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Transformation through training

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Transformation through training
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Bydgoszcz, Poland
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NATO- Joint Force Training Centre (JFTC)
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English

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serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )

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Nasl. z nasl. zaslona.
General Note:
Opis vira z dne 8. 5. 2012.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Copyright, Joint Force Training Centre. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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814257067 ( OCLC )
2084-8358 ( ISSN )
ocn814257067
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355.02 ( udc )

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13 18 16 39 46 2 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 TABLE OF CONTENTS 4 Steadfast Jazz '13 6 Overcoming Challenges through CWIX 2013 10 ISAF Regional Command (North) Training Bydgoszcz 13 New Beginning for the JFTC The Supreme Allied Commander Transformation about the Centres Future Tasks 16 JJJ Presenting a Unified Front 18 CAX Forum 19 JFTC as Potential Gateway for CFI Implementation 22 Jackals and Drones The Metamorphosis of 21st Century Terrorism 39 The Change of Post Ceremony at the Joint Force Training Centre 42 British Foreign Policy on the Road to Damascus 44 Major General Neyko Nenov about His Service at the JFTC 46 Becoming International 48 Life at the JFTC 2013 in Retrospect 48 10 6

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Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 3 Publishing Institution: Joint Force Training Centre Bydgoszcz (JFTC) Managing director: Brigadier General Lszl SZAB, JFTC Deputy Commander / Chief of Staff Assistant Editor: LtC. Christian von PLATEN, JFTC Public Affairs Officer Editorial Board: Prof. Dr. Marjan MALESIC, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia Armed Forces Academy of General Rastislav Stefanik, Slovakia Poland LtC. Ing. Bohuslav PERNICA, Ph.D., Ministry of Defense of the Czech Republic Advisory Committee: LtC. Ing. Jaroslav BARILLA, JFTC Special Staff Maj. Jacek LASHMANN, JFTC Information Manager Editorial Contact Information: Public Affairs Office Joint Force Training Centre Bydgoszcz, 85-915, Poland. E-mail: pao@jftc.nato.int Transformation Through Training The aim of this magazine is to provide a forum for exchange of information and expertise among train ing and educational institutions across NATO in the area of training, military professional education, and related technological support. In the context of The and international organizations, such as the United Nations, the European Union, the Organization for the above in mind, the JFTC invites authors from countries and institutions beyond the NATO envi ronment, to publish in the Transformation Through best practices in the areas of command and staff train ing, professional military education, simulations and simulation technologies, distributed training, mili tary training development, and other related areas. application of the most recent experience and lessons learned from ongoing operations, training events and recent innovations in the field of simulations and briefly cover the life of the international community spring and fall, by the NATO Joint Force Training Centre in Bydgoszcz. The articles published in this magazine represent opinions of their authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy of NATO. to the archive of Transformation Through Training magazine.

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4 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 Force Training Centre (JFTC). For several years, according to the decision of General Mattis, Bydgoszcz focused on ongoing operations train ing, i.e. ISAF mission training. As the JFTC is responsible for tactical training, the centre orga nized exercises for Regional Commands (North and South), and for Operational Mentoring and Liaison Teams (OMLT), then replaced by Police, Military, Operational Coordination Centre Advisory Teams (PAT/MAT/OCCAT), Security Assistance Force Headquarters (ISAF HQ) and ISAF Joint Command (IJC). tance mission, and due to a very high level of ambition of NATO concerning trainings, training the NATO Response Force (NRF) and preparation of the certification of head quarters from the NATO Command Structure (NCS) and NATO Force Structure (NFS). ISAF training events have a lot of discrepancies cycle is different and shortened, the duty of the centre is not the same during the event, and the settings used for the scenario are duplicated a standard NATO exercise. All this makes a big difference that the JFTC has to take into account and to regain experience in order to be fully ready to conduct NRF training. To meet this challenge, the JFTC is adapting itself by changing its internal structure. form only three different types of training events as mentioned previously (RC North, RC South, OMLT). Therefore, each of the three branches had one and only assignment, being able to give a hand to the others for every training event. But facing the diversity of all the different port or host, for instance Bold Dragon, Puma, Steadfast Jazz or Loyal Bonus, the TD has to come to a more cross-functional organization. So, in regard to the predictable changes in Afghanistan and to support this structure change and execution phase of the exercise Noble during every phase of the exercise, includ STEADFAST JAZZ '13 LTC Philippe Teppaz-Misson, JFTC Training Division Staff Officer When JFTC Comes Back to NRF After a Long Operational Involvement Editors note: The article was submitted before the execution of Steadfast Jazz 2013.

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Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 5 ing the planning. This concerns mainly observer trainers during execution phases, but also scenario developers and planning officers during all the preparation meetings. its visible part in November. Other participants is a partial Live Exercise in the Baltic region multi-tier deployable forces exercise, involving level, for a NATO collective defense operation. to train, integrate, evaluate and support the cer tification of the NATO Response Force (NRF) and Control delegated by NATO member states and by Allied Command Operation (ACO) to The NATO Response Force is a high readiness, technologically advanced multina tional NATO capability. The NRF is manned by units committed by member states maintaining a high readiness level in their home states for a set period of time to be capable to deploy to opera The NRF is capable of deploying to the opera of such decision. The NRF is activated at the decision of the North Atlantic Council (NAC). calendar year. It concerns different headquarters from the NCS and the NFS. The command of the NRF is given to Commander Allied Joint Force Command Brunssum (COM JFCBS), General Hans-Lothar Domrse. That is to say Rapid Reaction Corps France (RRC FRA) in Force Air Component HQ, the Italian Maritime Maritime Component Command, and the Italian Joint Special Operation Headquarters (ITJSO Component Command. A Joint Logistic Support and NATO Rapid Deployment Corps (NRDC) Italy, and Chemical Biological Radiological Nuclear (CBRN) Task Force is provided by nd Dragoon Regiment. In addi tion to that, the Supreme Headquarters Allied Management Centre (CCOMC) as the strategic level of command. As a portion of military units and command and control elements assigned to training areas in Latvia, Lithuania and Poland An exclusive feature of the exercise is Nation Support (HNS) in the Baltic States pose is to train the capacity of the Baltic States to render HNS to the NATO allies. not only ensure regional level interoperability ness of the Baltic States to render the HNS. exploit NATO Article 5 (collective defense) operation scenario. This is the first time since visible assurance initiative to demonstrate be supported by strategic communication. In particular, some Partnership for Peace (PfP) nations, such as Russia, are invited to visit the (IOs) and Non-governmental Organizations ation, features a fictitious former communist generally speaking, mainly for historical and the Baltic region in order to prevent, or to foil, an attack against one of the NATO members. this year. Most of the planning conferenc es have been conducted, led by the Officer Primary Responsibility (OPR) from Brunssum Conference (FCC) in September in Riga. Very important events to set the scene before the beginning of the exercise have been already to make sure that all the staff of each head the same language to achieve the same goals. addressed to ensure everybody is heading in Crisis Response Planning (CRP) phase. This Comprehensive Operation Planning Directive (COPD), using the Tool for Operation Planning Functional Area Services (TOPFAS). But this documentation is produced to run the exercise in During those phases, the JFTC sends personnel from both TD and Training Support ing audience in the right direction, not giving them the solution but guiding them by asking accurate questions. It is not enough to be a subject matter expert to be a good observer trainer. You also have to improve your peda very fruitful, as the JFTC members are very mitted to support our effort to gain experience. the FCC in September, the big part is about to be played. First, the Battle Staff Training ible part of this one and a half-year marathon. ties for the JFTC members, in particular for of the Bydgoszcz centre: preparation of the Allied Land Command certification exercise in

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6 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 Interoperability eXploration, eXperimen held at the Joint Force Training Centre trated the importance of interoperability Organization (NATO). The continued suc NATO and Partners to establish and test interoperability on key Communication and Information Systems (CIS) prior to use in an operational setting. The key erability testing and validation is magni fied by the desire of the political leader ship as expressed in the Connected Forces Initiative (CFI). Based on CFI princi maintain the interoperability gains from combat operations and continue to improve interoperability capabilities for future oper but also as active participants in the techni cal testing and set-up of the event. The suc Allied Command Transformation (ACT). CWIX Overview The connection and cooperation close coordination leads to a robust exercise different CIS platforms. The underlying oped and managed by the JFTC to ensure the variety of systems. This year testing Overcoming Challenges through CWIX 2013 Mr. Fulvio Postogna, JFTC Training Support Division Engineer LTC Peter Lueck, JFTC Training Support Division Staff Officer

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Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 7 Overcoming Challenges through CWIX 2013 and expansion of testing opportunities. In an active participant by participating in the testing the NATO Live, Virtual, Constructive (NLVC) suite of applications. Given the on the JFTC effort to overcome some of the presented to the JFTC and to the local NATO Communications Information Agency (NCI enclaves of the Combined Federated Battle to enhance the number of capabilities pres is presented here is the definition from the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) fines of the various national and international battle laboratories and experimentation sites cations, analytic tools, and communications necessary to conduct initiatives. The less technical interpretation is that the CFBLNet is multiple enclaves that facilitate different types of testing and experimentation around the CFBLNet is established annually to cre ate a secure and reliable testing environment. First Technological Challenge Federating Two Networks Group lead. This year for the first time is a dedicated environment that simulates configuration and is used to perform predeployment testing of the Command and is managed by the Coalition Interoperability Assurance and Validation (CIAV) commu CIAV) and therefore it seemed natural to tively moving and re-configuring capabilities from one enclave to the other. This basic concept appeared to be good for testing interoperability testing, if a good solution to connecting the enclaves could be found. them. This technical solution detailed the need to maintain the separate enclaves and create a means for the systems to com municate. Even if the technical challenges quickly defined the major issue faced by the ments and the accreditation, or certification enclaves connected. This led to the classic intelligence sharing dilemma of need to a very technical solution that took a long time only share the information on an as need ed principle. After the agreement that the enclaves could be bridged then the technical On the technical side the integration routing configurations as the baseline. This invisible to the exercise participants. Many of the core enclave configurations typically and lead to major changes to the temporary

