly assigned to each of three intervention schedules. Demographic data for the subjects are presented in Table 2.
Setting
This study was conducted at Lincoln Middle School in Gainesville, Florida. The subjects had been placed in 28




29
Table 2
Demographic Data for Subjects
Subject Age Race Sex IQ
(Full Scale
WISC-R)
15-1 HipncMale 103
2 14-3 Black Male 97
3 12-2 White Female 101
4 13-0 Black Male 112
5 12-4 Black Male 97
6 12-11 Black Female 98
7 11-6 White Male 107
8 12-0 Hispanic Male 92
9 14-9 White Male 85




30
resource rooms for the emotionally handicapped student. The pupil-teacher ratio in each class ranged from five to eight students per teacher. Instructional sessions were conducted in a small room apart from the classroom so that the subjects were not exposed to other students. The behavioral observations were made in the subjects' assigned special education classroom. The tape recorder used in the study was battery operated and located on a desk near the observer.
Research Questions
The following research questions were examined in this study:
1. What effect does training an emotionally handicapped adolescent in "open questioning" have on
the rate of use of this skill in a peer group?
2. What effect does training in "clarifying and
summarizing" have on the frequency of use of
this skill in a peer discussion group?
3. Does training in "reflecting and understanding
feelings" affect the rate of use of this responding skill in a peer group situation?
4. Does training in three facilitative responding
skills have an effect on the frequency of selected
interpersonal behavior exhibited by emotionally
handicapped adolescents?
5. Does facilitative skills training affect the frequency with which students comply with class rules?




31
Experimental Design
A multiple-baseline across behaviors, single subject
research design was used in this study. A number of authors have found this design to be appropriate when studying social or communication skills acquisition (Cuvo, 1979; Hersen and Barlow, 1976; Hersen and Bellack, 1976; Strain and Shores, 1979). Since this study examined the effects of training emotionally handicapped adolescents in the three most facilitative responding skills according to the "model" presented by Wittmer and Myrick (1974), the inductive approach of single subject research was appropriate. This method enables one to experiment and allows "theory" to emerge inductively from the data that accumulate (Sidman, 1960).
According to Kratochwill (1978), research should
determine which specific intervention works in each individual circumstance. When attempting to determine the most appropriate techniques to use with emotionally handicapped adolescents, it is necessary to validate individual responses to treatment. Single subject research design emphasizes repeated measurement under baseline and intervention conditions so that the effect of the intervention can more readily be differentiated. Exploration of educational techniques should begin with single subject designs (Borg and Gall, 1979).
The present study incorporated a cumulative treatment approach. In this strategy, the experimental conditions




32
are applied to each behavior in succession. As stability occurs in a particular baseline, the conditions are then applied to the next baseline. Although treatment is applied successively to the baselines, it continues to be applied to all previous baseline behaviors.
Three students were randomly assigned to each of the different design schedules. There is some agreement that a minimum of three replications must be conducted to provide evidence of the intervention effect (Hersen and Barlow, 1976). Three replications for each procedure help to establish the reliability as well as the generalizability of the findings under different conditions (Kratochwill, 1978). The experimental schedules are presented in Figures 1 through 3.
Treatment Procedures
The treatment schedules were presented in six phases. The length of' each phase depended upon the time required for the data to stabilize under the phase conditions. An explanation of these phases and the experimental conditions is presented below. (The following abbreviations are used to denote phase conditions: B1 denotes baseline, 32 denotes interaction with the skills instructor without treatment, Al denotes "open questioning" instruction, A2 denotes "clarifying and summarizing" instruction, A3 denotes "reflecting and understanding feelings" instruction, 83 denotes follow-up sessions.)




33
Figure 1
Treatment Schedule for Subjects S1, S2 and S3
Sessions Sessions Sessions Sessions Sessions Sessions
1-3 4-6 7-11 12-16 17-21 22-24
Subjects: S1, S2 and S3 B3
Setting: Public School
Resource Room A3
A2
Al
B2
Bi
Al:
----------------- --------A2:
----------------------------- --------A3:
--------------------------------------- --------KEY:
---------- Data collected without treatment in effect
Data collected with treatment in effect B1 denotes baseline B2 denotes interaction with skills instructor Al denotes "open questioning" sessions A2 denotes "clarifying and summarizing" sessions A3 denotes "reflecting and understanding feelings" sessions B3 denotes follow-up observations




34
Figure 2
Treatment Schedule for Subjects S4, S5 and S6
Sessions Sessions Sessions Sessions Sessions Sessions
1-3 4-6 7-11 12-16 17-21 22-24
Subjects: S4, 35 and S6 B3
Setting: Public School
Resource Room Al
I A3
A2
B2
Bi
Al:
--------------------------------------- -------A2:
------------------ -------A3:
------------------------------ -------KEY:
---------- Data collected without treatment in effect
Data collected with treatment in effect B1 denotes baseline B2 denotes interaction with skills instructor Al denotes "open questioning" sessions A2 denotes "clarifying and summarizing" sessions A3 denotes "reflecting and understanding feelings" sessions B3 denotes follow-up observations




35
Figure 3
Treatment Schedule for Subjects S7, 38 and S9
Sessions Sessions Sessions Sessions Sessions Sessions
1-3 4-6 7-11 12-16 17-21 22-24
Subjects: S7, S8 and S9 B3
Setting: Public School
Resource Room A2
I Al
A3
B2
Bi
Al:
----------------------------- -------A2:
---------------------------------------- -------A3:
-------------------- -------KEY:
---------- Data collected without treatment in effect
Data collected with treatment in effect B1 denotes baseline B2 denotes interaction with skills instructor Al denotes "open questioning" sessions A2 denotes "clarifying and summarizing" sessions A3 denotes "reflecting and understanding feelings" sessions B3 denotes follow-up sessions




36
Treatment Phases
Phase 1. Prior to the initiation of the phase I baseline observations, the observer spent five days in the resource rooms. During these five days, the observer noted classroom procedures and management systems so that the principal investigator's management policies would be consistent with those of the resource room teachers. The subjects were accustomed to university practicum student observing; thus the distraction appeared to be minimal.
The selected students were observed during daily twenty minute peer group discussions. Baseline data (BI) were recorded for the three facilitative skills (see schedule below). These data were allowed to stabilize for the three skills before the second phase began. Stability was determined when the researcher was able to predict the range within which the next data point fell (Baily and Bostow, 1979). This range was determined by first establishing the celeration line for the data points and then calculating the up and down bounce around the celeration line (Parsonson and Baer, 1978).
Baseline data were collected and recorded on the frequency with which each subject performed several selected interpersonal behaviors. This information was collected during a forty-five minute period in the emotionally handicapped resource room. It was not necessary for this behavior to stabilize prior to phase change since no direct intervention was applied to the behavior.




Z7
From the data collected, the principal investigator and the resource room teacher determined which behavior would be selected for continued observation and data collection. One interpersonal behavior was selected for each subject. Along with the selection of the behavior, the teacher established criterion for "meaningful" change by specifying the frequency level to be obtained by each subject.
The resource room teachers collected data on the frequency with which the subjects complied with class rules while not in the resource room. These data were obtained daily. The students took a behavior rating sheet to all of their classes. Each teacher was to assign a rating of from 1 to 4 for the student's behavior during the period and initial the form. These forms were collected daily when the students entered the resource room. Sbjects: Si S2 S3 S4 35 S6 S7 S8 S9
'rraten: 31 31 B1 B 1 BI 31 B 31 31
Phase 2. During this phase, the principal investigator met with each subject for fifteen minutes daily. No instruction was given; rather, rapport was established with the subjects (32) : see schedule below. To determine proficiency levels in facilitative skills usage, the students were asked to respond to statements presented by the investigator (see page 40). The content of the statements depended upon the investigator-subject conversations. The data collection initiated in phase 1 was continued until stability was determined for the facilitative skills. S ubjects: Si 32 33 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 39 Treatment: B2 32 32 32 32 B2 32 32 32




38
Phase 3. Each student received instruction in one of the facilitative responding skills according to the assigned schedule (see below). The treatment sessions were fifteen minutes long. These sessions were conducted by the principal investigator and were continued until the skills usage stabilized. Data on the five dependent variables were collected.
Subjects: Si 32 S3 S4 S5 36 S7 S8 S9
'reatment: Al Al Al A2 A2 A2 A3 A3 A3
Phase 4. During this phase, the treatment conditions initiated in phase three were continued. In addition, instruction in a second facilitative skill was provided according to treatment schedules (see below). Individual sessions were held for fifteen minutes daily by the principal investigator until the skills usage stabilized. Subjects: 51 S2 S3 S4 S5 36 S7 38 S9
Treatment: Al Al Al A2 A2 A2 A3 A3 A3
A2 A2 A2 A3 A3 A3 Al Al Al
Phase 5. Treatment applied to the first two skills was continued during this phase. In addition, instruction was initiated with the third skill (see below). Treatment continued until usage of the three skills stabilized. Subjects: 51 S2 S3 S4 S5 36 S7 S8 S9
Treame Al Al Al A2 A2 A2 A3 A3 _A7
A2 A2 A2 A3 A3 A3 Al Al Al A3 A3 A3 Al Al Al A2 A2 A2
Phase 6. All treatment was terminated. Follow-up observations (see below) were made in the resource room during three different sessions.
Subject: S1 32 33 S4 35 S6 S7 38 39 'fratnt: B3 83 B3 B3 B3 B3 B3 B3 33




19
Experimental Conditions
This study was implemented by the principal investigator. The experimental conditions consisted of treatment-instruction in the three facilitative responding skills-and the control for "Hawthorne effect"--interaction with the principal investigator without instruction. These conditions are explained below.
Treatment. The principal investigator instructed the subjects in a one-to-one situation in the three facilitative responding skills--"open questioning," "clarifying and summarizing" and "reflecting and understanding feelings." Instruction consisted of description, role play and feedback. This training sequence has been determined effective by several single subject research studies (Bornstein, Bellack and Hersen, 1977; Cooke and Apolloni, 1976; Hersen and Bellack, 1976).
The facilitative responding skills were described according to the definitions and examples presented by Wittmer and Myrick (1974) (see Appendix A). This information was presented orally to the subjects by the principal investigator. Each subject was encouraged to ask questions whenever he did not understand the skills descriptions. These sessions lasted fifteen minutes each.
To determine the subjects' understanding of the skills and their ability to use them in social interactions, role playing was incorporated. To role play, the principal investigator made statements to which the subjects were




40
directed to respond by using the facilitative responding skill being emphasized. An audio tape recorder was used to record subject response during role play. After each response, the subject was told whether or not his response was correct, and was immediately allowed to listen to his taped response. When the response was incorrect, the subject listened to his response, then repeated the role play situation until a correct response was obtained. Once a correct response was emitted, the subject was given five additional statements to respond to with the appropriate facilitative skill. These five situations were used to determine the subject's proficiency in the use of each skill.
Control for "Hawthorne Effect". Following the stability of the baseline measurements, a "Hawthorne effect" control phase was initiated. The students met with the principal investigator, but did not receive instruction in the use of the facilitative skills. During this time, rapport was established with the students. These sessions consisted of getting to know the student and discussing areas of interest with them. The "Hawthorne effect" sessions continued until stability was determined for the three facilitative skills (see page 36).
Data Collection
Dependent Variables
The dependent variables observed in this study were 1) "open questioning," 2) "clarifying and summarizing," 3) "reflecting and understanding feelings," 4) performing a




41
specific interpersonal behavior, and 5) complying with class rules. Data on the frequencies of each of these behaviors were collected and recorded during the six phases of the study. Each of the dependent variables are examined here.
Open Questioning. This consists of asking a question that specifies the general area of interest but lets the specific content of the answer be decided upon by the person answering the question. This type of question allows the individual answering to develop his answer in whatever length or detail he desires. It seeks a wide range of thoughts and feelings. Open questions can be designed to "solicit additional information, provoke further discussion, or to query an individual regarding a particular matter" (Wittmer and Myrick, 1974, p. 63). On the other hand, a closed question permits only short answers such as "yes" or "no," or answers that are limited to a few words. A closed question may limit the choice of responses or simply seek a few facts. Some comparisons of open to closed questions follow:
1. "What kind of things happened to you today?"
(open)
"How was your day?" (closed)
2. "What are your reactions to the new class schedule?"
(open)
"Why don't you like the new schedule?" (closed)
3. "How do you feel about taking the test?" (open)
"Are you worried about taking the test?"
(closed)




42
4. "What do you think about school?" (open)
"You don't like school, do you?" (closed)
5. "What did you do at recess?" (open)
"You caused a fight at recess, didn't you?" (closed)
Summarizing and Clarifying. These are attempts to identify or understand what a person has said. A listener tells a speaker what he thinks the speaker has said so that the speaker can either confirm or deny the impression. A listener in his own words repeats to a speaker the message he received in order to determine its accuracy. These statements usually put what the speaker has said in new or simplified terms. The listener focuses attention on the content of the discussion.
In an attempt to identify the most significant ideas (content) emerging in a conversation and to evaluate what one has heard for correctness and clarification of content, the listener will either paraphrase the message or use new words to simplify what has been heard. The following are typical examples:
1. "If I hear you correctly, you are telling me
that ... 11
2. "You seem to be saying that ...
3. "In other words, you are trying to ...
4. "What I hear you saying is ... 11
5. "From what you have been saying, I've heard three
things. First .... Second ... Third ... 11




43
6. "Correct me if I'm wrong, but you're saying
that..."
7. "From what you have said, it seems that ...
8. "In other words, you are trying to ... 11
Reflecting and Understanding Feelings. This is a
response that conveys that the listener is aware of how the speaker is feeling. The listener attempts to identify what the speaker is feeling so that the speaker can check for accuracy. Examples of such statements include the following:
1. "You're feeling angry, Bill."
2. "You're tired.ft
3. "You're confused right now."
4. "You look a little worried."
5. "You're feeling sad."
6. "Sounds like that made you really happy."
7. "You're confused and hurt about what happened?"
B. "You look really pleased with your art work."
The following are examples of "feeling words" that are used to describe a listener's perception of the speaker's emotional state: angry, hurt, sad, scared, happy, relieved, concerned, excited, pleased. Appendix B contains an extended list of pleasant and unpleasant "feeling words."
Specific Interpersonal Behavior. This consists of
that interpersonal behavior which was identified by the subjects' special education teacher as disturbing and in need of intervention (see Figure 4). 7he behavior was determined




44
to be inappropriate and undesirable in an educational setting. It also prevented the student from working effectively with other students.
Rules Compliance. Since the subjects were with as
many as six different teachers during the day, data on the frequency with which the subjects complied with the classroom rules of those teachers were collected. The rules were similar for all teachers and were as follows:
1. Be on time.
2. Bring pencil and paper to class.
3. Raise hand for teacher's help.
4. Respect others' property.
5. Be polite to others.
6. Complete daily assignments. Observers
Data on the subjects' facilitative skills usage and interpersonal behaviors were collected by a teacher of the emotionally handicapped. This teacher received training in the facilitative responding skills as part of his graduate program. During pre-experimental training sessions, this teacher received instruction in (1) the operational definitions of the selected interpersonal behaviors, (2) accurate observations of the interpersonal behaviors, (3) facility with the recording forms, and (4) classroom observer etiquette.
The observer collected and recorded facilitative skills usage frequency data while the subject participated




45
Figure 4
Selected Interpersonal Behaviors
Subject Behavior
1 Making faces at other students.
2 Threatening other students verbally.
3 Sticking tongue out at other students.
4 Teasing other students verbally.
5 Teasing other students by laughing at them.
6 Name-calling.
7 Swearing at other students.
8 Putting hands in front of the faces of other
students.
9 Name-calling.




46
in a twenty-minute peer group discussion. Tally marks were recorded on the "Group Discussion: Skill Use" form (see Appendix C) each time the facilitative responses occurred. In addition, tallies were recorded each time the subject spoke during the group discussion; these were labeled "opportunities" to use the skills. At the end of the day, the frequencies were tabulated and transferred to graphs for analysis. The number of peer group discussions observed depended upon the number of sessions required for the behaviors to stabilize during each phase of the study.
The selected interpersonal behavior data were collected by the observer during a forty-five minute period while the subject was in a resource room for the emotionally handicapped. Each time the specified behavior occurred, a tally was marked on the "Behavioral Observations Form" (see Appendix D). These tallies were totaled daily and transferred to the appropriate graph.
Skill proficiency data were collected daily by the principal investigator during the instructional sessions. Each subject was asked to use a specific skill in his responses to five statements presented by the investigator. The answers were tape recorded and determined to be either correct or incorrect (see Appendix E). A correct response received one (1) point while an incorrect response received no (0) points. A percentage of correct responses was determined by dividing the number of correct responses by the total number of solicited responses (5).




47
Data concerning student compliance to classroom rules were collected daily during the periods in which the subjects attended their classes. The subjects submitted their rated and initialed "Daily Report" forms (see Appendix F) to the teacher. This information was transferred to the "Daily Report Data Form" (see Appendix G).
A total of twelve data points were recorded daily for each subject. The observer collected data on five variables: 1) frequency of "open questioning," 2) frequency of "clarifying and summarizing," 3) frequency of "reflecting and understanding feelings," 4) frequency of opportunity, and 5) frequency of selected interpersonal behavior. Three skill proficiency data points and four rules compliance data points were collected by the principal investigator.
In order to conduct a check for inter-observer agreement, a special education doctoral student served as a separate observer. This observer made four different observations of skill proficiency and the five dependent variables. The skill proficiency check was conducted
through the use of the form presented in Figure 5. To determine observer agreement on the rate of skill use during peer group discussions, Figure 6 was used. Agreement was checked on frequency of selected interpersonal behavior through the use of the form in Figure 7.
Inter-observer agreement was determined by the "exact agreement method" (Repp, Deitz, Boles, Deitz and Repp, 1976). An agreement was defined as: 1) a duplicated "c"




48
Figure 5
Observer Agreement Check Skill Proficiency
Student Observer
Date
Total
"open questioning" c c c c c
i i i i i
"clarifying and c c c c c
summarizing"
i i i i i
"reflecting and c c c c c
understanding feelings" i i i i i
Directions: Place a mark through "c" if the response is correct and through "i" if the response is incorrect. Record the totals for each row.




49
Figure 6
Observer Agreement Check Skill Usage Student Observer
Date
"open questioning"
"clarifying and summarizing"
"reflecting and understanding feelings"
opportunity
Directions: Record the time when each behavior occurs.




50
Figure 7 Observer Agreement Check Behavioral Observations Student Observer
Date
Behavior:
Time:
Directions: Record the time when each behavior occurs.




51
or "ill marking for skill proficiency, 2) a duplicated time recorded for the occurrence of the skills, and 3) a duplicated time recorded for the occurrence of the selected interpersonal behavior. Inter-observer agreement was determined by dividing the number of duplicated recordings by the total number of recordings in each session. Three
sessions with eighty percent agreement was set as a minimum requirement for satisfactory inter-observer agreement.
Data Analysis
Tally marks were used to record the three facilitative responding skills, opportunity, and selected interpersonal behavior data. These were tabulated into numerical frequencies for each observational session by counting the number of tallies for the behaviors emitted. Tabulated data points were transferred to equal interval graphs.
Skill proficiency was determined by the number of correct responses given when the subject was directed to use a specific skill. This number was divided by the total number of responses solicited. The percent accuracy score was tabulated and recorded daily.
In order to collect rules compliance information, a system which assigned numerical values for each of the six periods of the day was established. The values ranged from "ill to 114". A value of Ill" was assigned if no rules were broken; 11211 was assigned if one rule was broken; 11311 was assigned if rules were broken twice; and 11411 was assigned if rules were broken three times. At the end of




52
each day, frequencies of assigned numerical values were determined and recorded.
Four measures were used to analyze the data obtained in this study: mean, percent, range and standard deviation. Means were used to describe the number of times the behaviors occurred during different phases. Percentages were used to describe the amount of change across phases. Range and standard deviation were used to reflect variability.
Summary of Experimental Procedures
The following were the experimental procedures used in this study:
1. Permission to carry out the study was obtained
from the "Human Subjects Committee" at the University of Florida.
2. Permission to do the research was obtained from
the Alachua County education office and Lincoln
Middle School.
3. A list of all seventh and eighth grade emotionally handicapped students enrolled at Lincoln
Middle School was obtained.
4. A list of random numbers was used to select nine
students to participate in the study.
5. The nine students accepted for the study were
observed for baseline on the three behaviors, and
"meaningful change" criteria were established.




53
6. The nine subjects met individually with the instructor of the facilitative responding skills
for the "Hawthorne effect" control phase.
7. Instruction was given to the nine subjects according
to the experimental schedules and the treatment
components as outlined in Appendix A:
a) Subjects 1, 2 and 3 received skills training
in the facilitative responding skills in the
following order: "open questions," 11summarizing and clarifying," "reflecting and
understanding of feelings."
b) Subjects 4, 5 and 6 received skills training
in the following order: "Summarizing and
clarifying," "open questions," "reflecting
and understanding of feelings."
c) Subjects 7, 8 and 9 received skills training
in the following order: "reflecting and
understanding of feelings," "summarizing
and clarifying," "open questions."
8. Neither the teacher nor observer was told the
schedules of skills instruction that were followed.
9. The instruction was given by a special education
doctoral student with five years experience working
with facilitative responding skills.
10. A teacher of the emotionally handicapped with three
years experience served as the observer. This
teacher received training in the facilitative responding skills as part of his graduate program.




54
11. On four different occasions, separate observations
were made on each of the dependent variables by
another graduate student in special education so
that inter-observer agreement could be established.
This was determined by the percent agreement
method.
12. The observations for the three facilitative responding skills was done during a twenty-minute
peer discussion group.
13. The observations for the specified interpersonal
behaviors were done during a forty-five minute
period while the students were in their special
education classes.
14. The data from the observations were recorded on the
forms presented in Appendices C, D, E, F and G. 15. The data were transferred from the respective
forms to graphs so that the results would be more
readily available for visual inspection.
16. Each of the phases was continued until stability
occurred as determined by the process mentioned
earlier.
17. Follow-up observations took place at intervals of
2, 4, and 6 days after the termination of training.




