2 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015TABLE OF CONTENTS 4 You Are Central Part of the Transformation of the ACT Family Interview with General Denis Mercier, the Supreme Allied Commander Transformation 7 JFTC Joint TRANSFORMATION Centre Interview with General Jean-Paul Palomros, the former Supreme Allied Commander Transformation 9 JFTC A Big Lump of Shiny Treasure in Our Training Architecture Interview with Lieutenant General Phil Jones OBE, the former Chief of Staff of the Allied Command Transformation 11 Joint Force Training Center and VJTF Training 12 JFTC Staff Visit to Theatre, Nice to Have or a Necessity? 15 Modelling and Simulation in the Exercise Process How M&S Tailors to Training Needs 18 The Role of Real Life Support 19 1st European Cybersecurity Forum CYBERSEC 22 Selected Legal Aspects of Cyber Warfare 29 Vertical Health Space of Systems and Its Analysis by Means of Systemic Constellations 38 Is the Intelligence Cycle Still a Valid Model to Describe How Intelligence Works? 45 Why Bother With Information Management 49 NATO Spouses Clubs Corner 50 In Retrospect Life at the JFTC
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 3Publishing Institution: Joint Force Training Centre Bydgoszcz (JFTC) Managing director: Brigadier General Lszl SZAB, JFTC Deputy Commander / Chief of Staff Chief Editor: MAJ Goran PIJETLOVIC, Chief PAO JFTC, Spokesperson COM JFTC Editorial Board: Mrs. Kamila SIERZPUTOWSKA, PhD, Kazimierz Wielki University, Poland Advisory Committee: Editorial Contact Information: Joint Force Training Centre Bydgoszcz, 85-915, Poland. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Transformation Through TrainingThe aim of this magazine is to provide a forum for exchange of information and expertise among training and educational institutions across NATO in the area of training, military professional education, and related technological support. In the context of The international organizations, such as the United Nations, the European Union, the Organization for Security in mind, the JFTC invites authors from countries and in the Transformation Through Training magazine. areas of command and staff training, professional military education, simulations and simulation of the most recent experience and lessons learned from ongoing operations, training events and recent innovations in the field of simulations and information the life of the international community at the JFTC the NATO Joint Force Training Centre in Bydgoszcz.The articles published in this magazine represent opinions of their authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy of NATO. to the archive of Transformation Through Training magazine.
4 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015Sir, this is your first visit at the Joint Force Training Centre. As it is held concurrently with the Resolute Support Training Event 15-4, you have already had a chance to see how the centre works at full speed conducting one of its flag exercises. What are your first impressions? My first impression is maturity of the training and the level of details. All that is integrate all the different aspects for the organized in details. You have to see that the maturity of the training and the security. interesting to see the video conference, role of role players and other contractor. maturity of this training. You took over the responsibility for NATO training in a very demanding time. New challenges the Alliance faces, a very rapidly changing geopolitical situation right behind the Alliances borders in the east and in the south all these make the Supreme Allied Commanders Transformation work more important than it has ever been before. How do you envision the upcoming years of your service? for the sake of transformation. What is morning this is our capacity to fulfill the three tasks of the Alliance. And the tasks cover everything this is collective defence, crisis management and cooperative security. We have already in place all the search carried out to fulfil have to do to implement the decisions of Interview with General Denis Mercier the Supreme Allied Commander Transformation, conducted on 21 October 2015You Are Central Part of the Transformation of the ACT Family
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 5 all the documents that are already in place. transformation is just the design to have our operational capacity today and to have our have prepared all these capacities to face the future. commitment for the short term is important Now, everybody is thinking about the NATO Warsaw Summit. Do you expect the summit to have something like a catalyst effect for the NATO community, that some things will be decided quicker, deeper or broader? decided to have more readiness and more responsiveness especially for NATO forces. redefine some key concepts of the Alliance. XXIst century these are the questions are on track. We have some difficulties in just to prepare the future and thats a good question. How do you assess the Alliances ability to face challenges of modern warfare? For example, hybrid or information warfare how do you see the role of NATO training in preparing soldiers to respond to this task? state actors and some kind of surprising appropriately developed forces. Thats The second thing is that this kind of all the organizations and one of them, integrate this kind of threat in our exercises are doing in the Trident Juncture 15. We and more important. We have integrated one of the main issues is STRATCOM field. This is another task, to improve for this kind of threats. Even the use of We cannot avoid the necessity to play What are the main topics as far as NATO training and transformation are concerned that you would like to address first? Realism through the role players, through key for the training.
6 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 And for that the exercise CWIX, conducted here is of utmost importance. These are main issues. This is demonstration. Trident Juncture is a clear demonstration that the Alliance cohesion of our Alliance. During his last visit to the JFTC General Jean-Paul Palomros named our centre the Joint Force TRANSFORMATION Centre. How do you see the role of the JFTC in this big allied transformation machine and where do you see its place in your vision of future NATO training? How are you planning to use the JFTC to fulfill the Alliances training and transformation goals? the Resolute Support Mission. I mean you transformation. Again, the transformation some posts for the implementation of the Readiness Action Plan. this centre today is to continue to support the Resolute Support mission or any nation do that. priorities. First priority is to continue the exercise. That is a great preparation for the future. We have to think operationally and not just concentrate on the technical part of have the NRF, that already is in training. have to assess that and see the main role of training of partners. We have this ongoing future. Then according to our vision of have to visit the centre in Stavanger and the in isolation of one centre from another. This remain an important training centre for our idea that the nations that are interested in provide a multitude of things. We are sure to give you anticipation of the future tasks You are central part of the transformation of the ACT family so the Transformation part of the task for the centre here. Do you have any special tasks for the JFTC? that many nations can come here and receive isolation. And the transformational issue the tactical level all these forces are this centre plays a strong role in the mentioned.
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 7Sir, the Alliance faces new challenges and needs to be ready to respond to the new reality. As the Supreme Allied Commander Transformation you have been responsible for NATO training for the past few years. How, throughout this time, NATO preparation for future challenges evolved? I think that NATO had realized a couple of adapt to this situation in a very proactive preparation for operations is. We have seen that in Afghanistan and even in more demanding situations in terms of types of exercise linked under the NATO very tough conditions. What, in your opinion, is the main challenge the Alliance needs to respond to at the moment as far as NATO training program is considered? We are very good, at the tactical single Interview with General Jean-Paul Palomros, the former Supreme Allied Commander Transformation, conducted on 20 July 2015 JFTC Joint TRANSFORMATION Centre
8 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 more emphasis at the joint level. And this is really a part of our priorities. Very has run for many years, more than a decade troops together from different nations in the more important in the joint environment. We are in Poland, in the central part of Europe where the NATO spearhead is being located. It seems that the JFTC is a perfect venue for training for the Very High Readiness Joint Task Force and NATO Force Integration Units. How do you see the role of the JFTC in this part of NATO training? role of the JFTC in the overall Readiness centre of excellence from one end and a unique opportunity to capitalize on that and to prepare our forces, to reinvest in a on high intensity crisis scenarios. I think JFTC is perfectly placed geographically, to prepare the forces including the VJTF, so the expertise developed here at the JFTC prioritization. There are so many tasks commander I must take it in consideration. If you were to describe the position of the JFTC in the NATO training network and transformation, where would it be? it it is the Joint Force Transformation the centre of excellence of NATO for operations preparation. That it is involved in all transformation efforts. I see a great JFTC is a great integrator organization. And On one hand you have the forces and the human expertise, on the other hand you have the integration of systems. And at the certain stage you must close the loop and system and that the systems are adapted to experiments and exercise like the CWIX, and doctrines. Joint Force Transformation Centre? There is no need to rename the centre. must keep training. But in my heart and is the command for transformation and tools for the transformation tools in organization to keep on transformation, training, exercising people, fostering innovation and partnership. All of that lot together. I mean the great result of the preparation forces for Afghanistan is a clear outcome of JFTC, the CWIX integration program is a great outcome of the JFTC, so there is a huge potential in connecting the different tools for transformation together.