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8 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 to that could be solved consulting docu mentation, personal experience or via the of the challenges the federation of heteroge a real sense of the issues the AMN com the CIS infrastructure that supported ISAF a cloud infrastructure to support testing. Second Technological Challenge Building a Cloud Infrastructure This year the JFTC and the NCI ture. The purpose for this solution is the ability to reduce the number of servers that need to be present at the JFTC to sup port interoperability testing. During every a multitude of servers at a great cost for transportation and space usage at the JFTC. The ability to reduce the number of servers tioning requirements on the JFTC facility. Another benefit gained is the insight into building a cloud infrastructure that sup in a connected forces environment. As cloud infrastructure and capabilities continue to expand in both government and commercial use it is a technology that can be leveraged by the JFTC. The ability to host and run provide reduced energy requirements and manders. As a NATO Training Centre it is

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Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 9 realize this technology and its capabilities in future training events. Recently five servers that ran the bulk of the Interoperability Experimentation Testing and Validation and the ACT Service Oriented Architecture ability to reduce the total number of serv extraordinary effort that still provided a stable testing platform. An added benefit is the ability to quickly reconfigure the sys for a successful hosting of the IETV plat form and the SOA servers. In the future Bydgoszcz are determined to expand the cloud infrastructure to further reduce the total number of servers hosted at the JFTC. uted training in NATO. For the future it could be possible not only to distribute the training audiences or the exercise control, but federate and use distributed computing facilities from either nation al or NATO training centres to provide present at the individual locations could become a resource to be utilized to com plement each other as needed. The data cations Functional Area services (FAS) they run. The benefit to this approach is sible in a training cloud via a federated be very beneficial to the JFTC and NCI future as training requirements develop. Conclusion relationship the JFTC continues to maintain technological competence by federating and the development of the cloud infrastructure. As the JFTC has been designated as the the upcoming years it is critical that it con major technological challenges proved to be a success and positions the JFTC to provide a baseline technical capability for future training.

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10 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 external Exercise Control staff) from around at the Joint Force Training Centre (JFTC), Bydgoszcz, Poland. The arrival marked the last stage in the preparation of Headquarters, Regional Command North (RC N), ahead of taking over the responsibility in Afghanistan. During this key element of the force prepa tor and develop the HQ in order to aid RC(N) staff fulfil their mission effectively. The future Chief of Staff, Brigadier General Markus Laubenthal, German Army, gave clear guidance as to the purpose of this training; to conduct Mission Specific Training (MST) in order to understand the current oper effective teams, capable of supporting the Commander in the decision making process. Importantly, this phase enabled members of RC N HQ to meet their future in theatre part ners, and rehearse processes and procedures The RC N training is compiled to meet the needs of the Commander and his HQ staff. Three elements made up the package: Mission Specific Training (MST), Battle Staff Training (BST) and the Mission Rehearsal Exercise (MRE). In laymans terms, the program consisted of: academic lectures, situations, and a computer assisted Mission Rehearsal Exercise to introduce complexity supported by Subject Matter Experts, CIS technicians, Real Life Support and also rep resentatives of the Afghan National Security edge and assistance to the Training Audience. A Realistic and Relevant Scenario For each RC N training event, the JFTC staff conduct a detailed in-theatre reconnaissance to inform their planning and 1-18 July 2013 LTC Alain Julia, JFTC Training Division Staff Officer ISAF Regional Command (North) Training Bydgoszcz

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Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 11 changes in the RC N. The JFTC prepared, certain degree of pressure, the Command and HQ are not assessed per se. On the contrary, the scenario focused on ensuring the RC N HQ understood the mission, current and future ISAF operations, and built the required level of confidence to master SOPs and a quality product is built on: the theatre recon naissance conducted by the exercise Core Planning Team (CPT) and the ISAF Data from the JFTC Training Support Division. The theatre visit also provided the staff current issues, concerns and priorities. ticularly busy and demanding period for the to the scenario, using a selection of opera scenario. Additionally, in-theatre concerns and the academic part of the training. The representatives from the NGOs and IOs and enabled recommendations and institutional A continued drive for scenario real ism and relevance relies on Subject Matter by the nations participating in the training or, in some cases, sent by their respective NATO commands. Additionally, SMEs rep Cell travel from Afghanistan to add genu ine flavor to the vignettes, panel discus sions and role-play elements of the exer cise. The SMEs attended an early Scripting Conference to assist in the development and crafting of exercise injects and storylines. Additionally, as RC N continues to plete hand-over, the scenarios needed to focus not on operations in the round but, Support to Operations. This vital notion of supporting required participation from the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) members. Representation consisted of sol diers and policemen serving in the units or commands located in the RC N Area of Operations (AOO). This proved highly suc cessful on the exercise, and ensured that the Co-ordination Centers (OCC), District and Provincial authorities and to the ANSF Exercise Parameters Lines of Operation The reconnaissance visit noted the Commanders priorities as Election prepara provided a baseline for all subsequent plan ning. All topics and situations exercised during the BST/ MRE phases of the train Support to the ANSF. Civilian casualties, Governance, Personnel Recovery, Special operation forces, ISAF Strategy, RC N all still injected, but three Lines of Operation (LOO) linked the Commanders priorities namely: Security (a VVIP Visit), Governance & Development (Elections Meeting) and Redeployment and Force Posture (ANSF

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12 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 tain extent, linked to ISAF stepping back and ANSF taking the lead. Terms such as In-Extremis support used to express the one foot on the ground concept of ability to react in an expeditionary fashion. A solid grasp and appreciation of Support to Operations and not ISAF opera tions needed to be emphasized to the TA. As a result of a more passive, and less kinetic stance, the TA noticed an increased empha sis on the involvement of NGOs and IOs, the active contribution of the practitioners have received a less than complete picture of the current and future ISAF picture. In sum, 15 days of intensive preparation, four lectures, 11 Round table Discussions, Media Training and other training activities helped to create a training venue ideally suited to the needs of the training audience. (Check Mission Oriented Training one of the most successful RC level events to have been conducted at the JFTC. One sion, future tasks and responsibilities of the RC N and expectations of the ISAF/ IJC to the Command Team and enabled the and described in-theatre. Additionally, visit presentations covered: Campaign Design, Strategic Risks Assessment, Governance presence of the ANSF members and SMEs. Mission Rehearsal Exercise through/talk-through vignettes and a com practices, the TA moved into the practical scenario based training. This phase of train and for LOCO N/ EXCO N/ SIDECON ele ments to inject serials and information to test the Planning and Decision Making Cycle. Unsurprisingly, this phase of the training created Traditionally, the training created a perfect opportunity for different commanders and officers responsible for training to visit the JFTC and to get a closer look at the train ing process. This gave visitors the opportunity to visualise the overall progress trainees had point, to the ability to run in the Mission considering the Commanders priorities, the MRE made use of an imbedded Media Cell to test and train the HQ staff in all aspects of media messaging. This additional media dynamic raised current in-theatre issues that have reached the German press: alcohol con sumption in theatre, CIVCAS, support to the ANSF, CIMIC projects all playing their part. Constantly searching for improvement and adaptation, the JFTC has demonstrated gave the next HQ RC N all capabilities to help its commander in his decision making process.

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Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 13 Use of experience, skills and exper tise gained after Afghanistan in training for NATO Command Structure and NATO Joint Force Training Centre (JFTC) after Palomros, the Supreme Allied Commander Transformation (SACT), visited the Bydgoszcz NATO training centre for the first time after he had assumed the position. He tions for its future tasks and development. I am very pleased to be here in Bydgoszcz today to visit one of Allied Command Transformations most important able contribution to NATO transforma tion and especially prepares our forces for expressed his full support to the centre and its mission. The JFTC Commander, Major mitted to their mission that focuses on train ing people, helping them, supporting them before their future missions. Training at General Palomros had had a possibility to observe both the centres staff and training culminating phase of a Mission Rehearsal ing for above battalion level ISAF advisory staff, including representatives of the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF), provided SACT learned more also about the cen Excellence (CoEs). He recognized the proper during the exercises conducted in Bydgoszcz. The current main effort of the JFTCs New Beginning for the JFTC The Supreme Allied Commander Transformation about the Centres Future Tasks JFTC Public Affairs Specialist

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14 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 future of the JFTC. For this centre it is not Palomros said and added: The JFTC plan the complexity and the importance of train ing for the future of the Alliance. This plan focuses on conducting pre-deployment train time also training the NATO Command and Afghanistan, Libya, even Balkans, to reinforce NATO and Partner Forces interoperability.