CHAPTER IV
RESULTS
This study examined the effects of training emotionally handicapped adolescents in three facilitative responding skills. Nine students were randomly selected and assigned to the three treatment schedules (see Chapter III). Frequency data were collected for the following: skills usage and opportunity, interpersonal behavior, and rules compliance. Percentages were used to record proficiency levels. The data for each subject were collected during the phases of the single-subject, multiple baseline design: 1) baseline, 2) Hawthorne effect, 3) treatment applied to first skill, 4) treatment applied to second skill, 5) treatment applied to third skill, and 6) follow-up. The raw data are included in Appendix H, and graphic presentations of the data are presented in Appendices I, J and K. Four basic measures were used for analysis of the data obtained in this study: mean, percent, range, and standard deviation.
Inter-Observer Agreement
Inter-observer agreement was determined by the "exact agreement" method (Repp, Deitz, Boles, Deitz and Repp, 1976) described in the previous chapter. The results of the observer agreement checks are presented in Tables 3,
55




56
4 and 5 (Chapter III presents an explanation of the forms used to collect the data.). In all inter-observer situations, the minimum requirement of 80 percent agreement was met.
Analysis of Data
Raw Score Totals
The raw scores for 1) skill proficiency, usage, and opportunity, 2) selected interpersonal behavior, and 3) rules compliance for each subject are presented in Appendix H. These charts contain the proficiency levels for the three facilitative skills in terms of percent of correct responses. Skill usage and selected interpresonal behavior are presented as frequencies. Rules compliance data are presented as rating frequencies. Graphic Presentation of Data
To allow for visual inspection of the data, graphic
presentations of the raw scores are presented in Appendices I, J and K. These graphs show the effects of the application of the treatment to the different skills during the various phases of the study. In addition, the opportunity data are presented in Appendix J.
The length of each phase was determined by the number of sessions required for skill usage to stabilize. Stability was ascertained by the following procedure:
1. The celeration line for the skill usage data
points was drawn by connecting the midpoints of
the distances between the first two and last two iata




Table 3
Inter-Observer Agreement: Proficiency Level
Session 9:Agree session 11:Agree-Session 16:Agree session 18:AgreeVariable ObserverSubject 4 ment subject 1 ment SubJect 6 ment subject 9 ment
"open I ccccc GGGGG ccccc GGGGG
questioning" 2 ccccc 100% GGGGG 100% ccccc 100% 66666 100%
"clarifying & 1 GrOGGS ccccc Grareav oraerara
summarizing: 2 66666 100% ccccc 100% 06666 100% 66666 100%
"reflecting & 1 ccccc ccccc Garra Govar
understanding 2 ccccc 100% ccccc 100% GGGGS 100% efifies 100%
feelings"




Table 4
Inter-Observer Agreement: Skill Usage
Session 3: Session 11 Session 14: Session 17:
Subject 9 Subject 1 Subject 8 Subject 5
Variable Observer Time Agreement Time Agreement Time Agreement Time Agreement
"open 1 None 12:14 2:31 1:45
questioning" 12:17 2:36 1:52
2:39 1:56
2:48
2 None 12:14 2:31 1:45
12:17 2:36 1:52
2:39 1:56
2:48
100% 100% 100% 100%
OD
"clarifying & 1 None None None 1:50
summarizing" 1:58
2:01
2 None None None 1:50
1:58
2:01
100% 100% 100% 100%
"reflecting & I None None 2:44 1:47
understanding 2:02
feelings"
2 None None 2:44 1:47
2:02
100% 100% 100% 100%




Table 4 Extended
Opportunity 1 12:00 12:00 12:16 2:31 1:40 1:52
12:00 12:01 12:16 2:31 1:41 1:53
12:03 12:01 12:17 2:32 1:41 1:53
12:04 12:01 12:17 2:33 1:43 1:54
12:05 12:02 12:18 2:33 1:43 1:55
12:06 12:02 12:18 2:34 1:43 1:56
12:08 12:04 12:18 2:34 1:45 1:56
12:08 12:04 12:18 2:35 1:46 1:56
12:13 12:05 12:18 2:36 1:47 1:57
12:17 12:06 12:19 2:38 1:47 1:58
12:20 12:06 12:19 2:39 1:48 2:00
12:06 12:20 2:41 1:50 2:01
12:07 12:21 2:43 1:50 2:02
12:08 12:21 2:44 1:50
12:10 12:22 2:48
12:10 12:22 2:48
12:11
12:14
2 12:00 12:00 12:14 2:31 1:40 1:52
12:00 12:01 12:16 2:31 1:41 1:53
12:03 12:01 12:16 2:32 1:41 1:53
12:04 12:01 12:17 2:33 1:43 1:54
12:05 12:02 12:17 2:33 1:43 1:55
12:06 12:02 12:18 2:34 1:43 1:56
12:08 12:04 12:18 2:34 1:45 1:56
12:08 12:04 12:18 2:35 1:46 1:57
12:13 12:05 12:18 2:36 1:47 1:58
12:17 12:06 12:19 2:38 1:47 2:00
12:20 12:06 12:19 2:41 1:48 2:01
12:06 12:20 2:43 1:50 2:02
12:07 12:21 2:44 1:50
12:08 12:21 2:48 1:50
12:10 12:22 2:48
12:10 12:22
100% 12:11 100% 93.3% 100%




Table 5
Inter-Observer Agreement: Selected Interpersonal Behavior
Session 3: Session 6: Session 12: Session 17:
Subject 7 Subject 6 Subject 8 Subject 3
Observer Time Agreement Time Agreement Time Agreement Time Agreement
3 2:05 2:16 1:18 1:35 2:04 2:15 11:37 11:53
2:05 2:20 1:18 1:35 2:04 2:23 11:38 11:59
2:06 2:20 1:18 1:39 2:05 2:23 11:38 11:59
2:06 2:20 1:19 1:48 2:05 2:23 11:40 12:00
2:10 2:35 1:27 1:53 2:05 2:28 11:41 12:13
2:13 2:47 1:27 2:01 2:06 2:34 11:41 12:16
2:16 2:47 1:34 2:02 2:06 2:34 11:47 12:16
2:16 1:34 2:02 2:07 2:46 11:48 12:18
1:34 2:15 11:48 12:21
11:48
ON
2 2:05 2?16 1:18 1:35 2:04 2:15 11:37 11:53 CD
2:05 2:20 1:18 1:39 2:04 2:23 11:38 11:59
2:06 2:20 1:18 1:39 2:05 2:23 11:38 11:59
2:06 2:20 1:19 1:48 2:05 2:23 11:40 12:00
2:10 2:35 1:27 1:53 2:05 2:28 11:41 12:13
2:13 2:47 1:27 1:53 2:06 2:34 11:41 12:16
2:16 2:47 1:34 2:01 2:06 2:34 11:47 12:16
2:16 1:34 2:02 2:07 2:46 11:48 12:18
1:34 2:02 2:15 11:48 12:21
1:35 11:48
100% 94.7% 100% 100%




61
points recorded for the phase (six-cycle graphs
were used).
2. The celeration line was extended to the right to
project future usage frequency.
3. The bounce (variability) of the data around the
celeration line was determined. The "down bounce"
was determined by drawing a line parallel to the celeration line and passing it through the data
point farthest below the celeration line. The "up bounce" was determined by drawing a line parallel to the celeration line and passing it through the
data point farthest above the celeration line.
4. The bounce lines were extended to the right to provide a projection of the range within which the skill usage was expected to fall during a specific session. This frequency envelope enabled the principal investigator to determine whether
a change in the variability and direction of the behavior had occurred (Pennypacker et al., 1972). Figure 8 provides an example of a projected celeration line and variability envelope.
Skill usage stability was calculated by the procedure described above for the phases in which the subjects were introduced to the different skills. Phases one and two were each three sessions long since skill usage levels were non-variable. All subjects, except subject three, required five sessions for stability




62
7
o -00-0-6
4 8 12 16 20 24
Figure 8
Subject 1: Skill 3
Projected Celeration Line and
Variability Envelope




63
during phases three, four and five. Subject three required six sessions during phase three and four sessions during phase four.
Proficiency Analysis
Tables 6, 7 and 8 indicate the subjects' mean proficiency levels for each of the skills during the treatment phases. Proficiency levels were not determined during the first baseline since the observer did not interact with the subjects; rather, the collection of this data was initiated in phase 2 and continued through phase six. A proficiency mean was determined by summing the correct response percentages for each phase and dividing the totals by the number of sessions in the phase. Tables 6, 7 and 8 present a tabulation of the means for the sessions in which the skills were introduced.
Table 6 reflects that "open questioning" proficiency levels varied slightly for the three treatment schedules during the introductory phase. These ranged from a low of 84 percent to a high of 88 percent. During the phase immediately following the introductory phase, all subjects reached a mean proficiency level of 100 percent. This level was maintained throughout the remainder of the study.
Table 7 contains "clarifying and summarizing" proficiency levels data for each of the subjects. These means were determined in the same manner as those for Table 6. The introductory phase data indicate that the mean proficiency levels ranged from 94.6 percent to 100




64
Table 6
Mean Proficiency Levels for "Open Questioning"
Subject Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5 Phase 6
Schedule I
1 0 92.0% **
2 0 70.0% **
3 0 93.3% **
Mean 85.1%
Range 23.3%
S D 13.1%
Schedule II
4 0 0 0 92.0%
5 0 0 0 88.0%
6 0 0 0 84. 0%
Mean 88.0%4
Range 8.0%
S D 4.0%
Schedule III
7 0 0 88.0%
8 0 0 76.0% *
9 0 0 88.0% *
Mean 84.0%
Range 12.0%
S D 6.9
Mean of Means 85.7%
Range of Means 4.0%
S D of Means 2.1%
*denotes 100%




65
percent. All subsequent phases were consistent at the 100 percent proficiency level across the different schedules.
Table 8 presents "reflecting and understanding of feelings" proficiency levels data. These figures were calculated in the same manner as those of Tables 6 and 7. The introductory phase schedule means ranged from 97.3 percent to 100 percent. All subjects, except subject eight, maintained a 100 percent proficiency level following the introductory phase. Subject eight was 96 percent proficient in the skill during the phase immediately following the introductory phase, and maintained a level of 100 percent proficiency for the last two phases. Analysis of Data for Each Research Question
An analysis of the data relating to the following research questions is presented in this section:
1. What effect does training an emotionally handicapped adolescent in "open questioning" have on
the rate of use of this skill in a peer group?
2. What effect does training in "clarifying and summarizing" have on the frequency of use of this
skill in a peer discussion group?
3. Does training in "reflecting and understanding of
feelings" affect the rate of use of this responding
skill in a peer group situation?
4. Does training in three facilitative responding
skills have an affect on the frequency




66
Table 7
Proficiency Levels for "Clarifying and Summarizing"
Subject Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5 Phase 6
Schedule I
1 0 0 100%**
2 0 0 100% *
3 0 0 95% *
Mean 98.3%
Range 5.0%
S D 2.9%
Schedule II
4 0 100% **
5 0 92%* *
6 0 92%*
Mean 94.6%
Range 8.0%
S D 4.6%
Schedule III
7 0 0 0 100%
8 0 0 0 100%*
9 0 0 0 100%
Mean 100%
Range 0%
S D 0%
Mean of Means 97.6%
Range of Means 5.4*4
S D of Means 2.8%
* denotes 100%,.




67
Table 8
Proficiency Levels for "Reflecting and Understanding Feelings"
Subject Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5 Phase 6 Schedule I
1 0 0 0 100%
2 0 0 0 100%
3 0 0 0 100%
Mean 100%
Range 100%
S D 100%
Schedule II
4 0 0 100%
5 0 0 100%
6 0 0 92%
Mean 97.3%
Range 8.0%
S D 4.6%
Schedule III
7 0 100%
8 0 96% 96%
9 0 96%
Mean 97.3%
Range 4.0%
S D 2.31%
Mean of Means 98.2%
Range of Means 2.7"
S D of Means 1.61/'0
denotes 100%




68
of selected interpersonal behavior exhibited by
emotionally handicapped adolescents?
5. Does facilitative skills training affect the frequency with which students comply with class rules?
Question 1: Frequency of "Open Questioning" Usage.
Each subject's mean usage levels of "open questioning" are presented in Table 9. Subject three maintained the lowest mean usage level (1.8 "open questions" per session) during phase 5. Usage levels ranged from a mean of .3 to 4.8 for each twenty-minute peer discussion group.
An examination of the different treatment schedules during the follow-up phases reveals that the usage levels ranged from 1.9 to 3.8 per session. This produces an overall mean of 2.7 for the treatment schedules with a range in means of 1.9. The data from the follow-up phases was used for comparison since long-term change is the most crucial.
Question 2: Frequency of "Clarifying and Summarizing" Usage. An examination of Table 10 indicates that the "clarifying and summarizing" mean usage levels range from subject one's low of 1.0 (per session) during phase four, to subject four's high of 5.6 (per session) during phases three and four. All students used the skill at variable rates. A review of treatment schedule means for phase 6 (follow-up) was completed (see Question 1). This review indicates that the schedule means ranged from a low of 3.1 (per session) for the third schedule (subjects 7, 8 and 9) to a high of 3.5 (per session) for the first schedule




69
Table 9
Mean Frequencies of "Open Questioning" Usage
Subject Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5 Phase 6 Schedule I
1 0 0 1.6 1.6 2.0 2.0
2 0 0 3.0 2.8 2.2 2.3
3 0 0 1.2 1.0 0.8 1.3
Mean 1.9
Range 1.0
S D 0.5
Schedule II
4 0 0 0 0 2.2 2.3
5 0 0 0 0 3.4 3.3
6 0 0 0 0 1.4 1.7
Mean 2.4
Range 1.6
S D 0.8
Schedule III
7 0 0 0 3.2 3.8 3.3
8 0 0 0 4.6 4.8 4.7
9 0 0 0 3.8 3.8 3.3
Mean 3.8
Range 1.4
S D 0.8
Mean of Means 2.7
Range of Means 1.9
S D of Means 1.0




70
(subjects 1, 2 and 3). The overall mean for the three treatment groups was 3.3.
Question 3: Frequency of "Reflecting and Understanding Feelings" Usage. A review of the mean frequencies for "reflecting and understanding feelings" usage is presented in Table 11. This table presents each subject's phase means and provides the treatment schedule means for phase six (as explained in questions 1 and 2). The mean, range and standard deviation of the treatment schedule means is included.
The data reflect that subject one had the lowest mean frequency (0 per session) during phase six. This subject did not use the skill during the follow-up phase. Subject seven attained the highest mean usage frequency (2-5 per session) during phase five.
The mean frequencies varied across treatment schedule. Schedule one (subjects 1, 2 and 3) had the lowest treatment mean (.9 per session). Schedule two had the highest mean (1.3 per session). The mean of the treatment schedule means was 1.1 per session.
Question 4: Frequency of "Selected Interpersonal
Behavior" Exhibited. In order to determine which specific interpersonal behavior would be observed for each subject, baseline data for several behaviors were collected. An interpersonal behavior for each subject was selected from these data (see Chapter III). The resource room teacher determined that a 10 percent decrease after baseline would constitute "meaningful" behavior change. This criterion




71
Table 10
Mean Frequencies of "Clarifying and Summarizing" Usage
Subject Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5 Phase 6 Schedule I
1 0 0 0 1.0 1.2 1.7
2 0 0 0 4.6 4.4 4.3
3 0 0 0 3.0 3.5 3.0
Mean 3.5
Range 2.6
3 D 1.0
Schedule II
4 0 0 5.6 5.6 4.2 4.3
5 0 0 4.4 4.2 4.0 4.0
6 0 0 2.8 2.4 2.4 2.0
Mean 3.4
Range 2.3
S D 1.3
Schedule III
7 0 0 0 0 2.3 2.0
8 0 0 0 0 3.6 3.3
9 0 0 0 0 3.8 4.0
Mean 3.1
Range 2.0
S D 1.0
Mean of Means 3.3
Range of Means 0.4
S D of Means 0.2




72
Table 1.1
Mean Frequencies of "Reflecting and Understanding Feelings"
Subject Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5 Phase 6 Schedule I
1 0 0 0 0 0.6 0.0
2 0 0 0 0 1.8 2.0
3 0 0 0 0 0.6 0.7
Mean 0.9
Range 1.3
S D 1.0
Schedule II
4 0 0 0 1.6 1.8 1.6
5 0 0 0 1.6 1.4 1.3
6 0 0 0 1.0 0.8 1.0
Mean 1.3
Range 0.6
S D 0.3
Schedule III
7 0 0 2.4 2.0 2.5 1.7
8 0 0 1.0 1.0 0.6 0.7
9 0 0 1.6 1.4 1.8 1.0
Mean 1.1
Range 1.0
S D 0.9
Mean of Means 1.1
Range of Means .4
S D of Means 0.2




73
was based upon the expected duration of the treatment (fifteen to twenty sessions)--a period which is approximately 10 percent of the annual school days. For the identified interpersonal behavior, the 10 percent reduction was in terms of the frequency with which the behavior occurred.
Table 12 contains the mean frequencies with which the selected interpersonal behaviors occurred (see Appendix H for behavior descriptions). All subjects showed a reduction in the frequency with which the selected behaviors occurred. The reductions from phase one to phase six ranged from a low of 28 percent for subject six to a high of 74.5 for subject four. Thus, all subjects met the 10 percent desired behavior change criterion established after phase one baseline.
An examination across schedules indicates that the
treatment schedules ranged from a low mean of -49.2 percent to a high mean of -57.3 percent. The mean of the schedule means was -52.8 percent. All subjects and schedule groups reflect a reduction in the identified behaviors beyond the 10 percent minimum reduction required for "meaningful" behavior change.
Question 5: Mean Rules Compliance Points Earned. To facilitate the presentation of the rules compliance data, mean rules compliance points were determined by the following procedures:
1) Daily frequencies for each rating value were multiplied by the rating values (I 2, 3 or 4)(see Appendix F).




Table 12
Mean Frequencies of' "Selected Interpersonal Behaviors" Exhibited
Subject Behavior Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5 Phase 6
Schedule I
I Making faces 12.7 12.3 10.0 7.6 5.2 5.3
2 Threatening verbally 15.7 15.0 13.8 10.8 8.4 7.3
3 Sticking tongue out 13.3 14.0 11.3 8.3 5.4 5.0
Group Mean 13.9 5.9
Range 3.0 2.3
S D 1.6 1.3
Schedule II
4 Teasing verbally 17.0 11.7 7.0 6.2 4.0 4.3
5 Teasing (laughing) 16.7 17.3 15.0 11.8 9.0 8.0
6 Name-calling 16.7 15.7 13.8 14.0 11.2 12.0
Group Mean 16.8 8.1
Range .3 7.7
S D 0.2 3.9
Schedule III
7 Swearing 14.3 15.3 12.4 10.6 8.5 7.7
8 Hands in face 9.3 10.3 9.2 8.0 5.4 4.7
9 Name-calling 17.0 15.7 12.8 10.2 8.2 8.3
Group Mean 13.5 6.9
Range 7.7 3.6
S D 3.9 1.9
Mean of Means 14.7 7.0
Range of Means 3.3 2.2
S D of Means 1.8 1.1




75
Table 12 Continued
Subject Frequencies in Change Percent Change
Phase 1 to 6 Phase 1 to 6
1 -7.3 -57.8%
2 -8.3 -53.2%
3 -8.3 -62.5%
Mean -8.0 -57.8%
Range 1.0 9.3%
S D 0.6 4.6%
4 -12.7 -74.5%
5 -8.7 -52.0%
6 -4.7 -28.0%
Mean -8.7 -51.5%
Range 8.0 46.5%
S D 4.0 23.3%
7 -6.7 -46.5%
8 -4.7 -50.0
9 -8.7 -51.0%
Mean -6.7 -49.2%
Range 4.0 4.5%
S D 2.0 2.4%
Mean of Means -7.8 -52.8%
Range of Means 2.0 8.6%
S D of Means 1.0 4.5%




76
2) The products obtained in step one were added to get
a daily total.
3) The daily totals were added to get a phase total.
4) The phase total was divided by the number of days
in the phase to get a daily average per phase. These phase means are presented in Table 13. The 10 percent criterion determined for "meaningful" behavior change (as presented in question four) was applied to the rules compliance points. A reduction in rules compliance points was desirable since a rating of one indicated that the subject complied with the class rules. Values of 1, 2, 3 and
4 represent progressive increases in non-compliance with class rules.
The reductions in mean rules compliance varied. The reductions ranged from a low of -41.4 percent for subject seven to a high of -58.1 percent for subject two. All subjects met the 10 percent change criterion. A comparison of the different treatment schedules reveals means that range from -46.6 percent for schedule three (subjects 7,
8 and 9) to -54.0 percent for schedule one (subjects 1, 2 and 3). The overall mean was -50.5 percent. Summary
The data presented in Tables 6 through 13 reflect varied behavior changes. The proficiency data indicate that all subjects, except subject eight, reached a mean proficiency of 100 percent in the three skills during the phase immediately following the introductory phase. subject




77
Table 13
Mean Rules Compliance Points Earned
Subject Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5 Phase 6 Schedule I
1 18.0 18.0 15.0 11.4 8.2 7.7
2 20.7 20.3 17.5 13.8 9.0 8.7
3 14.3 11.3 11.8 7.5 8.6 7.7
Mean 17.7 8.0
Range 3 1.0
SD 3.2 0.6
Schedule II
4 12.0 9.7 6.0 8.4 6.2 6.3
5 14.7 17.3 13.0 8.8 7.6 6.7
6 17.0 14.7 13.2 11.2 8.6 8.3
Mean 14.5 7.1
Range 5.3 2.0
SD 2.5 1.1
Schedule III
7 13.7 12.3 11.8 11.6 7.8 8.0
8 18.7 18.0 14.4 10.4 9.0 8.7
9 15.7 14.3 14.4 13.4 9.8 8.7
Mean 16.0 8.5
Range 5.0 0.7
SD 2.5 0.4




78
Table 13 Continued
Change in Points Earned Percent Change
SUBJECT Phase 1 to 6 Phase 1 to 6
1 -10.3 -57.4%
2 -12.0 -58.1%
3 -6.7 -46.5%
Mean -9.7 -54.0%
Range 3.6 11.6%
S D 2.7 6.5%
4 -5.7 -47.3%
5 -8.0 -54.6%
6 -8.7 -51.0%
Mean -7.5 -51.0%
Range 3.0 7.3%
S D 1.5 3.7%
7 -5.7 -41.4%
8 -10.0 -53.6%
9 -7.0 -44.7%
Mean -7.6 -46.6%
Range 4.3 12.2%
S D 2.2 6.3%
Mean of Means -8.2 -50.5%
Range of Means 2.2 7.4%
S D of Means 1.2 3.7%




79
eight maintained a mean proficiency of 96 percent in "reflecting and understanding of feelings" in phase four, and achieved a mean proficiency of 100 percent during phases five and six.
All subjects except one continued using the responding skills during the follow-up phases. Subject one's frequency of usage of "reflecting and understanding feelings" returned to zero. The usage levels varied from subject to subject, and skill to skill. All subjects met the 10 percent change criterion established for the "selected interpersonal behavior" and rules compliance points earned.




CHAPTER V
CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Recently, educators have expressed increased interest in training adolescents in facilitative communication skills. At the same time, they have been concerned about the usefulness of teaching these skills to emotionally handicapped adolescents. If facilitative skills training were shown to be effective with emotionally handicapped adolescents, practical educational implications would result.
This chapter presents summaries and interpretations of the study's findings. Limitations of the study are reiterated and practical implications are presented. In addition, recommendations for future research are included.
Conclusions and Implications
As described in Chapters III and IV, the inter-observer agreement checklists were used to determine whether 1) skill proficiency, usage and opportunity, 2) selected interpersonal behavior, and 3) rules compliance were consistently and correctly recorded. Tables 3, 4 and 5 indicate that inter-observer agreement ranged from 93.3 percent to 100 percent. Thus, the observations were performed consistently.
80




81
Proficiency levels varied during the initial instructional phase from 70 percent to 100 percent. Yet, during the second phase in which skills instruction was given, only one subject failed to achieve 100 percent proficiency: subject eight reached a 96 percent proficiency level in "reflecting and understanding of feelings." All subjects ultimately achieved 100 percent proficiency in all the three facilitative skills. Thus, emotionally handicapped adolescents, being served in Lincoln Middle School resource rooms, seem able to achieve 100 percent proficiency in the three facilitative responding skills. Findings and Interpretations
Question 1: What effect does training an emotionally handicapped adolescent in "open questioning" have on the rate of use of this skill in a peer group? The data indicate that all subjects used "open questioning" in the peer group situation. The mean usage rates varied during the different phases. Subject three's mean (.8) during phase five was the lowest. Subject eight's mean (4.3) during. phase five was the highest. Schedule I (subjects lt 2 and 3) maintained the lowest mean usage rate (1.0) during follow-up, while Schedule III maintained the highest mean usage rate (3.3). Thus, instruction in "open questioning" corresponded to an increase in skill usage rate in a peer discussion group.
Question 2: What effect does training in "clarifying and summarizing" have on the frequency of use of this skill in peer group discussions?




