Citation
Search for yesterday

Material Information

Title:
Search for yesterday a history of Levy County, Florida
Creator:
Levy County Archives Committee (Fla.)
Place of Publication:
Bronson, Fla
Publisher:
Levy County Archives Committee
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Edition:
Chapter 22, June, 2002
Physical Description:
28 volumes : ; 28 cm +

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Subjects / Keywords:
History -- Levy County (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Biography -- Levy County (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Genealogy -- Levy County (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Florida -- Levy County ( fast )
Genre:
Biography. ( fast )
Genealogy. ( fast )
History. ( fast )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Biography ( fast )
Genealogy ( fast )
History ( fast )

Notes

General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
Includes index as v.29.
General Note:
"A Bicentennial publication."
General Note:
Chapter three has title: Slowpoke. Chapter nine has title: The High Sheriff.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Levy County Archives Committee. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
024053741 ( ALEPH )
06316718 ( OCLC )
00711645 ( LCCN )
Classification:
F317.L6 S44 1977 ( lcc )
975.9/77 ( ddc )

UFDC Membership

Aggregations:
Florida Family and Community History

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Search 7o1 yeteiday


A History
of
Levy County, Florida



Chapter Twenty-Two



Published By The
Levy County Archives Committee
Sponsored by the Levy County Board of Commissioners June, 2002
Bronson, Florida

A Bicentennial Publication
0 Levy County Archives Committee, 2002




















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2018 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries














https://archive.org/details/searchforyesterd2220levy













Dedication

This chapter is dedicated to Gene Osteen for his work in preserving the history of Levy County


A















Harry Eugene "Gene" Osteen, born 13 September, 1938, was the second and last child of H. E. "Kias" Osteen and his wife Alma Adell Jones. Lou Eva Osteen Keen was the first, born 20 November, 1927. Both children were born during the time period their parents operated Osteen's Service Station, Garage, & Cafd at the crossroads in Bronson, FL. Gene attended public school at Bronson and was in the 1956 graduation class of Bronson High School. He attended the University of Florida where he received a Bachelor of Arts in Education in 1960 and a Master of Education in 1964. After teaching four years at Union County High School, Lake Butler, FL and one year at Charlotte Junior High, Punta Gorda, FL, he worked 34 2 years in The Farmers & Merchants Bank of Trenton (merged into Capital City Bank, 1997) from July, 1965 until his retirement in 2000. For 27 years, he served as president of the bank.


Gene grew up in Bronson and except for the period during WWII when the family lived in Jacksonville, FL ("Kias" worked as an airplane mechanic, Naval Air Station), the several months spent in medical facilities and the ten months he taught in Punta Gorda, he has never lived further than an hour's drive from there. The area of specialty of his degrees from the U of F was Social Studies, with concentration in history, which has both contributed to, as well as enhanced, his keen interest in the history of Levy County. Since his college days in the late 1950's, he has gathered genealogical data not only of his family, but also of other families with connections to the county. For these reasons, he joined the Levy County Archives Committee in 1999. He authored several of the articles in this chapter of "Search For Yesterday". The compilation of the entire chapter, using materials provided by others, is to his credit -or blame, as the case may be but under the supervision, guidance, direction and approval by the entire Committee.








THE ALLEN AND MARY ELIZABETH GASKINS OSTEEN FAMILY IN LEVY COUNTY, FLORIDA By Harry Eugene Osteen
June, 2002


Allen Osteen was born in Camden Co, GA, 10 July, 1814, the oldest child of 8 surviving children born to John D. Osteen and his wife Martha Parrish, a daughter of Josia Parrish. John D. and his family, as well as his brother James & family moved from Camden Co, GA to the area now known as L ake City, Columbia Co, FL in 1823-1824 (this per John D's deposition regarding the Arredondo Spanish Land Grant Claim). Allen would have been about 10 years old when he moved to what was at that time Alachua County, Florida.

John D's brother, James Osteen, had a son named Hezekiah Ellis Osteen (which is the first with this name of which I am aware) who moved from Alachua County eventually into Volusia County, where the town named for him, Osteen, now exists. James's first wife was Sarah Ellis, which I suspect to have been the origin of the son's middle name. The wife of this H. E. Osteen, Susannah Gaskins, was a sister of Allen's wife, Mary Elizabeth Gaskins. This first H. E. and Allen were first cousins who married sisters.

Allen married Mary Elizabeth Gaskins, (a daughter of Fisher Gaskins by his second wife, Mary Lacey), at Fort Hancock (near present day Lake City) on May 30, 1839, during the period when the Florida Seminole War was still "hot". There were still many Indians living nearby which were raiding the areas of north central Florida. They resented very much the "white man" taking over what they considered to be their lands. Allen served at least three known hitches in the Florida Militia, which was engaged in the Indian troubles: Oct. 4, 1836 to Dec. 4, 1836
Apr. 6, 1838 to July 22, 1838
Aug. 22,1840 to Nov.29, 1840
For this service he later made claim for Bounty Land, obtaining 80 acres in present Levy County, which he assigned to William Yearty, his friend and fellow pioneer, before ever taking possession. Allen's widow, Elizabeth, also applied for and was granted a Widow's Pension (for widows of deceased soldiers of the Seminole War) of $8.00 per month, beginning July 27, 1892 and last claimed 4 Aug., 1894, after which she died.

Allen and Elizabeth Osteen were members of the Providence Baptist Church in Columbia County (the Providence Baptist Church appears to have been the 2"d Baptist Church to have been established in East Florida, July of 1833) and on July 12, 1845 they took a letter of "dismission" from the church and moved to Marion Co, in the area today known as Romeo, but then perhaps known as Morganville. A couple of months later, on the 13 and 14th of September, Allen's parents (John D. & Martha) as well as his sister Sarah (Wickwire) & family, and his brother (John) Abraham & wife Rachel (Hancock) & family also took letters of "dismission" from the same church, moving to the same area of Marion County. This area borders the southeastern edge of Levy County, and the families often moved back and forth across the county line into/out of Levy & Marion Counties. In fact, Allen purchased 40 acres of land in Sec. 8, T.12 S, R. 18 E (which is west of present day Raleigh, Levy Co) in Oct. of 1853, paying $1.25 per acre (total of $50.05 paid). In 1960, I personally interviewed Perry M. Osteen at his home in Gulf Hammock,







FL. Perry told me his father (Allen S. Osteen) had related to him that while he was young growing up in Levy/Marion Counties, the family would move from the home place at "Romeo" to another home near Raleigh in their efforts to "rotate" (lay fallow) their farms. Often, when returning to one or the other of their places, bears would have broken into their corncribs to "raid" stored corn. I also recall my father telling me the story his mother (Sarah Frances Medlin) told him of growing up in Devil's Hammock when the panthers would often chase the dogs under their house (homes were customarily built on blocks to aid in "air conditioning") when they (the dogs) had been fed in the yard after supper at night.

Allen and his family was listed in the 1840 U.S. Census in Columbia County, in the 1850 Census in Marion County, in the 1860 Census in Levy County, and in the 1870 Census in Marion Co. Allen died Dec. 30, 1877 in Levy County, so the widow was listed as head of the household in the 1880 Census, Marion Co. She must have moved back to "Romeo" to be near where her daughter Susannah Elizabeth (Markham) lived, as did other members of the family. In 1887, she filed for and was granted an 80 acre Homestead in Sec. 2, T 15 S, R 18 E, Morganville, FL, just across the county line of southeast Levy County.


Following is a list of the children of Allen Osteen & Mary
1. Mary Jane b abt 1843 d 1894
2. Solomon "Sol" b 11 Feb, 1846 d 6 Aug, 1921 3. John Fisher "Fish" b abt 1849 d 13 Nov. 1900


4. Hezekiah E.
5. Alexander David
6. Allen S.


7. Susannah Elizabethb


8. Martha A.
9. Miriam


1850/1851 abt 1853 Apr. 1854



abt 1858

1865/1867 2 Mar. 1869


d 22 May 1876 d bef Jul. 1900 d 2 Feb. 1925



d abt 1899

d aft 1880 d 17 Sep. 1952


Elizabeth Gaskins: m Unknown m Sarah Frances Medlin m 1. Jane Ann Elizabeth Medlin
2. Milisa Gaston
3. Maggie M. Long m Mary Jane McLeod m Ann Farbia (sp?) Roberts m 1. Nancy Caroline Markham
2. Sarah Frances A.
Morgan (Hurst) m Andrew Jackson Markham
m Never/died in childhood m 1. J. H. Beach
2. James R. Home


Child number 1 of Allen & Elizabeth, Mary Jane, was born about 1843, likely in Columbia County. Little of her is known by me, but she appears to have had a daughter, Elizabeth C., born August 4, 1867, who married Stephen S. Walker June 2, 1889, having at least three (3) sons and one (1) daughter to my knowledge.

Child number 2 of Allen & Elizabeth Osteen was my grandfather, Solomon "Sol" Osteen, born Feb, 11, 1846, possibly in Marion County shortly after the family left Providence, Columbia Co. However, in his Confederate Pension Application, signed 9 July, 1907, he states the county of his birth was Columbia. He married Sarah Frances Medlin, 2nd daughter of Willis Robert Medlin and Sophronia Washington Davis (see family of Zachria Davis in Cpt. 21). "Sol"


b
b
b


b
b








and "Fannie" Osteen name). These were: 1. Sophronal Elmire
2. Ella Mary


3. Martha Frances

4. Luvada
5. Lora Jane
6. Hezekiah Ellis


had 5 daughters and 1 son (my father, Hezekiah Ellis the 3rd to bear this


d
d


16 Dec, 1918 8 Aug, 1948


d 12 Jan, 1949


d
d
d


11 Jun, 1943 18 Jun, 1929 24 Sep, 1953


m James Franklin Smith m 1. Finley Theodore Smith
2. 0. Z. Davis 3. (?) Chance
m Jasper Washington
Baldree
m Francis Marion Faircloth m Never
m Alma Adell Jones


b 29 Dec, 1869 b 30 Jan, 1874


b 12 May, 1880


b
b
b


4 Apr, 1883 20 May,1886 11 Apr, 1891


This is a photo of Solomon 'Sol' Osteen and his wife Sarah Frances "Fanny' Medlin, belived to have been made at their home near Bronson. While the exact date is unkown to me, it is believed to have been made in ca 1915-1920.


WI!
//


Shown next is a photo of the home of "Sol" and "Fanny" Osteen, located about 4 miles SW of Bronson. The camera was facing about NW and was taken from just outside of the yard fence which separated the yard from the road that ran from Bronson to Gulf Hammock, by way of Wekiva Springs. The well casing for the pump, which can be seen at the front porch, is still intact today (about 112 years after being put down) and is used to provide water for a hunting camp located at the site. As there appears to be clothes on a line, a wash basin on the shelf and








the window open, I would suspect it to have been occupied at the time. While I don't know the date, I would suspect it to have been about 1920.


N4












I4''


A>


4


Child number 3 of Allen & Elizabeth, John Fisher "Fish" Osteen married, first, another
daughter of Willis Robert & Sophronia W. Medlin, Jane Ann Elizabeth "Carrie" Medlin and they had 6 children known to me, all reared in the Levy County/Marion County "rotation". These were:
1. Winifred b 28 Oct, 1868 d 14 Apr, 1886 m Never
2. Harvey R. b 22 Apr, 1874 d 26 Jan, 1908 m Carrie Holston
3. Lou Vinia b 7 Mar, 1876 d 1957 m Daniel Jacob Munden
4. Harrison H. b 4 Mar, 1878 d aft Apr, 1955 m Ila Vesta Johnson
5. Idella b 22 Jun, 1880 d ?? m J. D. Pendarvis
6. Laura F. b 10 Nov,1882 d aft Jun, 1962 m Jerome M.(Pump)
Stephens
"Carrie" died in 1882 and John F. next appears to have married a Milisa Gaston of Georgia, having one son, John Allen Osteen, b 1 Feb., 1885 and died 29 Dec., 1942 (John Allen appears to have been born, reared and died in Georgia). John Fisher next married Maggie M. Long, having
2 children, both reared in Levy Co. These were:
1. Leander E. b 30 May, 1895 d 23 Apr, 1965 m Geneva Berryhill
2. Rosa Lee b 17 Sep, 1897 d ?? m ???
John Fisher Osteen died in November of 1900.


7








Child number 4 of Allen & Elizabeth, Hezekiah E. Osteen (likely the 2"d to bear this
name), was born after the date of the 1850 Census but either in late 1850 or early 1851, married Mary Jane McLeod of Levy County and had a daughter & son, believed to have been named:
1. Caley b abt 1874 d ??? m ???
2. James W. b abt 1876 d ??? m ???
This Hezekiah E. was killed in May of 1876, and his widow, Mary Jane (Osteen) married Samuel B. Wade in Levy Co. on Sept. 22, 1880, and it is my understanding that the two children of Hezekiah took the last name of Wade.

Child number 5 of Allen & Elizabeth, Alexander David Osteen married Ann Farbia (sp) Roberts, and their children were reared in the Romeo area of Marion County. These children were:
1. Josephine b 27 Oct, 1881 d ??? m Ephram Bratcher
2. Kirbie Lee b May,1883 d 24 Jan, 1968 m Marie Isabell Schuster
3. Manuel N. b 17 May,1885 d Oct, 1967 m Ruth Williams
4. Edna J. b Aug, 1889 d ??? m John McLeod
5. Jessie Eugene b 16 May, 1891 d 5 Jan, 1953 m Riley Thomas Dennis
6. Hosie A. b Sep, 1894 d 6 Oct, 1918 m Never
7. Otto b Sep, 1896 d ??? m Carrie (Carey) Hunt

The 6th child of Allen & Elizabeth, Allen S., married, first, Nancy Caroline Markham, having 4 known children, who were reared in the Romeo area. These were:
1. Margaret V. b abt 1872 d abt 1918 m Giles U. Markham
2. Jarliss Cromer b Mar,1877 d abt 1943 m Georgia A. Roberts
3. Clementine b 6 Nov,1878 d 9 Sep, 1954 m 1. Thomas Franklin
Morgan
2. William Peter
Sparkman
3. George Washington
Pendarvis
4. Livonia Caledonie b 8 Mar, 1880 d 15 Jul, 1962 m Willard Lee Roberts Allen S. & Nancy C. were divorced (December, 1885, a rare occurrence for the time!) and Allen S. next married the widow of Joseph Hurst, Sarah Frances A. Morgan (Hurst), having one child, Perry Malcolm Osteen (who for a number of years was a deputy sheriff in Levy Co).
1. Perry Malcolm b 11 Oct, 1895 d 25 Oct, 1960 m Maie Sapp
One of Mrs. Hurst's children by her first marriage was Precious Adeline Hurst, the mother of A. M. "Doc" Smith, who for a number of years operated a road grader for the Levy County Road Department. In his later working years, he did the same for the International Paper Company. "Doc" married Mabell Claire Faircloth, oldest child of Luvada Osteen & Frances Marion Faircloth; "Doc" & Claire were the grandparents of current Sheriff Johnny Smith (elected in 2000).









This is a photo of brothers Allen S. Osteen (on left) and Solomon 'Sol' Osteen. While the exact date of the picture is unknown to me, it is estimated to have been about 1915-1920. It is believed to have been made at the home of "Sol" near Bronson.


Child number 7, Susannah Elizabeth, married Andrew Jackson Markham and lived in the Romeo area of Marion County until her death about 1899. Their children were:


1. Mattie Elizabeth b abt


1880


2. Joseph Absalom b 20 Oct, 1882 3. William J."Bill" b 20 Nov,1886 4. Arthur Paul "Art" b 1887
5. Early b abt 1889
6. Jiles Alexander"Alec"b 13 Mar, 1892 7. Robertie Miriam"Bertie b 7 Oct,1894


d abt 1954


d
d
d
d
d
d


10 May,1958 21 Nov, 1935 13 Nov, 1963 ???(young?)
4 Nov, 1970


m 1. William Pendarvis
2. George Washington
Pendarvis m Mary J. (?) m Josie Brown m ???


m
m
m


Never
Beatrice Hopping Alexander L. Long,Jr. (b ca 1883)


8. Allen b abt 1896 d abt 1898
9. Oscar Quinton b 27 Mar,1897 d 2 Nov, 1972
Susannah Elizabeth's great great granddaughter, Linda Daniel Collector of Levy County in 2001.


m Never
m Ruby Viola Sunmerall (Fugate), would become Tax


Child number 8, Martha A., was listed in the 1880 Census, Marion Co, as "Maimed,
crippled, bedridden or otherwise disabled", therefore because of this listing and the fact that no other record of this child has been found by me, I have assumed she died in childhood.

