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Transformation through training

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Title:
Transformation through training
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Bydgoszcz, Poland
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NATO- Joint Force Training Centre (JFTC)
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Občasno
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English

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serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )

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General Note:
Nasl. z nasl. zaslona.
General Note:
Opis vira z dne 8. 5. 2012.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Copyright, Joint Force Training Centre. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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814257067 ( OCLC )
2084-8358 ( ISSN )
ocn814257067
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355.02 ( udc )

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 1 en-GB Command North Training Event 1201 en-GB Taking the Benefit from the Excellent Training Environment

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 2 Publishing Institution: Joint Force Training Centre Bydgoszcz (JFTC) Managing director: JFTC Chief of Staff Assistant Editors: LtC. Christian von PLATEN, JFTC Public Affairs Officer Editorial Board: Prof. Dr. Marjan MALESIC, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia Armed Forces Academy of General Rastislav Stefanik, Slovakia Dr. Kamila SIERZPUTOWSKA, Kazimierz Wielki University, Poland LtC. Ing. Bohuslav PERNICA, Ph.D., Ministry of Defense of the Czech Republic LtC. Christophe Le CERF, JFTC Plans and Analysis Branch Advisory Committee: LtC. Ing. Jaroslav BARILLA, JFTC Special Staff Maj. Jacek LASHMANN, JFTC Information Manager JFTC Language Specialist Layout: Ms. Rados JFTC Public Affairs Specialist Editorial Contact Information: Public Affairs Office Joint Force Training Centre, ul. Bydgoszcz 15, 85 915, Poland. Email: JFTC@jftc.nato.int 1. Command North Training Event 12 01 Taking the Benefit from the Excellent Training Environment 3 2. 6 3. Sharing Personal Experience: Predeployment Training for CJ1 Branch at JFTC 12 4. 16 5. The Role of the White Cell 19 6. NATO Civilians Pre deployment Course 23 7. 3rd JFTC Ball 28 8. The JFTC Retrospectively 31 9. The JFTC angling section 32 10. Focusing on Training 34 11. Knowledge Development Response to Modern Challenges a Case of SAF Mountain Battalion 35 12. Le Beaujolais Nouveau 40 13. Modern Defence Engaging Public Affairs 42 14. Sport is a preserver of health 45 15. Experience from Bosnia and Herzegovina 47 16. Christmas Tree Lighting 49 17. the Distributed Training Concept 51 18. NATO Spouses Club Bydgoszcz Starting 2012 with the New Energy 54 19. Bydgoszcz and Its Military Importance 56 The aim of this magazine is to provide a forum for exchange of information and expertise among training and educational institutions across NATO in the area of training, military professional education, and related technotion with partner states and international organizations, such as the United Nations, the European Union, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe and others. With the above in mind, the JFTC invites authors from countries and institutions beyond the NATO environment, to publish in the Transformation Through Training magazine. The magazine will focus on the best practices in the areas of command and staff training, professional military education, simulations and simulation technologies, distributed training, military training development, and other related areas. The JFTC also welcomes recommendations for the application of the most recent experience and lessons learned from ongoing operations, training events and recent innovations in the field of simulations and information technologies. The magazine will also briefly cover the life of the international community at the JFTC aiming at promotion of the centre within NATO and among the partner nations. The magazine will be published twice a year, during the spring and fall, by the NATO Joint Force Training Centre in Bydgoszcz. TABLE OF CONTENTS The articles published in this magazine represent opinions of their authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy of NATO. ISSN: 2084 8358 JFTC 2012

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 3 en-GB COMMAND NORTH TRAINING EVENT 1201 Taking the Benefit from the Excellent Training Environment By Colonel Francis Marec In 2008, General James N. Mattis, Supreme Allied Commander Transformation, introduced changes to the recently estabmission, clearly giving the priority to training of ISAF deployed forces. The decision completely changed the direction in which the JFTC was originally heading, to serve as the NRF training center for the tactical level of command. The execution of the new mission required changes in almost all the functional areas, starting from adoption of the task organized structure and ending with adjustments of the real life support to the training events. All these changes were driven by the new content of the Program of Work which differs substantially and is more demanding than, perhaps, the one which was originally designed for the JFTC. A year later, in 2009, the first training event organized for the Mazar-e-Sharif located Regional Command North (RC N) took place in Grafenwoehr, Germany. Within a rather short period of time, the JFTC prepared, in cooperation with the Bundeswehr Operations Command (BwJFOpsCmd), a training event for the ISAF RC level HQ. That, nevertheless, was just the first step. The complexity of the RC N Training Events (RC N TE) further expanded in close collaboration with the U.S. Joint Forces Command, now Joint Coalition Warfare (JCW), when linked to the Unified Endeavour (UE) exercises. Over the years, close cooperation between the JFTC and the JCW not only contributed positively to the quality of the training, but also increased our expertise in the field of distributed exercises. In January 2011, the UE 11-1//RC TE E-NSW was the first distributed training exercise (DTE) for RC N, linked to the UE exercise. And so was the following one, RC N TE 1102, in June 2011. On 16 January 2012, the sixth RC N TE, third DTE linked with the UE already started. It has been nearly four During all that time the JFTC proved again its ability to adapt to the constantly evolving operational environment in Afghanistan. What is more, it could also respond to all the newly identified training requirements in a timely manner. RC N TE 12-01, conducted from 16 January to 1 February 2012, could, with no doubt, be placed in the category of large distributed training events. With the exploitation of the CFBL Net and distributed training capabilities, the RC N TE 12-01 was integrated with the UE 12-1 exercise located in Fort Riley (Kansas) and Fort Knox (Ken

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 4 tucky), and the HICON representing IJC located in Grafenwoehr, Germany. With 210 members of the training audience at the JFTC (144 were Germans, but there were also members from Hungary, Norway, Croatia, Netherlands, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Belgium, Sweden, Finland, and Latvia), 343 personnel participating in various EXCON functions, including 11 representatives from Afghan National Army, Afghan National Police, members of the White Cell representing NGOs/IOs, Media Cell, and 67 Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), all that enabled to create a complex training environment, closely replicating conditions of the ISAF mission. Those who are intimately involved in the NATO pre-deployment training and have a vast experience with NATO exercises can easily imagine what preparation and execution of an RC level TE entails. Nevertheless, our aim here is to pass the word to a broader audience of potential readers, who do not have a chance to participate personally and thus obtain the first-hand experience from this type of pre-deployment training. At the same time, the JFTC recognizes that NATO member states and its Partners need such information for educational and training institutions across the Alliance to allow them to broaden their understanding of the NATO ISAF pre-deployment training. Establishing the Framework for Complex Training Events RC TEs are prepared to the full extend in accordance with the NATO policy documents, particularly Bi-SC 75-2 Education, Training, Exercise and Evaluation Directive and Bi-SC 75-3 Exercise Directive. Paramount task for the JFTC is to prepare the training events which, without any compromise, meet NATO requirements for predeployment training: modern security environment demands that military personnel allocated to NATO acquire the highest level of military training feasible during the pre-deployment stage, to prepare them for demanding combined and joint operations in a multi-national environ(Bi -SC 75-2) This requirement serves as guidance not only for the JFTC, but also for the other NATO and national training centers, and functions as a referential framework for coordination of the pre-deployment training among them. Since there is an overall requirement to provide realistic training, which closely replicates the ISAF command and control mechanisms and operational environment, there is a need to incorporate RC N training into a wider scenario. For that purpose, and when applicable, the RC N TE is linked to the U.S. United Endeavour (UE) exercise series. This is usually the case for the two RC N training events each year, or when some training or training support services are shared or exchanged between the JCW and the JFTC. Obvious challenge for everybody who is involved in preparation of the RC TEs is the preparation timeframe, which is limited to 6 months only. Besides, there is roughly a three month period before the next RC level TE commences. The true tempo of the preparatory work becomes even more obvious if we take into account the scope of necessary coordination among the key players such as the JFTC, JCW, JFC Brunssum, IJC, BwJFOpsCmd and others. These circumstances objectively require partial reduction of the conceptual work and some organizational arrangements as there is an unavoidable overlap in the preparation and execution between the two RC TEs. It means that preparation of a future RC TE always starts before the current one is executed. That presents a real choke point not only on the side of the manpower but even more with regard to the CIS which is one of the main enablers for execution of distributed and complex exercises. In the end, it is the people who serve at the JFTC and those who support it externally who make it all happen and are able to resolve technical difficulties, initially considered as a considerable challenge. Preparing Realistic Scenario For each RC N TE, the JFTC and BwOpsCom make every effort to elaborate a scenario that is as realistic as possible. That also includes preparation of study materials fitting the requirements of the RC N Commander. It is worth noting that the TEs do not aim at any kind of certification of the command which is being trained. The training should rather allow the future RC N HQ to understand the mission and current and future ISAF operations, gain required level of confidence and cohesion, and obtain necessary situational awareness and master SOPs. The quality of a training scenario to a large extent depends on two key steps the theatre reconnaissance conducted by the exercise Core Planning Team (CPT) and the ISAF Data Capture, which is done by the IT specialists from the JFTC Training Support Division. The theatre reconnaissance is organized by the CPT approximately two or three months before the RC N TE starts and takes eight days. This reconnaissance gives the team an opportunity to directly contact the deployed RC N HQ, previously trained by the JFTC. It is an ideal opportunity to review with the RC N HQ strengths and weaknesses of the last TE and get updated on the latest developments in the ISAF mission. That enables proper selection of the operations to scenario, what situations and SOPs need to be reflected in the MEL/ MIL scripting and what topics should be included in the round table discussions and academic part of the training. Also, the theatre reconnaissance gives an opportunity to meet with representatives from the NGOs and IOs and discuss with them, receive their recommendations and institutional experience as to the implementation of the comprehensive approach. From the JFTCs perspective, what has proven to be very functional, was obtaining initial commitment from the IOs and NGOs to participate in the upcoming TEs as members of the White Cell. Without active contribution of the practitioners equipped with the first line experience from the work with local population and local authorities in Afghanistan, the TEs would be incomplete and the training less realistic. The JFTC experience with the pre-deployment training only confirms the well known fact that the White Cell is an indispensable element of nowadays exercises. The scenario for the ISAF predeployment training events is the mission itself. During the RC N TEs the trained HQs are exercised using the same Functional Area Systems (FAS), operational plans, SOPs and the real data from the networks deployed in the RC N Area of Operations

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 5 (AOO). Due to the fact that the data capture is in its nature a highly technical procedure, it is being organized independently from the activities of the CPT. The JFTC coordinates the data capture with the ISAF IJC, RC N HQ in Mazar-e-Sharif and other NATO bodies which are supporting the RC N TEs. The obtained data are subsequently installed is to analyze the data and use them as the source of detailed information. It is exactly the moment when the hard work for the CPT begins and when the members of the team have to display a great deal of experience and creativeness. It is their mission to translate the data into the scenario which represents the expected real world development of the situation in the RC N AOO, in the time when the trained RC N HQ will actually be deployed. This concern for realism also relies on the number and expertise of the SMEs. SMEs are made available by the nations which are participating in the training or are sent by their respective NATO commands. Also, part of the SMEs representing IOs and riving directly from Afghanistan. In theory, their personal experience from the ISAF mission should not be older than six months. There are obvious reasons for such requirement. One of them is the fact that in the course of the TEs, the SMEs are playing pivotal role in all the phases of training, starting from the academic part through the Battle Staff Training (BST). They only take a step back when the TE transitions to the Mission Rehearsal Exercise (MRE) and then let the members of the trained RC N HQ do the job. Although there is a common understanding that the SMEs are essential for the quality of the training, their numbers and composition is often insufficient. Obvious reason for that is the operational tempo the NATO militaries are facing today. When talking about the realistic scenarios for the ISAF pre-deployment training one cannot forget the participation of the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) members. This is one of the most valuable features of the training organized by the NATO training centres. Initial ad hoc arrangements between the JFTC, NTM A and the ANSF counterparts have been replaced

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 6 with very concrete forms of cooperation. In 2011 the JFTC proposed that the ANSF participation should be adjusted to the specific training needs and training objectives of each training event. It means, for example, that for the RC N TE the ANSF representation should consist of the soldiers and policemen serving in the units or commands located in the RC N AOO. Also, the composition of the ANSF team supporting the training should include members of the Afghan National Army, Afghan National Police, and Afghan Border Police to fully reflect the real situation on the ground. The response to that request from the ANSF was positive. Since then, we are observing higher level of mutual engagement in all the aspects of training from both sides, the ANSF and the training audience. Mission Oriented Training The training events are organized to assist the commanders and the staffs with their preparation for the ISAF mission. The aim of the RC N TE 12-01 was to provide a training venue to prepare HQ RC N staff (core provided by the German 13 th Panzer Grenadier Division) for the mission execution in the RC N AOO. Overall objectives of the training were as follows: Promote continuity and common standards, Establish mission awareness among the staff members, Establish functional areas awareness, and Facilitate and rehearse staff actions and interactions. In addition, around 45 specific training objectives were adopted in cooperation with the JFC HQ Brunssum and designated RC N Commander Major General Erich Pfeffer. These objectives adequately covered all the principal parts of the Instructional Areas Mission Specific Training (MST), Functional Area Training (FAT), Functional Area Service Training (FAST), Round Table Discussions/ Panel Discussions, Battle Staff Training (BST) and Mission Rehearsal Exercise (MRE) which constitute the common structure of the NATO RC level TE. Just from this perspective, the complexity of the RC N TE is apparent. The RC N TE 12-01 was considered as one of the most successful RC level TEs ever conducted at the JFTC. As MG Pfeffer noted in his closing remarks it was also due to the well organized Key Leader Training (KLT) which was conducted just prior the exercise in Afghanistan. KLT was dedicated for the key staff members assigned to the future RC N HQ for deployment from March 2012 onwards. The overall aim of the KLT was to make them familiar with the ISAF mission, future tasks and responsibilities of the RC N and expectations of the ISAF/ IJC HQs. The KLT was covering the academic portion, briefings and also practice at the IJC and RC N headquarters. Topics were covering the Campaign Design, Strategic Risks Assessment, Governance and Development, Afghanistan Peace and reintegration Program, ISAF Mission Overview, Transition topics, etc. During the stay at the RC N HQ, of course, the content of the KLT focused on more practical and detailed issues. Obviously, equipped with this level of knowledge, all the key staff members of the training audience felt much more comfortable during all the phases of the RC N TE. As a result, during the training they demonstrated higher level of confidence, were active and assuming leading role whenever needed and capitalized better on the presence of the ANSF members and SMEs. If there is any Major General Erich Pfeffer, designated ISAF Regional Command North Commander, addressing the Training Audience

