2Issue No: 10 September 2017TABLE OF CONTENTS4 Transformation for Training Interview with Major General Wilhelm Grn the Commander of the Joint Force Training Centre 8 NATO-Georgia Exercise Another Milestone in the Development of Long-standing Military Cooperation 12 Remaining Focused on Afghanistan Resolute Support Training Maintains Its Momentum 16 Test Your Capabilities and Get Ready for the Future to Keep Our Nations Safe CWIX 2017 20 Innovation & Development of JFTC Infrastructure on the Road to the Corps Level Exercises 23 On the Way to Certification JFTC Support to Citadel Bonus 2016 and Ultimate Sword 2016 25 Cyber Tools in Hybrid Operations International Law and Cyber Activities Below the Threshold of an Armed Attack 37 NATO Spouses Clubs Corner 38 In Retrospect Life at the JFTC
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 10 September 2017 3Publishing Institution: Joint Force Training Centre Bydgoszcz (JFTC) Managing director: Brigadier General Ladislav JUNG, JFTC Deputy Commander / Chief of Staff Editor-in-Chief: LTC Eric PARTHEMORE, JFTC Director of Management Publishing Editor: Editorial Board: PhD, University, Poland Advisory Support: Editorial Contact Information: Joint Force Training Centre Bydgoszcz, 85-915, Poland. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Transformation Through Training to the archive of Transformation Through Training magazine. The aim of this magazine is to provide a forum for exchange of information and expertise among training and educational institutions across NATO in the area of training, military professional education, and international organizations, such as the United Nations, the European Union, the Organization for Security in mind, the JFTC invites authors from countries and in the Transformation Through Training magazine. areas of command and staff training, professional military education, simulations and simulation of the most recent experience and lessons learned from ongoing operations, training events and recent innovations in the field of simulations and information the life of the international community at the JFTC the NATO Joint Force Training Centre in Bydgoszcz.The articles published in this magazine represent opinions of their authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy of NATO.
Interview 4Issue No: 10 September 2017Sir, we are talking a year after you assumed the position of the Joint Force Training Centre Commander. This time let you get familiar with the place but your memories of the first days here are still fresh. Can you share with us some of your first thoughts and impressions right after coming to Poland? Joint Force Training Centre approximately Bydgoszcz is not far from Germany and homecoming. Poland is very close to people, etc. not to mention the climate or food. And your first impressions related to JFTC does the Centre differ from HQs you were assigned to in the past? Allied Command Operations structure. Being a part of the Allied Command Transformations family, JFTC is it pre-deployment preparation for soldiers going to Afghanistan or higher headquarters with Major General Wilhelm Grn the Commander of the Joint Force Training CentreTransformation for Training
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 10 September 2017 5 use to improve and reinforce the JFTCs support to NATO Force Structure (NFS) and NATO Command Structure (NCS) training. centre already had a solid reputation as the flagship of NATO pre-deployment training. shaping. related to my induction and the Change of participated in as the centres Commander and fully committed to the mission. And and still prepared and executed on a high leaders. You mentioned further shaping of JFTC. On numerous occasions you underlined the JFTC position of a key player in NATO training, yet still you emphasized the Centres transformation. In opening remarks to the last issue of the TTT magazine you wrote: While contributing to the transformation of NATO by providing high quality training to our diverse training audiences, we have to keep transforming ourselves as well. Why change something that works well? The rapidly changing geopolitical situation even more important than some years ago. You can see this in outcomes of the latest role of NATO training, and thus lead to a higher interest in JFTC as a venue for NCS, NFS and national headquarters training, training for Major Joint Operations (MJO) and even more advanced operations. centres needs to adapt to this situation. the current and future needs of the Alliance, Allied Commander Transformation Commander Europe (SACEUR), through his Annual Guidance for Education, Training, Exercises and Evaluations. our main focus for years and Resolute to the Readiness Action Plan agreed guidance to place Alliance Defence at the core of the training program. The change in focus has JFTC at the forefront of the transformation of the NATO training continuum.
6 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 10 September 2017 Multinational Corps Northeast, German-Netherlands Corps and Rapid Reaction perfect venue for this type of exercises. need us. and simulation solutions in support exercise for testing and experimentation. The importance of this event is increasing and the Military Committee during the Exercise that utilizes the South Eastern (SEETN) as a medium for communication, the crucial role of testing, experimenting and developing innovative solutions in support of military operations. And this on it. So what exactly are the new directions of JFTCs transformation in support of NATO training? and appreciated place for pre-deployment deployment training, there is still more that national headquarters. Some adjustments is already here. respond to the current and future needs of commanders from Multinational Brigade up to Joint Force Command level and their duplicate our resources. What are the main fields of JFTC transformation? How does the Centre adapt to new challenges? of this transformation optimization of the Centres structure and infrastructural development. construction of the Command Post area headquarters can deploy elements of their Command Post structures and therefore
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 10 September 2017 7 expanding our office space to accommodate and exercise control staff at a time. implement transformation are STEADFAST and the NATO-Georgia JTEC Mentorship SHAPE intends to use this high level staff and strategic concepts, and harness the NATO. Mentoring the Georgian Joint Training and Evaluation Centre (JTEC) is What do these changes mean for the Centre? Will its priorities change? stand ready and are fully prepared for SACEUR and the outcome of the is related to MJO training. These are the reasons JFTC is transforming and higher headquarters, the Allied Command Transformation. and innovation. The JFTC transformation aims at reorganizing and thus enhancing our training capacity on one side. On Allied training. For example, the Battle at JFTC is a useful tool in conducting exercises and experimentation. Exercise for Multinational Brigade up to Joint Force Command level exercises, to fully support NCS/ NFS commanders in Collective Defence training, and hoc training and to respond to the needs of Commanders, and thus the Alliance. Big changes and significant development of capabilities and capacities will certainly result in a heavier workload for the Centre. How do you envision the upcoming months at JFTC? in responding to NATOs changing training provider for NCS and NFS, and Centric training. JFTC is a first class venue the-art platform for experimentation. training aspirations and transformation. remain on the cutting edge of enhancing
