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Transformation through training

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Transformation through training
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Bydgoszcz, Poland
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NATO- Joint Force Training Centre (JFTC)
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Nasl. z nasl. zaslona.
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Opis vira z dne 8. 5. 2012.

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University of Florida
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Copyright, Joint Force Training Centre. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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2084-8358 ( ISSN )
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18 10 32 29 2 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 6 December 2014TABLE OF CONTENTS 4 The JFTC Going Strong as It Celebrates Its 10th Birthday 10 Different logics Underpinning the COPD Some Useful Foundations To Advice The TA During Phase II 16 JFTC Hosts JFC Brunssum Trident Joust 14 Exercise 18 Interview with COM JFC Brunssum 20 Counter-Terrorism Policies & the Cost to the West Part II Gunpowder, Treason & Plot 29 2015 CWIX Is Promising to Be the Biggest Yet 31 CAX Forum 32 Life at the JFTC 2014 in Retrospect4

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Transformation Through Training Issue No: 6 December 2014 3Publishing Institution: Joint Force Training Centre Bydgoszcz (JFTC) Managing director: Brigadier General Lszl SZAB, JFTC Deputy Commander / Chief of Staff Chief Editor: MAJ Goran Pijetlovic JFTC Public Affairs Officer Editorial Board: Mrs. Kamila SIERZPUTOWSKA, PhD, Kazimierz Wielki University, Poland Agency, Army of the Czech Republic Advisory Committee: Editorial Contact Information: Public Affairs Office Joint Force Training Centre Bydgoszcz, 85-915, Poland. E-mail: pao@jftc.nato.int Transformation Through TrainingThe aim of this magazine is to provide a forum for exchange of information and expertise among trainarea of training, military professional education, and related technological support. In the context of The and international organizations, such as the United Security and Cooperation in Europe and others. With the above in mind, the JFTC invites authors from ronment, to publish in the Transformation Through best practices in the areas of command and staff training, professional military education, simulations and simulation technologies, distributed training, military training development other related areas. application of the most recent experience and lessons learned from ongoing operations, training events and recent innovations in the field of simulations and briefly cover the life of the international community Centre in Bydgoszcz.The articles published in this magazine represent opinions of their authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy of NATO. to the archive of Transformation Through Training magazine.

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4 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 6 December 2014 The Joint Force Training Centre th Anniversary along conducted in the Stare Miasto (old market dents and authorities. Festivities continIsland, and a concert for the current and former staff members of the JFTC, to include many former commanders and directors. years the citys history and traditions have been District, it is the home of the Inspectorate for the Armed Forces Support and here the 1st Pomeranian Logistic Brigade operates dynamically as do several other Polish Army training centre and the City of Bydgoszcz: Atlantic Treaty Organizations idea, based on joint effort of a number of people and practice. () Bydgoszcz became a place of promoting and bringing to perfection the Alliances training doctrine. The Joint Force Training Centre responds to Bruski, thanked the JFTC for good cooptogether, that our cooperation especially this your active presence in the citys life. Thank you for your reliable presence and cooperafor the city the military ones, but also The JFTC Going Strong as It Celebrates Its 10th Birthday JFTC Public Affairs Specialist

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Transformation Through Training Issue No: 6 December 2014 5

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6 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 6 December 2014 After his speech, Mayor of the JFTC former and current staff, Brigadier General Dzintars Roga, the Allied Command Transformation Assistant Chief of Staff Joint sented the JFTC superior, the Supreme Allied Commander Transformation, General Jean-Paul Palomros, addressed the audience and underlining the centres significance in the past, about the Joint Force Training Centres future, it carries a complex, ambitious but achievable future exercise programme, supported by the better use of our available technology and full confidence in the Joint Force Training Centres proven ability to meet this aim and provide high quality and full spectrum training th anniversary celebracentres facility, then moved to the Bydgoszcz invited to participate in the ceremony and to admire the military parade and performances of Polish and German drill teams. After the official ceremony the JFTC Commander invited all participants to move to the beautiJFTC and national tents, people could learn an important ceremony outside its compound. The official part of the ceremony in laying at the Martyrdom Memorial. The Staff, the JFTC Commander, the Mayor of Bydgoszcz and French and German orated victims of the Second World War. In the evening the JFTC staff had a chance to in Bydgoszcz in the past. They all listened to a fantastic performance of the Representative Artistic Ensemble of the Polish Armed Forces. Apart from the Chief of the Polish General Staff, the Allied Command Transformation Assistant Chief of Staff Joint Education, Training and Exercise, and the Mayor of Bydgoszcz also many special and the occasion, to include: His Excellency Jakub Karfik, the Ambassador of the Czech Republic to the Republic of Poland, Mrs. Dorota Jakuta, the Chairperson of the Regional Parliament, Lieutenant General as former JFTC Directors and Commanders, Deputy Directors and Deputy Commanders, including Major General (ret.) Peter Kuhnel, Major General Agner Rokos, Major General Pavel Macko, Brigadier General (ret.) Ryszard and Brigadier General Jaromir Zuna.

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Transformation Through Training Issue No: 6 December 2014 7 The JFTC Going Strong as It Celebrates Its 10th Birthday

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8 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 6 December 2014

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Transformation Through Training Issue No: 6 December 2014 9 The JFTC Going Strong as It Celebrates Its 10th Birthday

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110 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 6 December 2014 The BI-SC 75-3 states that the Training Team provides staff level mentoring to the Training Audience in functional areas2. What is mentoring as referred to Phase II (Crisis Response Planning) of the NATO Exercise Training Model? What are the grounds for advisory work to add value to the planning process that is taking place at the headquarters? After more than two years working as G5/J5 of the JFTC Training Team that has been embedded in different HQs of the NCS/ NFS for the NRF series of exercises and for LANDCOM preparation to take the LCC role during a MJO+, I have arrived at the conclusion that it is necessary to understand different logics that support any operations planning process. The reason is that when these logics are not unravelled and the mentoring activity is reduced to a matter of describing COPD steps and, at best, to interrelate with each other, then Training Team work may reinforce what U. S. General James N. Mattis defined as over-proceduralization. In his vision about Operational Design, he states that staffs have been seen too often apply planning processes mechanistically, as if progressing through a sequence of planning steps would produce a solution [] Over-proceduralization inhibits the commanders and staffs critical thinking and creativity, which are essential to finding a timely solution to complex problems3. So, to prevent the use of COPD becoming a sort of that mythological belief as if progressing through a sequence of planning steps would produce a solution; and for the Training Team to be able to advise something that will be more than just what the next step in the process should be. I therefore believe that all Training Observers should know and understand the different logics underpinning any operational planning process. Before starting, let me underline the basic point: What does the term logic mean when considered as the basis of a planning process? It is a specific way of seeing a complete situation or a specific aspect once we are engaged in it. That logic consists of intellectual processes and cognitive ways that our mind uses to interact with material facts emerging from that aspect or situation. Although it is quite obvious, it is worth stressing that not only does any logic underpin the development of a plan, but all the processes of its effective materialization. There are different logics because there are different kinds of complexity, and each JFTC Training Division 1 Different logics Underpinning the COPD Some Useful Foundations To Advice The TA During Phase II Photo: Courtesy of Spanish Army

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Transformation Through Training Issue No: 6 December 2014 11kind of complexity requires a specific logic to deal with it. This is clear when we look at some of the most prominent contemporary military thinkers. Most of them agree with Clausewitz on the systemic nature of warfare, all parts of the whole are intertwined4, and its complex character, Bonaparte rightly said [] that many of the decisions faced by the commander-in-chief resemble mathematical problems worthy of the gifts of a Newton or an Euler5, however they interpret this complexity differently and, based on that understanding, develop various logic to guide the conduct of operations within that framework. I think all such interpretations can be grouped into three categories, pending on the opinion that such complexity is based on structural, interactive or chaotic character of reality. Taking those three kinds of complexity into account, I will postulate that most of the contemporary military thought can be grouped around three logics: outcome logic associated to the structural complexity, dialectic logic linked to the interactive complexity and design logic that is behind the ways of thinking associated to the chaotic complexity. In the following lines I will introduce these logics through a mixture of brief theoretical notes and historical examples. I am aware that each of these logics has been historically presented as a closed and complete theory for the conduct of operations, but I am convinced that most of operational problems demand a balanced use of these three logics. Therefore, my proposal is that understanding that balance, with a clear view of what logic should be stressed in each moment, is a key element to provide staff level mentoring during the Crisis Response Planning.Outcome Logic I will start with the logic that has been developed to conduct operations in the theatre that is considered complex for structural reasons and where the objectives are identified with specific changes in that structure. When what is at issue is to modify a structure, this modification sets the mode and content of the way the operations are conducted. From a structural point of view, the outcome configures the processes and the success depends only on the optimization of these processes. The outcome can set the mode and content of the conduct of operations to the extent that the structural conception of the complexity provides a clear description of the problems to solve, and also makes it possible to establish a clear association between the means to be used and the purposes to be achieved. It is therefore a static logic that is not intended for driving any innovation, as the objectives to achieve predetermine processes to be used, and it comes down to how to maximize the effectiveness and efficiency of these processes. To find the origins of this logic, we must go back to the Second World War, where a growing body of British and U.S. military planners applied advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions. Through the employment of mathematical tools, such as mathematical modeling, statistical analysis, and mathematical optimization, they tried to arrive at optimal or near-optimal solutions to complex decision-making problems, especially related to the field of the aerial warfare6. This outcome logic evolved differently according to the analogy used to conceive the structural complexity, whether the analogy of the machine, which is at the origin of Operational Research and System Image source:

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Photo: Courtesy of Spanish Army 12 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 6 December 2014Analysis procedures used by McNamara team during the Vietnam War, or the biological analogy, which underpins the conceptual developments of the OODA loop postulated by John Boyd and the five rings and parallel attack theory of John Warden. Last decades have postulated Revolution in Military Affairs and Military Transformation theories such as Effects Based Operations and Network Centric Warfare that were the result of a combination of different aspects of these two analogies that support the rationale applied to the structural complexity. The common intent of all those theories was to replace traditional uncertainty that has characterized the conduct of the war by an accurate understanding and control of the situation that eradicate any randomness and allows a precise use of force to achieve desired effects7.Dialectic Logic I will continue with the logic conceived to conduct operations in the theatre that is considered complex for the dynamic interactions taking place during confrontation of two systems. These dynamic interactions, internal to each system and between confronted systems, produce results that are inexplicable from the characteristic parameters of a linear logic, which stained the warlike atmosphere of unpredictability, and generate tensions that are the driving force of the operational dynamics. In this context, dialectic logic is intended to produce a better synthesis able to cope with those tensions and opened to Warden, John A., III, Publisher: Brassey's Inc, 1999. Map source: Photo: Courtesy of Spanish Air Force

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Transformation Through Training Issue No: 6 December 2014 13friction and chance as the two fundamental manifestations of that unpredictability. In this regard, dialectic logic is a process used to overcome tensions such as those between the operational commander intention and the tactical commanders adherence to the missions they have been assigned, or between the positive aspect of our aim and the negative one of frustrating the rivals effort to bring defeat upon us8. A process to overcome based not on forcing war into one of those poles, but on producing a better synthesis where both poles result integrated in a manoeuvre that takes advantage of the disproportionate effects or unpredictable situations generated by non-linearities. This better synthesis is an allencompassing or overall result that goes beyond what could be expected from the sum of its parts. It is reflected in aspects such as combined arms combat, amalgamation of the various forms of warfare (offensive and defensive, close and deep operations, etc.), the interaction between attrition and manoeuvre or the operational momentum9. The first manifestations of this dialectic logic were conceived by Soviet military thinkers as a result of analysing their experience during the Russian civil confrontation (a war of wide spaces and bold manoeuvers) from the perspective of the Marxist revolution that, on the one hand, linked deep penetration with enemy dislocation and political subversion, on the other, proposed dialectic as the supreme law of historical progress10. This analysis resulted in a systemic and nonlinear conception of war that was named operational art. This term was introduced in 1923 by a Soviet General and thinker Aleksandr Svechin in a series of lectures given at the newly founded Soviet General Staff Academy11. He defined it as the totality of manoeuvers and battles in a given part of a theatre of military action directed toward the achievement of a common goal, set as final in the given period of the campaign12. Although Stalin purge of 1937-1938 eliminated a generation of operational officers who had formulated the theories of deep battle and deep operation13, operational art became again a critical topic in the Soviet study of war in the late 1960s14. Paradoxically, on the other side of the Iron Curtain, American thinkers were gradually rediscovering this logic during the intellectual crisis that followed the Vietnam War, and it was finally established as the foundation of the U.S. military doctrine at the beginning of the 1980s, under the name of Air-Land Battle15. It is easy to understand the gap that separates this logic from the outcome one. Meanwhile, dialectic logic is a logic of tension and ambiguity as a tangle dynamics between contraries, and of contemplative character as an attitude to confront a reality driven by friction, uncertainty and dissymmetry; outcome logic is a logic of deductions and certainties that visualizes the military situation as a system of systems and considers that acting against a physical part of the enemy system, desired effects in the domain of human activity can be achieved. [] They assume that all elements of the situation can somehow be precisely determined and no mistakes will be made. The enemy is essentially passive and will behave in a way that will ensure friendly success16.Design Logic Lastly, I will give some notes on the design logic that has been adopted in the effort to conduct operations in chaotic situations typical of failed or non-existent states, where it is not easy to identify the enemy and where the fight goes on amongst the people, a term introduced by a British General, Rupert Smith, to refer to those wars in which the people in the streets and houses and fields all the people, anywhere are the battlefield17. This logic is based, first, on the development of representations of that chaotic complexity, which are called designs, as a basis that makes it possible to agree on courses of action; while the other, the ideal and precarious nature of such representations is assumed, so the planning cell is constantly working in its reformulation, such a way that decisions remain relevant in relation to what the situation demands. This dynamics is materialized in a process of framing and reframing, where framing means building a perspective from which an amorphous, ill-defined problematic situation can be made sense of and acted upon18. And reframing shifts attention from trying to solve the current problem right to asking whether the right problem is being solved19. In short, design is a logic that proposes a prudent use of the notion of system while Photos: Courtesy of Miguel Ruiz del Arbol Moro

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14 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 6 December 2014referring to human realities, stressing reframing as a result of a deeper understanding. This prudent use of the notion of system rests on the inherent potential of the situation, which has been called the ontological approach20, trying more to capitalize on the propensity of the situation than to impose our will based on our power to produce an effect. Instead of the imposition of a preconceived idea, design tries to take advantage of such conditions to derive the needed effects for success. This logic was proposed by American urban planners of the 1960s. They cast doubt on the ability of centralized planners to create detailed top-down plans for big cities that present situations in which a half-dozen or even several dozen quantities are all varying simultaneously and in subtly interconnected ways21. The driving force behind this urban theory was its rejection of the concept of the enlightened central planner because his ability to possess all the relevant information is a myth. Soon extended to other areas, the point was how to embrace a more realistic way of viewing and influencing social world, and design theorists proposed an iterative learning paradigm based on critical thinking, ontology and creativity. This design or innovative logic landed in the military during the first decade of XXI century interfering with the other two logics, the outcome logic, whose paradigm in force at that time, the EBO, seemed overwhelmed by the Afghan and the Iraqi chaos; and the operational logic that many criticized for its conventional character unable to plan and conduct military operations amongst the people. In fact, in 2009, all those events led General James N. Mattis to express his concern saying: our current doctrinal approach to fostering clear, careful thinking and creativity, particularly early in design and planning, is insufficient and ineffective22, and to conclude the urgent need to improve commanders abilities to think deeply about the fundamental nature of a complex military problem; to design a broad approach to achieving objectives and accomplishing the mission; and to determine if, when, and how to change that approach when circumstances change23.Conclusions Obviously much more space would be needed to describe, albeit briefly, fundamentals of these three logics that, in a way, are a compendium of most of the contemporary military thinking. I would, however, emphasize in conclusion a fundamental aspect that I anticipated when referring to the meaning of logic: each logic has its own intellectual processes and its own cognitive ways. So, while the outcome logic generates analytical ways of thinking mainly based on deductive processes, dialectical logic relies on inductive ways of thinking focused on processes of synthesis, and design logic employs holistic and creative thinking with a strong temporal