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 9 Sir, the last couple of years have been very busy for the Supreme Allied Commander Transformation HQ. The Alliance faces new challenges and the need for a very quick adaptation to the new reality became a priority. As the Chief of Staff at the HQ SACT since October 2013 you have been in the heart of these changes. How, from your perspective, NATO preparation for future challenges evolved throughout these years? annexation of Crimea and the deterioration of the security situation in Ukraine. We could going to change and to some degree end, needed to do to really get our collective forces to regain that sort of high level joint Crimea and Ukraine and Russian aggression. That really accelerated things, particularly the commitment, complexity gained a focus, helpful. headquarters, the Allied Command Operations, in lead for quite a lot of the changes and the assurance of the nations, particularly here in The need to adjust to the challenges is one thing, but on the other hand we also have to think about the fact that these changes nowadays are happening very rapidly, and this is my second question, how would you evaluate the alliances ability to keep up with this speed, how efficient is the NATO transformation process adjusting the current needs? consensus, and once you have an agreement, and once you have a trajectory then people are very committed and you can achieve change measured against most single nations, I think months or so. And actually one of the pieces to have a really hard look at the lessons from Interview with Lieutenant General Phil Jones OBE, the former Chief of Staff of the Allied Command Transformation, conducted on 29 July 2015 JFTC A Big Lump of Shiny Treasure in Our Training Architecture
10 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 It may not feel like it is particularly fast at amount of change has happened over that time of Russian aggression has re-sharpened the commitment far more quickly. Is it quick proud of, I think. As General Palomros said during his recent visit to the JFTC, the centre is perfectly placed both geographically and also in terms of expertise and capability, to prepare the forces including the VJTF. The new NATO challenges have a huge impact on JFTCs work which means new training events and exercises thus, simply heavier workload for the HQ. To keep up with the new requirements, the JFTC is working on its internal transformation and talking about this we cannot avoid touching upon the centres structure. The work is ongoing. How do you see the future of the JFTC in the light of the recent discussions regarding this topic? I think, and I think a lot of people share days of relatively ad hoc training to having a really solid place in the NATO training of looking after the mission pre-deployment training over the period of years, to transition a real accomplishment itself, the transition from ISAF pre-deployment training to the your Command Group that the lessons, the sort of thing, preparing people for that sort of for the future. And then if you look at the NRF or VJTF and tactical level in NATO. to integrate forces at the division level into that is something thats inherent to JFTC, and that fulfills the requirement. You could expand JFTCs agenda almost endlessly resources, imagination and time. Bydgoszcz is a very attractive place to come. It is very professional organization. And you can keep trick here is to make sure that resources ideas of the very High Readiness Joint Task need to make sure that CIS is kept up to speed. There is a huge amount of modelling and simulation and cutting edge stuff going on here. All of this is good. The future is capacity of the organization to deliver. There is a great spirit here and I really do respect the organization. If you were to describe the position of the JFTC in the NATO training network and transformation, where would it be? shiny treasure in our training architecture. Its in the training. In many respects it has a very transformational place in our training, level of detail is very exciting. So I see JFTC thinking in many respects. in particular in this sort of joint tactical domain, admires JFTC very much indeed and sees it JFTC is doing and can see great potential for the future.
COL Brandon McGowan, JFTC Training Division Head Joint Force Training Center and VJTF Training Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 11Introduction The NATO Very High Readiness Joint events, NATO focused very heavily on its There are many different opinions as VJTF. That interpretation is not accurate. contains high readiness land maritime and air formations that can deploy on very short notice. Do not intellectually separate the concept of the VJTF from the NATO Response Force (NRF). The VJTF is merely is enhanced, responsive and more accurately takes into account rapidly developing What does it all mean for the Joint Force Training Center? to train the Land Brigade of the VJTF(L) training cycle. With any military organization of forces. The VJTF is no different. In elements of the Land Brigade, one that is Land Brigade. As such, JFTC has a and all manner of elements that make up an employ. This is no simple task. On the modern a Joint context. In order to properly prepare JFTC must take into account Air, Maritime, Host Nation, Non-Governmental Organizations, Higher Headquarters, Adjacent Forces, and of course Enemy Forces. These requirements are Trident Joust 2016 The first JFTC led exercise in this designed as an exercise for Joint Force Command response to these events decided to customize this exercise. The purpose is to exercise concepts command and control concepts for the VJTF(L). a large part of that effort.Look ahead continuing requirement for NATO to produce a tested and exercised VJTF every year. The involved in all of the Trident Series exercise, and the VJTF training is no exception. The the Trident exercises. This leaves a potential of the VJTF. The lessons that JFTC learns the NATO Command Structure may ultimately decide to take advantage of Trident Joust JFTC retain the lessons and expertise learned training gap to the NATO Command Structure future needs of NATO and deterrence.
JFTC Staff Visit to Theatre, Nice to Have or a Necessity? 12 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015Introduction all NATO Phase II Resolute Support Pre Deployment Training (RS PDT). Until the mission change from ISAF to RS the JFTC trained Regional Commands North and Command and HQ ISAF. Both training from their Training Teams (TTs) to gain the latest information in order to create a realistic environment for their Training theatre (HQ RS), the Officer Conducting the Exercise (Joint Force Command Brunssum JFC BS) and the Officer Directing the Exercise (JFTC) seek justification for frequent travels to theatre, as modern communication assets could replace this.RS Training EventsTraining Aim and Training Audience Support Training Events (RS TEs), executed training aim for these TEs is generally the same: To educate the Training Audience (TA) in the specifics of the mission, to train TA assigned to advisory roles and to create 16-1 specifically an additional training in order to support Commander TAAC-N and his decision-making processes, thus their mission as TAAC-N. TAAC-N TA consists of a full HQ and parts of advisory teams. HQ RS TA consists of Individual Augmentees (IAs) in advisory roles, in staff officers supporting the advisory efforts and staff officers supporting HQ functions. Training Objectives for theatre. JFTC Staff Visits In preparation for Resolute Support Training Events the JFTC Training Team more civilian contractors, depart for theatre LTC Leon Soroko, JFTC Training Division
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 13in order to conduct the JFTC staff visit. Current destinations for these visits are Mazar-e-Sharif (TAAC-N training) and for these visits are to: During the days in theatre the JFTC mission progress, the actual situation and and the information gathered is vital for the preparation of the TE. One of the main goals of the TE at the JFTC in Bydgoszcz is to create a realistic environment to train future One example of this is copying, shipping all documents, so the Training Audience Functional Systems (FS) and has access to Besides these clear aims stated results of the JFTC Staff Visit. It creates a unique opportunity to keep the connection the JFTC personnel stay current in their respective Headquarters, to discuss Training opportunity to send personnel from theatre during Training Events to act as SMEs. Furthermore the amount of Training Photo: JFTC Archives. Courtesy of COL Ivan Pach Photo: JFTC Archives. Courtesy of COL Ivan Pach
Event Synchronization Matrix. discuss design and execution of the last TE in Afghanistan are applied to future TEs. TAAC-N participating in Training Events require even more close-coordination HQ personnel. Future TAAC-N staff expects a fully developed, scenario driven Mission piece of their Training Event. This is only and incidents, linked together in storylines and injects, and caters for interaction and furthermore, HQ TAAC-N TA and HQ RS TA. During theatre visit the current status of this cross functional, cross headquarters After the visit After returning from the staff visit further developed and the scenario to start developing the products needed for the Training Event in close cooperation Product Development Workshop (PD WS), making use of all gathered theatre products and the ideas developed during the visit. Team is used to give guidance to the SMEs TE.Conclusions Although modern techniques like the Document Handling System (DHS), Video Tele Conferencing (VTC), classified telephone connections and existing documents, SOPs and OPORDs, a certain physical presence in theatre during the exercise design and development the Training Audience has to rely on recently redeployed SMEs only for their training, it is important that the JFTC personnel gain a good understanding of the key changes in theatre in general and current HQ procedures. Besides this there is a need for insight in the personnel in theatre for realistic scenario development. SME identification is one of the increasing a chance of having adequate amount and quality of SMEs during the TE. Gathering information for training improvement is easier in face-to-face contact than through electronic surveys and productive.Recommendation Based on the arguments throughout this article and the conclusions in previous paragraph, JFTC staff visits Training Event. Although they are time receiving HQ, they are necessary to keep JFTC Training Team personnel informed theatre. The Training Team connects executed TE, set in a realistic training advisory duty deployed in RS HQ or their mission. Photo: JFTC Archives. Courtesy of COL Ivan Pach 14 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 15 This is an addendum to the M&S article that appeared in the last Joint Force Training Centre (JFTC) magazine (Transformation through Training July Support Division (TSD) of the JFTC can of training: the Training Audience (TA), and the Exercise Control (EXCON), in provided to them as WGB customers. Review of the Purpose of M&S M&Ss Purpose is to provide the Training Stakeholders with the best training environment. information that M&S generates serves various kinds of Training Events (TEs), such as Mission Rehearsal Exercises (MREs), Battle Staff Training (BST) model transparency and a differentiation same time M&S is providing information planned in the near future include: Resolute Support (RS) 16-1. This exercise is to educate Individual Augmentees (IAs) of the TA on the mission in an MRE. Trident Joust (TRJT) 2016. This exercise is for validating the North Atlantic Treaty Organizations (NATOs) upcoming Very High Readiness Joint Task Force the NATO Response Force (NRF), NATOs high-readiness force comprising land, Citadel Bonus (CIBS) 2016. This BST France (RRC-FR) in the refinement of its Integrated Component Command Land (ICC-L) Command Post (CP) organization. M&S can simulate a Complex Joint Environment. This environment M&S can support training with real troops working within a Headquarters (HQ) command. This is for the purpose of emulating a joint environment, using minimal personnel to support the Response David Dominicci, JFTC Training Support Division How M&S Tailors to Training NeedsModelling and Simulation in the Exercise Process PART II