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 7 lesson to be taken it is that the KLT is one of the must -have prerequisites for successful execution of the RC level TE. One of the main themes for the RC N TE 1201 was obviously the ISAF transition process. All the topics and situations exercised mainly during the BST/ MRE phases of the training aimed at what could be shortKinetic Operations, CIED, Security and Governance, Personnel Recovery, SOF, ISAF Strategy, RC N Operations and Military Coordination, all these themes were, to a certain extent, linked to the ISAF transition process. 15 days of intensive preparation, four days of BST, four days of MRE, 11 VTC, 16 lectures, 11 Roundtable Discussions, Shura Training, Media Training and other training activities helped to create a training venue ideally suited to the needs of the training audience. From the JFTC perspective, the planning process was well understood and properly executed by the staff members with active participation of the ANSF members. The RC N HQ staff and all the key leaders have gained high level of understanding of the mission. They represent a capable, cohesive and confident staff ready ing process. Exploitation of the Distributed Training Capabilities Due to its continued determination to enhance the quality of the TEs and with the aim to replicate the ISAF environment for as many RC HQs as possible, the JFTC has increased its cooperation with the U.S. JCW in Suffolk. The JCW, on the other hand, needed to provide NATO tools and training procedures to the US HQs planned for deployment to Afghanistan. The cooperation with the JCW was first fully tested in January 2011 during the UE 11 1//RC TE E -NSW distributed exercise. During the exercise, the RC N HQ was trained in Bydgoszcz, while RC East and RC South West were trained in their locations in the USA, with the HICON representing the ISAF IJC and EXCON located in Suffolk. For all the participants this first distributed training event was a great success. Throughout the event, the JFTC has demonstrated its capacity to participate in complex exercises as a main contributor, in terms of both applied technology and the organization. These trends were confirmed in several other occasions throughout 2011 and the JFTC has been recognized as an essential partner across NATO and the U.S. Training Community. On 16 January 2012, the RC N TE 12 -01 started, again linked to the UE TE 121. At this time the connectivity had been established at three different levels. First, the RC N HQ conducted the training as a part of the larger scheme connected with the CECG (Ft. Riley), IJC (Grafenwoehr), RC E HQ (Ft. Riley) and the 3rd Expeditionary Sustainment Command (Ft. Knox). Second, the JFTC dispatched a training team and a liaison team to Ft. Riley. And finally, the JFTC established RC N Response Cell in Bydgoszcz to replicate the RC N HQ for specific phases of the training conducted in the U.S. This setting enabled to train several HQs in various locations simultaneously, even in different time zones. A year ago it was just a large experiment that became reality and a common standard. As mentioned before, the JFTC actively supported the RC E HQ in Fort Riley (Kansas) with delivery of the Academic Part of the training. Also, the JFTC attached a liaison team to the Combined Exercise Control Group (CECG) which was also located in Fort Riley. The RC E HQ is manned mainly by the members of the U.S. Army 1st Infantry Division. When first approached, it was, in fact, an honor to many members of the JFTC to have an opportunity to work closely with the division of such fame and mand of BG Grzegorz Buszka, the JFTC D COM, who was acting as the Exercise Deputy Director for UE 12 -1/Phase 2A (NATO Training), the JFTC provided expertise, lectures and panel discussions on the environment, tactics, techniques and procedures related to Afghanistan and the ISAF mission. The Commander of the 1st Infantry Division Major General Mayville highly valued the quality of training provided by the JFTC Training Team. Because such architecture turned out to be successful for NATO TEs, it is expected to continue with this organization of the pre deployment training until the end of the ISAF mission. At the same time we may conclude that distributed training has proven its value for the training of the NATO headquarters in the highest echelons of command. Conclusion: Successful Training Event in Complex Training Environment Constant search for the improvement of the TEs makes the JFTC more and more recognized as a NATO tactical level training centre. On the technical side, the JFTC has demonstrated its capacity to take part in the most complex distributed exercises. One of achieve a full training capacity with the most frequently used NATO C2 systems. Training is one of the main pillars of the transformation, and the JFTC is well equipped and prepared to take part in this essential mission of the Supreme Allied Command Transformation. The author serves as the JFTC Regional Command North Training Branch Head Shura during the RC N 12 01 TE

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 8 By Lieutenant Colonel Jaroslav Barilla The Joint Force Training Centre has just started another busy year. With many distintoasts to a prosperous New Year 2012 Major General Pavel Macko, the JFTC Commander, opened the ninth year of the CenThe JFTC is a relatively young institution, but one that has developed dynamically and matured quickly. Even though it appeared on the list of traditional NATO Structure institutions only recently, it had already earned a stable position. One may argue whether such a young institution, established in 2004, which was moved to its permanent compound just 3 years ago cannot have any real tradition, but do not be misled. Despite its young age, the JFTC has been developing and deepening its traditions since the very beginning. Some internal events become traditions, not only created for the benefit of the JFTC members and their families but also for the community in a wider sense, the community of Bydgoszcz and the Kujawsko Pomorskie Region citizens. A number of activities, like the International Day, various national holidays, or Christmas Tree Lighting, are destined for the internal community. There is, however, also one other activity in which not only the JFTC personnel take part but also representatives of the City of Bydgoszcz, Kujawsko -Pomorskie Voivodeship, and many local institutions and organizations, including the private sector and media tion. This tradition was established in 2007 and began on 11 January in an event led by Major General Agner Rokos, at that time the Director of the Joint Force Training Centre. General Rokos welcomed several representatives of local authorities and Polish Armed Forces, including the Voivode, the Deputy Mayor of Bydgoszcz, the Chief of the Inspectorate for Armed Forces Support, and the Commander of the Pomeranian Military District. Similar events took place also in 2008 and 2009, still under the leadership of General Rokos and later, after the change of command, Major General Ib Bager took over for the years 2010 and 2011. Some may ask whether there is any particular reason for hosting VIPs, or for investing our scarce resources in those visits but of all, the JFTC sees it as an opportunity to thank representatives of the local community for their support. We are an international institution the 92 soldiers, 18 NATO civilians and 29 contractors who work here represent 18 nations. Maybe the numbers quoted above do not look impressive but there is a family behind every single number. Serving abroad, far from homes, far from families and friends, you always need and appreciate any kind of support and help. We are lucky to have it from our Host Nation. The list of institutions that support us and with whom we cooperate is quite long and these are the ones we have to thank for they facilitate our wellbeing and support us in so many ways. On the military side let me only mention the Polish Ministry of Defense, the General Staff, Military Hospital, the Logistic Brigade and the newly established TRA

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 9 DOC, whereas on the civilian side, our deepest thanks go to the International School and Kazimierz Wielki University as well as to a number of private companies that proved patient and flexible dealing with our often changing requirements. In his speech that summarized 2011, Major General Bager thanked everyone who contributed to the Our relationship with all central authorities in Warsaw is close and governed by trust and good will to help us as much as possible. However, without the outstanding support from the local society here in Bydgoszcz, life would be very difficult. We owe a lot to the Mayor of Bydgoszcz, the Voivode, the Marshal, the Police, the University and the International School and all the other authorities in town chance to receive feedback from outside the JFTC. It is important to know the way we are perceived as it helps us improve and develop and if need be, change our strategy accordingly. It is good to remember that not only do we live in our own world but we are a part of something much bigger. We also take an opportunity to invite the media to our events they can help us create a positive image, using business language the image of a successful company, with successful products and services and with healthy culture. Thanks to this, the JFTC is seen as a respected and trusted institution with satisnations. All this is in line with the NATO Public Affairs Policy and a part of broader NATO Strategic Communication effort. On 29 April 2011 the new JFTC commander Major General Pavel Macko took over the position from Major General Ib Johannes Bager. Since the very beginning he has put in a lot of effort to develop good relationships between the JFTC and representatives of the local community. They attended the Change of Command ceremony, the JFTC Commander met them personally, and from time to time they are guests in his house. This brings us to a conclusion that the complex mosaic. This year, the JFTC New 2012. General Macko welcomed several Distinguished guests at the JFTC New Major General Pavel Macko, the JFTC Commander and Mrs. Ewa Mes, The Voivode of Kujawsko-Pomorskie Province, addressing the JFTC staff and guests

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 10 guests representing local authorities, including Members of Parliament, the Voivode, deputy Major of Bydgoszcz, officers representing military institutions as well as a representative of the General Staff of Armed Forces and many others. The JFTC Commander used this exceptional opportunity to thank all the guests for their tremendous support. only of NATO, but also Poland and Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodship. He also expressed his hopes for good cooperation in We are delighted to meet regularly with you during events like the one today. Your country and your city have become a second home for us. We are proud to be here with you and to be at least for a while your temporary fellow citizens General Macko added. Further in his speech, General Macko made a short summary of our achievements in 2011. He pointed out that relatively little centre has become known even to many distant militaries and nations beyond NATO boundaries, such as New Zealand, Australia, Jordan, United Arabic Emirates, Afghanistan, or Republic of Korea. For some the Centre has become for these nations something like an Embassy not only of NATO, but also Poland and Kujawsko Pomorskie Voivodship. There are representatives of 18 Allied Nations present in this relatively small but very powerful team who provide high quality training for the Allied and Partner Commanders and their staffs before their deployment to a mission areas or their Also the -Pomorskie Province, Mrs Ewa Mes, highlighted how significant for the whole region wished the whole JFTC family a successful and effective year. At the end of his speech General Macko wished everyone all the best, a lot of creativity, successes in private lives as well as throughout careers, but over all firm health to all participants and their families. we can, however, be sure that there will be another one in 2013. The tradition continues! The author serves as the JFTC

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 11

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 12 NATO pre-deployment training for the ISAF mission begins with Phase I, which represents preparation and training of units and staff members at the national level. This phase is crucial for fulfilling the most important pre-deployment training requirements and determines overall quality of the mission preparation. Nevertheless, for the officers who are assigned to the staff positions at higher echelons of command the most important part of the training rests with Phase II NATO Centralized Pre-deployment Training. That is the only phase of the predeployment training during which the real operating conditions, close to those existing in the theatre, can be realistically replicated for the rotating HQ and its staff. That pertains especially to specialized positions, such as CJ1 branch. It would be very difficult to attempt to create an adequate training environment for training of senior staff officers at the national level especially considering the fact that the composition of the staff, including their branches, is usually multinational. Only a handful of the NATO member states can provide such training conditions on their own. There is a genuine need for centralized and standardized training for higher NATO HQs where required level of orchestration and training can be achieved. Training at the JFTC for the ISAF Regional Commands (RC) is in fact the only existing institutional type of training which is: first, available for the future members of the CJ1 branch; and second, where organization of such realistic and comprehensive training for ISAF missions is possible. At present, after several months of service in Afghanistan as HQ RC N CJ1 Branch Head, I believe it is the right time to look back at my training at the JFTC and, with the experience obtained during the mission, make qualified recommendations for the improvement of the CJ1 Branch training. First, let me briefly summarize what the training at the JFTC enabled me to become familiar with: 1. the necessary staff procedures; 2. my function coordination requirements as the Head of CJ1 Branch with the rest of the staff; 3. standard operating procedures (SOP) for the most critical situations which we could encounter in the theater, and, last but not least; 4. meet other members of the HQ RC N who had been arriving in Bydgoszcz from many NATO countries. In short, the new staff was given the task to become, within two weeks, orchestrated and trained to the level which would enable a seamless take-over and subsequent execution of the mission as a coherent headquarters quite a challenge for both the JFTC and the training audience as well. Sharing Personal Experience: Sharing Personal Experience: Sharing Personal Experience: Pre Pre Pre deployment Training for CJ1 Branch at JFTC deployment Training for CJ1 Branch at JFTC deployment Training for CJ1 Branch at JFTC By Colonel Miroslav Kranj ec

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 13 From a CJ1 Branch perspective, training at the JFTC provided us with the fundamental competencies necessary to support the RC N mission. On the other hand it is a known fact that no training can prepare you for all the eventualities you may encounter during the real operation. Despite a high quality of training and our individual dedication, after deployment, members of the CJ1 Branch experienced an array of challenges, which, for the most part, were previously known to us, but their actual scope was largely unexpected and from our side underestimated. Among many others, the following were the most demanding: frequent rotation of personnel (most nations every 4-6 months); variety of leave policies among the troop contributing nations; collection, evaluation and processing of different command and control relationships; language barrier (18 troop contributing nations); wide spread of engagements, variety of partners, mix of military personnel and civilian experts from different international organizations and agencies in the HQ; large number of additional personnel who do not fill authorized posts; frequent incidents involving KIA/WIA soldiers. Therefore, deriving from our experience from pre-deployment training and subsequent deployment to Afghanistan, we have formulated several recommendations for the future CJ1 Branch training as a part of RC training at the JFTC. Basic considerations All preparations for training events should be done by Subject Matter Experts (SME). This is necessary for the successful conduct of training in all its phases. SMEs should participate in the JFTC preparation for training (before it starts) and define needed materials for training and imagine exercise. Based on the SMEs request, training materials should be provided by the current Chief CJ1 in HQ RC N (via JFTC staff). SMEs (before training) should require and prepare: updated SOPs related to personnel matters; list of units in RC N which will play role in the Exercise; layout and personnel strength (Authorized and Manned) of the units in AOO RC N; CE of HQ RC N (with empty postings); annual timeline with HOTO phases in AOO RC N; list of attendees with assigned duties; other templates to be used during the exercise.

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 14 During the training event, the SMEs should have the possibility to communicate with CJ1 RC N in real time in order to provide additional information. Also, they should have a possibility to send same suppositions (PERSREP, CASREP, etc) to attendees during the exercise, so they should issue both, NATO IS account and Exercise NET account for work stations. Initial phase (Preparation) Most nations include in their national pre -deployment training the following topics: History of Afghanistan; Cultural Differences; Security Situation (or Assessment); Health and sanitary conditions, Rules of Engagement and other areas related to the general situation in Afghanistan. It means the majority of the members of the future RC N HQ were arriving at the JFTC equipped with at least the fundamentals of these topics. Besides this, every participant of the RC pre-deployment training was required to complete an Advanced Distance Learning (ADL) course which again covers some of the aforementioned items, but in addition also: COIN Doctrine, C-IED, Lines of Operation, Afghanistan Developing Projects, ANSF Development, GIROA Establishment, Legal Aspects of ISAF Mission, etc. Because of that, the academic part of the training at the JFTC covering general topics should be limited to the minimum and should focus more on the Functional Areas Training (FAS). Practical training should then be considered as the main method of work wherever applicable. FAS training for CJ1 Branch participants should be allotted about 18 hours. Additionally, 2 hours for the whole of training auditorium and 1 hour specifically for the Senior National Representatives (SNR) of training covering CJ1 functional area should be incorporated into the first week of training. During the initial phase of training for CJ1 personnel the SMEs should cover: 1. Introduction to all SOPs from personnel functional area in order to explain purpose and procedure in particular processes (3 hours). 2. More detailed instructions (presentation and basic practice) for: a. to enable participants to prepare final PESREP for IJC and Weekly Update Briefing (WUB) for HQ RC N (2 hours); b. enable participants to prepare Manning list (partly) of HQ (2 hours); c. in order to qualify participants to process CASREP and NOKCONFREP according to SOP and update Casualties Data Base (2 hours); d. qualify participants to prepare Order of the Day, Letter of Condolence and FRAGO for Commemoration Ceremony (3 hours). 3. Introduction to CE HQ RC N in order to understand context and purpose of the CE and fulfill same authorized posts with names (SME can use In-Processing Sheets of participants of the TE with their as

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 15 signed postings IOT fulfill manning list) (2 hours). 4. Explanation of HOTO process (RIP/TOA) and its importance for operational planning (1 hour). 5. Introduction to NATO ISAF SECRET NETWORK (Mic Outlook, Task List, Share Point etc.) in order to enable participants to work properly on the network tools (3 hours). Besides the proposed items for CJ1 Branch training, there are the same SOPs from CJ1 functional area about which all the future members of the HQ RC N should be informed during the training event (2 hours): 1. describe procedures for newcomers when they arrive in the theatre; 2. scribe leave policy by nations and procedures and how to get leave during the mission; 3. ating personnel. should be presented to the SNRs (majority of Key Leaders are usually SNRs in HQ) (1 hour): 1. describe common standards for professional military conduct, appearance and discipline in RC N AOO; 2. define procedures and responsibilities of ats, discipline, personnel reporting, national issue etc. Conducting Training After the Initial Phase (Preparation phase) training should be continued through 2 main phases: Battle Staff Training (BST) and Mission Rehearsal Exercise (MRE). During the BST participants should start practice personnel procedures in accordance with the presented SOPs (without operational situation) in order to be ready to apply the same procedures during the MRE in an imagined operational situation. Through both main phases we should continuously to enable them to work with personnel procedures without any assistance at the end of pendence can be divided into 3 levels of 1. practice work with significant assistance from SME; 2. rehearsal with symbolic assistance of SME; 3. participation in Exercise without SME assistance. During the BST participants (using original templates) should practice: To file vacancy postings in CE list (using in -processing sheets of participants on the Exercise) IOT prepare manning list HQ RC N and keep it updated during the exercise; prepared and sent by SME) IOT prepare HQ RCN PERSREP for IJC and Weekly Update Briefing for HQ RCN (templates should be provided from current CJ1 in RC N); Monitoring JOC WATCH and exercise procedures with CASREP and NOKCONFREP and update CASREP database (SMEs should send by mail earlier prepared CASREPs and NOKCONFREPs); Preparation FRAGO for Commemoration Ceremony; Participating in OPP (JOPG) IOT prepare CJ1 contribution for MAB and annually timeline of HOTO phases in RC N (templates and dates of HOTO should be prepared by SMEs earlier). Participants should also practice the same procedures during the MRE but this time in the exact operational situation following the rhythm of other staff elements in HQ (CJOC, CJ3, CJ5 etc.) and with less influence of the SMEs. End State Training is considered successful if all participants preparing for CJ1 posts received basic knowledge of SOPs from the personnel functional area and gained advanced knowledge about procedures (including templates) in the sub -functional area they will be responsible for. This way of training might be more difficult to organize but such preparations would minimize the time for HOTO phase in the Area of Operation and quickly enable newcomers to start work properly with full operational capability at the beginning of their mission. Author is currently serving as Chief CJ1 HQ RC North, ISAF