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Transformation Through Training Issue No: 6 December 2014 15component (in terms of preference for an approach more historical than descriptive). In this context, it is worth to underline that meanwhile a mind is using deductive ways it is excluding inductive ones; that when we choose an analytical approach we reject a holistic one and so on. For example, most of the times outcome logic is the preferred one to accomplish the Factor Analysis during Phase 3A of the planning process. It is preferred because analysis and deduction easily match the Factor Deduction Conclusion process that is proposed in COPD. However, the core of the JOPG should remember that information is not knowledge and that knowledge only increases when a correlation between data is established. Moreover, many times the data cannot be considered separately, because when it is considered separately, it is no longer understandable. In this regard, a Factor Analysis may require a significant portion of design logic and a specific team should be tailored to apply holistic thinking and to consider the historical evolution of many of those factors. This would avoid the danger of some conclusions that in their isolated rational perfection hide true icebergs that can derail the process. Continuing the above example, the abuse of the outcome logic can be still worse when Centre of Gravity Analysis is built on the exclusive basis of a fragmented Factor Analysis, as if the Centre of Gravity were the ripe fruit that emerges from the Critical Capabilities, Critical Requirements and Critical Vulnerabilities identified as conclusions of that analytic and deductive process. Then, one of the privilege spaces for the application of the dialectic logic is sacrificed to the outcome one and the identification of that hub of all power and movement, on which everything depends24 rest on deductive instead of inductive way of reasoning violating the indivisible nature of the war when looking for a decisive outcome25 that ultimately justifies the existence of any Centre of Gravity. The list of examples could be much longer and most of them are referred to the natural attraction of the outcome logic. This is reasonable, because its structural origin and its analytical implementation make it easy to divide any job into several parts, a basic need of any JOGP, and also provides the illusion of mathematical certainties to be presented to the commander. Then, to continue the previous example, the operations design is not the result of creative and holistic thinking with a strong historical footprint, but a collection of decisive conditions obtained in that analytical process; and the courses of action development, even when we are exercising conventional warfare, can replace dialectical logic for the distribution of those decisive conditions along time and space, as if a COA were a sort of targeting process distributed geographically and temporally. Finally, not only do the planning and conduct of operations require addressing a wide range of very heterogeneous problems that demand the use of either logic as appropriate, but also there is always a parent logic that acts as a guiding thread. That lets identify the whole business of war completely with himself26 that, according to Clausewitz, provides the freedom to dominate events and not be dominated by them27. The ability of a Training Observer to identify the right logic to each of the COPD processes and, especially for the G5/J5 Training Observer, the parent logic that should guide the whole process constitutes a prerequisite for a coherent TT work that adds value to the job of any JOPG. 1 to articulate the operations planning process for the ing, linked together [] Within the concept of ponent parts [] are of value only in the relation 5 (SHRADER, Charles R. History of Operations of the deputy undersecretary of the Army for Operations Research, United States Army, more profound. Enhanced command and control, traditional functions of maneuver, strike, protection, 8 Excellence. The evolution of Operational Theory, 9 Cf. KIPP, Jacob W. Mass, Mobility, And The KS, 1988.11 Soviet Military Doctrine from Lenin to Gorbachev, p. 88. Operational Art. In pursuit of Deep Battle, Frank 15 SMITH, Rupert, The Utility of Force, Alfred A. 18 19 JACOB, Jane. The Death and Life of Great Ibdem. War.

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16 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 6 December 2014 as a Training Centre tasked to plan, conduct and primarily in Afghanistan, the JFTC had to focus on ISAF oriented trainings for several years. Despite being mainly engaged in ISAF related trainings (current ops), the JFTC has original mission because the operation in past the Centre has provided support to differaugmentation, training teams, simulations & modeling, Functional Area Services, providing localization, Real life Support, Communications infrastructure etc. The list of trainings includes: rent political and military developments taking (especially east of Poland) have also contributed already existing priorities. by Joint Force Command Brunssum (JFCBS) emanated through this critical time period. Transformation (ACT) sponsored Battle Staff Training/Command Post Exercise (BST/CPX) conducted in order to meet the previously established exercise aims: train JFCBS command and control over provide continuation training for JFC Brunssum in order to maintain required level of proficiency after certification as the Joint Task Force Headquarters (JTFHQ) providing Command and train JFCBS ability to function as a deployed JTFHQ, and plan and conduct Full Operational Capability (FOC) as a JTF sponsored certification exercise conducted in order to train, exercise and evaluate JFCBS JFTC Training Division JFTC Training DivisionJFTC Hosts JFC Brunssum Trident Joust 14 Exercise

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Transformation Through Training Issue No: 6 December 2014 17 cise objectives: setting conditions in order to sustain and improve the certification level reached on stabilization, deterrence and compre confirming the ability to function as a deployed JFTHQ and Joint Logistic practicing close cooperation, coordination tribution to a Comprehensive Approach operating in a collective defense operaand asymmetrical environment including developing proficiency on non-kinetic practicing and improving interoperabilthree core tasks. As far as the geostrategic situation is In order to ensure readiness of the facilities before the commencement of the exercise, the advance party consisting of the Officer Conducting Exercise (OCE), the Officer of Primary Responsibility (OPR), deputy OPR and other critical personnel of JFCBS arrived key exercise supporting personnel includDeputy OPR, LTC Sureyya Ardic, RLS coordinator Ms. Magdalena Rydygier, Protocol dinators MAJ Dariusz Korpalski, Mr. Tomasz Pankau and Mr. Bogdan Stachnik, representpersonnel related to CIS, Real Life, Protocol defeated all the emerging troubles, solved all the doubts and made facility, systems, equipment and personnel ready to launch the The main body of the exercise arrived completed their in-processing on the same day. ing from the JFTC and JFCBS representatives The participants had an ice-breaker happening advisors provided significant contribution to pated in the TE as the commander of Primary Training Audience (PTA). During certain part of the exercise, a Crisis Action Team (CAT) COM JTF HQ for the evening activity. Due their logistic part JLSG activated and located in Castelgate, Germany. facilitate the exercise by providing its facilities, CIS infrastructure, equipment, personnel and our experience (CIS, RLS, Protocol, etc.). Furthermore, the JFTC took advantage of this unique opportunity and placed some of its opportunity to learn about the conduct of an exercise control process and get ready to take huge success and experience for both sides: the JFCBS achieved its exercise objectives once again its readiness to facilitate such big exercises as their host. Moreover, the JFTC cise and gained fruitful experience by observMajor Marc Sijsmans, the OPR of TRJT and reached its aims and objectives as depicted in the Exercise Specification (EXSPEC) their competences in their different roles in a a good preparation for next years certificaWe thank very much to the JFTC for the good thanked the participants of the exercise for their ing performance during the Training Event. Photos: Allied Joint Command Brunssum and Joint Force Training Centre

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18 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 6 December 2014Allied Joint Force Command Brunssum has just executed the main training event for this years NATO Response Force Headquarters responsibility Exercise Trident Joust 2014 (TRJT14). 400 personnel from the HQ deployed to the Joint Force Training Centre, Bydgoszcz, Poland, for intensive 11 days of training. You were there with your staff. Now, that you have had time to reflect on the event, what are your first impressions? Were the goals achieved? This can be attributed to my staff, all of exercise, and to the fantastic support and impressive facilities offered by the JFTC. A hungry audience encountered a facility that matched its appetite a perfect combination. The Alliance faces new challenges and needs to be ready to respond to the new reality. Has the preparation phase of the TRJT 2014 differed from those of previous training events? How has JFC Brunssum adjusted the training process to the evolving situation? used to constant change and evolution. in our exercise and our plan is to increase these numbers for subsequent exercises as approach. The military no longer operto counter emerging threats such as those atre ballistic missile defense. Exercise TRJT 2014 was based on a fictitious scenario with Article V operation in the Baltic Sea region, in Estonia. Estonia was liberated. How do you assess NATO readiness to fulfill its obligations related to article V of the Washington Treaty? core of the Connected Forces Initiative, ness and combat-effectiveness through expanded education and training, increased exercises and improved use of the Alliances Wales Summit Declaration, Collective Defense. In that summit in fact, provided by allies in rotation, and could include several thousand troops, ready to Commander JFC Brunssum

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Transformation Through Training Issue No: 6 December 2014 19 Special Forces support. As you can see, the Alliance is taking all necessary steps to ensure its forces embrace the necessary During the execution of the TRJT 2014, CHODs of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland, and a representative of the Slovakian Chief of Defence visited the training area. What was the purpose of this visit? Can you share the outcome of this meeting with us? T my Headquarters during our exercise in the role and the function of Joint Force Command Brunssum and the implementation of Immediate Assurance Measures in the JFCBS area of responsibility. of JFCBS future planning for trainthe CHODS the possibility to better understand the aims of Exercise Trident gain a clear picture of the roles and operational level of military command. This is important as a joint staff incorporates land, sea, air, special forces, logistics and other specialist units such that their individual inputs are coordicampaign objectives. The number of external organizations supporting the exercise has increased significantly since Steadfast Jazz 2013. How did the IOs and NGOs participation enrich your training? Military operations are not taking place in an isolated operational environment. We Therefore, theres a need for different actors central to a mission to understand each other from the very beginning. To on the ground is too late. To create such a common, mutual understanding, the You have chosen the JFTC for the venue of your training. What is so unique about the Centre? How did its experience, facilities and capabilities contribute to the training process? a training environment for a large number of staff from my Headquarters in a conducted efficiently and painlessly and ity to train outside, in the field, to recreate definitely the best solution to realize the maximum training benefits at a fair price. opportunity for the JFTC to demonstrate their capabilities. And, last but not least, Questions asked by the JFTC PAO.