The last child, Miriam, is the only one of my grandfather's siblings I ever met. As a very young child in the 1940's, I recall going with my parents to visit in her home in Jacksonville, FL. I believe the cause of me recalling this meeting was the fact that she dipped snuff! She had an oak twig which she chewed (resulting in the end being "sprayed" out) which she would moisten in her mouth, dip into the snuff can and then place in the corner of her mouth, spitting from time to time into a coffee can partially filled with sand sitting on the floor beside her rocking chair. This event intrigued me so much that I have remembered it clearly for the past 55 or so years. Miriam appears to have been married at least twice, but only one child seems to have survived to adulthood: James Harley Beach, b 27 Sep, 1894 and d 24 Dec, 1962.


I










Members of this Osteen family (extended & in-laws) have been a part of Levy County since its formation in 1845, serving in both appointed and elected positions, as jurors, road "commissioners" and in numerous other capacities. Included (but not exclusive) are: former Sheriff L. L. Johns (grandson of a brother of Allen); former County Commissioners Lovett Smith (ggs of Allen) & his son, Elmer Smith; former Deputy Sheriff Perry M. Osteen (son of Allen S.); former Clerk of the Court Mac McKoy (gggs of Allen); present Tax Collector, Linda Fugate (ggggd of Allen); former educator/school administrator Harvey C. Markham (ggs of Allen); and present Sheriff, Johnny Smith (ggggs of Allen). My other grandfather, Benjamin L. Jones was the "Captain" of Levy County's prison camp, helping to build and maintain some of the county's roads during the first quarter of the 20h Century, including the grade from Janney to Rosewood. Shortly before my mother's death in 1986, she related to me how her father had obtained a contract to cut and deliver to the railhead the poles used for the first phone line to Cedar Keys. As the poles were cypress trees taken from pond areas, he used teams of oxen to draw out the trees after felling. It seems that the split hoofs of oxen gave them better traction in boggy areas than the single hoofs of horses. Mother related to me how she recalled him feeding these oxen at night by pouring into feed troughs 100 pound bags of "snapped corn", dried beet pulp and cotton seed meal. There doubtless are many other "participants" of Levy County from the family, but these are just a few of which I am aware. In this article, I have not attempted to annotate each time members of the family have been mentioned in prior chapters of "Search For Yesterday, A History of Levy County", but a review of the same will reveal numerous instances where they have played rolls in its early history.

A study of the surviving records of the very early days of Florida after its transfer from Spanish control to the United States reveals many and frequent conflicts between the American settlers and the inhabitants of Indians in the period from 1821 until about 1842. The Osteen family, as well as many of their in-laws, was often involved in these conflicts, as indicated by the following facts:
1. SILAS BONNELL, husband of Allen's sister Sarah Ann Osteen, was killed in a conflict with Indians in 1834/1835 near Black Creek.
2. JOHN ALFORD OSTEEN, believed to have been a cousin to John D. Osteen as well as married to Mary Ann Parrish (sister to John D.'s wife, Martha), was killed by Indians in his home (near Fort Macomb on the Suwannee River) shortly after returning thereto "after chasing the Indians for several day(s)" on December 5, 1836. His pregnant wife was witness to this incident, "seeing him shot down & dying on the floor" of their home.
3. Shortly after the outbreak of the Second Seminole War (1835-1842) Congress authorized the issue of rations to "unfortunate sufferers" who had fled their homesteads to the relative safety of a few armed camps. One of the largest of these was the military depot at Garey's Ferry on Black Creek, eventually named Fort Heileman. As small raiding parties of Seminoles and their black allies continually slipped past Army and militia patrols to strike at isolated targets, the suffering of the settlers increased, as did the emergency relief program. Before the war's end, the aid program would embrace a large part of the population east of the Suwannee River. In a roll, dated July 18, 1837, of the inhabitants drawing rations at Garey's Ferry, we find the family of JOHN D. & MARTHA OSTEEN, including: ELIZABETH, ALLEN, JOHN A(braham), WINEFRED, MIRAM(sp), DAVID & MARGARET. (The daughter Sarah Ann was widowed and had remarried-see # I above-and therefore not living with her parents at the time).








4. JAMES OSTEEN, brother of John D., was killed by Indians in a raid of his home east of
Alligtor Lake (now known as Lake City, FL) on May 28, 1839.
5. Many of the early Militia rolls of volunteers engaged in the struggle with the Indians included most adult male members of the Osteen clan, along with their "allied" (through marriage) families.

During the Civil War, Sol Osteen, a mere teenager at the time, served in Capt. E. J.
Lutterloh's Company, Munnerlynn's Battallion and was wounded, but not of such severity as to cause permanent disability. In his Application for Pension, regarding any injury he may have suffered, he states "None that permanently disables me, but I was hit with three balls". Further, he states "I was in the Battle of number 4, Ft. Farmer, Day Landing and Cottrell's Landing". My father told me how his father, "Sol", had related to him about his military unit being in training near Fort Fanning and being ordered to swim the Suwannee River, taking rifle, shot and keeping their powder dry. The third trip across put him so far downstream that it took him the better part of a day to walk back to the point at which he began-and then he was on the north side of the river and had to be boated back to base on the south side! Both Allen and his father John D., as well as other members of the family served in the Florida Militia (see # 5 above) during the Seminole Indian Wars. Most of Allen's grandsons served in World War I, and I feel sure many more descendants served in World War II, as well as subsequent conflicts. Michael S. Osteen of the Allen S. branch of the family was killed in Viet Nam during that conflict.

While there were other branches of the Osteen family that moved to Florida shortly after the arrival of John D. and his brother James, the exact relationship of them to my branch of the family is still unproven at the time of this writing. However, it is my suspicion that all of these branches were kin one to the other, but definite proof of this has yet to be established. Early Florida counties of Alachua, Columbia, Lafayette, Levy and Taylor (as well as their subsequent divisions) had many citizens of ALL Osteen lines, including their allied in-laws, such as Bryant, Cason, Douglas, Ellis, Gaskins, Parrish, Prevatt, Roberts, Walker, and Weeks, just to name a few. John Osteen (NOT my John D.) and his wife Ada Weeks is one such example of another very early settler in the Columbia County area, with many descendants of his line moving into Alachua, Levy and Gilchrist Counties, their families living there even today. Most of the early rolls of the Florida Militia, as pointed out above, listed many of these early pioneers, dedicated to the protection of their homes and families. They helped cut the road right-of-ways, build and maintain the ferries & bridges, all while providing a living for, as well as protecting, their families. All in what must surely have been an often hostile, hot, humid, insect-infested (not to mention bears, panthers & wildcats!) frontier of sparsely settled homesteads in a day when modem "necessities" such as air conditioning, screened windows, telephones, radios and rapid modes of transportation were not even dreamed of. Did they have their faults, failures and human weakness? Rest assured they did, for they were only human, in spite of their accomplishments. But who are we today, while sitting in our nice comfortable air conditioned homes, watching the latest news flash on our wide-screen televisions bringing the signal from a distant satellite, to sit in judgment of these forefathers (and mothers!!) who carved out of a wilderness the place we now call home, Levy County, Florida?

Sources I have used to write this article include, but are not limited to, the following:
1. U.S. Census records.
2. Family Bible records.










3. Widows Pension Application records.
4. Bounty Land Claim Application records.
5. Homestead Application records.
6. Minutes of The Old Providence Baptist Church.
7. Letters and research data from other family members.
8. Documents from the National Archives, Washington, DC.
9. "The Florida Genealogist".
10. The series by Folks Huxford, (and the Huxford Genealogical Society, Inc.) "Pioneers of Wiregrass
Georgia".
11. The Huxford Genealogical Society, Inc. "Magazine", Homerville, GA. 12. The series, "Search For Yesterday, A History of Levy County", by the Levy County Archives Committee. 13. My personal interviews of members of the family, most of which are now deceased. 14. My own personal recollections of family history as told to me by others of the family. 15. Kathryn Harris, Williston, FL. 16. "Cemeteries of Levy and Other Counties", by Lindon J. Lindsey, Chiefland, FL.


Pictured below is the service station/garage built by my dad, H. E. "Kias" Osteen about 1926. It was located on the NE corner of the present junction of highways Alt 27 and FL 24. From left to right is shown a gas delivery truck, driver (unknown), a believed relative of my mom, my dad (holding a hat beside his leg), and Leroy "Dude" Glover leaning against the post. At the far right there are two more unidentified individuals.




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&LEK


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5









Osteen's Service Station in Bronson was remodeled soon after 1926, with an addition in which my mother, Alma Jones Osteen ran a restaurant. Shown standing and leaning against the post is my father, "Kias" Osteen. To the left, but not in the picture, was an "ice house" where blocks of ice were stored for use of the restaurant and for sale to the public. The stairs on the right of the building led to the second floor where the family lived. The eight (8) windows shown above the name of the business opened to the space called a "sleeping porch". While the upstairs did have a bathroom, there was no kitchen, as the meals were taken in the restaurant located below. Below the staircase was an entrance to a garage where my dad worked on automobiles. I was born in 1938 and the business was sold in 1939. The two-story apartment building, built behind and to the left of the business, was turned around and moved across the highway, being placed beside our new home, built about 1940. The apartment building stands today where it was moved with round polls and pulled with Model A and Model T vehicles. The home was moved by my wife & me in 1988 about 1 miles out of town, remodeled and is today our residence. After my parents sold the business, it was operated by Walter & Jessie Duden, Lyn & Louise Williams and Lamar Williams, up until the 1960's. Lint Moring purchased the property and had the building torn down in the early '60's.









Shown below is a picture of H. E.(Kias) Osteen standing in front of Osteen's Service
Station with the race car he built, using a Ford Model T engine (with an overhead valve system) and transmission. This photo was taken ca 1929. The car was raced at Daytona Beach in the era of late 1920's-early 1930's. During the late 1930's, he disassembled the racer, storing the motor in wooden crates, wrapped in newspaper and kept in a barn at our farm. In the mid 1990's, I gave the motor and what few parts we were able to salvage to Joe Blackert (Blackert's Machine Shop north of Chiefland), who is in the process of restoring the race car as near the original as possible. We are looking forward to seeing the car once again "run", even if not on the beach at Daytona!


Volvo








THE RISE & FALL OF CEDAR KEY
By Harry Eugene Osteen
March, 2002

Cedar Key had been the choice of David Levy Yulee for his Gulf of Mexico port and terminal for the Florida Railroad, which was completed on March 1,1861, running 156 miles from Fernandina on the east, through Baldwin and Gainesville to the Gulf of Mexico. This gave a deep water port on both sides of the state and provided a "land bridge" for the transportation of materials from either side of the state to the other without the long and dangerous voyage around the Keys at the state's extreme southern end. This meant that goods both from and bound for the Mississippi River and points along the Eastern Seaboard of the United States could shorten the transport time considerably. The completion of the line in 1861 was just in time for war action. The Florida Railroad was hit hard during the War Between the States. Cedar Key was occupied by Federal troops on January 15, 1862, at which time the rail station was burned, as were five schooners & three sloops, all loaded in preparation to run the blockade. A warehouse of naval stores was destroyed and the telegraph wires of the railroad were cut. In March of 1862, Union gunboats took Fernandina and for all practical purposes, the Florida Railroad was put out of service. Rails were stripped from the line north of Baldwin under Confederate orders, to be used on another line. On February 8, 1864, Federal troops raided Baldwin, doing considerable damage there. On July 29, 1864 another Federal force landed at Cedar Key, moved inland along the railroad tearing up the track and burning the bridge across the Waccasassa River. Starke was raided on August 17 and the railroad station, cars and a warehouse full of supplies burned. A report by the engineer of the railroad after the war ended described the condition of the line's properties thusly: (Only described here will be the Levy County portion). "At Cedar Keys the large railroad wharf, the warehouse, and depot structures are burned and destroyed; the trestles crossing from the Keys to the mainland, nearly a mile in extent, rotten to such a degree that they will have to be rebuilt before trains can cross again; the structures crossing the water openings west of Bronson entirely rotten, so as to necessitate entire rebuilding; the structures between Bronson and Baldwin are in a very inferior condition."

While Yulee was not able to resurrect his railroad after the War Between the States ended, the line was merged, consolidated and otherwise changed in name, eventually becoming what was known as the Seaboard Air Line Railroad. In 1890 a line of the Florida Central & Peninsular Railroad (one of the names in the line of changes) was extended south from Waldo to Tampa, and in 1893 it built a line north to Savannah. The Jacksonville-Tallahassee route had opened in 1860 and eventually was known as the Florida Central & Western Railroad. These two lines crossed at Baldwin and the F C & W would eventually become a part of the Seaboard Air Line, providing connections out of and into the state at both its western and northern borders.

A March 16, 1881 Time Table & Train Schedule for the Atlantic, Gulf & West India Transit Railroad, (the 1872 successor of the Florida Railroad) listed the following miles(from Fernandina) and arrival/departure times: (return, from Cedar Key)
Gainesville 98 miles 4:43 P.M Cedar Key 0 miles 6:15 A.M.
Archer 113 miles 5:36 P.M. Rosewood 10 miles 6:54 A.M.
Bronson 122 miles 6:04 P.M. Otter Creek 21 miles 7:43 A.M.
Otter Creek 134 miles 6:59 P.M. Bronson 33 miles 8:23 A.M.








Rosewood 145 miles 7:34 P.M. Archer 42 miles 8:51 A.M.
Cedar Key 155 miles 8:15 P.M. Gainesville 57 miles 9:46 A.M.
At Cedar Key, there were steamship connections to Pensacola, FL, New Orleans, LA, Key West FL, and Havana, Cuba. At Gainesville, there were stage line connections to Ocala, then to Tampa. Given the listing of these stations and times, it might be safe to assume the rail gauge from Cedar Key to Gainesville was narrow gauge until the change to standard in about 1900.

The stations in Levy County along the Cedar Key branch, (beginning at Waldo) which provided passenger service (at one time or another) between about 1870 until the abandonment in 1932 were listed as:
28.4 Archer(Alachua Co); 32.1 Venables(originally called Albion) from ca 1896 to 1920; 34.6 Meredith from 1910 on; 37.7 Bronson from 1870 on; 40.2 Otella from ca 1922-1926; 43.7 Lennon (from ca 1915 on); 49.5 Otter Creek from 1870 on; 51.1 Ellzey from ca 1890 on; (mp?) Emett (only shown on the abandonment map); 59.3 Wylly from ca 1915 on; 60.7 Rosewood(originally called Palmetto from 1860 to ca 1876); 63.8 Sumner from 1915 on; 68.0 Lukens (ca 1915 to 1924 only) and, 70.9 Cedar Key, from 1870 on. The number before each station stop indicates the milepost marker on the line, starting at Waldo and ending at Cedar Key. It is believed that the listing of Emett was a fuel and water station, as the steam engines used on this line burned wood instead of coal. Local citizens were contracted to provide this fuel and to keep the water tanks filled. W. E. (William) Ellzey, a member of the pioneer family after which the town of Ellzey was named, stated that Emett came to be known as the "Collier" place and at one time a "boarding house" was located there. It later was known as the "Mack Hodge" place.

The branch from Archer to Eagle Mine was opened ca 1890. Sometime between 1906 and 1911 this line was extended 14 miles from Early Bird to Dunnellon, passing out of Levy County near present day Romeo. Stations along this portion of the line were listed as follows:(miles from Archer). 0.0 Archer; 4.5 Eve; 7.6 Raleigh; 9.5 Hodgson(originally called Gunnalsy until ca 1910); 11.6 Williston; 15.9 Montbrook; 19.4 Morriston (with a branch here, west to the Dutton Phosphate Co. at Acme Mines, FL, 1.0 mile); 24.3 Standard (called Standard Junction until mid 1920's); 27.1 Early Bird; 32.6 Hoyt; 37.1 Cocoewitch; and then Dunnellon next. This line was never planned as a passenger route, but considering the era and circumstances, there likely was such from 1890 until sometime between 1932 and 1936. Rather, this line was for freight and phosphate and since the nearest shipping port was Tampa, (note that Cedar Key was no longer in the running as a port) the line was completed into Tampa in 1925. Passenger service on this branch from Dunellon north ended ca 1935.