82
The data reflect that "clarifying and summarizing" instruction resulted in increased skill usage by all subjects. During follow-up, subject one maintained the lowest mean skill usage (1.7); while subjects two and four maintained the highest mean usage level (4.3). An examination of the different schedules reveals that Schedule I had the highest mean usage level. Thus, regardless of the order of skill presentation, instruction in "clarifying and summarizing" corresponded to increased skill usage rates by emotionally handicapped adolescents in peer discussion groups.
Question 3: Does training in "reflecting and understanding feelings" affect the rate of use of this responding skill in a peer group situation? The data indicate that for eight of the nine subjects, "reflecting and understanding feelings" instruction resulted in increased and maintained usage of the skill. For subject one, the mean skill usage level increased from 0 during phase one through four to .6 during phase five, but returned to 0 during phase six (follow-up). Thus, although the usage rates for the different schedules were variable, all schedules reflected an increase in mean usage level that corresponded to instruction in the skill.
Question 4: Does training in three facilitative responding skills have an effect on the frequency of selected interpersonal behaviors exhibited by emotionally handicapped adolescents? The data concerning selected interpersonal behaviors indicate that all subjects exceeded




83
the 10 percent reduction established as a minimum for "meaningful" behavior change. The reduction varied from a low of 28 percent to a high of 74.5 percent. Thus, regardless of treatment schedule, all subjects achieved "meaningful" behavior change. As the subjects were taught the facilitative skills, there was a corresponding reduction in the frequencies with which they exhibited inappropriate social behaviors.
Question 5: Does facilitative skills training affect the frequency with which students comply with class rules?
An examination of the mean rules compliance points indicate that all subjects surpassed the 10 percentage points required for "meaningful" behavior change. The reduction in mean rules compliance points varied from 41.4 to 58.1. Thus, regardless of treatment schedule, all subjects achieved the necessary 10 percent reduction in mean rules compliance points. Therefore, facilitative skills training corresponded to a reduction in the frequency with which emotionally handicapped adolescents complied with class rules.
Limitations of the Study
The subjects of this study may not represent all
seventh and eighth grade emotionally handicapped students. The adolescents were identified as emotionally handicapped according to the regulations of the Florida State Department of Education. Since identification criteria differ from state to state, emotionally handicapped students in




84
other areas of the country will not necessarily have the same characteristics as the subjects.
Observation rooms are not available in Alachua County Schools. Therefore, additional time was allocated prior to the initiation of baseline so that the students could become accustomed to having an observer in the room. The observer's presence during discussion sessions may have affected the frequency of facilitative skills usage.
On a number of occasions, students failed to obtain all of the required "Daily Report" (see Appendix F) signatures. Consequently, some forms had to be returned to teachers for completion. The ratings obtained in this manner may differ from those obtained immediately following the class.
Skills usage was observed and recorded during a structured peer discussion group. The teacher acted as the discussion leader for the group. In such a situation, usage levels may have exceeded those that would have been obtained from a nonstructured discussion.
Finally, caution must be taken when interpreting the changes that occurred in "selected interpersonal behavior" and "rules compliance." The data indicate that changes in facilitative skills proficiency and usage were accompanied by corresponding changes in "selected interpersonal behavior" and "rules compliance." This study was not intended to "prove" that facilitative skills training is the sole explanation for the observed changes. These changes might have been produced by a number of other variables.




85
Methodological Limitations
When a single-subject, multiple baseline design was incorporated into this study, several methodological concerns arose. First, how does a researcher determine when stability has occurred in the data? To determine when stability has occurred, it is necessary to calculate the 11celeration line" and the "variability envelope" of the data (see Chapter III). The procedures used to obtain these are appropriate for research in which a large number (greater than twenty) of data points have been obtained. In situations where it is practical to obtain only three to five data points, no clear procedure for determining stability has been delineated in the single-subject research literature.
Second, which behaviors need to stabilize prior to the initiation of a new treatment phase? Single-subject methodology provides that stability be established for those behaviors that receive direct treatment (facilitative skills usage) and not for those that do not receive direct treatment ("interpersonal behavior" and "rules compliance"). There is need for clarification of the differential effects of allowing only those variables that receive treatment to stabilize as opposed to allowing all variables to stabilize.
Practical Implications
The conclusions that were drawn in this study have practical implications for those involved in delivering educational services to emotionally handicapped adolescents.




86
First, the assumption that emotionally handicapped adolescents can learn the facilitative responding skills is reaffirmed. Although the emotionally handicapped adolescents (resource room students with I.O.'s in the normal range) varied in their acquisition rates, they were able to become 100 percent proficient in the three facilitative responding skills examined here.
Second, emotionally handicapped adolescents will use "open questioning," "clarifying and summarizing," and "reflecting and understanding feelings" in a structured peer discussion group. It may be appropriate for educators to initially promote the skills usages in structured situations.
Third, instruction in facilitative responses may be included among the interventions that appear to decrease inappropriate interpersonal behaviors of emotionally handicapped adolescents. With the acquisition of facilitative skills, a corresponding decrease seems to occur in inappropriate social behavior.
Fourth, proficiency in and usage of the facilitative
communication skills appeared to promote greater responsiveness to the rules with which adolescents are confronted. Responding skills appear to help to promote increased rules compliance while emotionally handicapped adolescents attend regular classes. Thus, these skills can be added to the list of skills that seem to facilitate the generalization of appropriate (desired) behavior change to situations other than the resource rooms.




87
Recommendations for Future Research
The present study investigated the effects that instruction in "open questioning," "clarifying and summarizing," and "reflecting and understanding feelings" had on the three skills usages, selected interpersonal behavior and rules compliance. The research followed a singlesubject design and used nine resource room subjects. Recommendations for future research in this area are included in this section.
1. Other investigators might want to incorporate a
group design since these skills are most often
taught in groups.
2. Different emotionally handicapped populations
need to be considered. The populations need to be extended to include elementary and secondary students and more severely disturbed students so
that generalizability can be increased.
3. Similar studies that examine skills usage, interpersonal behavior change and rules compliance
should be done with students who are not receiving
special education services so that a comparison
might be made.
4. Several schools that use different management
techniques should be involved in future research
so that a comparison might be made.
5. An attempt should be made to have the classroom
teacher present the skills instruction since in




88
reality this individual will have this responsibility.
6. Skills usage needs to be reinforced over a more
extended period and by different individuals to
determine the effect on usage.
7. In combination with the facilitative responding
skills, problem-solving and other affective skills need to be taught to determine the most appropriate
combination of skills to be taught.
8. Different procedures need to be used in the instructional sessions so that the most beneficial
method might be determined.
9. Alternative techniques for observing and recording
data across situations need to be explored so
that the data collection problems delineated in
Chapter III might be alleviated.




APPENDIX A
FACILITATIVE RESPONDING
"Open questioning" consists of asking a question that specifies the general area of interest but lets the specific content of the answer be decided upon by the person answering the question. This type of question allows the individual answering to develop his answer in whatever length or detail he desires. It seeks a wide range of thoughts and feelings. Open questions are designed to "solicit additional information, provoke further discussion, or to query an individual regarding a particular matter" (Wittmer and Myrick, 19714). On the other hand, a closed question permits only short answers such as "yes" or "no," or answers that are limited to a few words. A closed question may limit the choice of responses or simply seek a few facts. Some comparisons of open to closed questions follow:
1. "What kind of things happened to you today?"
(open)
"How was your day?" (closed)
2. "What are your reactions to the new class schedule?"
(open)
"Why don't you like the new schedule?" (closed)
3. "How do you feel about taking the test?" (open)
"Are you worried about taking the test?" (closed) 89




90
4. "What do you think about school?" (open)
"You don't like school, do you?" (closed)
5. "What did you do at recess?" (open)
"You caused a fight at recess, didn't you?"
(closed)
"Summarizing and clarifying" is any attempts to identify or understand what a person has said. A listener tells a speaker what he thinks the speaker has said so that the speaker can either confirm or deny the impression. A listener in his own words repeats to a speaker the mes4 sage he received in order to determine its accuracy. These statements usually put what the speaker has said in new or simplified terms. The listener focuses attention on the content of the discussion.
In an attempt to identify the most significant ideas (content) emerging in a conversation and to evaluate what one has heard for correctness and clarification of content, the listener will either paraphrase the message or use new words to simplify what has been heard. The following are typical examples:
1. "If I hear you correctly, you are telling me
that..."
2. "You seem to be saying that ...
3. "In other words, you are trying to ...
4. "What I hear you saying is ... 11
5. "From what you have been saying, I've heard three
things. First .... Second ... Third ... 11




91
6. "Correct me if I'm wrong, but you're saying
that ... 11
7. "From what you have said, it seems that ...
8. "In other words, you are trying to ... 11
"Reflecting and understanding of feelings" is a
response that conveys that the listener is aware of how the speaker is feeling. The listener attempts to identify what the speaker is feeling so that the speaker can check for accuracy. Examples of such statements include the following:
1. "You're feeling angry, Bill."
2. "You're tired."
3. "You're confused right now."
4. "You look a little worried."
5. "You're feeling sad."
6. "Sounds like that made you really happy."
7. "You're confused and hurt about what happened?"
8. "You look really pleased with your art work."




Full Text

PAGE 1

THE EFFECT OF ttFACILITATIVE RESPONDING SKILLtt TRAINING ON SELECTED BEHAVIORS OF EMOTIO~ALLY HANDICAPPED ADOLESCENTS BY DAVID L. SLADE A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSIT Y OF FLORIDA 1980

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to recognize those individuals who have contributed to my professional growth. Gratitude is ex pressed to my major adviser, Dr. Rex Schmid, for his guid ance and support. Special thanks are extended to my progra m committee members, Dr. Kern Alexander, Dr. Robert Algozzine, Dr. Steve Olejnik, and Dr Bill Reid for their contribu tions For her secretarial assistance, I w ould like to thank M ary Hatcher. Connie Smith's help during the data collection stage was greatly appreciated. The support and su g gestions provided by Bill Evans during the time that I spent in his resource room helped to make the ex perience not only productive but also enjoyable. Special recognition is given to Tim Callaghan f or his m any hours of proofreading the m anuscript and providing invaluable g uidance. Fi n ally, special appreciation is expressed to my m other, M arion Slade, f o r her c o nfidence and encoura g m en~. ii

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TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. . . . . . . . . ii LIST OF TABLES....................................... vi LIST OF FIGURES. . . . . . . . . . vii ABSTRACT ........ ............. ... ... ...... ...... viii CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ........................... The Problem. . . . . . . 3 Purpose. . . . . . . . 3 Variables. . . . . . . . 3 Related Questions. . . . . 4 Assumptions. . . . . . . 4 Importance of the Study................ 5 Delimitations.......................... 7 Limitations. . . . . . . 8 Definition of Terms....................... 8 Summary................................... 11 II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ................ .... 12 Selection of the Relevant Literature ..... 12 Natu re of the Literature ................ 15 Facilitative Skills Training with Adolescents ....................... 15 Summary................................... 27 iii

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III METHODS AN D PROCEDURES....................... 28 Subjects.................................. 28 Setting................................... 28 Research Questions ........................ 30 Experimental Design ....................... 31 Treatment Procedures ................... .. 32 Treatment Phases ....................... 36 Experimental Conditions................ 39 Data Collection........................... 40 Dependent Variables .................. 40 Observers.. . . . . . . . 44 Data Analysis............................. 51 Summary of Experimental Procedures ....... 52 IV RESULTS ................ .... .. .... .... ... .. 55 Inter-Observer Agreement ................. 55 Analysis of Data. . . . . . . 56 Raw Score Totals ....................... 56 Graphic Presentation of Data ...... .... 56 Proficiency Analysis ................... 63 Analysis of Data for Each Research Question ................... 65 Summary................................ 76 V CONCLUSICNS, IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS. . . . . . . 80 Conclusions and Implications .............. 80 Findings and Interpretat ions ... .. ..... 81 Limitations of the Study............... 83 M ethodological Limitations ...... ... .. 85 iv

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Practical Implications .................... 85 Recommendations for Future Research ....... 87 APPENDICES A FACILITATIVE RESPONDING ...................... 89 B FEELING WORDS.. . . . . . . . 92 C GROUP DISCUSSION: SKILL USE ................. 93 D BEHAVIORAL OBSERVATIONS FORM ................. 94 E SKILL PROFICIENCY... . . . . . . 95 F DAILY REPORT... . . . . . . . 96 G DAILY REPORT DATA FORM ....................... 97 A RAW DATA.. ........ .. ...................... 99 I GRAPHIC PRESENTATIO N OF PROFICIENCY LEVELS ....... .. .. ............ 109 J GRAPHIC PRESE NT ATION OF SKILL USAGE. . . . . . . . 119 K GRAPHIC PRESENTATION OF SELECTED INTERPERSONAL BEHAVIOR AND RULES COMPLIANCE ...................... 129 REFERENCES. : . . . . . . . . . . 138 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. . . . . . . . . 148 V

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LIST OF TABLES PAGE Description of the Fifteen Studies Accepted for Critical Review ...... .. ... ...... .. 16 2 Demographic Data for Subjects ..................... 29 3 Inter-Observer Agreement: Proficiency Level ..... ........................ 57 4 Inter-Observer Agreement: Dkill Usage .............................. ... ... 58 5 Inter-Observer Agreement: Selected Interpersonal Behavior ......... ...... 60 6 Mean Proficiency Levels for "Open Questioning" .......................... .. 64 7 Proficiency Levels for "Clarifying and Summarizing" ............. ..... 66 8 Proficiency Levels for "Reflecting and Understanding Feelings" ...... 67 9 Mean Frequencies of "Open Questioning" Usage ....................... 69 10 Mean Frequencies of "Clarifying and Summarizing" Usage ...... ...... 71 11 Mean Frequencies of "Reflecting and Understanding Feelings" ........ 72 12 Mean Frequencies of "Selected Interpersonal Behaviors" Exhibited ............. 74 13 Mean Rules Compliance Points Earned ............... 77 vi

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2 3 4 5 6 Treatment Treatment Treatment Selected Observer Skill Observer Skill LIST OF FIGURES Schedule for Subjects Sl, S2 and S3 ..... Schedule for Subjects S4, S5 and S6 ..... Schedule for Subjects S7, S 8 and sg .... Interpersonal Behaviors .................. Agreement Check Proficiency ... .......... ............ .. Agreement Check Usage .................................... 7 Observer Agreement Check PAGE 33 34 35 45 48 49 Behavioral Observations ................ ....... 50 8 Projected Celeration Line and Variability Envelope ......... ............. 62 v ii

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Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy THE EFFECT OF "FACILITATIVE RESPONDING SKILL" TRAINING ON SELECTED BEHAVIORS OF E M OTIONALLY HANDICAPPED ADOLESCE N TS By David L. Slade December 1980 Chairman: Rex E. Schmid Major Department: Special Education This study was conducted to determine the effects of training emotionally handicapped adolescents in three facil itative responding skills: "open questioning," "clarifying and summarizing" and "reflecting and understanding of feelings." Nine emotionally handicapped seventh and eighth graders were randomly selected and assigned to one of three different treatment schedules. A single-subject, multiple baseline design was followed. Three replications were done for each of the three treatment schedules. To ascertain the effects of instruction in the three facilitative skills, data were collected and recorded on five dependent measures. Three measures were obtained for the frequenc i es of usage of the three skills in a peer discussi o n group. One m easure was obtained for the v i ii

PAGE 9

frequency of a selected interpersonal behavior and one measure was obtained for the frequency of rules compliance. The data obtained indicate that instruction in the three facilitative responding skills resulted in increased usage of the three skills in a structurec peer group. All subjects exhibited a reduction in the frequency of a selected (inappropriate) interpersonal behavior that exceeded a 10 percent criterion established to reflect "meaningful" behavior change. In addition, all subjects surpassed the 10 percent criterion in reduced non-compliance to class rules. ix

PAGE 10

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Contemporary youth live in a world filled with tech nological complexities and international crises. Under standing and coping with this world is a challenge Adolescents, in attempting to deal with the rapidly changing demands placed upon them, often find their own resources limited and insufficient. In an attempt to deal with their frustrations, youth turn to their peers for support and direction. The peer g roup becomes the center of attention during the early adolescent years ( Dacey, 1979). Pee rs have a strong influence on the behaviors of most adolescents. During the junior high school years youth seek new relationships from within the peer group (Roge rs, 1977). They conform to their peers in dress, speech, behavior and values. Adolescents become very aware of what is expected of them and for the most pa rt respond accordingly. For m ost adolescents the process of adjusting to and depending upon the peer group may be smooth and non-disturbing, but for others it is a time filled with turmoil. Emotion ally handicapped adolescents often find the transition from dependence on family to peers traumatic. Disturbed youth often have not developed those skills necessary to cope with the demands of adolescence and adulthood.

PAGE 11

2 To develop interpersonal skills during early adoles cence, teenagers must be able to communicate effectively. Lower ability and disturbed adolescents are less accurate than normal adolescents in understanding communications (Bellante, 1970; Chasser, 1977; M cGlannan, 19 7, Zabel, 1977). Disturbed adolescents become confused when unable to communicate or understand the communications of others (Elkind, 1971). Problems arise when a young person is unable to determine either the content o r the feelings ex pressed in his interactions. He m ay misperceive advice given to him by adults or peers ( Reagor, 1973; Smith and Austrin, 1974). To determine an adolescent's understanding of a communication, his response to a particular m essage must be examined (M cClusky, Ni emi and Albas, 1978). Various programs have taught facilitative communica tion skills to normal adolescents (Cherchia, 1973; Emmert, 1977; Erney, 1979; Felton, 1975; Frye, 1976; Gouze, 1975; Gumaer, 1975; Hamdorf, 1975; N esbit, 1976; Rowzee, 19 76; Rustad, 19 7 4; Wunderlin, 1973 ) Some studies have demon strated that training in facilitative skills has positive results with non-disturbed adolescents (E rney, 1979; M yrick and Erney, 1978 ) Since emotionally handicapped adolescents have not participated in this traini ng similar information is not available for emotionally disturbed adolescents. The purpose of this study was to invest iga te the effects of facilitative responding skills training on the emotionally handicapped adolescent.

PAGE 12

3 The Problem Many emotionally handicapped adolescents have diffi culty in interpersonal relationships because of faulty communication skills (C ommittee on Adolescence, 1968 ) The problem may involve an inability to effectively send or receive messages. Professionals responsible for the personal growth and development of these adolescents are made aware of many affective techniques purporting to im prove the communication skills of disturbed youth. M ost approaches have not been systematically investigated to determine their relevance to disturbed youth. This study investigated the effects of "facilitative responding skills training" on selected behaviors of emotionally handicapped adolescents. Purpose The purpose of this study was to train emotionally handicapped adolescents in "facilitative responding skills": "open questioning," "clarifying and summarizing," and "re flecting and understanding of feelings." Corresponding ~ han ge s in selected behaviors were also examined. Th e frequency with which individuals in a peer group situation used responding skills was investigated. In addition, the effects of each skill on the frequencies of a selected inter personal behavior and rules compliance were examined. Variables The dependent variables in t his study are: questioning," ( 2 ) "clarifying and summarizing," (1) "open

PAGE 13

4 (3) ttreflecting and understanding of feelings," ( 4) selected interpersonal behaviors and ( 5) rules compliance. The independent variables consist of training in the ttfacilitative responding skills.tt Training included direct instruction, role playing, and feedback. Related Questions lhe following research questions received special attention: 1. Does training in ttopen questioningtt affect rate of use in a peer discussion group? 2. Does training in ttsummarizing and clarifyingtt affect rate of use in a peer discussion group? 3. Does training in ttreflecting and understanding of feelingstt affect rate of responding to feelings in a peer discussion group? 4. What happens to the frequency of a selected in terpersonal beh?.vior during and after training? 5. Does facilitative skills training affect the fre quency with which students comply with class rules? Assumptions The assumptions necessary in this investigation re flect the ideas and beliefs upon which the research prob lem is formulated. These assumptions are an essential element in logically developing the research investigation, and thus directly relate to the philosophical and proce dural rationale incorporated. The following assumptions are made:

PAGE 14

5 1. Training normal adolescents in facilitative re sponding skills will have a positive effect on both peer facilitators and those students who receive their help. 2. Adolescents who are labeled emotionally handi capped and placed in programs for the emotionally handicapped are properly identified and placed. 3. Classrooms for the emotionally handicapped pro vide situations in which peers have the opportu nity to interact. 4. Emotionally handicapped adolescents can learn in a one-to-one instructional situation. 5. Emotionally handicapped adolescents have diffi culty in interpersonal communication. 6. Emotionally handicapped adolescents influence each other. 7. The facilitative responding skills can be taught to emotionally handicapped adolescents. 8. The facilitative skills model as presented by Wittmer and Myrick ( 1974 ) accurately presents the skills in order from least to most facil itatjve. Importance of the Study Educators are well aware of the influence adolescents have on one another; as a result school systems have imple mented programs which train young people in basic human

PAGE 15

6 relations and counseling skills. Included in these training programs are facilitative responding skills ( Gumaer, 1975). By selecting and training those who were academically, socially, emotionally, and behaviorally outstanding, re searchers have explored the impact that facilitative responding skills have had on students ( Brown, 1965; Buck, 1977; Erney, 1979; Gumaer, 1973; Lippitt and Lippitt, 1970; M ccann, 1975; Pyle, 1977; Ryan and Varenhorst, 1973; Schweisheimer and Walberg, 1976; Vassas, 1 971 ; V reind, 196 9) Selected students were high in gro u p status and leadership ability. These students were trained to serve as peer counselors in "peer facilitator" programs. In one study, students experiencing academic difficulties were trained in the facilitative skills (Rowzee, 1976 ) Another study which emphasized tutoring selected students having academic problems ( Erney, 19 7 9 ) With these students, a non counseling role was stressed. "Facilitative responding skills" training packages have been made available to school systems. M any teachers of the emotionally handicapped adolescent will be exposed to these materials, yet researchers have not examined the effects of training disturbed youth in facilitative skills. Emotionally handicapped adolescents have not been subjects in studies that have emphasized these skills. This inves tigation trained disturbed youth in responding skills and observed the effects this training had on their behavior.