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 16 By Brigadier General Jaromr Zuna Let me begin with the following, commonly known statement: the best were leaving us and we were not In many respects this statement could be easily used to describe the recent evolution of the Joint Force Training Centre in Bydgoszcz (JFTC). Especially the last two years could be characterized as the period of dynamic growth in practically all the segcompetencies. Whereas the first one is mainly reflected by a growing number of successfully executed training events, the latter refers to a quantum leap in its institutional development. Capitalizing on the tremendous achievements of the people who have established and built this institution, including state of the art facilities, the current has to pick up the torch and embark on the next stage daunting task to further pursue the institutional development of this new NATO training institution. People who serve and work at the JFTC understand the trust, which has been vested in them, and pursue this vision with vigor. The aim is to make the fast pace of the ment a permanent standard, a philosophy of life among the staff, with particular attention given to qualitative characteristics of the process. There is nothing new in recognizing that people, their talents, invention and creativity are instrumental for the success of any organization. With that in mind, the JFTC has, among many other things, instigated a broadened professional development program which now focuses more on knowledge and looking forward, rather than the mechanical processing of regulations, guidance and administrative requirements, so as to make people more involved in paving the way for the future of the institution. In other words, attainment of a higher level of professionalism within the institution has to go hand in hand with qualitative changes in the preparation of people and commitment from the leadership to their individual success. People who serve and work at the JFTC have started their careers in their home countries, environments and cultures, and they came to the JFTC only to successfully finish them there. What they are looking for is the potential for professional growth which, they expect, exists within the environment of NATO organizations. Therefore, from the very beginning, the new approach was well received by people at the JFTC. Practically all the culture is transferred to the next generation through a process of learning. To a large extent we may say a similar thing about the military culture. Fortunately, the fact that the region is rich with military history makes it relatively easy to exploit the lessons learned from major battles for military training and professional growth. Therefore, as a part of a professional development program, we introduced Staff Rides to the most famous battlefields. One may say that it is a customary arrangement. For sure it is a true statement, but the difference rests with the complexity with which such an event is approached. The first visit was to the museum and Panorama of the fought on 4 April 1794 between the insurrectionist forces of regulars and peasant volunteers under famous General Tadeusz Kosciuszko and Russian troops commanded by General Alexander Tormasov. The next event was much more ambitious, but on the other hand an obvious one a Staff Ride to the Austerlitz Battlefield, Czech Republic. Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 16

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 17 The Battle of Austerlitz carries as much fame as historical heritage which reaches beyond just the military domain that even the distance and traveling time did not dissuade all those who could attend. The reward for the participants was an opportunity to make a full battlefield tour visit places and experience things, which individually would be very difficult to arrange. The tour commenced early in the mor ning at the Peace Monument followed by a guided tour through the Museum of the Austerlitz Battlefield. Both the monument and the museum are located on the summit of the Pratzen Heights from which the guests have a beautiful view over the whole battlefield and beyond. Subsequently, the whole group from the JFTC traveled to Zuran, where allowed the participants to see the battlefield could see the order of the battle and espethe battle. Since the battlefield covers a large area, the tour takes time. Therefore, the next stop was at The Old Post Office which is a famous spot on the battlefield. There we had an opportunity to visit another battlefield museum, we watched a battle drill demonstration presented by members of one of the many local Napoleonic Clubs, and at the end we tasted local cuisine in an old fashioned, stylish Old Post Office Restaurant. While visiting the battlefield no one can miss the Austerlitz Castle. The place, which was chosen as a venue for political negotiations in the aftermath of The Battle of the Three Emperors, as the battle is also known. During the tour of the castle the participants could admire beautiful interiors, gardens and learn other historical lessons about the battle and its political consequences for this part of Europe. The article provides too little space to capture all the lessons and historical facts which we learned during the staff visit. What is certain, is that true understanding cannot be obtained without having first hand experience from the actual battlefield, to be able to put theoretical information previously obtained from other sources, into right proportions. The Staff Ride to the Austerlitz Battlefield was a much appreciated learning expe

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 18 rience for all the participants. The experience gained from the staff ride now enables experience gained from the staff ride now enables those who are interested to make an even more demanding trip to Austerlitz on their own and attend the annual reenactment of the Battle of Austerlitz, a truly large event,which every year attracts thousands of spectators. Success leads to commitment and therefore, for 2012, the JFTC plans to organize two other staff visits as a part of the Professional Development Program. Finally, I would like to use this opportunity to express our sincere thanks to the Training Command Military Academy in Vyskov, without whose support the event would not have been possible. The author is the JFTC Chief of Staff

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 19 The Role of the White Cell The Role of the White Cell The Role of the White Cell By James Cassidy it is neceswork more closely with our civilian partners on the ground, and at a political level especially the European Union and the United November 2010, underlined that lessons learned from NATO operatary means, although essential, are not enough on their own to meet the many complex challenges to Euro-Atlantic and international security. comprehensive approach to crisis management as part of the internato stabilisation and reconstruction. Following up on the Lisbon decisions, a new partnership policy was endorsed by NATO foreign ministers at their meeting in Berlin in April 2011. Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen. The rhetoric is clear and conceptually makes tremendous sense. But the reality of bringing different actors together for training and working together provides more of a challenge. Diplomatic goals, cultural differences, mission differences, organisational use of language, processes and procedures and for some agencies, the need to maintain their independence and acceptance by reducing association with the military, all contribute to increasing the challenge. Historically, and possibly for good reason, there have been natural barriers between security forces who all experience similar risk in complex environing security, development, governance, and so on. The development of a common understanding of all the different organisations involved in a crisis situation is a challenge. This is especially so given the sheer number of organisations all with their defined mandates and missions. The shrinking military across NATO contributing nations, will mean that greater emphasis and investment will need ing, both planning operations and reacting to crises would benefit from a joint understanding of the different roles and responsibilities of actors operating in the same space as the military. Therefore working alongside each other needs to be rehearsed, relationships developed and a clear understanding of the intentions, the working practices and the limitations of each organization should be developed in a benign enviJoint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 19

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 20 ronment and not learnt during a relatively short deployment. All too often, it could be argued that ad hoc solutions are arrived upon during a crisis at the tactical level where the individuals from various organisations are forced to find a way to make things happen through development of personal relationships. Therefore the old adage that friends made before a deployment can save lives during one rings true across all entities. It is apparent to those that work in a crisis environment that all entities must understand each other in order to maximise their various effects. That is after all, the aim of everyone involved. The necessity for integrated training is therefore widely acknowledged and there are suggestions of working groups being set up at an international level with staff from the UN, NATO, the EU, as well as from other agencies. The objective being to create a Memorandum of Understanding to clarify the links between NGOs and the military that should prevail in complex crisis areas, in parallel with the existing work on interactions between the military and humanitarian workers in case of major disasters. However, what is being done at an operational level in terms of delivering training to the individuals, staff and teams within the organisations to develop a joint approach? The challenge is organising and coordinating a training event which can rehearse the comprehensive approach with the different organisations represented. With time and budget pressure, there must be mutual benefit; training programs must meet the needs of all present. This will take a huge planning and coordination effort. The training facilities that are in place for the military can of course provide a perfect hosting environment for training programs. For the military, training and exercising with civilian organisations is not a new phenomenon and civilian representatives have been present on numerous exercises edge and information. A White Cell has been a core facet of the training events at Joint Force Training Centre (JFTC) since its inception in 2005, with representation from cultural advisors, NGOs, Government officials, Counter Narcotics experts, security firms and humanitarian representatives, to name a few. The expertise is conveyed to the training audience either in the form of lectures, panel discussions, round table discussions, or with the White Cell acting as role players. However, it is widely acknowledged that investment in training for a changing world is substantial. The Department of Defense in US spent $22 billion on training and simulation products and services in FY 2009 and estimates spending $24 billion by 2015, a large portion of which is the use of role players within training. en-GB Why is role playing such a key element to training? Because it is seen as one of the best methods to aide learning and understanding how to react given certain situations. There are two types of learning "assimilation" and "accommodation." Both processes are complementary and concurrent, but different types of learning tend to emphasise one or the other mode. Assimilation is a process of learning by rote. In contrast, experiential learning, for example learning to ride a bicycle, is accommodation. Accommodation tends to be the kind of learning that is almost impossible to fully forget. A training event must challenge the individual and teams to think, but thinking at any level of complexity requires an exercise of three interdependent component categoJoint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 20 Shura White Cell Team

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 21 en-GB ries of skills: problem-solving; communications; and self-awareness. Any exercise incorporating the use of role play goes some way to exercise all three of these skills. en-GB en-GB Historical Background en-GB The term "role" comes from the "rolledup" script used by actors over two thousand years ago in Ancient Greece. In time, the actors were said to play the "role". But one can also create a role, improvise a performance, and an aspect of role playing was that of assessment, a test of how a person would act when placed in an imagined or pretend problematic situation. en-GB Before 1945 the German high command used this method in order to reform their officer corps. The goal was genuine merit instead of the old tradition of using the college-educated sons of the aristocracy, too many of whom were far from real leaders. Other armies did not pick up on the technique until well after the Second Word War. en-GB Role playing therefore continues to form an exceptionally important element of the Mission Rehearsal Exercise, and will remain a requirement. It is part of the solution where representation from some agencies cannot be achieved. But it cannot replace the expressed need for combined training with representatives from all the different agencies working shoulder to shoulder. At JFTC the design of the training events provides an exceptionally robust framework which allows a tremendous amount of flexibility to Commanders wanting to shape the exercises to their needs. It is through this framework that the ability to develop and rehearse military process whilst integrating and incorporating those of other organisations is facilitated. The ability to conduct training events of different scales, from large Mission Rehearsal Exercise comprising simulated scenarios to the smaller, dynamic print without the Mission rehearsal Exercise (MRE) but utilises vignettes and case studies in the Battle Staff Training. The Type B concept provides a neat package that is easily scalable and transportable to other locations to suit the needs of Training Audiences and can allow close working relationships to develop. en-GB The future en-GB In recent history the focus of attention, certainly for the military, has been on the Iraq and Afghanistan, of course the Arab spring of 2011 also being a key event. Humanitarian disasters are increasing such as Haiti. Training establishments, programs and environments are now fully developed to simulate the situation within these areas. However it is clear that the military and civilian organisations must look to the future, to identify where and what form future deployments will take. Climate change, depleting resources, civil unrest in other areas of the world demonstrates the increasing importance civil cooperation. Developing the practices for combined planning, which includes representation from civilian agencies from the outset must be seen as key to success. en-GB Integrated / combined training has now begun in some areas. ARCADE SPEAR the recent NATO Allied Rapid Reaction Corps exercise was held in October 2010 to ensure civilian-military integration at the highest level prior to deployment to ISAF Joint Headquarters in early 2011. It included establishment not just of host nation, but of a full embassy from a Western power to develop and test integration of civilian aspects and liaison. The level of integration achieved such success that, at ARRCs request, three civilian planners deployed to ISAF Joint Command. Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 21

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 22 During September 2011, the staff of 1 (German/Netherlands) Corps (1GNC) conducted an exercise COMMON EFFORT together with an equal number of civilian representatives of civil authorities and international organisations, involving combined planning and coordination of a mission in a crisis area. Amongst the lessons learnt was the common goal of all organisations to prevent the crisis and the different perspectives in the short and long term of diplomats and development organisations and tactically the establishment of a walk -in coordination centre to be deployed on operations as the link. The French Rapid Reaction Corps from Lille have trailed a similar concept during exercise CITADEL GUIBERT in Germany in November 2011, and others are following the same route. The output from the Lisbon Treaty has also resulted in the First EU crisis management exercise (CME 11) which ran from 18 November to 6 December 2011. Emphasising the need for elaborating an EU comprehensive approach to a crisis covering military as well as civilian aspects, CME 11 evaluated a range of EU crisis response and management structures with a view to improving the EU capacity to manage crises, including decision making and planning processes in a rapidly changing environment. JFTC will continue to embrace and embed the comprehensive approach into all training activity that is conducted. The need to promote a Comprehensive Approach applies not only to the major operations which are in the forefront of our news at present but more broadly to many of NATO's efforts to deal with 21st century security challenges such as fighting terrorism, improving energy security, preventing proliferation of weapons and dangerous materials, protecting against cyber -attacks, and confronting the threat of piracy. NATO's contribution to a Comprehensive Approach will be a key feature in the new Strategic Concept. Therefore, a white cell is increasingly important to facilitate accurate simulation of complex scenarios. The author is the Director at OAKAS Ltd. Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 22 OAKAS Ltd. has supported numerous training events for NATO and works in the international environment to assist organisations develop and maintain plans for crisis management, business continuity and communications. Oakas supports the planning, scripting and delivery of training and exercises for key leaders and staff to react in accordance with organisational plans. Key to the OAKAS ethos is a belief in the development of critical thinking and problem solving. OAKAS has a network of ex military and civilian associates and experts with a range of recent experiences from all over the world. This ensures that OAKAS is able draw on the right people to provide a tailored approach to support events of varying complexity.

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 23 NATO Civilians Pre NATO Civilians Pre NATO Civilians Pre deployment Course deployment Course deployment Course By WO Ondrej Zeman By WO Ondrej Zeman By WO Ondrej Zeman From the field A cold, wet early morning. Several groups of two or three grey silhouettes, exhausted and almost sleeping, but still marching with their flak jackets and helmets on and heavy rucksacks on their shoulders. The only thing on their minds is that the welldeserved rest and the D-Fac are close. Unfortunately, this is not the end, but rather the beginning of the next, even more challenging phase of training. Their minds are full of thoughts of the upcoming uncertainty. Now, they all fully understand the exact meaning of the words they heard just a few days ago expect and what has been prepared for you These were his words and it seems he was really serious about it! It may look like an extract from a book or a movie depicting war stories. Nevertheless, in this case we are talking about something not that common. Grey silhouettes are not soldiers and instead of the field uniforms they are dressed in blue or red overalls representing their training teams. These men and women are NATO civilians who are facing challenges of the field training which is a part of the NATO Civilians Pre-deployment Course (NCPC). Historical background The Armed Forces of the Czech Republic (AFCR) have developed longtime traditions and have gathered rich experience in training not only armed forces personnel, but also civilian officials in public administration, diplomats, media reporters, representatives of international and non-governmental organizations for crisis management operations. Since 1990, training of civilian personnel for crisis management operations in the AFCR has been extended to the international dimension, which has gradually become an ambition of the Czech Republic and its con

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 24 tribution to fulfill international commitments resul ting from its membership in NATO and the EU(1). Ambitions for international training of civilian personnel stem from the experience, knowledge, and organizational capabilities of selected organizations in the defense sector and their ability to provide training and education at the required level for the needs of both the Czech Republic and its allies. The ambitions have been proven by rich, longtime lessons learned in the field of training personnel to meet the AFCR requirements and, in many cases, by running educational and training activities at an international level. The ambitions are also backed with modern training facilities and a sufficient number of training areas needed for practical training. The main organization in the AFCR responsible for international training is the Training Command Military Academy in -MA is a departmental educational and training facility (departmental school) of the MOD CZ. Besides its core functions such as basic and specialized training, military career education, development of doctrines, management of simulation centers and military training areas, the institution is also responsible for various multinational training projects including pre deployment trainings for NATO and Ministry of Foreign Affairs civilian personnel. Based on the experience that the Czech Republic gathered organizing courses for civilians, in January 2006 the NATO Assistant Secretary General for Executive Management submitted, via the Czech Republic Military Representative to NATO/EU, a request to prepare NATO Civilians Pre deployment Course(2). With an increasing deployment of NATO civilian staff in support of NATO operations, NATO needed to ensure that civilians serving in NATO staff positions are fully prepared for any conditions they may face which requires effective and thorough training. Currently, NATO offers staff training in a number of important areas. Nonetheless, with the aim to increase NATO civilthere was a need for a comprehensive pre deployment training program(3). NATO required that the pre -deployment training would cover, among others, topics such as: coping with stressful situations; handling negotiations; basic human rights; effective radio communication; handling potential hostage situations; map reading; security and threat assessment. The Czech project won the competition among nine NATO member countries. Subsequently the Czech Republic has been accredited for running the NATO Civilians Pre-Deployment Course (TDD-U3)(4). Currently the course is planned by TC -MA in cooperation with the Talent Management and Organizational Development in NATO HQ IS Brussels. It is organized in 5 sessions per year for 40 participants a session. In 23 runs so far, there were 764 attendees who successfully completed the course. Since 2008 there has been an ADL pre -course organized and held by ACT Norfolk. The course participants are the NATO core (NICs) or contracted civilian employees of particular NATO agencies. The course nomination is ACO / ACT responsibility. Realistic training Participation in a NATO Civilians Pre