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20 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 6 December 2014 To trace the lineage of the Cost to the West, the first argument of this part of the essay looks at six competing analyses of Al Qaeda across four tides of recent history: (1) from Al Qaedas Jihad against the Soviets in Afghanistan, (2) from the redoubts of Pakistans (3) from Lashkar-eTaibas momentary usurpation of the Salafi vanguard, to Al Shabaabs attack in Kenya and (4), from this front-line in the War on the Crimson Tide. The first period covers counter-terrorism responses to competing analyses of Al Qaeda as a religious or political phenomenon. The second period is today, the threat it poses for the future and The essay argues that the consequences of competing analyses of Al Qaeda have not only compromised counter-terrorism measures, but obscured and distorted its true nature. detailed introduction to the importance and relevance today of the forces that shaped Waves Theory the history of terrorism and, as a consequence, that its relevance has often been overlooked by scholars of the political, economic and social forces are today and that many of the protagonists non-state combatants civilian-soldiers that had taken up arms. Where the actual beginnings of modern terrorism lie is seen as an academic point in that it is not so the forces that shaped its relevance to the st century can be found. It is argued that this era is fundamental to finding that relevance and that inattention the history of terrorism, the history of Argument 1Whats in a name? That which we call a rose By any other name would smell as sweet. Romeo and Juliet (Act II) to competing analyses of Al Qaeda. In the have been a radical transformation, if not a revolution, in the character of terrorism its over-riding impact on the period is at counter-insurgency initiatives based on conceptualizations of religion as the predominant impetus for terrorist attacks and the competing analysis of Al Qaeda as an overridingly political animal. To tie the relevancy of the academic debate to the events unfolding on the is so salient to understanding competing respond to it. The second section looks more specifically at terrorism from Tora Bora on, focusing primarily on counter-terrorism responses to competing analyses of Al Qaeda as (1) a centralized phenomenon and (2) a franchised phenomenon. Section three concentrates on counter-terrorism responses to competing analyses of Al Qaeda today and section four, analyses direct it and those inspired by it. The final Military Advisor Future Forces Exhibition & Conference 2014 Counter-Terrorism Policies & the Cost to the West Gunpowder, Treason & Plot Part II

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Transformation Through Training Issue No: 6 December 2014 21section posits one indirect consequence of competing analyses, namely, after a decade The essay concludes that analyses of Al Qaeda that either doubt or negate its place at the epicentre of terrorism over the last decade or perceive it as a religious threat have led to competing counter-terrorism measures that have compromised efforts to respond effectively to Al Qaeda and obscured and distorted the true nature of the organization.Section 1. The High TideThe goals of the new generation of terrorists embrace a mystical, almost transcendental, divinely-inspired imperative. Schools of Thought The cost of failing to recognize Al Qaeda as a new generation of terrorism the turn of the century to have led to synonym for the recent acts of terrorism surrounding 9/11 nor a classification of a passing of the comparative certainty of the perceived to be the beginnings of a clash in the blood of the Islamic Revolution of over the Soviets in 1989 and the birth of the Islamic Bomb in 1999. Despite common purpose by the politics of national agendas than the strategic objectives of a religious unending state of war With the attack of 9/11, this Menacing Face of New Terrorism had surpassed Aum Shinrikyos divinely inspired imperative, and gone beyond that had hitherto been seen and Hoffman Al Qaedas metamorphosis, from a relatively subjective epithet, to a religious phenomenon hence not only gave rise to a monopoly on counter-terrorism measures previous analyses of terrorism based on established groups obsolete (Lesser, 1999) and ventured on becoming, at the very least, a counter-terrorism measure in itself. The counter-terrorism policies and the resources emplaced to sustain them led that not only cardinally affected the integrity the very real possibility of collective military irrelevance. The schools of thought had not only distorted perceptions of Al Qaeda but shaped responses to them, from the implementation of shoot to kill policies understanding the threat posed by extremist their relationship to Al Qaeda. Religious Analysis counter-terrorism entered the vernacular of place to enable a readily comprehensive understanding of the scale or nature of the attack. Hence 9/11 catapulted the intent of political violence beyond ordinary terrorism for analysts and the narrowed scope of their research [began to] streamline the task of analysis beyond its significance and the nature of the response soon forced Al Qaeda into taking on a para-military role. Other than nationalist sentiment, the perspective of the victims and that of the general public, for the second time in its history, the Hence, irrespective of any legitimacy in th September th poignantly shed light on the appetite that developed for analyses of Al Qaeda in Since the politics of reason cannot defeat apocalyptic nihilism, we must fight. The argued transition of terrorism from a rational, modern and political development into an apocalyptic, nihilistic and interminable attack on the Jahili World only avenue for the understandably consequentialist reactions to the alternative of engaging in long-term, sustainable, political solutions, the analysis of Al Qaeda as an exceptional threat had become policy. By constructing 9/11 as an exceptional threat (Hellmich & Behnke, intrinsically exceptional and as such enjoyed the advantage of exceptional power and privileges in the international system. Within months the reasoning behind extra-judicial proceedings, extrajudicial killings, pre-emption, extra

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22 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 6 December 2014 a diet of fast food research quick, cheap, ready-to-hand and nutritionally dubious on the ground as they unfolded on both sense of righteousness and purpose into the moral vacuum of the post-Cold War era a deepening in the schism in the analysis of Al Qaeda began to fracture academic research and, as Bjornehed argued as taking extreme, non-negotiable positions. This effectively ruled out any political Bora, for example, and laid the foundations for the succession of analyses of Al Qaeda that projected Salafist interpretations onto other than a militant extension of the fanaticism experienced by practitioners The new war as U.S. administration officials termed the violence that began September 11, is thus not so new. It is a continuation and escalation of previous patterns of violence involving Muslims. compounded the threat outlined in Sterns The Ultimate Terrorists (1999) and Benjamins article America and the New Terrorism justification for further entrenching against a second 9/11 or WMD attack and consolidated counter-terrorism initiatives of thousands of men and billions of dollars Bushs rhetoric had negated any room for days before Al Qaedas last stand at Tora th the most draconian legislation in peacetime in over a century and Atlanticism had become the hallmarks of the home-front and fragile coalitions the death knell of age-old dtentes a seismic shift in geopolitical alliances and the values of once hitherto passive, tolerant, liberal democracies. Political Analysis taking the debate back to earlier analyses arguing that the War on Terror had Qaeda constituted he made a case for a To a degree, this rounded off the Sagemans Understanding Terror Networks military response had failed and that the only effective defense against Al Qaeda after Tora Bora. In that one of the most striking features of Al Qaeda is the destabilizing nature of its mere presence, crucial to both these arguments is an understanding of the by the dynamism of its religious propaganda and apocalyptic faade. The extreme to responses (although relative in an historical context) had given it revolutionary, global other than a terrorist organization into a Hence, counter terrorism responses to Al Qaeda have not only redefined many of the contemporary Western values and terrorism itself. Another reason for this is that by countering Al Qaeda as a religiously motivated movement, as opposed to a politically motivated one, the responses a priori knowledge more dangerous or at least more difficult to counter than its predecessor (Tucker, supported by initial military action on the they had paid insufficient attention a particular period in time a zeitgeist. Hence, although the Al Qaeda of 9/11 had ebbed and died by the time the tide of Tora from Casa Blanca to Jakarta. Broadening the fight beyond Afghanistan to include Iraq, as Gartenstein argued, would erode American power and provide Al Qaeda with a remarkable opportunity to reconstitute. Indeed, the lack of reaction to analyses of Al Qaeda as a political achievable objectives as opposed to idealistic, non-negotiable demands led, if the group and its ideology. Historical Context limited scope of the analyses of Al Qaeda that led to the War on Terror by arguing