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Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 15 the SACT discussed plans of future train ing for NATO Component Commands. The JFTC has already established good con Land Command Headquarters in Izmir. To achieve a complete jointness of NATO forces the JFTC needs to link its training and Maritime Command Headquarters. The SACT put emphasis on the Bydgoszcz NATO training centres engage ment in the Connected Forces Initiative (CFI). In addressing the present and prepar the entire portfolio of the Connected Forces Initiative; Education-Training-Exercisesing the Alliances readiness and interoper ability. You are truly at the forefront and your dedication is crucial to maintaining the credibility of the Alliance. Pointing out the JFTCs involvement in the Crystal Eagle the Multinational Corps Northeast, the SACT country. General Palomeros emphasized that the reassessment and refinement process of the Alliances strategy for Afghanistan training support and coordination once the operational construct is determined. He also added: There is little doubt that the imple For the last three years the JFTC Interoperability Exercise. Not only did the centre host the event, but it also took an active part in the project by contributing to the scenario development and the experi ment execution. "All these training activi Palomeros. He also highlighted the criti an integral part of training provided by the sive opportunities and perspectives for train on being constantly alert to adapting train ing to the real needs of our nations forces. JFTC staff, the SACT encouraged the centre members to continue their efforts in support of NATO mission and said: You are not alone; you can rely on your mother ship, to keep its military effectiveness. To illus trate the importance of training, the SACT Before the end of his visit General Palomros expressed his deep appreciation for enormous support the JFTC received Polish authorities for their strong commit ment to the JFTC and ACT. Poland has been instrumental in helping JFTC to become established and to play a full role in NATOs physical footprint across the Alliance. is a very friendly community and the JFTC members feel here, in Bydgoszcz, at home

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16 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 Several months ago, the Joint Force Training Centre (JFTC) hosted the JJJ Meeting. As the name implies, the par Js, the Joint Analysis and Lessons Learned the Commanders of the three Centres came together to discuss a number of topics includ ing, defining and providing more fidelity in the roles and responsibilities of each Centre, utilizing the Centres and their personnel capacity, especially in the current resource the Centres come together, they are stron ger if they present a unified message and a common front, something that not only applies to the JJJs but also to us, at the JFTC. The last concept, being stronger as a team than acting individually, is broadly defined as unity of effort. There are many definitions of unity of effort, both in the mili tary and non-military parlance. A military definition of unity of effort is The state of harmonizing efforts among multiple organi Command. Joint Forces Quarterly Autumn/ brought up during the opening remarks of the meeting and from that moment for cooperation, collaboration, and coordina tion in order to achieve unity of effort. As mentioned earlier, one of the many further defining and refining each Centres roles and responsibilities in relation to the es on operational level training, the JFTC on tactical level training, and the JALLC focuses on the lessons learned process and lized during the exercise development and execution. Even though each Centre seems to have a niche, or a very specific role, in relation to the other there are certain areas JJJ Presenting a Unified Front MAJ Andrew Gabrielski, JFTC Info Ops Subject Matter Expert

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Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 17 ferent levels (operational versus tactical). This overlap, or duplication of effort, must be minimized in order to achieve unity of effort across the Three Js. It may seem easy to do this locally at each Centre, but taken in the larger scope and context across each of the Three Js, it is a bigger, much more outcomes of the most recent JJJ Meeting others on topics including points of action, tion in order to minimize duplication of effort and capitalize on the strength of each discussed at a very high level during the JJJ JFTC, and JALLC as individual Centres, but also to us as individuals that make up unity of effort is harmonizing efforts among lar objective, in this case, the success of the JFTC. The JFTC has undergone multiple, some may say, continuous transformation in its history. During this time, members of the JFTC have continuously synchronized and harmonized their efforts in order to project The JFTCs continued success is dependent on carrying the messages, been done to date through the summer transition successfully, another paral Commanders of each Centre, but one that JFTC. Managing the summer personnel transition is essential so that once the JFTC can execute as if no change of per sonnel has even happened. This is the con tinual challenge in every organization, to taneously undergoing constant change. unity of effort drive the organization for for the Commanders to come together, dis cuss important issues, reach a common understanding, and plan for the future. Many of the discussions are not only applicable to here at the JFTC. At all levels, it is impor tant and essential to achieve unity of effort in order to achieve the common objective.

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18 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 The 8 th NATO Computer Assisted NATO Modelling & Simulation Centre of Excellence (NATO M&S COE). The CAX Forum is the main CAX related event, held NATO, PfP, ICI, Mediterranean Dialogue and Contact nations and organizations. technical items and operational procedures related to simulation based exercises and training support, in order to promote the exchange of information and best practices among the staffs of NATO and national simulation and training centres. Special Initiative (CFI) and to NATO used mod The forum provides the JFTC a perfect platform to inform nations and originations on the purpose and the possibilities of the cen and exercise arena. Additionally, the JFTCs future role concerning NATO Response Force (NRF) training and the CFI imple Commander, Major General Pavel Macko, in his speech as a key note speaker on the topic CFI IMPLEMENTATION CAX Forum LTC Wolfhard Schmidt, Head of the JFTC Wargaming Branch

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Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 19 The Joint Force Training Centre in Bydgoszcz (JFTC), Poland, is the NATO's prime joint tactical level training institution focus on broader implications of the recent NATO initiatives and available IT and CAX technology for NATO collective training Decade of Transformation versary of its activation. It has been a decade capacities and training output for the Alliance from scratch. Centers life experience match enced its highest ever engagement out of area during the same time. Our operational engagements in Balkans and particularly in Afghanistan have brought us much closer of cooperation and integration on all levels, tactical unit. It has been truly transforma tional decade for the NATO and our national rienced, interoperable and more partnership have suffered significant budget cuts, deep ening disproportions of defense expenses both across the Alliance and inside particular some of the key capability shortcomings. Allied capabilities for full spectrum response remain untouched, the nature and complexity of security threats is dynamically changing. The threats are less visible and more net bilities for the Alliance and possibly its more from Lisbon and Chicago Summits. Smart Defense Initiative and its complementary Connected Forces Initiative represent main Defense is about acquiring and maintain ing the needed capabilities, the CFI focus es on making them more interoperable 1 tional commitments in ISAF and prepare for a different form of our engagement in cant momentum in terms of cooperation and major operational commitment, an intensi fied education, training and exercising is the more flexible, deployable and adapted to than geographical or purely military ones. ability to conduct high intensity joint combat attrition in recent years due to prolonged focus on large scale stability operations. Initiative is so important not only politically and strategically, but also in practical terms. Interoperability Objective of CFI Initiative, they all have interoperability as a central objective and focus. In the postand overall defense budgets in a foreseeable future. Many of our nations have no ambition and even no capabilities to act unilaterally in larger scale any more. Thus acting as a part of a broader coalition is not an option but a default setup for the future use of our armed forces. Our ability to quickly assem ble or regroup and act effectively together interoperability is an absolute paramount. Given the spectrum of capability JFTC as Potential Gateway for CFI Implementation Major General Pavel Macko, JFTC Commander

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20 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 requirements, complexity of potential threats and required high readiness of NATO Forces digm of achieving the interoperability of only selected personnel, formations and headquarters as something additional to already fully devel oped and capable set of national forces and headquarters has to be changed. In principle, can use limited effort approach and focus on NATO Command Structure and NATO Force Structure headquarters only and intensify their of Graduated Readiness Forces headquarters for meeting stated NATOs level of ambition, and all the rest leave to national institutions hoping to find each other at some common meeting point. The other option is to try to coordinate and synergize NATO-led headquarters training should accept the approach that NATO Forces be born interoperable instead this approach as the starting condition, then game changer and As already highlighted, the CFI is all about interoperability. The core of the effort and ultimate objective is to achieve oper ational interoperability and higher level of readiness of the NATO Command Structure and NATO Force Structure head quarters on one side and NATO forces on the other side through intensified training and exercises. Ability to participate in com bined operations should be an organic part of national training of the forces. Combined joint integrated multilevel exercises includ ing LIVEX part bringing together the head quarters and forces should represent regular culminating event for achieving ultimate trained and coming from the same "tribe". Enhanced education and training should facilitate achieving of "mental and doctrinal interoperability" as a key prereq uisite for reaching the operational interoper ability. Our senior leaders, officers and all personnel should be trained as NATO per sonnel ready to "plug in" to coalition effort tion and standardization of our educational and training systems and programs. National institutions should educate and train all per sonnel from the beginning of their profes as a part of the Allied effort and at the same time preserve all aspects of national interests Better use of technology should aim at achieving technical interoperability and interconnectivity as a key enabler and force born interoperable, their equipment has to fit together and be more interchangeable and have to talk to each other and their head for the operational deployment a sustainable on experiences from the Afghan Mission ity of our forces and headquarters, a similar approach should be adopted for the training support. Our national training support tools, NATO ones should be further harmonized and more permanently connected together in more combined and joint integrated training. ible modular systems and solutions. This CAX Forum, ITEC and other similar events play important role in this effort. Our key training facilities should be permanently efficient. In addition, mobile tools for pro jections of our training capabilities and sup CFI Implementation: Possible JFTC Gateway Role Although discussion and coordina tion of planning for CFI implementation is the implementation itself must be collective effort of all of us NATO institutions and be our major challenge and at the same time roles to play and room for much closer col dominate it. Our achievements should not be try to decrease the roles and responsibilities of nations and their institutions and substi sides, NATO and nations, to improve and enhance those institutions and capabilities ter harmonize and connect them together. An approach to CFI implementation point for the JFTC in our considerations of our potential future role in CFI. I am con vinced that as the NATO's only joint tactical Headquarters and national forces, the JFTC can naturally play the gateway role for achieving the operational interoperabil ity and provide an access point to NATO support to nations and their armed forces. facilitator of the discussion and institution fostering collaboration among NATO and national institutions and providing access to nations do not posses and acquisition of ing operational interoperability by providing robust training support and contributing to experimentation and development of train ing and exercise support tools and systems. JFTC has been very active in introduc ing, promoting and implementing intercon

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Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 21 nected distributed training support by the combined training teams in close cooperation distributed ISAF pre-deployment exercises staff members, featuring four levels of com mand and spanning various locations over nize multilevel distributed exercises for the tactical level headquarters and link them to training centers or field locations. This con point for operational interoperability and led and national exercises, synchronize and harmonize them for gaining maximum syner combined effort of NATO and national train technical support (AIS and CAX) of training. The unique expertise of Centers of Excellence could be integrated and "operationalized" to point or event through the national facilities. kind of support beyond the ISAF mission. Command in its role of NATO Multinational SOCC or training support to MNC NE series of Crystal Eagle exercises this year are good examples of this approach. In the near future to FOC and some of GRF Corps HQ's and Need for NATO CAX Platform Integrated multilevel exercises require not only physical connectivity and interoper but also interoperability of various CAX sys tems and exercise control supporting tools. a very active role. As a most urgent cur current key CAX systems, JTLS and JCATS, systems. In addition, collectively NATO and nations need to define the requirements for istic synthetic environment and combining various levels of command and training in "train as they fight". This includes the abil realistic and believable training environment. JFTC has been nominated the role of NATO Live Virtual Constructive Simulations experiments and already used various tools exploit currently available systems. In order tributed training and projection of our capa bilities to a remote training audience. JFTC already has at its disposal mobile capability CFBLNet on Wheels and CAX on Wheels support of the previously mentioned exercis es. These tools and their broader use can fur of all other NATO and national partners. Interoperability Exploration Experimentation Exercise). JFTC as the Host of this large this opportunity and tried to operational order to improve exercise support tools. Modeling and Simulation into upcoming expand testing and bringing more operational encourage all partners to use this opportu nity and participate in this event either in Bydgoszcz or from their home locations. The JFTC and its personnel are really tion to sound results for the Alliance and its nations in implementation of the Connected Forces Initiative. 1 M. Mizera, P. Macko, Policy Papers, Forces Initiative, Center for European and North Atlantic Affairs, Bratislava,