PAGE 16

7 Researchers have trained young people in programs of human relations and counseling skills. At the completion of the training packages, the students conducted either discussion groups or individual sessions. Researchers have not examined the effects of the individual skills taught in the training programs, nor have they isolated changes in behavior effected by specific skills. Three skills were examined here so that their individual effects on behavior could be investigated. Although researchers are concerned with behavioral changes in those students trained in facilitative com munication skills, they typically use non-behavioral means to assess change. To determine behavior change, measure ment instruments as opposed to direct observation are incorporated in a preand post-test analysis. With the national concern for accountability, "individual education plans" have evolved. With such plans, one must maintain a data base upon which program decisions can be made. The design incorporated in this study provided for direct observation and measurement of behaviors which are necessary to provide an adequate data base. Delimitations This study was delimited to the following: 1. Emotionally handicapped adolescents who are in either seventh or eighth g ra d e. 2. Adolescents who have been identified as emotionally handicapped according to the regulations of t he

PAGE 17

8 Florida State Department of Education. 3. One school in Alachua County, Florida. Limitations The subjects of this study may not represent all seventh and eighth grade emotionally handicapped students. The adolescents were identified as emotionally handicapped according to the regulations of the Florida State Depart ment of Education. Since identification criteria differ from state to state, emotionally handicapped students in other areas of the country will not necessarily have the same characteristics as the subjects. Observation rooms are not available in Alachua Count y Schools; thus, additional time was allocated prior t o the initiation of baseline so tha t the st u dents could beco m e accustomed to having an observ e r in t he roo m The ob server's presence durin g discussion sessions may have affected the frequency of facilitative skills usage. In addition, on a number of occasi o ns students failed to obtain all of the required "Daily Report" signatures. Consequently, some forms had to be returned to teac h ers for completi o n. The ratings obtained in this m anner may differ from those obtained i m mediately following the class. Defi n ition of Ter m s In order to avoid ambiguity, it is necessary t o present the definitions of terms used in the study. The followin g terms which appear in the study are ap ~ lied according to these definitions:

PAGE 18

9 Peer facilitators are students who have successfully completed basic training in the skills of listening, re sponding, decision-making, and confronting, and who are currently participating in or have participated in a super vised program in which they served as facilitators (Erney, 1979). Emotionally handicapped refers to those students, who after having received supportive educational assistance and counseling which is available to all students, still ex hibit persistent and consistent severe behavioral disa bilities which consequently disrupt the students' learning process. These are the students whose inability to achieve adequate academic progress or satisfactory interpersonal relationships cannot be attributed primarily to physical, sensory, or intellectual deficits (Florida Statutes, 1978). Facilitative responding is a type of communication in which a speaker is provided with information and feedback that will help to ~remote his emotional growth and develop ment. It is the process of listening, gaining an impression, and using that impression not only in formulating a re sponse to the speaker but also in reaching an understanding of the relationship the speaker has with the responder (Wittmer and Myrick, 1974). "Open questions" are facilitative responses designed to solicit additional information, provoke further dis cussion, or to query an individual regarding a particu lar matter. The open question is broad and invites the

PAGE 19

10 speaker to answer the question from his own perceptual field. It is designed to solicit a wide range of thoughts and feelings. "Summarizing and clarifying" refers to a statement that attempts to understand accurately what a person has said or to identify the most significant ideas that have emerged from what was said. The responder focuses on the content of the discussion and rephrases or simplifies what the speaker has said. "Reflecting and understanding feelings" consists of a response that conveys to the speaker that the listener is aware of how he is feeling (Wittmer and Myrick, 1974). Adolescent refers to individuals between the ages of 11 and 19 who are progressing through those developmental tasks which are necessary to acquire the skills needed for healthy adjustment during adulthood (Dacey, 1979). Communication consists of verbal and non-verbal mes sages between two or more people. Role playing is the process by which a trainer or trainee assumes the role of a particular individual for the purpose of demonstrating particular training techniques. Peer grouo is a group of individuals who are either the same age or grade level in school. Helpee is a person with a personal concern. Heloer is an individual assisting a person with a personal concern.

PAGE 20

1 1 Physical aggression consists of such abusive behaviors as hitting, biting, scratching, poking, kicking, or pinching. Verbal aggression consists of such verbal behavior as teasing, name-calling, swearing, or bossing. Frequency is a count of the number of times a behavior occurs. Interpersonal behavior refers to interactions between two or more individuals. Summary Emotionally handicapped adolescents often have inter personal communication problems. Professionals working with these youths must determine which of the affective techniques that have been found to have positive results with normal adolescents will also have positive results when applied to disturbed youth. The facilitative responding skills--"open questions," "summarizing and clarifying," and "reflecting and understanding of feelings"--have been found to be effective when used with normal adolescents. These same skills have not been investigated with emotion ally disturbed adolescents. This study trained emotionally handicapped adolescents in these three facilitative responding skills and examined the effects of this training on the frequency of skills usage. The effects of training in each of the skills on the frequency of selected inter personal behaviors was examined. In addition, the effects of facilitative skills training on the frequency with which students complied with class rules was observed.

PAGE 21

CHAPTER II REVIEW 0~ THE LITERATURE The facilitative responding skills--"open questioning," "summarizing and clarifying," and "reflecting and under standing of feelings"--have been used with normal adoles cents to improve their ability to communicate. Since emotionally handicapped adolescents often have an inability to constructively respond in interpersonal situations, it is important to determine if facilitative skills training can benefit this population. The following is a review of the literature related to facilitative skills training and the emotionally handicapped adolescent. A critical examination of the nature and extent of the literature is provided. Selection of the Relevant Literature Included in this review is the literature that was located through the following sources: ERIC computer search, the Current Index of Journals in Education, the Psychological Abstracts, and the Doctoral Dissertations International. Descriptors used in the search include emotionally handicapped adolescent, facilitative responding, interpersonal communication skills, social skills, and peer facilitator. 12

PAGE 22

13 Once the identified reports were retrieved, the biblio graphy of each was examined for additional references. Initially the search consisted of locating those studies published from 1974 to 1980. The year 1974 was chosen because it was the year that Wittmer and M yrick first pub lished their model of the levels of facilitative responding. From the bibliographies of the articles that were published during the identified years, a number of related articles dating as early as 1957 were also identified. The biblio graphies also prcvided valuable infor m ation about which journals most frequently published articles of relevance. Among the journals identified were The School Counselor, Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Journal of Consulting Psychology, Elementary School Guidance and Counseling, Adolescence, T he Journal of Counseling Psychology, Person nel and Guidance Journal, and Journal of Learning Dis abilities. The indexes of each of these journals from 1965 to 1980 were also examined. A survey of the card catalog at the U niversity of Florida's College of Education library revealed several books directly related to the facilitative communication skills. Among these was Beyond Counselin g and Theraoy b y Carkhuff and Berenson ( 1967), This work contained an ex cellent review of the facilitative skills along with the most significant research related to these skills. Other books that provided valuable information include Facili tative Teaching ( W itt m er and M yrick, 1974 Caring and

PAGE 23

14 Sharing ( Myrick and Erney, 1978), Youth Helping Youth (Myrick and Erney, 1979), and Human Relations Development (Gazda, Asbury, Balzer, Childers and Walters, 1977). Criterion for selecting reports to be included for critical review were established. First, the report had to be data-based and had to contain the f0llowing: single or group design, identified dependent and indepen dent variables, and specified research strategy. Second, the subjects had to be adolescents. Third, either the treatment or the dependent variable(s) had to involve facilitative communication skills. Finally, information on the effectiveness of the treatment had to be provided. Many reports failed to meet the stated criteria for inclusion. The majority of those rejected were nonresearch articles (Cuvo, 1979; Gumaer, 1973; Kobak, 1977; Lippitt and Lippitt, 1968; Lippitt and Lippitt, 1970, Lippitt and Lohman, 1965; McCann, 1975, Pyle, 1977; Ryan and Varenhorst, 1973; Scott, 1979; Sprinthall and Erickson, 1974; Strain and Shores, 1979; Vassas, 1971; Wallbrown, Fremont, Nelson, Wilson and Fischer, 1979). More were excluded be cause the subjects were not adolescents ( Blume, 1977 ; Bornstein, Bellack and Hersen, 1977; Bower, Amatea and Anderson, 1976; Brown, 1965; Carkhuff and Truax, 1965; Gumaer, 1975; Hersen and Bellack, 1976; Hetrick, 1979; Lobitz, 1970; Resnik, 1972; Walter, 1977; Zunker and Brown, 1966 ) Those articles that did not involve training in facilitative skills were rejected ( Caditz, 1963; Caplan,

PAGE 24

15 1957; Erickson and Cromack, 1972; Shaver and Nuhn, 1971; Wehr, 1978; Wright, 1978). Nature of the Literature A critical review of the related research indicated that only fifteen selections met the four criteria estab lished for inclusion. Table 1 presents a brief description of the reports critically reviewed. All of the studies were group designs. Although the researchers claimed to be interested in subjects' behavioral changes, no direct observation of behavior occurred. Behavioral change was determined by comparing preand post-experiment ratings on a measurement instrument purporting to assess the qual ities of interest to the experimenter. There was no clear relationship between the results obtained on the scale and the actual student behavior in a social situation. Facilitative Skills Training with Adolescents Following Carkhuff's Human Resource Development M odel, Frye (1976) studied the impact of a one semester course in counseling skills on adolescents. Randomly selected Junior and senior high school students were the subjects. The students were randomly assigned to either the treat ment or control group. The Tennessee Self-Concept Scale was used to determine changes in the students' self-concepts. To determine the effect of the course on the students' abilities to oom municate empathy, respect, and genuineness in a counseling situation, the experimental students m ade video tapes of

PAGE 25

Investigator Buck { 1977) Cherchia { 1973) Emmert (1977) Erney { 1979) Felton { 1975 l Frye (1976) Gouze { 1975) Design group group group group group group group Table 1 Description of the Fifteen Studies Accepted for Critical Review Treatment peer counseling facilitative skills training peer-helper training peer or counselor led guidance interpersonal skills course counseling skills training empathy training Dependent Variable interpersonal relationships & self-esteem facilitative communication expression of empathy morals self-esteem school attitude communication skills & moral judgement facilitative skills & self concept level of empathy Measurement Results scale impression scale mixed scale mixed scale mixed scale mixed scale positive scale positive

PAGE 26

Table 1 Extended Hamdorf group communication level of scale mixed (1975) skills training facilitative communication Nesbit group social skills empathy scale positive (1976) training & self-perception counseling discussion R o w zee group interpersonal facilitative scale mixed ( 1976 l communication communication training skills Rustad group fac ili ta ti ve facilitative scale positive (1974) skills course skills ---.1 Schweisheimer group peer school scale mixed & Walberg counseling related (1976) behaviors Speisman group empathy facilitative scale mixed ( 1972 l trainin g skills Vriend group group counseling school scale mixed ( 1969 l & tutoring related behaviors Wunderlin group communication verbal interaction scale mixed ( 1973) skills & relationship training rating

PAGE 27

18 their counseling sessions, which were rated using the Facil itative Interpersonal Functioning Scales. The Barrett Lennard Relationship Inventory was used to measure change in the adolescents' interpersonal effectiveness. As a result, the students in the experimental communi cations course were perceived by their parents and peers as showing increased empathic understanding. At the .05 level, significant positive changes in self-concepts and inter personal effectiveness occurred following participation in the curriculum-based counseling course. In a study to investigate the effects of two forms of treatment on self and peer perceptions of psycho-social characteristics of adolescents, Nesbit (1976) used modeling, role playing, and feedback to provide training in social skills. From a stratified random sample, subjects were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. One treatment consisted of counseling discussion, while the other consisted of social interaction skills The treatment groups met for two one-hour sessions each week for six weeks. Six control groups did not meet The subjects were a mixture of anglo, black, and M exican-American ethnicities. The Piers-Harris Children's Self Concept Scale, Adjustive Self-Description, and Peer Jury Sociometric Behavior Rating Scale were administered to measure the subjects' self-perceptions. The results indicate that at the .05 level of significance the treatment subjects (1) rated themselves to be less anxious and more serene, and

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19 (2) were rated by their peers ta be more responsive to and supportive of others' needs. No such changes were reported for the non-treatment students. The treatment students took more initiative in sharing their feelings with others and lost their tempers less often than did the controls. Participation in social interaction skills treatment resulted in significantly higher gains for the students than did participation in the counseling discussion treatment in all variables. Rowzee (1976) trained low socio-economic level secondary underachievers (Upward Bound Students) in interpersonal communication skills to determine the effect of such training on the self-concept levels of the students. Both black and white students were included in the stratified random sample and randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. Two groups of students received training in facilitative com munication skills over a three week period. Students were trained in Carkhuff's Systematic Human Relations Training Medel for Lay Helpers. The two experimental groups were compared to a third g roup who received problem-solving training but no communication skills training, and a fourth group who met but received no training. The subjects were tested with the Communication Index and the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale. The two groups who received training in communication skills scored higher on the Communication Index than t he two groups who received no communication skills training. T he g roups receiving

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20 the skills training scored in the minimally facilitative range of interpersonal functioning. Thus, the results in dicate that low socio-economic level underachievers are able to learn interpersonal communication skills at a mini mally facilitative level. The acquisition of facilitative communication skills, however, did not result in a signifi cant positive change in self-concept. To ascertain the effects of a course in counseling on the moral reasoning, discrimination and communication skills, and selected attitudes of a group of adolescents and adults, Felton (1975) taught a one semester course in interpersonal skills. The course was modeled after a program by Carkhuff. All subjects were volunteers and were randomly assigned to treatment groups. Subjects were tested on the Kohlberg Moral Judgement Interview and the Carkhuff Scales of Discrimination and Communication. The Attitude Questionnaire and the General ized Effects Test were administered. The results indicate that both groups improved their ability to discriminate ( though not at a statistically significant l~vel). Both groups did improve significantly in communication skills. The group that contained adolescents and adults had a sig nificantly higher attitudinal change at the end of the course. In 1973, Wunderlin studied the impact of communication skills training on adolescents and theii parents. Fourteen families volunteered to participate and were randomly

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21 assigned to treatment groups. Sessions were held weekly for four weeks. Listening, sending, problem solving and assessment skills wer~ practiced. Role playing was incor porated to teach the skills. Two measures were used to determine behavioral change: verbal interaction and relationship ratings. Verbal inter action (communication) included listening responses, sending statements, and dysfunctional expressions. Four categories of relationships were rated: positive regard, empathic understanding, genuineness and unconditionality. The fami lies were observed four times using taped conflict-resolu tion discussions and the Barrett-Lennard Relationship Inventory. Families significantly increased listening and decreased dysfunctional communication. Significant dif ferences were found in the mother's listening and the teen agers' sending communication skills. In an attempt to determine if an interpersonal com munication skills training g roup changed the perceived level of communication in the parent-adolescent relationship after parents had received communication skills training, Hamdorf (1975) included volunteer parents and adolescents as subjects in his traini~g program. The subjects were randomly assigned to treatment groups. Training consisted of lecture-discussion and role playing of communication skills, followed by reading and activity assignments done at home.

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22 To determine the perceived level of communication in the parent-adolescent relationship, the Parent-Adolescent Inventory Forms A and P were used. The data indicate that the parents felt the training program had a positive im pact on their perceived level of communication. The ado lescents did not note any positive change in their perceived level of communication with their parents. Cherchia ( 1973) trained randomly selected hi g h school students in communication skills to determine if they would function at significantly higher levels than untrained students. Tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grade students were involved in the study and were randomly assigned to treatment groups. The experimental group received training in Carkhuff's Systematic Human Relations Training M odel for Lay Helpers. The control group received no training. The Communication Index was implemented to measure trainees' ability to use t he facilitative core conditions when responding to standard helpee stimuli. The Discrim ination Index was used to assess ability to discriminate between effective and non-effective communication. The trainees responded to a role-playing client to measure their ability to communicate in a real situation. The results indicate that the students who received training in com munication skills were able to communicate and discri m inate at significantly higher levels than the untrained students on both written and taped measures. Thus,

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23 according to Cherchia, communication skills training pro duces positive result& with secondary students. Speisman ( 1972) measured the effectiveness of teachers who used facilitative communication skills with secondary school ~tudents. To provide training in empathy, respect, concreteness, genuineness, confrontation and immediacy for their secondary students, the teachers followed Carkhuff's model after receiving training in the facilitative skills. Eight classes were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The experimental classes were taught the facilitative skills. Carkhuff's Index of Communication was used to deterraine the students' levels of facilitative com munication. The Tennessee Self-Concept Scale was used to measure student self-concepts. As a result of the trainin g the experimental classes were significantly hi g her in their level of facilitative communication than the control groups, but showed no significant difference in self-concept. A number of studies conducted at the junior high school level have explored the impact and effectiveness of peer-facilitators. One early example is the peer facil itator program developed in an inner-city school by Vriend ( 1969 ) U sing a stratified random sample of high per f orc ance eleventh-grade students as peer leaders, g roup coun seling sessions were conducted. The peer facilitators were told to support behaviors associated with achievement. Each randomly selected and assigned group met for three 40-minute sessions each week. During group acti v i t ies the

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24 students were provided with information about careers, edu cational planning, self-improvement, and self-evaluation. This study indicated a significant difference in the grade point averages of those students in the peer-led groups. Students in the peer-led groups showed significant improve ment in attendance and punctuality. The study indicated that short-term intervention is insufficient to maintain lasting positive results. Rustad (1974) developed a twelve week course that met three hours per week to teach counseling skills to high school juniors and seniors. The students, although not randomly selected, were randomly assigned to treatment con ditions. The curriculum consisted of learning to actively listen and empathically respond to the concerns of others through peer counseling. Practicum sessions consisted of role-playing, examination of counseling tapes and counseling with peers. Counseling skills achievement was measured by the Porter Communication Procedures Inventory. As a result of the intervention, the students improved significantly in their counseling skills, ego development, and moral judge ment. Schweisheimer and Walberg (1976) performed a peer counseling experiment with high school students as small group leaders. A stratified random sample of one hundred and twenty-two potential drop-outs (educable mentally handi capped, socially maladjusted, and regular mainstreamed

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25 students) were used in the study and were randomly assigned to treatment groups. The potential dropouts received counseling from peer counselors twice a week for ten weeks. The counseling was aimed at improving students' self concept, school learning performance, attendance, class room behavior patterns and attitudes. At t he end of the ten week period those students who had received counseling from peer counselors were significantly higher in decisive ness and attendance than those who had not received help from peer counselors. There were no differences in the other areas that were considered. Thus, the impact of peer counselors was modest in this situation. Examining the effects of a peer counseling program in an urban high school setting, Buck (1977) selected a strat ified random sample of twelve junior and senior high school students who were high in leadership ability and used them as counselors for students who were having dif f iculties. After nine weeks of counseling with the peer counselors, an analysis of a questionnaire completed by the referring teachers indicated that counselees were less aggressive, and also more effective in solving conflicts with peers and adults. Both counselors and counselees felt that they had gained in problem-solving ability and in communication skills as a result of the experience. Althou g h the author states that peer counseling is one technique for increasin g the effectiveness of psychological and counseling services within a school, th e re is little support for such a con clusion in her study.

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26 Emmert (1977) investigated the effectiveness of large group peer-helper training with preand early adolescents, to determine if such training would facilitate their abil ity to identify and communicate effective levels of accurate emphatic understanding. Fifty-eight randomly selected and assigned sixth and eighth graders were the subjects. The experimental group received peer-helper training for five weeks. To assess the levels of empathic understanding and communication, both experimental and control groups were administered the Scale to Assess Interpersonal Communica tion. The group of students who received peer-helper training had significantly higher empathy scores than the group who did not receive training. Thus, large group, developmental peer-training using high school students as co-trainers can be effective in facilitating middle school students' understanding and communication of empathy. Erney (1979) conducted an investigation to determine the effects of a peer facilitator-led group on middle school students in Alachua County, Florida. In this study, eighty students were randomly selected from the eighth grade. Fifty of the students received counseling from a peer or professional counselor while the other thirty served as a nontreatment control. The groups met for ten sessions (45 minutes each) over a six week period. At the end of that time, the different groups were compared on the fol lowing: moral reasoning, self-esteem, school attitude.

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27 The peer-led group had higher moral reasoning scores than the other groups, the only significant difference found. In an attempt to determine the effects of an empathy training program, Gouze (1975) trained adolescents to re spond to preschoolers. Adolescents from a high school psychology class received training in empathy skills and a practicum experience with preschoolers. The adolescents practiced active listening and empathic responding with the preschoolers during playschool time. Several scales were used to measure changes in the students' behavior: the Borke and Feshback Instrument f o r Measuring Empathy in Children, the Irwin Affective Tasks and the Indexes of Responding. The results indicate a sig nificant increase in empathic responding level of the pre schoolers and adolescents. Thus, secondary students cannot only learn to respond more empathically with preschoolers, but can teach preschoolers to respond more empathically. Summary Of t he fif t een studies examined, ten contained ran domly selected and/or assigned subjects; the remaining five used volunteers or naturally occurring units. Emotionally handicapped ~dolescents were not included as subjec t s in the studies. Scale scores were used to determine behavior change. Direct observation and measurement of behaviors were not incorporated. Four of the st u d i es provide pos it ive results, while the remaining eleven show either inconclusive evidence or mixed reactions to training ~n the facilitative skills.

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CHAPTER III METHODS AND PROCEDU R ES Researchers are investigating the benefits of using youth to facilitate the emotional growth of other youth. Prior to determining the viability of this approach with the emotionally handicapped, a number of questions need to be answered, one of which is examined in this study : what effect does "facilitative responding skills trainin g have on the behavior of emotionally handicapped adolescents? This chapter describes the subjects and setting of the study and outlines the experimental design. The research questions explored are delineated, and treatment and in dependent variables are presented. Subjects The population consisted of all seventh and ei g hth graders classified and enrolled in programs for the emo tionally handicapped at Lincoln M iddle School, Gainesville, Florida. From this population, a sample consisting of nine students was randomly selected. Three students were then randomly assigned to each of three i ntervention schedules. Demographic data for the subjects are presented in Table 2. Setting This study was condur,ted at Lincoln M iddle School i n Gainesville, Florida. The subjects had been placed in 28

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29 Table 2 Demographic Data for Subjects Subject Age Race Sex IQ (Full Scale WISC-Rl 15-1 Hispanic Male 103 2 14-3 Black M ale 97 3 12-2 White Female 101 4 13-0 Black Male 112 5 12-4 Black Male 97 6 12-11 Black Female 98 7 11-6 White Male 107 8 12-0 Hispanic M ale 92 9 14-9 White M ale 85

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30 resource rooms for the emotionally handicapped student. The pupil-teacher ratio in each class ranged from five to eight students per teacher. Instructional sessions were conducted in a small room apart from the classroom so that the subjects were not exposed to other students. The behavioral observations were made in the subjects' assigned special education classroom. The tape recorder used in the study was battery operated and located on a desk near the observer. Research Questions The following research questions were examined in this study: 1. What effect does training an emotionally handi capped adolescent in "open questioning" have on the rate of use of this skill in a peer group? 2. What effect does training in "clarifying and s~mmarizing" have on the frequency of use of this skill in a peer discussion group? 3. Does training in "reflecting and understanding f e elin g s" affect the rate o f use of this re sponding skill in a peer group situation? 4. Does training in three facilitative responding skills ~ave an effect on the frequency of selected interpersonal behavior exhibited by emotionally handicapped adolescents? 5. Does facilitative skills training affect t he fre quency with which students comply with class rules?

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31 Experimental Design A multiple-baseline across behaviors, single subject research design was used in this study. A number of authors have found this design to be appropriate when studying social or communication skills acquisition (Cuva, 1979; Hersen and Barlow, 1976; Hersen and Bellack, 1976; Strain and Shores, 1979). Since this study examined the effects of training emotionally handicapped adolescents in the three most facilitative responding skills according to the "model" presented by Wittmer and M yrick ( 1974), the in ductive approach of single subject research was appropriate. This method enables one to experiment and allows "theory" to emerge inductively rrom the data that accumulate ( Sidman, 1960). According to Kratochwill (1978), research should determine which specific inte~vention works in each indi vidual circumstance. When attempting to determine the most appropriate techniques to use with emotionally handicapped adolescents, it is necessary to validate individual responses to treatment. Single subject research design emphasizes repeated measurement under baseline and intervention con ditions so that the effect of the intervention can more readily be differentiated. Exploration of educational techniques should begin with single subject designs ( Borg and Gall, 1979 ) The present study incorporated a cumulative treatment approach. In this strategy, the experimental conditions

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32 are applied to each behavior in succession. As stability occurs in a particular baseline, the conditions are then applied to the next baseline. Although treatment is applied successively to the baselines, it continues to be applied to all previous baseline behaviors. Three students were randomly assi g ned to each of the different design schedules. There is some agreement that a minimum of three replications must be conducted to pro vide evidence of the intervention effect (H ersen and Barlow, 1976). Three replications for each procedure help to estab lish the reliability as well as the generalizability of the findings under different conditions ( Kratochwil!, 1978). The experi m ental schedules are presented in Fi g ures 1 through 3. Treatment Procedures The treatment schedules were presented i n six phases. The length of each phase depended upon the time required for the data to stabilize under the phase conditi o ns. An explanation of these phases and the experimental conditio n s is presented below. (The following abbreviati o ns are used to denote phase conditions: B 1 denotes baseline, B2 denotes interaction with the skills instructor wi t hout treatment, A1 denotes "open questioning" instruction, A2 denotes "clarifying and summarizing" instruction, A3 deno t es "reflecting and understanding feelings" instruction, B3 denotes follow-up sessions.)