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Transformation Through Training Issue No: 6 December 2014 23that the counter-terrorism measures had not been, grounded in a sufficient knowledge of history or an understanding of contemporary terrorism. In short, that the nature of Al Qaeda is better assessed in its historical context as opposed to the largely artificial and politically charged categories that absorbed the United States in the aftermath of 9/11. The roles, for example, to be as equally instrumental to understanding the motivation behind the origins and aspirations of Al Qaeda as that regards to its religious dynamics and portrayal of Jihad as an unending state of war perpetual, global struggle to radicalize and mobilize the Islamic world promote an ideology that united and motivated Jihadist groups. That Qutb is central to understanding Al Qaedas strategic and political objectives is equally poignant, as too are the histories of the autonomous organizations and tribes and Qaeda sought sanctuary and married into after Tora Bora. Section 2. The Ebb Tide Tora Bora Al Qaeda descended into, a multitude of informal local groups trying to emulate their predecessors (Sageman, a fundamental misreading of the Al Qaeda threat example, Sagemans model presumes Al is clearly not the case, especially from the time has little appreciation for the niceties of secular deadlines. It also presumes Al and that it no longer has any fielding or overriding influence over groups like Princip, the ability to pull off a minor significance is lost and the possibility of this period being but one of the three phases of a classic insurgency are missed and that it is not counter terrorism responses that are required to constrain and defeat Al Qaeda, but counter-insurgency measures Whether the threat emanates from radicalized Western based converts, lone State or the Leaderless Jihad is in any case but a mute point, for any attack on the larger battlefield than the homelands or Afghanistan and one that is shaped by Al Qaeda and not the West. If we really want it to walk on its own two feet in a world full of enemies waiting to pounce, we must ease its burden, take it by the hand, help it and support it . until it stands. The above quote is a rare indication practitioners or academics believe of Al far from being obsoleted by groups that share its objectives, at least one major part of it appears to have been disabled beyond any real coordinated action or, like ISIS, a central control. Whether or not this is remains open to question but it does suggest that analyses of Al Qaeda as a franchised phenomenon have accorded it undue credit and led to counter-terrorism measures that have failed to capitalize on the Al Qaeda of 9/11s losses at Tora Bora: the degree of branding, for example, that took place on the myriad of groups that shared Salafist doctrine and morphed the bureaucracy launched against Al Qaeda measuring success (we lack the metrics to know if we are winning or losing the global war on terror ) or the competing analyses of Al Qaeda that have hence not only led to the implementation of diluted counter-terrorism measures against those inspired by Al Qaeda such as Al Shabaab but those in any affiliates under its direct command. Section 3. The Neap Tide If anything, the greatest lesson from the attacks on Mumbai demonstrate that force terrorists from their ambitions, they are often temporary solutions. Al Qaeda, result of military intervention in the East remains undefeated. From Mumbai to the out to fight a decade ago, it has since returned to its roots and in force as a parahas the capability to project its forces in Mumbai-like raids, an internationally established philosophy across the West, a proximity to state and state-like forces, a The organization remains lethal and ambitious to strike Western targets. any resurgence in attacks against the West are perceived. With more land and paramilitarized forces under the banner of analyses of Al Qaeda as a terrorist group focused on attacking the West or as a spent force of redundant associations has had important ramifications in short, that

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24 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 6 December 2014 it is the opposite: in the drone-proof metropolises of Pakistan, despite a decade hold court and, in Syria and Iraq, both all but name. Indeed, the black flag flies along the Euphrates from The City of of Baghdad to the great Citadel of Aleppo at the very heart of the Levant and from London through Cairo to the Far East, are also of particular note given their the Arabian Peninsula as too, in the Horn of Africa, are Al Shabaabs three fronts allies and aff iliates, from Lashkar-e-Taiba the Kanem Empire and Jemaah Islamiah in South East Asia, it is not that Al Qaeda has changed but, as vulnerabilities and opportunities have opened up, that it has transformed Section 4. The Crimson Tide morphs from one identity to the other amidst the conflict ridden environments From this perspective, given the need for multifaceted approaches on the ground that are flexible enough to contain the unpredictability of this threat (for example, the demographic challenges to come over radicalization of Muslims across the West and the types of technology that advantage asymmetrical forces over conventional ones), the academic arguments often appear static and historical. Furthermore, if Al Qaeda is core driven, focus on its affiliates might give it room to breathe, relocate and rejuvenate. It of existing insurgent forces to a cellular and traitors. On the other hand, focus on the core might reignite anti-Western sentiments across its affiliates. If Al franchised advice on explosives, finance, drone attacks and technology for courted terrorists, counter-terrorism measures regional groups or attempts to infiltrate the institutions of their states. Given the incalculable number of variables posed by analyses of Al Qaeda, the question almost military companies to counter the threat of AQAM. Section 5. The Last TideThere is a tide in the affairs of men. Which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune; As a consequence, the analyses of Al Qaeda have, arguably, not just undermined the Wests position in any future mediatory conflicts and opened up gulfs of differences Germany. Through the politicization of terrorism beyond the parameters of the reality on the ground, thirteen years of rd Treaty forces, Coalitions of the Willing and the civilianization of the Armed Forces have all but depleted its interoperability and conventional capabilities. With the it the allegiances of yesterday while every alliance member voted for the Libya mission, less than half participated at all, and fewer than a third (were) willing to participate in the strike mission as and Britain stood alone. Competing analyses of Al Qaeda have not only distorted counter-terrorism policies and led to competing responses that have had massive consequences for the Western Alliance, they have shaped them. Conclusion Over these five tides of Salafi poignantly than anything else is the damage that the competing analyses of events on the ground and historical by nature, they highlight the dangers in the and the practitioners of counter-terrorism. on Terror and fuelled terrorism but led indirectly to a chain of events that have Afghanistan to the US rout of Al Qaeda at helped push counter-terrorism policy into historical context of the conflict and the realpolitik of the events on the ground causing Al Qaeda to remilitarize and the ripples from this tide to surge. With the th Century, positions on either academia on so called radicalization, branding of groups irrespective of their histories led blindly to different readings of the battlefield and holistic counter-terrorism measures that have needlessly ended the

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Transformation Through Training Issue No: 6 December 2014 25lives of tens of thousands, depleted trillions in resources and, unnecessarily, trampled across the very values that the West stood to defend. In the ebb tide, from Tora Bora to Al Qaeda can be seen to have fully paramilitarised on some of these fronts, returned en masse to London and entrenched in the fertile soils of the Arab Spring. Simply put, has not so much changed but transformed, ready, to catch the next tide.Argument 2People have only as much liberty as they have the intelligence to want and the courage to take. Emma Goldman substantive and important parallels century, the objectives of the groups this raises doubt as to the arguments for their historical alignment as successive or not they remain relevant. Terrorism of the late 19th century for example had a strategic, doctrinal edge to it that typically took the form of assassination attempts on politicians or arson and bomb attacks on government and public buildings. It printed propaganda was the most characteristic form of anarchist activity in late Victorian Britain. the deep seated, geo-political grievances philosophies it had metamorphosed into a very different creature. Indeed, despite the trans-national characteristics of the anarchists (from their propensity for propaganda of the deed eclectic. And it is because of this that the patterns of political violence that forces that shaped them are of crucial importance to understanding not only th rooted in this period, but clues as to currency post 9/11 and its final chrysalis as a domineering feature of this centurys accelerates its development beyond any evolutionary trait or the social myths, traditions, and habits that permit the development of terrorism as an established political custom very much the forces of the day that charge, efficacy is directly symptomatic of the and that its existence is more complicated than any progressive evolution in political increases in suicide bombings represent, an existential rejection of oppression. forces of digression and devolution and arguably been but a repeated exercise in or political change. Irrespective of social continuums that perpetuate and regenerate years of repressive, dictatorial regimes that example, cannot be reversed, nor can the disastrous policies of successive British Prime Ministers and American Presidents. changes, particularly for the United internal strife and turmoil that ensues. Paradoxically, Rapoport is also correct in his analysis the period does demonstrate terrorism has tentacles that reach across the centuries and that it can and does evolve. For example, each little heritage beyond that of the peripheral antipathy that surrounded the civil rights amidst the political, economic, social a peripheral antipathy, as it turned out, more British casualties than Afghanistan, Iraq and the Falklands combined, an uncountable number of broken lives and continuities of an historical phenomenon Four Waves parameters. Like The Wars of the Roses (from the First Battle of St Albans in Usurpers cry for a horse the intangible forces are often lost can the cause for the latter be found in a 19th Richard II at Westminster? Was it Bastard Feudalism? Royal incompetence? Defeat phenomenon is dated and named can affect such as The Second Thirty Years War, The Age of Barbarism or the The Age of Catastrophe can determine it (Tosh,