Now go back to about 1880 and enters Henry B. Plant with what would eventually become the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad. After the War Between the States ended in 1865, followed by the period known as "Reconstruction", the South suffered through hard times and much financial stress. However, by 1880 many parts of the South had begun to expand and recover all except Florida. Transportation was the key by which the interior of the state could be opened, allowing for the development of its true potentialities. However, the state treasury was empty and there was more than $1 million owed on its bond indebtedness. Nobody in Florida had that kind of money and no one else was stepping up to offer to invest in this wilderness of swamps, heat and mosquitoes! Not until a Philadelphian named Hamilton Disston









offered to fund the needed $1 million in exchange for four million acres of land, suddenly making Florida a place where people could do business.

Henry Plant quickly organized the Plant Investment Company with a carefully selected group of millionaire friends as stockholders. Two of these were Henry M. Flagler of the Standard Oil Trust and Henry Sanford, president of Adams Express Company. Flagler would eventually build the Florida East Coast Railroad along the eastern coast of Florida all the way down to Key West. So with ample funds at his disposal, Plant began his plan to open up the West Coast of Florida with a rail-steamship operation, which came to be called the Jacksonville, Tampa & Key West Line. However, Tampa was not his original selection for his West Coast port, Cedar Key was! It was already a proven deepwater port with a railhead terminal in existence, while Tampa was a fever-wracked village of 720 inhabitants. Cedar Key was noted for its oysters, which were expressed to all parts of the state and as far north as Louisville. From its port were shipped annually millions of feet of the cedar with which lead pencils were made. The Suwannee River's mouth was only a few miles away and it was navigable almost to the Georgia border. From the port, steamboats ran north up the Suwannee River, west to New Orleans, and south to Havana. Better still was the fact that the Florida Transit & Peninsular, a narrow gauge railroad (and a successor of Yulee's Florida Railroad) already had a line across the state, and it was in financial difficulty, and available for purchase!

Plant bought the Florida Transit & Peninsular. At least he thought he had it all, until he discovered the payment included everything except the terminal at Cedar Key! And the owners refused to sell it to him. Contemporary accounts assert the enraged Plant cried out "I'll wipe Cedar Key off the map! Owls will hoot in your attics and hogs will wallow in your deserted streets!" Blocked out of Cedar Key, Plant chose Tampa for his Gulf railhead and the rest is history.

Plant's plan was to come in from the Atlantic coast side at Jacksonville, set up a steamboat line from Jacksonville, through Palatka to Sanford (named for the Henry Sanford mentioned above). At Sanford, he purchased the South Florida Railroad, running from Sanford through Orlando to Kissimmee. While the line was bankrupt when Plant stepped in, it's charter carried with it a promise by the state to reward the company with 3,840 acres of state-held land for each mile of construction. On May 4, 1883, Plant acquired another company which had a franchise to build a railroad from Jacksonville to Tampa, through Gainesville and Ocala, for a state grant of 13,840 acres of state-held land for each mile of construction and the Jacksonville, Tampa & Key West Line was on its way!

By April, 1884, trains were running regular schedules between Tampa and Sanford, covering the 115 miles in four and one-half hours. On September 23, 1885, a fast mail train began regular runs from Jacksonville to Tampa on a 12 hour, 25 minute schedule. While the Florida Central & Peninsular Rail Road (S A L) had a line from Jacksonville thru Baldwin, Ocala and Wildwood on to Tampa by 1890, it could not match the speed and quality of the Plant line. Nor could it even approach the financial stability of the Plant System. State records indicate the following holdings by the Plant system of state land grants:
South Florid Railroad, 72,428 acres:
Jacksonville, Tampa & Key West Railroad, 1,474,129 acres:







Florida Southern Railroad, 2,655,482 acres.
The Plant Investment Company owned another 95,329 acres apart from its railroad holdings.

While all of this land was not owned at the same time, it did provide land for sale and therefore abundant money for expansion. Plant made the Key West part of his railroad's name reality by using the wealth made possible by the vast grants of land to establish the Plant Steamship Line from Tampa to Key West and Havana, Cuba. Operating with a U.S. Mail contract, they carried passengers and freight as well.

As a youth growing up in Bronson, my mother would often give me tasks to carry out on our "farm" located about a mile and a half out of town on what is today (2002) County Road 337. From time to time it would include work done by/with a man I knew as Lonnie Graham. I suspect him to have been in his mid-to-late 70's at the time, which was the latter part of the 1950's, so he would have been born perhaps in the 1880's. One day while we were taking a "break" in whatever task we had been assigned, he told me that as a young man he had worked on one of the crews which widened the railroad from (?) to Cedar Key (from narrow gauge to standard gauge), so I would suspect this to have taken place about the turn of the century (1900 or so). Further, he allowed as how the entire job was accomplished on the same day, so I suspect it must have been from Gainesville, but I do not know this to have been the case. Up until that time, all rolling stock on the Cedar Key branch would have had to stop at Gainesville if that in fact was where the narrow gauge track ended and all passengers and freight bound to or from Cedar Key had to be "switched" at the point of change in gauge, which was an inconvenience to say the least. However, after the line into Cedar Key was made "standard" to match the other portions of the S A L tracks, trains could make the complete trip to Jacksonville or other points north & west without the necessity of the change of rolling stock.

Even though his promise to "wipe Cedar Key off the map" and his prediction of "owls hooting in your attics and hogs wallowing in your deserted streets" did not come to full fruition, the railroad was abandoned from Cedar Key back to Archer in 1932, then from Archer to Waldo after the merger of the Seaboard Air Line and the Atlantic Coast Line railroads in 1967, becoming the Seaboard Coast Line Railroad, and eventually the CSX System. This marked the end of Florida's first cross-state rail line which had meant so much to the early development of Levy County. It had put Bronson on the map, causing the county seat to move from Levyville to Bronson in order to be "on the railroad". It had made Cedar Key the first well-known, important port on the Gulf of Mexico coast of Florida. And then it had been a contributor to the ultimate rise of Tampa as the center of both rail and ocean transportation on the west coast of Florida (and the ultimate demise of Cedar Key as such). We can't begin to imagine what Levy County would be today if Henry B. Plant had been able to acquire the port terminal at Cedar Key instead of having to opt for his second choice, that of Tampa.

SOURCES:
In the preparation of this article, liberal use of words, ideas, facts and sentences were taken from:
1) Articles published in the "Florida Trend" Magazine;
2) "The Historical Guide to North American Railroads" compiled by George H. Drury,













librarian of "Trains" Magazine;
3) "Florida's Promoters, The Men Who Made It Big", by Charles E. Harner; 4) "Florida Under Five Flags", by Rembert W. Patrick; 5) "Seaboard Air Line Railway", by Richard E. Prince. 5) Tom Underwood, member of the National Railway Historical Society and the
ACL/SAL Historical Society was kind enough to provide the names and milepost markings of the stations on the S A L as it passed through Levy County. I did not
include the same for the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, saving that for another
chapter.








LEVY COUNTY TOWN NAMES & THEIR ORIGIN
NOTE: Some of these origins were handed down by others, i.e., legend. Their authenticity cannot be vouched for. Others are missing and therefore not known by the authors. We request the help and input from our readers in our desire to correct and/or update the names in future chapters.

Bronson
The "Florida Handbook" 1963-1964 by Allen Morris states: "This town, was established during the War Between the State, and was at first called Chunky Pond, through a mistaken transliteration of an Indian word meaning "dance". When the town was incorporated in 1884, it was given its present name to honor an early settler of great popularity". Morris does not name the "early settler". However, it is noted that when the Florida Rail Road from Fernandina to Cedar Key passed thru in 1860, the station located here was "Bronson".

Camp Spur
A spur off of RR between Archer & Albion, ending at the Camp Mine NE of Meredith.

Cedar Keys
The name originated from the fact that these coastal islands were originally covered with an abundant growth of cedar trees.

Chiefland
Allen Morris's "Florida Handbook" 1963-1964 reads: "When the Seminole War was ended by treaty in 1842, a Creek chief chose this site for his farm home, .A number of other Indians did small farming nearby and assisted in the operation of the chief s farm". Others have credited the name to H. S. Rogers, the first postmaster of the town.

Crackertown
The name derives from the "natives" who lived there, in order to distinguish itself from the community called "Yankeetown".

Curryville
This community was named for Joe Curry who built a store there, ca 1926.

Double Sink
This community was named for the sinkhole located there.

Ellzey
The name was given in recognition of the Rev. Robert M. Ellzey, a Methodist circuit-riding minister of the area. The station was originally known as Eureka, but was later changed to Ellzey.

Fannin
Appears to have been named for Col. Alexander Campbell Wilder Fanning of the U.S. Army. Refer to chapter 10, p. 2 ("Search For Yesterday") for an explanation of the spelling change from "Fanning" to "Fannin".










Gulf Hammock
Both the Post Office and the precinct was at one time or another called Hartman, after Samuel Hartman and Gunntown, after S. P. Gunn. Perhaps the name originated from the vast track of forest surrounding it, known as the Gulf Hammock.

Gunnals
Named in recognition of early settlers in the Waccahootee area, David Conway Gunnell, Dr. George M. Gunnell and William M. Gunnell. Gunnals seems to have been a corruption of the name Gunnells.

Hardeetown
Named in recognition of the Isaac Pierson Hardee family who settled in the area.


Inglis
Allen Morris's "Florida Handbook" 1963-1964 reads: "Capt. John Inglis, whose family came from Glasgow, Scotland, skippered a ship from Spain to the mouth of the Withlacoochee River during the 1800's and traded with the few inhabitants of this area. A community known as Port Inglis sprang up at the river's mouth-then the intersection of the 'highways' of the Withlacoochee and the Gulf Some time later, a new community, named simply Inglis, grew up around a chemical plant eight miles upriver. Its original name was 'Blind Horse'. Later, .ship trading declined and with it 'Port Inglis'. But Inglis grew".

Janney
The community was named in recognition of Edwin Lewis Janney, an early settler of the community.

Judson
The name was given in recognition of Ira Judson Carter, a pioneer of the western part of the county, where he operated a large mercantile business, and was a cotton buyer. However, when the railroad from Newberry to Perry passed about 3-4 miles to the north of the community in what would become Trenton, the town slipped into memory.

Lebanon
Named for the historic Cedars of Lebanon. It was also known by another name, Hose Johnson, as Mr. Johnson was a pioneer in that part of the county.

Lebanon Station
Perhaps the name originated from a siding on the Atlantic Coast Line RR, which existed there for a number of years.

Levyville
Levyville, the first county seat of Levy County, was named for Senator David Levy Yulee (as was the county itself).










Lukens
Perhaps it was named for a businessman of the area, W. B. Lukens. However, the main business there was the Tillghman Cypress Company's mills.

Montbrook
Named in honor of an early leading citizen of the area, Montholon Montbrook. Before 1892 it was known as Phoenix Heights and Ambler.

Morriston
Named in honor of Col. I. A. Morris, who established the first naval stores business here. Before that, it was a voting precinct called Four Miles. It was also called "Twiggs Allen".

Newtown
Isaac W. Faircloth in Chapter 20, p. 5, indicates ".was founded by the Newton brothers. The place was originally called Newton but that evolved into New Town." He (Faircloth) indicates that the community was a turpentine village.

Otter Creek
Legend has it that the name came from the fact that there was an abundance of otters found in the creek, thus Otter Creek.

Raleigh
Ruth Verrill in her 1969 (published in 1976) book entitled "Romantic and Historic Levy County" has this to say about the community: "This little community's history began with Lawrence Gibson who, for no now-known reason, named it Raleigh".

Tidewater
Appears to have been given the name by H. R. Swartz for having such fine cypress found in the water. Another name for a lake and a cemetery located there is Dog Ear.

Tiger Town
Again, quoting Ruth Verrill's book, ".about two miles east of Levyville, was on the old wagon road from Levyville to Bronson-a timber, lumber and turpentining community".

Williston
Named in honor of Jesse Willis, an early pioneer who homesteaded land there.

Wylly
Named after a man named Wylly, who operated several mills there. The corporation was called the Wylly-Gabbet Co.

Yankeetown
During the Florida Land Boom in the early 1920's, a number of northern folks, called "Yankees" by the local natives, purchased land and built homes and/or winter retreats in the area. The







locals called it Yankeetown, while calling the area where they lived Crackertown. Today the areas are all indistinguishable and is really a part of Inglis.

Listed next are other communities of the county which existed from time to time. However, the origin of each name has been lost. The Levy County Archives Committee requests the assistance of our readers in rediscovering how these names came into being. In all probability, there were others which have not been identified here and the Archives Committee request the help of our readers in naming and documenting them.

Albion
Turkey Town
Atsena Otie
Vista
Barco
Way Key
Black Dirt


Black Neck Daniels Deer Pen Devon Dutton Spur


LEVY COUNTY CLERKS SINCE
1884


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.


Emett


Eve (or Eye?) Fowler Bluff


James M. Barco Perry M. Colson Albert P. Hardee Luther W. Drummond Jack L. Meeks Carey "Ernest" Stephens Douglas MacArthur "Mack" McKoy Danny Shipp


LEVY COUNTY SCHOOLS
SUPERINTENDENTS SINCE 1884


Lennon Meredith


Otella

Oyster Cove Palmetto (Station 12)


1. Syd L. Carter 2. C. H. Pinney
3. Joseph C. Sale 4. Shelton Philips 5. Tom W. Price
6. W. Frank Osteen 7. Horace S. Priest 8. T. Frank McCall 9. Henry A. White 10. Alvin E. Mikell 11. Milton Lee Martin


Rosewood


Sumner














12. Frank P. LaPorta
13. Francis Rowell
14. Will Irby
15. Paul Johnson
16. Clifton V. Norris, Jr.

U.S. POST OFFICE GULF HAMMOCK, FL

The Gulf Hammock Post Office was established 16 April, 1883
Postmasters and Dates Appointed:


1. Edwin G. Hunt 2. John 0. Wood
3. Adolphus M. Pashall
4. Harry S. W. Evans 5. John A. Robinson
6. Geo, D, Mendenhall
7. Mary D. Jakobie 8. John P. Hopping
9. Mary E. Ellzey 10. Nellie Hartman
Discontinued 15 March, 191 Gunntown, FL)

Est'ed as Gunntown on

Named Gulf Hammock
1. James B. Adkins
2. John F. Yearty 3. Mary L. Taylor


4.
5.
6.
7.
8.


Zachary V. Smallwood Mage K. Casey Mage K. Casey Linda Shaw Judy Kennedy


16 April, 1883 14 May, 1883 14 Mar, 1884 30 June, 1884 19 Dec, 1889 19 Apr, 1890 2 Jan, 1891 23 Sep, 1893 30 Jun, 1911 26 Nov, 1912 6 (mail sent to


14 Feb, 1916


I Dec, 14 Feb, 15 Jul, 5 Dec,


1926 1916 1930
1947


1 Jun, 1948 31 Jul, 1950
1979
1979- 1981
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FLORIDA CONFEDERATE SOLDIERS BURIED AT ELNIRA, N.Y.


BY GRAVES NUMBERS


114-MORGAN, JOHN N. 117-KEEN, MOSES H. 230-Hale, Aaron K. 258-BEST, ARCHIBOLD 379-WINGATE, T.J. 495-HALE, HENRY 1. 549-DANIEL, JAMES W. 660-FENNELL, JAMES R. 691-CARTER, JAMES M. 719-ALLISON, HUMPHREY D. 751-BELL, JOHN 751-PADGETT, F.L. 808-CURRY, SAM 889-GUNTER, THOMAS 903-BELLAMY, RICHARD C. 936-BIRD, BENJAMIN 984-BRANNON, R.H. 1004-SHIVERS, W.H.W. 1038-TIPTON, CHARLES G. 1057-TUCKER, C.
1104-MATTHEWS, WILLIAM 1112-DANIEL, WILLIAM 1137-ELMORE, MARK 1172-LANIER, FRANCIS M. 1180-THOMAS, J.C. 1269-GABRIEL, ANDREW J. 1290-JOHNS, ENOCH
1301-TAYLOR, CARY 1405-FIELDS, JOHN 1468-KING, WILLIAM T. 1481-HENDRICKS, LEMUIL S. 1498-CLAYTON, WILLIAM T. 1571-SIMS, MILES 1610-BUTLER, GEORGE A. 1623-McDONALD, D.K. 1882-BROWN, JOEL 1930-IRWIN, FREEMAN 1957-EDWARDS, JOHN 2223-HOYLE, WILLIAM H. 2268-FUTCH, STEPHEN 2298-ALLEY, JOHN 2418-O'NEAL, JAMES
2433-McNEESE, WILLIAM T. 2783-SUTTON, R.M. 2901-FELKEL, WESLEY R.