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33 Figure 1 Treatment Schedule for Subjects Sl, S2 and S3 Sessions Sessions 1-3 4-6 Sessions 7-11 Sessions 12-16 Sessions 17-21 Sessions 22-24 Subjects: Sl, S2 and S3 Setting: Public School Resource Room B2 B1 A 1: B3 A3 A2 A1 -------------------------------------------A2: ------------------------------------------------A3: -----------------------------------------------------KEY: Data collected without treatment in effect Data collected with treatment in effect B1 denotes baseline B2 denotes interaction with skills instr~ctor Al denotes "open questioning" sessions A2 denotes "clarifying and summarizing" sessions A3 denotes "reflecting and understanding feelings'' sessions B3 denotes follow -up observations

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34 Figure 2 Treatment Schedule for Subjects S4, S5 and S6 Sessions Sessions Sessions 7-11 Sessions 12-16 Sessions Sessions 1-3 4-6 17-21 22-24 Subjects: S4, S5 and S6 Setting: Public School Resource Room B2 B1 A 1: B3 Al A3 A2 ----------------------------------------------------A2: -------------------------------------------A3: ------------------------------------------------KEY: Data collected without treatment in effect Data collected with treatment in effect B1 denotes baseline B2 denotes interaction with skills instructor Al denotes "open questior.ing" sessions A2 denotes "clarifying and summarizing" sessions A3 denotes "reflecting and understanding feelin g s" BJ denotes follow-up observations sessions

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35 Figure 3 Treatment Schedule for Subjects S7, S8 and S9 Sessions Sessions 1-3 4-6 Sessions 7-11 Sessions 12-16 Sessions 17-21 Sessions 22-24 Subjects: S7, S8 and S9 Setting: Public School Resource Room B2 Bl A 1: B3 A2 Al A3 ------------------------------------------------A2: -----------------------------------------------------A3: -------------------------------------------KEY: Data collected without treatment in effect Data collected with treatment in effect Bl denotes baseline B2 denotes interaction with skills instructor Al denotes "open questioning" sessions A2 denotes "clarifying and summa~izing" sessions A3 denotes "reflecting and understanding feelin g s" sessions B3 denotes f ollow-up sessions

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36 Treatment Phases Phase 1. Prior to the initiation of the phase 1 base line observations, the observer spent five days in the resource rooms. During these five days, the observer noted classroom procedures and management systems so that the principal investigator's management policies would be con sistent with t hose of the resource room teachers. The sub jects were accustomed to university practicum student observing; thus the distraction appeared to be minimal. The selected students were observed during daily twenty minute peer g roup discussions. Baseline data (Bl ) were recorded for the three facilitative skills ( see schedule below). These data were allowed to stabilize for the three skills before the second phase began. Stability was deter mined when the researcher was able to predict the range within which the next data point fell ( Baily and Bostow, 1979 ) This range was determined by first establishing the celera tion line for the data points and then calculating the up and down bounce around the celeration line ( Parsonson and Baer, 1978). Baseline data were collected and recorded on the fre quency with which each subject performed several selected interpersonal behaviors. T his information was collected during a forty-five minute period in the emotionally handi capped resource room. It was not necessary for this behavior to stabilize prior to phase change since no direct i nter vention was applied to the behavior

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37 Fr0m the data collected, the principal investigator and the resource room teacher determined which behavior would be selected for continued observation and data col lection. One interpersonal behavior was selected for each subject. Along with the selection of the behavior, the teacher established criterion for "meaningful" change by specifying the frequency level to be obtained by each subject. The resource room teachers collected data on the fre quency with which the subjects complied with class rules while not in the resource room. These data were obtained daily. The students took a behavior rating sheet to all of their classes. Each teacher was to assign a rating of from 1 to 4 for the student's behavior during the period and initial the form. These forms were collected daily when the students entered the resource room. Subjects: 1reatment: S1 Bl S2 S3 S4 S5 Bl Bl Bl Bl S6 S7 S8 S9 81 Bl Bl Bl Phase 2. During this phase, the principal investi gator met with each subject for fifteen minutes daily. No instruction was given; rather, rapport was established with the subjects ( B2 ) : see schedule below. To determine pro ficiency levels in facilitative skills usage, the students were asked to respond to statements presented by the investi gator (se e page 40). The content of the statements depended upon the investigator-subject conversations. The data col lecti o n ini ti ated in phase 1 was continued until stability was determined for the facilitative s kills Su b jects : Sl S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S 7 S8 39 Treatment: 82 B2 82 82 32 52 82 32 B2

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38 Phase 3. Each student received instruction in one of the facilitative responding skills according to the assigned schedule ( see below ) The treatment sessions were fifteen minutes long. These sessions were conducted by the principal investigator and were continued until the skills usage stabilized. Data on the five dependent variables were collected. Subjects: Treatment: Sl S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 SS S9 A 1 A 1 A 1 A2 A2 A2 A3 A3 A3 Phase 4. During this phase, the treatment conditions initiated in phase three were continued. In addition, in struction in a second facilitative skill was provided according to treatment schedules ( see below ) Individual sessions were held for fifteen minutes daily by the principal investigator until the skills usage stabilized. Subjects: Treatment: S 1 S2 S3 Al A1 Al A2 A2 A2 S4 S5 A2 A2 A3 A3 S6 S7 SS S9 A2 A3 A3 A3 A3 A1 Al Al Phase 5. Treatment applied to the first two skills was continued during this phase. In addition, instruction was initiated with the third skill (see below). Treatment c on tinued until usage of the three skills stabilized. ~ubjects: S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 ss S9 Treatment: Al Al Al A2 A2 A2 A3 A3 A3 A2 A2 A2 A3 A3 AJ A 1 A1 A l A3 A3 A3 Al A1 A 1 A2 A2 A2 Phase 6. All treatment was terminated. Follow-up o bservations ( see below) were made in the resource room during three different sessions. Subjects: 'treatment: Sl S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 SS 39 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 8 3 83

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39 Experimental Conditions This study was implemented by the principal investi gator. The experimental conditions consisted of treatmentinstruction in the three facilitative responding skillsand the control for "Hawthorne effect"--interaction with the principal investigator without instruction. These condi tions are explained below. Treatment. The principal investigator instructed the subjects in a one-to-one situation in the three facilitative responding skills--"open questioning," "clarifying and sum marizing" and "reflecting and understanding feelings." Instruction consisted of description, role play and feedback. This training sequence has been determined effective by several single subject research studies ( Bornstein, Bellack and Hersen, 1977; Cooke and Apolloni, 1976; Hersen and Bellack, 1976 ) The facilitative responding skills were described according to the definitions and examples presented by Wittmer and Myrick ( 1974 ) ( see Appendix A). This infor mation was presented orally to the subjects by the principal investigator. Each subject was encouraged to ask questions whenever he did not understand the skills descriptions. These sessions lasted fifteen minutes each. To determine the subjects' understanding of the skills and their ability to use them in social interactions, role playing was incorporated. To role play, the principal in vestigator made statements to which the subjects were

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40 directed to respond by using the facilitative responding skill being emphasized. An audio tape recorder was used to record subject response during role play. After each re sponse, the subject was told whether or not his response was correct, and was immediately allowed to listen to his taped response. When the response was incorrect, the subject listened to his response, then repeated the role play situ ation until a correct response was obtained. Once a correct response was emitted, the subject was given five additional statements to respond to with the appropriate facilitative skill. These five situations were used to determine the subject's proficiency in the use of each skill. Control for "Hawthorne Effect". Following the stabil ity of the baseline measurements, a "Hawthorne effect" con trol phase was initiated. The students met with the principal investigator, but did not receive instruction in the use of the facilitative skills. During this time, rapport was established with the students. These sessions consisted of getting to know the student and discussing areas of interest with them. The "Hawthorne effect" ses sions continued until stability was determined for the three facilitative skills ( see page 36). Data Collection Dependent Variables The dependent variables observed in this study were 1) "open questioning," 2 ) "clarifying and summarizing," 3 ) "reflecting and understandin g feelings," 4 ) performing a

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41 specific interpersonal behavior, and 5 ) complying with class rules. Data on the frequencies of each of these behaviors were collected and recorded during the six phases of the study. Each of the dependent variables are examined here. ~ Q uestioning. This consists of asking a question that specifies the general area of interest but lets the specific content of th e answer be decided upon by the person answering the question. This type of question allows the individual answering to develop his answer in whatever length or detail he desires. It seeks a wide range of thoughts and feelings. Open questions can be desi g ned to "solicit addi tional information, provoke further discussion, or to query an individual regarding a particular matter" ( Wittmer and Myrick, 1974, p. 63). On the other hand, a closed question permits only short answers such as "yes" o r "no," or answers that are limited to a few words. A closed question ay limit the choice of responses or simply seek a few facts. Some comparisons of open to closed questions follow: 1. "What kind of things happened to you today?~ ( open) "How was your day?" ( closed) 2. "What are your reactions to the new class schedule?" ( open ) "Why don't you like th e new schedule?" ( closed ) 3. "How do you feel about takin g the test?" ( open ) "Are you worried about taking the test? ( closed )

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42 4. "What do you think about school?" ( open) "You don't like school, do you?" (closed) 5. "What did you do at recess?" ( op en) "You caused a fight at recess, didn't you?" ( closed) Summarizing and Cla rifying. These are attempts to iden tify or understand what a pe rso n has said. A listener tells a speaker what he thinks the speaker has said so that the speaker can either confirm or deny the impression. Alis tener in his own words repeats to a speaker the message he received in order to determine its accuracy. These state ments usually put what the speaker has said in new or sim plified terms. The listener focuses attention on the con tent of the discussion. In an attempt to identify the most significant ideas ( content) emerging in a conversation and to evaluate what one has heard for correctness and clarification of content, the listener will either pa raphrase the message or use new words to simplify what has been heard. The following are typical examples: 1. "If I hear you correctly, you are telling me that ... 2. "You seem to be saying that ... J. "In other words, you are t ryin g to ... 4. "What I hear you saying is ... 5. "From what you have been saying, I've heard three things. First, ... Sec end .. Third ...

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43 6. "Correct me if I'm wrong, but you're saying that ... 7. "From what you have said, it seems that ... 8. "In other words, you are trying to ... Reflecting and Understanding Feelings. This is a response that conveys that the listener is aware of how the speaker is feeling. The listener attempts to identify what the speaker is feeling so that the speaker can check for accuracy. Examples of such statements include the fol lowing: 1. "You're feeling angry, Bill." 2. "You're tired." 3. "You're confused right now." 4. "You look a little worried." 5. "You're feeling sad." 6. "Sounds like that m ade you really happy." 7, "You're confused and hurt abo ut what happened?" 8. "You look really pleased with you r art work." The following a re examples of "feeling words" th at are u sed to describe a listener's perception of the speaker's emotional s tat e: angry, hurt, sad, scared, happy, relieved, concerned, excited, pleased. Appendix B contains an ex tended list of ple asant and unpleasant "feeling words." Specific Interpersonal Behavior. This consists of that interpersonal behavior which w as identified by the sub je cts' special education teacher as disturbing and in need o f i nt ervention ( see Figure 4 ) 7h e behavior was determined

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44 to be inappropriate and undesirable in an educational setting. It also prevented the student from working effectively with other students. Rules Comoliance. Since the subjects were with as many as six different teachers during the day, data on the frequency with which the subjects complied with the class room rules of those teachers were collected. The rules were similar for all teachers and were as follows: 1. Be on time. 2. Bring pencil and paper to class. 3. Raise hand for teacher's help. 4. Respect others' property. 5. Be polite to others. 6. Complete daily assignments. Observers Data on the subjects' facilitative skills usage and interpersonal behaviors were collected by a teacher of the emotionally handicapped. This teacher received training in the facilitative responding skills as part of his gradu ate program. During pre-experimental training sessions, this teacher received instruction in (1) the operational definitions of the selected interpersonal behaviors, ( 2 ) accurate observations of the interpersonal behaviors, ( 3) facility with the recording forms, and ( 4 ) classroom ob server etiquette. The observer collected and recorded facilitative skills usage frequency data while the subject participated

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Subject 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 45 Figure 4 Selected Interpersonal Behaviors Behavior M aking faces at other students. Threatening other students verbally. Sticking tongue out at other students. Teasing other students verbally. Teasing other students by laughing at them. N ame-calling. Swearing at other students. Putting hands in front of the faces of other students. N ame-calling.

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46 in a twenty-minute peer group discussion. Tally marks were recorded on the "Group Discussion: Skill Use" form (see Appendix Cl each time the facilitative responses occurred. In addition, tallies were recorded each time the subject spoke during the group disucssion; these were labeled "opportunities" to use the skills. At the end of the day, the frequencies were tabulated and transferred to graphs for analysis. The number of peer group dis cussions observed depended upon the number of sessions required for the behaviors to stabilize during each phase of the study. The selected interpersonal behavi o r data were collected by the observer during a forty-five minute period while the subject was in a resource room for the emotionally handicapped. Each time the specified behavior occurred, a tally was marked on the "Behavioral Observations Form" (see Appendix D). These tallies were totaled daily and transferred to the appropriate graph. Skill proficiency data were collected daily by the principal investigator during the instructional sessions. Each subject was asked to use a specific skill in his re sponses to five statements presented by the investigator. The answers were tape recorded and determined to be either correct or incorrect (see Appendix E). A correct response received one (1) point while an incorrect response received no (0) points. A percentage of correct responses was determined by dividing the number of correct responses by the total number of solicited responses (5 )

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4 7 Data concerning student compliance to classroom rules were collected daily during the periods in which the sub jects attended their classes. The subjects submitted their rated and initialed "Daily Report" forms (see Appendix Fl to the teacher. This information was transferred to the "Daily Report Data Form" ( see Appendix G). A total of twelve data points were recorded daily for each subject. The observer collected data on five vari ables: 1) frequency of "open questionin g ," 21 frequency of "clarifying and summarizing," 3 ) frequency of "reflecti ng and understanding feelings," 4) frequency of opportunity, and 5 1 frequency of selected interpers o nal behavior. Three skill proficiency data points and four rules compliance data points were collected by the principal investi g a t or. In order to conduct a check for inter-observer agree ment, a special education doctoral student served as a separate observer. This observer made four different observations of skill proficiency and the five dependent variables. The skill proficiency check was conducted through the use of the f o rm presented in F i gu re 5. To determine observer agreement on the r a te of skill use during peer group discussions, Fi g ure 6 was used. A g reement was checked on frequency of selected interpersonal behavior through the use of the form in Fi gu re 7 Inter-observer agreement was determined by the "exact agreement method" ( Repp, Deitz, Boles, Deitz and Repp, 1976). An agreement was defined as: 1 ) a duplicated "c"

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48 Figure 5 Observer Agreement Check Skill Proficiency Student ___________ Observer __________ Date _____________ "open questioning" "clarifying and summarizing" "reflecting and understanding feelings" C i C i C i C i C i C i C i C i C i C i C i C i C i C i C i Total Directions: Place a mark through "c" if the r~sponse is correct and through "i" if the response is incorrect. Record the totals for each row.

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49 Figure 6 Observer Agreement Check Skill Usage Student ___________ Date -------------"open questioning" "clarifying and summarizing" "reflecting and under standing feelings" opportunity Observer ----------Directions: Record the time when each behavior occurs.

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50 Figure 7 Observer Agreement Check Behavioral Observations Student ___________ Observer __________ Date _____________ Behavior: ____________________________ Time: Directions: Record the time when each behavior occurs.

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51 or "i" marking for skill proficiency, 21 a duplicated time recorded for the occurrence of the skills, and 3) a dupli cated time recorded for the occurrence of the selected interpersonal behavior. Inter-observer agreement was determined by dividing the number of duplicated recordings by the total number of recordings in each session. Three sessions with eighty percent agreement was set as a minimum requirement for satisfactory inter-observer agreement. Data Analysis Tally marks were used to record the three facilita tive responding skills, opportunity, and selected inter personal behavior data. These were tabulated into numerical frequencies for each observational session by counting the number of tallies for the behaviors emitted. Tabulated data points were transferred to equal interval graphs. Skill proficiency was determined by the number of correct responses given when the subject was directed to use a specific skill. This number was divided by the total number of responses solicited. The percent accuracy score was tabulated and recorded daily. In order to collect rules compliance information, a system which assigned numerical values for each of the six periods of the day was established. The values ranged from "1" to "4". A value of "1" was assigned if no rules were broken; "2" was assigned if one rule was broken; "3" was assigned if rules were broken twice; and "4" was assigned if rules were broken three times. At the end of

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52 each day, frequencies of assigned numerical values were determined anct recorded. Four measures were used to analyze the data obtained in this study: mean, percent, range and standard devia tion. M eans were used to describe the number of times the behaviors occurred during different phases. Percentages were used to describe the amount of change across phases. Range and standard deviation were used to reflect varia bility. Summary of Experimental Procedures The following were the experimental procedures used in this study: 1. Permission to carry out the study was obtained from the "Human Subjects Committee" at the Uni versity of Florida. 2. Permission to do the research was obtai n ed from the Alachua County education office and Lincoln M iddle School. 3. A list of all seventh and eighth grade e m otion ally handicapped students enrolled at Lincoln M iddle School was obtained. 4. A list of random numbers was used to select nine students to participate in t he study. 5. The nine students accepted for the study were observed for baseline on the three behaviors, and "meaningful change'' criteria were established.

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53 6. The nine subjects met individually with the in structor of the facilitative responding skills for the "Hawthorne effect" control phase. 7. Instruction was given to the nine subjects according to the experimental schedules and the treatment components as outlined in Appendix A: al Subjects 1, 2 and 3 received skills training in the facilitative responding skills in the following order: "open questions," "sum m arizing and clarifying," "reflecting and understanding of feelings." b ) Subjects 4, 5 and 6 received skills training in the following order: "Summarizing and clarifying," "open questions," "reflecti ng and understanding of feelings." cl Subjects 7, 8 and 9 received skills training in the following order: "reflecting and understanding of feelings," "summarizing and clarifying," "open questions." 8 N either the teacher no r observer was told the schedules of skills ins truction that were followed. 9. The instruction was given by a special education doctoral student with five years experience working with facilitative responding skills. 10. A teacher of the emotionally handicapped with three years experience served as the observer. This tea cher received t raining in the facili t ative re sponding skills as part of his g racuate program.

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54 11. On four different occasions, separate observations were made on each of the dependent variables by another graduate student in special education so that inter-observer agreement could be established. This was determined by the percent agreement method. 12. The observations for the three facilitative re sponding skills was done during a twenty-minute peer discussion group. 13. The observations for the specified interpersonal behaviors were done during a forty-five minute period while the students were in their special education classes. 14. The data from the observations were recorded on the forms presented in Appendices C, D, E, F and G. 15. The data were transferred from the respective forms to graphs so that the results would be more readily available for visual inspection. 16. Each of the phases was continued until stability occu rred as determined by the p rocess mentioned earlier. 17. Follow-up observations took place at intervals of 2, 4, and 6 days after the termination of training.

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CHAPTER IV RESULTS This study examined the effects of training emotion ally handicapped adolescents in three facilitative responding skills. Nine students were randomly selected and assigned to the three treatment schedules (see Chapter III). fre quency data were collected for the following: skills usage and opportunity, interpersonal behavior, and rules compliance. Percentages were used to record proficiency levels. The data for each subject were collected during the phases of the single-subject, multiple baseline design: 1) baseline, 2) Hawthorne effect, 3) treatment applied to first skill, 4) treatment applied to second skill, 5) treatment applied to third skill, and 6) follow-up. The raw data are in cluded in Appendix H, and graphic presentations of the data are presented in Appendices I, J and K. four basic measures were used for analysis of the data obtained in this study: mean, percent, range, and standard deviation. Inter-Observer Agreement Inter-observer agreement was determined by the "exact agreement" method ( Repp, Deitz, Boles, Deitz and Repp, 1976) described in the previous chapter. The results of the observer agreement checks are presented in Tables J, 55

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56 4 and 5 ( Chapter III presents an explanation of the forms used to collect the data.). In all inter-observer situ ations, the minimum requirement of 80 percent agreement was met. Analysis of Data Raw Score Totals The raw scores for 1) skill proficiency, usage, and opportunity, 2) selected interpersonal behavior, and 3) rules compliance for each subject are presented in Appen dix H. These charts contain the proficiency levels for the three facilitative skills in terms of percent of cor rect responses. Skill usage and selected interpresonal behavior are presented as frequencies. Rules compliance data are presented as rating frequencies. Graphic Presentation of Data To allow for visual inspection of the data, graphic presentations of the raw scores are presented i n Appendices I, J and K. These graphs show the effects of the appli cation of the treatment to the different skills during the various phases of the study. In addition, the oppor tunity data are presented in Appendix J. The length of each phase was determined by t he num ber of sessions required for skill usage to stabilize. Stability was ascertained by the following procedure: 1. The celeration line for the skill usage data points was drawn by connecting t he midpoints of the distances between the first two and l ast two jata

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Table 3 Inter-Observer Agreement: Proficiency Level ession 9:A g re e ession 11 :Agree ession ession 18: g reeV a ri a ble bserver ub ect 4 m e nt ub ect 1 ment ub e c t ub ect 9 ent ;open 1 cc c cc 66666 ccccc 66666 qu es tionin g 2 ccccc 100 % 66666 100 % ccccc 100% 66666 100% "clarifying & 1 66666 ccccc 66666 66666 summarizin g : 2 66666 100% ccccc 100% 66666 100% 66666 100% "reflecting & 1 ccccc ccccc 66666 66666 und e rstanding 2 ccccc 100% ccccc 100% 66666 100% 66666 100% feelings" V1 -.J

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Ta bl e 4 I nte r -Obser v e r Agreement: Ski ll U sage Session 3: Sess i on 11 Se s s i on 14 : Session 1 7 : Subject 9 Sub j e ct 1 S u bject 8 Subject 5 V ariab l e O b ser v e r Time A s;reement Time A s;reemen t Time As; r eement Time A s;reement "open None 1 2: 1 4 2:31 1: 4 5 question i ng" 1 2: 17 2:36 1 : 52 2: 3 9 1 :56 2:48 2 None 12: 14 2: 3 1 1 : 4 5 1 2 : 1 7 2 : 36 1 : 5 2 2: 3 9 1: 56 2: 4 8 1 0 0% 100 % 100 % 1 0 0% \J'1 o:> ,; cla r if y ing & None None None 1: 50 summarizing 1: 58 2:0 1 2 None None None 1 : 50 1: 58 2:0 1 1 00% 10 0% 100% 100% reflecting & None None 2 :44 1: 47 u nderstanding 2 : 02 fee l ings 2 None None 2 : 44 1 : 4 7 2:02 1 00% 100% 10 0% 1 00%