8 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 10 September 2017Introduction Force Training Centre (JFTC), together fulfil the role of the Officer Directing the Exercise (ODE) in the NATO-Georgia NATOand partner nation participation. and executed this exercise. Furthermore, as future mentoring support from JFTC and the NATO-Georgia Exercises to come.Background of the NATO Georgia Exercise defend itself and advance its preparations cooperation to help strengthen Georgias 1. ranging from Defence Planning to STRATCOM to aviation development. One of the pillars of defence strengthening of the Joint Training and a full range of training for the Georgian LTC Leon Soroko, While preparing this article, the author was a member of JFTC Training Division NATO-Georgia Exercise Another Milestone in the Development of Long-standing Military Cooperation
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 10 September 2017 9armed forces, from section level life fire training up to Brigade level Command Post training. They are currently mentored from the Nordic and Baltic States, for exercise planning, preparation and execution of a NATO exercise in the future, the NATO-Georgia series of exercises have COS to the exercise Agile Spirit in Georgia participation of Georgian-, NATOand and remote support turned into a full phase, raising the JFTC participation Exercise Specifications2 Exercise Aims fold: First: To educate and train the Georgian General Staff in the NATO Exercise Planning Process and second: To train a Multinational Brigade Headquarters in planning and conducting a Non-Article 5 Crisis Response Operation. Officer Conducting the Exercise (OCE). assigned the role of mentor for the Planning Team (CPT) along the path of processes, procedures and milestones of the Exercise Planning Process as creation of the required inputs for these meetings and to develop the necessary planning guidance and products. The JFTC as the Officer Directing Exercise Objectives Besides training the Georgian General Staff on the NATO Exercise c. To promote Strategic Communications as a Defence Capacity Building and Enhanced Opportunities Partner.Stake holders and participants Allied Command Transformation SACT acted as the Officer Scheduling support for the Technical Arrangements, STRATCOM planning and execution examples. The NATO Liaison Office in help during the setup and execution of the diminished the need to organise additional SMEs from other NATO institutions. Planning Already during the development of Brigade Headquarters, comprised of a core Georgian Brigade Headquarters participation and Georgian armed forces
10 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 10 September 2017all executed in Georgia at the front end .Preparation All of the Exercise Planning a good opportunity to assess the facilities in Scenario and modify it to the needs of a Non-Article 5 Crisis Response Operation for a MN Brigade in a NATO environment. ExecutionParticipants Multinational Brigade Headquarters (MNB th Preparation the infrastructure for Training Audience the Functional systems and connectivity Exercise Conduct Training Audience in-processing security, real life support and exercise actually met. Furthermore presentations and discussions on the MDPM in general, GOs/NGOs prepared them for the next in LOCON and other players prepared themselves during the continuation of parameters and locations generated. up to speed for the execution phase of the operation, a one-day session of Battle Staff This gave the Brigadede Commander and Chief of Staff ample opportunity to achieved across the headquarters. Exercise play lasted three and a half and STRATCOM played a major role as organisations and role-players from the host nation, creating a Comprehensive Crisis Response Operation needs to operate. the President, several ministers and the CHOD of Georgia, CHODs from various and defence attaches accredited to Georgia and many dignitaries from the political, civilian and military society in Georgia. After Action Review day of the exercise focused on three separate parts: firstly the achievement lessons learned for exercise preparation, setup and execution. The second part analysed the Multinational Brigade performance and gave advice on improvements regarding processes and standing operating procedures. The last part on NATO-GEO JTEC facilities and iteration of the NATO-Georgia Exercise. during the Post Exercise discussion, Support extensive support from NCS/ NFS entities and other organisations. The NATO-GEO supported us during the preparation and forgetting some other important players. for depicting the Higher Commanders Multinational Simulation Centre from the USAREUR filled positions in the
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 10 September 2017 11 The CMDR COE and MP COE running a Crisis Response Operation and from UN OCHA, Save the Children HQ regarding the aspect of operating in a Comprehensive Environment. cells on Battalion Level to create realism during the execution phase these personnel for future exercises. Commander JFTC, MG Grn, Chelidze, Commander NATO-GEO JTEC. JFTC personnel filled most individual participation of several Challenges along in planning, preparation and of a shortened timeline for preparation mention a couple of them separately: laptops and other equipment to Georgia operate, a Common Operational attracted much attention from local, regional and NATO entities and required c. Facilities: Although the NATO-GEO infrastructure is generally sufficient to run the execution phase of a Brigade classes, training and FAS-instruction at the same time. Therefore, if difficult to attract NATO and Partner partly due to the limited timeframe and resulted in late announcement of informing all participants on the scenario, the latest developments and the requirements.Conclusions Planning process, executing each step themselves and producing all the required documentation including the Exercise Planning Guidance and a fullfledged Exercise Plan. The Multinational preparation time, multinational staff operations. Furthermore JTEC personnel preparation and execution of the exercise iteration of the NATOGeorgia Exercise. Future NATO-Georgia Exercise 2019 and Onwards As mentioned in the introduction, series of exercises. During and after the held and current status is that the next to mentoring, advising and assisting GEO JTEC the opportunity to gather the right people, prepare them for their roles and start the Exercise Planning Process for the NATO-GEO Exercise order to facilitate a smooth preparation. Mentoring the JTEC assist in developing enduring exercise planning and exercise delivery capacities 1 ACT Exercise Specification NATO
12 Resolute Support Training Maintains Its MomentumRemaining Focused on Afghanistan LTC Lars Zacharias, JFTC Training Division
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 10 September 2017 13Welcome to 1396 nations joined the Resolute Support JFTC. Bearing in mind similar questions of Staff RS, Lieutenant General Juergen pointed out achievements, illustrated multiple layered insurgency. He explained the concept of the RS mission and shared analysis and illustrate the importance of a continuous focus on a dedicated pre-deployment training prior to each the Resolute Support Mission (RSM) is Afghanistan: Achievements and Challenges Afghanistan is a multi-ethnic and organized crime structures are only insurgency is hampering the efforts of the from the Pashtun areas in the South and East, expanding especially into the area of and afraid of the so called strong foreign cultural influence, especially in rural Nevertheless, there are indicators of progress. During the last 15 years the today, and the literacy rate has reached requires a long term guided process. Nation indeed, a turning point in Afghan there is no alternative than to sustain the engagement until achieving selfeffort is a safe and secure environment. accept 18-year-old Generals. Finally, the NATO Resolute Support Mission precondition any further development the core principle of the NATO Resolute Support Mission (RSM) is to Train, Advise and Assist (TAA) the Afghan National Defense and Security Forces Force Assistance (SFA) concept in order to mature the systems, processes, and institutions that are required to sustain a modern army and police force. Coalition advisors conduct Functionally Based Security Force Assistance to develop the shifting of the emphasis of advising Battalion and Brigade levels, to advising along eight Essential Functions (EF), levels of command. These functions are interdependent, they span across all levels of government and defense, from the Each EF is vertically oriented and contains a variety of processes and procedures. Afghan counterparts on all levels to solve The focus is to understand and engage the interaction from the executive and strategic