Cor. Sgt. Sgt.


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5th Aug. 20,1864
5th Aug. 19,1864
5th Sept. 4,1864
11th Sept.11,1864
2nd Cav. Sept.12,1864 5th Sept.20,1864
8th Oct. 17,1864
5th Oct. 9,1864
5th Oct. 11,1864
5th Oct. 28,1864
8th May 3,1865
10th Nov. 2,1864
9th Nov. 14,1864
9th Dec. 4,1864
5th Nov. 27,1864
11th Nov. 12,1864
6th Nov. 28,1864
1st Res. Dec. 1,1864 11th Dec. 9,1864
Mil. Dec. 11,1864 Ist Dec. 24,1864
1st Dec. 25,1864
Mil. Dec. 12,1864 5th Dec. 9,1864
5th CaV. Dec. 7,1864 6th Jan. 4,1865
1st F1 REs. Dec. 27,1864 1st. Dec. 27,1864
5th Apr. 24,1865
1st Jan. 13,1865
2nd Jan. 19,1865
Mil. Jan. 8,1865 1st Res. Mar. 19,1865 Jan. 23,1865
1st. Jan. 25,1865
1st Res. Mar. 9,1865 1st. Res. Feb. 7,1865 5th Cav. Feb. 10,1865 2nd Feb. 18,1865
9th Feb. 23,1865
1st Res. Feb. 26,1865 Mar. 5,1865
2nd Mar. 14,1865
10th May 9,1865
5th June 2,1865









The following pages represent a copy of the program for the first Levy County Fair, held at Bronson, November 8, 9, 10, 1923. The program was printed on newsprint stock and has badly deteriorated during the past 79 years. It was acquired and saved by my mother, Alma Adell Jones Osteen, in drawers, boxes and trunks since she received it in 1923, and passed on to me about 1980. I must apologize for the quality of the copy used in the publication of this chapter, but it is the best I could get, considering the condition of the original. If there are portions that the reader has trouble deciphering, it will be my pleasure to go to the original copy and try to answer any specific questions one might have. Please feel free to call me at my home in Bronson.

I found it interesting that in 1923 there was not one business listed as an advertiser in Chiefland, while there were several listed in Hardeetown. Several of the types of businesses advertised are no longer a part of today's commercial world, while a program today would very likely advertise businesses which would have been clearly alien to citizens of that day. Another point of interest was the list of exhibits, many of them no longer a part of the agricultural scene in today's world. The listed premiums speak clearly to the inflation (devaluation of our dollar) that has occurred since 1923. A study of the fair officers and exhibit superintendents will reveal the names of many families that have long been a part of the fabric of Levy County. In 1923 the Florida land boom was growing to a feverish pitch, and Levy County must surely have felt that it was one of many, offering to the world a "taste of the finest".

A review of the article by Charles F. Kimble as published in Chapter 10, "Search For Yesterday", will shed additional light on where this fair likely was held in Bronson, as well as the "permanent" home for the fair in later years. As a very young lad in Bronson, I have only faint memories of what was then called the "fairgrounds", located just east of the Coulter Estate on the east side of what is today Fairgrounds Avenue. Part of the exhibit building was still standing in the 1940's, and was a favorite place for little boys playing "cowboys & Indians" or "cops & robbers". The beautiful spreading live oak trees also made it a popular spot for Sunday School class parties, as well as other social gatherings during my years growing up in Bronson.

About 1952, Levy County attempted to "revive" the Levy County Fair, with the event being in Williston. However, this was rather short-lived and by the late 1950's the effort ended. Perhaps the Suwannee River Fair, Livestock Show & Sale had much to do with its demise, becoming as near to a similar event as we will have for the foreseeable future. This is not, however, a true county fair, as it involves only children from the TriCounty schools and not adults as a true fair would.


Gene Osteen




136j<


THE BAN LEVY COU


Four Per-Cent Paid Tin


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PREMIUM LIST

PROGRAM
N OV E M B E R 8-9-10 112i
BRONSON, FLORIDI


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THE BANK OF


WILLISTON


Williston, Florida


19Q6
First Then


1923
First Now


A well founded progressive institution assuring its customers ample resources and the most efficient service.
Capital ._.__._.__.$ 25,00.0.00
Capital ------------------------$2,0.0
Surplus -----------------------400,000.00
4 ,er cent inte, -est, com5ousie1 qiearlerly, idot time deposits Your account, whether large or small is solicited



A. E. OSBORN, President
I. T. FUGATE, Vice President
T. L. WILLIAMS, Vice Pres. & Cashier
L. J. HARPER, Assistant Cashier
FRED MAY, Assistant Cashier


?




-


Smith & Hooper
Dry Goods, Noticrns & Gents' Furnishings
Quality Merchandise at Minumium Prices
Phone 567 115-119 E. Union St.
Gainesville, Florida


"If It's In Style, You Will Find It Here"

M Mrs. F. C. Babers

Fine Millinery
121 West University, Ave.
Gainesville, Florida



Gainesville Candy Co.
M. H. BAXLEY, MANAGER
Wholesale Candy
Confectioners Fountain Fruit
Syrups arid Accessories
Opposite Postoffice
Gainesville, Florida







H. W. Arrington

Hardeetown, Florida

GENERAL MERCHANDISE


JOHN DEERE Farm Implements BALLARD'S FLOUR Specialty
Highest Prices Paid For Country Produce



May Mercantile Co.

Hardeetown, Florida
General Merchandise

COU RY pRODUcome



MOTTO: We must please our customers


B. B. Harrison
Dealer In
Fancy Groceries, Soft Drinks, Cigars, Tobacco, Confectionery
Hardeetown, Florida




Mrs. J. D. Turner
Williston, Florida
Our stock is complete in every line: Millinery, Dry Goods, Notions, Shoes, Men's Hat's and Furnishings, Furniture, House Furniture.
Caskets and Funeral Supplies


S. G. Barker
General Merchandise and Country Produce
If We Please You, Tell Others
If We Don't, Tell Us
HARDEETOWN, FLORIDA


I











Globe- Wern ic kc Book Cases And




Filing Cabinets


FIRST ANNUAL


LEVY COUNTY FAIR

BRONSON, FLORIDA

November, 8, 9, 10, 1923

Premiums, Rules and Regulations

Officers


N. J. Allbritton, Gen'l Supt.


Gainesville Furniture Co.

L. R. Cox, Proprietor

All l'inds of Furniture

Vetrolas and Records

G iinesville, Florida







HEN YOU THINK OF DRUGS I THINK OF DIXON"



Bronson, Florida




FOUNTAIN AND BOTTLE DRINKS



CIGARS, TOBACCOS & FRUITS




DIXON'S DRUG STORE


J. A. Dixon, Prop.


. P. Kimble, President, Bronson.
1W. J. Epperson. Vice-President, Bronson.
BOA RD OF
R. HodgEs, Cedar Key.
E. C. Price- WAilliston.
v. 'McElroy, Trenton,
R. F. D.
W. S. Yearty, Otter Creek.
John R. Willis, Bronson.
.John Cox, Meredith.
S. J. Clyatt, Chiefland.
D. N. Meeks. Otter Creek.
Dr. D. A. Andrews, Cedar
Key.
E. T. Robinson, Lebanon.
:)r T. S. Kennedy, Williston.
FINANCE COMMITTEE
W. J. Epperson, L. W. Drummond, N. J. Albritton, John R. Willis, J. C. Sale, G. A. Boyd.
PUBLICITY COMMITTEE
T. W. Scott, Chairman; Wm.
R. Coulter, 1. B. Hilson, M. D.
Graham, J. J. Upchurch, Sr. FARM AND HORTICULTURAL
PRODUCTS EXHIBITS
B. L. Jones, Superintendent.
LIVE STOCK EXHIBIT Cattle-G. A. Boyd, Supt. Hogs-M. T. Marshburn,
Superintendent. Poultry--- Henry B. Coulter Superintendent.


J. C. Sale. Secretary, Bronson.

WV. F. Osteo.n, Treasurer,
Bro nsonii
DIR ECTORs
F. T. Herring, Morriston. A. F. Knotts, Inglis.
0. C. Sistrunk, Montbrook. W. H. Pillsbury, Sumner. P. Y. Bryan, Raleigh. J. w. Hogan, Double Sink. Monroe Watson Fannin. H. W. Arrington, Hardeetown T. W. Shandr., Steen. Graham Carter, Chiefland. T. J. Yearty, Vista Samuel Hartman, Gunntown. H. R. Swartz, Tidewater.
COMMITTEE ON EXHIBITS
E. (Sheriff) Walker, Chairman; H. F. Wellman, J. A.
Dixon, B. L. Jones, Rev. P. K.
Rowell. Mrs. W. M. Hume. PREMIUM AND PRINTING 1. B. Hilson, Chairman; B. 0. Smith, C. A. Lindsay, Mrs. G. A. Boyd, Mrs. J. A. Dixon.
NEEDLE AND FANCY
WORK
Mrs. I. B. Hilson, Supt.
CANNING AND PRESERVES
Mrs. G. A. Boyd, Supt.
GROUNDS COMMITTEE
E. (Sheriff) Walker, Chairman
B. L. Jones
W.H. Guerney







AMUSEMENT FEATURES


The amusement features for the First Levy County Fair will be clean, instructive and amusing.
The exposition vill be open from 8 a. m. to 6 p. m. The shows and concessions vill remain open until 11 p. m.
Spend the evening at the Fair grounds, listen to the music, visit the shows and concessions. There will be fun and amusements for everybody.

R'LES AND REGULATIONS
Exhibitors Sh uld tead These Rules to Avoid Errors in Making Their Entries
No entry fee is charged in any department.
There nLst he two entries in a class to obtain first and second money. If only one specimen is entered, the award shall be second money, but first 1 ibbo I.
No awarding com -nittee shall award any discretionary premiums. Whenever articles of superior merit are exhibited for which no premiums have been offei ed, the awarding committee may enter the same on the books of awards so the secretary may report the same to the Board for furthei action.
The superintUndent of each department will be in charge of all articles in their department that compete for regular or special premiums offered by the Association.
All articles e-itered for competition shall be at the direction of the superintendent, classified-articles of the same kind placed together so as to make a better display and assist the judges in their work.
If any disrespect is shown to any award or to the awarding judge by exhibitor or h s agent, they shall forfeit all awards made to them and the member in charge will report same to the secretary upon return of class book.
The Association re,4erves the right to cancel at any time for reasons, satisfactory to it, all contracts made with concessionaries.
No person wh o is an exhibitor can act as a committeeman on the class in which he exhibits or upon stock or articles in which he has interest.
We furnish ccops for chickens, and pens and stalls for hogs, horses and cattle free.
Age of all livestock shall be computed according to the usual rules of the special kin( of animal. Horses, mules and cattle computed from September first far s nior and January first for classes. Hogs from March first t> Seitemher first.
The premium. arc designated by ribbons and cards, blue meaning first, red second, white third.


F.?7

Each exhibitor will be furnished a tag for each entry and the card must be attached to the article entered.
All stock and articles must be ente.-ed in the name of the owner.
Persons making known their ownership of stock of articles on exhibition to the judges will not be entitled to a premium.
Entries can be made by letters addressed to the Secretary, stating full particulars as to the animal or article exhibiteJ.
The o licers shall take every precaution in their power for the preservation of stock anid other articles on exhibition, but will not be responsible for any loss or damage that may occur.
Under no circumstances will any freight or express be paid by the Association. Prepay all charges.
Committee reserves the right to rule on all questions not covered by the published rules.
We guarantee that superintendents of the various departments will do all in their power to protect and please.
Every exhibitor must be a bona fide owner or producer of all exhibits entered by im or them. Agricultural exhibits entered for "best collective exhibit produced by one farmer or firm" must have been grown or raised by such farmer or firm.
If you have articles of real merit, or fine products of the soil not mentioned in the premium list, send them in; we will be glad to have them.

MACHINERY EXHIBITS
Manufacturers of farm machinery or other manufactured products who wish to display their goods will be provided space on the grounds. Those wishing space should take the matter up with the secretary so he can make necessary reservation.
The Association will cooperate with manufacturers in helping them to present these to the public. We realize our need of good up-to-date machinery, and will do all we can to encourage its use.

LIST OF PREMIUMS
FARM AND HORTICULTURAL PRODUCTS EXHIBITS
N. J. Albritton, General Superintendent
All entries for exhibits must be placed together in space designated by superintendent of each department, and these exhibits will not be allowed to compete for other prizes.
All products must bc current year's production.
Q uality 100 U niform ity ._. 100 V ariety 150 Adaptability and marketability.





P I


Li-st Xo. (Second p emium .0 percent of first premium) 1- 10 ears of co . .- .
2-Half bushel re_. 3- Half bushel o-ts .
4- Half bushel of org:um seed .
5- Half buchel of rice, rough (Mdse.) . 6-Half bushel of rice, cleaned . . . 7-Bushel ba 'ket -clvet beans in r) 1 va->ty 8-Bushel ba-ke: velvet heans, shQl'ed any variety 9-iHalf bushel pe inut Florida variety 10-Bushel snall 1 pani h peanut .
11-Half bushel la-ge Spanish peanuts .
12- Half bushel cl-u f as . .
13-Half bushel g obei ; .
14-Half bushel soy bea .
15-Half bushel na ,y b rn .
16-Half bushel of each variety of peas for exhibit 17-Collective exhibit of grain, seed, etc., from one farm, not less
than five vairiet es, not less than one quart of each variety in quart jrs. . . .

HAY, FORAGE, ETC.
B. L. Jones, Superintendent


F irs Prem. $ 1.0') 1.00 1.00 1.00
1.00
1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.01) 1.00 .50 .50 .50 1.00


2.00


First
List No. (Second p emium 53 percent of first premium) Prem.
1-Bale of hay fr im h aggarweed (Mdse.). $ 1.00 2-Bale of hay made rom peavines. 1.0(1
3-Bale of peanut hay (Mdse.) .1.01
4-Bale of hay made fr->m crab grass . 1.0!1 5-Bale of corn stover 1.0 6-.Sample of para grass, medium size bundle .50 7- Sample of sila.-e, bashel basket.-.-. 1.0.) 8-Three bundles .)f oa . 1.00 9-Three bundles of rice. 1
10- Three bundles of ry .-- -----------. . 1.00
11-Single bundle of an;' cured forage plant._ . .50 12-Collective exhibit of hay and forage from one farm, not less
than six va-ieties. -- -.---. . 2.0)

VEGETABLES
1-Bushel of each -,fanvard variety sweet -)'atoes, must be true to variety (Ndie.) -- - 1.00 2-Bushel of each :aric -y, Irish potatoes (Mdse.) .1.00 3-Half dozen ca'bages .50
4-Half peck onions, each variety . _.5


5- Three pum pkins . 6- T hree kern haw s . 7- Three squashes, each variety. 8-Exhibit of rutabaga turnips. _. .


9-Exhibit 1C Exhibit 11--d-xiibit 12-Exhibit 13-Exhibit 14-Exhibit 15-Exhibit 16-Exhibit 17-Exhibit 18-Exhibit 19-,Exhibit 20-Exhibit 21-Exhibit 22-Exhibit 23-Exhibit


of of of of of
of of
of of of of of
of of


turnips other than rutabaga. e-gplant, dozen .
radishes, 1 dozen. cauliflower, 1 dozen. sweet peppers, 4-qt. basket. okra, 4-qt. basket.__ beets, 1 dozen. lettuce, six heads. . . green peas, 4-qt. basket butter beans, 4-qt. basket. string beans, 4-pt. basket. . cucum bers, dozen . carrots, dozen tomatoes, 4-qt. basket.


of straw berries, 4-qt. basket. .