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22 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 Part I The Context collated as context for an on-going piece of the threat posed by terrorists engaging empirical evidence exists to categorically confirm a drone threat, it does confirm that the development of drones by terrorists such as Hezbollah is beyond its infancy and that both Al-Qaeda and the IRA are in a state of technological mutation; that their progres sion from asymmetrical field commands operations centres is transforming at speed IRA emerge from this chrysalis and actively deploy drones designed-to-mission over the is vulnerable to being the first target of such an attack. In summary, although it can be seen that there have indeed been significant inroads to understanding the phenomenon of rorism studies and policies based on research is a lack of pragmatism and a failure to rec ognize aims of terrorists as comprehensible and realistic as opposed to idealistic and inhuman. The paper hence highlights an urgent is based, but the politicization of the term Military Advisor Future Forces Exhibition & Conference 2014 Jackals and Drones The Metamorphosis of 21 st Century Terrorism The Front-line Consensus on the Threat of Terrorists using Drones This paper is a continuation of Jackals and Drones: The Metamorphosis of 21 st Century Terrorism Al-Qaedas Chrysalis & the Metamorphosis of Terrorism Research which was published in the Spring Edition of the JFTC magazine.

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Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 23 It is also argued that if terrorism research is terrorists are likely or not to employ tech nology on a military scale, scholars need to move beyond the research paradigms and incentives of the last ten years, beyond the confines of office centred studies and beyond ful definition of the phenomenon for policy based research. Part II The Research is based on an analysis of data aggregated from across NATO (i.e. Electronics, Avionics and Explosives Experts, Senior Officers, CIA Operatives, Special Forces, ex-Paramilitary Combatants, PMC Contractors, Combat Pilots, and Professional Mercenaries). The research confirms not only that drones will for specific targets and London as one of the targets most susceptible to drone attacks consensus that the implications are acute; counter-terrorism measures, particularly in the field of counter-drone technology. The viding references throughout the questions to the motivational influences behind terrorists and, by focusing on their origins, structure the research (and as the past is fundamental to understanding any present or future appli arguments to: (1) illustrate the modernity develop pragmatically and technologically cluded, as a consequence of the proliferation in dual-purpose components and an increase in the number of failed nation-states, that the opportune time for terrorists to develop mili to technology and not just in a chrysalis of technological metamorphosis but mutating alarming pace. Theory The background to this research stems from an event that took place on Tuesday, to intercept a terrorist drone that had pen etrated Israeli airspace. The Iranian designed drone had been built, armed and launched by drone by a terrorist designated organization. cultivated drone-technology 1 a model of research had to be developed. By piloting of various questionnaires aimed at ascertaining being: Due to the increasing para-militariza tion of some terrorist organisations, military oriented discourse between irregular com batants of non-state forces has become close enough to the discourse of regular combat ants of nation-state forces that, for certain aspects of terrorism studies, elements of the state can effectively be interviewed in lieu of terrorists. ants and state combatants think alike in to innovation, acquiring targets, applying their equipment and adapting their defensive and offensive capabilities to their mission, hand expertise on the consensus as to the threat of terrorists investing in drones. The paper is hence an insight to not just NATOs stance on the question as to but an insight as to the terrorists stance. In summary, the project is both a consequence of Hezbollahs technological breakthrough that Tuesday night in May a decade ago (just Hellfire missiles in combat) and from hav ing demonstrated both public interest in the subject and the existence of concern and of terrorists employing drone technology. Note (A). Due to the constraints of publication, this draft has been edited of drone most likely to support terrorism. In as this anomaly had been noticed at the pilot included to find consensus on the types of and Al-Qaeda) and, by default, consensus on the subsequent risk to hypothesized targets. Due to the above and further discrepancies in responses over the effectiveness of various ate any of the disorientation on terrorism and the research on: (1). The prototype terrorist-drone that assess the viability of chemical and the alleged use of the organophosphorus chemical Sarin by rebel forces in Syria. the city to be so susceptible to drone attacks.

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24 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 If a terrorist group gets drone technology, it will use it against us in every way it can. Former United States Director of National Intelligence, Admiral Dennis Blair Despite increasing use of drone tech nologies by state-forces (both on and off the battlefield) and statements such as Admiral has, until recently, actually attracted little their recruitment of veteran combatants from Iraq), it is a topic that is increasingly being tary circles throughout the Alliance. In order to test this observation and the belief that consensus on the subject across fields such publicly demonstrate military discourse on drone threat or strike by terrorists, and little published material (other than a handful of of drones in NATOs JFTC Journal for Transformation Through Training upon picked up on and reported. Despite a sen tabloids, The Times article added to others calls for a re-assessment of the situation and they are likely to employ drones and if the adage that suicide bombers and car-bombs are cheaper and more effective than drones is of any real value. It needs to be made clear at this point, that whilst this research is based on samples collated from experienced sources and authentic literature on the subject, many of those sampled were predomi nantly either front-line combatants and serving officers or officials with either personal or direct interests in counterterrorism. Furthermore, it needs to be pointed out that the definition of terror ist was outside the scope of this essay and has intentionally not been covered in this work. For the purposes of this essay and sake of argument, any references to the above are to those proscribed as Terrorist Organizations under Schedule 2 of the Terrorism Act, 2000, by the government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain. The first section of the paper looks grouped and several issues that arose dur ing the piloting phase of the questionnaire. This is prefixed by a brief introduction to the moral issues surrounding drones and the implications of their use to combat terrorism. For an assessment on the consensus of the types of drones most likely to be of appeal to terrorists and the targets most likely to be the five parts that made up the questionnaire: (1) terrorist innovation, (2) target selection, (3) drone design, (4) counter-drone capa bility and (5) understanding terrorism and the implications of drone attacks. Each of these parts is supported by references in the questions to the historical traits of terrorism and the argument that terrorism is mutating militarily as a consequence of the increasing number of failed states, failing states and the increasing para-militarization of terrorism. practical, hypothetical and primary argu ments to compliment the findings of the research: these are the design of a prototype drone, a proposed explanation for the London Phenomenon and an evaluation of The paper concludes that the consensus of modern terrorism and that the implications equally concluded that as a consequence of the proliferation in drone components and an increase in the number of failed nation-states, that the development of the technology by terrorists is advanced and advancing; terror ists are not just in a chrysalis of technological Lt. Col. Shannon Beebe called a vortex of violence centric Terrorism. Although the only empiri cal evidence that categorically confirms a drone threat is based on Israels assessment of Hezbollahs capability (and to a degree Al-Qaeda and FARC to have experimented firmed that the development of drones by inevitable, beyond its infancy and that ter that its progression from asymmetrical field nologies. Based on these observations, it is ism emerge from this chrysalis and actively deploy drones designed-to-mission over the next five years but, given the discourse, that target of such an attack (particularly from to be stadiums and calendared celebrations such as the Grand National or New Years Eve National icons came second as targets of propaganda. The consensus on the prime Introduction

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Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 25 Dallas, Houston, Phoenix, Minneapolis, Los to be defenceless against attacks by drones launched from inside Mexican and Canadian controlled territories. Unfortunately, by overestimating the the last decade, their capabilities to deploy drones in this decade have been underesti mated. Not only are the voices of those on the frontline countering terrorism believed terrorism by organizations and individuals misunderstood. In short, although there have been significant inroads to understanding the technological evolution of terrorism, a lack of pragmatism (primarily a reluctance to rec ognize the aims of terrorists as comprehensi than a policy failure in this area. To illustrate the point, a young British Captain serving in the Helmand replied (most poignantly) to the attractive alternative to suicide bombers by they obviously obvi ate the need to sacrifice a persons life. The results of this research add to the argument that the goals of terrorists are measurable, publics eyes) over the next five to ten years. Section I As often in the past, future conflicts will appear as hybrids comprising diverse, dynamic, and simultaneous combinations of organizations, technologies, and techniques that defy categorization. Capstone Concept for Joint Operations Version 3, January 15, 2009 (1) The Moral Implications British UN Special Rapporteur on Counter-Terrorism said: its growing use (drone strikes by nation-states) includes raising the spectre that non-state organizations organizations labelled as terrorist groups could use the technology in retaliation and that, the plain fact is that this technology is here to stay, and its use is a reality with which the world must contend. the Pakistan drone programme is far too indiscriminate in hitting targets and could lead to such political instability that it creates terrorist safe havens. We have been seduced by them (drones) and the unintended consequences of our actions are going to outweigh the intended consequences. 8 Questions 01 08: 01. The United States has set a precedent. Within 5 years, Chinese drones could be killing Uyghur Separatists in Kazakhstan, Turkish drones could be killing PKK Insurgents across Northern Iraq and Israeli drones could be targeting and assassinating key assets across the Middle East. How fair is this statement? Very Fair Fair Unfair Completely Unfair 30% 43% 17% 10%

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26 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 02. Are drones effective for killing terrorists? 03. Are drones effective in combating terrorism? 04. Are drones being used as a weapon of terror? 05. Has the United States resorted to confronting terrorism with terrorism? 06. In the 1940s, 2,340 German UAVs (V1s) rained down upon London killing 5,475 and injuring over 16,000. In the 1980s, unmanned aircraft crossed the Atlantic. Model aircraft today can fly in excess of 400 kph. Why have terrorists not employed drones to date? 1 ) no precedent of a drone attack ( 2 ) the development of drone technology has been too fast and ( 3 07. Given the proliferation in drone components and the militarization of some terrorist groups, how long will it be before a nation state is attacked by a non-state drone (excluding Hezbollahs)? 15% voided this question 08. Drones will target US cities from Canadian and Mexican territories over the next 10 years. Highlight how realistic this is in your opinion. (2) Participants Sampled for the Research Proper and 5 PMC contractors. Yes No 87% 13% Yes No 22% 78% Yes No 67% 33% Yes No 64% 36% 1 2 Years 2 3 Years 3 4 Years 5+ Years 27% 24% 34% Very Realistic Realistic Unrealistic Completely Unrealistic 53% 23% 14%