16 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015M&Ss Engineers, Analysts, & Technicians are Accessible to the Stakeholders M&S Provides Assistance in Modelling, Information Technology, and Database Support. For every TE managed Exercise (CAX) Point of Contact (POC), solutions to the TA leadership, and the Exercise The OPR insures the proper operation of WGBs engineers, analysts, and technicians, the CAX POC also makes suggestions, and for maximizing the training value in a CAX the customers request specific changes to the upcoming TE, those augmentations are made quickly and accurately. M&S Provides Assistance in Concept Development & Experimentation (CD&E). WGB also concentrates on all the future training challenges of the JFTC. This small cadre of analysts concentrates on currently enjoys, and continues to achieve done through cutting edge technology located can provide for overarching training support done thru the implementation of training, allied nations and their partners, as concept solution and enhancement testing venues. Some of CD&Es upcoming TEs include: Training Network (SEEETN) Balkan Bridges 2015. This exercise, consisting of nine NATO and Partner nations, Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Former Yugoslav This Georgia and other participating nations in process for hosting a NATO multinational Exploration Experimentation Examination Exercise (CWIX) 2016. This exercise is a North Atlantic Council (NAC) endorsed, Military Committee directed and Board guided Bi-Strategic Command (Bi-SC) annual programme designed to support the for the Alliance. CWIX also helps to increase M&Ss Role in the Exercise Planning Process Providing CAX Representatives from WGB in all aspects of the planning process. for a particular TE, provides coordination, guidance, and direction to the training stakeholders (the TA and the EXCON), on mission success of all the TOs in the TE. Providing Main Events List/Main Incidents List (MEL/MIL) expertise. WGB that are provided throughout the NATO CAX the exercise planning process, specifically in the development of the MEL/MIL, and is shared in all the planning conferences. Supporting TO and Scenario Management. M&S uses tools that aid in developing and shaping the information the context necessary to articulate the scenarios of the TE. Four tools that aid in the development of all this information include: (1) the Joint Exercise Management Module (JEMM) a NATO Communications and Information Agency (NCIA) derived planner tool for structuring exercise scenarios and Data Services (JTDS) a United States Joint services developed to support the needs of the US Department of Defense (DOD) & NATO (TOMM) as its name implies, for the development & management of exercise TOs. Providing Knowledge on Models & Additional Tools. recommendations on all the models used at JFTC. These simulations include: (1) the Joint Conflict and Tactical Simulation Tactical Simulation (JLOD) for Operational/ Space (VBS) for Tactical/Individual level Simulation (JTLS) for Strategic/Operational in order to perform multi-resolution play simulations in joint and multinational TEs. mentioned in the next paragraph. Additional tools that WGB provides include: (1) the Exercise Information Services (EXIS) platform for managing information from Services (NIRIS) system mainly used Operations Centres (CAOCs) a comparison the individual devices and consolidated onto superiors. Providing Training Support to the Higher Controls (HICONs), Lower Controls (LOCONs), and RCs. These key centers-of-gravity in the EXCON are cell. WGB again can assist the Training Division (TD) in assuring that the temporary
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 17 M&Ss Role in the Execution of the CAXM&S maintains liaison with EXCON. When execution of the TE takes place, the on operational changes to the MEL/MIL. never meet face-to-face during execution. receives information to the RCs of the to MEL/MIL events dictates the changes the goal of successfully accomplishing all the exercise TOs. M&Ss Role in Professional DevelopmentM&S coordinates with Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). that develop the various tools (ie: Roland & Associates California, USA for VBS).Review of M&S AdvantagesFor EXCON: scenarios Success or failure of any CAX can rest in the successful prior planning achieved. The use of the right tools can make that a reality. Giving the EXCON full view of the exercise with the Opposing Forces (OPFOR) Keeping an accurate COP is essential to the success of any CAX. This the OPFOR. M&S is the engine that feeds that Game Truth. insure training objectives are met EXCON can edit the scenarios as necessary M&S can makes changes quickly and accurately. movements planned early and meticulously in order to insure their success. Also, quick and minimize any deviations. control of all exercise tasking. Using the EXCON De-confliction Matrix the EXCON aided observation collections. Using collections in a more timely, accurate, and efficient manner. For the TA: Maintaining an accurate picture insures as necessary if they are drifting off on a coalition partners. throughout the exercise Again, making M&S makes the training seem very realistic, exercises at JFTC have utilized live UAV providing that added edge of realism for the TA to utilize and explore further. based on all C4I sensors provided in the Models An accurate Perceived Truth is essential to proper training of the TA. No not exist in a certain area: the units in that Summary M&S is a force multiplier, making M&S insures realistic COPs, yet provides transparency of any M&S involvement to the training stakeholders (the TA and the EXCON). make quicker decisions on the direction of that decision-making process. of the TE. to enhance overall training throughout involved.
Magdalena Rydygier, JFTC Headquarters Support Division JFTC Headquarters Support Division 18 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 The Real Life Support (RLS) involves all the key elements of support to various events held at the JFTC facilities or, if required, at an external location. The function of the JFTC RLS section in its supporting role is very demanding and challenging. The Real Life Support for training events the Protocol Office provides RLS for during training events are completely Planning process for all events around Bydgoszcz. Before each event, three conferences are organized. They provide planning the event in a proper manner. After participants and regular visitors. This process is sometimes quite challenging, as the Coordinator assigns required hotel rooms, and the participant and the hotel. In the meantime the Protocol Office takes care of special accommodation for VIPs. As the event approaches, the RLS Coordinators ensure that all of the minor and significant details concerning the support are coordinated and taken care of. Support for an event includes management electronic registration, inand out-processing, accommodation, catering, refreshments etc. There is a special section that takes care of transportation plans, medical support, cleaning service, dining hours, and all other required orders as office supplies etc. The executing orders from outsourced companies, general facility preparation. Before the event event, Bydgoszcz itself etc. Additionally, the RLS section guarantees a successful in-processing on event, this section is involved in current ask. The support is provided throughout the the preparatory phase looks different depending on the specification of the exercise. Good examples are Resolute Support Mission long and difficult to accomplish. There is also arrival and departure transportation provided from/to different airports, demanding challenging event is the annual Coalition participants involved in the exercise. This VIPs (in the custody of the Protocol Office) entire event. The appointed RLS Coordinator provides accommodation for the CWIX participation and plans a shuttle transportation To summarize, during the planning and execution of a training event, the RLS He/she co-ordinates, requests and controls all the RLS requirements. All internal and through the appointed RLS Coordinator and since there are various types of training events held at the JFTC and each of them is different, the preparatory phase is satisfaction once conducted successfully. The Role of Real Life Support
JFTC Legal Advisor James Kagele, JFTC INFOSEC 19 (CYBERSEC), a unique event offering opportunities to discuss contemporary shocking case study of an actual event music player, then the air conditioning, remotely controlling the acceleration of the car. This is not science fiction! Along introduced to make our lives easier and Head of National Security Bureau, President of Poland and reiterated that cooperation, exchange of information and the NATO Assistant Secretary General for Emerging Security Challenges.1 defence doctrine and practical aspects conventional or terrorist attack. In addition, trigger Article 5 response. The topic of prepare for these threats, NATO is revising in NATOs Strategic Planning process. CYBERSEC discussions focused on four streams: State, Military, Business, and 1st European Cybersecurity Forum CYBERSEC
20Future. JFTC representatives participated in the military panel discussions, Dimension of Armed Conflict panel discussions pertained to strategies cooperation (and the key theme of the and ius practice and jurisprudence of international to get closer to a zero-tolerance on illegal discussions the participants agreed that achieving a state involving event. The panel noted propaganda, disinformation and espionage military actors requires proper identification extremely easy to melt into the civilian that talented individuals are often the participants that nations need to invest in education, training and policy development. Mr. Kagele underlined the fact that most violations and even major incidents are threats that may impact the organization. The other conference threads generated interesting developments and and as something that should remain strict policy. While many partners are sharing information, discussions led to a for improvement. They also agreed that information. Information reporting, regulation to ensure critical incidents are Geo-political discussions regarding particular interest. Andrii Deshchytsia, aggression, not on developing doctrine and and command centres in Kyiv as a result of massive denial of service attacks. Ukraine official sites. Masafumi Ishii, Japanese representative to NATO, highlighted that protecting our equipment and the source for NATO, UN, or EU and should take necessary steps to protect themselves. to Poland, stated that main principles of
21critical infrastructure and governmental of the infrastructure in some countries, the as critical infrastructure. As countries representatives of government, nongovernmental organisations, and private sector entities to introduce strategic decisions enhancing the level of of experts shared perceptions and strategic to ensure safety of our nations. The proving the importance and critical nature of such discussions to ensure a security focus for the safe future of the Internet the right people at the right time to 1 Sorin Ducaru, the NATO Assistant Secretary General for Emerging Security Challenges, Under-Secretary of State at the Ministry of Administration and Digitization, CYBERSEC Programme Director Lecturer at the Sapir Academic College, Researcher at the European School of Management and Technology, Germany, University of Technology, Poland, 5) Peter & Technology at the European Defence at the Royal Higher Institute for Defence, to the Deputy Prime Minister Political in the CCDCOE and Researcher at Tallinn Technical University, Estonia, 8) (ret.), Polish Armed Forces, 9) Ryszard Szpyra, Professor at the National Defence Professor at the National Defence President of the National Centre for Security/Defense at Microsoft CEE HQ, at the Transnational Threats Department in the OSCE Secretariat, 15) Artur Kacprzyk, Analyst at the NonProliferation and Arms Control Project at The Polish Institute of International Affairs, Poland resort to military force in international right of self-defence as formulated in Art. at the National Defence University, Poland, Liedel, Director of the Terrorism Studies Center (Collegium Civitas), Poland, 5) Security at Aalto University, Finland, Chandiramani, Senior Director of Sales Engineering for Europe, Middle East and Africa at FireEye, 8) Kenneth Geers, Professor at Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 9) James Kagele, Information Security (INFOSEC) Officer, NATO Joint Force Training Centre, 11) Miron Lakomy, Assistant Professor at the Institute of Political Science and Journalism at the University of Silesia, Poland
22 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 Introduction space or high seas. It provides its users almost infinite freedom of navigation and a great variety of opportunities in economic, social, information and other and criminals to expand their areas of jurisdiction and thus often compared to Wild West. Media have recently almost every in vast majority of cases, these media releases referred to events or occurrences Rather, everyday criminal activities in intellectual property theft in (or through) of this article is to shed some light on of Armed Conflict (LOAC) applies to contemporary conflicts. The intent of this article is not to discussions on some of the contents.Ius ad bellum1 aspects in cyber context resorting to the use or the threat of using the Charter of the United Nations (UN A closer examination of the norm as to its drafting history, leads to the conclusion that force in the meaning armed force only. This finding is JFTC Legal Advisor Calm down, its just a cyberattackSelected Legal Aspects of Cyber Warfare