.50 .50 .50 .25 .25 .25 .25 .25 .50 .25 .25 .50 .50 .50 .50 .50 .25 .50 .50


24-Exhibit of watermelms .50 25- Exhibit of broom corn _. .- --. . .25
26-Collective exhibit of vegetables (not less than 1 qt. of each) 2.00 27-Display of peppers, each variety, 4-pt. basket__. 1.00

BEE PRODUCTS
1- Exhibit comb honey, not less than 5 pounds.$1.00 2-Exhibit extracted honey, not less than 5 pounds. .50 3- Exhibit beeswax, five pounds. .25

MEAT PRODUCTS
1-Home cured hams, not less than 2 (Mdse.). .$ 1.50 2-Home cured bacon, not less than two pieces (Mdse.). 1.50 3-Five pounds lard, Florida product._. 1.00 4--Exhibit pickled pork, Florida product. .50 5-Exhibit of dried beef, not less than three pieces .50 6-Exhibit canned meats, 6 containers. .

SUGAR CANE
1-Exhibit ribbon sugar cane, ten stalks.$ .50 2--Exhibit green sugar cane, ten stalks. . .50 3-Exhibit red sugar cane, ten stalks.---------- . .50
4-Exhibit Japanese cane, 20 stalks . 1.00 5-Exhi it sorghum, 20 stalks. 1.00 6- Exhibit syrup from sugar cane--.----.--. -------.-.---.-. 1.00
7-Exhibit syrup from Japanese cane. .50
9-Two pounds sugar home-made.------------. .50
10- Collective exhibit of cane and cane products .





. Jo


CITRUS FRUITS, ETC.
1- Box oranges . ---------------------. .-----.$ 1.00
2--iBox grapefrui . .---. -- - ---. 1.00
3- B ox tangerine .-.------------------------ .--------- .-- 1.0 )
4- Box kumquats .- .- .50 5-Box guavas, 4-qt. iasket. ---. .50
6- .Exhibit of citras fruit by one individual. 7-Exhibit of pecans. .---------------. 1.50
S-Exhibit of Jap:.nese persimmons, not less than six. .50


of
as


LIVESTOCK
G. A. Boyd, Superintendent
All livestock n.ust have been in the State six months. (No entry any kind will be alloyed to compete for more than one prize, except one or a pair or pen.


CATTLE
The following pren.iums and classification apply to all beef ani dairy breeds, however, each breed shall compete separately. Ages to be computed from Janu.ry first and September first each year.
First Second
List No. Prem. Prem.
I- Bull over 3 yea-'s. $ 2.00 $ 1.00 2- Bull over 2 and under 3years--.-.-. 2.00 1.00 3- Bull over 1 and under 2 years .--. 2.00 1.00 4- Bull over six m~nth- and under 1 year. 2.00 1.00 5-Cow over 3 years. 2.00 1.00
6- Cow over 2 an., uncer 3 years. .--. 2.00 1.00 7-Cow over one aid uder 2 years 2.00 1.00 .--ifer over six months and under one year. 2.00 1.00


FAT CATTLE
F
List No. Pr
1-Fat steer or spayed heifer, 3 years old or over.$ 2-Fat steer or sps.yed heifer, 2 years and under 3. 3- Pen fat beef cattle (4 or more).-- .


irst rem. 2.00 2.00 2.00


Second Prem. $ 1.00
1.00 1.00


SWINE
M. T. Marshburn, Superintendent
(Age to be computed from March 1 and September 1)
The following classination and premiums shall apply to all breeds of swine, each to b- judged separately: DUROC JERSEY


First
List No. Prem.
1- A ged boar over 2 ytars. .$ 2.00


9


Second Prem. $ 1.00


2- Senior boar under 2 years. 3-Junior boar pig, under 6 months. 4-Aged sow over 2 years. 5-Senior sow under 2 years. 6--Junior sow pig under 6 months.
POLAND CHINA
1- Aged boar over 2 years. .$ 2-Senior Boar under 2 years .
3-Junior boar pig under 6 months. .
4-Aged sow over 2 years. . 5---iSenior sow under 2 years . 6-Junior sow pig under 6 months. .
ANY BREED NOT MENTIONED
1- Aged boar over 2 years . $ 2-Senior boar over 2 years. 3-Junior boar pig under 6 months 4-Aged sow over 2 years. 5-Senior sow under 2 years. .

GOATS


2.00
2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00

2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00

2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00


First
List No. Prem.
1-Pen Angora goats, 1 male and 2 females .$ 2.00


1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00

$ 1.00
1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00

$ 1.00
1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00


Second Prem. $ 1.00


SHEEP
The superintendent will make sales for the owners if not present.
First Second
List No. Prem. Prem.
1- Best pen of sheep . $ 2.00 $ 1.00

POULTRY
Henry B. Coulter, Superintendent
Competition open to all breeders and fanciers in the United States.
TRANSPORTATION
1. All birds should be sent EXPRESS PREPAID TO HENRY B. COULTER, Bronson, Florida.
2. All entries must be made in writing and mailed or delivered to Henry B. Coulter, Bronson, Florida.
3. Entries will close at 10:00 A. M. Tuesday. And especial request is to make all entries early-the earlier the better. This is for your own protection as well as our convenience. Early entries make it possible to group all fowls of a breed together, thus giving your birds a better chance when being judged.
4. No entry fee will be charged on poultry exhibits.
5. Entry blanks will be furnished 'by the secretary upon application.
6. Each specimen entered for competition must be bona fide property of exhibitor.


.







7. The superintendent will have charge and control of the exhibition.
8. All eggs la i tin.e show room will be kept by the superintendent unless otherwi e di-ecte .1 by the owners.
9. All sales of bires must be immediately reported to the superintendent to facilit.tte the return ot the birds at the close of the show.
10. The superinten ent will take pleasure in placing all advertising matter, signs, etc.
11. Make overy possible effort to aMend the fair, but if you cannot come, send your fwls anyLow; They will have the best of care and attention.
12. No speinn wi I be received for exhibition, except those which have been duly ent.red, unless e.ihibitor furnishes coop.
13. No biids N ill 1, allowed to compete in breeding pens and in singles. Separate ,ntri*s for each.
14. The Association will not be responsible for loss or accident, but will give every exhibit care and attention.
15. No biids may i.e handled or removed from their coops except by their owners, the superintendent or his authorized assistants. This rule will be rigidly nforced.
16. No birds n'.y b( removed from the show before the close of the fair except by authority of the superintendent.
17. Any bird showing signs of disease upon arrival at the show or during exhibition, will be quE.rantined and carefully cared for until the owner can be commu iicated with in regard te disposition of same. For the best cock . .$ 1.00 $ .50 Ribbon For the best hen 1.00 .50 Ribbon
For the best cockerel. 1.00 .50 Ribbon For the best pulle. . 1.00 .50 Ribbon For the best young pen . 2.00 1.00 Ribbon For the best old pen. -. 2.00 1.00 Ribbon


P /3


I


For the best For the best


TURKEYS

young pen, any breed. $ 2.00 $ 1.00 old pei, any breed. 2.00 1.00


be .,cluded from competition and exhibition.
All winners will be known as follows: Fi -t, blue; second, red; third, white. An_ rib ons will be delivered to exhibitor. Premium cards of same color will be placed on coops as soon as awards are made.
5. Prenijms will be pvid on all standard breed fowls of every description a indicated bely
NEEDLE WORZK


Afrs. I B. Hilson., Sunerintendent
1-Center rie-r, Ired,r .chete:1, taLLing_. .$ 2-Lunche n sets, enir Idsre, c, chetcd, tatting. 3- Table -ers, enm ,roid re cruchelked, tatting. 4-Burea.i cr .thor sarr, eibriderid, cro lieted, tatting 5-'Towels, bath ,nd face . .
6-Sofa pillows, any kind .

'Iaa .ins, any .nd -. . 8-Hfandkei:.iiefs .-. .
0-Bed spreads, ny L'nd .
10-.illow cages, any ind . 11-A-ron, Liny 'nd. . .
12--Difet si. a iy kind .
12-Dresses rd aorons (school domestic science dept.).-


.50 .50 .30
.50 .50 .50

.50 .10
.50 .50
.50 .50 .50


$ .25
.25 .25 .25 .25 .25

.25 .25 .25 .25 .25
.25 .25


MYRAL, GRITS AND CRUSHED FEED (Quality and Package Both Considered)
1-Peck meal. Fl )rida product. $ 2-Peck grits. Fl'.rida product .- -.

JELLIES AND VEGETABLES
Mr,. G. A. Boyd, Superintendent
1-Jelly, any kin' 2-Preserves, any kind 3-Jams and niarmualades, any kind .
4-Relishes, eatst p, ch1iii sauce chow chow 5-Pickles, cucun. oers. green tomato, mixed pepper.


4


.25
.50


AWARDING PRIZES
(Awards will be made by Score Cards)
1. No name, distinctive marks or decorations will be allowed on coops until after pi izes have been awarded.
2. No specimen allo.ved to compete that has name of exhibitor on ieg band. If any recei'-ed, leg band will be removed and other substituted.
3. The Judge is e .pressly prohibited from making known his awards except thr4 ugh the secretary. Any other person attempting to interfere with the ju Ige in his decision, by letter or otherwise, will


CANNED VEGETABLES


1 C anne --a


Ca.h. .p.e.i.ea h.cass
Cash m us.oma ec!Ond prize in each class.


-




I~"t


When In Gainesville Don't Forget To Visit

Greenberg's Quality Store
Fashionable
Ladie' j and Children's Ready-to-Wear
Your Friends Know Us
South Side Square Gainesville, Florida


For Ladies' and Young Ladies' and Children Hats See A. BUNS
They have the styles, quality and prices to suit im! and you and every lady of L, y County. Be sure and go see them before you buy your H,,
N.o. Y rk Millinery
Gainesville. Florida



"WANTED!"
10,00 Good Men To Cultivate And Make Homes In Levy County. "The Agricultural Heart Of Florida"

Levy County

Chamber of Commerce


Phifer's Department Store

Gainesville, Florida

Complete Department for Men Women

and Children


[VJ See F

L. J. Burkhim
For Popular Goods
At
Popular Prices
Gainesville, Florida


NO RAH
OR''ON
OVELTIES
GAINESVILLE. FLORIDA

ART ad GIF T SHOP
PICTURES AND F[CTURE-FRAMES CHRISTMAS CARDS
CHILDRENS BOOKS







- DRINK -


Bell 26


Deicious and cJefreshing
Bottled by BRONSON COCA-COLA Bottling Co.
Bronson, Florida

Compliments of



COUNTY JUDGE
q"Place yc ur deeds on record" T'Look into t ie title of land before buying" q"See and kn:w first and save being sorry afterwards"
LEVY COUNTY ABSTRACT CO.



BRONSON MFG. CO.

HIGH GRADE
HAMPERS and VENEER
Ice and Cold Storage--Electric Light and Power
Bronson. Florida


P. 0. Box 16

EVANS HAILE
Attorney At Law GaineWille, Florida


Also Long Distance ,Phone


Rodgers Drug Store

Drugs Cold Drinks Confectionery Cigars and Tobacco

We Appreciate Your Business

Chiefland, Florida





Geeslin-Hyatt Co.

"Gainesville's New Department Store"

Dry Goods, + Clothing, + Shoes, + Ready-to-Wear Gainesville, Florida




fK6


WHEN IN GAINESVILLE
MAKE OUrl STORE HEADQUARTERS WE ARI. 01 THE SQUARE-EAST SIDE


Baird Hardware Co.

1ainesville, Florida


John Furniture Seagle

'Wants to See U'

2 Big Stores
G

THE HEMSTITCHER AND ART NEEDLEWORK SHOP MISS BESSIE RUTHERFORD, PROP.
Pleating, all styles, H msti ching, Button Covering. We use only non-rustable mould. All I-inds pleating. Stamping--Stamped household linens.
Phone 138-J 212 E. University Ave.
Women's Exchange


.-r~~dQ ~~ okel


TKELE-VY COUNTY NEWS
t. B. HILSoi, EDITOR

OFFICIAL PAPER LEVY COUNTY

1,50 Per Year



Anything From A Card To A Poster Printed In Our Own Establishment.

Fully Equipped For Book and Job Work. Subscribe to Levy County's Booster Paper



BBR ONSON, FLORIDA


4"
















UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 3 1262 09770 9769















6














6




Full Text

PAGE 1

£>eazck ^ot A History of Levy County, Florida & & & Chapter Twenty-Two & & & Published By The Levy County Archives Committee Sponsored by the Levy County Board of Commissioners June, 2002 Bronson, Florida A Bicentennial Publication Levy County Archives Committee, 2002

PAGE 2

Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2018 with funding from University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries https://archive.org/details/searchforyesterd2220levy

PAGE 3

Dedication This chapter is dedicated to Gene Osteen for his work in preserving the history of Levy County

PAGE 4

Harry Eugene “Gene” Osteen, bom 13 September, 1938, was the second and last child of H. E. “Kias” Osteen and his wife Alma Adell Jones. Lou Eva Osteen Keen was the first, bom 20 November, 1927. Both children were bom during the time period their parents operated Osteen’s Service Station, Garage, & Cafe at the crossroads in Bronson, FL. Gene attended public school at Bronson and was in the 1956 graduation class of Bronson High School. He attended the University of Florida where he received a Bachelor of Arts in Education in 1960 and a Master of Education in 1964. After teaching four years at Union County High School, Lake Butler, FL and one year at Charlotte Junior High, Punta Gorda, FL, he worked 34 Vi years in The Farmers & Merchants Bank of Trenton (merged into Capital City Bank, 1997) from July, 1965 until his retirement in 2000. For 27 years, he served as president of the bank. Gene grew up in Bronson and except for the period during WWII when the family lived in Jacksonville, FL (“Kias” worked as an airplane mechanic, Naval Air Station), the several months spent in medical facilities and the ten months he taught in Punta Gorda, he has never lived further than an hour’s drive from there. The area of specialty of his degrees from the U of F was Social Studies, with concentration in history, which has both contributed to, as well as enhanced, his keen interest in the history of Levy County. Since his college days in the late 1950’s, he has gathered genealogical data not only of his family, but also of other families with connections to the county. For these reasons, he joined the Levy County Archives Committee in 1999. He authored several of the articles in this chapter of “Search For Yesterday”. The compilation of the entire chapter, using materials provided by others, is to his credit -or blame, as the case may be but under the supervision, guidance, direction and approval by the entire Committee.