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Table 4 Extended Opportunity 12:00 12:00 12: 16 2:31 1:40 1: 52 12:00 12: 01 12: 16 2: 31 1: 4 1 1: 53 12:03 12: 01 12: 17 2:32 1: 41 1: 53 12:04 12:01 12: 17 2:33 1: 43 1: 54 12:05 12:02 12: 18 2:33 1:43 1: 55 12 : 06 12:02 12: 18 2:34 1: 43 1: 56 12:08 12:04 12: 18 2:34 1: 45 1: 56 12:08 12:04 12: 18 2:35 1: 46 1: 56 12: 13 12:05 12: 18 2:36 1: 47 1: 57 12: 17 12:06 12: 19 2:38 1: 47 1: 58 12:20 12:06 12: 19 2:39 1: 48 2:00 12:06 12:20 2:41 1: 50 2:01 12:07 12:21 2:43 1: 50 2:02 12:08 12:21 2:44 1: 50 12: 10 12:22 2:48 12: 10 12:22 2:48 12: 11 U1 12: 14 \D 2 12:00 12:00 12: 14 2: 31 1: 40 1: 52 12:00 1 2:01 12: 16 2:31 1: 41 1: 53 12:03 12:01 12: 16 2:32 1 : 4 1 1: 53 12:04 12:01 12: 17 2:33 1: 43 1:54 12:05 12:02 12: 17 2:33 1: 43 1: 55 12:06 12:02 12: 18 2:34 1: 43 1: 56 12:08 12:04 12: 18 2:34 1: 45 1: 56 12:08 12:04 12: 18 2:35 1: 46 1:57 12: 13 12:05 12: 18 2:36 1: 4 7 1: 58 12: 17 12:06 12: 19 2:38 1: 47 2:00 12:20 12:06 12: 19 2:41 1: 48 2:01 12:06 12:20 2:43 1: 50 2:02 12:07 12:21 2 44 1: 50 12:08 12:21 2 48 1: 50 12: 10 12:22 2 48 12: 10 12:22 100 % 12: 11 100% 93.3% 100%

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'!'able 5 Inter-Observer A greement : Se lected Interpersonal Behavior Session 3: Session 6: Session 12: Session 17: Subject 7 Subject 6 Subject 8 Subject 3 Observer Time Agreement Time A~reement Time Agreement Time Agreement 3 2:05 2 : 16 1: 18 1: 35 2:04 2: 15 11:37 11:53 2:05 2:20 1: 18 1: 35 2:04 2:23 11:38 11 :59 2:06 2:20 1: 18 1: 39 2:05 2:23 11:38 11:59 2:06 2:20 1: 19 1: 48 2:05 2:23 11: 40 12:00 2: 10 2:35 1: 27 1: 53 2:05 2:28 11 : 4 1 12: 13 2: 13 2:47 1: 27 2:01 2:06 2:34 11 : 4 1 12: 16 2: 16 2:47 1: 34 2:02 2:06 2:34 11: 47 12: 16 2: 16 1: 34 2:02 2:07 2:46 11: 48 12: 18 1: 34 2: 15 11: 48 12:21 11: 48 0\ 2 2:05 2?16 1: 18 1: 35 2:04 2: 15 11: 37 11:53 0 2:05 2:20 1: 18 1: 39 2:04 2:23 11:38 11:59 2:06 2:20 1: 18 1: 39 2:05 2:23 11: 38 11:59 2:06 2:20 1: 19 1:48 2:05 2:23 11: 40 12:00 2: 10 2:35 1: 27 1: 53 2:05 2:28 11 : 4 1 12: 13 2: 13 2:47 1: 27 1: 53 2:06 2:34 11 : 41 12: 16 2: 16 2: ,,7 1: 34 2:01 2:06 2 :34 11: 47 12: 16 2: 16 1: 34 2:02 2:07 2:46 11 48 12: 18 1: 34 2:02 2: 15 1 1 48 12:21 1: 35 11 48 100% 94.7% 100% 100%

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61 points recorded for the phase ( six-cycle graphs were used'. 2. The celeration line was extended to the right to project future usage frequency. 3. The bounce ( variability) of the data around the celeration line was determined. The "down bounce" was determined by drawing a line parallel to the celeration line and passing it through the data point farthest below the celeration line. The "up bounce" was determined by drawing a line parallel to the celeration line and passing it through the data point farthest above the celeration llne. 4. The bounce lines were extended to the ri ght to pro vide a projection of the range within which the skill u sage was expected to fall during a spe cific session. This frequenc y envelope enabled the principal investigator to de t ermine whether a change in the variability and direction of the behavior had o ccurred ( Pennypacker et al., 1972). figure 8 provides an example of a projected celeration line and variability envelope. Skill usage stability was calculated by the procedure described above for the phases in which the subjects were introduced to the different skills. Phases one and two were each three sessions long since skill usage levels were non-variable. All subjects, except subject three, required five sessions for stability

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7 0 4 8 62 12 16 20 Figure 8 Subject 1: Skill 3 Projected Celeration Line and Variability Envelope 24

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63 during phases three, four and five. Subject three required six sessions during phase three and four sessions during phase four. Proficiency Analysis Tables 6, 7 and 8 indicate the subjects' ~ean prc ficiency levels for each of the skills during the treat ment phases. Proficiency levels were not determined during the first baseline since the observer did not interact with the subjects; rather, the collection of this data was initiated in phase 2 and continued through phase six. A proficiency mean was determined by summing the correct response percentages for each phase and dividing the totals by the number of sessions in the phase. Tables 6, 7 and 8 present a tabulation of the means for the sessions in which the skills were introduced. Table 6 reflects that "open questioning" proficiency levels varied slightly for the three treatment schedules during the introductory phase. These ranged from a low of 84 percent to a high of 88 percent. During the phase immediately following the introductory phase, all subjects reached a mean proficiency level of 100 percent. This level was maintained throughout the remainder of the study. Table 7 contains "clarifying and summarizing" pro ficiency levels data for each of the subjects. These means were determined in the same manner as those for Table 6 The introductory phase data indicate that the mean proficiency levals ranged frc~ 94.6 percent to 100

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64 Table 6 Mean Proficiency Levels for "Open Questioning" Subject Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5 Phase 6 Schedule I 1 0 92.0% 2 0 70.0% 3 0 93.3% Mean 85.1% Range 23. 3% S D 13. 1% Schedule II 4 0 0 0 92.0 % 5 0 0 0 88.0% 6 0 0 0 84.0% Mean 88.0% Range 8.0% S D 4. 0 0 Schedule III 7 0 0 88.0% 8 0 0 76.0% 9 0 0 88.0% Mean 84.0% Range 12.0% S D 6.9 % Mean of M eans 85.7% Range of M eans 4.0% SD of M eans 2. 1% denotes 100%

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65 percent. All subsequent phases were consistent at the 100 percent proficiency level across the different schedules. Table 8 presents "reflecting and understanding of feelings" proficiency levels data. These figures were calculated in the same manner as those of Tables 6 and 7, The introductory phase schedule means ranged from 97,3 percent to 100 percent. All subjects, except subject eight, maintained a 100 percent proficiency level fol lowing the introductory phase. Subject eight was 96 per cent proficient in the skill during the phase immediately following the introductory phase, and maintained a level of 100 percent proficiency for the last two phases. Analysis of Data for Each Research Question An analysis of the data relati n g to the following re search questions is presented in this section: 1. What effect does training an emotionally handi capped adolescent in "open questioning" have on the rate of use of this skill in a peer group? 2. What effect does training in "clarifying and sum marizing" have on the frequency of use of this skill in a peer discussion group? 3. Does training in "reflecting and understanding of feelings" affect the rate of use of th i s responding skill in a peer group situation? 4. Does training in three facilitative responding skills have an affect on the frequency

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6 6 T able 7 P r o fic iency L e v e l s fo r Cla r ifyi n g and Summariz i ng" Subje c t Ph a se 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Ph a se 5 Phas e 6 Schedule I 1 0 0 100 % 2 0 0 100 % 3 0 0 95 % M e an 9 8 3% R a nge 5.0 % S D 2 9% Sc he d ul e II 4 0 100% 5 0 92% 6 0 92 % M ea n 9 4. 6% Ran g e 8 0 % S D 4.6% Schedu l e I II 7 0 0 0 100% 8 0 0 0 100 % 9 0 0 0 100 % M ea n 100 % Range 0 % S D 0 % Me a n of M eans 97 .6 % Ran g e of M eans 5.4 SD of M eans 2 8 % denotes 100 %

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67 Table 8 Proficiency Levels for "Reflecti ng and Understanding Feelings" Subject Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5 Phase 6 Schedule I 1 0 0 0 100% 2 0 0 0 100% 3 0 0 0 100 % Mean 100% Range 10 0% S D 100% Schedule II 4 0 0 100% 5 0 0 100% 6 0 0 92% Mean 97.3% Range 8.0% S D 4.6% Sch edu le III 7 0 1 00% 8 0 96% 96% 9 0 96% Mean 97,3% Range 4 .0 % S D 2.3 % M ean o f Me ans 98 .2 % Range of Mean s 2 7% SD of Me ans 1.6% denotes 100%

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68 of selected interpersonal behavior exhibited by emotionally handicapped adolescents? 5. Does facilitative skills training affect the fre quency with which students comply with class rules? Question 1: Frequency of "Coen Q uestioning" Usage. Each subject's mean usage levels of "open questioning" are presented in Table 9. Subject three maintained the lowest mean usage level ( 1.8 "open questions" per session ) during phase 5. Usage levels ranged from a mean of .8 to 4.8 for each twenty-minute peer discussion group. An examination of the different treatment schedules during the follow-up phases reveals that the usage levels ranged from 1.9 to 3.8 per session. This produces an over all mean of 2.7 for the treatment schedules with a range in means of 1.9. The data from the follow-up phases was used for comparison since long-term change is the most crucial. Question 2: Frequency of "Clarifying and Summarizing" Usage. An examination of Table 10 indicates that the "clar ifying and summarizing" mean usage levels range from subject one's low of 1.0 ( per session ) during phase four, to subject four's high of 5.6 ( per session) during phases three and four. All students used the skill at variable rates. A review of treatment schedule means for phase 6 ( follow-up ) was completed ( see Question 1 ) This review indicates that the schedule means ranged from a low of 3. 1 ( per session ) for the third schedule ( subjects 7 8 and 9 ) to a high of 3.5 ( per session) for the first schedule

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69 Table 9 Mean Frequencies of "Open Questioning" Usage Subject Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5 Phase 6 Schedule I 1 0 0 1. 6 ,. 6 2.0 2.0 2 0 0 3.0 2.8 2.2 2.3 3 0 0 1 .2 1.0 0.8 1.3 Mean 1.9 Range 1.0 S D 0.5 Schedule II 4 0 0 0 0 2.2 2.3 5 0 0 0 0 3.4 3.3 6 0 0 C 0 1.4 1.7 Mean 2.4 Range 1.6 s D 0.8 Schedule III 7 0 0 0 3.2 3.8 3.3 8 0 0 0 4.6 4.8 4.7 9 0 0 0 3.8 3.8 3.3 Mean 3.8 Range 1.4 S D 0.8 Mean of Means 2.7 Range of Means 1.9 s D of Means 1.0

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70 ( subjects 1, 2 and 3). The overall mean for the three treatment groups was 3.3. Question 3: Frequency of "Reflecting and Understanding Feelings" Usage. A review of the mean frequencies for "re flecting and understanding feelings" usage is presented in Table 11. This ta ble presents each subject's phase means and provides the treatment schedule means for phase six (as explained in questions 1 and 2). The mean, range and stan dard deviation of the treatment schedule means is included. The data reflect that subject one had the lowest mean frequency (0 per session) during phase six. This subject did not use the skill during the follow -up phase. Subject seven attained the highest mean usage frequency ( 2.5 per session) during phase five. The mean frequencies varied across treatment schedule. Schedule one ( subjects 1, 2 and 3) had the lowest t reat ment mean ( .9 per session). Schedule two had the hi ghe s~ mean ( 1.3 per session). The m ean of the treatment sched ule means was 1.1 per session. Question 4: Frequency of "Selec ted Interpersonal Behavior" Exhibited. In order to determine which specific interpersonal behavior would be observed for each subject, baseline data for several behaviors were collected. An interpersonal behavior for each subject was selected from these data ( see Chapter III ) The resource room t eacher determined that a 10 percent decrease after baseline would constitute "meaningful" behavior chan ge This criterion

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71 T able 1 0 M ean F requenci e s of C lar j_ fy ing a nd Su m mariz in g" Usa ge S ubje ct P hase 1 Ph ase 2 P hase 3 P h a s e 4 P h ase 5 Phase 6 S ch edul e I 1 0 0 0 1 0 1. 2 1. 7 2 0 0 0 4.6 4.4 4 .3 3 0 0 0 3. 0 3 .5 3 .0 M ean 3 .5 R a ng e 2.6 S D 1 0 Sch edu le II 4 0 0 5 6 5 6 4.2 4 3 5 0 0 4 4 4.2 4.0 4.0 6 0 0 2 .8 2.4 2. 4 2 0 M ean 3.4 Ra nge 2. 3 s D 1.3 S c h edule III 7 0 0 0 0 2.3 2. 0 8 0 0 0 0 3 6 3.3 9 0 0 0 0 3.8 4 0 M e a n 3. 1 R a ng e 2. 0 S D 1.0 M ea n of M ea n s 3 3 R a nge of M eans 0.4 SD o f M e ans 0 2

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7 2 Table 11 M ea n F re quencies of "Refl e ct i ng an d Und ers t a nding Fee l ings" Subject Phase 1 Ph a se 2 P ha se 3 Ph as e 4 Phase 5 Ph as e 6 Schedu l e I 1 0 0 0 0 0.6 o.o 2 0 0 0 0 1.8 2.0 3 0 0 0 0 0.6 0.7 Mean 0.9 Range 1.3 S D 1.0 Schedule II 4 0 0 0 1. 6 1.8 1.6 5 0 0 0 1. 6 1.4 1. 3 6 0 0 0 1 0 0.8 1.0 Mean 1. 3 Range 0 6 S D 0.3 Schedul e III 7 0 0 2.4 2 0 2 5 1.7 8 0 0 1.0 1 .0 0.6 0.7 9 0 0 1 6 1.4 1.8 1.0 M e an 1. 1 Range 1 o S D 0 9 M e an of M e ans 1. 1 Range of M eans .4 SD of M e a ns 0 2

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73 was based upon the expected duration of the treatment (fif teen to twenty sessions)--a period which is approximately 10 percent of the annual school days. For the identified interpersonal behavior, the 10 percent reduction was in terms of the frequency with which the behavior occurred. Table 12 contains the mean frequencies with which the selected interpersonal behaviors occurred (see Appendix H for behavior descriptions). All subjects showed a re duction in the frequency with which the selected behaviors occurred. The reductions from phase one to phase six ranged from a low of 28 percent for subject six to a high of 74.5 for subject four. Thus, all subjects met the 10 percent desired behavior change criterion established after phase one baseline. An examination across schedules indicates that the treatment schedules ranged from a low mean of -49.2 percent to a high mean of -57.8 percent. The mean of the schedule means was -52.8 percent. All subjects and schedule groups reflect a reduction in the identified behaviors beyond the 10 percent minimum reduction required for "meaningful" behavior chan g e. Ques t ion 5: M ean Rules Co m pliance Points Ear n ed. T o facilitate the presentation of the rules compliance data, mean rules compliance points were determined by the fol lowing procedures: 1 ) Daily frequencies for each rating value were m ulti plied by the rating values ( 1, 2, 3 or 4 ) ( see Appe n dix F )

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Table 12 Mean Frequenci es of "Selected Interpersonal Behaviors" Exhibited Su bj ec t Behavi or Phase 1 Pha se 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5 Phas e 6 S che dule I 1 Making faces 12.7 12. 3 10 .o 7.6 5.2 5.3 2 Threatening verbally 15.7 15. 0 13.8 10.8 8.4 7. 3 3 SU.eking tongu e out 13.3 14.0 11. 3 8 .3 5.4 5 .0 Group Mean 13.9 5 .9 R ange 3.0 2 .3 S D 1.6 1. 3 Sc h e dul~ II 4 Teasing verball y 17.0 11.7 1.0 6.2 4.0 4.3 5 Teasing (l a u g h ing ) 16.7 17.3 15.0 11. 8 9.0 8.0 ---.] 6 Name-calling 16.7 15.7 13. 8 14.0 11. 2 12 .0 .i:Group Mean 16 .8 8. 1 Range 3 7.7 S D 0.2 3.9 Schedule III 7 Swearing 14.3 15.3 1 2 .4 10.6 8 .5 7.7 8 Hands in face 9.3 10.3 9.2 8.0 5.4 4.7 9 Name-calling 17.0 15.7 1 2 .8 10.2 8.2 8 .3 Group Mean 13.5 6 9 Range 1.1 3.6 S D 3.9 1.9 Mean of Means 14.7 1. 0 Ran ge of Means 3.3 2.2 SD of Means 1.8 1. 1

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75 Table 12 Continued Subject Frequencies in Change Percent Change Phase 1 to 6 Phase 1 to 6 1 -7.3 -57, 8% 2 -8.3 -53.2% 3 8.3 -62.5 % Mean -8.0 -57 .8% Range 1.0 9,3% s D 0 .6 4.6% 4 -12.? Fi.5% 5 8 .7 -52 .0% 6 -4.7 -28.0 % M ean -8.7 -5 1.5% Range 8.0 46.5 % s D 4.0 23.3 % 7 6.7 -46 .5% 8 -4. 7 -5 0 0 9 8 .7 51 0% Mean 6.7 -4 9 .2 % Range 4.0 4.5 % s D 2.0 2.4 % M ean of M eans 7,8 -52.8 % Range of M eans 2.0 8 .6 % s D of M eans 1 .o 4 5 %

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76 2 ) The products obtained in step one were added to get a daily total. 3) The daily totals were added to get a phase total. 4) The phase total was divided by the number of days in the phase to get a daily average per phase. These phase means are presented in Table 13. The 10 per cent criterion determined for "meaningful" behavior change (as presented in question four) was applied to the rules compliance points. A reduction in rules compliance points was desirable since a rating of one indicated that the subject complied with the class rules. Values of 1, 2, 3 and 4 represent progressive increases in non-compliance with class rules. The reductions in mean rules compliance varied. The reductions ranged from a low of -41 .4 percent for subject seven to a high of -58.1 percent for subject two. All subjects met the 10 percent change criterion. A comparison of the different treatment schedules reveals means that range from -46.6 percent for schedule three (subjects 7, 8 and 9) to -54.0 percent for schedule one ( subjects 1, 2 and 3). The overall mean was -50.5 percent. Summary The data presented in Tables 6 through 13 reflect varied behavior changes. The proficiency data i n dicate that all subjects, except subject eight, reached a mean proficiency of 100 percent in the three skills during the phase immediately following the introductory phase. Subject

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77 T able 13 M ean R ules Comp l i ance Points Ea r ne d Subje c t Phase 1 Ph ase 2 Pha s e 3 P h ase 4 Phase 5 Ph a se 6 S c he d ule I 1 1 8.0 18.0 15 0 11 .4 8. 2 7 7 2 20.7 20.3 17,5 13 .8 9,0 8.7 3 14. 3 11 .3 11.8 7.5 8.6 7.7 Me a n 17. 7 8.0 Range 3 1.0 S D 3.2 0.6 Schedule II 4 12.0 9.7 6.0 8.4 6 2 6.3 5 14. 7 17, 3 13 .o 8 8 7.6 6.7 6 17,0 14. 7 13.2 11 2 8 6 8.3 Mean 14 .5 7. 1 Rar,ge 5 3 2.0 S D 2.5 1. 1 Schedule III "/ 13.7 12 3 11.8 11. 6 7.8 8.0 8 18.7 18.0 14 .4 10 4 9 0 8.7 9 15.7 14. 3 14.4 13.4 9.8 8.7 Me a n 16.0 8.5 Rang e 5.0 0.7 S D 2.5 0 4

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SUBJECT 1 2 3 Mean Range S D 4 5 6 M ean Range S D 7 8 9 M ean Ran g e S D M ean of M eans Range of M eans SD of M eans 78 Table 1 3 Continued Change in Points Earned Phase 1 t o 6 -10.3 -12.0 -6.7 -9-7 3.6 2.7 -5-7 -8.0 -8.7 -7.5 3.0 1.5 -5.7 -10.0 -7.0 -7.6 4.3 2.2 -8.2 2 2 1.2 Percent Change Phase 1 to 6 -57 4% -58. 1% -46.5 % -54 .0 % 11 .6 % 6.5 % -47.3 % -54.6 % -51 .0 % -51 .0 % 7.3 % 3. 7% -4 1 4 % -53.6 % -44. 7 % -46. 6% 12.2 6.3 % -50.5 % 7 .4 % 3.7 %

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79 eight maintained a mean proficiency of 96 percent in "reflecting and understanding of feelings" in phase four, and achieved a mean proficiency of 100 percent during phases five and six. All subjects except one continued using the responding skills during the follow-up phases. Subject one's fre quency of usage of "reflecting and understanding feelings" returned to zero. The usage levels varied from subject to subject, and skill to skill. All subjects met the 10 percent change criterion established for the "selected interpersonal behavior" and rules compliance points earned.

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CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS Recently, educators have expressed increased interest in training adolescents in facilitative communication skills. At the same time, they have been concerned about the usefulness of teaching these skills to emotionally handicapped adolescents. If facilitative skills training were shown to be effective with emotionally handicapped adolescents, practical educational implications would result. This chapter presents summaries and interpretations of the study's findings. Limitations of the study are reiterated and practical implications are presented. In addition, recommendations for future research are included. Conclusions and Implications As described in Chapters III and IV, the inter-observer agreement checklists were used to determine whether 1 ) skill proficiency, usage and opportunity, 2) selected inter personal behavior, and 3) rules compliance were consistently and correctly recorded. Tables 3, 4 and 5 indicate that inter-observer agreement ranged from 93.3 percent to 100 percent. Thus, the observations were performed con sistently. 80

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81 Proficiency levels varied during the initial instruc tional phase from 70 percent to 100 percent. Yet, during the second phase in which skills instruction was given, only one subject failed to achieve 100 percent proficiency: subject eight reached a 96 percent proficiency level in hreflecting and understanding of feelings." All sub j ects ultimately achieved 100 percent proficiency in all the three facilitative skills. Thus, emotionally handicapped adolescents, being served in Lincoln M iddle School resource rooms, seem able to achieve 100 percent proficiency in the three facilitative responding skills. Findings and Interpretations Question 1: What effect does training an emotio n ally handicapped adolescent in "open questioning" have on the rate of use of this skill in a peer group? The data in dicate that all subjects used "open questioning" in the peer group situation. The mean usage ra t es varied during the different phases. Subject three's mean (.8) during phase five was the lowest. Subject eight's mean ( 4.8) du r ing phase five w as the high est. Schedule I (s ubjects 1, 2 and 3) maintained the lowest mean usage rate (1 .0 ) during follow-up, while Schedule III maintained the highest mean usage rate ( 3.8). Thus, instruction in "open question ing" corresponded to an increase in skill usage rate in a peer disucssion group. Question 2: W hat effect doe s t raini ng in "clar ifying and su mm arizing" have on the frequency of use of this skil l in o eer grouo discuss i on s?