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 23and economic coercion as an aspect of of non-intervention in domestic affairs of another state. Although they are nonas relevant to the interpretation of Article the jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice (ICJ). In its Nicaragua Case of 1986, the Court did not address economic discussed it in relation to the principle of nonintervention. Specifically, the ICJ concluded that as amounting to the use of force in the self-defence under Article 51 of the UN UN Charter Art. 51 states: refers to armed attack as a prerequisite for self-defence of a nation and this is Conventions states that the term attacks means: Similarly, the cornerstone of NATO, Art. 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty, provides: Reference to the armed attack in Art. Declaration5 Nations declared that: This is a clear demonstration of the cross the threshold of an armed attack, Charter, Art. 51, and North Atlantic Treaty, Art. 5. Another set of questions arises in this context. When an activity in conclusion comes from the statement that For NATO the NAC constitutes the sole on the competent authority to declare From that perspective it is practically uncontroversial that the decision to requires state involvement on at least one side of the conflict to consider it an armed conflict. ICRC commentaries to the requirement for the engagement of armed invoked for the first (and so far the only) time as a result of an attack conducted against the United States of America. Moreover, Additional Protocol II6 a non-state actor, i.e. non-international armed conflicts. The conclusion is a state. to amount to an armed attack, is using Calm down, its just a cyberattack
24 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015is to influence, coerce or convince the target audience in a manner similar to the results of a conventional psychological or operation does not constitute an armed attack, as such action does not meet the required threshold of violence. activity results in deaths or injuries to persons or damage or destruction to 8. causing physical damage or destruction. Examples include: 1) the use of Stuxnet against Iranian uranium enrichment facility in Natanz, 9. having clearly crossed the threshold of Experts tend to agree, that severe disruption of critical infrastructure, and in consequence lead to e.g. interference especially if one of the results of such though critical infrastructure is to a large highly dependent on the proper functioning of critical infrastructure. It is relatively easy i.e. an armed conflict that occurred third section of this article). Nevertheless, there are several examples of conventional parallel to conventional operations. One of DDOS attacks against and defamation of disrupting Georgian air defence systems). The other one is linked to Operation Defence Forces against an alleged Syrian nuclear installation. According to some reports in microchips controlling air defence their Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) systems to identify Israeli aircraft as parties involved has confirmed any of the allegations contained in the reports on Ius in bello11 aspects in cyber context in Wales Summit declaration that examine some of the practicalities thereof. Due to complexity and extensiveness of authors standpoint) issues, such direct participation in hostilities, military Without going into excruciating details, let us consider the principal international armed conflicts, except for Conventions, unless parties to a noncorps forming part of such armed forces, take direct part in hostilities and enjoy including those of organized resistance d) conducting their operations in State practice over centuries indicates that the four aforementioned criteria apply equally to regular armed sanctioning of their existence in domestic legislation of the state-party to the conflict
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 25(rules governing the forming of, drafting to, and the functioning of the armed forces is an exclusive national prerogative, to criteria. Application of the four criteria pose certain difficulties or require slightly different approach than in conventional the parties to the conflict. Every stateinstitution meets the requirement of through the actual relationship, functional, if such a link actually exists (e.g. in the effective control of a state over the actions of a contractor, similar to the concept of commanders), the requirement 15 the employees of such company, unless attack amounting to an armed attack, 16. criteria of an armed attack, i.e. it is injuries or death to persons, or damage or the attackers and the attacked. Therefore, attack is carried out from a military vessel military aircraft) regard to the requirement to carry arms injuries, death, damage or destruction). If operations18. Moving on to the next topic, military 19. In order to protected from attacks. persons and civilian populace) and civilian attack). LOAC considers as civilian every enjoy protection from attacks unless and for such time as they take direct part in hostilities Similarly to civilians, civilian The the immanent features of a military of a definite military advantage offered only potential or indeterminate military examined, enough to say that: in in international organized armed groups and civilians their capture or neutralisation offers (fundamentally military and action, to include military infrastructure), use (to include civilian e.g. school converted to a command the adversary, thus no longer immune from attack), location (geographical area of particular military importance, e.g. designated staging area of a military unit or a mountain pass constituting the most convenient
26 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 military supply route) or purpose (intended future use, e.g. a stock of is intelligence indicating that they total or partial destruction, capture or neutralisation offers a definite military advantage. large-scale conflicts, transportation and lines of communication (evidently dualfunctioning of modern militaries logistic and resupply systems, thus constituting Protocol I they made effective adversary to military installations of the adversary as: the civilian populace is not the sole purpose of the attack against such proportionate to anticipated military advantage gained from cutting-off the installations. Except for the position presented there or in other such as stock in military operations meant to damage/ destroy/severely disrupt the functioning thereof, as the military advantage offered economic institutions and the military too remote. purposes. Simple propaganda spreading to target them resistance movements, recruiting fighters, collecting financial support for an organised armed group, transmitting intelligence or encoded orders via social considered as potentially disproportionate the functioning of emergency response systems, medical facilities, etc. highly relying upon the Internet. From the perspective of attacker, means are used to target particular effectiveness or economy of force force aspect in the concluding part of this means and methods of attack that ensure is expected to raise the least collateral concerns. Similar discussions pertain to the existence (or non-existence) of munitions (PGMs). One could argue, that it is the planning an attack to choose the mean ( highlighted, though, that LOAC does not require elimination of collateral damage, rather avoiding or minimising, and Zero Civilian Casualties is a policy constraint, not a legal one. For policy reasons time. Having said that, though, it should the use of non-kinetic means and methods or indirect to avoid collateral damage and from that perspective increasing use of electronic (INFO OPS), psychological operations (PSYOPS) and strategic communications (STRATCOM) activities to achieve certain positive trend.Conclusions. The future of warfare? The four fundamental principles of LOAC are: from attacks that
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 27 superfluous injuries or unnecessary necessary to accomplish a legitimate military purpose and are not contemporary military operations and of this article to conduct a theoretical LOAC and the operational aspects. As the example of STUXNET designed to target very specific types particular data strings in the source code of them, e.g. those that control particular system. Computer viruses, as opposed ever designed. in a manner that it affects only very result in practically eliminating collateral damage or minimising it to an extent remotely fry the circuits of a target acquisition radar deployed to a city, fire missiles on that target, avoiding the guidance systems, unexploded ordnance, most proportionate means or methods of and the requirement to use physical force, kinetic means is eliminated, it is considered necessary suffering. From the most humane means or methods of the principle of military necessity. Clearly, recourse to kinetic actions. and methods in armed conflicts to come admit to doing so. operational perspective. In the authors related to the economy of force and perfect case study for such considerations. Traditionally, suppression of enemy air (called Wild Weasels in the U.S.), trained to-air assets to reveal their positions and activate their target acquisition radars, Let us imagine that the same effects (namely degrading enemy air defence defence systems. Costs of developing irrelevant compared to the cost of a single SEAD sortie, assuming that the mission activities against Georgian air defence against enemy air defence systems and relatively cheap compared to state-of-theuse of asymmetrical tactics against hightech militaries in Iraq and Afghanistan. It may offer an advantage not only to the also to terrorist organisations or organised armed groups in non-international armed conflicts. Yet again, there is no need Conventional means and methods, even
28 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 more importantly they can constitute a great deterrence measure, similar to use them in an armed conflict. 1 resort to military force in international relations. Military and Paramilitary Activities in and against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v. United States of America), Jurisdiction Protocol Additional to the Geneva relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol 5 Wales Summit Declaration Issued participating in the meeting of the North Atlantic Council in Wales, 5 6 Protocol Additional to the Geneva relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts Tallinn Manual on the International editor Michael N. Schmitt, Oxford 89 Die Lage der IT-Sicherheit in Deutschland spectrum.ieee.org/semiconductors/design/ 11 Wales Summit Declaration, supra note 5. Convention (III) relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, Geneva, FULLTEXT/GC-III-EN.pdf Leslie C. Green, The Contemporary Manchester University Press, Manchester 15 16 More on direct participation in hostilities: Nils Melzer, Interpretive Guidance on the Notion of Direct Participation in Hostilities International Committee of the Red The Interpretive Guidance on the Notion of Direct Participation in Hostilities: A Critical Analysis, [in:] Harvard National Organised Armed Groups and the ICRC Direct Participation in Hostilities 18 19 Commentary on the Additional Ian Henderson, The Contemporary Proportionality and Precautions in Attack under Additional Protocol I, Martinus E.g. Annotaded Supplement to the Naval Operations, U.S. Department of the The Moral and Ethical Implications of Precision-Guided Munitions, Air Example of indirect kinetic effects of a Fifth Dimensional Operations: Spaceand Charles Sid Heal, iUniverse,
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 29 1. Introduction The notion of health it is like it comes to delimiting and defining its define health as the lack of illness in a living organism. In the special case of the corporate life the lack of illness implies the assumption of the employees existing operational level in that it should maintain healthy employees. In this paper a vertical health that this vertical health space consists harder to access and grasp the deeper level of the ethos serves as foundation or as determination of the system, a system. A comprehensive health of a system emerges on all four levels from considered, on the relational level one employees experience appreciation and on the factual level all the resources in the context of consulting. Prof. Dr. Georg Mller-Christ, University of Bremen, Specialist field: Sustainable Management Vertical Health Space of Systems and Its Analysis by Means of Systemic Constellations This paper investigates the topic of health in organizations taking a systemic perspective. It proposes an order which models health on four levels of a system: on the factual level, the relational level, the level of systemic laws and the level of the ethos. Each of these levels needs different resources and has its own health logic. Especially the levels of the systemic laws and of the ethos, which are relatively new, will be elaborated in more detail. The paper concludes with an example which demonstrates how the levels of health can be analyzed within a system through a method of systemic constellations and how helpful information can be obtained even from the depths of a system.