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THE ALLEN AND MARY ELIZABETH GASKINS OSTEEN FAMILY IN LEVY COUNTY, FLORIDA By Harry Eugene Osteen June, 2002 Allen Osteen was bom in Camden Co, GA, 10 July, 1814, the oldest child of 8 surviving children bom to John D. Osteen and his wife Martha Parrish, a daughter of Josia Parrish. John D. and his family, as well as his brother James & family moved from Camden Co, GA to the area now known as Lake City, Columbia Co, FL in 1823-1824 (this per John D’s deposition regarding the Arredondo Spanish Land Grant Claim). Allen would have been about 10 years old when he moved to what was at that time Alachua County, Florida. John D’s brother, James Osteen, had a son named Hezekiah Ellis Osteen (which is the first with this name of which I am aware) who moved from Alachua County eventually into Volusia County, where the town named for him, Osteen, now exists. James’s first wife was Sarah Ellis, which I suspect to have been the origin of the son’s middle name. The wife of this H. E. Osteen, Susannah Gaskins, was a sister of Allen’s wife, Mary Elizabeth Gaskins. This first H. E. and Allen were first cousins who married sisters. Allen married Mary Elizabeth Gaskins, (a daughter of Fisher Gaskins by his second wife, Mary Lacey), at Fort Flancock (near present day Lake City) on May 30, 1839, during the period when the Florida Seminole War was still “hot”. There were still many Indians living nearby which were raiding the areas of north central Florida. They resented very much the “white man” taking over what they considered to be their lands. Allen served at least three known hitches in the Florida Militia, which was engaged in the Indian troubles: Oct. 4,1836 to Dec. 4,1836 Apr. 6,1838 to July 22,1838 Aug. 22,1840 to Nov.29,1840 For this service he later made claim for Bounty Land, obtaining 80 acres in present Levy County, which he assigned to William Yearty, his friend and fellow pioneer, before ever taking possession. Allen’s widow, Elizabeth, also applied for and was granted a Widow’s Pension (for widows of deceased soldiers of the Seminole War) of $8.00 per month, beginning July 27, 1892 and last claimed 4 Aug., 1894, after which she died. Allen and Elizabeth Osteen were members of the Providence Baptist Church in Columbia County (the Providence Baptist Church appears to have been the 2 nd Baptist Church to have been established in East Florida, July of 1833) and on July 12, 1845 they took a letter of “dismission” from the church and moved to Marion Co, in the area today known as Romeo, but then perhaps known as Morganville. A couple of months later, on the 13 t h and 14th of September, Allen’s parents (John D. & Martha) as well as his sister Sarah (Wickwire) & family, and his brother (John) Abraham & wife Rachel (Hancock) & family also took letters of “dismission” from the same church, moving to the same area of Marion County. This area borders the southeastern edge of Levy County, and the families often moved back and forth across the county line into/out of Levy & Marion Counties. In fact, Allen purchased 40 acres of land in Sec. 8, T.12 S, R. 18 E (which is west of present day Raleigh, Levy Co) in Oct. of 1853, paying $1.25 per acre (total of $50.05 paid). In 1960,1 personally interviewed Perry M. Osteen at his home in Gulf Hammock,

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FL. Perry told me his father (Allen S. Osteen) had related to him that while he was young growing up in Levy/Marion Counties, the family would move from the home place at “Romeo” to another home near Raleigh in their efforts to “rotate” (lay fallow) their farms. Often, when returning to one or the other of their places, bears would have broken into their comcribs to “raid” stored com. I also recall my father telling me the story his mother (Sarah Frances Medlin) told him of growing up in Devil’s Hammock when the panthers would often chase the dogs under their house (homes were customarily built on blocks to aid in “air conditioning”) when they (the dogs) had been fed in the yard after supper at night. Allen and his family was listed in the 1840 U.S. Census in Columbia County, in the 1850 Census in Marion County, in the 1860 Census in Levy County, and in the 1870 Census in Marion Co. Allen died Dec. 30, 1877 in Levy County, so the widow was listed as head of the household in the 1880 Census, Marion Co. She must have moved back to “Romeo” to be near where her daughter Susannah Elizabeth (Markham) lived, as did other members of the family. In 1887, she filed for and was granted an 80 acre Homestead in Sec. 2, T 15 S, R 18 E, Morganville, FL, just across the county line of southeast Levy County. Following is a list of the children of Allen Osteen & Mary Elizabeth Gaskins: 1. Mary Jane b abt 1843 d 1894 m Unknown 2. Solomon “Sol” b 11 Feb, 1846 d 6 Aug, 1921 m Sarah Frances Medlin 3. John Fisher “Fish” b abt 1849 d 13 Nov. 1900 m 1. Jane Ann Elizabeth Medlin 2. Milisa Gaston 3. Maggie M. Long 4. Hezekiah E. b 1850/1851 d 22 May 1876 m Mary Jane McLeod 5. Alexander David b abt 1853 d bef Jul. 1900 m Ann Farbia (sp?) Roberts 6. Allen S. b Apr. 1854 d 2 Feb. 1925 m 1. Nancy Caroline Markham 2. Sarah Frances A. Morgan (Hurst) 7. Susannah Elizabeth b abt 1858 d abt 1899 m Andrew Jackson Markham 8. Martha A. b 1865/1867 d aft 1880 m Never/died in childhood 9. Miriam b 2 Mar. 1869 d 17 Sep. 1952 m 1. J. H. Beach 2. James R. Home Child number 1 of Allen & Elizabeth, Mary Jane, was bom about 1843, likely in Columbia County. Little of her is known by me, but she appears to have had a daughter, Elizabeth C., bom August 4, 1867, who married Stephen S. Walker June 2, 1889, having at least three (3) sons and one (1) daughter to my knowledge. Child number 2 of Allen & Elizabeth Osteen was my grandfather, Solomon “Sol” Osteen, bom Feb, 11,1846, possibly in Marion County shortly after the family left Providence, Columbia Co. However, in his Confederate Pension Application, signed 9 July, 1907, he states the county of his birth was Columbia. He married Sarah Frances Medlin, 2nd daughter of Willis Robert Medlin and Sophronia Washington Davis (see family of Zachria Davis in Cpt. 21). “Sol”

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and “Fannie” Osteen had 5 daughters and 1 son (my father, Hezekiah Ellis the 3 r d to bear this name). These were: 1. Sophronal Elmire b 29 Dec, 1869 d 16 Dec, 1918 m James Franklin Smith 2. Ella Mary b 30 Jan, 1874 d 8 Aug, 1948 m 1. Finley Theodore Smith 2. 0. Z. Davis 3. (?) Chance 3. Martha Frances b 12 May, 1880 d 12 Jan, 1949 m Jasper Washington Baldree 4. Luvada b 4 Apr, 1883 d 11 Jun, 1943 m Francis Marion Faircloth 5. Lora Jane b 20 May, 1886 d 18 Jun, 1929 m Never 6. Hezekiah Ellis b 11 Apr, 1891 d 24 Sep, 1953 m Alma Adell Jones This is a photo of Solomon "Sol" Osteen and his wife Sarah Frances "Fanny'' Medlin, belhred to have been made at their home near Bronson. While the exact date is unkown to me, it is believed to have been made in ca 1915-1920. Shown next is a photo of the home of “Sol” and “Fanny” Osteen, located about 4 miles SW of Bronson. The camera was facing about NW and was taken from just outside of the yard fence which separated the yard from the road that ran from Bronson to Gulf Hammock, by way of Wekiva Springs. The well casing for the pump, which can be seen at the front porch, is still intact today (about 112 years after being put down) and is used to provide water for a hunting camp located at the site. As there appears to be clothes on a line, a wash basin on the shelf and

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the window open, I would suspect it to have been occupied at the time. While I don’t know the date, I would suspect it to have been about 1920. Child number 3 of Allen & Elizabeth, John Fisher “Fish” Osteen married, first, another daughter of Willis Robert & Sophronia W. Medlin, Jane Ann Elizabeth “Carrie” Medlin and they had 6 children known to me, all reared in the Levy County/Marion County “rotation”. These were: 14 Apr, 1886 26 Jan, 1908 1957 aft Apr, 1955 ?? aft Jun, 1962 1. Winifred 2. Harvey R. 3. Lou Vinia Harrison H. Idella Laura F. b 28 Oct, 1868 b 22 Apr, 1874 b 7 Mar, 1876 4 Mar, 1878 22 Jun, 1880 10 Nov, 1882 d d d d d d m m m m m m Never Carrie Holston Daniel Jacob Munden Ila Vesta Johnson J. D. Pendarvis Jerome M.(Pump) Stephens “Carrie” died in 1882 and John F. next appears to have married a Milisa Gaston of Georgia, having one son, John Allen Osteen, b 1 Feb., 1885 and died 29 Dec., 1942 (John Allen appears to have been bom, reared and died in Georgia). John Fisher next married Maggie M. Long, having 2 children, both reared in Levy Co. These were: 1. L eanderE. b 30 May, 1895 d 23 Apr, 1965 m Geneva Berryhill 2. Rosa Lee b 17 Sep, 1897 d ?? m ??? John Fisher Osteen died in November of 1900.

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Child number 4 of Allen & Elizabeth, Hezekiah E. Osteen (likely the 2 nd to bear this name), was bom after the date of the 1850 Census but either in late 1850 or early 1851, married Mary Jane McLeod of Levy County and had a daughter & son, believed to have been named: 1. C aley b abt 1874 d ??? m ??? 2. James W. b abt 1876 d ??? m ??? This Hezekiah E. was killed in May of 1876, and his widow, Mary Jane (Osteen) married Samuel B. Wade in Levy Co. on Sept. 22, 1880, and it is my understanding that the two children of Hezekiah took the last name of Wade. Child number 5 of Allen & Elizabeth, Alexander David Osteen married Ann Farbia (sp) Roberts, and their children were reared in the Romeo area of Marion County. These children were: 1. Josephine b 27 Oct, 1881 d ??? m Ephram Bratcher 2. Kirbie Lee b May, 1883 d 24 Jan, 1968 m Marie Isabell Schuster 3. Manuel N. b 17 May, 1885 d Oct, 1967 m Ruth Williams 4. Edna J. b Aug, 1889 d ??? m John McLeod 5. Jessie Eugene b 16 May, 1891 d 5 Jan, 1953 m Riley Thomas Dennis 6. Hosie A. b Sep, 1894 d 6 Oct, 1918 m Never 7. Otto b Sep, 1896 d ??? m Carrie (Carey) Hunt The 6 th child of Allen & Elizabeth, Allen S., married, first, Nancy Caroline Markham, having 4 known children, who were reared in the Romeo area. These were: 1. Margaret V. b abt 1872 d abt 1918 m Giles U. Markham 2. Jarliss Cromer b Mar, 1877 d abt 1943 m Georgia A. Roberts 3. Clementine b 6 Nov, 1878 d 9 Sep, 1954 m 1. Thomas Franklin Morgan 2. William Peter Sparkman 3. G eorge Washington Pendarvis 4. Livonia Caledonie b 8 Mar, 1880 d 15Jul, 1962 m Willard Lee Roberts Allen S. & Nancy C. were divorced (December, 1885, a rare occurrence for the time!) and Allen 5. next married the widow of Joseph Hurst, Sarah Frances A. Morgan (Hurst), having one child. Perry Malcolm Osteen (who for a number of years was a deputy sheriff in Levy Co). 1. Perry Malcolm b 11 Oct, 1895 d 25 Oct, 1960 m Maie Sapp One of Mrs. Hurst’s children by her first marriage was Precious Adeline Hurst, the mother of A. M. “Doc” Smith, who for a number of years operated a road grader for the Levy County Road Department. In his later working years, he did the same for the International Paper Company. “Doc” married Mabell Claire Faircloth, oldest child of Luvada Osteen & Frances Marion Faircloth; “Doc” & Claire were the grandparents of current Sheriff Johnny Smith (elected in 2000 ).

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This is a photo of brothers Alien S. Osteen (on left) and Solomon "Sol" Osteen. While the exact date of the picture is unknown to me, it is estimated to have been about 1915-1920. It is believed to have been made at the home of "Sol" near Bronson. Child number 7, Susannah Elizabeth, married Andrew Jackson Markham and lived in the Romeo area of Marion County until her death about 1899. Their children were: 1. Mattie Elizabeth b abt 1880 d abt 1954 m 1. William Pendarvis 2. George Washington Pendarvis 2. Joseph Absalom b 20 Oct, 1882 d 10 May,1958 m Mary J. (?) 3. William J.”Bill” b 20 Nov, 1886 d 21 Nov, 1935 m Josie Brown 4. Arthur Paul “Art” b 1887 d 13 Nov, 1963 m ??? 5. Early b abt 1889 d ???(young?) m Never 6. Jiles Alexander”Alec”b 13 Mar, 1892 d 4 Nov, 1970 m Beatrice Hopping 7. Robertie Miriam”Bertie b 7 Oct, 1894 d ??? m Alexander L. Long,Jr. (b ca 1883) 8. Allen b abt 1896 d abt 1898 m Never 9. Oscar Quinton b 27 Mar, 1897 d 2 Nov, 1972 m Ruby Viola Summerall Susannah Elizabeth’s great great granddaughter, Linda Daniel (Fugate), would become Tax Collector of Levy County in 2001. Child number 8, Martha A., was listed in the 1880 Census, Marion Co, as “Maimed, crippled, bedridden or otherwise disabled”, therefore because of this listing and the fact that no other record of this child has been found by me, I have assumed she died in childhood. The last child, Miriam, is the only one of my grandfather’s siblings I ever met. As a very young child in the 1940’s, I recall going with my parents to visit in her home in Jacksonville, FL. I believe the cause of me recalling this meeting was the fact that she dipped snuff! She had an oak twig which she chewed (resulting in the end being “sprayed” out) which she would moisten in her mouth, dip into the snuff can and then place in the comer of her mouth, spitting from time to time into a coffee can partially filled with sand sitting on the floor beside her rocking chair. This event intrigued me so much that I have remembered it clearly for the past 55 or so years. Miriam appears to have been married at least twice, but only one child seems to have survived to adulthood: James Harley Beach, b 27 Sep, 1894 and d 24 Dec, 1962.

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Members of this Osteen family (extended & in-laws) have been a part of Levy County since its formation in 1845, serving in both appointed and elected positions, as jurors, road “commissioners” and in numerous other capacities. Included (but not exclusive) are: former Sheriff L. L. Johns (grandson of a brother of Allen); former County Commissioners Lovett Smith (ggs of Allen) & his son, Elmer Smith; former Deputy Sheriff Perry M. Osteen (son of Allen S.); former Clerk of the Court Mac McKoy (gggs of Allen); present Tax Collector, Linda Fugate (ggggd of Allen); former educator/school administrator Harvey C. Markham (ggs of Allen); and present Sheriff, Johnny Smith (ggggs of Allen). My other grandfather, Benjamin L. Jones was the “Captain” of Levy County’s prison camp, helping to build and maintain some of the county’s roads during the first quarter of the 20 th Century, including the grade from Janney to Rosewood. Shortly before my mother’s death in 1986, she related to me how her father had obtained a contract to cut and deliver to the railhead the poles used for the first phone line to Cedar Keys. As the poles were cypress trees taken from pond areas, he used teams of oxen to draw out the trees after felling. It seems that the split hoofs of oxen gave them better traction in boggy areas than the single hoofs of horses. Mother related to me how she recalled him feeding these oxen at night by pouring into feed troughs 100 pound bags of “snapped com”, dried beet pulp and cotton seed meal. There doubtless are many other “participants” of Levy County from the family, but these are just a few of which I am aware. In this article, I have not attempted to annotate each time members of the family have been mentioned in prior chapters of “Search For Yesterday, A History of Levy County”, but a review of the same will reveal numerous instances where they have played rolls in its early history. A study of the surviving records of the very early days of Florida after its transfer from Spanish control to the United States reveals many and frequent conflicts between the American settlers and the inhabitants of Indians in the period from 1821 until about 1842. The Osteen family, as well as many of their in-laws, was often involved in these conflicts, as indicated by the following facts: 1. SILAS BONNELL, husband of Allen’s sister Sarah Ann Osteen, was killed in a conflict with Indians in 1834/1835 near Black Creek. 2. JOHN ALFORD OSTEEN, believed to have been a cousin to John D. Osteen as well as married to Mary Ann Parrish (sister to John D.’s wife, Martha), was killed by Indians in his home (near Fort Macomb on the Suwannee River) shortly after returning thereto “after chasing the Indians for several day(s)” on December 5, 1836. His pregnant wife was witness to this incident, “seeing him shot down & dying on the floor” of their home. 3. Shortly after the outbreak of the Second Seminole War (1835-1842) Congress authorized the issue of rations to “unfortunate sufferers” who had fled their homesteads to the relative safety of a few armed camps. One of the largest of these was the military depot at Garey’s Ferry on Black Creek, eventually named Fort Heileman. As small raiding parties of Seminoles and their black allies continually slipped past Army and militia patrols to strike at isolated targets, the suffering of the settlers increased, as did the emergency relief program. Before the war’s end, the aid program would embrace a large part of the population east of the Suwannee River. In a roll, dated July 18, 1837, of the inhabitants drawing rations at Garey’s Ferry, we find the family of JOHN D. & MARTHA OSTEEN, including: ELIZABETH, ALLEN, JOHN A(braham), WINEFRED, MIRAM(sp), DAVID & MARGARET. (The daughter Sarah Ann was widowed and had remarried-see # 1 above-and therefore not living with her parents at the time).