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Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 27 Table 1 Note: Table 2 Except NATO & Civilian Pilots ** Except those from Ex-Yugoslavia, bar Slovenia Gov. Intel. Military Pre-Screening Voided Military Post-Screening Civilian Police 5 7 17 Col. + 14 3 Col. + 6 36 Explosive Experts 16 20 Explosive Experts (11 from Georgia & Ex-Yugoslavia bar Slovenia) 10 Explosive Experts (5 from Georgia & Ex-Yugoslavia bar Slovenia) 20 Electronic / Avionic Experts 13 7 Electronic / Avionic Experts 7 Electronic / Avionic Experts 20 Pilots & Logisticians 13 7 Pilots & Logisticians (inc. 2 Non-NATO Algerian Combat Pilots) 5 Pilots & Logisticians 13 Special Forces 0 13 Special Forces 5 Para Militaries 0 5 Para Militaries 5 PMCs 0 5 PMCs 5 7 116 56 60 22 6 Sectors Government Intelligence Military Civilian Police Sample 5% 7% 60% 22% 6% Criteria 1 Aged between 30 60 with min of 4+ years experience in one or more of the following: All Sectors Military, Intelligence, Diplomacy Air Defence, ATC, Explosives, Electronics, Pilot, Engineering, Shipping, Railways, Logistics, Counter Terrorism Criteria 2 Service with / in at least one category: Intelligence SIS, MOSSAD, GCHQ, CIA, MSS, ABIN, GRU, DGSE, GIP Military Combat or Frontline Experience, PMC, SF, Para-Military, Foreign Legion, N. Ireland Security Criteria 3 Minimum ranks or equivalents to have been held: Military** Sergeant, PO, Cpt Civilian WS-14 to WS-19 (US White Collar Grades) or GS/GM-13-14 (US Blue Collar Grades) Police Sgt, Inspector Criteria 4 NGO, Soldiering, Diplomatic Service or direct role with / in one or more of the following: Government Mali, Afghanistan, Philippines, Yemen, Algeria, Iraq, Congo, Yugoslavia, N. Ireland, Syria, Georgia, Israel, Sudan, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Columbia, NATO Intelligence Military** Criteria 5 Work countering the objectives of at least one of the following: Government Al-Qaeda, PIRA, UDA Shabaab, Ansar, ETA, Islamiyah, FARC, UVF, INLA, Al-Asqua, Shaheed, Shrinkyo, Hamas, LTTE, Shining Path Police Intelligence

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28 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 agree / disagree type of format, this enabled the author to capture key lines of thought, key vocabulary and stances that Note: The data aggregated from the confidential interviews was, however, later deemed to be too important to exclude a priori and the interviewees were hence contacted for a compromise. Despite the fact that it would undermine the research academically, it was agreed that there would be no breach of confidentiality were the data to be used as argument in the narrative of the essay without reference. As this piece of research was written essentially as a call for further research, the benefits were believed to outweigh the academic risks. Section II The categories of warfare are blurring and no longer fit into neat, tidy boxes. One can expect to see more tools and tactics of destruction from the sophisticated to the simple being employed simultaneously in hybrid and more complex forms of warfare. 9 Robert M. Gates, United States Secretary of Defence, 2006 2011 (1) Terrorism & Innovation from the killing fields. Through coordinating the attacks in real-time, using BlackBerrys, satellite phones, GSM handsets, tactical, operational and strategic levels of command to the degree that they affect political change on a national scale; for

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Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 29 committee heard testimony regarding the threat from Dennis Gormley of the Monterey Institute that a drone could be fired from beyond visual range at a target while the terrorists make their escape before impact and that there would be little danger of detection in transportation, launch or escape. Switchblade ) and consider: No. Statement / Question Yes No 09 Terrorist ranks are being replenished with younger, technically literate men and women post Arab-Spring. Highlight if this will lead to an increased application of commercially available technologies for terrorist purposes. 93% 7% No. Question Completely Agree Agree Disagree Completely Disagree 10 Highlight how far you would agree that a serious threat exists from terrorist organizations planning to take advantage of drone technology. 33% 55% 12% 0% No. Statement Very Easy Easy Difficult Very Difficult 11 Highlight how easy it would be to weaponize a civilian drone with the Czech designed explosive, semtex. 13% 68% 19% No. Statement Very Easy Easy Difficult Very Difficult 12 Highlight how easy it would be to weaponize a civilian drone with an IED. 12% 72% 10% 6% Questions 13 & 15 Compiled Answers Could it be replicated? Yes No How could Terrorists utilize such a weapon? Most respondents predicted that manufactured drones will be used as insurgency weapons as opposed to weapons for assassinations or attacks on civilian targets. Terrorist Drones would be assembled on a case by case basis. With the increasing para-militarization of groups like Hezbollah and Al-Nusra however, some will slip through the net. 78% 22% What types of Terrorists would they appeal to? Drone capabilities were considered so diverse that the technology was deemed to be of incalculable value to most, if not all, terrorist organizations. How widely available and affordable is the technology? The proliferation of drone technology was seen as a serious concern in that it enables terrorists to assemble drones as opposed to manufacture them. Over 74% of the respondents said the technol ogy was widely available and affordable

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30 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 The explosion in drone technology promises to change the way nations conduct war and threatens to begin a new arms race as govern ments scramble to counterbalance their adversaries. 11 In short, the dissemination of military technology and dual purpose contubernales , take in targets of opportunity on route and, in real time, home in on secondary targets Fuel Capacity). (2) Target Selection to radicalize and mobilize the Islamic world (Jason Burke, tinued this theme and the group today is reflective of an international, academically qualified and younger generation. their affiliates have become increasingly autonomous and their motivations for alliance more varied (Gartenstein-Ross and transcends disbelief, a shared expectation of being exploited and a shared anthology. Their motivational influences stem has been the key to their resurgence and entrenchment from North Africa and the Middle East to Paris and London can hence be found in the history, continuity and modernity of terrorism. st century Islam. It could also be said to have set in interminable motion of the inspiration for not just this generations a physical structure that is decentralized and supported financially, technologically, logistically and ideologically, not by a franchised, parental, organization but a community. This progression has proved appropriate to the goals of the organization forefront of the Salafist movement. it uses to attack them; massive casualties or horror killings in an international, publicised context. And, by reversing the equa hold the terrorists and, after separating the hostages into Muslims and non-Muslims, they proceeded to slit the throats of the

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Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 31 term reconnaissance, high quality explosives and a coordinated, highly daring attack (that included suicide bombers to breach nificant as, over the decade, the tactics they have employed to achieve their long term objectives has had sufficient enough 16. It is being argued that Al-Qaedas drones will target 7 areas of a state. Highlight 3 areas you see as the most unprotected and likely to be attacked. 65 % of respondents highlighted the same 3 areas : 17. Highlight in another colour one of the three areas you chose, as being the most vulnerable to drone attack. Of the 65 respondents, 56 highlighted: 18. Highlight in another colour one of the targets in the category that you chose, as being the most vulnerable to a drone attack. Of the 56 respondents, 54 highlighted: 19. In which circumstances would drones be a better choice of weapon compared to a suicide bomber or a car-bomb? 20. Would 3 swarms of 5 FPV drones (15 drones carrying 1kg of explosive each), cause more terror and casualties at a football match than 2 suicide bombers carrying 10 kilos each or one 500 kg car-bomb parked beneath a stadium? (3) Drone Design Critical Infrastructure Bridges, dams, fuel dumps, electricity pylons etc. Arteries of transportation Railways, airports, motorways etc. National Monuments and Centres of Culture Iconic buildings, artworks museums, palaces etc. Military Soft Targets Academies, Training Centres, Conferences, Police Stations Civilian Soft Targets Schools, Hospitals, Stadiums, Celebrations Military & Government Personages On the battlefield, abroad and on the home-front Targets of Economic Importance Banks, Stock Exchanges Cyber Space Jamming, Copying, Re-routing Civilian Soft Targets Schools, Hospitals, Stadiums, Celebrations Civilian Soft Targets Schools, Hospitals, Stadiums Celebrations

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32 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 relaying real-time intelligence; autonomous, surface-borne sea mines and the most feared, The Jackals (one-offs, tailored to the last decade, including the deadly double-tap. Questions 22 27: (4) Counter Drone Capability The task of defending a relatively large area (such as a large industrial city) from an air attack is based on a layered air No. Statement / Question Yes No 21 Would you agree that the sale of drone components should be licensed? 92% 8% Drone Type Drone Specification Feasible Long Range Drone Altitude 5,000 metres Range 500 + km Explosive Payload 30 kg 54% Cities / London Suicide Drone Short-range (100 km) suicide drone able to carry incendiary, fragmentary and fuel-air explosive devices of up to 5 kg 67% Battlefield / Political Assassinations Short Range High Altitude Surveillance Drone Purpose built surveillance drones with a flight-time of 2 days and capable of relaying real-time intelligence Unlimited 3D GPS waypoints with built-in camera First Person Visual Control and fully-scriptable missions 58% Battlefield / Coordinated Attacks on Civilian Targets The Jackal One-offs, tailored to target GPS that can track up to 16 satellites simultaneously 1080p video camera + 4kg explosive payload 64% Surveillance / Coordinated Attacks on Civilian Targets Off Shore Sea Drone Operating range of 100 km, a maximum speed of 40 kph and a patrol duration of 6 hours. High explosive payload capability (50 kg) Based on converted Kawasaki Jet Ski 72% Warships / Harbours / Tankers The Bug The Bug is a little different than a highly maneu verable remote controlled flying quad-copter egg in which any standard hand grenade (Incendiary / Fragmentary etc.) can be inserted. Can be flown automatically or by camera (or a combi nation of both) Range is only 2 km but it can hover for 3 hours before needing its battery replaced 76% Battlefield / Crowd Attacks No. Statement Extremely Very Not Very Barely 28 Highlight how useful surveillance drones would be in planning / coordinating terrorist attacks. 64% 25% 7% 4%