30 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 20152. Self-positioning of the observer My attempt to draft an advanced research teaching and consulting in insight evolved during numerous systemic (phenomenological approach). Systemic stir completely different creative and the case of the participants of constellations and in my case as a constellation guide. I implement systemic constellations as a to the three-dimensional stereogram of systems. Systemic constellations elicit the These three affine approaches to resources analyzed through the method of systemic constellations have gradually multidimensional health space of systems. frequently employing the model organized through insights in constellations. 3. Sustainability, health and resources: the conceptual link is conceived as a transactionally operated and systemic protection, defense and compensatory mechanisms of the organism social environment on the other. Health, solving, the necessary resources need to autonomies of the resources sources The conception of resources and health approach of systemic consulting indicates For the development of the vertical health space it is therefore crucial to expand the logic each level of the health space needs specific 4. The vertical health space: Modelling of the health levels of a system For a long time organizational theory the formal and visual role expectations. The development of an organizational semantics such as corporate culture or corporate identity. After many years full of discussions on the effects of corporate cultures, especially the consulting scene indicates that a transition of systems implies that a health-oriented perspective this paper. It expands the notion of on the respective level. In order to keep a system healthy on all levels, the managers logic of each level. Then they are not only invest in the level-specific health. In the They instead have an area of overlap consulting and leadership context.
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 314.1 Factual level On the factual level all the transformation processes from input to output take place. A company generates products or services, a university develops treats people and a parliament resolves optimize these processes on the factual level either the costs are covered or profits are On the factual level a system is healthy if it succeeds in continuously adapting its input-transformation-outputprocesses to the changing conditions. For refined and employees have to keep on human resource development is a relevant optimizations, innovation management and strategic advancement. From the perspective of resources the factual level has a high degree of health is illness on this level if a system is hindered from outside or inside to shape its input-transformation-output-processes sufficiently functionally and efficiently missing. The more complex the factual level gets, the more the input-transformationoutput-processes depend on successful intersection of the factual level and the the system and majority of the input4.2 The relational level On the relational level of a system people refer to each other horizontally and vertically just as people refer to Indeed precisely systemic constellations each other in that their effect and selfthe partners. If the space of the employees specialized contexts, if the space is filled employer-employee relationship (vertical). Health on the relational level is influenced from three sides. On the one potential from the surface of the system. due to the personalities of the executives and employees. Especially organizational history and suffering into the institution more complex the tasks in the system get, the more important it is that the employees are technically and socially competent concept of coaching is increasingly seen as an approach to solution. Majority of research and ideas of located at this level. If the focus lies on the individual, all kinds of conflicts are mostly through an increase in respect and trust. health logic of this level and the approach Figure 1Health levels of systems
32 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015to solution consistently implies an increase individual and relevant entities. My assumption is that the psychologically oriented organizational theory and the consulting culture still regarding the relational level: 1. Also the inhuman elements of a system are interrelated. Organizations are traversed even internally contradictory. People deal theory and the consulting scene address the logical areas of tension of a system offs. This also applies to researchers and consultants. The assumption that there is a level organizational theory and consulting. As it is difficult to conceptually extrapolate theory and practice are likely to stagnate at the relational level. By incorporating practice leave the comfort zone and face the social life.4.3 The level of systemic laws recommended courses of action derived from systemic theory and those derived theory has conceptually originated from the research area of ecological systems of survival natural systems have. These are then transferred and adapted to social systems. A prominent example is the theory of autopoietic systems. All insights measurements. not only investigate social systems from elements of the system. Only from the point as appropriate or inappropriate through the representatives in a systemic constellation at a much deeper located level. This insight has especially emerged in constellations of had a lot of conflicts. These organizational the impact force and direction of the of systems. 1. The right of affiliation People need to affiliate to such a social system in order to survive. In turn, is life-threatening. For this very reason, pain. Affiliation to a group is constantly of affiliation. If these are excluded, there fight against their exclusion. There are three different intensities of affiliation to social groups: the affiliation and the more intense affiliation in different intensities depending on 2. The right of recognition and appreciation to regenerate. Organization consultants recognition and appreciation reduces engagement, ideas and many more. Sincere recognition is conveyed through the immediately read purely instrumentalized to accept appreciation is an aspect of selfappreciation. 3. The right of balance between give and take It is one of the profound systemic legitimacies that every system urges a compensation of taking and giving. Social systems cannot efficiently function in arent compensated for. Or too much is participants. Engagement in organizations is conventionally compensated through development, appreciation, concealment,
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 33satisfaction. A permanent situation 4. New: the right of maintenance of polarities Every system is full of polarities logical dilemmas. These areas of tension are sources of energy of all systems as so develop the system. If logical areas of tension are ignored and not considered in as interpersonal conflicts and lead to level. Polarities and areas of tension polarities. Conflicts disappear after they overcome. priority rules contradict each other and constantly produce tensions and dilemmas constructive management of contradictions and the derivation of polarities). 5. The ones who have been there first have priority over those who come later the system for longer, take priority over of the system take priority over younger 6. Higher responsibility and higher commitment for the system take priority When people cooperate in social them sooner or later. Good guidance leads to a higher commitment for the system, indication of violations against the system times on a certain level requires appreciation through giving priority. 7. More competence and more knowledge take priority is not given priority, people tend to not provide it any more to its full efficacy for the survival of the system. significantly higher amount of guidance. for the company. Hence, they fight over competence. This logical area of tension is often ignored, and is therefore a reason for massive mortifications in the system. 8. A new subsystem takes priority over the old system or employees are given priority over a certain period of time, until they can make 9. The whole system takes priority over an individual or a subsystem A system can only give priority to a single element over a short period of time. Too much consideration for intrinsic takes priority over a single element. healths perspective to healing conditions. 10. Expressing and appreciating facts is the basis for every solution This systemic principle refers to the a lot. 11. Creating balance is the foundation for every recovery
34 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015causes another person to suffer. Systemic yet received compensation, meaning that in the same currency and same amount. the compensatory payment. He can even accept the creditors admission of guilt as not compensated adequately. 12. New: compensations need to take place over a longer period of time Because polarities and areas of tensions are ever present, trade-offs need means a system has to activate an inner accounting for compensation acts in order longer period of time to each element of the system.4.4 The ethos level The notion that every system has something like an ethos finds expression and soul of organisations, in concepts of the question of the systems source, in the oriented memes or open in assuming that there is a purpose for systems. All these paraphrases indicate that there is an information unit in the system that system, the initial purpose or the systems essence. This information unit is referred it sends information to the system telling the ethos. the system also points out that the ethos is origin of a system and then transfer the Eventually, they try to control the effects of the ethos through making company on the relational level and the systems in many family oriented companies. to the founding persons idea, the ethos conducted a systemic constellation for something that defies the ethos of the agreed immediately. A planned effect cooperation request. Using the element of the ethos in certain systemic constellations that I conducted an increased profit orientation through companies in the acquisition economy or similar the increased economisation of non-profit organisations (the profit When a system loses access to its sources, to its initial idea, to its soul or its ethos, After some time people in the system system stands for any more and a diffuse Ill health on the level of the ethos is difficult to diagnose. The difficulty is expression in a grievous communication culture of the elements. A company loses good direction. More profit is an empty, sheer quantitative course of direction that relevant in the short term through higher of the organisation, its source and only thus deducted from a profit orientation and then a market more successful than others. These 4.5 Health at all levels relevant sources. The models conceptual idea lies in the connection of resources, levels and the concept of health. a necessary condition. This is the sufficient condition. The factual level of an institution is purpose-means-thought. Purposes can
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 35 necessary means are sufficiently healthy staff. people use an appreciating approach together on all coordination processes enough respect and trust to appreciate the value of the counterparts in their suchness. important resource of the level of the systems success to control a source of sense and meaning and all the orientation of the source. An important resource to identify the source At this point the assumption, that system through its ethos is only suggested purpose, its soul or its deep structure is 5. Systemic constellations as analyses method for health To conclude, the first example is is assumed at this point that the method of At this point it is only mentioned that systemic constellations are a kind of scenic representation of a system in the manner, that people are positioned for elements in a room. The deputies receive information through a kind of representing perception therefore depict the original system in are therefore reliant on their physical perception. The system pictured in this congregations to one congregation. The the constellation. The fusion itself congregation did not come together as a despite several coaching processes and further organisational consultations. Figure 2Resources of vertical health space
36 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 as a triangular health space. Deputies for the three original congregations fused congregation (congregations D) position in the room. The deputies did the representing perception. The elements the other elements moved or spoke. The The resulting picture of the system and also still held a clear identity. They seven years. to continue counselling, rated the image quality of the picture of the structuring on coherent. The utility of the structure and the gained insight on the health space of for a place in the health triangle congregations as reproach. and closer to itself. to the relational level nor to the fused congregation. go to the factual level and appreciates the system level. doesnt notice congregation C. Figure 3Structure picture of fusion about three evangelic congegations