14Issue No: 10 September 2017 Corps Commands) to the operating forces defined EFs. Therefore, a particular part Train Advise and Assist Command (TAAC) levels is appointed as specialists to each for vertical integration, horizontal coordination, analysis and synchronization system in order to coordinate influencing efforts. This analysis is a foundation for and set up their advisory efforts along the is essential for the success of RSM. The Resolute Support Pre-Deployment Training Program Having a clear understanding of RSM, JFTC delivers a pre-deployment the specific requirements of the Training Audience (TA). The main effort of RS TEs is to educate the TA in the specifics are filling advisory and/or command and personnel assigned to advisor roles and initially designed for RS HQ requirements, personnel assigned to other coalition agencies and commands in Afghanistan are that RS TEs are not designed to provide staff. The focus remains on ensuring a common understanding of Train, Advise
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 10 September 2017 15 the Functionally Based Security Force Assistance concept of operations. The operational environment and understand Therefore JFTC is only simulating the level of RSM, an additional aim for this TA cohesive staff and advisory teams in order Joint Forces Operations Command participants during the opening ceremony Headquarters, TAAC-North Headquarters and various advisory teams is a unique opportunity for a common, yet individually shaped training throughout all tiers of the mission to create mutual understanding for each other and form a team. JFTC usually conducts four RS TEs per year in the role of Officer Directing is the provider of the training. Before requesting authority is Allied Joint Force covers the role of the Officer Scheduling the Exercise (OSE) and the Officer Conducting the Exercise (OCE). Usually of the German led TAAC-North join the academic phase (Mission Specific Training, includes Battle Staff Training (BST), and a Mission Rehearsal Exercise (MRE) for TAAC level TA. During the academics lectures, panel discussions and Functional Systems Training for all TA. During the practical phase the staff receives training RS-related issues together through prephase, selected HQ RS personnel receive specific function-related training at JFCBS. Experts (SMEs). SMEs are NATO personnel are recently redeployed from mission or directly join the TE out of theatre. JFTCs training concept incorporates this expertise and to enhance realism it is augmented the ANDSF. Additionally JFTC staff visits theatre during every TE preparation phase.Blueprint or Snapshot? The Resolute Support Training Events in 2017 and the way ahead scale training four times a year might spread the impression that RS TEs are a same. But the mission still evolves, and due changes in staff procedures and current expectations of the TA are quite high: the procedures and processes at the respective of all TE content remains mandatory. rhythm of RS TEs. Any pre-deployment approach. Professionalism and passion are defining the identity of JFTC in conducting each single TE. Regardless of rapidly changing conditions, the The Resolute Support Mission PreDeployment Training remains JFTCs of this type, JFTC underlined its unique NATO training landscape. Nevertheless, JFTC stands ready for future adjustments and therefore continuously monitors the transition planning to a post-RS the main guidelines for a future NATO engagement in Afghanistan are still to Lieutenant General Erich Pfeffer, Forces Operations Command summarized the RS TE during his address to the TA you have received a picture of your future
16 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 10 September 2017 military aggression against the Alliance or are rather unconventional. Among the varying degrees of severity are more and economic, informational, and diplomatic the implications for NATO preparedness the definition of security, its strategy for Deputy Supreme Allied Commander Europe called it), its need for a military rapidly, and its reliance for help on countries and organizations from outside the CWIX the event to test your capabilities Every year, NATO Allies and it. Test Your Capabilities and Get Ready for the Future to Keep Our Nations Safe CWIX 2017 LTCDR Hubert Winiczenko, JFTC Training Division
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 10 September 2017 17 Centre (JFTC) in Bydgoszcz, Poland. and readiness as the foundation for all communicate as one cohesive force edition of this largest annual NATOprovides active support for the Readiness Action Plan (RAP), the Federated Mission testing and FMN confirmation of current specifications supporting NATO Education Training Exercise and Evaluation (ETEE) validated and verified Communications and of a Major Joint Operation Plus (MJO+) in Europe and North America via the together in all areas of Command, Control, NATO Enterprise, NATO Agencies and other organizations, NATO and Partner Nations, NATO Centres of Excellence really large family of experts, including to enhance and improve technical an excellent chance to practically apply and test NATO standards and procedures performance of the Alliance and Partners CWIX testing as an important component of capability development lifecycle prepared, coordinated and executed. For example the Operational Command point for all Joint/ Operational level drive for the execution of vignettes and test cases. The OP COMD FA in close joint scenario to provide an operational of communication and operational data the deployed Joint HQ and the FAs as Component Commands (CCs). This testing a controlled environment to further
18 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 10 September 2017readiness and prepare the Alliance to meet Cyber defense resilience of NATO and national networks they are increasingly sophisticated and damaging in an evolving and complex threat environment. NATO Secretaryon NATO facilities every month in collective defense measures under Article 5. The most intriguing aspect of our era against unconventional threats such as and forms multinational solutions to common security concerns. Partner and non-NATO nations are force multipliers to improve the resilience of NATO and current and future NATO operations information sharing and international Interoperability and readiness two core pillars of the Alliance success NATOs Comprehensive Political Guidance requires Allies to continue the process of transformation, including conceptual and organizational agility and and threats in the future. To respond to them military forces from different rapidly and act fast across all domains in order to achieve common goals. Therefore case means that different information effectively across our formations at different echelons of command. Conclusion Safety of our nations depends, among many factors, on our readiness to react future exercises and operations. NATO has for many years to ensure that it has policies, in the changing international security proving that one NATO is stronger than the sum of its parts.