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26 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 6 December 2014reason for the consequent inattention to the focusing firstly on World War I and its examples from the period.Section 1I am a Yugoslav Nationalist. I call for the reunification of the Southern Slavs into one state One of the most striking political repeated destabilizing nature of militant violence and the reaction or lack of reaction to its realpolitik. Amidst the milititarised teachings had been taken to an extreme in Germany, this gave terrorism revolutionary th heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne. The trenches also helped shape the violence th 1918 not just mass graves for the millions butchered but precedents for killing on had also dehumanized concepts that had hitherto been held sacrosanct and, for and families those that had escaped its shells, were destroyed by war. War had it terrorism. Of all the forces that shaped th June left the most enduring legacy. forces of nationalism and the revolutionary ideologies that drove terrorism after the Great War are likely to have taken a very different course. Irrespective as extensively by militant forces to undermine the Weimar Republic. Even in Italy it peace and that, the severity of Italian sacrifices were wholly disproportionate with the tiny gains the nation had made in return equally perceived as a failure in that the Wilsonian principles of self-determination had been limited and promises of postfor Palestine, had created bitterness amongst nationalists and laid the foundation for Rapoports Second Wave unemployment and hyper-inflation across three ongoing major European conflicts, undermine the Weimar Republic, the most Socialist German Workers Party. on patterns of political violence as a direct result of the Great War, its aftermath the beginning of the unravelling of the economic and social relationships that had existed for over a century. This disintegration of empire fuelled nationalist aspirations and regional conflict before and after the Second World War and this helped to transform terrorism itself into The beginnings of terrorism as an accepted as fighting by proxy and the arming of insurgency skills and military equipment to conflict zones and the international, transnational import to it. More importantly, resource and human asset is mobilized and unconditional surrender (or obliteration), terrorism soon brought options other than surrender and consigned the privileges of fed by a continuum of these conflicting forces, terrorism metamorphosed back and forth across the political spectrum and the parliamentary democracies that had been founded on the debris and idealism of Of the cabaret, fascism and Chicago of Europe in Berlin. The glitz of the Jazz Age and the had come to an end and Gatsbys brief, unobtainable, twinkle-bells of sunshine had turned to foul dust. By the end of the the Soviet Union, Wall Street had crashed Political violence had reached its zenith para-militarize and direct it. The relevance today is that not only can parallels be understanding of the risks posed by the militarization of terrorism can be realized. single failure of policy but the tide. From Afghanistan to the fall of set out to fight and technologically and they had invested so heavily, Al Qaeda the global threat might arguably lie in its ability to project its forces in Mumbailie in its threat to regional stability and proximity to state and state-like forces on

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Transformation Through Training Issue No: 6 December 2014 27the battlefields of Syria. Section 2Our war on terror begins with Al Qaeda, but it does not end there. It will not end until every terrorist group of global reach has been found, stopped and defeated. The main outbreaks of terrorism up protean properties that enable it to breed in symbiosis once it takes root and this can be seen in the fact that of all the contained elements of second, third and to move from one set of circumstances to another in multiple, sustained forms. The importance of this period is that these forces sustained terrorism and carried it beyond the parameters and boundaries of previous manifestations. In short, as metamorphosed into an acceptable, subMuch that is evident in terrorism its unpredictability of incidence, its psychological-symbolic dimension, its ultimately power-political motivation is also present in much formal warfare. Richard English Given the proximity of the combatants to centres of population and against civilians became common. This lethal mixture of regular and irregular period as the political, economic and social forces deteriorated and is crucial to seemingly nothing. Political violence in Palestine is a classic example of this and At the outbreak of World War II, for example, although most of Irgun supported the Allies, sporadic attempts at mass casualty attacks continued against the British Army. Irguns own celebratory attitude to terror clearly owed much to older eastern European revolutionary traditions, but the ease with which it embraced mass-casualty attacks still defies easy explanation (Wilson, taken on a paramilitary outlook to its activities in the late thirties and both the rise of state-terrorism and the MolotovRibbentrop pact had effectively rendered redundant, there are still examples of terrorist acts the most famous being George Elsers attempt to assassinate Operation Spark in Schwarze Kapelle and Operation Valkyrie bombings and even an attack on his personal plane. often been overlooked but it must be SPD had over a million members and some 5 million votes. To compound had been imprisoned for political reasons, attacks and attempts by the Widerstand in play that shaped patterns of political violence by non-state combatants and civilians forces and actors that are as Furthermore, as the political violence shifted according to the fluidity of the political, economic and social context, it can be seen that neither a lack of terrorism nor an eradication of terrorism computes to an end in terrorism. Kilmainham Gaol year later) and the latter by the Prague Uprising and the expulsion and massacre aptly named the final solution of the German question. Other reasons for a less than overt presence of resistance across much of insurgency operations had evolved from the disproportionate over-kill of those in World War I to outright slaughter in World War II and this brought little explains: The desire to praise the resistance because it had liberated and redeemed France was undercut by the local experience of brutal reprisals which threatened to drive a wedge between armed resisters and local communities. In addition, resistance movements in able to engage effectively and, by necessitating a need for occupying Axis Forces, provide any real tactical support for the Allied Forces. controversial but that have been comprehensively addressed in scholarly bombing of Germany and Japan or even the UKs SOE operations constituted terrorism. With regards to the latter, the relevance is revealing in that the British employed and imported lessons learned from its counter-insurgency in Palestine and Ireland to occupied Europe and

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28 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 6 December 2014in Greece against the British a decade later: One does not use a tank to catch field mice--a cat will do the job better. General George Grivas-Dighenis on Poland and Czechoslovakia are equally important to terrorism studies in this context. Although Czechoslovakia is often criticized for not deploying its significant forces against Germany the occupation, there are four episodes of political violence that must not be forgotten: they are the British sponsored assassination of the Reichsprotektor on and post dated Hitlers death), the Czech fighter pilots of Battle of Britain fame alongside the British and Australians at Tobruk like Masaryks Legions political, social and economic force that shaped the patterns of political violence With regards to Poland, different patterns took shape in that despite and the reprisals that decimated the countrys population, armed resistance Charge of Krojanty on the 1st September like the First World War, the second the battlefields of the Second World War. Indeed it could be argued that the closing chapters of World War II actually took place on the battlefields and Communists slaughtered each other Conclusion Terrorism has become the systematic weapon of a war that knows no borders and has no face. To conclude, the forces that shaped patterns of political violence economic, political and social forces of the day. Unfortunately, Rapoports Four Waves Theory lacks enough of categorizing terrorism has led to gaps to the origins of terrorism as a species st documented but this period adds more economic, political and social forces of the detriment of the phenomenon. With regards to the historicity of terrorism, inattention to the period raises questions as to the effect of the unravelling of empires on terrorism, revenge on terrorism and the effect of terrorism on terrorist forces. More crucially, given terrorism and that it is arguably the most important period in the history of modern forces that shaped it could prove a cost too far for the West. Mr. Christopher McKeating is a PostGraduate Student at The Handa Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political commander and a member of the FSEC for PMSCs, Christopher is a Committee Member of the Unmanned Systems Workshop. He has been an instructor for 15 years in the design, management and instruction of Counter-Terrorism, Pre-Deployment, Inter-operability, English Language and International Relations Courses for militaries across Liverpool University 1995, Platoon Abbey 1989, British Embassy School : A qualitative analysis of the threat to the United Kingdom from British forces loyal to Al Qaeda, Islamic State and Al Qaeda Separatists. Research to further an understanding of the threat to the UK from British citizens loyal to Al Qaeda, Al Qaeda Separatists and Islamic State and their intent, if any, to launch attacks against the population and critical infrastructure of their country. The research is based on an analysis of the latters competencies in asymmetrical in the United Kingdom. Using the Protect and Prepare strands of the UK Governments Contest strategy as involve an analysis of risk / threat to the UK population and infrastructure using secondary data that is already in terrorism policy makers / practitioners and (ii) Al Qaeda / IS strategists / propagandists. About the Author

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Transformation Through Training Issue No: 6 December 2014 29 Coalition Warrior Interoperability eXploration, eXperimentation, hosted by the Joint Force Training Centre (JFTC) in Bydgoszcz, CWIX is a Military Committee directed annual program designed to support the continuous improvement to interoperability for the Alliance. Over bring together engineers, technicians and operational users, from about systems in Bydgoszcz, Poland and distributed throughout Europe and cyber defense, Federated Mission complete Communications and Information spectrum and represented current, future and experimental capabilities of the Alliance and its looking to expand participation to even more nations and systems. The importance of CWIX cannot be understated. It is the largest annual is designed to bring about continuous improvement in interoperability for is one of the driving test beds for builds interoperability and facilitates During the Afghan mission it took several years to create Afghan Mission JFTC Training Support Division 2015 CWIX Is Promising to Be the Biggest Yet

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30 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 6 December 2014 coalition to share real time information seek to capitalize on all successes of be set up in a matter of months instead of life and nations have a chance to test, document and refine the interoperability nations are testing their interoperability attacks and test various simulation systems ability to share information. Peace and Partners Across the Globe. CWIX is planned to be held annually at JFTC for the years to come. Poland, it offers numerous advantages as a host. JFTC boasts state of the art technical facility that supports cloud computing, robust simulation capability and high capacity communication to and support staff, easily capable of meeting the challenges posed by the complex CWIX environment. Finally best kept secrets of Europe. The city comfortable hotels, all set to cater an economic boost during these three Bydgoszcz, an ideal location to host an international event like CWIX.