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 379. Congregation D stands slightly outside isolates itself from the system level. ethos next to itself. 11. Health as a free element is in a constant search movement and eventually the system. congregations. The relation to congregation A perceives the ethos as friendly, like involved in a conversation. factual level several times during the constellation. as lousy, condescending. trivial. Congregation D perceived it as neutral. the ethos, the system level needs the sight of the ethos, the perception of the relational level differed depending the fused congregation and can no longer stay there. I have no place in there. 19. Congregation B thinks the health is very important. something. and also needs something from health. need something from her, the relational they are not going to match. not preserve the health check and has Hypothesis I: seven years, the congregations still perceive themselves as self-contained. They feel attracted to different levels of the health Every congregation has its specific health Hypothesis II: The ethos has the closest connection ethos is the supporting force for the system Hypothesis III: The fused congregation is cut off from its ethos or has not found access to it yet. Hypothesis IV: The factual level has to carry the closer. Hypothesis V: The congregations are less engaged receive the most suggested solutions for this level from the organisational consulting. Hypothesis VI: Hypothesis VII: The pure process consulting to fusion the congregations for economical reasons has cut them off from their ethos. the specific facts or of organisational theory. 6. Conclusion The value of constellations consists of not deduce from normal deductive thinking. They are constructed in a constellation in a kind of space-time-compression through the same time. The structure images stick in the involved parties memory for a long time. system through a constellation, they often they share a mutual structure picture as starting point. The value of constellations also modelslike the here discussed vertical health space. Especially the fact that you can visualise non-humane elements in constellations and their through perception developed through complex interpretation processes from people standing outsidemake constellations a very useful tool for of depicting and analysing complex systems in a realistic and action stimulating manner then through conducting constellations. The special challenge is in that respect that the results of systemic constellations are currently effects. When people hear or read the stories of the of the insights constellations gain (like some might in this article), many of them system. Prof. Dr. Georg Mller-Christ Universitt Bremen
Is the Intelligence Cycle Still a Valid Model to Describe How Intelligence Works? MAJ Nikolaos Charalampopoulos, JFTC Training Division 38 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015Introduction During WWI the US Military Intelligence Division adopted the concept of collection, collation and dissemination as a part of an internal among these notions.1 Years ago in to military intelligence specialists a more systematic methodology in terms of understanding and exploiting the of the intelligence cycle concept as it Command and General Staff College in their masterpiece Intelligence is for the Commanders introduced a fourstep cycle process under the name experience and lessons learned during WWII. use of the intelligence cycle not only argue that the implementation of the cycle in its traditional form is not any more valid due to the complexity of the contemporary environment resulting mainly in an increasing necessity for more intelligence products in real time. theoretical analysts and practitioners alike to conclude that the holy gospel of model and as Mark Phythian noted in his Understanding the Intelligence Cycle in the final analysis, the continuing use of more harm than good. Furthermore, in the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, it of harmony of the cycles internal process or to put it simple the cyclical pattern 5 Therefore, it is essential to adopt a more critical and timely approach to the expected outcome. The aim of this essay is to provide an adequate level of understanding of the intelligence cycle in relation to and manifest its effectiveness from a of the intelligence cycle in contrast steps form as a mechanism of producing major challenges for its functionality starting from its nature and the modern policies and the intelligence risks and oversights. At the last part of this counterintelligence and covert action and Parallel to the aforementioned attempt and recommendations in order to correct and improve the cycles efficiency For the purpose of this essay several
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 39 definitions, terms and fundamental and intelligence cycle are those accepted reference to their military context.Intelligence Cycle in the Contemporary WorldThe Nature of the Cycle intelligence is a chaotic environment and unanticipated developments and therefore one can claim that intelligence is not a of the term.6 On the other hand the implementation of the intelligence cycle creates a contradiction since a simple scientific model is used as the primary a dynamic field as that of intelligence. nature of the intelligence environment in the genesis of civilization, and like all models, it is a simplification of a more complex reality. Consequently, this fact this fact raises the need to manage our expectations in terms of risk and quality of the expected intelligence outcome. the intelligence cycle that makes things even more complicated is the impact of the intelligence product to the intelligence environment. That means that the product returns to the intelligence environment requesters as means of promoting and implementing their political or military formulates the latter and vice versa. In addition to that and taking into account intelligence product is developed in order customer and second that intelligence is fundamentally predictive in nature, one can easily concludes that it is the consumers and therefore, the cycle 8Decision-makers and Direction Another prominent challenge for the effectiveness of the cycle is intelligence consumers.9 Part of this disconnection usually arises from the fact that the latter that is the hierarchy that is actually the main initiator of the cycles process, does not provide its Furthermore, differences in mindset and in most of the cases is that consumers system runs autonomously alongside managers are forced to perform their duties outside their normal professional even starts, and therefore they have to assumptions and experiences so as to Despite the fact that this friction still remains unsolved, though it is not Intelligence staffs develop unrefined critical information required to protect national security and interests also addition to this, intelligence experts put all information gathered in context and supportive material for the consumers to make right decisions, some or all thus continuing the intelligence cycle process.11 Besides, the context of those conclusions encapsulates the current
40 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 any policy judgments. Practically speaking this distinction does not often inclination of intelligence consumers of their anticipation to influence the Nevertheless, the distinction is still that the intelligence community must remain politically unattached especially impartiality. Paul Pillar presented it in a and the War in Iraq: When intelligence they use the phrase "policy prescriptive" as a pejorative, and rightly so. implement a more seamless integration of intelligence information and processes into the policymaking. close it may leads in one of the most authority are using different methods of influence from the direct pressure to the house line and from question asking to cherry-picking and shared mindset, in order to manipulate the intelligence data In one of the most characteristic examples of the recent past the G.W. Bush administration repeatedly used selected 15 government had already predetermined the in support of this political dictate. to the intelligence synergy in favor of this scientifically proven that it is quite difficult to persuade people to accept expect to perceive is more important than to perceive.16 The same happens even more often in case of high level officials in most cases they already have in their minds the type of intelligence product they World War I Chief of the General Staff, Field Marshal Count Alfred von Schlieffen in D. Kahns An Historical Theory of Intelligence: The higher commander generally makes himself a picture of friend incoming reports appear to correspond satisfaction. If they contradict it, they are discarded as entirely false. Yet, and in relation to this phenomenon in many cases intelligence experts are driven customer is, the more likely it is for the producer to harmonize his final conclusion 18The New Operational Environment (Revolution in Military Affairs &Information Age) things have dramatically changed in the geopolitical and technological field and therefore for the intelligence community, such as the dissolution of the Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) and the information age, the prevalence of the expeditionary terrorism and religious fundamentalism. All these developments have created a War period and the raise of the so called non-traditional threats. Nevertheless, it cycle remains unaltered in its principles, 19 on the fundamentals of humanitarian of the defeated nation through political, social, economic and infrastructure development. In addition to this, the concept intelligence support systems as it is have acquired a different gravity. At the same time intelligence consumers have of interest. Thus, todays intelligence and sequentially the intelligence cycle process is not just a mean to determine the level of the existent threat or to and understanding a more complex
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 41environment to include adversarys culture and mentality, indigenous populace perspectives and lifestyle and are composing the so called situational Having this in mind, it seems that the traditional model of the intelligence cycle has to fight hard in That is, the cycle model as it appears today cannot capture the current trends and dynamics of the The discrete functionality implied in the separation of the intelligence process into collection, collation, analysis and dissemination reflects the concepts, practice and organizational dynamics of and integrate all elements of the process to provide seamless support for policymakers and operational commanders. Another factor that has caused process is the impact of the information revolution in information technology through RMA, particularly after the 1991 Gulf War. Despite the fact that as a revolution or an evolution, it is technological equipment, high-speed data processing and multi-dimensional foundation of information age military systems have significantly transformed more than in any previous era, accurate and timely intelligence is critical for the accomplishment of a mission. Additionally, information age has kinds of operational forces from small land units up to Joint Forces Commands in every detail as they are required to investigate and study every aspect of the adversary in order to identify his during and after the conduct of an operation, then it is easy to understand the magnitude of data occurred at the highest echelon of command. Thus, it the data that the average policymaker the chain of hierarchy goes higher. information exists today, makes it easy for an experience analyst to comment to classified information. Of course, this remark does not have a positive and analysts efforts from focusing in the designated points of interest in a timely manner, not to mention the consequences on the intelligence cycle process as information overload can seriously affect intelligence products in quality and quantity. Allied intelligence in its correct context is the decisive element to a successful campaign and moreover, allied commanders are highly encouraged to undertake all appropriate measures so as to perform in accordance Complexities with Collection and Dissemination The increased needs for the modern technological achievements in real time. This fact has triggered of the cycle given that it has remained some extent since its development. To put it simply, collection assets have manage and digest the incoming data. Moreover, modern collection assets (INFOPS), electronic interceptions and deceptions to include physical and conventional methods of collection. In an attempt to mitigate this issue NATO introduced an integrated system (Joint Intelligence Surveillance planning and preparation at all levels. JISR acts complementary to the second to a synchronization matrix in order to assure access to intelligence data and provide time sensitive information and On the other side of the coin intelligence staff conservatives argue that there is no insight human mind. Besides, technical collection is getting harder and harder and simple technologies in their daily kinetic and non-kinetic activities. Therefore, human assets still retain a key role in the collection process not to mention the cost effective comparison.