Distinguished Guests Explored CWIX 19NATO Deputy Secretary General, Rose Gottemoeller, Polish Undersecretary Supreme Allied Commander Transformation, General Denis Mercier, NATO Deputy Chairman of the Military Committee, Lieutenant General Steven M. Shepro, and NATO Commander Joint Force Training Centre, Major General adaptation in a complex international security environment. of activities and missions. And the the Honourable Rose Gottemoeller, NATOs Deputy Secretary-General By federating national security centres done the exchange of information can General Denis Mercier, Supreme Allied Commander Transformation Allied Nations and Partners underscores NATOs adaptation and transformation. Lieutenant General Steven M. Shepro, Deputy Chairman of the Military Committee are really honoured that starting from event and thus played an even more Major General Wilhelm Grn, Commander of the Joint Force Training Centre
20 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 10 September 2017 geopolitical situation are the main features of numerous challenges at all levels spanning from the strategic level, through operational challenges that represent the top of the NATO iceberg of challenges. NATO reacts its strategies and policies. The Alliance's Strategic Concept sets the requirement that NATO carries out the necessary training, exercises, contingency planning and information exchange to assure defence against a full range of conventional and such situation affects the NATO training domain and requires the Alliance to deliver challenges and opportunities, and in order to provide platforms for the necessary training, NATO has to continuously invest into its training facilities, including JFTC circumstances, there are numerous options initiation of a standalone project, through procedure or the NATO Security The Minor Works Project Procedure is to serve as a simpler, faster, Innovation & Development of JFTC Infrastructure on the Road to the Corps Level Exercises Mr. Jaroslav Barilla JFTC Plans, Analysis and Programs Management Office
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 10 September 2017 21the normal process. The purpose is to simplify procedures so that less effort is leaving more time for managing higher value and more difficult projects. Therefore, should result in an earlier satisfaction of military requirements, in avoidance of cost rises resulting from inflation, and in demonstration of responsiveness financial planning and implementation a part of a currently proposed project. meet the existing standards or requirements properly plan, coordinate and mitigate the coordination team. Plans and Analysis and Program Management Section of the JFTC are in lead of the team in initiation and Support Division in execution/ construction phases of the projects. is critical for successful projects that the Peace Headquarters C&S) and the project meets the Minimum Military Requirements. initiated the sixth project an upgrade of Project Scope Training Area Project provides supported HQs with a unique opportunity to train in the configuration as they would fight. Train as you fight Plug and train WarehouseProjects addresses shortfall of any internal JFTC storage capacity. storage capacity.Temporary Office SpaceProject addresses the shortfall of work space for permanent staff members. office space for permanent staff members in security class II area configuration.Patio RoofingProject is supposed to protect patio from accumulating snow falls that cause static stress to the building. shortfalls Audio / Video Displays UpgradeProject is supposed to replace obsolete audio and video displays. of informationOverview of approved JFTC NSIP Minor Work Projects: Project Scope Upgrade of Security Infrastructure Project is supposed to replace obsolete Security infrastructure.Overview of initiated JFTC NSIP Minor Work Projects:
22 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 10 September 2017Capability package addendum M EUR for a single project. Therefore, the major infrastructure development Statistics of the exercises from the recent years clearly indicate that JFTC reliant on the capacity extension through relevant to all categories of training support NRF/ NCS/NFS training events such as Trident Joust or Citadel Bonus exercises. th BiSC CP Board recognised this The road from the identification of the shortfalls to the mitigation solution in place is not a short one in case of Allied Command Operation proposal to enters the political level of screening, the CP Addendum and produce the Joint Staff Screening Report. Further, the Joint (RPPB) and the Military Committee (MC) outcome of screening and endorsement are positive, the North Atlantic JFTC plans and expects to gain the for the Advanced Planning Funds for Concept and the Project Cost Estimate. project, select supervisors and contractors JFTC CP Addendum 1 addresses Conclusion Furthermore, our training support must meet rapidly changing demands and needs of NATO Command Structure and NATO Force Structure Headquarters. into our infrastructure to meet the evolving facility competitive and in the state-of-the-art. Since the process of the approval of the infrastructure investment is rather lengthy and complicated, early identification of the shortfalls, proper evaluation and are crucial preconditions for success. NATO Capability Package Development
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 10 September 2017 23th located in Lille, France. The other one, st German-Netherlands centre located in Mnster, Germany. Force Headquarters (NFS JTF HQ) role certificates first. The certification process is a relatively long procedure, including a series of training events and exercises. Training events (BST). During exercises Phase of a NATO Smaller Joint Operations Land heavy (SJO-L) Non Article 5 Crisis Response Operation (NA5CRO) under direct command of SACEUR. That involved a joint and asymmetric complex military, civilian, deteriorating economically and politically failing state and 1GNC also practiced cooperation On the Way to Certification LTC (ret.) Cezary Haracewiat JFTC Training Division JFTC Support to Citadel Bonus 2016 and Ultimate Sword 2016
24 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 10 September 2017 support of their Joint Logistic Support Groups (JLSG) in planning and conducting planning process for respective HQs, this aforementioned NATO certification (Phase for and conduct the Entry Phase of a NATO Serving as a platform for Enhancing multinational Even though the commanders of Scheduling the Exercise (OSE) and Officers Conducting the Exercise (OCE), their training events. Apart from providing individual protocol assistance to each Flag Officer and visitor, transportation located in Scandinavia in northern Europe. Arnland, Bothnia, Framland, Lindsey, issues that may have had an impact on the forces to provide security assistance. Responding to this official request and solution, has accepted to intervene in Arnland. The Arnland Security and countering terrorism and organized crime and set the conditions for a secure
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 10 September 2017 251. INTRODUCTION C particular under an economy of force operational, strategic and political goals. security and prosperity, as recognised 1, dependence of countries and private entities on electronic means of communications, The fast technological progress has not slipped the attention of NATO in Summit, the Alliances policy related Nations of the Alliance confirmed the Cyberattacks can reach a threshold that threatens national and Euro-Atlantic prosperity, security, and stability. Their impact could be as harmful to modern societies as a conventional attack. We affirm therefore that cyber defence is part of NATO's core task of collective defence. A decision as to when a cyberattack would lead to the invocation of Article 5 would be taken by the North Atlantic Council on a case-by-case basis . Summit Declaration and reaffirming the as an operational domain and declared Cyber Tools in Hybrid Operations JFTC Legal Advisor International Law and Cyber Activities Below the Threshold of an Armed AttackThis article reflects the private views of the author and should not be considered as the official viewpoint of NATO, the Joint Force Training Centre of Polish Armed Forces. The author would like to express his gratitude to Mr. Andres Muoz Mosquera, SHAPE Legal Advisor, for sharing his invaluable comments and observations.