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 25 deployment Course is mandatory for all NATO civilian personnel who deploy in support of NATO operations. The aim of the course is to provide NATO civilian personnel with the knowledge, habits and skills necessary for a safe and successful participation in NATO missions and operations worldwide. the purpose of the course is not to show the trainees how to survive in an office but rather to teach them how military works and what critical skills they need to obtain before being deployed. That also includes their preparation for the worst possible scenarios which might occur. For that purpose, the pre -deployment training is as close to reality as possible in order to show them where their individual limits are. a. Structure of the NATO Civilians Pre Deployment Course: Theoretical Part: Current NATO Operations; Culture Awareness; Force Protection; Theoretical-Practical Part CBRN Protection; Mine and IED Awareness; Topography; Theoretical-Practical Part CBRN Protection; Mine and IED Awareness; Topography; Special Psychological Aspect of the Mission; Survival Skills and Knowledge; Radio Communication; Medical Training; b. The course is scheduled for 8 training days: c. The course curriculum and its organization are aimed at achieving maximum quality of training. Theoretical Practical Part (4 days, 10 training periods per day): Cultural Awareness; Perception of cultural awareness as essential to understand operational environment; Mission oriented cultural training; Principles of successful meeting; Religion, Islam. Mine and IED Awareness; Lessons learned from current operations Iraq, Afghanistan; Emphasis basic rules when in a minefield, with and without mine accident. Medical training; First Aid Course Training is focused on Combat Life Saving; Rules for individual and collective hygiene; Medical characteristics of the operational environment mission oriented; Dangerous animals and plants in the area of operation mission oriented; CASEVAC/MEDEVAC. Force Protection; Force protection in general; Basics of force protection on base, in convoy, or other activities; Practical exercise. Communication and Principles of Radio Communication; NATO radio communication procedures and practical training. CBRN Protection; Operating NATO standardized individual NBC protection kit; Basic skills, procedures and practical training. Topography; WGS 84 System; Map features and their utilization; Practical land navigation exercise using map, azimuth, GPS; Orientation by using improvised means. Basic Survival Skills and Knowledge; Building of shelters, finding water, finding and preparing food from natural resources, building fires. Special Physical Training; Improvised transport of the injured. Psychological Training (emphasis on stress factors in missions and rudiments of negotiations); Psychological aspects of missions, ultimate and life threatening situations; Psychological aspects of captivity; Psychological aspects of negotiating under psychological, physical and Wed Arrival Thu Theoretical -Practical Part Fri Sat Sun Mon Complex Field Training Tue Wed Departure

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 26 Complex Field Training (2 days 36 hours day -night -day training based on a realistic scenario in the field and Forward Operating Base FOB): The complex field training is based on acting in specific situations with the use of knowledge and lessons learned from the theoretical -practical part. Training is continuous and includes day and night activities. Complex field training is conducted in a military training area and a base, built and equipped like a FOB in current NATO operations. Course participants operate in small teams of up to 10 persons. Tactical and situational scenarios are designed to make trainees reach logical solution. During the training, the participants must show a variety of needed skills and knowledge. To illustrate, listed below, there are some situations that participants must practically solve or go through during the course: Encountering a check -point manned by the paramilitary group and negotiating free passage through a hostile territory; Driving into a minefield and solving practical situations with and without a mine accident, evacuation of injured, first aid; Forced movement on foot from an endangered area in rough terrain; Evacuation from the base under artillery attack with the use of chemical agents; Falling into an ambush, captivity, transport in captivity on different vehicles (trucks, armored personal carriers, etc.), imprisonment, interrogation, humiliation, deterrence and adaptation to stress situations and psychological pressure; Basic survival skills, fire building, preparation of food in field conditions; Crossing fire and smoke obstacle course including sub -terrain avenues; Setting radio communication, radio operating skills, practical training in sending situational report (SITREP), sending MEDEVAC request; Providing first aid to a wounded person in a refugee camp; Rescue of hostages by friendly forces and reaction to tasks and instructions given by soldiers, coordination of mutual activities; Gaining control over fear of armored vehicles run over by armored vehicles while in ditches and trenches; etc. The following skills are trained during the abovementioned situations: practical ability to respond to a situation of driving into a minefield; negotiating skills; application of first aid skills; survival skills; behavior under pressure of culture shock; overcoming captivity stress and humiliation, followed by discussions with a psychologist; employment of individual CBRN protective equipment and individual protective material; orientation and topographic skills; radio communication skills; ability to cooperate with military and civilian actors; endure real battle feelings and stress; etc. At the end of the course, instructors and participants conduct evaluation of the course and have a meeting with the organizers. The evaluation includes discussions on individual subjects, study areas and phases of training. The students also have to complete their evaluation reports which are subsequently sent to NATO. Graduation ceremony takes place at the Chateau of Slavkov (Austerlitz). The trainers The NATO Civilians Pre -deployment course itself is run by the Special Courses life threatening pressure; Basics for successful negotiation. Fire Fighting; Fundamentals of firefighting, fire protection, reaction to signals, use of technical and improvised means.

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 27 Development Section of the Department of Training of the TC -MA. It is appropriate to introduce the Chief of the Department of Training, COL Karel Klinovsky, since he is the courseoriginator as well. His combat and operational experience in command and leadership e.g. in Balkans or Afghanistan applied into the design and concept of the course were highly graded and appreciated by course participants same as by ACO and ACT representatives in Brussels and Norfolk. I believe then, he forgives me the nickbeginning. It is based truly and only on the sincere respect to him and honor I had to serve under his command. Speaking particularly about this course I have been grateful for the opportunity to be one of the Chief Instructors and being involved in the concept building and all course runs so far. With such leadership and qualified personnel as well the Department of training has the know -how and wide experience in organizing similar crisis management courses e.g. for diplomats, journalists or NGO members even on an international level. The instructors have a lot of personal experience from the NATO, UN or coalition missions. Also, most of them have been trained or educated in foreign schools and prestigious training centres. Since military installation in Vyskov is home for a number of other institutions with substantive international training programs (JCBRN Defense COE, BMATT/CZ, DLI, NBC Institute of NDU, NBC Polygon, etc.) it enables the instructors to stay in close contact with the military personnel from NATO and partner countries and share the most recent experience from the field with them. All this makes Vyskov a truly unique location for organizing the NCPC. Since its establishment, the NCPC has won a great deal of reputation within the Alliance. Let me, therefore, conclude the article with the observation made by a course graduate, a former British officer: other participants was a high level of professionalism we encounter here. I think I know how to judge and distinguish quality. I noticed that your training involves also current knowledge from operations, which is extremely important. We want to thank the Command of the Vyskov base, the course The author is a member of the JFTC Staff Support Branch Photos: TC-MA Vyskov

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 28 Held at Held at Ostromecko Palace Ostromecko Palace By Tadeusz Syka Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 28 3rd JFTC Ball 3rd JFTC Ball

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 29 In the autumn of 2010 the JFTC COS presented the idea of establishing a new tradition at the JFTC by organizing a truly international ball, including all the proprieties which such cultural event entails, people supported the idea, but many were curious about the eventual outcome. Two years later Ostromecko Palace, where the ball is held, seems too small to accommodate all those who would like to attend. Since 2010 the JFTC Ball has become the most attractive social event organized for the still growing community of people serving and working for NATO in Bydgoszcz. NATO community in Bydgoszcz? Is in Bydgoszcz larger than just the JFTC? Yes, it is. Besides the JFTC, Bydgoszcz is also home to the 3rd NATO Signal Battalion, NCSA Squadron, and JFTC Support Unit of the Polish Armed Forces. Furthermore, nobody is excluding the possibility that the family of international units and institutions located in Bydgoszcz may further expand one day. Actually, behind this effort of making Bydgoszcz one of the future NATO centers lays the reason for organizing the JFTC Ball. It is obvious that the expanding community of military and civilian personnel working for NATO and their dependants living in Bydgoszcz, need to be supported by a fully developed Morale & Welfare Program. The ball is just one of the items on the list of the new M & W activities which are jointly organized by all the aforementioned NATO entities. Besides meeting this fundamental requirement of ensuring required quality of life for the NATO personnel, there is also another source of motivation fostering cooperation, cohesion and friendship among different NATO entities and their personnel. With that in mind, the JFTC Ball is a perfect occasion to pursue this goal. Commander Major General Pavel MACKO and his wife Zlatica MACKOVA personally welcomed around 230 guests. And then, having entered the beautiful interiors of the Ostromecko Palace, the guests were immediately overwhelmed by the cordial atmosphere and beautiful setting of the ball. First, a group photo was taken which excellent beginning which only added more prestige to the ball. This article is too short to list everything that was on the tables that night. Roast duck, goose, turkey, king fish, caviar and traditional Polish dishes like demanding food connoisseur. After a substantial meal, exactly at 2100 the dancing part of the evening began. First, professional dancers of great class from Gdansk presented samba, rumba and a waltz show. It was especially attractive for the male part of the audience due to the beauty and dancing skills of the lady, who together with her partner, presented the dance show. The guests really enjoyed the show which also served as encouragement to take part in couple of the 3rd JFTC Ball Dance Contest, Sgt Marcin Gachewicz from the 3rd NSB and the very beginning and it was quite easy to predict who probably would win. A military band conducted by Capt Dominik Sierzputowski, kicked off the dancing, and persuaded even the most stubborn to join others on the dance floor. A dance leader and a DJ till 3 am ensured some sore feet the next day! During the whole night, the guests enjoyed the open bar staffed by professional bartenders who added bartender show elements. Organizers also remembered about the traditional charity lottery. During the ball, lottery volunteers collected more than 4000 PLN. This amount supported the Bydgoszcz Maltese Medical Corp. The lottery would not have been possible without the support of Senior National Representatives, the 3rd NATO Signal Battalion, the NCBY, the JFTC Support Unit and the Bydgoszcz Civilian Staff Association. They funded prizes for of the winning ticket holders in the lottery. The donation to the Maltese Medical Corp in Bydgoszcz was presented on behalf of all the contributors by Brigadier General Jaromir ZUNA, the JFTC Chief of Staff, who was in charge of the preparation of the ball and also was one of the key founders of this new tradition. The 3rd JFTC Military Ball was a successful and enjoyable social event whose fame is reaching beyond the boundaries of just NATO community in Bydgoszcz. Therefore the JFTC Ball Committee would like to take this opportunity to welcome everybody to attend the 4th JFTC Military Ball which will be held on 17 November 2012. It is an event to attend! The first dance during the 3rd JFTC Ball The author is a member of the JFTC Protocol Office Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 29

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 31 T h e J F T C R e t r o s p e c t i v e l y T h e J F T C R e t r o s p e c t i v e l y By Major General Ib Johannes Bager When I retrospectively look at my time as the Commander JFTC, I can, without hesitance, say that it was no doubt the best time in my 40 years of service to the Queen. And why is that? There is no simple answer to that question, but if I should phrase it in short terms, it is because the JFTC is unique in a great variety of aspects. First of all, the JFTC is small. Everybody depends upon each other. If someone fails, they have no immediate back up. Everybody has to rely on each other and everyone has to do their best. And they do. Often, when I left my office late at night, I took a tour through the JFTC buildings being certain to find someone working even later than I did. Hard work is a key to success, but it will not do the trick alone. I was often amazed about the quality of people the JFTC attracted. Professional knowledge and attitude to the task has always been a trademark for the JFTC. In my time, the staff comprised of individuals from 17 nations with very different backgrounds. But I was astonished to see how fast they could overcome the existing barriers. And they are numerous among international staff. Often cultural barriers are the most difficult to overcome. We all bring with us very different luggage with us from our nations. This, coupled with the language barrier, can turn out to be a very explosive cocktail, if not handled right. The staff comes from different services, army, navy, air force and there are also civilians. Those subcultural differences and different backgrounds can be hard to handle even at national level, let alone in an international environment with all the other barriers to overcome. But at the JFTC it never seemed to matter too much. There is a kind of an institutional understanding that you owe it to the soldiers visiting the JFTC that they proper training not to be put at unnecessary risk. And in that perspective you have to disregard the barriers and make it work. But this cannot happen, if you are not willing to take the responsibility for what you do and accept the notion that if you act, you will unavoidably make mistakes. There is certainly nothing wrong in making mistakes as long as you learn from them and choose not to make another one next time. For some nationalities this is more difficult to handle, but I am proud to say that I felt that most JFTC staff were willing to make a difference in this field. Related to this we often discussed how regulations and directives should be handled, and intellectually we jointly moved from the I must say it was a daily joy for me to see how well this was understood and how creative everybody at the JFTC was. It is this creativeness that moved the JFTC forward through the moving to the new facility, learning to use the state of the art technologies and facilities provided, doing very advanced training on the site and later expanding to do virtual training between two continents and in three different time zones. Further, it led to the first CWIX organization that moved the JFTC from being purely a training centre to become a test centre as well. The JFTC has really proved that the impossible can be done immediately miracles might take a bit longer. The undisputed success of the JFTC could not exist without the great support from the NCSA Squadron and the Host Nation Poland. At the end of my tour, the NCSA Squadron Bydgoszcz became the Squadron of the Year within the whole of NATO. No doubt, this small but highly professional unit makes a huge contribution to the JFTC. Actually if your IT -support works well, you are saved from a lot of trouble. In this respect, the JFTC is also very fortunate. It is no secret that I have always felt at home in Poland. The Polish attitude to foreigners is generally very kind, open and helpful. Personally, I owe a lot to the Polish nation and many individuals that made their utmost that I could feel welcome. I know for certain that I am not the only one who feels this way. Many staff members apply for extension, actually retire in Bydgoszcz or stay even though at end of their tours they are posted back to their nations. In this respect, many nations can also learn a lot from Poland. The only major frustration that I had as the Commander JFTC, has nothing to do with the JFTC as such, but the fact that I never managed to make the Alliance understand that training should be a strategic goal in its own right. My point is that in the past, the NATO structure had so many headquarters and facilities that they served as the glue of the Alliance. This is not the case anymore. In the world of drastically reduced budgets and reduction of forces, the Alliance can only stay militarily vigilant and prepared to act, if forces even at the lowest levels are able to work together very closely and integrated. Training should be the new glue of the Alliance, and the JFTC would be an obvious choice to play a key role in achieving such a strategic goal. Major General Ib Johannes Bager, Danish Army was the third JFTC Commander and led the Centre between March 2009 and April 2011

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 32 T h e J F T C a n g l i n g s e c t i o n T h e J F T C a n g l i n g s e c t i o n T h e J F T C a n g l i n g s e c t i o n B y D a r i u s z P o m o r s k i In the autumn of 2010 we had an idea of forming a fresh water angling section. Then we only meant to create a small club for people for whom fishing is more than just a hobby. We presented the idea to our Chief of Staff who approved it and found it interesting. And thus, our fishing club began. It expanded a year later it boasts several dedicated fishing enthusiasts, has a group of well -wishers and functions without marketing or advertising. It is enough to experience a great fishing adventure. We have fun, under the patronage of JFTC Morale & Welfare, offering to the personnel of the JFTC, JFTC Support Unit, NCBY Bydgoszcz and 3NSB Bydgoszcz and their families and friends, a possibility to enjoy a good time, and at the same time we are logistically and financially supported by the JFTC MMWA. What does fishing mean for us? Maybe it brings back childhood memories of staring wide -eyed at the Koi in the garden pond? Or maybe it is the smell of grass and splash of water when for the first time you heard a pike attacking small fish? Probably not. Fishing is peace and quiet and a lesson in humility when you catch nothing. It is calming your emotions down and provides a getaway from everyday life. It is like vintage wine you may drink it ravenously and carelessly or relish its depth of flavor and should try to fight the hunter inside yourself more now you can enjoy pursuing and victorious fight. Fishing is not only about for a big fish and an unforgettable landing. For us fishing has always been the most beautiful sport and a good way of spending our free time. It also brings people together. And even though sometimes when we fish in company of friends, we in silence envy them the fish they caught but they are friends anyway, and any other fishing trip is not only fun but also a feeling that you can always rely on your rod mate. So, whatever wives, kids and relatives to the lake or river and let them see and feel it for sure they will not regret it! We ourselves could experience the joy that fishing together brings during the sunny August family picnic, organized in a beautiful lake near Bydgoszcz. We combined fishing with a barbecue and also launched a rubber boat (purchased with the JFTC MMWA funds) propelled with a nature friendly electric motor. Using the boat was great fun for both fishermen and their families. The event finished with a bonfire. Being an angler does not require sophisticated and expensive equipment. Very often I see people who fish with simple and cheap equipment and I am really glad that people are simply happy and this is what fishing is also about! We should remember the following principle it is the angler who is fishing, not the Many people who have no interest in fishing when asked about it, see water and a guy sitting on a stool carefully observing some point on the surface of the water. They we still go there, cast our rods and wait. sometimes there is no thing whatsoever but it is still good. It is a moment when you begin to understand that in fact you go fish ... this was our first advert aimed at people who have the same hobby, want to enjoy their time by water and share experience. Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 32