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Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 33 identifying, acquiring and countering many types of existing drones. For example, if a terrorist attack from the air occurred at a range of several kilometres from the target (inside the zone of layered air defence), and the flight time of the UAV lasted almost impossible task. Questions 32 34 of terrorism. 32. Civilian aircraft on approach could be brought down by swarms of miniature drones in their flight-path? Highlight how realistic this is in your opinion. (5) Understanding Terrorism and the Implications of Drone Attacks st not so much the analytical usefulness of such a pejorative and subjective term, but the increasingly diverse and fluctuating personality theories and studies of the psychology of terrorism that bound rationality . No. Question Extremely Effective Effective Ineffective Extremely Ineffective 29 Highlight how effective current air defense capa bilities would be against one heavy drone? 44% 36% 15% 5% 30 Highlight how effective current air defense capa bilities would be against 1 light drone? 18% 56% 26% 31 Highlight how effective current air defense capa bilities would be against swarms of light drones? 1% 64% 35% Very Realistic Realistic Unrealistic Completely Unrealistic 9% 64% 20% 7% No. Statement / Question Yes 33 Highlight if you would agree with the following statement: As terrorism research has been inherently weak in this area, policy based upon it has been intrinsically flawed . 63% No. Statement / Question Yes No 34 Drones will change terrorism beyond recognition in that the ability to terrorize will be amplified and unlike anything that we have ever seen before. Highlight if you agree or not. 55% 45%

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34 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 Terrorism and Political Violence and Studies in Conflict & Terrorism studies existed on little other than, a diet of fast food research: quick, cheap, ready to hand and nutritionally dubious. cally, the research that it is based on has not. Researching terrorism is still compounded by a lack of primary material together terrorism, technology and state agendas. Be they descriptive, quantitative or experimental, their value is hence limited in that the range of methodologies, especially Leaderless Jihad: Terror Networks in the Twenty-First Century M. Sageman M.D., Ph.D. said: the gap between academe and the intelligence world prevents any meaningful exchange of ideas. As it stands now, we are condemned to rehash the same old tiresome and irrelevant arguments that prevent us from asking key questions about the turn to political violence. April 30 th 2013 new terrorism came new research st affaires de coeur that they had long enjoyed prior to 9/11. In the context of privacy issues John Villasenor (Professor of Engineering at UCLA and a Brookings Institution Senior The Internet has proven useful and valuable in ways that were difficult to imagine over a decade and a half ago, and it has created privacy challenges that were equally difficult to imagine. Legislative initiatives in the mid-1990s to heavily regulate the Internet in the name of privacy would likely have impeded its growth while also failing to address the more complex privacy issues that arose years later. Thus, while it is important to proactively consider how to protect against the privacy abuses UAS could make possible, in doing so it is important to recognize the near impossibility of predicting all of the ways that a rapidly developing technology can be used for good or for ill in future years. importance to understanding: (1) the threat posed by terrorist-drones and (2) the consequences of legislating against them. tapestry.

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Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 35 The Tapestry of Terrorism its nature is therefore fluid and dependent on contemporary events. An example of this phenomenon is the heavy politiciza on from preaching violence (as a means to a political end) to the phenomenon of using violence as a tactical end in itself. of it, but its politicization of it. In fact, the demonization and classification of non-state combatants has since undermined sense of righteousness. There are three lessons to learn from this and each is crucial to the issue of drones: the terrorists, the victims and the general publics. The first is a lesson in legitimacy, the second, a lesson in innocence and the third, a lesson in culpability and the antithetical nature of terrorism that has, unequivocally, led to this state of affairs. The reason for this is Section III (1) Proto-type Swarms of bomblets hovering in the clouds will be the minefields of the future. 35. Highlight if the technology and desire for this will exist in 5 years? ogy and GPS. Yes No 67% 33%

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36 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 36. What would be the effect of 3 Fragmentary Hand Grenades exploding within 10 metres of an Apache helicopter flying at 140 knots? 37. Highlight what would be the effect of 3 phosphorous or 3 fragmentary grenades detonating at speed against the side of a moving, overcrowded passenger train. 38. If drones like The Bug were able to drop hand grenades, what would a swarm (50) of them be able to achieve in an attack on a Railway Station with: 39. What would the casualties be from a swarm attack (50) on a stadium such as Wembley at full capacity? 1500 5000 (aggregated). designed and, in order to promote research on countering such a threat, it is to be displayed at the next NATO arms fair in (2) London 40. Why is London a better target for terrorist drones than any other city including Washington or New York? 41. What is the likelihood of tracking and shooting down a fast moving drone the size of a football flying through the populated streets of West London? 42. It was quoted in The Times last week that For $10,000, a drone with a payload of 50kg could be placed outside Paris, wake up in six months, take off for London in the middle of the night and destroy Big Ben live on the internet with a running commentary. How realistic is this? 43. What would be the political effect of a $10,000 drone hitting the Houses of Parliament? Message to the world as opposed to the US (Key Words) Phosphorous Many Casualties 18% Isolated Damage & Few Casualties 82% Fragmentary Many Casualties 76% Isolated Damage & Few Casualties 24% Type of Grenade Application of Technology Fragmentary Grenades Massive Casualties (Key Words) Incendiary Grenades Massive Fires (Key Words) Very Realistic Realistic Unrealistic Completely Unrealistic 52% 20% 16%

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Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 37 44. Highlight if London is likely to be attacked by drones over the next 5 years? (3) Mustard Gas 45. Which chemical weapon would be most suited to drones? H 8 Cl NATO Colonel, replied: By 1998, we had eliminated most of Iraq's chemical weaponry, tens of thousands of munitions and hundreds of tons of weaponized agents. Despite this, there remained concerns. The concern amongst old colleagues now is not just the proximity of terrorism in Syria to these chemicals or the recruit ment of ex-Iraqi insurgents to organizations that are increasingly becoming para-militaries, but the proximity of the war to Hezbollahs Drone Program. The four main areas of research set out to: (1) assess the seriousness of the threat, (2) gauge the perceived value of drones to terrorists, (3) undetermined. Moreover, the technical development and proliferation of unmanned aerial vehicles for military and civilian terrorists and that terrorists are believed to be developing a drone capability. As for the implications: of Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Ali Abdullah Saleh and Muammar Gaddafi. Yes No 62% 28% No. Statement Impossible Unlikely Possible Very Possible 46 Highlight how easy it would be to deliver chemical weapons by drones. 6% 12% 64% 18% Conclusions

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38 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 almost transcendental contending images of world politics End of History' and Huntington, the 'Clash of Civilizations ', 15 over the last decade, their capabilities to deploy drones in this decade have, as a direct consequence, been seriously underestimated. terrorism. Simply put, if the threat of drones is dismissed on the basis of past exaggerations and policy driven academics, To summarise, the argument for terrorists not using drones, is not just blighted by historical precedents, artificial param political, modern phenomenon is hence of paramount importance and salient to understanding its recent para-militarization ity to use drones lies in its blood. 1 5 8 9 Testimony statement by D. M. Gormley before the Subcommittee on International Security, Proliferation and Federal 11 15

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Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 39 The Change of Post Ceremony at the Joint Force Training Centre After three years of dedicated ser vice at the Joint Force Training Centre Centres Deputy Commander/Chief of Staff, July he handed over his responsibilities to the Hungarian Brigadier General Lszl Szab. The Change of Post Ceremony took place at the JFTC compound and gathered many high ranked representatives of the Czech, Hungarian ties and the Centres friends. In the presence of Lieutenant General Petr Pavel, the Chief of the General Staff of the Czech Armed Forces and Chief of the General Staff of the Polish Armed Forces, Major General Pavel Macko, the JFTC the unit, it takes an extraordinary leadership and contributed to the success and highest ever credit said General Macko, and added: General letters. () Due to his initiative and unreserved complex and effective planning system for the training support and other significant activities. Addressing the outgoing Deputy Commander/Chief of Staff directly, General Macko accomplished your mission in an extraordinary your unforgettable contribution to this centre and NATO community here in Bydgoszcz, thank you for guished guest and the JFTC staff to share his thoughts and good memories related to the Centre, the Host Nation and the City of Bydgoszcz. One of the largest NATO projects of the last decade, the plethora of good motivations among the people JFTC Public Affairs Specialist

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40 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 of his service in Bydgoszcz. During my tour of duty I have been striving to do as much as I could That means that I still consider my mission as a yet unfinished book and therefore I am obligated to support the JFTC and its mission even after my official departure, through variety of means and is my promise to all of you said the outgoing Deputy Commander/Chief of Staff and stressed to the city of Bydgoszcz. At the end of his speech ported him during his service at the JFTC: Let me express my deepest gratitude to all the mem bers of the JFTC Team for your collegiality and friendship. I am also grateful for all the support I received from the representative bodies of the Czech Republic in Poland, namely the Embassy of cherish in my heart the friendship of so many of during my tour of service at the JFTC. Please three years at the helm of the institution, my sincere to all of you, to this institution and the city of The Czech party expressed their special thanks to the Honorary Consul of the Czech Republic in Bydgoszcz, Mr. Dariusz Zimny and Chief of the Inspectorate for the Support of the Polish Armed Forces. Lieutenant General Petr Viktor Spevacek Honorary Medal of Logistics of the Armed Forces of the Czech Republic. The outgoing Deputy Commander/ Chief of Staffs outstanding performance at the Commemorative Medal of the Slovak Armed Forces, presented by Major General Pavel Macko on behalf of the Slovak Minister of Defence. The incoming Deputy Commander/ Chief of Staff congratulated his predecessor. has gone through almost unprecedented develop NATOs Command Structure, and has become the focal point for ongoing joint and combined tactical level training of NATO forces, command you and the staff under your strong leadership. General Szab pointed out his priorities for the service at the JFTC. The continuity of effort being the first one. All orders, directions and guidance issued by my predecessor remain second priority enhancement of professionalism and take advantage of its level of professional ism gained so far. It should become a premium player, a first choice for NATO commanders ness or deployment to theatre. Also promotion of NATO values and strengthening the JFTC accomplishment of the complex mission of the