26 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 10 September 2017 commitment to act in accordance with international law, including the UN Charter, international humanitarian law, and human rights law, as applicable,declared to continue to follow the principle of restraint and support maintaining international peace, security, and stability in cyberspace and welcomed the work on voluntary international norms of responsible state behaviour and confidence-building measures regarding cyberspace. Nations of their individual and collective strengthening the Alliances resilience. Summit Communique5 defines the use of force other than armed e intervention, in particular in the context of the Nicaragua Case and try to identify interventions into internal matters of another sovereign state in the light of 8. 2. USE OF FORCE OTHER THAN ARMED ATTACK the use or the threat of use of force. raised controversies from its very origins, e.g. economic coercion9 Case has nevertheless provided highly useful insight on the meaning of the use the UN Charter and among other things the use of force as not only customary ius cogens norm, despite the practice of states. of the UN Charter, confirm the validity of 11. Similar the Nicaragua Case ruling, although the practice of the United Nations General assertion. Still, failure to condemn should of the legality of the use of force. address actions not crossing this threshold. on merits of the Nicaragua Case used the Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Co-operation among States in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations13 of states to refrain from organizing, instigating, assisting or participating in acts of civil strife or terrorist acts in another State or acquiescing in organized activities within its territory directed towards the commission of such acts, when [such] acts involve a threat or use of force., as well as to refrain from organizing or encouraging the organization of irregular forces or armed bands, including mercenaries, for incursion into the territory of another State. From this perspective, not only to maintain their spheres of influence, even (e.g. U.S. other engagements in Central and South America, organising armed resistance Soviet clandestine actions in Afghanistan preceding the full-scale military non-existence of an armed conflict, the Similarly, it seems apparent that employment of military, paramilitary or police forces or clandestine agents on the use of force and thus violation of UN 15 construed as violation of independence and territorial sovereignty of the affected state, even if such an employment of forces pursuit after perpetrators of a criminal act apparent if such an employment of regular (or clandestine) forces is conducted in order to apprehend a person suspected of having committed a crime in the territory Even if such actions are apparent unless they cross the threshold of an armed
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 10 September 2017 27response in self-defence under Article 51 of the UN Charter. The position of the Department of State Mr. Harold Hongju 18the inherent right of self-defense potentially applies against any illegal use of force seems to contravene the essence of the to the United States, as it rejected the merely constituted a different category of the use of force, not entitling Nicaragua to exercise its right to self-defence under Article of the UN Charter. The rationale of terrorist activities against United the territories of third states and justified jurisdiction (terrorist acts are grave criminal in the drafting of the Tallinn Manual 2.0, entitled to respond under the self-defence 19. there is no threshold for a use of deadly force to qualify as an armed attack that may warrant a forcible response. But that is not to say that any illegal use of force triggers the right to use any and all force in responsesuch responses must still be necessary and of course proportionate. Even though necessity mentioned, such an assertion is at least the nations intent to reserve the right to an armed response to actions not amounting to deny similar right to other nations. per se, use of force, as normally such activities are conventional military operations and most constitutes criminal offence under domestic removal of the requirement for physical presence at the source of the information. sovereignty of the victim state (e.g. physical intrusion into computer systems of the victim state in order to introduce result in unintended consequences damage to communications infrastructure or destroying computer data), (also referred to as industrial or economic large international and U.S. corporations, among them in particular the SONY the intellectual property thefts have resulted in indictments against Chinese military to give an unfair advantage to a Chinese producer of solar panels in its competition prove the actions of the indicted personnel the direction of the Chinese authorities, U.S. administration additional arguments in applying more pressure on Chinese develop constructive law enforcement cooperation on cyber-enabled crimes; (2) engage in high-level dialogue on cybercrime and network protection; (3) not conduct or knowingly support cyber-enabled theft of intellectual property, including trade secrets or other confidential business information, with the
28 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 10 September 2017intent of providing competitive advantages to companies or commercial sectors; and (4) make common effort with the United States to further identify and promote appropriate norms of state behavior in cyberspace through an annual Senior Experts Group meeting led by the Department of State. . did not (unfortunately) stop Chinese U.S. Allegedly, on the very next day commitments, China-affiliated actors and similar occurrences have continued to use of force in the meaning of Article amounting to use of force. Therefore, let us activities that could amount to use of force Nicaragua Case opinio iuris that providing support (other than merely financial aid) to armed opposition groups an illegal use of force and thus a violation At the same time, exercising economic or political coercion, or providing sanctuary supporting such groups) in most of the vs. Uganda Concerning Friendly Relations and Co-operation among States in accordance no State shall organize, assist, foment, finance, incite or tolerate subversive, terrorist or armed activities directed towards the violent overthrow of the regime of another State, or interfere in civil strife in another State Uganda in the territory of the Democratic achieve perceived Ugandan security needs and to support irregular elements and territorial integrity of Congo. Drafters of the Tallinn Manual 2.0 have adopted a set of eight criteria considered as such. The criteria are: 1) Severity the consequences of a
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 10 September 2017 29 vs. DDOS purpose (exfiltration of information vs. the volume of altered/corrupted/destroyed percentage ratio of service degradation), either part of military operations of the adversary or in fact does facilitate a specific optimally proven), the question of UN Charter explicitly mentions the use of the Caroline individual States and the collective actions 8) Presumptive legality acts not are generally permitted and this equally actions analogous to conventional ones operations amounting to use of force, the damage, injuries or deaths (or the mentions providing an organized armed to a use of force against another state as training necessary to conduct propaganda, disinformation activities, to spoof (assuming no severe consequences providing financial resources to such an armed group, even if the resources are One could argue that providing operation, meant to degrade a states defence the state forces and irregular armed group. operations, need not cross the threshold the principle of non-intervention in the as states sovereignty and independence. 3. THE PRINCIPLE OF NON-INTERVENTION. SOVEREIGNTY IN CYBERSPACE training, arming, equipping, financing and supplying the contra forces or otherwise encouraging, supporting and aiding military and paramilitary activities in and against Nicaragua, has acted, against the Republic of Nicaragua, in breach of its obligation under customary international law not to intervene in the affairs of another State . found the United States in violation of the sovereignty of Nicaragua. Although the principle of non-intervention and violation of Nicaraguan sovereignty, in any Currently, the principle of nonof states to refrain from interfering matters in which each State is permitted, by the principle of State sovereignty, to decide freely. One of these is the choice of a political, economic, social and cultural system, and the formulation of foreign policy. Intervention is wrongful when it uses methods of coercion in regard to such choices, which must remain free ones. The element of coercion, which defines, and indeed forms the very essence of, prohibited intervention, is particularly obvious in the case of an intervention which uses force, either in the direct form of military action, or in the indirect form of support for subversive or terrorist armed activities within another State .