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 33 ing not only to catch some fish but also to enjoy nature. Fishing for cod is not only good fun and a chance to proudly present a beautiful and tasty fish to your relatives or friends but it is also a great passion we want to share. Our cod expeditions quickly turned into fascination and we want to spend every spare moment fishing as it guarantees an excellent adventure, call of freedom and contact with nature. When we established our club we had some ideas in mind promoting fishing, organizing events and widely understanding team work. Also, we wanted to be noticed as a group of fishing fans who enjoy their hobby and who want to know the ropes. One of our aims is the promotion of fishing among our work mates and familiarizing them with the beauty of Polish nature. Not all European states can pride themselves on having such beautiful lake districts where one lake turns into another. It is a real paradise for anglers, offering a wide range of species of fish. In the age of the Internet or computer games within the reach of young people, a trip to a lake or river for some seems to be like a survival expedition for the toughest. Our club is not only competition or fishing together but also consolidation of our great family called NATO. We are now summarizing the first year of our activity. Was it successful? We think it was, because even when you failed to catch anything, you returned home with good memories and impressions of nature. And fish? Well sometimes the catch was good, sometimes there was nothing but in which often thwarted our plans sunny, rainy, calm or stormy, especially at the Baltic, but whatever it was, it was always a good time. The author is a member of the JFTC Central Registry Team Fishing is like aristocracy. The angler is a king, Fishing is like aristocracy. The angler is a king, Fishing is like aristocracy. The angler is a king, the rod is a queen and all the equipment the rod is a queen and all the equipment the rod is a queen and all the equipment is the royal retinue. Actually, the king and the queen is the royal retinue. Actually, the king and the queen is the royal retinue. Actually, the king and the queen Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 33

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 34 F F F O C U S I N G O C U S I N G O C U S I N G O N O N O N T T T R A I N I N G R A I N I N G R A I N I N G By Lieutenant Colonel Dr. Zoltan Jobbagy and Lieutenant Colonel Lajos Komjathy During operations in Afghanistan the importance of Operational Mentoring and Liaison Teams (OMLTs), both military and police, working side -by -side with units of the Afghan National Army (ANA) and the Afghan National Police (ANP), has increased significantly. The constantly and often dynamically changing security environment demands learning and adaptation from those who serve in such units. The planned withdrawal of ISAF major combat forces from Afghanistan and the stepwise handover of responsibilities to the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (GIRoA) and the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) by 2014 also points toward an increasing importance of OMLTs. The success of OMLTs depends critically on the selection and training of their personnel. Theoretical and practical aspects during their training and preparation prior to deployment to Afghanistan must carefully be considered. There is also a specific psychological aspect involved, resulting from the fact that they work closely with Afghan leaders and commanders, far from their national comrades. Their training is a three phase process, regulated by SOP 1705 issued by ISAF Joint Command (IJC). In the first phase, they undergo a national training that contains only general information necessary for their respective positions. Phase two is an international training course, conducted at the Joint Force Training Centre (JFTC) in Bydgoszcz, Poland. This training is delivered based on directives issued by the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) and lasts one week. The final phase of the training is conducted in Afghanistan and supported by the respective Regional Commands (RCs) involving various Mobile Training Teams (MTTs). The duration of this phase is four days. It is often the case that this specific training for OMLT personnel is confused or equated with Newcomers' Training (NT). In fact, the topics such as Counterinsurgency (COIN), Counter Improvised Explosive Devise (CIED), and Basic Induction Training (BIT) are the same, but regarding content they do differ. COIN and CIED training, for example, are two day events. Whereas the former is conducted by the MTT of the Counterinsurgency Training Center (CTC), the latter is conducted by the CIED MTT. Training of the incoming OMLT personnel can be conducted in two ways. In the first, after arrival in theatre they go to the units mentored and receive the phase three training either before or after Hand Over/ Take Over (HOTO). In the second version they receive phase three training in the Regional Commands (RCs) and only then deploy to units for mentoring. During phase three, the emphasis is put on CIED training as 60% of injuries of various kinds in Afghanistan are caused by Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs). Another important part of this training is COIN during which they are familiarized with the newest tactics, techniques and (IEDs). Another important part of this training is COIN where they learn the newest tactics, techniques and procedures (TTPs). The quality of the work done by the OMLTs in terms of mentored Afghan units is evaluated by the IJC Validation Transition Team (IJC VTT). During the validation process the mentored unit is evaluated thoroughly. There is an increasing tendency for these units to achieve better and better results in the evaluation scale characterized by: independent with advisor, effective with advisor, effective with partners, developing with partners. The firm foundation for an efficient and well functioning ANSF is thanks to the work done by the OMLTs, which again depend on effective training thus contributing to the security part of the transition process. OMLT working during the AK OMLT Training Event The authors serve as members of the RCN HQ, Afghanistan

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 35 Knowledge Development Knowledge Development Response Response to Modern Challenges to Modern Challenges a Case of SAF Mountain Battalion a Case of SAF Mountain Battalion By Henigman Zarko, Rode Anze, Podbregar Iztok and Ivanusa Teodora en-GB Abstract en-GB Classical military threats are now giving way to modern threats to security which mostly take the form of international terrorism, illegal migration, organized crime, drug and human trade, extremism, various ethnic movements, religious fundamentalism, environmental issues, unsupervised biological, chemical and nuclear proliferation or cyber attacks. en-GB A new approach and activities are crucial to overcome these contemporary security threats. en-GB After issuing a concept of Effects Based Operations (EBO), with underlying taxonomy and principles, Strategic Commanders were tasked to progress with military dimensions of EBO. Since that time, the idea of a Comprehensive Approach (CA) has emerged as a way to describe the manner in which the international community collectively contributes to prevention or resolution of an international crisis. en-GB CA Knowledge Development (KD) and consequently Knowledge Management as one of the most important functions presents a new response to any crisis, based on the understanding that military intervention as such does not solve the problem. CivilMilitary Interaction as well as system analysis of the Political Military, Economic, Social, Infrastructure and Information (PMESII) domains are essential to develop understandable and actionable knowledge to support strategic and operational Commanders decision-making process. NATO Commands and Allied Countries have to implement a new doctrine, understanding transition period will most successfully pass through appropriate training. en-GB In the case of the Republic of Slovenia Mountain Battalion, that has a long tradition and a high reputation in Slovenian Armed Forces (SAF) and provides specialized capabilities understanding multi-dimension philosophy is able to develop comprehensive understanding of the potential engagement space and provide situation awareness. en-GB Specialized training, the ability to perform operations in difficult terrain, light footprint and ability to cover not only timespace and enemy, but all PMESII domains with great flexibility in understanding are a few, but very significant features that highlight the role and importance of the mountain units of the armed forces in the modern world. en-GB Having such characteristics, the unit can be used to fulfil the obligations of the Republic of Slovenia to NATO collective defence system and ensure the international security of UN missions when no other SAF units can be employed. At the same time, the Mountain battalion provides potential capabilities for national defence and specific crisis situations. en-GB en-GB Key words en-GB EBO, Comprehensive Approach, Knowledge development, Slovenian Armed Forces, Mountain battalion en-GB en-GB Introduction sl-SI Unstable environment, threats and vulnerabilities are the main challenges to global security. The importance of classical military threats is declining. They are being replaced by contemporary forms of threatening, international terrorism, illegal migrations, organized crime, drug traffic, religious fanatics, environmental problems, different ethnic movements, production and trade with biological, chemical and nuclear matters. The main properties of these threats are asymmetrical activities, complex, transnational character, diversity and indeterminable structure (Henigman, 2008). en-GB The changing nature of threats and conflicts in the post-Cold War era and the projection of the security environment require countries and organisations (such as the UN, EU and NATO) to have a different and particularly more effective way of facing these challenges (1) Indeed, the threats and challenges have important implications and require significant changes to security systems and armed forces, including mountain units. en-GB The Resolution on the General Long-Term Development and Equipping Programme of the Slovenian Armed Forces up to 2025 (2010, p. 7) states that: en-GB conflict in the Euro-Atlantic region has diminished significantly. Military threats will mainly emerge as local and regional instabilities which can easily spill over. Moreover, contemporary threats are increasingly becoming hybrid in their form, and multilayered and international in nature under the influence of strong globalisation effects. In addition to land, sea and air, the theatre of the future will also include cyberspace and space en-GB The authors thus believe that the future security environment will become even more complex due to a combination of different elements: greater lethality of modern weapons, development of means for a more rapid deployment of military forces, international terrorism (2) proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, easier access to information, the presence of media etc. The military structures and methods (3) suitable for resolving international conflicts will not be able to manage complex 21 st century security situations. en-GB The Slovenian Mid-Term Defence Programme (SOPR for 2007 2012) (2006) indicates that future strategic security environment shall be significantly affected by: globalisation, sophisticated lethal weapons and various forms of asymmetric warfare, rapidly changing security situations, demographic and political factors and the lack of resources that cause mass migrations, spread of radical ideologies, unresolved international and internal conflicts and major natural disasters. The SOPR for 2007 2012 also anticipates that globalization will make Western democracies, and their economies in particular, even more sensitive to stability in different parts of the world, which will directly or indirectly affect their economic interest and open market operations.

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 36 en-GB Information networks already enable us to get a real-time overview of events all over the world. In the future, this will be exploited by different actors employing ITstrategies, also by those whose main purpose is destruction. Increasing access to modern and advanced technologies will make terrorist and other attacks more effective. The direct threat of possible access to technologies and means of mass destruction sponsored by states will also become increasingly prominent (SOPR for 2007 2012). en-GB The gap between developed and developing countries will continue to cause ethnic conflicts and mass migration. Economic and financial crises will build up pressure and contribute to the collapse of social systems (SOPR for 2007 2012). en-GB There will be an increase in requirements for water, food and energy resources and climate changes will have a negative impact on water and food supplies. Environmental degradation will likely result in an increased number of natural disasters which will have longsocial and economic conditions. There will also be an increase in organised crime and poverty. New diseases will emerge and famine will strike (SOPR for 2007 2012). en-GB The threats will be posed by unstable states, the poor management of resources and constant competition for them. Unresolved conflicts as well as groups and countries supporting radical ideologies will represent threats which could gain global dimensions. Thus, some severe forms of the threats in question might shake the foundations of global stability (Rode, 2007). en-GB There is a possibility of a strategic surprise, which will come with little or no prior warning. For this reason, participation in the NATO Alliance will be important and will present a reasonable possibility for the activation of collective defence. en-GB The situation in the Balkans will remain unstable. Kosovo, in particular, will continue to be problematic. Nevertheless, international forces which ensure stability in Kosovo and Bosnia and Herzegovina will be restructured and reduced in number. At the same time, the process of integrating the Southern Balkan countries into NATO and the EU will continue. en-GB The Situation in Africa will continue to be critical, and will be influenced by various factors, such as rapid population growth, epidemics, poverty, famine, water shortages, unstable regimes, failed states, interreligious and interethnic tensions etc. These factors and the situations they create will result in illegal migrations to Europe and a proliferation of terrorist groups that focus their operations on Europe (SOPR for 2007 2012). So far, the so-called "Arab Spring" in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya and elsewhere has not confirmed these pessimistic forecasts. en-GB The Middle East will remain a crisis area. Interethnic and interreligious conflicts with terrorist operations will continue also with a potential focus on European countries (SOPR 2007 2012). en-GB The spectrum of future warfare will also cover crises in which nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction could be used, on classic inter-state conflicts, internal conflicts resulting in the collapse of countries, on terrorism and other crisis situations. A particular challenge will be the fact that different dimensions of war include not only armed forces, but also different actors: national, international, non-governmental and local as well as elements of various instruments of power, such as political, military, informational and economic. en-GB The state usually responds to military threats with its armed forces. Similarly, as part of the continued Alliance integration creasingly important commitments, not only in terms of size and number of participating units, but also in terms of complexity and difficulty of the tasks assigned. en-GB en-GB Effects Based Operations Concept en-GB The concept of Effects-Based Operations (EBO) was introduced in the U.S. air forces at the tactical level during the First Gulf War. It refers to planning and conducting combat operations by combining military and non-military methods to achieve effects. The concept was developed to take advantage of the significant progress in military technology and tactics, whereby the comminimal collateral damage and posing minimal risk to their own forces (Batschlet, 2002). en-GB End Notes 1. The prevailing view among different global defence and security entities is that our present and future security environments represent new complex challenges that are difficult to predict. Different and "unconventional" threats can compromise wider international stability and cause a permanent state of conflict. Special Forces are an active instrument that is ideally adapted to a non defined and dynamic environment, while maintaining freedom of action by applying the economy of forces principle. In addition, special operations forces have a special ability to complete their tasks in environments where conventional forces are in a worse strategic or operational position (NATO Special Operations Study, 2008). 2. Terrorism epitomizes contemporary asymmetrical threats. In this context, Prezelj disproportionallity of the entity which threatens (nonstate actors against the state) the resources it uses, and the consequences (minimum input maximum output outcome) which, for example, exceed the direct consequences of a bomb 3. Naturally, the Mountain battalion is but a segment of a comprehensive response to terrorism by modern countries (Prezelj, 2007, p. 68) which enhances joint activity and the country's response (the overall picture). sl-SI In our opinion, so-called anti-head operations can be controversial and counterproductive if carried out in a careless manner, since it may give an additional spur to insurgency. This is also reflected strategy from Iraq to Afghanistan, which has not brought the desired effects (see also Svete, 5. Physical contact of intelligence. 6. In this context, we can come across a network organization of terrorists/enemies that could also be characterized as organizational asymmetry. Organizational symmetry has always played an important role in the history of warfare. Innovations gave the actors a great advantage, even if they had no technological or other advantages. institutions will face network organized non state opponents rather than hierarchically organized ones as is the case with the majority of governmental institutions in the area of national security (2007, p. 13). 7. Terrorists/insurgents/enemies attack people who are the point of focus (POF), whereby their tactical operation creates a strategic impact. The Centres of Gravity (COG) are defined as features, capabilities or sites, from which a country, alliance, military force or other group draw from the freedom of their actions, physical strength or the will to fight. These points exist at the tactical, operational and strategic levels and represent the centre of power or operation, on which everything depends. They are also the point where all the energy is focused to achieve the objective. From this point arises the enemy forces' ability, power, and will. Their destruction or neutralisation brings a decisive advantage and victory. 8. Successful in terms of linear battlefields, whereby the main goal is to cause damage to the enemy. 9. Bucharest Summit Declaration, 3APR 2008. 10. Strasbourg Kehl Summit Declaration, 4APR 2009. 11. refers to combat operations, where physical strength is used.