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82 The data reflect that "clarifying and summarizing" instruc tion resulted in increased skill usage by all subjects. During follow-up, subject one maintained the lowest mean skill usage (1.7); while subjects two and four maintained the highest mean usage level (4.3). An examination of the different schedules reveals that Schedule I had the highest mean usage level. Thus, regardless of the order of skill presentation, instruction in "clarifying and summarizing" corresponded to increased skill usage rates by emotion ally handicapped adolescents in peer discussion groups. Question 3: Does training in "reflecting and under standing feelings" affect the rate of use of this responding skill in a peer group situation? The data indicate that for eight of the nine subjects, "reflecting and understanding feelings" instruction resulted in increased and maintained usage of the skill. For subject one, the mean skill usage level increased from O during phase one through four to .6 during phase five, but returned to O during phase six (follow-up). Thus, although the usage rates for the different schedules were variable, all schedules reflected an increase in mean usage level that corresponded to in struction in the skill. Question 4: Does training in three facilitative responding skills have an effect on the frequency of selected interoersonal behaviors exhibited by emotionally handicapped adolescents? The data concerning selected interpersonal behaviors indicate that all subjects exceeded

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83 the 10 percent reduction established as a minimum for "meaningful" behavior change. ~he reduction varied from a low of 28 percent to a high of 74.5 percent. Thus, regard less of treatment schedule, all subjects achieved "meaning ful" behavior change. As the subjects were taught the facil itative skills, there was a corresponding reduction in the frequencies with which they exhibited inappropriate social behaviors. Question 5: Does facilitative skills training affect the frequency with which students comply with class rules? An examination of the mean rules compliance points indicate that all subjects surpassed the 10 percentage points re quired for "meaningful" behavior change. The reduction in mean rules compliance points varied from 41.4 to 58.1. Thus, regardless of treatment schedule, all subjects achieved the necessary 10 percent reduction in mean rules compliance points. Therefore, facilitative skills training corresponded to a reduction in the frequency with which emotionally handicapped adolescents complied with class rules. Limitations of the Study The subjects of this study may not represent all seventh and eighth grade emotionally handicapped sutdents. The adolescents were identified as emotionally handicapped according to the regulations of the Florida State Depart ment of Education. Since identification criteria differ from state to state, emotionally handicapped students in

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84 other areas of the country will not necessarily have the same characteristics as the subjects. Observation rooms are not available in Alachua County Schools. Therefore, additional time was allocated prior to the initiation of baseline so that the students could become accustomed to having an observer in the room. The observer's presence during discussion sessions may have affected the frequency of facilitative skills usage. On a number of occasions, students failed to obtain all of the required "Daily Report" ( see Appendix F l si g natures. Consequently, some forms had to be returned to teachers for completion. The ratings obtained in this manner may differ from those obtained immediately following the class. Skills usage was observed and recorded during a struc tured peer discussion group. The teacher acted as the dis cussion leader for the group. In such a situation, usage levels may have exceeded those that would have been obtained from a nonstructured discussion. Finally, caution must be taken when interpreting the changes that occurred in "selected interpersonal behavior" and "rules compliance." The data indicate that changes in facilitative skills proficiency and usa g e were accompanied by corresponding changes in "selected interpersonal behavior" and "rules compliance." This study was not intended to "prove'' that facilitative skills training is the sole expla nation for the observed changes. These changes might have been produced by a number of other variables.

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85 Methodological Limitations When a single-subject, multiple baseline design was incorporated into this study, several methodological con cerns arose. First, how does a researcher determine when stability has occurred in the data? To determine when stability has occurred, it is necessary to calculate the "celeration line" and the "variability envelope" of the data ( see Chapter III ) The procedures used to obtain these are appropriate for research in which a large number ( greater than twenty) of data points have been obtained. In situations where it is practical to obtain only three to five data points, no clear procedu~e for determining stability has been delineated in the single-subject re search literature. Second, which behaviors need to stabilize prior to the initiation of a new treatment phase? Single-subject meth odology provides that stability be established for those behaviors that receive direct treatment ( facilitative skills u 9 ~ge ) and not fo~ those that do not receive direct treat ment ( "interpersonal behavior" and "rules compliance" ) There is need for clarification of the differential effects of allowing only those variables that receive treatment to stabilize as opposed to allowing all variables to stabilize. Practical Imolicat io ns The conclusions that were drawn in this study have practical implications for those i n volved i~ delivering educational services to emotionally handicapped adolescents.

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86 First, the assumption that emotionally handicapped adoles cents can learn the facilitative responding skills is re affirmed. Although the emotionally handicapped adolescents (resource room student~ with I.0.'s in the normal range ) varied in their acquisition rates, they were able to be come 100 percent proficient in the three facilitative responding skills examined here. Second, emotionally handicapped adolescents will use "open questioning," "clarifying and summarizing," and "reflecting and understanding feelings" in a structured peer discussion group. It may be appropriate for edu cators to initially promote the skills usages in struc tured situations. Third, instruction in facilitative responses may be included among the interventions that appear to decrease inappropriate interpersonal behaviors of e m otionally handi capped adolescents. Wit h the acquisition of facilitative skills, a corresponding decrease seems to occu r in in appropriate social behavior. Fourth, proficiency in a n d u sa g e o f th e facilitative communication skills appeared to promote greater responsive ness to the rules with which adolescents are confronted. Responding skills appear to help to promote increased rules compliance while emotionally handicapped adolescents attend regular classes. Thus, these skills can be added to the list of skills that seem to facilitate the gene ralization of appropriate ( desired ) behavior chan g e to situations other than the resource rooms.

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87 Recommendations for Future Research The present study investigated the effects that in struction in "open questioning," "clarifying and sum~ marizing," and "reflecting and understanding feelings" had on the three skills usages, selected interpersonal behavior and rules compliance. The research followed a single subject design and used nine resource room subjects. Recommendations for future research in this area are in cluded in this section. 1. Other investigators might want to incorporate a group d~sign since these skills are most often taught in groups. 2. Different emotionally handicapped populations need to be considered. The populations need to be extended to include elementary and secondary students and more severely disturbed students so that generalizability can be increased. 3. Similar studies that examine skills usage, inter personal behavior change and rules compliance should be done with students who are not receiving special education services so that a comparison might be made. 4. Several schools that use different management techniques should be involved in future research so that a comparison might be made. 5. An attempt should be made to have the classroom teacher present the skills instruction since in

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88 reality this individual will have this respon sibility. 6. Skills usage needs to be reinforced over a more extended period and by different individuals to determine the effect on usage. 7. In combination with the facilitative responding skills, problem-solving and other affective skills need to be taught to determine the most appropriate combination of skills to be taught. 8. Different procedures need to be used in the in structional sessions so that the most beneficial method might be determined. 9. Alternative techniques for observing and recording data across situations need to be explored so that the data collection problems delineated in Chapter III might be alleviated.

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APPENDIX A FACILITATIVE RESPONDING "Open questioning" consists of asking a question that specifies the general area of interest but lets the specific content of the answer be decided upon by the person answering the question. This type of question allows the individual answering to develop his answer in whatever length or detail he desires. It seeks a wide range of thoughts and feelings. Open questions are designed to "solicit additional information, provoke further : discussion, or to query an individual regarding a particular matter" (Wittmer and M yrick, 1974). On the other hand, a closed question permits only short answers such as "yes" or "no," or answers that are limited to a few words. A closed question may limit the choice of responses or simply seek a few facts. Some comparisons of open to closed questions follow: 1. "What kind of things happened to you to day?" (o pen) "How was you r day?" ( closed ) 2. "What are your reactions to the ne w class schedule?" (o pen ) Why don't you like the new schedule?" ( closed) 3. "How do you feel about taking t he test?" (o pen ) "Are you worried about taking the tes t?" ( closed ) 89

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90 4 "What do you think about school?" ( open ) "You don't like school, do you?" ( closed) 5, "What did you do at recess?" (open l "You caused a fi g ht at recess, d idn't you?" ( closed ) "Summarizing and clarifying" is any attempts to iden tify or understand what a person has said. A listener tells a speaker what he thin k s the speaker has said so that the speaker can either confirm or deny the impression. A listener in his own words repea t s to a speaker the mes~ sage he received in order to determine its accuracy. These s t atements usually put what the speaker has said in new or simplified terms. The listener focuses attention on the content of the discussion. In an attempt to identify the most significant ideas (content ) emerging in a conversation and t o evaluate what one has heard for correctness and clarification of content, the listener will either paraphrase the m essa g e or use n ew words t o simplify what has been heard. T h e followin g are ty pical examples: 1. "If I hear you correctly, y ou are tellin g me that ... 2. "You seem to be saying t hat ... 3. "In other words, you are trying to ... 4. W hat I hear you saying is ... 5. "From what you have been saying, I've heard t hree things. First, ... Sec o nd ... Third ...

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9 1 6. "Correct me if I'm wrong, but you're saying that ... 7. "From what you have said, it seems that ... 8. "In other words, you are trying to ... "Reflecting and understanding of feelings" is a response that conveys that the listener is aware of how the speaker is feeling. The listener attempts to identify what the speaker is feeling so that the speaker can cbeck for accuracy. Examples of such statements include the fol lowing: 1. "You're feeling angry, Bill." 2. "You're tired." 3. "You're confused right now." 4. "You look a little wor~ied." 5. "You're feeling sad." 6. "Sounds like that m ade you really happy." 7. "You're confused and hurt about what happened?" 8. "You look really pleased with your art work."

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APPENDIX B FEELING WORDS Pleasant Feelings Un pleasant Feelings 1. pride ,. defeated 2. happy 2. sad 3. excited 3. gloomy 4. accepted 4. rejected 5. calm 5. tense 6. pleasure 6. hate 7. strong 7. weak 8. optimistic 8. depressed 9. joyful 9. annoyed 10. cheerful 10. pained 1,. pleased 11 disappointed 12. comfortable 12. confused 13. relaxed 13 defensive 14. trusting 14. gua rded 15. confident 15. uneasy 16 close 16. distant 17. stimulated 17. abused 18. secure 18. fear 19. delighted 19. angry 20. delight 20. disgust 92

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APPENDIX C GRO U P DISCUSSI ON : SKILL U SE Student __________ Observer ----------Dates: "open questions" "clarifying & summarizin g "reflect / under stand feelings" Opportunity J J J J J d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d Directions: Place a tally mark in t he box each time the behavior occurs during the observation session. The small box below each row is for the daily total. 93

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Student APPENDIX D BEHAVIORAL OBSERVATIONS FORM Observer ---------------------Behavior --------------------------Date: Total: Directi o ns: Place a tally m ark in the box each ti m e the behavior occurs during the observation sessi o n. The small box at the bottom is for the daily total. 94

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Student APPENDIX E SKILL PROFICIENCY -----------Observer __________ Dates: "open questions" ccccc ccccc ccccc ccccc ccccc iiiii iiiii iiiii iiiii iiiii "clarifying & ccccc ccccc ccccc ccccc ccccc summarizing" iiiii iiiii iiiii iiiii iiiii "reflecting & ccccc ccccc ccccc ccccc ccccc understanding iiiii iiiii iiiii iiiii iiiii feelings" Directions: Five responses will be solicited daily. For each response there is the possibility of a correct or incorrect answer. M ark "c" if the response is correct and mark "i" if the response is incorrec t. T h e small boxes are for daily "c" and "i" totals. 95

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APPE N DIX F DAILY REPOR T Student ___________ Date _____________ Behavior: 1 = broke no rules "2" = broke a rule once "3" = broke a rule ( s) twice "4" = bro k e a rule ( s ) three times or m ore Period Rating I Behavior II Behavior III Behavior IV Behavior V Behavior VI Behavior Directions: Please rate the student's behavior according to the above key and initial the form at the end of the period. 96

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APPENDIX G DAILY REPORT DATA FORM Student ___________ Date Period: I B II B III B IV B i V B I VI B Total: B1 B2 BJ B4 Directions: Record the behavior rating ea r ned for each period. 97

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APPENDIX H RAW DATA

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SUBJECT: VARIABLE Session: 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Proficiency S 1 0 0 0 80 80 * * * Proficiency S2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * * * Proficiency SJ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * * o p en (Sl) qu es ti o ning" 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 clarif yin g & (S2) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 summa:-izing" "r ef lecting & understanding (SJ) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 feelings" Opportunit y 28 33 26 18 22 30 27 29 24 26 33 28 22 27 14 31 23 28 32 29 18 27 26 28 Behavior 13 11 14 14 12 11 11 10 10 10 9 10 8 7 7 6 5 5 6 5 5 5 6 5 Rules Compliance: 1 I S 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 3 2 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 2 's 1 0 0 1 0 2 1 3 5 1 4 2 4 3 3 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 J's 4 5 5 6 4 6 2 5 3 1 4 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4's 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 KEY: ** Proficiency S l: proficiency level, skill 1 in % correct Skill 1: frequen cy of "open Proficiency S2 : proficiency lev el, skill 2 in lo correct questioning" Proficiency S3: proficiency level, skill 3 in lo correct Skill 2: frequency of "clarifyOpp o rtunity: frequency of speaking in group session ing and summarizing" Rules Compliance: frequencies of each value Skill 3: frequenc y of "refl ect**Tllis key is applicab le to all th e Su bj ec t charts in in g and understandin g Appendix H (except for Behavior" explanation). feelings" BEHAVIOR: Making faces at other students denotes 100%

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SUBJECT: 2 VARIABLE Session: 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Proficiency Sl 0 0 0 80 60 60 80 * * * Proficiency S2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * * * Proficiency S3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * * "open ( S 1 l questioning" 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 4 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 "clarifying & (S2l summarizing" 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 6 4 5 4 4 5 5 4 4 4 5 4 "reflecting & understanding (S3 l fe e lin g s" 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Opp o rtunity 37 22 35 39 40 33 38 24 37 40 22 35 29 38 31 26 37 35 28 37 33 38 35 0 0 Behavior 16 17 14 16 14 15 13 16 13 13 12 9 11 10 12 10 8 9 7 8 7 7 8 Rule s C o mpli a nce: 1 IS 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 2's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 4 3 4 5 4 2 2 3 3 3 2 3's 3 3 4 4 5 2 4 5 4 3 5 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 4's 3 3 2 2 4 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 KEY: d e notes 100% S ee S ubj e ct 1. BEHAVIOR: Thr e atening other students verbally.

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SUBJECT: 3 VARIABLE Session: 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Proficiency Sl 0 0 0 80 80 * ;; * * Proficiency S2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 80 * * Proficiency S3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * * "open (Sl) 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 questioning" "clarifying & (S2) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 summarizing" "refl ecting & understanding (S3) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 feelings" Opportunity 18 22 15 27 19 18 22 15 21 17 20 19 16 22 20 17 19 16 18 23 17 15 23 19 0 Behavior 13 15 12 14 13 15 12 12 11 12 10 1 1 9 8 9 7 5 5 6 5 6 5 5 5 Rules Compliance: 1 I S 0 0 0 2 4 0 0 2 2 3 3 4 3 3 6 4 3 5 4 4 4 5 4 2's 3 2 5 3 4 2 2 3 3 4 3 3 2 3 2 0 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 3's 2 3 1 2 0 0 3 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 KEY: denotes 100% See Subject 1. BEHAVIOR: Sticking ton g ue out at other students.

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SUBJECT: 4 VARIABLE Session: 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Proficiency Sl 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 80 80 * Proficiency S2 0 0 0 * * * * Proficiency S3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * * * "open (Sl l 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 questioning" "clarifying & (S2) 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 6 5 6 6 6 5 6 6 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 summarizing" "reflecting & understanding (S3l 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 feelings" Opportunity 34 31 38 40 36 39 40 37 35 34 14 39 37 29 36 33 24 33 37 18 36 34 29 40 0 N Behavior 17 1 6 18 16 10 9 10 7 6 7 5 6 6 7 6 6 4 5 3 4 4 5 4 4 Rules Compliance: 1 IS 1 0 4 4 5 5 5 6 5 5 5 5 2 4 5 6 6 6 6 5 6 6 2's 3 4 2 5 2 2 1 1 0 1 1 1 3 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 3's 2 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 KEY: denotes 100% See Subject 1. BEHAVIOR: Teasing other students verbally.

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SUBJECT: 5 VARIABLE Session: 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Proficiency Sl 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 60 80 * Proficiency S2 0 0 0 80 80 * * * ll Proficiency S3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * * * lt "open ( S 1) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 3 questioning" "clarifyin g & (S2) 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 4 4 5 4 4 4 5 4 4 3 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 summarizing" "reflecting & understanding (S3) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 feelings" Opportunity 26 28 24 32 25 18 27 23 31 37 33 24 30 29 21 17 26 29 25 32 36 27 19 25 0 w Behavior 17 15 18 16 17 19 16 17 14 13 15 13 12 11 10 13 9 10 8 9 9 8 8 8 Rules Compliance: JI S 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 2 2 4 2 4 5 4 5 5 5 4 5 5 6 2's 2 2 0 0 4 1 4 3 4 3 2 4 2 1 1 2 1 0 3's 4 5 3 5 4 3 4 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 KEY: denotes 100% See Subject ,. BEHAVIOR: Teasing other students by laughing at them.

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SUBJECT: 6 VARIABLE Session: 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Proficiency Sl 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 60 80 80 * Proficiency S2 0 0 0 80 80 * * * * Proficiency S3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 bO * * * "open (S1 l 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 questioning" "clarifying & (S2l 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 summarizing" "reflecting & understanding (S3) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 feelings" Opportunity 16 14 17 13 20 18 21 17 19 16 12 19 16 13 18 23 17 15 19 21 18 22 16 20 0 .I:' Behavior 17 19 14 16 16 15 15 14 13 14 13 17 13 17 14 13 10 10 12 11 13 12 12 12 Hules Compliance: 1 IS 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 2 2 1 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 4 3 4 2's 0 2 3 2 2 2 4 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 3 4 3 3 2 3 2 2 3 2 J's 3 2 3 3 3 4 2 3 2 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4's 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 KEY: denotes 100% See Subject 1. BEHAVIOR: Name-calling.

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SUBJECT: 7 VARIABLE Session: 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Pr o ficiency Sl 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 60 * * Proficien c y S2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * Proficien c y S3 0 0 0 * * * * "open ( S 1 l 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 4 4 4 2 4 qu e stioning" "clarifying & (S2) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o 0 0 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 summarizing "reflecting & und e rstanding (S3) 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 fe e lings" Opportunity 21 23 15 17 21 25 23 26 14 11 17 19 18 16 24 21 15 17 26 20 1 8 22 21 0 U1 Behavior 14 16 13 15 17 14 12 13 12 13 12 11 10 11 11 10 9 8 8 9 8 7 8 Rules Compliance: 1 's 0 0 1 1 0 1 2 1 2 2 0 2 4 5 5 3 4 4 4 2's 5 3 4 3 4 5 4 5 3 4 5 3 3 5 3 5 2 1 1 3 2 2 2 3's 2 0 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 KEY: denotes 100% See Subject 1. BEHAVIOR: Swearing at other students.

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SUBJECT: 8 VARIABLE Session: 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Proficiency Sl 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 60 60 80 80 * * Proficiency S2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * * Proficiency S3 0 0 0 80 * 80 * * "open (Sl) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 5 4 5 5 4 5 5 5 5 4 5 5 questioning" "clarifyin g & (S2) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 5 3 4 3 3 4 3 summarizing "reflecting & understanding (S3) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 feelings" Opportunity 31 19 26 33 29 18 23 31 16 18 29 17 27 16 19 23 21 25 17 12 19 18 24 20 0 0\ Behavior 9 10 9 10 11 10 8 8 10 11 9 10 8 7 7 8 5 6 5 5 6 5 5 4 Rules Compliance: 1 's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 1 3 3 2 1 5 4 2 4 4 3 3 4 2's 0 2 0 2 0 1 3 0 2 2 4 3 3 3 4 5 2 2 2 3 3 2 J's 4 2 6 2 6 4 2 4 3 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 4's 2 2 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 KEY: d enotes 100% See Subject 1. BEHAVIOR: Putting hands in front of the faces of other students.

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SUBJECT: 9 VARIABLE Session: 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Proficie ncy Sl 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 60 80 * * Proficiency S2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * Proficiency S3 0 0 0 80 * * * open ( S 1) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 qu es tioning" c l arifying & ( S 2) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 summarizing" "r ef l ecting & und erstanding (S 3 ) 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 feelings" Opport uni t y 16 14 11 18 17 19 15 18 20 17 21 13 16 16 14 22 15 12 19 13 15 20 16 0 -..J Beha vi or 17 16 1 8 16 16 15 17 16 10 10 11 10 10 11 10 10 8 8 9 8 8 9 8 Rules Compliance: 1 s 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 3 1 2 2 3 2 2 2 4 4 3 3 5 2's 2 3 3 5 1 1 3 4 4 0 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 2 3 2 3 s 2 3 2 1 3 4 3 1 2 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 KEY: denotes 1 00% See Subject 1. BEHAVIOR: Name-calling.