30 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 10 September 2017internal matters of another state, such as political, social, economic systems or attempt to impose changes. The interference coercive or dictatorial in order sanctions or unilateral discontinuation of to armed opposition or in particular direct military involvement in support of constitute an intervention. U.S. Activities rendered to the Contra military in nature (e.g. financial support) and even if the U.S. did not (officially) Contras of Nicaragua. Falling short of the use of force (or the threat thereof), certain forms of support to armed opposition may nevertheless constitute intervention, as include: justification exists only in the face of an immediate threat to the lives of the citizens territorial state to protect the persons at of force in general and intervention in Councils mandate occur in response humanitarian distress proportionate and necessary to repel an from a doctrinal perspective, use of force intervention per se. constitute violation of the sovereignty of the victim state and the main purpose of Sovereignty is one of the founding aspects of the existence of a and comprises of three main features: 1) jurisdiction, generally exclusive, over a territory and population permanently state consented to enter into. Sovereignty equals states freedom in particular economic interdependence, and tendency to remove legal constraints post-territorial world. sovereignty emanates outside the physical or geographical territories of states does not only imply that a state may functions of a state in external relations, and thus may restrict the discretion and certain aspects of states foreign policies via strategic communications conducted on electronic media. Sovereignty encompasses the freedom to formulate foreign policy there is no controversy in this statement. Therefore, if a state decides to formulate elements of its foreign policy via activities conducted in as long as these activities do not Of course, freedom to formulate foreign policy incudes the freedom to enter into any treaties or other international agreements, to include those governing differ in the presence of an international pacta sunt servanda rule, such a traditional territorial approach to sovereignty in the aspect of jurisdiction is complicated. Customary international conducted therein. Generally, states cannot exercise their jurisdiction extraterritorially
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 10 September 2017 31 concerned. Minority of the experts involved in the Tallinn Manual 2.0 project suggested that states can exercise sovereign rights over governmental data transmitted experts disagreed, stating that data stored launched from Russia). Should it mean that the right to modify content, add or remove these sovereign rights, State B does not of State A in particular. Of course, such rights to modify, add, remove etc. might On the other hand, lets consider a modification of the aforementioned addresses indicate their location in State A the measures to repel the interference? jurisdiction in the territory of State A? authorised to implement passive defence measures, hardening the security of the servers and perhaps passively collect data as in the case of providing external security of State A and eventually perhaps request their extradition. Once again, specific violating other states sovereignty (except for cases of self-defence and authorisations of the UN Security Council) and from that violation occurs in physical domains or the territory of a state (including its territorial violation of sovereignty. This is equally as discussed in the first version of the constitute violations of sovereignty of the victim state. Also, significant and lasting degradation or loss of functionality (mere particular of critical infrastructure located Controversies do arise in the case manifested physical consequences, merely cause degradation or loss of functionality of certain systems or alteration or destruction (erasure) of data. The eight criteria violation of sovereignty. The immediate of State B as forensic evidence in an investigation against citizens of State B suspected of espionage in favour of State A. The immediate consequence deletion of as violation of sovereignty of State B. is to prevent State B from prosecuting suspected spies, thus State B is restricted from exercising one of the fundamental less controversial, as even the drafters usurpation of inherently governmental 51 usurpation of inherently governmental functions include denying the state the defence activities (systems) or of significant importance recently disrupting interrupting the conduct of elections.