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 37 The concept was later tested at strategic and operational levels, but was officially dropped from common usage due to different interpretations and owing to the belief that it gives the commanders a false sense of predictability (Mattis, 2008). It was replaced by the Comprehensive Approach Concept (CA). According to many critics (Vego, 2006; Mattis, 2008; Riper, 2009; see also Smolej, 2011), the concept is useful especially in terms of targeting at the tactical level. Despite being no longer used at the higher levels of command, the concept still presents a useful tool for goal achievement at the tactical level. On the basis of intelligence information, specialized units, such as mountain units, have more leeway in target identification processes, especially where the EBO concept is used to guide their operations in terms of achieving specific effects. This usually means that in practice, commanders primarily focus on asymmetrical battlefield targets for which they have sufficient, quality intelligence(4). These targets can be covertly monitored and controlled (Small Footprint) by the commanders themselves, and neutralised with great precision at a selected moment. On the other hand, lower tactical unit commanders of conventional forces mainly use them as a show of force in order to deter the enemy (Big Footprint). When coming across the enemy(5), they will try to keep contact and destroy them with reinforcement (see Figure 1). The effects should be examined from two perspectives: at the tactical level, the effect is primarily associated with damage caused to the enemy. At the operational level, the effect is assessed in terms of wider impacts on certain geographical and social environments. Smith (2006) observes that future conflicts and engagements will take place between civilian populations. However, the main actors of conflict will include differently organised forms(6) rather than countries and their armed forces. The operations of their armed forces following conventional military principles will bring unnecessary casualties and further resistance. A military operation may be successful in tactical terms, but its performance might be counterproductive at the operational level. This means the loss of trust, and failure to achieve centres of gravity(7). This is often the case in counter operation primarily depends on local support (Celeski, 2005). Thus, military operations(8) that would have otherwise been successful at the tactical level might shift the focus of sympathy to the enemy. This is due to side effects among the civilian population and on civilian infrastructure, or due to disapproval of local communities, which, at the operational level, demands much more effort and time to create a secure environment. Comprehensive Approach NATO and the EU learned from operational experiences that purely military action is not enough to meet many complex challenges of international security. They have to work with other actors to contribute to a CA effectively combining political, civilian and military crisis management instruments. At the Bucharest (2008)(9) and Strasbourg -Kehl (2009)(10) summits, NATO Heads of State and Government endorsed the requirements for CA in the international commuunderstanding that military intervention alone cannot provide a solution. They welcomed the progress achieved in its implementation and reaffirmed commitment to enhance civil -military approach. Following lessons identified and lessons learned from the operations in Kosovo and Afghanistan it is clear that CA is essential to success at the tactical, operational and strategic level. In crisis management there cannot be a one size fits all approach. Neither Afghanistan, nor any other single operation offers an absolute template to design future engagements. However, all our operational experiences, from Balkan to Afghanistan, effort can only be successful if they are integrated into a larger international community response that addresses all critical elements of a crisis political, military, economic, social, informational or infrastructural. Information sharing is a critical enabler for NATO, specially determined in the CA and a source of frustration for many involved in the ongoing operations. there who have huge situational understandagencies then we are not helping the eral, Commander ISAF Joint Command, 2010). Two specific areas are concerned: classification of information and sharing of unclassified information. Knowledge development Knowledge is created by people and reflects their know -how. It involves their education, experience, thinking, decision making and all other capacities for creating choices and taking action. People exchange and share knowledge within formal and informal networks: participating in collaborating networks augments the level of knowledge in the organisation. Systematic work as all available knowledge is retrieved, stored and processed by using standardized methods and informational systems, will create an organizational knowledge base that will be of great help in the operational planning process. It is worth mentioning the EBAO, EBO and last CA Doctrine are conceived as a process intended not only to the assets (for Figure 1: The difference between the Concept of Operations for Special Forces and Conventional Forces

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 38 en-GB ces, combat, equipment, logistic and ecobehaviour (Midan, 2009). Similarly to the combat will and to make him give up. Therefore, the planning is envisaged so that the actions against the adversary should have effects either on his capabilities or on his behaviour, and, if possible, on both. To achieve that it is essential to have appropriate Information Intelligence Knowledge, related to the operational environment. Operational environment (and adversaries) is understood as a system, derived from many sub-systems. It is essential that we, through the KD process, produce a System of Systems Analysis (SoSA) from relevant PMESII domains that identify key subsystems, important relationship, estimate strengths, weaknesses and vulnerabilities, critical vulnerabilities and finally suggests the most appropriate action to trigger the desired effect, where this action should be implemented and where the side effects for the other systems are. en-GB Endorsed doctrines are altering the understanding that we are living in a new world: from previous bi-dimensional, where Intel organizations were based on a military approach, mainly focused on time, space and enemy, we are moving to a changed spectrum of a multi-dimensional world to the CA focused on the entire operational environment, facing many campaigns: COIN, Peace Support Operations (PSO) and even Peace Military engagements. en-GB stan, the intelligence community is only marginally relevant Having focused the overwhelming majority of its collective efforts on insurgent groups, the vast intelligence apparatus is unable to answer fundamental questions about the environment in which our forces operate and General Michael T. Flynn. DCOS Intel ISAF, January 2010). en-GB It is necessary to move away from Intelligence activities that are focused on actual (or potential) difficulties within a specific region. We need to move towards a CA which requires information and knowledge regarding the capabilities, interaction and influences of all key actors across a much broader operational environment. en-GB A KD approach utilizes subject matter experts to analyze different actors and systems in several relevant domains, as well as the specific aspects of the region and operational environment. en-GB en-GB Effects Based Operations Concept and Comprehensive Approach application in a Mountain Battalion sl-SI The SAF has been given a new role and new tasks within the national defense system since Slovenia joined NATO and the European Union. Rather than being confined to defending national territory, the SAF is evolving into a more post-modern type of military formation, responsible not only for national defense, but also involved in international operations and missions. for all operations in the interests of the Alliance and the international community. (Henigman, Grozde, 2010). sl-SI Making units, especially ones like the Mountain Battalion, aware of the multidimensional threats, SAF, is dedicated to develop a much broader and more comprehensive understanding of the operational environment. en-GB The motto of mountain units in combat operations is: It should be stressed that in counterinsurgency operations specialized forces (in comparison with the conventional ones which primarily perform kinetic operations (11) (Smith, 2008), should primarily perform non -kinetic operations. en-GB The EBO concept and developing CA is important for the Mountain Battalion as it dictates the contents of the training process with regard to other SAF units. This training process has to refer both to the individuals and the unit. The units must have greater generic capabilities for obtaining intelligence, and more robust analytical processing capabilities to operate in accordance with the EBO and CA concept. Moreover, they have to be adaptable, since units (being small in terms of personnel and light in term of equipment) may have a wider spectrum of capabilities, even in comparison with larger conventional units. This should be, among other things, as a result of the selection procedures for manning these units, for they ensure manning with competent personnel (Spulak, 2007, p. 20). en-GB en-GB Conclusion en-GB NATO and Allied Countries must be prepared to become a part of a comprehensive response and the Alliance from the very beginning must be able to assess, plan and operate in a comprehensive and flexible en-GB 1. AJP specialnih operacij (the original of January 2009, the Slovenian SVS STANAG 2523(1), July 2009). Ljubljana: MO RS. 2. Batschelet, A. W., 2002. Effects Based Operations: A New Operational Model? Strategy Research Project, U.S. Army War College. en-GB http://www.iwar.org.uk/military/ resources/effect-based-ops/ebo.pdfen-GB 5. 5. 2011. 3. Celeski, J, D., 2005. Operationalizing COIN. Joint Special Operations University (JSOU) Report 05-2. 4. Ljubljana: Defensor. 5. ., 2008. Preoblikovanje determinante in izzivi = Transforming the Intelligence Security Services: determinants and challenges. M agistrsko delo Ljubljana: Fakulteta za varnostne vede. 6. prostora v procesih nasprotovanja terorizmu = Intelligence assessment of geographical area in fight against terrorism. Mednarodna konferenca Izzivi zoperstavljanja terorizmu v Jugovzhodni Evropi, Maribor, 22. 26.mar. sl-SI 2010. http://www.slovenskavojska.si/ publikacije/bilten-slovenske-vojske/.en-GB 7. Mattis, J. N., 2008. en-GB USJFCOM Commander's Guidance for Effects-based Operations.sl-SI Parameters, Vol. XXXVIII, Spring 2008. pp. 18 25. nl-NL http:// www.carlisle.army.mil/usawc/Parameters/ Articles/08autumn/mattis.pdfnl-NL 9. June 2010. 8. Midan, Christophe, Implementation of NATO EBAO Doctrine and its effects on operagic Impact 4/2009, pages 39 -54, http://www -en-GB ceeol.com. 9. Prezelj, I., 2007. Nujnost medresorskega sodelovanja in koordiniranja v boju proti terorizmu: nekateri primeri iz Republike Slovenije. V: Bilten Slovenske vojske 2007 vojske, pp. 65 80. References

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 39 manner. CA as the latest Doctrine is a means to ensure a coordinated and coherent response to crisis by all relevant actors. It is the development of processes and structures for effective co -ordination of all levels within NATO and the enhanced co -operation with other actors in order to complement and achieve common goals if possible within all agreed strategies and owned by legitimate local authorities. The KD is an iterative process that includes collecting and analyzing information, integrating isolated data into useable bodies of knowledge, and making that knowledge available so that it can be shared. The challenge is to make relevant information available in a form that can be shared and analyzed in near real time to develop knowledge both before and during NATO operations to support information and knowledge requirements. KD is essential for managing information sharing that support decision -making. As the Manager of the repository of the information, KD with its Management is responsible for timely sharing. KD is a process where information is collected, fused and and then it is made accessible across the staff, coalition, Alliance. The KD offers an evolution, not a revolution in thinking. Processes and information already exist, in many cases, and they support decision -making. sides in the heads and offices of subject matter experts across the organization; it is not fused, de -conflicted or shared, at least not in a formal, well -established manner. Often, the end user, usually a commander, is left to integrate or search for applicable knowledge in order to make a decision. The Republic of Slovenia has committed itself to develop and prepare forces, where light infantry units could be represented by Mountain Battalion in accordance with the SAF development plans within force goals. Deployments as well as tactical exercises have proved the Mountain Battalion to be a highly trained unit and the elite of SAF combat units. The unit has tested and confirmed in practice its capability of conducting operations and combat joint operations in support of COIN operations in asymmetric battlefield conditions, in which the SAF units have currently been operating (for example in Afghanistan). Furthermore, by verifying its capabilities in practice, it has shown that the proposed theoretical concepts and solutions underlying its operation are correct and feasible. It reaffirmed its commitment to excellence and exceeded the with his knowledge and experience is more true again. Mountain Battalion works together with Multinational Centre of Excellence for Mountain Warfare (MN CEMW). Both entities exchange their experiences and knowledge, as mentioned in KD and CA concept. This produces synergistic effects (1+1=3) which enable Mountain Battalion, and SAF as a whole, to have relative superiority in space and time over a enemy stronger in number. A system based on KD support with appropriate Knowledge Management will improve Mountain Battalion capabilities to fulfil tasks for national security objectives. The training and equipping of mountain units is a long -term process, which should be given enough attention by the state and the armed forces in terms of the provision of human and material resources. Specialized training, ability to perform operations in difficult terrain, light footprint and great flexibility to cover not only time space and enemy, but all PMESII domains based on the comprehensive understanding of the ( so -called rainbow ) environment and not just potential adversaries, are a few of the features that highlight the role and importance of mountain units. Having such characteristics, the unit can be used to fulfil the obligations of the Republic of Slovenia ensures the international security of UN missions when no other SAF units and capabilities can be employed. At the same time, the Mountain battalion provides capabilities for national defence and specific crisis situations. Being able to adapt to the new challenges that we are facing, NATO and National forces must develop a much broader and more comprehensive understanding of the operational environment We have to move from bi -dimensional approach to multi -dimensional thinking. 10. programu razvoja in opremljanja Slovenske vojske do leta 2025 (ReSDPRO SV 2025), 2010. Uradni list R, No. 99/2010 dated 7 December 2010. 11. Riper, K. P., 2009. EBO There Was No Baby in the Bathwater. Joint Force Quaterly Issue 52, pp. 82 85. 12. javnost. Magistrsko delo. Celje: Fakulteta za logistiko. 13. Smith, H., 2008. Kinetic and Nonkinetic Versus Lethal and Nonlethal Operations. http:// www.captainsjournal.com/2008/06/30/kineticand -nonkineticversus -lethaland -nonlethaloperations/ 14. Smith, R., 2006. The Utility of Force. The Art of War in the Modern World. London: Penguin Books. 15. Magistrsko delo, Ljubl16. 2012 (SOPR), No. 803 -2/2006-58 dated 27 November 2006. 17. Spulak, R., 2007. A Theory of Special Operations. Joint Special Operations University (JSOU) Report 07 -7. http:// jsoupublic.socom.mil/publications/jsou/ JSOU077spulakATheoryofSpecialOps_final.pdf, 4 June 2010. 18. Sun Tsu, Art of War, Lionel Giles, 1910, https://www.artofwarsuntzu.com. 19. obrambno usposabljanje. 19 November 2007. 20. Asimetrija in nacionalna varnost: od 21. Vego, N. M., 2006. Effects -Based Operations: A Critique. Joint Force Quaterly Issue 41, pp. 51 75. References The authors: Henigman Zarko serves at the JFC Brunssum; Rode Anze, Podbregar Iztok and Ivanusa Teodora are associated with the University of Maribor, Slovenia

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 40 Joint Force Training Centre Transformation pl-PL

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 41 Le Beaujolais Nouveau Est Arrive! Beaujolais Nouveau is a new wine produced in the Beaujolais region (AOC) from the Gamay grape and is allowed to be marketed immediately after the end of vinification. It is sold all around the world on the third Thursday of November (17 November this year). The celebration of Beaujolais Nouveau was established on 13 th November 1951. Actually, on 8 th September of that year, a decree published 15 th December. Unions revolted and an amendment to the decree was issued on 13 th November 1951 stating under what conditions some wines may be sold immediately without waiting for the release of 15th December. That is the origin of the name "Beaujolais Nouveau". Every year the whole France celebrates the Beaujolais in the streets. Hundreds of stalls selling wine glasses are installed everywhere so people can celebrate with friends. More than 45 million liters (60 million bottles) are exported every year worldwide. jolais Nouveau. The event took place on 24 th November and was prepared by the French JFTC community the NCBY and the 3 rd NSB. They were supported by Mr. Marc Petit, the owner of a French restaurant in Sopot and a provider of French national products. A part of a famous French military band from the 6 th Engineer Regiment based in Angers played some French music to entertain those who came to enjoy Beaujolais Nouveau. A votre sant! Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 41

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 42 en-GB Annual Bi Annual Bi SC Public Affairs Conference in Bydgoszcz SC Public Affairs Conference in Bydgoszcz en-GB Every year the NATO Public Affairs community gathers in one of the NATO command structure headquarters in order to exchange knowledge and experience as well as to share opinions on current PA issues and challenges. Allied Command Transformation (ACT) and the Allied Command Operations (ACO) combine their efforts to prepare and to contribute to an annual Public Affairs Conference. ACT, the command responsible participants to Bydgoszcz, Poland. The Joint training units, was the host of the Bi-SC Public Affairs Conference in 2011. en-GB Modern Defence Engaging Public Affairs tention from approximately 70 PA officers and specialists from numerous NATO commands and many Ministries of Defence (MOD) and the US Department of Defense (DoD), who met in Bydgoszcz. They focused on current PA priorities regarding ongoing operations and preparations for the 2012 NATO Summit. A significant part of the conference agenda was devoted to discussing Strategic Communications (StratCom). The topic triggered the most enthusiastic discussions among the participants. en-GB Today there are 160 thousand soldiers and sailors, and airmen, and marines on active service, combat operations on three continents. Your job is to tell their story. To do it honestly, truthfully, compassionately and in a way that demonstrates what I believe in my heart, which is that NATO is a matters deeply said Admiral James Stavridis, Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR), in his opening remarks, presented in a recorded message. The key raised by Mr. Roy Thorvaldsen, Allied Command Transformation (ACT) Chief Public Affairs Officer and Colonel Gregory Julian, Allied Command Operations (ACO) Chief Public Affairs Officer in a welcome letter to The importance of effective Public Affairs is apparent every day in our theatres of operations, across the command structure and at the NATO Headquarters they wrote. And the agenda of the event was tailored to show how PA mechanisms work in these areas main military operations, particular NATO commands as well as at national level in en-GB en-GB NATO Military PA Policy Simple, Short, Shared, Sustainable and Staff Tailored en-GB In February 2011 the Military Committee finalised the revision of the NATO Military Public Affairs Policy (MC 0457/2). Brigadier General Massimo Panizzi, PA and StratCom Advisor to the Chairman of the Military Committee, opened a substantial part of the conference with an introduction Simple, Short, Shared, Sustainable and Staff Tailored General Panizzi spoke about main focuses of the document, like the PA mission, responsibilities and approaches. He also presented principles of PA actions articulated in the new NATO Military PA Policy the PA is about telling and showing the NATO story, providing accurate information in a timely manner, ensuring that information provided is consistent, complementary and coordinated. It must also be appropriate from the point of view of operational security and finally has to be conducted mindful of multinational sensitivities, and respectful of the pl-PL en-GB Mr. Roy Thorvaldsen, ACT Chief Public Affairs Officer and Colonel Gregory Julian, ACO Chief Public Affairs