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4. JAMES OSTEEN, brother of John D., was killed by Indians in a raid of his home east of Alligtor Lake (now known as Lake City, FL) on May 28, 1839. 5. Many of the early Militia rolls of volunteers engaged in the struggle with the Indians included most adult male members of the Osteen clan, along with their “allied” (through marriage) families. During the Civil War, Sol Osteen, a mere teenager at the time, served in Capt. E. J. Lutterloh’s Company, Munnerlynn’s Battallion and was wounded, but not of such severity as to cause permanent disability. In his Application for Pension, regarding any injury he may have suffered, he states “None that permanently disables me, but I was hit with three balls”. Further, he states “I was in the Battle of number 4, Ft. Farmer, Day Landing and Cottrell’s Landing”. My father told me how his father, “Sol”, had related to him about his military unit being in training near Fort Fanning and being ordered to swim the Suwannee River, taking rifle, shot and keeping their powder dry. The third trip across put him so far downstream that it took him the better part of a day to walk back to the point at which he began-and then he was on the north side of the river and had to be boated back to base on the south side! Both Allen and his father John D., as well as other members of the family served in the Florida Militia (see # 5 above) during the Seminole Indian Wars. Most of Allen’s grandsons served in World War I, and I feel sure many more descendants served in World War II, as well as subsequent conflicts. Michael S. Osteen of the Allen S. branch of the family was killed in Viet Nam during that conflict. While there were other branches of the Osteen family that moved to Florida shortly after the arrival of John D. and his brother James, the exact relationship of them to my branch of the family is still unproven at the time of this writing. However, it is my suspicion that all of these branches were kin one to the other, but definite proof of this has yet to be established. Early Florida counties of Alachua, Columbia, Lafayette, Levy and Taylor (as well as their subsequent divisions) had many citizens of ALL Osteen lines, including their allied in-laws, such as Bryant, Cason, Douglas, Ellis, Gaskins, Parrish, Prevatt, Roberts, Walker, and Weeks, just to name a few. John Osteen (NOT my John D.) and his wife Ada Weeks is one such example of another very early settler in the Columbia County area, with many descendants of his line moving into Alachua, Levy and Gilchrist Counties, their families living there even today. Most of the early rolls of the Florida Militia, as pointed out above, listed many of these early pioneers, dedicated to the protection of their homes and families. They helped cut the road right-of-ways, build and maintain the ferries & bridges, all while providing a living for, as well as protecting, their families. All in what must surely have been an often hostile, hot, humid, insect-infested (not to mention bears, panthers & wildcats!) frontier of sparsely settled homesteads in a day when modem “necessities” such as air conditioning, screened windows, telephones, radios and rapid modes of transportation were not even dreamed of. Did they have their faults, failures and human weakness? Rest assured they did, for they were only human, in spite of their accomplishments. But who are we today, while sitting in our nice comfortable air conditioned homes, watching the latest news flash on our wide-screen televisions bringing the signal from a distant satellite, to sit in judgment of these forefathers (and mothers!!) who carved out of a wilderness the place we now call home, Levy County, Florida? Sources I have used to write this article include, but are not limited to, the following: 1. U.S. Census records. 2. Family Bible records.

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3. Widows Pension Application records. 4. Bounty Land Claim Application records. 5. Homestead Application records. 6. Minutes of The Old Providence Baptist Church. 7. Letters and research data from other family members. 8. Documents from the National Archives, Washington, DC. 9. “The Florida Genealogist”. 10. The series by Folks Huxford, (and the Huxford Genealogical Society, Inc.) “Pioneers of Wiregrass Georgia”. 11. The Huxford Genealogical Society, Inc. “Magazine”, Homerville, GA. 12. The series, “Search For Yesterday, A History of Levy County”, by the Levy County Archives Committee. 13. My personal interviews of members of the family, most of which are now deceased. 14. My own personal recollections of family history as told to me by others of the family. 15. Kathryn Harris, Williston, FL. 16. “Cemeteries of Levy and Other Counties”, by Lindon J. Lindsey, Chiefland, FL. Pictured below is the service station/garage built by my dad, H. E. “Kias” Osteen about 1926. It was located on the NE comer of the present junction of highways Alt 27 and FL 24. From left to right is shown a gas delivery truck, driver (unknown), a believed relative of my mom, my dad (holding a hat beside his leg), and Leroy “Dude” Glover leaning against the post. At the far right there are two more unidentified individuals.

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Osteen’s Service Station in Bronson was remodeled soon after 1926, with an addition in which my mother, Alma Jones Osteen ran a restaurant. Shown standing and leaning against the post is my father, “Kias” Osteen. To the left, but not in the picture, was an “ice house” where blocks of ice were stored for use of the restaurant and for sale to the public. The stairs on the right of the building led to the second floor where the family lived. The eight (8) windows shown above the name of the business opened to the space called a “sleeping porch”. While the upstairs did have a bathroom, there was no kitchen, as the meals were taken in the restaurant located below. Below the staircase was an entrance to a garage where my dad worked on automobiles. I was bom in 1938 and the business was sold in 1939. The two-story apartment building, built behind and to the left of the business, was turned around and moved across the highway, being placed beside our new home, built about 1940. The apartment building stands today where it was moved with round polls and pulled with Model A and Model T vehicles. The home was moved by my wife & me in 1988 about 1 Vi miles out of town, remodeled and is today our residence. After my parents sold the business, it was operated by Walter & Jessie Duden, Lyn & Louise Williams and Lamar Williams, up until the 1960’s. Lint Moring purchased the property and had the building tom down in the early ‘60’s.

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Shown below is a picture of H. E.(Kias) Osteen standing in front of Osteen’s Service Station with the race car he built, using a Ford Model T engine (with an overhead valve system) and transmission. This photo was taken ca 1929. The car was raced at Daytona Beach in the era of late 1920’s-early 1930’s. During the late 1930’s, he disassembled the racer, storing the motor in wooden crates, wrapped in newspaper and kept in a bam at our farm. In the mid 1990’s, I gave the motor and what few parts we were able to salvage to Joe Blackert (Blackert’s Machine Shop north of Chiefland), who is in the process of restoring the race car as near the original as possible. We are looking forward to seeing the car once again “run”, even if not on the beach at Daytona!

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THE RISE & FALL OF CEDAR KEY By Harry Eugene Osteen March, 2002 Cedar Key had been the choice of David Levy Yulee for his Gulf of Mexico port and terminal for the Florida Railroad, which was completed on March 1,1861, running 156 miles from Femandina on the east, through Baldwin and Gainesville to the Gulf of Mexico. This gave a deep water port on both sides of the state and provided a “land bridge” for the transportation of materials from either side of the state to the other without the long and dangerous voyage around the Keys at the state’s extreme southern end This meant that goods both from and bound for the Mississippi River and points along the Eastern Seaboard of the United States could shorten the transport time considerably. The completion of the line in 1861 was just in time for war action. The Florida Railroad was hit hard during the War Between the States. Cedar Key was occupied by Federal troops on January 15, 1862, at which time the rail station was burned, as were five schooners & three sloops, all loaded in preparation to run the blockade. A warehouse of naval stores was destroyed and the telegraph wires of the railroad were cut. In March of 1862, Union gunboats took Femandina and for all practical purposes, the Florida Railroad was put out of service. Rails were stripped from the line north of Baldwin under Confederate orders, to be used on another line. On February 8, 1864, Federal troops raided Baldwin, doing considerable damage there. On July 29, 1864 another Federal force landed at Cedar Key, moved inland along the railroad tearing up the track and burning the bridge across the Waccasassa River. Starke was raided on August 17 and the railroad station, cars and a warehouse full of supplies burned. A report by the engineer of the railroad after the war ended described the condition of the line’s properties thusly: (Only described here will be the Levy County portion). “At Cedar Keys the large railroad wharf, the warehouse, and depot structures are burned and destroyed; the trestles crossing from the Keys to the mainland, nearly a mile in extent, rotten to such a degree that they will have to be rebuilt before trains can cross again; the structures crossing the water openings west of Bronson entirely rotten, so as to necessitate entire rebuilding; the structures between Bronson and Baldwin are in a very inferior condition.. .” While Yulee was not able to resurrect his railroad after the War Between the States ended, the line was merged, consolidated and otherwise changed in name, eventually becoming what was known as the Seaboard Air Line Railroad. In 1890 a line of the Florida Central & Peninsular Railroad (one of the names in the line of changes) was extended south from Waldo to Tampa, and in 1893 it built a line north to Savannah. The Jacksonville-Tallahassee route had opened in 1860 and eventually was known as the Florida Central & Western Railroad. These two lines crossed at Baldwin and the F C & W would eventually become a part of the Seaboard Air Line, providing connections out of and into the state at both its western and northern borders. A March 16, 1881 Time Table & Train Schedule for the Atlantic, Gulf & West India Transit Railroad, (the 1872 successor of the Florida Railroad) listed the following miles(from Femandina) and arrival/departure times: (return, from Cedar Key) Gainesville 98 miles 4:43 P.M Cedar Key 0 miles 6:15 A.M. Archer 113 miles 5:36 P.M. Rosewood 10 miles 6:54 A.M. Bronson 122 miles 6:04 P.M. Otter Creek 21 miles 7:43 A.M. Otter Creek 134 miles 6:59 P.M. Bronson 33 miles 8:23 A.M.

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Rosewood 145 miles 7:34 P.M. Archer 42 miles 8:51A.M. Cedar Key 155 miles 8:15 P.M. Gainesville 57 miles 9:46 A.M. At Cedar Key, there were steamship connections to Pensacola, FL, New Orleans, LA, Key West FL, and Havana, Cuba. At Gainesville, there were stage line connections to Ocala, then to Tampa. Given the listing of these stations and times, it might be safe to assume the rail gauge from Cedar Key to Gainesville was narrow gauge until the change to standard in about 1900. The stations in Levy County along the Cedar Key branch, (beginning at Waldo) which provided passenger service (at one time or another) between about 1870 until the abandonment in 1932 were listed as: 28.4 Archer(Alachua Co); 32.1 Venables(originally called Albion) from ca 1896 to 1920; 34.6 Meredith from 1910 on; 37.7 Bronson from 1870 on; 40.2 Otella from ca 1922-1926; 43.7 Lennon (from ca 1915 on); 49.5 Otter Creek from 1870 on; 51.1 Ellzey from ca 1890 on; (mp?) Emett (only shown on the abandonment map); 59.3 Wylly from ca 1915 on; 60.7 Rosewood(originally called Palmetto from 1860 to ca 1876); 63.8 Sumner from 1915 on; 68.0 Lukens (ca 1915 to 1924 only) and, 70.9 Cedar Key, from 1870 on. The number before each station stop indicates the milepost marker on the line, starting at Waldo and ending at Cedar Key. It is believed that the listing of Emett was a fuel and water station, as the steam engines used on this line burned wood instead of coal. Local citizens were contracted to provide this fuel and to keep the water tanks filled. W. E. (William) Ellzey, a member of the pioneer family after which the town of Ellzey was named, stated that Emett came to be known as the “Collier” place and at one time a “boarding house” was located there. It later was known as the “Mack Hodge” place. The branch from Archer to Eagle Mine was opened ca 1890. Sometime between 1906 and 1911 this line was extended 14 miles from Early Bird to Dunnellon, passing out of Levy County near present day Romeo. Stations along this portion of the line were listed as follows:(miles from Archer). 0.0 Archer; 4.5 Eve; 7.6 Raleigh; 9.5 Hodgson(originally called Gunnalsy until ca 1910); 11.6 Williston; 15.9 Montbrook; 19.4 Morriston (with a branch here, west to the Dutton Phosphate Co. at Acme Mines, FL, 1.0 mile); 24.3 Standard (called Standard Junction until mid 1920’s); 27.1 Early Bird; 32.6 Hoyt; 37.1 Cocoewitch; and then Dunnellon next. This line was never planned as a passenger route, but considering the era and circumstances, there likely was such from 1890 until sometime between 1932 and 1936. Rather, this line was for freight and phosphate and since the nearest shipping port was Tampa, (note that Cedar Key was no longer in the running as a port) the line was completed into Tampa in 1925. Passenger service on this branch from Dunellon north ended ca 1935. Now go back to about 1880 and enters Henry B. Plant with what would eventually become the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad. After the War Between the States ended in 1865, followed by the period known as “Reconstruction”, the South suffered through hard times and much financial stress. However, by 1880 many parts of the South had begun to expand and recover all except Florida. Transportation was the key by which the interior of the state could be opened, allowing for the development of its true potentialities. However, the state treasury was empty and there was more than $1 million owed on its bond indebtedness. Nobody in Florida had that kind of money and no one else was stepping up to offer to invest in this wilderness of swamps, heat and mosquitoes! Not until a Philadelphian named Hamilton Disston

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offered to fund the needed $1 million in exchange for four million acres of land, suddenly making Florida a place where people could do business. Henry Plant quickly organized the Plant Investment Company with a carefully selected group of millionaire friends as stockholders. Two of these were Henry M. Flagler of the Standard Oil Trust and Henry Sanford, president of Adams Express Company. Flagler would eventually build the Florida East Coast Railroad along the eastern coast of Florida all the way down to Key West. So with ample funds at his disposal. Plant began his plan to open up the West Coast of Florida with a rail-steamship operation, which came to be called the Jacksonville, Tampa & Key West Line. However. Tampa was not his original selection for his West Coast port, Cedar Key was! It was already a proven deepwater port with a railhead terminal in existence, while Tampa was a fever-wracked village of 720 inhabitants. Cedar Key was noted for its oysters, which were expressed to all parts of the state and as far north as Louisville. From its port were shipped annually millions of feet of the cedar with which lead pencils were made. The Suwannee River’s mouth was only a few miles away and it was navigable almost to the Georgia border. From the port, steamboats ran north up the Suwannee River, west to New Orleans, and south to Havana. Better still was the fact that the Florida Transit & Peninsular, a narrow gauge railroad (and a successor of Yulee’s Florida Railroad) already had a line across the state, and it was in financial difficulty, and available for purchase! Plant bought the Florida Transit & Peninsular. At least he thought he had it all, until he discovered the payment included everything except the terminal at Cedar Key! And the owners refused to sell it to him. Contemporary accounts assert the enraged Plant cried out “I’ll wipe Cedar Key off the map! Owls will hoot in your attics and hogs will wallow in your deserted streets!” Blocked out of Cedar Key, Plant chose Tampa for his Gulf railhead and the rest is history. Plant’s plan was to come in from the Atlantic coast side at Jacksonville, set up a steamboat line from Jacksonville, through Palatka to Sanford (named for the Henry Sanford mentioned above). At Sanford, he purchased the South Florida Railroad, running from Sanford through Orlando to Kissimmee. While the line was bankrupt when Plant stepped in, it’s charter carried with it a promise by the state to reward the company with 3.840 acres of state-held land for each mile of construction. On May 4, 1883, Plant acquired another company which had a franchise to build a railroad from Jacksonville to Tampa, through Gainesville and Ocala, for a state grant of 13.840 acres of state-held land for each mile of construction and the Jacksonville, Tampa & Key West Line was on its way! By April, 1884, trains were running regular schedules between Tampa and Sanford, covering the 115 miles in four and one-half hours. On September 23, 1885, a fast mail train began regular runs from Jacksonville to Tampa on a 12 hour, 25 minute schedule. While the Florida Central & Peninsular Rail Road (S A L) had a line from Jacksonville thru Baldwin, Ocala and Wildwood on to Tampa by 1890, it could not match the speed and quality of the Plant line. Nor could it even approach the financial stability of the Plant System. State records indicate the following holdings by the Plant system of state land grants: South Florid Railroad, 72,428 acres: Jacksonville, Tampa & Key West Railroad, 1,474,129 acres:

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Florida Southern Railroad, 2,655,482 acres. The Plant Investment Company owned another 95,329 acres apart from its railroad holdings. While all of this land was not owned at the same time, it did provide land for sale and therefore abundant money for expansion. Plant made the Key West part of his railroad’s name reality by using the wealth made possible by the vast grants of land to establish the Plant Steamship Line from Tampa to Key West and Havana, Cuba. Operating with a U.S. Mail contract, they carried passengers and freight as well. As a youth growing up in Bronson, my mother would often give me tasks to carry out on our “farm” located about a mile and a half out of town on what is today (2002) County Road 337. From time to time it would include work done by/with a man I knew as Lonnie Graham. I suspect him to have been in his mid-to-late 70’s at the time, which was the latter part of the 1950’s, so he would have been bom perhaps in the 1880’s. One day while we were taking a “break” in whatever task we had been assigned, he told me that as a young man he had worked on one of the crews which widened the railroad from (?) to Cedar Key (from narrow gauge to standard gauge), so I would suspect this to have taken place about the turn of the century (1900 or so). Further, he allowed as how the entire job was accomplished on the same day, so I suspect it must have been from Gainesville, but I do not know this to have been the case. Up until that time, all rolling stock on the Cedar Key branch would have had to stop at Gainesville if that in fact was where the narrow gauge track ended and all passengers and freight bound to or from Cedar Key had to be “switched” at the point of change in gauge, which was an inconvenience to say the least. However, after the line into Cedar Key was made “standard” to match the other portions of the S A L tracks, trains could make the complete trip to Jacksonville or other points north & west without the necessity of the change of rolling stock. Even though his promise to “wipe Cedar Key off the map” and his prediction of “owls hooting in your attics and hogs wallowing in your deserted streets” did not come to full fruition, the railroad was abandoned from Cedar Key back to Archer in 1932, then from Archer to Waldo after the merger of the Seaboard Air Line and the Atlantic Coast Line railroads in 1967, becoming the Seaboard Coast Line Railroad, and eventually the CSX System. This marked the end of Florida’s first cross-state rail line which had meant so much to the early development of Levy County. It had put Bronson on the map, causing the county seat to move from Levyville to Bronson in order to be “on the railroad”. It had made Cedar Key the first well-known, important port on the Gulf of Mexico coast of Florida. And then it had been a contributor to the ultimate rise of Tampa as the center of both rail and ocean transportation on the west coast of Florida (and the ultimate demise of Cedar Key as such). We can’t begin to imagine what Levy County would be today if Henry B. Plant had been able to acquire the port terminal at Cedar Key instead of having to opt for his second choice, that of Tampa. SOURCES: In the preparation of this article, liberal use of words, ideas, facts and sentences were taken from: 1) Articles published in the “Florida Trend” Magazine; 2) “The Historical Guide to North American Railroads” compiled by George H. Drury,

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librarian of “Trains” Magazine; “Florida’s Promoters, The Men Who Made It Big”, by Charles E. Hamer; “Florida Under Five Flags”, by Rembert W. Patrick; “Seaboard Air Line Railway”, by Richard E. Prince. Tom Underwood, member of the National Railway Historical Society and the ACL/SAL Historical Society was kind enough to provide the names and milepost markings of the stations on the S A L as it passed through Levy County. I did not include the same for the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, saving that for another chapter.