32 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 10 September 2017 of elections, as recent events (in particular those surrounding the last U.S. presidential elections) have raised important questions on third states involvement in the election or the sovereignty of the affected state? undermining the reputation of a candidate cases not constitute an intervention or violation of sovereignty of a state, even if the action is in fact intended to influence of the candidate or party and eventually cast a different vote than initially intended. voting system or systems used to count votes and results of the elections. Such order to pursue the results of elections that infringement of sovereignty of the affected meant to alter the contents of the official Foreign Affairs of State B condemning Ministry of Foreign Affairs pf State B. in order to create the impression that the conduct of naval vessels of State B and does not actually condemn them. sovereignty encompasses, among others, the freedom of a state to formulate its foreign policy. Any infringement of sovereignty, therefore as constitute violation of sovereignty, even disinformation or in other manner influence a states foreign policy might amount to to another state, vitally interested in achieving such an effect on an adversary. only states or state actors can violate sovereignty of another state and similar 4. STATES RESPONSIBILITY FOR INTERNATIONALLY UNLAWFUL ACTS the sovereignty of the affected state and hereinafter referred to as the Draft Articles. in Article 1 of the Draft Articles that states whether the organ exercises legislative, executive, judicial or any other functions, whatever position it holds in the organization of the State, and whatever its character as an organ of the central government or of a territorial unit of the State. elements of governmental authority or default of the official authorities the territory of a pre-existing State or under its command, to the extent 55. Examples offences against the peace and security of mankind, as stipulated in the Draft Code of Crimes against the Peace and to as the Draft Code). The draft Code against humanity (Article 18), crimes against United Nations and associated of aggression (of particular interest here, given the topic of this article), the commentary to the Draft Code stipulates:
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 10 September 2017 33 The action of a State entails individual responsibility for a crime of aggression only if the conduct of the State is a sufficiently serious violation of the prohibition contained in Article 2, paragraph 4, of the Charter of the United Nations. In this regard, the competent court may have to consider whether the conduct of the State constitutes a violation of Article 2, paragraph 4, of the Charter and whether such conduct constitutes a sufficiently serious violation of an international obligation to qualify as aggression entailing individual criminal responsibility. The Charter and the Judgment of the Nurnberg Tribunal are the main sources of authority with regard to individual criminal responsibility for acts of aggression. recognized the roles of States and individuals in stating that: Crimes against international law are committed by men, not by abstract entities, and only by punishing individuals who commit such crimes can the provisions of international law be enforced.58 in their capacity as state organs incline an individual to a state for the purposes concerned fails to exercise due diligence states (normally) possess disciplinary a violation occur, and compel them to compensate for the damages. Failure exercise due diligence and might result in 59 state officials, are prompted, encouraged or instigated to conduct internationally de facto might pertain to activities of corporations, outsourced to perform certain governmental functions. The state concerned might then the State (criterion of effective control as in the case of de facto commanders). forming an insurgent group in another state, provided that as ruled in the Nicaragua Case the insurgents remain under effective control of that state. with knowledge of the circumstances of the internationally wrongful act 1) Aids or assists in the commission of act. even if the act itself or its consequences A state inflict damage or cause casualties in the harm or significant degradation of the functioning of critical infrastructure in the might satisfy the effective control test. Failure to prevent misuse of national final) section of this article, states and non-state actors may utilise third-states thus complicate identification of the actual respective preventive measures, it might
34 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 10 September 2017 the 5. CONCLUSIONS: AMBIGUITY AND COMPLICATED ATTRIBUTION USEFUL FEATURES OF CYBER ACTIONS IN HYBRID OPERATIONS. unorthodox approach to operations aimed at achieving strategic and political goals it international or non-international), thus de iure spectrum of means, methods and political and technological in pursuit of an approach is sometimes referred to as Military, Economic, Financial, ). is aimed at confusing the adversaries as as to the intents and actual conduct of the perpetrator, eroding the legitimacy perception of the legitimacy of the actions international community can even occur. where a wide range of overt and covert military, paramilitary, and civilian measures are employed in a highly integrated design. over military operations, utilising proxies, misusing humanitarian convoys to provide cover for shipping military supplies to all these activities serve one purpose: as stated in the previous section of this disseminated misinformation to distract, confuse and degrade the opponents of conventional campaign in Georgia. the perpetrating state is the ultimate goal of the information campaign supporting sovereignty of other states and remain immune to allegations of the use of force. States may decide to utilise specialised tools to cover their engagement include spoofing, i.e. replicating existing control of the state or its organs, there is Adviser to the U.S. Department of State, States are legally responsible for activities undertaken through proxy actors, who act on the states instructions or under its direction or control. The ability to mask ones identity and geography in cyberspace and the resulting difficulties of timely, highconfidence attribution can create significant challenges for states in identifying, evaluating, and accurately responding to threats. Established international law does address the question of proxy actors. States are legally responsible for activities undertaken through putatively private actors, who act on the states instructions or under its direction or control. If a state exercises a sufficient degree of control over an ostensibly private person or group of persons committing an internationally wrongful act, the state assumes responsibility for the act, just as if official agents of the state itself had committed it. eventually confirmed, such as in the case of the forensic examination of a case state, alongside other areas of influence/ coercion. Not only can they influence the degrade the defences of the victim state or impact the results of elections. They might proxies, to inflict significant damage critical infrastructure or simply to spread psychological terror or propaganda in support of the terrorist organisations, as
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 10 September 2017 35 currently on-going and upcoming crises. extension of conventional defence operation order to degrade the terrorist organisations Defence Pledge the Allies confirmed their military operations. Simultaneously, NATO 1 Active Engagement, Modern Defence. Strategic Concept for the Defence and Heads of State and Government at the Heads of State and Government participating in the meeting of the North Atlantic participating in the meeting of the North 5 intelligence-from-governments-militariesMilitary and Paramilitary Activities in and against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v. United 8 9 the Use of Force, Oxford University Press 11 15 Force against Non-State Actors, Oxford Prepared for Delivery to the 18 Manual, Office of the General Counsel, 19 Espionage, posted in foreignpolicy.com a Statement Before the House Energy and supra note 19
36 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 10 September 2017Dmitri Alperovitch, The Latest on latest-on-chinese-affiliated-intrusions-intoArmed Activities on the Territory of Armed Activities on the Territory of the Advanced Persistent Threat a type of sophisticated and usually precisely targeted The Erosion of State Soevereignty, in: The Erosion of State Sovereignty: and Extraterritorial Acts of State, in: State, 15. Michael N. Schmitt, Oxford University 51 55 Draft Code of Crimes against the paragraph 5 of the commentary to Article 58 Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression: Opinion and Judgment, Office of United States Chief of Counsel for Prosecution of Axis Criminality, United States Government 59 See supra note 59 on NATO Current Challenges, the Heads of State and Government participating in the meeting of the North org/semiconductors/design/the-hunt-for
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 10 September 2017 37 8th Eastern Europe and some other countries. This day commemorates the movement a perfect occasion for an international stnd children in the Bydgoszcz Orphanage.