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APPENDIX I GRAPHIC PRESE N TATIO N OF PROFICIENCY LEVELS

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Subje c t 1 10 0 IV -80 60 0 4 8 12 16 20 2 4 Skill 1 : Pe r c e nt Co rr ect 100 -80 60 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Skil l 2: Perce n t Co r rect 100 -80 60 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Skill 3: Percent Co r rect SESSIONS 109

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110 S u bj e ct 2 100 80 6 0 0 4 8 1 2 16 20 24 S k ill 1 : P e rc en t Co rre ct 1 0 0 80 60 o 4 8 12 16 20 24 Ski ll 2 : P erc ent Co r rect 100 -80 60 0 ::: ; 4 8 1 2 16 20 24 Ski ll 3 : P e r c ent Co r rect S E SSIONS

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111 Subject 3 100 J 0 80 60 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Skill 1: Percent Correct 100 v ii 80 60 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Skill 2: Percent Correct 1 00 80 60 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Skill 3: Percent Correct SESSIONS

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1 1 2 Subjec t 4 10 0 80 60 0 4 8 12 16 2 0 2 4 S k i ll 2 : Perc ent Corr e ct 100 ............ 80 6 0 0 4 8 1 2 1 6 20 2 4 S k i ll 3: Pe rce n t Co rr e c t 100 IV -80 60 0 .. 4 8 12 16 2 0 2 4 S ki ll 1 : P er c en t C orr e c t S ESSIO N S

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1 1 3 Subject 5 100 J 80 60 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Skill 2: Percent Correct 100 1---, --80 60 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Skill 3: Percent Correct 100 tr ......,_ 80 60 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Skill 1 : Percent Correct SESSIONS

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100 80 60 0 100 80 60 0 100 80 60 0 4 4 4 114 Subject 6 J . . . --8 12 16 20 24 Skill 2: Percent Correct I . . __.. 8 12 16 20 24 Skill 3: Percent Correct 8 12 16 20 24 Skill 1: Percent Correct SESSIONS

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115 Subject 7 100 80 60 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Skill 3: Perce:1t Correct 100 rr -80 60 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Skill 1 : Percent Correct 100 -80 60 0 .. ., ._ --'"' 4 8 12 16 20 24 Skill 2: Percent Correct SESSIONS

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116 S u b j ect 8 1 00 I V .,__ 8 0 6 0 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 S k ill 3~ Pe r cen t Corre ct 1 00 8 0 60 0 4 8 12 16 2 0 24 Ski ll 1 : P e rc ent Co r r e ct 1 0 0 8 0 6 0 0 -. : : 4 8 12 16 20 24 Ski ll 2: Pe r c en t Corre c t SESSION S

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11 7 Subject 9 100 ; -80 60 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Skill 3: Percent Correct 100 80 60 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Skill 1: Percent Correct 100 -80 60 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Skill 2: Percent Correct SESSIONS

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APPENDIX J GRAPHIC PRESENTATIO N OF SKILL U SAGE

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Subject 1 7 .:,: C/) 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 7 (\j ______/'.__ _:,: C/) 0 :..;. -,; 4 8 12 16 20 24 7 ("') ~ .:,: C/) 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 40 I ,:;'30 /\ i / .., t.. 0 C. c.10 0 0 4 8 1 2 16 20 24 Sessions RESPONSE rR E QUE~CIES 119

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120 Subject 2 7 ..... ..... ,.., .!<: Cl) 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 7 A (\J ..... ..... .,.., .!<: Cl) 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 7 ..., ..... ..... v--.,.., .!<: Cl) 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 40 V ~30 .,.., .., t.. 010 0. 0. 0 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Sessions RESPONSE rREQUENCIES

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7 '""" '""" .-1 .!s: Cl) 0 4 7 C\J '""" '""" .-1 .!s: Cl) 0 4 7 r, '""" '""" .-1 .!s: Cl) 0 4 >. 3 0 /\\_ i 2 0 s:.. 0 : 10 0 CJ 4 8 8 8 8 121 Su bjec t 3 1 2 1 2 12 12 Se s sion s 16 16 16 16 R E SPONS E FREQUEN CI ES '-2 0 2 4 20 2 4 20 2 4 2 0 24

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122 S ub je ct 4 7 (\J .-t .-t ..... Cl) 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 7 r") .-t .-t ..... Cl) 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 7 .-t ".-t ..... Cl) 0 4 8 12 1 6 20 24 40 V >, 3 0 ;J ...... C 2 0 t.. g_ 10 a. 0 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Ses s i o ns RESPONSE FREQUE N CIES

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123 Subject 5 7 (\j ..-t ..-t ..... Cl) 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 7 M ..-t ..-t ..... A Cl) 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 7 ..-t ..-t A ... Cl) 0 ,.. ,.. ... 4 8 12 16 20 24 40 JO \ >, .., ... C ;; 20 t.. 0 10 0 0 4 8 12 16 2 0 24 Session s RESPONSE fREQUENCIES

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(\J .-i .-i ... Cf) .-i .-i ... 7 0 4 7 124 Subject 6 I'8 12 16 20 24 Cf)o'-----..L.--------'--------~:..._.1.__ 4 8 12 16 20 24 7 .-i .-i ... __r Cf) 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 40 >. 30 .., ... 20 .., I0 g: 10 0 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Sessions RESPO N SE FRE Q UE N CIES

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125 S ub je ct 7 7 ("') ... V Cl) 0 4 8 12 1 6 2 0 24 7 V ... Cl) 0 -.-.-. .. 4 8 1 2 16 20 24 7 (\J ~ I --. ... I Cl) 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 40 3 0 >, \ .., .... 2 0 .., t. 0 a. 10 a. 0 0 4 8 1 2 16 20 24 Session s RESPO N SE rREQUE N CIES

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126 Subject 8 7 C"") ..-4 ..-4 .... .!>I: Cl) 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 7 ..-4 ..-4 .... .!>I: Cl) 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 7 (\J ..-4 ..-4 ... .!>I: Cl) u 4 8 12 16 20 24 40 >, 30 .., .... C 20 ::l .., r... 0 0. 10 0. 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Sessions RESPO N SE FREQUE N CIES

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127 Subject 9 7 ..., ,-1 ,-1 ... en -0 4 8 12 16 20 24 7 ,-1 '-,-1 .... en 0 _.._ 4 8 12 16 20 24 7 C\J -,-1 ,-1 .... en 0 ; 4 8 12 16 20 24 40 >, 30 ..., .... C: / ::, 20 ..., t. 0 a. a. 10 0 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Sessions RESPONSE FREQ U E NC IES

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APPENDIX K GRAPHIC PRESENTATION OF SELECTED INTERPERSO N AL BEHAVIOR AND RULES COMPLIA N CE

PAGE 138

Subject 1 RESPONSE FREQUENCIES 20 a) V Q) (.) "' i:... 10 bO s:: .... .!:I: "' ::E: 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 a) 6 Y-/ (\J -0 s:: "' a) 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 a) 6 v\ /-x X -0 s:: "' a) C""l 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Sessions K EY: 1 's and J's = X 2's and 4 's = 0 129

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>, o;;: 20 i~ 10 C Q) .., "' Q) s:.. .c e,... 130 Subject 2 RESPONSE FREQUENCIES QL-----'-------------------..._ __ 4 8 12 16 20 24 a) 6 (\J 'O C "' a) / ,..,X.... /x 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 a) 6 .;r X 'O X /'x X C \/\ "' tll x-x-x <"'I 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Sessions K EY: 1 's and 3's = X 2's and 4's = 0

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131 Subject 3 RESPONSE FREQUENCIES .., 20 :, 0 Q) :, /\ bO C 0 .., 10 bO C .... .!I: u ... .., Cl) 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 f/1 6 X C\J /\!'X "O x/ 'x C ct! f/1 '/ x~ 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 f/1 6 "O C ct! f/1 M 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Sessions KEY: 1 IS and 3's = X 2's ar.d 4's = 0

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20 V ...... C1:I D t., Q) >10 bO C .-l (/l C1:I Q) E-< 132 Subject 4 RESPONSE FREQUENCIES o---~---------------------------4 8 12 16 20 24 (/l 6 X x-x /'/ (\J x-x-x x-x-xX / -c, x--x C C1:I (/l x-x-x 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 (/l 6 -.:T -c, C C1:I (/l M 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Sessions KEY: 1 's and J's = X 2's and 4's = 0

PAGE 142

133 Subject 5 RESPONSE FREQUENCIES 20 V 10 !Xi -t: on rn "' Q) E-< 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 rn 6 X C"') / x-x -0 t: "' rn o--<) 0 -x 4 8 12 16 20 24 rn 6 -0 t: "' rn (\j 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Sessions KEY: 1 's and J's = X 2's and 4's = 0

PAGE 143

134 Subject 6 RESPONSE FREQUENCIES 20 l:lO '\ C: ..... .... .... 10 t1l CJ I Q) e t1l z 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 r1l 6 C\J "O X C: t1l L Ul 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Ul 6 "O -,,\ C: t1l r1l X/ X l\_ C'l x/ 'x/ x 0 X 4 8 12 16 20 24 Sessions KEY: 1 's and J's = X 2's and 4's = 0

PAGE 144

20 :f 10 ~ t.. "' Q) :i: Cl) 135 S ub ject 7 RES P ONS E F R EQUEN C IES o ---_ ...... ___________________ .._ __ 4 8 12 16 20 24 l7l 6 N V 'O X "-""X i:: "' l7l X -\ X 0--0--0 x~ x x x-1< .,,, x x / f'x 0 X X 4 8 12 16 20 24 l7l 6 .;r 'O i:: "' Cl) {> M 0 4 8 1 2 16 20 24 S e s s ion s K EY: 1 1 s and 3's = X 2's and 4' s = 0

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Cl) ]10 .,,.....,.... .c b() s:: .... ..., .., 136 Subject 8 RESPONSE FREQUENCIES ~o.__ __ ___._ __________________ ..__ __ 4 8 12 16 20 24 Cl) 6 (\J 'O a-<:: s:: <1l Cl) 0 4 8 12 1 6 20 24 Cl) 6 X // -='O X s:: <1l Cl) M 0 4 8 1 2 16 20 24 Sessions K EY : 1 's and 3's = X 2's and 4's = 0

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20 ti) C: ;::, 0 ,-< nl -0-0 X X 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Sessions KEY: 1 's and J's = X 2's and 4 s = 0

PAGE 147

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139 Buck, M. Peer counseling in an uruan high school setting. Journal of School Psychology, 1977, 22. (4), 362-365. Caditz, R. Using student tutors in high school mathematics: Weak students profit from volunteer assistance. Chicago School Journal, 1963, 44, 323-325 Caplin, S. The effect of group counseling on junior high school boys' concept of themselves in school. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1957, i, 124-128. Carkhuff, R. Training in counseling and psycho-therapy: Requiem or revielle? Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1966, 21., 360-367. Carkhuff, R. The counselor's contribution to facilitative processes. Urbana, Illinois: Parkinson, 1967. Carkhuff, R. Helping and human relations: A primer for lay and professional helpers (Vol. I & II). N ew York; Holt, Rinehart and W inston, Inc., 1969. Carkhuff, q_ & Berenson, B. Beyond counseling and therapy. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1967. Carkhuff, R., Berenson, B. & Pierce, R. The skills of teaching: Interpersonal skills. Amherst, M assachu setts: Human Resource Development Press, 1977. Carkhuff, R. & Truax, C. Lay mental health counseling: The effects of lay group counseling. Journal of Con sulting Psychology, 1965, 29 ( 5), 42631. Carkhuff, R. & Truax, C. Toward explaining success and failure in interpersonal experiences. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 1966, ~ 723-728. Chasser, C. How adolescents' affective responses to four short stories relate to the factors of age, sex, and intelli g ence. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Connecticut, 1977. Cherchia, P. Effects of c o~ra unication skill training on high school stude nt 's ability to function as peer group facilitators. Doct oral Dissertation, Un iversity of M ississippi, 1973. Collier, R. & Hummel, T. (Eds.) Experimental design and interpretation. Berkeley, California: M cCu tc tian"" Publishing Corp., 1977. Committee on Adolescence: Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry. N ormal adolescen ce : Its dynamics a n d impact. N ew York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 19 68.

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140 Cooke, T. & Apolloni, T. Developing positive social emotional behaviors: A study of training and general ization effects Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1976, .2, (1), 65-78. Cronbach, L., Gleser, G. Nanda, H. & Rajaratnam, N. The dependability of behavioral measurements: Theoryof generalizability of scores and profiles. N ew York: ohn Wiley & Sons, 1972. Cuvo, A. Multiple-baseline design in instructional research: Pitfalls of measurement and procedural advantages. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1979, 84 (3), 219-228. Dacey, J. Adolescents today. Santa Monica, California: Goodyear Publishing Co., 1979. Downey, M York: Interpersonal ~udgements in education. Harper & Row, ublishers, 1977. New Elkind, D. As m athetic understandin sixteen. Boston: A lyn & Bacon, of the child six to nc., 197 i. Emmert, B. An analysis of the effectiveness of large group peer-helper training with preand early adolescents in the middle school. Doctoral Dissertation, Univer sity of Northern Colorado, 19 7 7. Eric k son, M. & Cromack, T. Evaluating a tutoring program. The Journal of Experimental Education, 1972, 42 ( 2), 7-31. crney, T. The effects of a peer facilitator-led group on the moral development, school attitudes, and self esteem of middle school students, Doctoral Disserta tion, University of Florida, 197 9 Etzel, B., LeBlanc, J. & Baer, D ( Eds. ) N ew devel o o m ents i n beha v ioral research: T he o ry, me t hod, an d a o pl ic ti on N ew York: John W iley & Sons, 1 9 7 7. Felton, L. Teaching counseling skills to adolescents and adults. Doctoral Dissertation, Boston U niversity School of Education, 1975. Frye, E. A study of the effects of a high school psycholo g y course in counseling on the self-concepts and inter personal skills of adolescents. Doctoral Dissertati o n, George Peabody College for Teachers, 1 976. Gazda, G ., Asb u ry, F., Balzer, F., Childer, W. & W al t ers R. Hu m an relations develooment: A m anual for educators. B o ston: Allyn & B acon: Inc., 1 97 7.

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141 Gouze, M. Empathy training for preschoolers and adolescents: A cognitive developmental curriculum inter vention through psychological education. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Minne sota, 1975. Gumaer, J. Peer-facilitated groups. ~lementary School Guidance and Counseling, 1973, (1),; 4-11. Gu~aer, J. Peer facilitator training and group leadership experiences with low-performing elementary school students. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Flo rida, 1975. Hamdorf, K. Interpersonal communication skills training program to improve communication in the parent adolescent relationship. Doctoral Dissertation, Ohio State University, 1975. Hennings, D. Mastering classroom communication: What interaction analysis tells the teacher Pacific Palisades, California: Goodyear Publishing Co., 1975. Herbert, M Conduct disorders of childhood and adolescence: A behavioral approach to assessment and treatment. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1978 Hersen, M & Barlow, D. Single case exoerimental designs: Strategies for stud~ing behavior change. N ew York: Pergamon Press, 197 Hersen, M & Bellack, A. A multiple-baseline analysis of social-skills training in chronic schizophrenics. Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, 1976, 9 ( 3), 239-245. Hersov, L., Berger, M. & Shaffer, D. (Sds. ). Aggressive and anti-social behavior in childhood and adolescence. ~ew York: Pergamon Press, 19?8 Hetrich, E. Training parents of learning disabled children in facilitative communication skills. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 1979, _g_ ( 4), 70-72. Jenkins, R. Psychiatric syndromes in children and their relation to family background. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1966, 36, 450-457, Ker lin ger, F. Behavioral research: A conceptual aporoach. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1979 Kobak D. Edu -caringteaching children to care: Developing the "CC" or Caring Quality in children Adolescence, 1977, 12 ( 45), 97 -102.

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142 Koopman, E., Hunt, E. & Cowan, S. Talking together. Kalamazoo, M ichigan: Behaviordelia, Inc., 1978, Kratochvil, D., Carkhuff, R. & Berenson, B. Cumulative effects of parent and teacher offered levels of facilitative conditions upon indices of student physical, emotional, and intellectual functioning. The Journal of Educational Research, 1969, 63 (4), 161-164. Kratochwill, T. Single sub j ect research: Strategies for evaluating change. N ew York: Academic Press, 1978. Lilly, S. Improving social acceptance of low sociometric status, low achieving st u dents. Excepti o nal Children, 1971, 37, 34 1 -347. Lippitt, R. & Lippitt, P. Cross-age helpers. Education Digest, 1968, 33, 23-25. Lippitt, P. & Lippitt, R. The peer culture as a learning environment. Childhood Education 1970,47 1 3 ) 135-133. Lippitt, P. & Lohman, J. Cross-age relationships: An educational resource. Children, 1965, ~. 113-117. Lobitz, W. M aximizing the high school counselor's effec tiveness: The use of senior tutors. The School Counse l or, 1970, ( 2), 127-129. M asterson, J. & T ucker, K. & Berk, G. The sy ~ ptomatic adolescent: Delineation of psychiatric s yn dro m es. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 1966, I, 166-174. Mccann, B. Peer counseling: An approach to psychological education. Elementary School Guidance and Counseling, 1975, ( 3 ) 180-187, M cClus k ey, K., N ie m i, R. & Albas, D. V ocal cum m unica t ion of emotional m eaning a m ong nor m al a n d dis tu rbed chil dren. The Journal of Special Education, 1 9 78, 12 ( 4 ) 443-448. M cGlannan, r. Empathy in learning disabled children. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 1 9 7 7 ]_Q (8 ), 43-43. M yrick, R. & Erney, T. Caring and sharing: Becomi ng a peer facilitator. Minneapolis, M innesota: Educational M edia Corp., 1 9 78. M yrick, R. & Erney, T. Youth helping youth. M in n eapolis, M innesota: Educational M edia C orp., 1 9 7 9

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143 Nagel, E. The structure of science. N ew York: Harcourt, 1961. Naren-Hebeisen, A. Peer program for youth. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Augsburg Publishing House, 1976. Nesbit, M. Effects of social skill training and group counseling on adolescent selfand peer perceptions. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, 1976. Nummela, R. The relationship of teacher effectiveness training to pupil self-concept, locus of control and attitude. Doctoral Dissertation, Un iversity of Flo rida, 19 7 8. Parsonson, B. & Baer, D. in T. ct research: Strate ies York: Academic Press, 197 ~ingle sub evaluatin~ chan e. N ew 1-1 Pennypacker, H., Koenig, C. & Lindsley, 0. Handbook of the standard behavior chart. Kansas City: Precision Media, 1972. Puskar, E. An investigation of the literature reported and the self-reported concerns of early adolescents with implications for pupil personnel services. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, 1974. Pyle, K. Developing a teen-peer facilitator program. The School Counselor, 1977, 24 (4), 27 8 -281. Quay, H. Classification in the treatment of delinquency and antisocial behavior. In N Hobbs ( Ed.). Issues in the classification of children (V ol. I). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc., Publishers, 1975. Reagor, P. Delinquency, socialization, and type of social reinforcement. Adolescence, 1973, ( 30 ) 225-245. Repp, A., Deitz, D., Boles, S., Deitz, S. & Repp, C. Differences among common m ethods for calculating observer agreement. Journal of Apolied Behavior Analysis, 1976, 2. ( 1 ) : 109-113. Resnik, J. The effectiveness of a brief communications skills program involving facilitative responding and self-disclosure for student volunteers in college residence halls. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Florida, 1972. Rhodes, W. & Tracy, M ( Eds.). A study of child variance, Vo l. I, Conceptual models. A nn Arbor, M ichi gan: Th e Un iversit y of M ichigan Press, 1974.

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144 Rogers, C. Client-centered therapy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1951 Rogers, C. Persons or science? A philosophical question. American Psychologist, 1955, _l_q, ( 7), 267-278. Rogers, C. On becoming a person. Boston: H ou ghton Miffli n Co., 1961. Rogers, C. The interpersonal relationship: The core of guidance. Harvard Education Review, 1962, 32, 416-429. Rogers, C. Freedom to learn. Columbus, Ohio: Char les E. Merrill, 1969 Rogers, C. Can schools grow persons? Educational Leader ship, 1971, 29 ( 31, 215-217, Rogers, D. The psychology of adolescence. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1977, Rosenthal, R. Experimenter effects in behavioral researcr. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1976. Rowzee, J. The effects of communication skill training on low socio-economic level underachieving secondary students' facilitative communication and self-concept levels. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Mis sissippi, 1976. Rustad, K. Teaching counseling skills to adolescents: A co~nitive-developmental approach to psychological education. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Minn esota, 1974. Ryan, M. & Varenhorst, B. Middle/jun ior high school counselors' corner. Elementary School Guidance and Counseling, 1973, ( 1), 54 -57. Schweisheimer, W & Wa lber g, H. A peer counseling experi ment: High school students as small-group leaders. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1976, 23 ( 4), 398-401. Scott, N Beyond assertiveness training: A problem solving approach. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 1979, 57 (9), 450-452. Serrano, A., McDonald, E., Goolishian, H., M acGregar, R. and Ritchie, A. Adolescent maladjustment and family dynamics. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1962, ~. 89 7-901.

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145 Shaver, J. & N uhn, D The effectiveness of tutori n g under-achievers in reading and writing. The Journal of Educational Research, 1971, .-2. ( 3), 107-112. Sidman, M Tactics of scientific research: Evaluating experimental data in psychology N ew York: Basic Books, Inc., 1960. Smith, P. & Austrin, H. Socialization as related to delinquency classification. Psychological Reports, 1974, 34, 677-678. Speisman, L. Relative effectiveness of short term facil itative communication trainin g on secondary students' self-concept. Doctoral Dissertation, U niversity of M ississippi, 1 9 72. Sprinthall, N & Erickson, V. Learning psychology by doing: G uidance through the curricul u m. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 1 9 74, 52 ( 6 ) 396-40 Stoffer, D. Investi g ation of positive behavioral chan g e as a f u nction of genuineness, nonpossessive war m th, and empathic u nderstanding. The Jo u rnal of Educat i onal Researc h 1970, 63 ( 5 l 225-22 8 Strain, P., Cooke, T. & Apolloni, T. Teaching exceptional children. N ew York: Academic Press, 1 97 6. Strain, P. & S h ores, R. Additional comments on multiple baseline desi g ns in instructional research. Am erican Journal of M ental Deficiency, 1979, 84 ( 3), 229-234. Sulzer-Azaroff, B. & M ayer, G. Aoplying behavior-analysis with children and youth. N ew Yrok: Holt, R inehar t & W inston, 1 9 77. Swanson, H. & Reinert, H. Children in conflict. St. Louis: C. V. M osby Co., 1 9 7 9 Truax, G. The process of g r o up psychotherapy. Psycholog ical M onogram, 1961, TI, N o. 4. Truax, C. & Carkhuff, R. ror better or worse: The pro cess of psychotherapeutic personality change. In Recent adva n ces in behavior cha n ge. M ontreal: M cGill University Press, 1 9 63. Truax, C. & Carkhuff, R. The experimental manipulation of therapeutic conditions. Journal of Consulting Psychol o gy, 1965, 29, 1191 24.

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146 Truax, C. & Carkhuff, R. Introduction to counseling and psychotherapy: Training and practice. Chicago: Aldine, 1966. Truax, C. & Carkhuff, R. Toward effective counseling and psychotherapy: Training and practice. Chicago: Aldine, 1967. Vassas, S. The utilization of peer influence. The School Counselor, 1971 1. ( 3) 209. Vriend, T. High-performing inner-city adolescents assist low-performing peers in counseling groups. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 1969, 47 (9), 897-904. Wallbrown, F., Fremont, T., Nelson, E., W ilson, J. & Fischer, J. Emotional disturbance or social misper ception? An important classroom m anagement question. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 1979, .l1_ ( 10) 11-14. Walter, G. The relationship of teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and respect to pupil classroom behaviors. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Florida, 1977, Wehr, S. The effects of assertive training on the per fromance of highly anxious adolescents. Doctoral Dissertation, Georgia State University, 1978. Weiner, I. Psychological disturbance in adolescence. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1970. Wittmer, J. The effects of counseling and tutoring on attitudes and achievement of seventh grade under achievers. The School C ounselor, 1969, 16 ( 4), 287290. Wittmer, J. & Myrick, R. Facilitative teaching: Theory and practice. Pacific Palisades, California: Goodyear Publishing Co., 1974, Wolman, B. & Nagel, E. ( Eds. } Princioles and approaches. Inc., 1965. Scientific p sychology: New York: Basic Books, Wright, R. Analysis of effects of g roup assertive training in high school males. Doctoral Dissertation, Purdue University, 1978. Wunderlin, R. The effects of communication training on verbal communication and relationship ratings of parents and adolescents. Doctoral Dissertation, Un versity of Wis consin, 1973.

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14 7 Zabel, R. Recognition of emotions in facial expressi o ns o f emotionally disturbed and non-disturbed children. Doctoral Dissertation, University of M innesota, 1977, Zunker, Vernon & Brown, William. Comparative effective ness of student and professional counselors, Personnel and Guidance Journal, 1966, 44 (7) 7 38-7 4 3

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH David L. Slade was born October 27, 1947 in Leonard town, Maryland. He graduated from Towson State College (now Towson State University) in Towson, M aryland,in 1 971 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in psychology. After gradu ation, he served as a Peace Corps Volunteer in the Truk D i strict of Micronesia. His Peace Corps experience included teaching and teacher-training. In 1975, David received his Master of Science degree in special education from the U niversity of South Fl o rida. His main emphasis was the education of the emotionally handicapped. Fr o m 1975 to the fall of 1978 he w as employed by the Pinellas County School System as a teacher o f the emotionally handicapped and team-leader of an elementary emotionally handicapped program. David attended the University of Florida from September 1978 to December of 1 980 as a doctoral studen t in special education. His m ajor emphasis was behavi o r disorders with a minor in research and administration. i 48

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degre~octor of Philosophy. "'rn A ex~" Professor of Educational Administration and Supervision I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation a~d is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degrewor&~ilosvp~y. R~AlgozzT'!(b~ Associate Professor Special Education I certify t hat I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly ~ re sentation ~nd is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Steve O lejn" Assistant Professor of Educational Foundations

PAGE 159

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Professor of Special Education This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Department of Special Education in the College of Education and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. December, 1980 and Research