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Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 41 thousand security forces on the ground in Northern take responsibility of our staff, pick up the mission Lszl, you are coming to the JFTC in a very chal lenging time () I need you to put all your experi Both outgoing and incoming Deputy the Chief of the General Staff of the Czech Armed Deputy Chief of the General Staff of the Polish of the General Staff of the Polish Armed Forces and from Mr. Tomasz Siemoniak, Polish Minister of National Defence. Other distinguished guests, Excellency Jan Sechter, the Ambasador of the Czech Republic to the Republic of Poland, Mrs. the Deputy Chairman of the City Council, joined to Members of the JFTC and mem bers of the NATO community in Bydgoszcz

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42 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 Last month, in an unprecedented chal lenge to the British Prime Ministers authority, voted against the governments call to support the United States in an attack on Syria; a par the undeniable fact that David Cameron and his Foreign Secretary lost a degree of political entailed putting hundreds, if not thousands of have been the defining moment in an aboutthe arguments, Milibands Damascus Plot stands as an event of such political intransi gence that it has transcended the immediate Syria, both here and in the United States, is fundamental to security across much of vote on leaving the European Union. It could Johnsons London In Defense of the Realm Although there is unlikely to be any undergone a profound change. More impor ated to a crossroads that it had hitherto been for Europe and NATO. For Syria, the Middle venture has cost. The only relative comfort is future of British Foreign Policy into the hands of the Mayor of London. Compared to the has been presiding over the capital and its We need to raise our eyes beyond Europe and rekindle our relationship with the Commonwealth Boris Johnson, Mayor of London Like Disraeli, Johnson is a gentleman, a and charisma to cheer up Ebenezer Scrooge, he has brought a brand of conservatism and a lease of life to British politics that has trans formed the city of London. Born in the United that other great Victorian of the time, Dickens, he is a master of the language they share and also brought leadership, vision, results and, as a consequence, stands today at the head of a formidable electorate and a court that has long a vision beyond that of the United States. Commonwealth of Nations vs The European Union Importantly though, Johnsons vision is not about reviving the past or entertaining vain-glorious thoughts of Empire. Johnsons are headed. In fact, one only has to look at his premiership of London and the global, ultramodern metropolis that it has become to see his vision for Britain. It is about the fact that Britain remains economically, militarily and politi Vanguard, Victorious, Vigilant and Vengeance, an accuracy measured in metres); that Britain has an annual expenditure on her military of side the US, Russia, China and France, remains United Nations Security Council. Johnsons th st to for the European Union and the United States is the possibility of a seismic shift in geo-political alliances. The reason for this is and politically, economically and militarily, commitment to the EU Project over the last as any other European member. The US and the EU need to take note: be it in their best Road to Damascus British Foreign Policy on the Road to Damascus Military Advisor Future Forces Exhibition & Conference 2014 Editors note: This article was submitted on the beginning of September 2013.

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Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 43 and, although unexpected, that last months politics did not come as any great surprise is not the point. The reason for this is that the Damascus Plot is far from just the latest snub different in that this time round the British elec adhering to dictats from Brussels on the one any longer interested in playing. To compound aggressive nationalism of the Bush and Obama administrations have projected an America that so called shared values and common goals of Atlanticism are today largely perceived to be little other than the dying ideologies of a time country could be led beyond the bureaucracy of the EU, beyond the insular interests of the United States and beyond the politics of long vision, Britain could rekindle its relationship like India onboard, have a marked effect on the once again set sail East of the Ghosts of Suez. East of the Ghosts of Suez Embassies, that vision has already been put into play. To compound it, some of the lion, the opportunities for Britain are obvious. quarter of a century, increasing co-operation it has ever done. Economically, militarily and Elizabeth remains the Head of State. But it is not just the magnetic qualities of the transformed international scene that is caus is very much the British people themselves. The reason for this is not the oft-quoted nostalgia for Empire or any real fears over loss of sovereignty to Brussels. Nor is it the is something simpler. The fact is, that to be British today, entails allegiance to a political identity that transcends race, creed, colour and, to a degree, state. Like London or the British Realms, is in effect an international institu inherently international, inherently global and years, for example, the number of foreignLike Johnsons London and globalised trade, tury of business relationships that transcend one in ten British soldiers being from the As a result and as reflected in the stag Party, the first Coalition Government since the again set sail beyond Europe, the Damascus Plot has accelerated the inevitable and put both the United States and Great Britain into a demands for a shift back to a closer partner Unfortunately, as a direct result of Milibands Coup, the end of Atlanticism, the concept of The Ghost of Libya security, fighting for NATO led-objectives particularly for those countries that joined NATO after the collapse of the Soviet Union, tially is likely to be defense expenditure. For although the European Army or the EUs out them either. The reason for this is that the reality of the matter is that Britain has provided deployed from the EU and a similar percentage on military expenditure for years. Furthermore, able to initiate a UN mandated intervention, it militarily; Germany abstained from the vote if the United States continues to shift its strategic focus to the Pacific and Johnsons Britain becomes a reality, the EU hence risks the very real possibility that, if faced by a crisis that is of little importance to the US again, Conclusion None of this shift in British policy at home the vote on Damascus, it is rapidly accelerat foreign policy. Europe and the United States hence have to recognize that the assump rested since the Suez Crisis a privileged European Continent have outlived their shelf

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44 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 His military education includes Vasil Levski National Military Academy, Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria; General Staff Faculty, G. S. Rakovski National Defense Academy, College, Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania. the St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria. General Nenov started his military career as a platoon leader of a Motorized Infantry Regiment in 1985 consequently holding all command positions in Bulgarian held a variety of senior command posi tions at national and international level to include Commander, South Eastern Europe Brigade (SEEBRIG), Romania; commander, command and Chief of Staff, NATO Joint Force Training Center, Bydgoszcz, Poland. Major General Neyko Nenov assumed responsibility as the Commander of the Bulgarian Land Forces on 1 November Major General Neyko Nenov, Commander of the Bulgarian Land Forces Major General Neyko Nenov, Commander of the Bulgarian Land Forces For the Service in the Centre of Staff in NATO Joint Force Training Centre (JFTC), Bydgoszcz, Poland. It in terms of reaching full operational capabilities (FOC) of the JFTCs Training facilities, relocating the personnel from Street to its permanent location on most advanced (at that time) command information system. Then, the training focused primar ily on NATO current operations. In this regard, a pilot course of OMLT above ment training of individual augmentee staff for the Regional Commands South and North Headquarters and Mission Rehearsal Exercises of ISAF Regional Commands South and North Headquarters for the first time in Bydgoszcz. The capabilities of the JFTC training facilities and promoting them

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Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 45 conduct of various forums, confer ences and courses such as the Allied Command Transformation Military International Senior Non Commissioned Command Operations Electronic Allied Command Transformations Improvised Explosive Device Courses, to host. the Joint Force Training Centre attracted the interest of many senior leaders, and Polish Minister of Defense Mr. Bogdan Transformations General Stephane Abrial, the Commander of the Joint Forces Command Brunssum General Egon Ramms, the Allied Commander Transformation Deputy Chief of Staff, Viereck, ACT Deputy Chief of Staff for Capability Development Vice Admiral Carol Pottenger. the Joint Force Training Centre Allied the first JFTC Ball the organization of For the People and the Team I Worked With As a Chief of Staff, I had a chance professionals and experienced officers. performance of the leader is due, to a great extent, to the excellent interaction and dedication of his subordinate staff. Colonel John OHey and Lieutenant ed all planned training events at an excep tionally high level. If my tour of duty has been assessed a successful one, I am placing my assis tants and the members of my team the credit for the success. Among them I can mention Directors of Staff Operations (DOSO) Lieutenant Colonel Daniel Thanks to General Bagers compe tent guidance and leadership, and Admiral raised the JFTCs role, credibility and relationships, but made good friends as For the Host Nation I have no doubt at all that one of the main reasons for us to succeed is Host Nation civilian and military authori ties at national and local levels also con tributed to the successful execution of the Centres mission. I am happy to have had the opportu nity to serve in a friendly country and in a to enjoy numerous local and international events of culture and sports. Bydgoszcz alive and full of special atmosphere, offering plenty of entertainment and rec reation opportunities. Frankly speaking, satisfaction. For the Personal Contribution Taking over the position of the JFTC Chief of Staff from my prede cessor, Brigadier General Panagiotis Mavropoulos, I received a very good legacy in terms of running the routine tasks and organizing the training pro cess. Different challenges like applying ferences and visits held at the JFTC develop these processes and to unite the JFTCs branches and members of all its outcome I personally find as summa rized in the speech of JFTC commander, ceremony, You have been a great Chief. I you by my side to support me, advise me on the brink of doing something unrea sonable. () Your loyalty could never be disputed and your ability to see things exceptional. improvement and it is my hope that our build upon our achievements. For the Experience Gained During the Assignment in a multinational environment extremely from a professional perspective but from are you given a chance to acquire differ of different cultures, customs and tradi tions, something that goes hand in hand ferent nations. tional environment in my daily routine in interoperability of the Bulgarian Land Forces. For the Service in the Centre