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CAX Forum CAX Forum CAX Forum CAX Forum CAX Forum CAX Forum CAX Forum CAX Forum CAX Forum Transformation Through Training Issue No: 6 December 2014 31 sentatives of the Joint Force Training and Convention Center (AWCC) in focused on technical issues and operating procedures related to simulation-based exercises and training support in order to promote sharing information and best national simulation and training centres. the Modelling and Simulation Centre is an excellent forum to share ideas or Simulation experts on all aspects of M&S introduce and coordinate enhancements, participants discuss common simulation different countries and organisations CAX related issues. Seeing the use of interest can be surprising. Joining simulation demonstrations including the ones mation about the recent developments Centres representatives go there to provide update on their developments. other options, discover digital gameIn response to any raised questions or requirements, company representatives can propose a ready off the shelf product or ity deficiency for further developments. Being members of an important had a chance to explain the role and function of the JFTC, its capabilities and for industry and nations. Presenting JFTC status update and discussing the value of CAX Forum is immeasurand future technological developments training capabilities.. JFTC Training Support Division

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32 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 6 December 2014New Year Officially Opened at the JFTC Commander, Brigadier General Wojciech including representatives of regional authorities, the City of Bydgoszcz, numerous civilian and military organizations, the centre started a very demanding time of training Reception took place on 9 January. five main JFTC priorities for the upcoming months. He mentioned continuity of support to ongoing missions, assumption of full spectrum training, implementation of the Connected Forces Initiative, enhancement of community of interest and cooperation as tional strength. give the JFTC Commander a fantastic opportunity to thank all the centres friends from Poland, the region and the City of Bydgoszcz for the support and good cooperation provided throughout the past year. JFTC Celebrates the 15th Anniversary of Hungary and Poland Accession to NATO 15 years ago, after a process based on democratic procedures, the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland became members of the Today, representatives of the three also at the Joint Force Training Centre in Bydgoszcz (JFTC). To commemorate this important anniversary, the centre invited Independence, Missouri, USA, Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic (Jan Kavan), Hungary (Jnos Martonyi) and the deposited Protocols of Accession to the of the most important events after the Cold Hungarian and Polish history. Independence, Missouri, USA, Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic (Jan Kavan), Hungary (Jnos Martonyi) and the deposited Protocols of Accession to the of the most important events after the Cold Independence, Missouri, USA, Ministers of Independence, Missouri, USA, Ministers of for the support and good cooperation provided throughout the past year. spectrum training, implementation of the Connected Forces Initiative, enhancement of community of interest and cooperation as

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JFTC Awarded by the Bydgoszcz City Council Medals of Casimir the Great for exceptional merits for the City of Bydgoszcz, the Joint Force Training Centre (JFTC). The session held on the occasion of Bydgoszczs Brigadier General Wojciech Bydgoszcz. years contribution to the development of structures, many high-ranking representaRepresentatives of the Centre participate in significant municipal events, including national holidays, the Citys birthdays, anniversaries of the liberation of Bydgoszcz, its Medals of Casimir the Great for exceptional merits for the City of Bydgoszcz, Bydgoszcz. Representatives of the Centre participate The Highest Regional Awards for the JFTC Flag Officers Brigadier General Wojciech Training Centre (JFTC) Commander, Brigadier General Lszl Szab, Hungarian Army, the JFTC Deputy Commander/ Chief of Staff and Colonel Ivo Strecha, the Czech Unitas Durat Cuiaviano-Pomeraniensis al celebrations related to the 15th anniversary Commander of the JFTC Support Unit, and Pomorskie Province. Lieutenant General Support Inspectorate of the Polish Armed The Highest Regional Awards Unitas Durat Cuiaviano-Pomeraniensis Commander of the JFTC Support Unit, and Transformation Through Training Issue No: 6 December 2014 33 Medals of Casimir the Great for exceptional merits for the City of Bydgoszcz, the Joint Force Training Centre (JFTC). The session held on the occasion of Bydgoszczs Brigadier General Wojciech Life at the JFTC 2014 in Retrospect

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34 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 6 December 2014Norwegian Constitution DaySpeech delivered by LTC Lasse Lindalen be an independent nation after being a part only months after signing the constitution, The celebration of this day began spontaneously among students and others from early on during this time. The King of ebrations as protest and disregard even revolt against the union. BUT WE STILL By historical coincidence, the Second dered. has increasingly become a celebration of should be regarded as an expression of thankfulness on behalf of old values: freedom, equality and brotherhood the ideological basis of our constitution. Constitution Day is its very non-military ments of the celebration. Each elementary community, often making stops at homes of parades, there are games for children, lots of at JFTC today. congratulate our King, my nation and citiConstitution. National Defence Academy and Polish Parliamentary National Defence Committee Explore the JFTC Defence Academy and members of the Polish accompanied by local authorities, explored the Joint Force Training Centre (JFTC) durcentres compound to learn more about the missions, functioned in reality. by Lieutenant General (ret.) PhD Andrzej incorporated in the programme of their postgraduate Defence Policy Studies. The Parliamentarians arrived at the JFTC durPomorskie Regions military units, training grounds and institutions. by Lieutenant General (ret.) PhD Andrzej incorporated in the programme of their postgraduate Defence Policy Studies. The Parliamentarians arrived at the JFTC durPomorskie Regions military units, training centres compound to learn more about the by Lieutenant General (ret.) PhD Andrzej By historical coincidence, the Second

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Estonian Victory Day Speech given by MAJ Arbo Probal The ancient Midsummer bonfire of the Republic of Estonia. In the course of history Estonia lost its sovereignty several times so the Independence bears special significance for citizens. The forces and their allies defeated the Baltic control over the region. The military triumph contribution of all Estonians in their fight to regain and retain independence. flies above every Estonian home from dusk As a tradition our president and other digniny. Festivities include a parade, a speech by day transitions from the political to the tradifrom the official bonfire held in honor of the in the country that initiate Midsummer and St. John's Eve celebrations. This year our victory flame vas sent off defeated enemy troops 95 years ago this victory came to be a breakthrough in the Day is also our Home Defence Day and it symbolizes not only the victory in one battle, but the struggle of the people of Estonia over centuries to gain, regain, secure and maintain their independence. Estonia is our country, our freedom, our home and our family. Estonia deserves to be cherished and protected. control over the region. The military triumph St. John's Eve celebrations. This year our victory flame vas sent off St. John's Eve celebrations. This year our victory flame vas sent off St. John's Eve celebrations. This year our victory flame vas sent off 8th International Day at the JFTC For the 8th Training Centre celebrated its International colors, music, playground for children and childrens laughter all these created a beautiful time that members of the JFTC, Signal Battalion, the JFTC Support Unit, the Allied Command Counterintelligence and the families spent together. The event took place and tourist information. While all adults cuisines and learning more about different cultures and customs, younger participants fun in the playground established especially for this occasion. Again, the JFTC International Day created a fantastic opportunity for gathering bers. Everyone enjoyed the day, beautiful all the attractions. To feel the spirit of the JFTC International Day, look at the photo gallery. 8 th International Day at the JFTC Training Centre celebrated its International colors, music, playground for children and childrens laughter all these created a beautiful time that members of the JFTC, Again, the JFTC International Day Again, the JFTC International Day created a fantastic opportunity for gathering International Day Transformation Through Training Issue No: 6 December 2014 35 The ancient Midsummer bonfire of the Republic of Estonia. In the course of history Estonia lost its sovereignty several times so the Independence bears special significance for citizens. The forces and their allies defeated the Baltic Estonian Victory Day Speech given by MAJ Arbo Probal The ancient Midsummer bonfire of the Republic of Estonia. In the course of history Estonia lost its sovereignty several times so the Independence

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36 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 6 December 20142014 Bastille Day at the JFTC memorated the Bastille Day. Officially celcise to finish. The celebration started in the morning by a flag-raising ceremony chaired by the Centre Commander, BG Wojciech ment of the military band of the French Airborne Brigade provided the background music. In the evening, the French Senior Sevin, and the French contingent of Bydgoszcz hosted the international comBydgoszcz civilian authorities, for a dinner in the compound. Later, guests enjoyed performed by the military band. International School of Bydgoszcz Starts New School Year It has already become a tradition that the International School of Bydgoszcz Joint Force Training Centre (JFTC). On 1 September Brigadier General Wojciech administration, teachers, representatives of the Kazimierz Wielki University and most of all pupils, some of them accompanied by school also led to a much higher number of teaching and learning environment you cresoldiers and civilians from foreign countries recognize the ongoing progress the school is decision to offer, in addition to primary and middle year program, also the diploma proteaching and learning environment you creteaching and learning environment you crememorated the Bastille Day. Officially cel

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Team JFTC in the Grand Rowing Competition of Bydgoszcz Eleven members of the Joint Force Training Centre (JFTC) staff competed in the Dragon Boat Race held during this years competition came to an end. This time the Police turned out to be stronger. HolidaySpeech given by among the JFTC member nations. Us, Slovakia commemorates adoption of its modern constitution in 1st of September stones concerning this event. Czechoslovakia emerged as a sovereign state at the end of World War I in the Czech Socialist Republic and the Slovak Socialist Republic. Communist rule in Czechoslovakia paved for the disbanding of the federation. of the Slovak Republic as a sovereign and democratic country. ment of Czechoslovakia voted to dissolve the Thus, the Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic officially became separate the Slovak Armed Forces Day. Let me highas a peak moment in nationalist sentiment tionary movements. Much of the revolutionGermans, Hungarians, Slovenes, Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Ruthenians (Ukrainians), Ro-manians, Croats, Italians, and Serbs, all lution to either achieve autonomy, independence, or even hegemony over other nations. This revolutionary fever included Slovaks, all Slavic nations in Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Habsburg Monarchy. The Emperors units in theBrezova pod Bradlom for further independence and freedom moverespective day as the Slovak Armed Forces Day. them all the best for the years to come. ment of Czechoslovakia voted to dissolve the lution to either achieve autonomy, indepencompetition came to an end. This time the Eleven members of the Joint Force Transformation Through Training Issue No: 6 December 2014 37 Team JFTC in the of the Slovak Republic as a sovereign and democratic country.