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LEVY COUNTY TOWN NAMES & THEIR ORIGIN NOTE: Some of these origins were handed down by others, i.e., legend. Their authenticity cannot be vouched for. Others are missing and therefore not known by the authors. We request the help and input from our readers in our desire to correct and/or update the names in future chapters. Bronson The “Florida Handbook” 1963-1964 by Allen Morris states: “This town, ... was established during the War Between the State, and was at first called Chunky Pond, through a mistaken transliteration of an Indian word meaning “dance”. When the town was incorporated in 1884, it was given its present name to honor an early settler of great popularity”. Morris does not name the “early settler”. However, it is noted that when the Florida Rail Road from Femandina to Cedar Key passed thru in 1860, the station located here was “Bronson”. Camp Spur A spur off of RR between Archer & Albion, ending at the Camp Mine NE of Meredith. Cedar Keys The name originated from the fact that these coastal islands were originally covered with an abundant growth of cedar trees. Chiefland Allen Morris’s “Florida Handbook” 1963-1964 reads: “When the Seminole War was ended by treaty in 1842, a Creek chief chose this site for his farm home, ... .A number of other Indians did small farming nearby and assisted in the operation of the chiefs farm”. Others have credited the name to H. S. Rogers, the first postmaster of the town. Crackertown The name derives from the “natives” who lived there, in order to distinguish itself from the community called “Yankeetown”. Curryville This community was named for Joe Curry who built a store there, ca 1926. Double Sink This community was named for the sinkhole located there. Ellzey The name was given in recognition of the Rev. Robert M. Ellzey, a Methodist circuit-riding minister of the area. The station was originally known as Eureka, but was later changed to Ellzey. Fannin Appears to have been named for Col. Alexander Campbell Wilder Fanning of the U.S. Army. Refer to chapter 10, p. 2 (“Search For Yesterday”) for an explanation of the spelling change from “Fanning” to “Fannin”.

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Gulf Hammock Both the Post Office and the precinct was at one time or another called Hartman, after Samuel Hartman and Gunntown, after S. P. Gunn. Perhaps the name originated from the vast track of forest surrounding it, known as the Gulf Hammock. Gunnals Named in recognition of early settlers in the Waccahootee area, David Conway Gunnell, Dr. George M. Gunnell and William M. Gunnell. Gunnals seems to have been a corruption of the name Gunnells. Hardeetown Named in recognition of the Isaac Pierson Hardee family who settled in the area. Inglis Allen Morris’s “Florida Handbook” 1963-1964 reads: “Capt. John Inglis, whose family came from Glasgow, Scotland, skippered a ship from Spain to the mouth of the Withlacoochee River during the 1800’s and traded with the few inhabitants of this area. A community known as Port Inglis sprang up at the river’s mouth-then the intersection of the ‘highways’ of the Withlacoochee and the Gulf. Some time later, a new community, named simply Inglis, grew up around a chemical plant eight miles upriver. .. Its original name was ‘Blind Horse’. Later, ... ship trading declined and with it ‘Port Inglis’. But Inglis grew”. Janney The community was named in recognition of Edwin Lewis Janney, an early settler of the community. Judson The name was given in recognition of Ira Judson Carter, a pioneer of the western part of the county, where he operated a large mercantile business, and was a cotton buyer. However, when the railroad from Newberry to Perry passed about 3-4 miles to the north of the community in what would become Trenton, the town slipped into memory. Lebanon Named for the historic Cedars of Lebanon. It was also known by another name. Hose Johnson, as Mr. Johnson was a pioneer in that part of the county. Lebanon Station Perhaps the name originated from a siding on the Atlantic Coast Line RR, which existed there for a number of years. Levyville Levyville, the first county seat of Levy County, was named for Senator David Levy Yulee (as was the county itself).

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Lukens Perhaps it was named for a businessman of the area, W. B. Lukens. However, the main business there was the Tillghman Cypress Company’s mills. Montbrook Named in honor of an early leading citizen of the area, Montholon Montbrook. Before 1892 it was known as Phoenix Heights and Ambler. Morriston Named in honor of Col. I. A. Morris, who established the first naval stores business here. Before that, it was a voting precinct called Four Miles. It was also called “Twiggs Allen”. Newtown Isaac W. Faircloth in Chapter 20, p. 5, indicates “...was founded by the Newton brothers. The place was originally called Newton but that evolved into New Town.” He (Faircloth) indicates that the community was a turpentine village. Otter Creek Legend has it that the name came from the fact that there was an abundance of otters found in the creek, thus Otter Creek. Raleigh Ruth Verrill in her 1969 (published in 1976) book entitled “Romantic and Historic Levy County” has this to say about the community: “This little community’s history began with Lawrence Gibson who, for no now-known reason, named it Raleigh”. Tidewater Appears to have been given the name by H. R. Swartz for having such fine cypress found in the water. Another name for a lake and a cemetery located there is Dog Ear. Tiger Town Again, quoting Ruth Verrill’s book, “.. about two miles east of Levyville, was on the old wagon road from Levyville to Bronson—a timber, lumber and turpentining community”. Williston Named in honor of Jesse Willis, an early pioneer who homesteaded land there. Wylly Named after a man named Wylly, who operated several mills there. The corporation was called the Wylly-Gabbet Co. Yankeetown During the Florida Land Boom in the early 1920’s, a number of northern folks, called “Yankees” by the local natives, purchased land and built homes and/or winter retreats in the area. The

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locals called it Yankeetown, while calling the area where they lived Crackertown. Today the areas are all indistinguishable and is really a part of Inglis. Listed next are other communities of the county which existed from time to time. However, the origin of each name has been lost. The Levy County Archives Committee requests the assistance of our readers in rediscovering how these names came into being. In all probability, there were others which have not been identified here and the Archives Committee request the help of our readers in naming and documenting them. Albion Atsena Otie Barco Black Dirt Turkey Town Vista Way Key Black Neck Daniels Deer Pen Devon Dutton Spur Emett Eve (or Eye?) LEVY COUNTY CLERKS SINCE 1884 1. James M. Barco 2. Perry M. Colson 3. Albert P. Hardee 4. Luther W. Drummond 5. Jack L. Meeks 6. Carey “Ernest” Stephens 7. Douglas Mac Arthur “Mack”McKoy 8. Danny Shipp Fowler Bluff Lennon LEVY COUNTY SCHOOLS SUPERINTENDENTS SINCE 1884 Meredith Otella Oyster Cove Palmetto (Station 12) Rosewood Sumner 1. Syd L. Carter 2. C. H. Pinney 3. Joseph C. Sale 4. Shelton Philips 5. Tom W. Price 6. W. Frank Osteen 7. Horace S. Priest 8. T. Frank McCall 9. Henry A. White 10. Alvin E. Mikell 11. Milton Lee Martin

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12. Frank P. LaPorta 13. Francis Rowell 14. Will Irby 15. Paul Johnson 16. Clifton V. Norris, Jr. U.S. POST OFFICE GULF HAMMOCK, FL The Gulf Hammock Post Office was established 16 April, 1883 Postmasters and Dates Appointed: 1. Edwin G. Hunt 16 April, 1883 2. John O. Wood 14 May, 1883 3. Adolphus M. Pashall 14 Mar, 1884 4. Harry S. W. Evans 30 June, 1884 5. John A. Robinson 19 Dec, 1889 6. Geo, D, Mendenhall 19 Apr, 1890 7. Mary D. Jakobie 2 Jan, 1891 8. John P. Hopping 23 Sep, 1893 9. MaryE. Ellzey 30Jun,1911 10. Nellie Hartman 26 Nov, 1912 Discontinued 15 March, 1916 (mail sent to Gunntown, FL) EstÂ’ed as Gunntown on 14 Feb, 1916 Named Gulf Hammock 1. James B. Adkins 2. JohnF. Yearty 3. Mary L. Taylor 4. Zachary V. Smallwood 5. Mage K. Casey 6. Mage K. Casey 7. Linda Shaw 8. Judy Kennedy 1 Dec, 1926 14 Feb, 1916 15 Jul, 1930 5 Dec, 1947 1 Jun, 1948 31 Jul, 1950 1979 1979 1981 1981

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FLORIDA CONFEDERATE SOLDIERS BURIE0 AT ELMIRA N.Y. BY GRAVES NUMBERS 114-MORGAN, JOHN N. D 5 th Aug. 20,1864 117-KEEN, MOSES H. B 5th Aug. 19,1864 230-Hale, Aaron K. Cor. D 5th Sept 4,1864 258-BEST, ARCHIBOLD H 11th Sept .11,1864 379-WINGATE, T.J. K 2nd Cav. Sept .12,1864 495-HALE, HENRY I. A 5th Sept .20,1364 549-DANIEL, JAMES W. K 8th Oct. 17,1864 660-FENNELL, JAMES R. F 5th Oct. 9,1864 691-CARTER, JAMES M. K 5th Oct. 11,1864 719-ALLISON, HUMPHREY D. Sgt. B 5 th Oct. 28,1864 751-BELL, JOHN H 8th May 3,1865 751-PADCETT, F.L. K 10th Nov. 2,1864 808-CURRY, SAM G 9 th Nov. 14,1864 889-GUNTER, THOMAS K 9th Dec. 4,1864 903-BELLAMY, RICHARD C. A 5th Nov. 27,1864 936-BIRD, BENJAMIN L 11th Nov. 12,1864 984-BRANNON, R.H. H 6 th Nov. 28,1864 1004-SHIVERS, W.H.W. A 1st Res. Dec. 1,1864 1038-TIPTON, CHARLES G. Sgt. F 11th Dec. 9,1864 1057-TUCKER, C. A Mil. Dec. 11,1864 1104-MATTHEWS, WILLIAM 1st Dec. 24,1864 1112-DANIEL, WILLIAM A 1st Dec. 25,1864 1137-ELMORE, MARK Mil. Dec. 12,1864 1172-LANIER, FRANCIS M. E 5 th Dec. 9,1864 1180-THOMAS, J.C. I 5 th Cav. Dec. 7,1864 1269-GABRIEL, ANDREIS J. F 6 th Jan. 4,1865 1290-JOHNS, ENOCH JONES 1st FI REs. Dec. 27,1864 1301-TAYLOR, CARY 1st. Dec. 27,1864 1405-FIELDS, JOHN B 5 th Apr. 24,1865 1468-KING, WILLIAM T. A 1st Jan. 13,1865 1481-HENDRICKS, LEMUIL S. E 2nd Jan. 19,1865 1498-CLAYTON, WILLIAM T. Mil. Jan. 8,1865 1571-SIMS, MILES C 1st Res. Mar. 19,1865 1610-BUTLER, GEORGE A. Jan. 23,1865 1623-McDONALD, D.K. C 1st. Jan. 25,1865 1882-BROWN, JOEL A 1st Res. Mar. 9,1865 1930-IRWIN, FREEMAN JONES 1st. Res. Feb. 7,1865 1957-EDWARDS, JOHN A 5 th Cav. Feb. 10,1865 2223-HOYLE, WILLIAM H. M 2nd Feb. 18,1865 2268-FUTCH, STEPHEN D 9th Feb. 23,1865 2298-ALLEY, JOHN A 1st Res. Feb. 26,1865 2418-O'NEAL, JAMES N H G Mar. 5,1865 2433-McNEESE, WILLIAM T. I 2nd Mar. 14,1865 2783-SUTTON, R.M. K 10th May 9,1865 2901-FELKEL, WESLEY R. K 5 th June 2,1865

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The following pages represent a copy of the program for the first Levy County Fair, held at Bronson, November 8, 9, 10, 1923. The program was printed on newsprint stock and has badly deteriorated during the past 79 years. It was acquired and saved by my mother, Alma Adell Jones Osteen, in drawers, boxes and trunks since she received it in 1923, and passed on to me about 1980. I must apologize for the quality of the copy used in the publication of this chapter, but it is the best I could get, considering the condition of the original. If there are portions that the reader has trouble deciphering, it will be my pleasure to go to the original copy and try to answer any specific questions one might have. Please feel free to call me at my home in Bronson. I found it interesting that in 1923 there was not one business listed as an advertiser in Chiefland, while there were several listed in Hardeetown. Several of the types of businesses advertised are no longer a part of today’s commercial world, while a program today would very likely advertise businesses which would have been clearly alien to citizens of that day. Another point of interest was the list of exhibits, many of them no longer a part of the agricultural scene in today’s world. The listed premiums speak clearly to the inflation (devaluation of our dollar) that has occurred since 1923. A study of the fair officers and exhibit superintendents will reveal the names of many families that have long been a part of the fabric of Levy County. In 1923 the Florida land boom was growing to a feverish pitch, and Levy County must surely have felt that it was one of many, offering to the world a “taste of the finest”. A review of the article by Charles F. Kimble as published in Chapter 10, “Search For Yesterday”, will shed additional light on where this fair likely was held in Bronson, as well as the “permanent” home for the fair in later years. As a very young lad in Bronson, I have only faint memories of what was then called the “fairgrounds”, located just east of the Coulter Estate on the east side of what is today Fairgrounds Avenue. Part of the exhibit building was still standing in the 1940’s, and was a favorite place for little boys playing “cowboys & Indians” or “cops & robbers”. The beautiful spreading live oak trees also made it a popular spot for Sunday School class parties, as well as other social gatherings during my years growing up in Bronson. About 1952, Levy County attempted to “revive” the Levy County Fair, with the event being in Williston. However, this was rather short-lived and by the late 1950’s the effort ended. Perhaps the Suwannee River Fair, Livestock Show & Sale had much to do with its demise, becoming as near to a similar event as we will have for the foreseeable future. This is not, however, a true county fair, as it involves only children from the TriCounty schools and not adults as a true fair would. Gene Osteen

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bl til ti > c n C/) 05 m f05 < D O' Q C Z I < o z z w I £ UJ Cd o H CO D O U < ul Q 00 (C/l < UJ UJ 05 < 3 O' c n UJ X H c. O 5 < UJ £ o U cn cu c o 0 § o H H C/3 O £ w § § ti) W W Z H 0< < ffi ti E 9 H 5 O, O DC 0. Q 05 O u. 05 UJ X H ti 05 UJ c/5 (7) ILi CQ C/> C/J t—t s Pleating, all styles, H msti ching, Button Covering. We use only non-rustable mould. All kinds pleating. Stamping—Stamped household linens. Phone 158-J 212 E. University Ave.

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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 3 1262 09770 9769