42 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 collection, analysis and dissemination phases since they are theoretically operating at the same dimension through vertical and horizontal interaction. Nevertheless, due to a series of this, many intelligence think tanks have concluded that despite the systematic efforts to modernize the cycle steps in to the dissemination phase. No matter the decision makers is and sequentially information is in terms of collection and analysis, if the final product does not reach the appropriate user then the purpose. Unfortunately, as it appears today all there are serious constrains resulting from the internal authoritarian structure and lack of decentralization and allocation of sources. Yet, the dominance related to the existent governmental a result, intelligence experts are position inside the system they cannot support of their products. A second impediment occurs from the existence of classification and sensitivity regulations to data Intelligence staff argue that classification the other it denies opponents deception. access to information or sources should and given to individuals on a need to of the most common practices among intelligence services is the catachrestic use of classification and prioritization. Additionally, differences in perception, lack of standardization procedures, national caveats and personal egos have created a mosaic of intelligence and disease intelligence. of dissemination is that the handling of information is also influenced, if traditional players such as international and non-governmental organizations. This is something that is completely of the cycle. As a result, military organizations under the term of CivilMilitary Operations (CMO) in an attempt to facilitate and consolidate kinetic and civil and the military hierarchy in order to secure integration of the information acquired in a comprehensive and just to increase the chance of getting a higher value information and therefore, to add more accuracy and perfection to effort as it may lead to unnecessary delays and loss of decisive action.Counterintelligence and Covert Action For decades counterintelligence and mystery and for many people CI of collection mainly targeting a specific enemy group, that of spies. But CI is much more than this. CI represents a core mission of the intelligence set, focuses on protection against harmful activities of outside intelligence entities and offensive mission, still remains one of its primary means in order to identify, Besides, CI to include administration control of personnel, installations and other sensitive governmental components. Thus, due to its dual nature and scope CI means a variety of activities from collection and analysis to espionage investigations and from clandestine and disinformation operations to recruiting and running human sources. From this either named threat assessments or risk evaluations reports. CI requires the implementation of a different philosophy in thinking and acting and therefore, freedom of movement for CI activities. Another critical intelligence function, though controversial, is that of covert actions. For many scholars a covert action is the third core mission of the intelligence set, place covert actions close to Special Forces operations and others assume function of intelligence. conventional intelligence cycle process cannot support covert action due to the fact that the latter is a concerted secret intervention of one nation into another nation or nations affairs in order to
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 43 Yet, cover attention through randomly authorized and unauthorized disclosures and therefore this excessive statecraft tool Conclusion and for sure it is not a perfect game. Today intelligence requires more than a traditional deterministic cycle model 51 environment, circumstances and needs and too rigid and the overall process since it cannot capture the increasing RMA and intelligence consumers contemporary demands. Thus, it is outdated and cannot fulfill the modern counterintelligence and covert action ignored. Nevertheless, intelligence principles have remained unaltered still valid in its concept as long as order to perform as a series of multiand horizontal interaction among them. Additional efforts for reorganization and changes in terms of intelligence the development of a standardized of communication and understanding. After all, the main characteristic of remain the production of accurate intelligence in a timely manner. 1 intelligence-cycle.htmlThe introduction of the intelligence plan as an operational tool, the collection and analysis, and the intelligence operational evaluation are Intelligence Regulations, US Department and LTC P.B.Davidson first adopted the term of the intelligence cycle in process that incorporates four genuine futures in a logical sequence similar to a close circuit, See more: Glass R.R. & Davidson P.B., Intelligence is for the Commanders, Military Service Mark Phythians Understanding the Intelligence Cycle, Intelligence and 5 Intelligence Cycle, Intelligence and 6 Support to Military Operations, US Gill, P. & Phythian, M., Intelligence 8 Evans, G., Rethinking Military Intelligence Failure Putting the Wheels Back on the Intelligence Cycle, Defense 9 Marrin, S., Preventing Intelligence International Journal of Intelligence and 11 The Federal Bureau of Investigation, Intelligence Cycle. intelligence/intelligence-cycle Pillar, P.,Intelligence, Policy, and 1516 Heuer, R.,Psychology of Intelligence Analysis, Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency, (1999), p.9 Kahn, D.,An Historical Theory of Intelligence, Intelligence and National 18 Odom, W.,Intelligence Analysis, 19 Sheehan, M., Military Security, in Collins A., Contemporary Security Intelligence, Counter-Intelligence and rth edn, North Atlantic Treaty Dupont, A.,Intelligence for the Kane, T. & Lonsdale, D.,Intelligence, in Understanding Contemporary Betts, R.,Fixing Intelligence, Foreign Negulescu, F., Intelligence Sharing Special Operations,Journal of Defense Betts, R.,Analysis, War and Decision:
44 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015Information and Intelligence Needs in stimson.org/images/uploads/researchpdfs/SEMA-DHS_FINAL.pdf of National Security Intelligence, Oxford: Oxford University Press, Redmond P.J., The Challenges of Counterintelligence, in Johnson L.K., Scott, L. & Jackson P.,The Study of Intelligence in Theory and Practice, George, R.,Intelligence and Strategy, in Baylis, J., Wirtz, J.J. &Gray, C., rth edn, Oxford: Oxford University Press, Scott, L.,Secret Intelligence, Covert Action and Clandestine Diplomacy, Cogan, C.,Hunters not Gatherers: 51 Intelligence Cycle through Systems Modeling and Simulation. for-the-study-of-intelligence/csianalytic-culture-in-the-u-s-intelligencehtm BIBLIOGRAPHY Intelligence, Counter-Intelligence and Treaty Organization, Allied Joint of Mark Phythians Understanding the Intelligence Cycle, Intelligence and Decision: Why Intelligence Failures are pp.61-89. Intelligence Failure Putting the Wheels Back on the Intelligence Cycle, Defense Strategy, in Baylis, J., Wirtz, J.J. &Gray, C., Strategy in the Contemporary University Press. nd Heuer, R. (1999), Psychology of Intelligence Analysis, Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency. the Intelligence Cycle, Intelligence and Intelligence, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Intelligence Cycle through Systems Modeling and Simulation. for-the-study-of-intelligence/csianalytic-culture-in-the-u-s-intelligencehtm Intelligence Support to Military of Intelligence, Intelligence and National Intelligence, in Understanding Contemporary Strategy, Routledge, International Journal of Intelligence and Joint Special Operations, Journal of p.15. of Counterintelligence, in Johnson L.K., Security Intelligence, Oxford University Covert Action and Clandestine Diplomacy, Intelligence and National of Intelligence in Theory and Practice, in Collins, A., Contemporary Security rd University Press. The Federal Bureau of Investigation, Intelligence Cycle. intelligence/intelligence-cycle Information and Intelligence Needs in research-pdfs/SEMA-DHS_FINAL.pdf Intelligence Cycle. intelligence-cycle.html
2012 2015 Pieces of content shared on Facebook Hours of video uploaded to YouTube Apps downloaded from the App Store Photos shared on Instagram Tweets sent via Twitter Why Bother With Information Management?Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 45Information Overload Before I develop on the Information and many other forms of messages that Have you ever thought of the amount of 1 Internet every single minute of the day and the progress it made during the last three years: MAJ Jacek Lashmann,JFTC Information Knowledge Management Officer How often do you face a situation when you have too much information which is not organized in any useful way? Has it helped you to make decisions? I will refer to these questions further in a text.