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 43 local and regional cultural environment. The most significant update in the Policy refers to a change in the overall NATO communication, which places Public Affairs, together with other communication tools, such as Psychological Operations (PsyOps), Information Operations (InfoOps) and Public Diplomacy closer together and better coordinated in a wider Strategic Communications context. StratCom was one of the main topics of further discussions during the conference. StratCom The coordinated and appropriate use of NATO communications activities and capabilities Public Diplomacy, Public Affairs (PA), Military PA, InfoOps and PsyOps, as appropriate in support of Alliance policies, ops and activities, and in order to advance this is the official NATO StratCom definition, dated September 2009. Mr. Eric Povel, StratCom Coordinator for the Public Diplomacy Division (PDD) at the NATO Headquarters, gave an overview on the focus of NATO StratCom Policy, what StratCom is about and what it is not. StratCom is not a panacea for poor policies or actions Be good and tell it! this is the StratCom motto. The NATO HQ StratCom Coordinator underlined, that there is no place for a Com can only be effective if our pictures and words match our actions and policies. Mr. Mark Laity, Chief Strategic Communications at SHAPE, described the main putting information strategy at the heart of all levels of policy, planning and implementation, and then, as a fully integrated part of the overall effort, ensuring the development of practical, effective strategies that make a real contribution to success StratCom Policy, which says that StratCom has to be an integral part of a planning process since the very beginning, to achieve its aim of enabling better long -term planning and a better use of resources by improving communication between political and military branches within NATO. And how exactly can StratCom contribWinning the battle ple decide we win said General Stan McChrystal during his service as the ISAF Commander. This is what StratCom is about and it was confirmed in the theme of Mr. Perception becomes reality Further discussions connected with the StratCom topic continued during other presentations. The agenda of the conference contained briefings which presented other perspectives on PA and StratCom issues. Mr. Neeraj Singh, Chief Public Information and Spokesperson of the United Nations peacekeeping forces in Lebanon (UNIFIL) explained the UN policy with regard to PA and StratCom and Ms. Ingrid Baeck, Spokesperson of the Belgian MOD, shared her national -level experience. There were also updates on developments within PA Training and use of Social Media within NATO. Exchanging experience The questions and answers (Q&A) sessions that followed almost every briefing in the conference programme as well as breakout sessions regarding Social Media, StratCom and Website design created very interesting platforms for exchanging knowledge and experience. Thanks to Video Teleconference connections the participants could discuss major topics also with the NATO Assistant Secretary General for Public Diplomacy, Ms Kolinda Grabar -Kitarovic, the NATO Spokesperson, Ms. Oana Lungescu and Brigadier General Massimo Panizzi speaking about the NATO Military PA Policy Mr. Mark Laity sharing his knowledge on StratCom issues

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 44 Colonel Roland Lavoie, the Libya mission Supreme Allied Commander Transformation, General Stephane Abrial, addressed the participants of the conference also via a Video Teleconference. He highlighted the significant PA importance in NATO missions and encouraged PA professionals to share experience and best practices across the Alliance. General Abrial underlined the lic Affairs. Paraphrasing the old adage he noticed that now As the StratCom and PA role within NATO and its missions is still evolving and growing, NATO PA professionals and their activities will remain at the heart of NATO plans and actions. Exchanging knowledge and experience, staying up to date and being open for new challenges in the world of media is crucial for the success of their work and the success of NATO missions. Captain Jerome Erulin, Allied Command Transformation Chief of Strategic Communications, who closed the conference, expressed his hope that the networking that was made during the event and the framework described during the lectures would strongly contribute to the efficiency of the NATO PA Staff. The next NATO StratCom and PA Professionals talks are planned for the fall of 2012. The author is the JFTC Public Affairs Specialist Special thanks to Mr. Roy Thorvaldsen, the ACT Chief PAO, for his contribution to this article. Photos: Mr. Henry Plimack

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 45 en-GB Hippocrates By Lieutenant Colonel Gyrgy rley en-GB Sport is a great part of everyday life and to military service as well. So far wherever I have served my country, sport was one of the main things I followed with care, so when I joined the NATO Joint Force Training Centre community in Bydgoszcz, Poland in 2009, I looked forward to more sporting challenges. en-GB As the kind reader may know the NATO community in Bydgoszcz is evolving. It all started in 2004 with a handful of people which has now grown to more than a hundred. A substantial change to the life at the Joint Force Training Centre occurred when the Centre moved from its temporary facility in autumn 2009. This great progress also affected opportunities in the training environment, office space, communication support and our sport life, too. en-GB The new training facility is much closer to the city centre and also to the areas of the Brda Channel which is a nice place to go running. Many of us have our own running routes in that particular part of the city. en-GB The Centre has a modern, multi-purpose sports court where you can play volleyball, basketball, and football. Another facility within the compound is a small but functional room in one of the buildings, provided with all the necessary fitness equipment, showers and locker rooms. All in all, the growing community and the opportunities at the JFTC changed our sports life. The JFTC Sports Club encourages personnel and their family members to join in with social life and do sports together rather than on their own. The JFTC Sports Club has several branches like fishing, basketball, shooting, volleyball, or running just to mention a few where NATO folks get together and do sports or organise contests. en-GB One of the first sport competitions at the JFTC took place in autumn 2010, when the 1st JFTC Volleyball Competition was organised. Having adverse weather conditions, the outdoor sports court was not a good option so we moved to the Sport Factory in the city, where we rented a volleyball court for three afternoons to play. There were seven teams in the contest from the JFTC Training Division, Headquarter Support Division, JFTC Command Group, JFTC Support Unit, and NATO 3 rd Signal Battalion. We all had fun as participation was more important than the score, as we all know, pleasures for your choosing The one is Lord Byron. Poet and politician) Finally, the JFTC Support Unit turned out to be the best and won the Cup. en-GB The 2nd JFTC Volleyball Competition was organized between 2 and 4 November 2011. The competition took place at the Headquarters Battalion of the Armed Forces Support Inspectorate in Bydgoszcz. There were again seven teams participating in the competition from the NCBY, 3rd NATO Signal Battalion, and the JFTC. The main goal of the competition was the same as during the first one promotion of social relationship among the NATO personnel serving in Bydgoszcz.

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 46 The JFTC Support Unit ranked first, which meant they defended their championship from 2010. Volleyball contest is only one of a number of the competitions taking place at the JFTC along with fishing, shooting or basketball tournaments many of us also willingly join. The JFTC Sports Club is one of the three social organisations under the JFTC Morale and Welfare. I share the philosophy that athlete cannot run with money in his pockets. He must run with hope in his heart and (Emil Zatopek. Athlete. He was the first to run a 10 000 meters under 29 minutes and the first to run 20 000 meters in one hou r ), however, the sports club cannot function on its own. Fortunately there are other funds rather than just the JFTC Morale and Welfare like the contributions of participants or donations. I hope sports at the JFTC will develop, bringing personnel and their families together and promoting a well known saying The author is a member of the JFTC OMLT Branch N A T O E X P L O S I V E O R D I N A N C E D I S P O S A L N A T O E X P L O S I V E O R D I N A N C E D I S P O S A L N A T O E X P L O S I V E O R D I N A N C E D I S P O S A L C E N T R E O F E X C E L L E N C E C E N T R E O F E X C E L L E N C E C E N T R E O F E X C E L L E N C E & & & E M E R G I N G S E C U R I T Y C H A L L E N G E S D I V I S I O N E M E R G I N G S E C U R I T Y C H A L L E N G E S D I V I S I O N E M E R G I N G S E C U R I T Y C H A L L E N G E S D I V I S I O N A T H Q N A T O B R U S S E L S A T H Q N A T O B R U S S E L S A T H Q N A T O B R U S S E L S I N V I T E F O R I N V I T E F O R I N V I T E F O R T R E N C I N S L O V A K I A T R E N C I N S L O V A K I A T R E N C I N S L O V A K I A 1 7 1 7 1 7 2 1 S E P T E M B E R 2 0 1 2 2 1 S E P T E M B E R 2 0 1 2 2 1 S E P T E M B E R 2 0 1 2 Organizing annual events such as EOD/CIED conferences, demonstrations and trials has become an excellent tradition, which helps the entire EOD related entities understand each other and exchange information. These meetings let us define possible ways of progress, especially via new research focused on EOD/IEDD technology development and later through new EOD TTPs integration in the field. The main objective of the event is to offer common platform to companies, Research and Development institutes and NATO bodies to present the needs and the latest technological solutions for improveNATO EOD D&T 2012 focuses on a wide spectrum of detection as a challenge for EOD/IEDD experts, producers, industry and SMEs involved in the fight against terrorism. Bringing together operational, armaments and technological EOD related entities from NATO/PfP Nations is considered as a regular basic need for CNAD POW DAT. Conference an unified effort of involved parties to defeat new emerging threats and protect human life and enviSeminar Nr 1 ment of Methods and Procedures for Detection Seminar Nr 2 PIVOTAL DATES: Initial Planning C nference 13 March 2012 Deadline for official applications (live demo and exhibition) 30 April 2012 Deadline for registrations to conference and seminars 30 June 2012 For further information on NATO EOD DEMONSTRATIONS & TRIALS 2012 please check our website at : http://www.eodcoe.org

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 47 e x p e r i e n c e f r o m B o s n i a a n d H e r z e g o v i n a By MAJ Martin Kolar, CPT Alexander Hugyar NATO Explosive Ordnance Disposal Centre of Excellence assists Partnership for Peace nations in building their EOD capabilities. Role of EOD COE (Explosive Ordnance Disposal Centre of Excellence) On 28 April 2011 the North Atlantic Council approved the accreditation of the Explosive Ordnance Disposal Centre of Excellence based in Trencin, Slovakia, as a NATO Centre of Excellence with the status of an International Military Organization. In accordance with the Memoranda of Understanding, the mission of the Centre of Excellence is to support and ing knowledge, experience and Lessons Learned and disseminating it to the Allies, providing training and education, development of concepts, doctrines and standardization in the EOD area. Training and Education within EOD COE key areas of responsibility Following the identification of the EOD education and individual training shortfalls endorsed by the NATO EOD community national responsibility, the main responsibility of the EOD COE focuses on EOD Staff training in accordance with NATO EOD Standardization Agreements and Publications. Such training focuses on advanced education incorporating recent experience. Considering the interoperability enhancement and to avoid duplicity in EOD training, the EOD COE developed and delivered the Initial EOD Staff Officers Training as an elementary tool to train how to operate in a multinational EOD environment at tactical and operational levels. To respect the EOD COE mission, the director of the EOD COE, COL Jaroslav Bielen (SVK -A) accepted the invitation of the Minister of Defense of Bosnia and a request to improve EOD capabilities and capacities of the Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Mobile Training Team with an excellent support of the technical advisor LTC Frederic Botto (FRA A), working in Operational Command of the Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina, delivered the Initial EOD Staff Officer Training (I EOD SOT) from 7 to 25 November 2011. First Mission of (MTT) in Bosnia and Herzegovina The aim of the Initial EOD Staff Officer Training is to educate and train non -qualified EOD Staff Officers to achieve basic level o f proficiency in accordance with NATO standards. To fulfill requirements stated in STANAG 2389 (Minimum Standards of Proficiency for Trained Explosive Ordnance Disposal Personnel) ANNEX F, the staff officer must understand how to plan, prepare, command, control and coordinate EOD/IEDD matters within multinational operations along with tactical and operational staff. An assigned, MTT composed of the EOD COE Subject Matter Experts (SMEs): MAJ Martin Kolar (CZE A), CPT Alexander Hugyar, CPT Matus Sostronek and 1LT Pavol Cahoj (all SVK A) during a three week period thirteen trainees learned about

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 48 their future work as EOD Staff Officers. The Staff Officer training is run in two phases. The first, theoretical phase, teaches the trainees how to manage, coordinate, cooperate and provide expertise to commanders, and also teaches how to command and control EOD operations at a battalion and brigade level within a multinational structure in accordance with valid NATO EOD standards and publications. During the second, practical part, the trainees exercised their theoretical knowledge in the form of an acted as EOD officers assuming positions within the Multinational EOD Coordination Cell (MNEODCC) or as a National EOD Point of Contact (NPOCEOD). All officers nominated by the Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina successfully met the I EOD SOT training criteria. The graduates received Certificates of Course Completion from NATO representatives, LTC Franc Vivaldi and LTC Guido Russo (both ITA A), a Military Attach of the Slovak Republic accredit in Bosnia and Herzegovina COL Dusan Valovic, the Chief of Mine Safety and EOD Operations HQ COL Asim Spahic (BiH A) and a French technical advisor LTC Frederic Botto. Provision of Staff Officer Training through the Mobile Training Team has proved the EOD COE ability to fully support training and education of the EOD community in NATO and PfP countries. One of the EOD COE priorities within the Training and Education Line of Effort is to gain full NATO accreditation of the above -mentioned training in line with Bi SC DIR 75the Balkan region means a step ahead in this process. Looking for Cheaper and More Efficient Solutions Nowadays, when military budgets of all countries are tight, resulting in fewer resources for training and education, many Armed Forces all across Europe have to reconsider their key abilities in comparison to their financial funds. One possible way in the area of training is to use cheaper and more efficient methods of training and exploit better information technology. Travel expenses and costs per diem take a huge percentage of common training and education funds. Therefore, a Mobile Training Team (MTT), consisting of two to five SMEs, makes saving of financial resources possible. The second advantage, particularly in the case of PfP countries, is the possibility of training personnel with lower English language skills through an interpreter to overcome initial language issues. As a result of improving courses meeting the requirements of NATO or PfP countries, training authority could reduce individual blocks of lessons and tailor them to the requirements of countries. Certainly, the MTT solution cannot be used for all forms of training, but if carefully considered, focusing on special tools, material and security requirements necessary to run the training successfully, it meets all expectations. Conclusions were ment before each particular MTT mission, in which the responsibilities of both parties should be clearly defined, such as accommodation, travel expenses, fully equipped classrooms, field training sites and customs matMore efficient and less expensive training is a current trend for all NATO structures and countries. The Mobile Training Team could be one of the most useful tools to enhance and deliver training and education. The authors are members of the EOD COE Photos: CPT Matus Sostronek

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 49 C h r i s t m a s T r e e L i g h t i n g C h r i s t m a s T r e e L i g h t i n g By Lieutenant Colonel Jozef Svitka 6 December 2012, a time when everyone would already expect low temperatures and at least some snow. It was only the December date that indicated it was high time to open the JFTC gates and welcome dependants and kids to the 5th Christmas Tree Lighting. This family event, already one of JFTC traditions, was supported this year by wives of Czech and Slovakian soldiers with the assistance of NATO Civilian Staff Association, Protocol Office, Morale and Welfare and Senior National Representatives. Actually it was the SNRs who took care of the their involvement we could enjoy French, Italian, Greek, Czech, Estonian, Polish and Slovakian traditional Christmas biscuits and cakes. Christmas is a specific period of the year, surrounded by certain charm, many legends and stories. Legends about St. Nicholas are not very clear since there is a lot of information concerning his life but only few facts so in fact we do not know too much about him. But whatever the true story is, the tradition that emerged has been with us for a couple of ages, and St. Nicolas is known for his generosity and had a reputation for secret gift -giving, such as putting coins in the shoes of those who left them out for him, and thus became the model for Santa Claus. In many western cultures Saint Nicolas, Father Christmas or homes of good children, categorizing the kids first according to their behavior "naughty" or "nice". was very popular in the 12th century and it is also quite common now. tradition but also there is a certain mission, the idea of which is presenting others with something nice. On that day even a smile has a different meaning. And this is the actual message of this day, the message that the JFTC employees could see and experience, irrespective of their nationality or religious denomination. The ceremony at the JFTC was divided into several parts. It all started with gathering of all the personnel in the auditorium. In a few words of welcome, the Chief of Staff, Each time the event was different in terms of its content, size and was held in different places. But over all these years the purpose always remained the same family gathering at the beginning of the advent time. The event reflects the dedi

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 50 The author serves as a member of the JFTC RC South Branch cation of people serving and working at the JFTC and their dependants, to culturally enrich each other and promote friendship among the international community. Nothing is more valuable than that and nothing is more important that building the sense of belonging for the success of an international the most famous traditional Polish carols and are popular in almost every country. The main event of the day, however, as the name suggests itself, was the Christmas formance everyone went outside as it was the time to turn on the lights on the Christmas tree. There was everything necessary good ing thing was the snow and a bit of winter that would add a lot to this unique atmosphere. The final part of the ceremony took place in the dining facility. As the event was supported by the Czech Republic and Slovakia, home made cookies and hot wine to welcome everyone but also other nations offered some delicacies for the staff members and kids to enjoy. For the adults it was a good time to meet and talk, and for the kids to have fun and wait impatiently for Santa to come. And he finally arrived, accompanied by two elves. That was definitely a great time for the children who received gifts and looked as happy as only kids could be. is expanding, NATO community in Bydgoszcz is successfully growing, and together with that the community of dependants is getting larger every year. Therefore, many thanks to all people of good will who have contributed to the preparation of the 2011 Christmas Tree Lighting Event and who will have to face ever growing organizaThanks to everyone who participated in this unforgettable event. We are looking forward to the Christmas Tree Lighting 2012.