EVENTS In Retrospect Life at JFTC38Issue No: 10 September 2017JFTC at the Grand Rowing Competition of Bydgoszcz Strategic Foresight and Framework for Future Alliance Operations Workshop at JFTC command structures (ACO, LCC) and agencies, NATO Defence College, 15 Centres of Excellence, European met in the JFTC state-of-the-art training facility to exchange their ideas and insights, and to ensure professional development of final products. 2016
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 10 September 2017 39Resolute Support Training Event 16-4 Successfully Completed Another group of NATO soldiers got ready for their deployment to Afghanistan. The Joint Force half to support the preparation process. Force Command Brunssum (JFCBS). The event aimed at educating the training audience in the specifics of Major General Hans van Griensven, the Deputy Chief of Staff Plans of the Joint Force Command Yet again JFTC used its vast experience in pre-deployment training, its modern facility and tools to New Years Reception at JFTC Continuation of the Resolute Support training program and increasing involvement in exercises iteration the JFTC Commander underlined. 2017
EVENTS In Retrospect Life at JFTC40Issue No: 10 September 2017 exercises for multinational corps such as the Multinational Corps Northeast, the German Netherlands Corps and the French Rapid Reaction Corps, and further engagement in high-level readiness exercises such as Trident To achieve all goals and future plans, the Centre has already intensified efforts in developing its Ready to Train, Advise and Assist in Afghanistan hand in hand for the future success of the Allied mission. Half of them received their final preparation experience. information on the Resolute Support mission and Afghanistan. Lieutenant General Salvatore Alejandre,
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 10 September 2017 41 Graduated Readiness Force (Land) Lessons Learned Working Group Meets at JFTC the first time the Group gathered at the Joint Force Training Centre (JFTC). to develop our capacities for the future. To maximize output and enhance discussions, the Allied Land Command Headquarters invited the Allied Command Operations, Joint Force Commands, Allied Air Command, Allied Maritime Command, plans for the nearest future. JFTC Expands Its Activities. Advisory Training in Kosovo
EVENTS In Retrospect Life at JFTC42Issue No: 10 September 2017 activities and provided opportunities for the trainees to put theory into a practical context. A small team from the Joint Force Training Centre, acting as the Officer Directing the Exercise, and training coordination.Preparation for Resolute Support Mission Completed Resolute Support training and to get ready for deployment. understanding of the mission said Rear Admiral Simon Hardern, the Deputy Chief of Staff at the Allied Joint Force Command Brunssum, during the closing ceremony. Admiral Hardern underlined that training in Bydgoszcz gave soldiers a good start for their time in the theatre. delivering yet another portion of up-to-date information related to the situation in Afghanistan and the allied mission.
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 10 September 2017 43Chiefs of CIS Support Units Meet in Bydgoszcz Bi-Strategic Commands IKM Working Group Meets at JFTC good example for other NATO commands and units.JFTC Ball Charity Lottery Supports Residential School in Bydgoszcz
EVENTS In Retrospect Life at JFTC 44Issue No: 10 September 2017 Resolute Support Commander at JFTC Pre-deployment Training current information on situation in Afghanistan. deployment training. and in completing your mission successfully. By implementing the most current expertise, the training responds to the requirements of Resolute Support commanders and to the needs of the allied advisors in Afghanistan. During the event, the trainees achieve a high level of proficiency, and NATO headquarters gain readiness to train, advise and assist their Afghan counterparts. the Training Audience via video teleconference, underlined significant progress in Afghanistan and its Colonel Leonhard Hirschmann, put emphasis on positive changes in Afghanistan. He mentioned progress in the field of economy, anti-corruption processes and education for girls, and thus underlined the importance of unique opportunity for a common, yet individually shaped training throughout all tiers of the mission to create mutual understanding for each other and to form a team said Colonel Hirschmann. He added: For this Force Training Centre.
In Retrospect Life at JFTC In Retrospect Life at JFTC VISITSTransformation Through Training Issue No: 10 September 2017 45JFTC Hosted the German Ambassador improving the Alliances performance are tested. of the Bydgoszcz NATO training centre. This created a platform for exchange of experience related to their Maintaining Good Relations with Regional Authorities. Major General Wilhelm Grn Pays Courtesy Visits efforts, programs and promotion of the region. Also the situation of the Bydgoszcz airport, education, the international community living in Bydgoszcz. 2016 of the Marshals Office of the
46Issue No: 10 September 2017Head of the Polish National Security Bureau at JFTC setting the stage for exercises reflecting the operational reality. Future Vice Chief of Staff at SHAPE Visits JFTC of discussions held during the visit. General Delort-Laval received comprehensive information on the Centres General Grn Meets with Local Authorities and Explores Military Installations 46 Issue No: 10 September 2017 of the City Hall of Bydgoszcz
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 10 September 2017 47 these institutions and JFTC.Visegrad Group Directors Visit JFTC Resolute Support Deputy Commander Mentors Participants of JFTC Pre-deployment Training Lieutenant General Sandy Storrie CBE, the Deputy Commander of the Resolute Support Headquarters events for future allied staff going to Afghanistan. General Storrie, the RS HQ Deputy Commander, provided Afghanistan and their future assignment.
In Retrospect Life at JFTC In Retrospect Life at JFTC In Retrospect Life at JFTC VISITS48Issue No: 10 September 2017 Talks with LANDCOM Commander on Mutual Reinforcement
In Retrospect Life at JFTC In Retrospect Life at JFTC In Retrospect Life at JFTC VISITSTransformation Through Training Issue No: 10 September 2017 49Major General Sanz Explores JFTC training headquarters could deploy elements of their Command Post structures. At the same time, the centre commanders the Supreme Allied Commander Transformation and Supreme Allied Commander Europe.On Innovations at JFTC with Air Marshal Stacey The Joint Force Training Centres (JFTC) expansion, future development of training capacities and Marshal Sir Graham Stacey, the Allied Command Transformation (ACT) Chief of Staff (COS) and JFTC Marshal Stacey assured Major General Grn of his support for the Centres efforts. professionalism and dedication in supporting the Resolute Support mission. 2017
In Retrospect Life at JFTC In Retrospect Life at JFTC In Retrospect Life at JFTC VISITS50Issue No: 10 September 2017High Ranking Visitors Explore JFTC Brigadier General Jrgen von Sandrart, Asistant Chief of Staff at the Supreme Headquarters Allied scenario development. flagship of NATO training and state-of-the-art platform for experimentation and testing. Unit.
In Retrospect Life at JFTC In Retrospect Life at JFTC In Retrospect Life at JFTC VISITSTransformation Through Training Issue No: 10 September 2017 51National Liaison Representatives to HQ SACT in Bydgoszcz Fifteen National Liaison Representatives (NLR) to the Supreme Allied Commander Transformation Commander of the Multinational Division Southeast Explores JFTC Joint Force Training Centre (JFTC) and the Multinational Division Southeast (MND SE). Major General discussions on future cooperation. MND SE is currently preparing for Dacian Lancer a certification exercise planned for spring next year.