The infographic below illustrates how much individuals are exposed to information overload 46 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 in different formats. Those individuals collect, create or generate lots of data from different sources. Then information/ document is processed, shared, used, re-used and saved in different locations, until it is archived or disposed of. have too much information, not organized simple of course NOT. Having too much information vastly disorganized is like not having any!What Impact Disorganized Information Has? produces more information. This processes, delaying critical decisions making. People spend too much time instead of focusing on the essence of military examples related to disorganized Information Management: Lack of IM may have a huge impact on military operations resulting in: 1. Loss / damage of equipment or (financial impact). incidents or targeting errors. mission failure. We live in the age of information to implement Information Management value from information. Implementation components: 1. People. Source:
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 47 I am not going to develop on this, since it's a topic for another article. Information Management is the primary resource, and therefore a missions, operations, projects, programs. Efficient and effective management of information is a critical success factor for a discipline that directs and supports handling of information throughout its life-cycle in the right form and of adequate quality to satisfy the demands of an organization5. In simple terms: IM is the ART of getting the right information at the right place at the right time and in the right form. According to NIMP6, the key a) to support the achievement of Information Superiority primarily Information Superiority is a state of relative advantage in the information information to the right people at the the same of information resources in the conduct c) to support the identification and preservation of information of permanent value to NATO. In practice the role of IM is to support decision making and staff efficiency. Management in NATO is not conducted in the application of the IM principles as set out in the NIMP8: (a) Information is a Corporate Resource support NATO in all areas of activities Custodianship. Every information shall have an originator, and clearly defined (c) Leadership and Organizational Structure Management of information shall require executive leadership, top-level involvement and creation and maintenance of an effective organizational structure. (d) Information Sharing. Information facilitate access, to optimize information sharing and re-use, and reduce duplication, all in accordance (e) Information Standardisation. Information shall have standardized structures and consistent and more effective and efficient (f) Information Assurance. Information given level of confidence in protection of communication, information and other electronic systems, nonelectronic systems, and the information that is stored, processed or transmitted (g) Information Needs as part of the planning and architecture processes to meet intended activities and effects. Tangible Benefits Of Information Management implementation of Information that impacted specific headquarters. For instance a NATO HQ had conducted ton/year Thanks to the implementation of portal technology in NATO HQ: tasking tools. a) Before Tasker Tracker (electronic staff used for staffing and tasking purposes. The old system suffered from the have the document at one time to
48 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 Staffing and tasking is carried out in an same time another person can use it in read out of office for a long time, functional instructions, adding documents or links can I have listed only the most important features of the Tasker Tracker, there are many more. and tasking. an immense influence on JFTC personnel and frustration among the personnel. Besides, it significantly deteriorated efficiency of the staff. To make a long triplicates, quadruplicates etc. of the same document. Existence of duplicates caused a documents. We had analyzed a real life example from the past, taking into account and final preparation of correspondence on per day in order to search for the most days. To sum up, yearly this person must naming convention, every folder had either as compared to solutions utilized in the Document Handling System (DHS). among the staff, even though the system has many more imperfections than the Tasker Tracker, in particular the search very useful for administrators and support that the Implementation of Information Why Should We Bother With Information Management? Information Management will help us to do our jobs better! Thanks to IM we are more effective and efficient. Instead of working harder, we can work smarter! There is another vital factor, which encourages to the implementation of IM the cost of doing IM is nothing compared to the pain of not doing it!!! 1 every-minute/Primary Directive on Information 5 6 NATO Information Management Policy (NIMP), p. 1-18 Management Policy (NIMP) Information Management (PDIM)
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 49 a Silent Auction during NATOs International Day the language in order to help others. NATO Spouses Club of Bydgoszcz joins Szlachetna Paczkas Team of HeroesNATO Spouses Club of Bydgoszcz goes to Hellerwka NATO Spouses Clubs Corner
In Retrospect Life at JFTC 50 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 measures, France deployed a Leclerc tank rd NSBs officers and NCOs responded to the invitation of the French SNR and took advantage of this occasion to pay a visit and receive static and dynamic presentations of this unit on the spot. a Leclerc MBT squadron, a VBCI AFV requested support elements (maintenance, VBL LAVs. into the Polish 15th Mechanized Brigade layout. Furthermore this deployment gave the opportunity to improve tactical troops also deployed in this training area. PUMA 15. the training period of the unit and thus, the NATO delegation received detailed static presentation of all to perform a shooting sequence on confirmed evidence of the excellence of generation MBT Having shared good military experiences, the NATO delegation happily returned to Bydgoszcz.JFTC Delegation at French Presentation in Drawsko Pomorskie
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 51 colors, fifteen national stands offering tourist information, various presentations of different cultures, loud music and attractions for children all these marked the 9th International Day at the Joint Force Training Center (JFTC). Communication and Information Agency Signal Battalion, the JFTC Support Unit, the Allied Command Counterintelligence and the JFTC National Support Elements cuisines, cultures and customs, children set up especially for this occasion. Again, the Bydgoszcz NATO family the Alliance and for spending joyful time among colleagues and friends. Wonderful tradition. Annual International Day at JFTC
52 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 Annual International Day at JFTC
In Retrospect Life at JFTC Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 53 Contingent (Joint Force Training Centre, NATO Communication and Information commemorated the Bastille Day. The Commander, Brigadier General Wojciech personnel. Several Polish and German National Defence Medals. Bydgoszcz Military Band. Later the French Senior National Representative, Colonel Charles Sevin, and the French contingent hosted international community and representatives of Bydgoszcz authorities at a diner and a dancing party in one of local restaurants. evening.2015 Bastille Day at the JFTC
Life at JFTC 54 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 Slovakia commemorates adoption of like to point out some milestones concerning this event. Czechoslovakia had emerged as a sovereign state at the end of World War 1 in 1918. It Velvet Revolution. democratic country. of Czechoslovakia voted to dissolve the named the Velvet Divorce. the Slovak Armed Forces Day. Let me a peak moment in nationalist sentiments movements. Much of the revolutionary empire, ruled from Vienna, included Austrian Germans, Hungarians, Slovenes, Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Ruthenians (Ukrainians), attempted to either achieve autono-my, independence, or even hegemony over other nationalities. This revolutionary fever included Slovaks, fighting for the nations in Austro-Hungarian Empire or if victory of Slovak volunteers against the Emperors units in Brezova pod Bradlom point for further independence and freedom Armed Forces Day. General, Ladies and Gentlemen, Slovak Constitution Day and Slovak Armed Forces Day Speech given by Colonel Miroslav Fazik, Slovak Senior National Representative
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 55 National Representative of Germany, Colonel Klaus-Peter Kiser and all German soldiers invited everyone to attend a German-Polish Military Music Corps Concert at the City of Bydgoszcz Culture Centre. and evening. After enjoying some concert the direction of Lieutenant Colonel concert pieces of the Polish orchestra under the lead of Lieutenant Colonel Krzysztof Matraszek the event ended nations. atmosphere that they created. German-Polish Military Music Corps Concert 2015 Honorary Consul of the Federal Senior National Representative Colonel Klaus-Peter Kiser together tapped the tradition. German delicacies. stomach remained un(ful)filled. Besides the Krzysztof Polanski, the DJ really rocked the simply having a good time. Great atmosphere during the event great opportunity for the JFTC Staff to meet and another chance to present Bavarian culture and promote solidarity. Words of special thanks go to the Oktoberfest at Joint Force Training Centre
56 gentlemen! division of Germany into four sectors and had shaped the German image. The Berlin Wall 1989. With these steps the historical options for path to German unity. Many events especially ones in the East-European countries had leveled rounds of voting officially completed the act. In the margins of the CSCE-Foreign states US President George Bush addressed the the era of "Unity and Justice and Freedom", as Germany." stressed the close and future-oriented friendand Stressing the supporting role of the four of the people of Central and Eastern Europe appreciated. The love of freedom of the Polish people as the strikes conducted all across the country sent a strong signal to the people of the German time. The German-French friendship started Chancellor Konrad Adenauer and President the USA advocating the German reunification for political and historical reasons convincing Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher of a step such more difficult. The security situation in Europe and of its partners, Political tensions on the outskirts of Europe and the USA as a strong ally at its side so as to continue fighting for freedom and democracy and in the future. gratitude to our European and transatlantic friends and also a guarantor for our common freedom unsteady times also regarding the events in the Ukraine. German Reunification Day Speech given by Colonel Klaus-Peter Kiser, German Senior National Representative
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 57 Polish Independence Day. The actual date couple of years, a military ceremony and an Independence Day Run. morning, right after the military ceremony. Paulina Sandomierska, the second to cross finished the competition as the third. Major David Blazquez. They all received medals and memory statuettes from the JFTC Commander. During the second part of the ceremony the NATO Bydgoszcz family had a chance to Support Division Head and at the same time Polish Senior National Representative, highlighted the most important moments for the country and its citizens and then invited all international guests to taste Polish cuisine during a small reception. Polish Independence Day
Photo: H. Pietkiewicz 58 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 On 11th Cemetery of Bydgoszcz, the French rd NSB commemorated the anniversary of civilian and military, that perished on the fighting in the Middle East. Colonel Sevin, French SNR, chaired persons, military men, representatives of the city, students in charge of the maintenance of the graves and families. This year, and presence of Polish and German military detachments. French Contingent Commemorated 11 November Photo: H. Pietkiewicz
In Retrospect Life at JFTC Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 59 Beaujolais nouveau tasting event. It has Force Training Centre. gathered in the dining facility to share a JFTC and also NATO Communication and Information Agency, Host Nation Support Signal Battalion, Bydgoszcz NATO Force Integration Unit, Military Police Centre of Excellence and Multinational Corps Northeast NE Szczecin. NATO community shared a good and famous cheese and charcuterie from the of Beaujolais. this moment and are already looking Beaujolais Nouveau est Arriv at the JFTC
Life at JFTC 60 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 Day, for the first time an ecumenical garrison church in Bydgoszcz Colonel Klaus-Peter Kiser, Senior national Representative at the Joint Force Training Centre (JFTC) and the entire German community that highly-esteemed guests, commemoration ceremony. Besides the Surma and evangelic pastor Marek Laskot, Wola participated. The City of Bydgoszcz Still under the impression of the all speakers expressed their sympathy for the French nation and stressed the meaning of peace and freedom for all the people in the In the course of the ceremony it day is a day of silently commemorating all freedom, justice and humanity locally and and silent commemoration that German soldiers and the German community shared represented at the Joint Force Training Centre. COL Klaus-Peter Kiser expressed his special gratitude to the Polish participants for the joint event and said: "that it must endure during National Socialism". He continued that "this darkest of all German-Polish relations today are at their this idea of reconciliation in his speech of German-Polish history in Bydgoszcz during the national-socialist tyranny using ourselves lucky to live in a different Europe and that the Polish and the German people In a very personal speech also stressed that apart from the military victims also and in particular the civilian population had suffered. His Excellency an opportunity for sharing these thoughts generally found that this commemorative international understanding. All participants Bydgoszcz. Remembrance Day 2015
Transformation Through Training Issue No: 8 December 2015 61 6 schools and organizations visited the Joint local schools and student organizations to its compound. This time the centre hosted and youth attending junior high schools, high schools and universities. history, current challenges and plans for the future. They also received in-depth information regarding the JFTC mission, structure, training events, exercises, experiments, training centre uses during its training events therefore to strengthen forces of the Alliance. in great part due to the JFTC guests pupils and students from Bydgoszcz Primary School Junior High School, High School No. 6 from older students asked more precise questions for vivid discussions. Program of Work. The centre is looking The Second Open Day for Schools at the JFTC
Citadel Bonus 15 Exercise, Opening Ceremony