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46 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 The International School of Bydgoszcz (ISOB) seeks to develop students of the world through the International Baccalaureate Organizations pro grammes: Primary Years and Middle Years Is it the curriculum that includes study of different cultures or an international body in Bombay, India or in Berlin, Germany and finally our International School of and most important attributes of an International The International School of Bydgoszcz is a Non-Public General Educational Bydgoszcz. The complex consists of: School of Bydgoszcz School of Bydgoszcz School of Bydgoszcz But lets come back to the question sibly learn everything by the time they leave the desire to keep questioning throughout their lives. Many parents possibly noticed the IB Learners Profile displayed on the and teachers establish goals, plan units of inquiry and finally to assess performance. The ISOB students contribute to discus expressing a globally significant central idea Primary School Pupils The IB Primary Years Program (PYP) is of international education designed to foster the development of a child. It focuses on the ing social, physical, emotional and cultural needs in addition to academic development. The PYP curriculum has an international strates the attributes of the Learners Profile, and represents qualities of a life-long learner. From Early Puberty to Mid-Adolescence of personal, social and intellectual develop ment, of uncertainty and questioning. The Middle Years Programme (MYP) is designed to guide students in their search for a sense of place in their natural and social environ ments. Through highlighting the importance of Approaches to Learning (ATL) the MYP them find out about themselves as learners so that they can develop learning skills. The encourages students to embrace and under critical and reflective thinkers. the Principal of the ISoB Becoming International

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Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 47 What are ISOB students like? We are sure that our pupils will become internationally minded persons! Inquirers. They develop their natural curiosity. They acquire skills nec essary to conduct inquiry and research and show indepen dence in learning. They actively enjoy learning and this love of learning will be sustained throughout their lives. They explore concepts, ideas and issues that have local and global significance. In doing so, they acquire in-depth knowledge and develop understanding across a broad and balanced range of disciplines. Thinkers. They exercise initiative in applying thinking skills critically and creatively to recognize and approach complex problems, and make reasoned, ethical decisions. Communicators. They understand and express ideas and information confi dently and creatively in more than one language and in a variety of modes of communication. They work effectively and willingly in collaboration with others. Principled. They act with integrity and honesty, with a strong sense of fairness, justice and respect for dignity of an individual, groups and communities. They take responsibility for their own actions and the consequences that accompany them. Open-minded. They understand and appreciate their own cultures and are open to perspectives, values and traditions of other individu als and communities. They are accustomed to seeking and evaluating a range of points of view, and are willing to grow from the experience. Caring. They show empathy, compassion and respect towards needs and feelings of others. They have personal commitment to service, and act to make a positive difference to lives of oth ers and to the environment. Risk-takers. They approach new situations and uncertainty with courage and forethought, and have independence of spirit to explore new roles, ideas and strategies. They are brave and articulate in defending their beliefs. Balanced. They understand the importance of intellectual, physical and emotional balance to achieve personal well-being for them selves and others. IB students are active participants in a wide range of aspects of campus life, as well as focusing on their academic devel opment. Reflective. They give thoughtful consideration to their own learning and experience and are able to assess and understand their strengths and limitations in order to sup port their learning and personal development.

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48 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 New Years Reception ing several members of Polish Parliament, Mayor of Bydgoszcz, numerous representa tives of military and civilian organizations, the Joint Force Training Centre inaugurated another busy year. place on 18 January, created a perfect oppor all authorities and institutions that supported Bydgoszcz NATO Unit Volleyball Competition ball contest involving NATO organizations Force Training Centre (JFTC) and the JFTC Support Unit delegated their teams for the competition. The teams played round matches and set the order based on the result of the Champions Cup and take it from the JFTC not there yet to defeat them. The final result and deserved the Champion Cup this year, and the JFTC got the bronze medal.

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The Best of the Best the JFTC Commanders Awards for Excellence history of the Joint Force Training Centre. created a great challenge for the centres personnel but due to their highest profession alism and commitment the JFTC managed to conduct the events smoothly and completed all tasks successfully. All these inspired the JFTC members of his staff. Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 49 Life at the JFTC 2013 in Retrospect

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50 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 Conflict-Crisis-War. Scholarly Conference of the and the JFTC Joint Force Training Centre (JFTC) gathered form for discussions focusing on theoretical and practical security concepts. The 7 th JFTC International Day JFTC friends and guests, arrived in the Bydgoszcz NATO training centre compound th International Day. national colors, loud music and a huge play the NATO Communication and Information Signal Battalion, the JFTC Support Unit, the Allied Command Counterintelligence and the JFTC National Support Elements cultivated one of the best Bydgoszcz NATO annual traditions. Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia,

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The JFTC Ball Charity Lottery Supported the Salus Homini Foundation Centres annual tradition, another charity helping people in need. This time the JFTC supported the Salus Homini Foundation. On 18 April the JFTC Deputy Commander and Chief of Staff, Brigadier Mrs. Alina Zimny, the Honorary Consuls Jedynak, the Salus Homini President, and air anti-bedsores mattresses and a laptop. Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 51 Life at the JFTC 2013 in Retrospect

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52 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 The Joint Force Training Centre Bid Farewell to Brigadier General Grzegorz Buszka Former Joint Force Training Centre (JFTC) Deputy Commander and Liaison Officer to the Host Nation, Brigadier General Grzegorz Buszka, completed his service at the Bydgoszcz NATO training centre. On General Buszka, thanked him for his dedi in the future. I am not saying good bye, but see you General Pavel Macko, to General Buszka. come here. General Macko also highlighted General Buszkas commitment to the centre. The JFTC is losing a very valuable keyleader. His contribution assured very close the Host Nation, Poland. As a real soldier, highly contributed to the JFTC mission and his support to training events conducted by During his service in the JFTC he filled in for the JFTC Commander and per sonally directed or led many important exer cises and activities organized by the JFTC in Bydgoszcz or in other locations. Slovenian Students Explore the JFTC Representatives of the Slovenian Student Association of Defence Studies (SSADS) visited the Joint Force Training students arrived in Bydgoszcz to deepen their

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Academic Guests at the Joint Force Training Centre Students of the Polish National Defence University (NDU) and students of at the JFTC compound to learn more about the Bydgoszcz NATO training centre and pare for their missions, including the one in Afghanistan. officers, students of the Defence Policy Postgraduate Studies at the Polish NDU, led by Brigadier General (ret.) Zenon Smutniak, the JFTC staff. training centre. The officers provided the used at the JFTC in support of training. Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 53 Life at the JFTC 2013 in Retrospect

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54 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 6 th Primary School Competition examples of questions that participants of the Primary Schools of Bydgoszcz had to face. Training Centre supported the event. schools entered this years competition. They responded to the invitation of the Primary difficult rivalry. The final part of the competi

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Bastille Day at the JFTC It has already become a tradition that every July the JFTC French community invites all Bydgoszcz NATO staff for the The event took place on 19 July, five days after the official French celebrations, and consisted of a formal ceremony held at the populaire in the evening. The formal, military ceremony gath ered all civilian and military JFTC personnel. speech highlighted the importance of values disseminated by the French Revolution and their connection to the current NATO mis sion. In the evening, the JFTC members and guests enjoyed themselves during a delicious Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 55 Life at the JFTC 2013 in Retrospect

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56 Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 Slovak Contingent Celebrates National Holiday. There are many national holidays cel ebrated at the JFTC by its member nations. For Slovaks September is special because of st anniversary of the establishment key platform for formation of sovereignty and independence. The Constitution of the Slovak Republic is based upon the right of upon our culture, traditions and values, it guarantees human rights, freedom, and equal opportunities for everyone. Although the second event is not a national holiday, it is special for all men and Slovak Armed Forces celebrate their day. The Day of the Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic has been celebrated in Slovakia lar day to commemorate the 1st victory of Slovak volunteers at Brezova pod Bradlom of Austro-Hungarian Empire regular army in their fight for freedom and independence. For the third consecutive year the Slovak contingent at the JFTC celebrated contingents. The JFTC Commander, Major General Pavel Macko in his opening speech Ambassador H.E. Vasil Grivna, the former JFTC Deputy Commander Brigadier General (ret.) Grzegorz Buszka, and many others. The Commander expressed his gratitude for continuos support to the JFTC mission. In his speech, the Senior National Representative, Colonel Miroslav Fazik, explained historical context and background of the events. On bilishing the Slovak Armed Forces selected medals. The event culminated by a Slovak

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German Unification Day Speech on the Day of German Representative at the JFTC rd rd anniversary of national unity for the German people. The Germans' decade-long desire of finally been fulfilled in a peaceful manner so they could live in a united democratic and Poland contributed to German unity and to overcoming Europe's division. of humility and penance in front of the Polish relationships. The peaceful mass protests of the "Solidarnosc (solidarity) members" served as a role model for many courageous activities culminating in the collapse of the Berlin of freedom and inner peace for many nations. became the symbol of the fall of the mental These events inseparably linked our tributed to German unity. Let us not forget the civil rights cam must be brought about. At this point in time the Monday prayers and Monday demonstrations began in the former eastern Part of Germany. At first took to the streets. They freed themselves pable in 1989. This is the peoples' historic Dont be afraid. Solidarnosc has fought every bit for its freedom and, thus, for ours had its most courageous supporters. during the course of glasnost and perestroi ka relinquished the Soviet Unions claim to open up their borders. And, above all, not the USA, France, Great Britain and the oth by agreeing to the reunification. Many asked themselves the question of given the aberrations, horrors and catastro phes that emanated from Germany during the th century. Far-sighted statesmen helped to over come the fears and resistance and enabled life in peace, freedom and self-determination. Todays Europe is the fulfillment of the dreams of many generations of Europeans. But it is something not to be taken for grant ed. states and great European cultural achieve ment. This differentiates our continent more than anything else from other continents, for it harbors values that make up the European It is our daily task to train soldiers and NATO members in order to enable them to The German Community at the JFTC th of October. Transformation Through Training Issue No: 4 November 2013 57

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PUBLICATION GUIDELINES 1. The articles should be submitted in English; 2. The articles should be 1000-5000 words long; 3. The articles should be delivered as electronic files on a CD/DVD to the following address: Joint Force Training Centre 85-915 Bydgoszcz Poland or sent via an e-mail to the following address: pao@jftc.nato.int; 4. The articles should be written in Microsoft Word format, single-spaced, Times New Roman font, 12 size, A4 paper size; 6. The author of the article should provide the editor with a short information about his profession, academic title, professional affiliation and contact details.