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DEU SNR, COL (GS) Klaus-Peter Kiser awarding the German Military Band which played during the National Day Ceremony at the JFTC, 1 October 201438 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 6 December 2014JFTC Ball One of the Joint Force Training Centres traditions is the annual ball, orgathe annual cultural activities organized by performed by more than numerous artists and musicians. Also the JFTC Ball Charity Lottery already became a tradition. Every year Community collects money for people in for approximately a month before the ball. products provided by nations and units. The at Joint Force Training Centre The German Oktoberfest has been everybody had a good time again this year minced meat loaf, pretzels and beer. The tapping of the barrel by the Senior German Officer Colonel (G.S.) Kiser and JFTC Commander Brigadier General tradition too. tasty morsels prepared by six German chefs no stomach remained un(ful)filled. Besides the Bavarian specialties and the beer served, Krzysztof Bajer as a DJ really rocked the simply having a good time. So the bottom line is, the German chance to present Bavarian culture and promote solidarity. Special thanks go to the JFTC Support not have been possible. One of the Joint Force Training Centres traditions is the annual ball, orgathe annual cultural activities organized by performed by more than numerous artists and Also the JFTC Ball Charity Lottery already became a tradition. Every year awarding the German Military Band which played during the National Day Ceremony at the JFTC, 1 October 2014 DEU SNR, COL (GS) Klaus-Peter Kiser awarding the German Military Band which DEU SNR, COL (GS) Klaus-Peter Kiser awarding the German Military Band which

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Hungarian National Holiday ruled communist system. It also commemorates the Day of the Republic, as in 1989, after the fall The Hungarian Revolution and Uprising of government of the Hungarian People's Republic to Soviet control since the forces of Soviet Union occupied Eastern Europe at the end of World War of the Soviet Union decades later. 1989, the Parliament adopted legislation providing for multiparty parliamentary elections and a direct presidential election. The legislation transformed Hungary from a People's Republic into the Republic of Hungary, guaranteed human and civil rights, and created an institutional structure judicial, executive, and legislative branches of provisional president, and he officially proclaimed the Republic of Hungary. The revised constitution also gave equal status to public and private property. Hungary decentralized its economy and German National Reunification Day 2014 Germans' decade-long desire of overcoming the in a peaceful manner so they could live in a Forces and in particular Poland contributed to the German unity and to overcoming Europe's division. During the celebration of this historiCOL (GS) Klaus-Peter Kiser, emphasized in his speech some of the historic facts. While this anniversary of the outbreak of World War I, as also have to remember joyful events in the history of Europe expansion of the EU by ten the Czech Republic. COL Kiser recognized the terrible harm suffered during World Wars I and human comprehension. For decades, European unification had been impossible due to the division of the continent of Europe into West and one of the pathbreakers seeking forgiveness by an unforgotten gesture: Willy Brandt kneeling in millions of Holocaust victims. The Berlin Wall War came to an end. In his speech COL Kiser so ultimately for the freedom of all of us. He from our friends in the USA, France and Great agreeing to German reunification. Hungary and many other states on account of contributed to German reunification and farsighted statesmen helped to overcome the fears and resistance and enabled life in peace, freedom and self-determination. Even John Paul II made a decisive contribution by delivering his historic speeches and in doing so backing up the freedom remarks: Todays Europe is the fulfillment of the dreams of many generations of Europeans. But it is also something not to be taken for granted. We have every reason to defend this Europe as well as the basic values of our states as our greatest European cultural achievement. This differentiates our continent more than anything else from other continents, for it harbors values that make up the European way of life. Let us all be proud of what has been achieved. But we are not done yet. It is about preserving freedom and who should know this any better than us at the JFTC? It is our daily task to train soldiers and NATO members so they can contribute their share towards securing peace and freedom whenever and however required. We proceed bravely and confidently. The past 25 years have demonstrated what we are jointly capable of achieving. For all that we are infinitely grateful. To our common future!Transformation Through Training Issue No: 6 December 2014 39 the Day of the Republic, as in 1989, after the fall The Hungarian Revolution and Uprising of

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40 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 6 December 2014Polish Independence Day ebrated the Polish Independence Day. It has already become a tradition that the centre JFTC Commander.Speech given by th century, Poland, almost eight-hundred year history, disappeared from the map of Europe. The country, and Austria, lost its independence. made numerous attempts to restore the lost statehood. At the beginning, they placed Bonaparte and created Polish Legions in back the lost independence. Polish patriots took part in almost all national liberation st World ers and the old order in Europe and finally created conditions to restore the state. On re-appeared on the map of Europe as an independent state. the nation again lost its independence and out sovereignty. In 1989, somebody in Europe said that Poland joined the family of free nations. This not join that family but had returned to it. I hope for ever.Ceremonies commemorating 11th November for French contingent French contingent commemorated the at the oldest City cemetery in Bydgoszcz Representative, Colonel Charles Sevin, took gathered French personnel from the JFTC attended by several City representatives. The day after, some members of the official ceremony organized and chaired Photos: Courtesy of Ms. Aleksandra The day after, some members of the official ceremony organized and chaired attended by several City representatives. ebrated the Polish Independence Day. It has already become a tradition that the centre back the lost independence. Polish patriots took part in almost all national liberation World ers and the old order in Europe and finally created conditions to restore the state. On re-appeared on the map of Europe as an indeIn 1989, somebody in Europe said that Poland joined the family of free nations. This back the lost independence. Polish patriots took part in almost all national liberation

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2013 Beaujolais nouveau at the JFTC It is a tradition in France, in the tasted. This event has taken place also at the JFTC thanks to the French contingent since th contingent invited all the JFTC personnel, Sevin, opened the event and underlined it as an opportunity for everyone to enjoy typical cheese and charcuterie. For this occasion, musicians from the Army Transmission eral French classic melodies. hosted an evening prestige concert, coperformed by the military French band and ties. A similar event took place also a year Polish President Visits the Flagship of Poland in NATO Polish Independence Day, Polish President, Bydgoszcz. The JFTC Commander, Brigadier guest to the JFTC and presented to the President the distinct and unique role that the JFTC played training at the tactical level. At the end of his visit the President structures, including training structures. Chancellery of the President of the Republic of Poland Polish President Visits the Flagship of Polish Independence Day, Polish President, Bydgoszcz. The JFTC Commander, Brigadier Visits the Flagship of Bydgoszcz. The JFTC Commander, Brigadier guest to the JFTC and presented to the President the distinct and unique role that the JFTC played At the end of his visit the President Bydgoszcz. The JFTC Commander, Brigadier guest to the JFTC and presented to the President the distinct and unique role that the JFTC played Transformation Through Training Issue No: 6 December 2014 41 nouveau at the JFTC It is a tradition in France, in the tasted. This event has taken place also at the JFTC thanks to the French contingent since contingent invited all the JFTC personnel, guest to the JFTC and presented to the President the distinct and unique role that the JFTC played training at the tactical level. At the end of his visit the President structures, including training structures. Polish President Visits the Flagship of Poland in NATO Polish Independence Day, Polish President, Bydgoszcz. The JFTC Commander, Brigadier guest to the JFTC and presented to the President the distinct and unique role that the JFTC played training at the tactical level. eral French classic melodies. It is a tradition in France, in the eral French classic melodies.

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PUBLICATION GUIDELINES1. The articles should be submitted in English; 2. The articles should be 1000-5000 words long; 3. The articles should be delivered as electronic files on a CD/DVD to the following address: Joint Force Training Centre 85-915 Bydgoszcz Poland or sent via an e-mail to the following address: pao@jftc.nato.int; 6. The author of the article should provide the editor with a short information about his