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 51 F r o m a B a s i c C a p a b i l i t y P a c k a g e F r o m a B a s i c C a p a b i l i t y P a c k a g e t o t h e D i s t r i b u t e d T r a i n i n g & E d u c a t i o n C a p a b i l i t y t o t h e D i s t r i b u t e d T r a i n i n g & E d u c a t i o n C a p a b i l i t y By Lieutenant Colonel Georgios Kyriakidis NATO as a lively international organization constantly adjusts its role and mission to current and future threats. The international environment and tech evolution affect not only NATO missions and roles but also the national contribution of forces and systems, requirements of skills and finally the way of training execution. Moreover, at the 2010 Lisbon NATO Summit, it was decided that NATO Command Structure would be reduced in the years to come. To meet the operational consequences of these decisions and factors while maintaining the same level of training capabilities a different training approach had to be implemented. A vision of the Distributed Training & Education (DTE) ners a persistent, distributed, combined joint training capability which is able to support training from the operational to the tactical level across the full spectrum of operations, through leveraging existing national expergramme). Flexibility and interoperability are key factors of the DTE program. The aim is to implement a permanent infrastructure which is able to facilitate the integration of systems and forces training in a distributed manner, making use of the existing procedures as well as those innovative processes that will accomplish new requirements. Formal events, such as training and exercises, remain but additional processes are embedded to benefit from the distributed infrastructure. The NLVC (NATO Live Virtual Constructive) project, as a part of Snow Leopard, was the first step towards the development of a distributed capability for education and training where NATO and Nations could persistent, distributed and joint training capability at the JFTC for NATO and Partners able to support training from Component Command level to tactical level across the full spectrum of operations to ensure the best training for mission preparaArchitecture description for NLVC) The decision to move NLVC capability to the JFTC in 2010 to act as the NLVC Hub for NATO and Partners acted as a leveraging capability for the JFTC. The NLVC can produce standards for future training, to improve interoperability between NATO, Nations, International Organisations and Non-Governmental Organisations and to create a persistent training environment at the JFTC where NATO and Nations can train their forces within a full mission spectrum in a distributed manner without any environmental restrictions. Moreover, the training audience can be stimulated using realistic inputs from experts and not only with computer generated ones. The success of the MSG -068 NETN (Modeling & Simulation Group 068 NATO Education & Training Network) Final Experiment hosted at the JFTC in October 2010 was a proof of concept with the JFTC acting as the NATO NLVC Hub. Within the objectives of the MSG -068 Group the main goal during this experiment was demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of a NETN capability and to prepare recommendations for persistent infrastructure architecture, shared scenarios and resources sharing within NATO, NATO Nations, PfP and Contact Countries irci (Experiment Centre Chief) said. The participants from NATO (ACT, JFTC, JWC, NC3A), NATO Nations and PfP (Partnership for Peace) Countries (USA, Sweden, Italy, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Poland) prepared and executed a number of simulation systems and tools distributed over local and wide area networks using CFBLNet (Combined Federated Battle Laboratory Network ) and Internet connections to create a synthetic environment that could contribute to the devel opment of a future NETN capability. Not only did the JFTC host the experiment providing network and CIS support services for the participants, but it also

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 52 actively participated in one of the operational use cases. According to the scenario, the Forward Air Controller located at the JFTC, controlled an air mission of different aircraft, generated and operated by two different simulations, while a UAV and land forces were generated by a third simulation. All the simulations were physically located in three different places. The objective of this use case was to demonstrate that both the NLVC concept and systems worked efficiently and to observe the NLVC technical performance and procedures. In parallel, the implementation of a CFBLNet point of presence in the JFTC enabled a leveraging capability for the Centre. The CFBLNet provided the required transport layer that allowed the development of technical solutions of different security classification with other NATO, National and PfP entities. One step forward towards an improved distributed training environment is the development of a technical platform for the support of the Afghan Mission Network Training Federation (AMN TF) and future training and experiment requirements including the DTE, NATO Network Enhanced Capabilities (NNEC) and the Coalition Warrior Interoperability Exploration, Experimentation, Examination and Exercise (CWIX). Following the successful execution of the NATO MSG -068 Experiment, in 2010, the JFTC started an initiative to provide distributed training and simulations to two similar training events (Regional Command North 11 01 TE and Unified Endeavour 11 2) in a globally -distributed manner. The JFTC hosted a number of NATO FASs (Functional Area Services) providing support through the CFBLNet cloud (AMN TF Afghan Mission Network Training Federation white enclave) to multinational training audiences located in Bydgoszcz, Poland and in the US. From Suffolk, Virginia, in the US, these services were distributed through national networks to other US stations in Fort Hood, Texas, in Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, Hubert Field, Florida, and Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, where various RC elements were located. All these dispersed locations were using and sharing a common operational picture (COP) which was created using simulation tracks generated locally with different simulation systems. Although simulations were not federated the outcome of this training was outstanding. A distributed training environment was implemented allowing real -time interactions to take place amongst geographically dispersed exercise elements closely replicating the in -theatre operational environment. In June 2011 the JFTC further supported the distributed training concept participating in another transatlantic training event. NATO FASs were provided by the JFTC to all US -hosted Unified Endeavour training audiences while a Regional Command South Response Cell was hosted in Bydgoszcz and manned mainly by JFTC personnel. The CWIX event hosted by the JFTC later in June 2011 provided another chance for the JFTC to contribute to the distributed training and exercise concept. The JFTC hosted the 800 participant C2 Interoperability Experiment Event providing not only the in -site support but also contributed to the scenario development, the CAX support and the experiment management network. One of the requests was to provide a NIRIS (Networked Interoperable Real -time Information Services) server to support the C2 interoperability services and an iGeoSit server as the common C2 viewer for the experiments. The NLVC platform was used to provide both capabilities. CWIX provided an excellent opportunity for the JFTC to identify the C2 -simulation interoperability tests and demonstrations for future experiments, to gain experience on how the NLVC concept can be used to support training and to define a clear doctrine on the latter. structure built for training could be used as well for interoperability testing and experiments connecting with the outside world through its CFBLNet Point of Presence. In 2011 the NATO Electronic Training Federation concept was initiated by ACT Deputy Chief of Staff Joint Force Trainer, Lieutenant General Viereck. The expertise distributed events and the proof of concept to deliver distributed training and exercises to NATO and Nations are two factors that remain unaltered. In addition, the JFTC within NETF will extend its capabilities by acquiring the technical and operational expertise (including the maintenance of a distributed training, using an economical outsourced support in order to reduce overall costs to both NATO and participating nations. Within the ACT DTE project, the JFTC works closely with the JWC and ACT not only on NATO training events and experiments but on similar non -NATO led Multi National Exercises. The SEESIM ( South Eastern Europe Simulation Network ) 2012 exercise, which will take place in Bulgaria in October 2012, is in fact a set of separate experiments with related objectives and scenario that are interlinked by an overarchthe DTE concept. The JFTC will contribute to this effort by providing the requested

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 53 fessor at the Faculty of Social Sciences, and a Head of Defence Research Centre at the Institute of Social Sciences, University of Ljubljana. a Vice Dean responsible for research at the Faculty of Social Sciences, 2007 2011, as a Chairman of European Research Group on Military and Society (ERGOMAS), 2000 2002, he is a coordinator of the WG Public Opinion, Mass Media and the Military in ERGOMAS, 1998 and a member of International Sociological Association and International Studies Association. military aspects of security, security policy, crisis management, environmental security and public opinion. His recent selected publications are: Slovenian Security Policy and NATO. Harmonie Paper 13 (2000). Groningen: CESS, University of Groningen; Conscription vs. All -Volunteer Forces in Europe (ed., 2003). Baden Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft; Crisis Management in Slovenia: Comparative Perspectives. (ed. with Annika Brandstrom, 2004). Stockholm: CRISMART; Renaissance of Democratic Control of Armed Forces in Contemporary Societies. (ed. with Hans Born and Karl Haltiner, 2004). Baden Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft; Defence Transformation in Europe: Evolving Military Roles (ed. with Timothy Edmunds, 2005), Amsterdam: IOS Press; (Security in Post Modern Society) of Slovenia's Security) and the Military between Reality and Perception, (ed. with Gerhard Kmmel, 2011). Baden Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft. field of disaster management. He has lectured at several foreign institutions including University of Konstanz, Germany, University of Zagreb, Croatia, University of Orebro, Sweden, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETHZ), Zurich, Switzerland, University of Sussex at Brighton, UK, and University of Groningen, The Netherlands. participation in Partnership for Peace Consortium of Defence Academies and Security Studies Institutes, and co organization of two scientific events: International Research Seminar on Security at the Fault Line Security in Central and Southeastern Europe, together with NATO Defense College, Rome; and NATO Advanced Research Workshop on the Challenge of Defence Transformation in Europe, together with University of Bristol. The People The People The People University of Ljubljana, Slovenia resources (personnel, software and equipment) during both planning and the execution phase of the event. will increase efficiency of training as the distributed training events will be designed, planned and executed according to an adjustable set of training objectives, new technologies and emerging requirements. The effort will be on both training the NATO elements from the highest to the lowest level together seamlessly and making use of the existing infrastructure to create training environments consisting of C4ISR systems and simulations to train concept in Distributed Training Events and Experiments will be an added value to the collective NATO vision. The author is currently serving as the JFTC CAX Branch Head will be an added value to the collective NATO vision.

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 54 NATO Spouses Club Bydgoszcz NATO Spouses Club Bydgoszcz Starting 2012 with the New Energy Starting 2012 with the New Energy If we look back, the 2011 was one of the most successful years in the short history of the JFTC Ladies Club. It was full of interesting activities which attracted participation of a large number of the Club members. Let us use this opportunity to express our sincere thanks to all the members of the Club who took the initiative and assumed responsibility for organization of those activities. In brief retrospect let us mention just some of them: a visit to Opera Nova in Bydgoszcz to Easter Decoratins, a visit to the Planetarium Bydgoszcz, a boat tour of Bydgoszcz, a Jewelry Show in Bydgoszcz, a visit to Sopel Christmas Ornaments Factory and many others. It was a truly successful year, indeed. It is commonly known that the NATO community in Bydgoszcz is expanding. Together with a continuous build up of the JFTC, 3 rd NSB, and NCBY, the number of dependants is growing as well. Therefore, more and more ladies are interested in joining the Club and participate in its activities. With that in mind the members of the Club started working on the new constitution which would reflect these changes. The effort culminated in January 2012 when the new constitution was adopted and members of the new representative bodies of the Club were elected.

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 55 Besides many others, the new constitution includes the change of the Club name to composition of the Clubs representative bodies following ladies have been elected: What makes us especially happy is a broad representation of the nations in the Presidency and Executive Committee. Altogether, ladies from seven nations will share the work in 2012 Slovakia, the Czech Republic, the United States, France, Norway, Lithuania and Estonia for the benefit of all the NSCB members. We wish all of them successful and pleasant experience. For 2012 the NSCB has again prepared a program, which is full of events and cultural activities. Let us provide all the Club members and those who are interested, with a brief overview of the main activities: Craft Event During the session the members will make various traditional national hand -made items, which will be eventually donated to the charity. The aim of the event is to learn from each other about other cultures and provide valuable gifts for charity purposes. Sowa Factory Visit The members are going to visit a well known pastry factory in Bydgoszcz, founded by Mr. Sowa. This event was organized also in 2010 and was considered by the ladies as one of the most interesting events of the year. Bydgoszcz City Tour The aim of the event is to make the new members of the Club more familiar with the city, its natural beauties and historical sites. The main attraction is going to be the boat ride on the canal during which the participants will have an opportunity to see all the main parts of the city of Bydgoszcz. English Language Conversation Lectures Obviously it is a very important initiative. The purpose of those lectures is to assist the members to gradually improve their language skills and improve the quality of communication among them. Soap Making Soap making event will be organized with the support of the Bydgoszcz Tourist Center. What the event is about is more than obvious from its name. The participants will have an opportunity to learn how soap is made and also may test their individual skills while making soap on their own. Bowling, skating, cooking sessions, morning coffee sessions What kind of program it would be if it did not contain a variety of events during which ladies could enjoy their leisure time, had an opportunity to discuss various matters or do something for their physical fitness. And besides, do not forget that activities of other JFTC clubs are also open for participation of the NSCB members. Although, this is only a brief tour of what the NATO Spouse Club Bydgoszcz is going to organize for its members in 2012, it is apparent, that we have a very interesting and dynamic year ahead of us. and dynamic year ahead of us.

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 56 Bydgoszcz is a city located on the Brda River, founded by king Casimir the Great in 1346. At first sight you will not find anything exciting about it, some industry, university schools, several tourist would find anywhere in Poland. Bydgoszcz ranks eighth in terms of size, with population of over 350 thousand people. As compared to other big Polish cities it is just average, having the same problems of unemployment, using EU funds to successfully adjust the city to European standards. There is, however, something that makes Bydgoszcz an attractive place. In the course of time it has become an attractive place for a specific and very important group armed forces. The first garrison was created in Prussian times in 1772. Since that time the importance of Bydgoszcz as a military centre grew rapidly. Before the II World War, Bydgoszcz was referred to as a city of armed forces and a railway town. And even though the railway is not as important as it used to be (although Bydgoszcz is the seat of a significant manufacturer of trains and trams, sold all over the EU and outside, and is still an important railway junction), the city is still a significant military centre. It would be difficult to find another Polish city that is as important from the point of view of the armed forces. Why? Because of a number of military institutions located here. It is worth mentioning that these institutions are of very different character and profile. Probably the most important military institution in Bydgoszcz was the Pomeranian Military District (POW) established in 1919. Its major task was to provide logistic support to all units located in its area and the main scope of operation was administration and staffing. As such, the District was The POW was deactivated in 2011 and all its tasks and responsibilities were transferred to another institution located in Bydgoszcz, the Inspectorate for Armed Forces Support. The Inspectorate is directly subordinate to the Minister of National Defense and its tasks, among others, cover organization and management of the armed forces logistic support system, including support for units deployed overseas. Talking about troops serving abroad, they are widely supported by King Casimir the Great 1st Pomeranian Logistic Brigade. Even though it was established only in 2003, its troops have supported Polish military components deployed in Iraq, Lebanon, Syria, Afghanistan, Chad and Kosovo. The Brigade Troops stand ready to take part in rescue missions and the elimination of consequences of natural disasters. It also assigns its troops and equipment to NATO Response Force components. We could go on like this, listing and briefly describing particular military institutions, but it was mentioned at the beginning, that they are of different character and profile. And here comes the 2nd Military Aviation Plant, a facility that has operated for more than 60 years and specializes in aircraft repair and overhaul. It offers complex repairs of most aircraft that were (and still are) in use in Polish Air Forces, like MiG -29, Su -22 or TS -11 Iskra and it is not only Poland that commissions the services but also the air forces of Egypt, India or Germany. As it has all the necessary equipment, experience and a number of highly qualified personnel, the logistic and service facility for the F -16s used by the Polish Air Force. Another facility is the 10th Military Hospital. Established in 1985 it quickly became one of the most important medical facilities in Poland and earned its good reputation for high quality of medical services delivered. The quality of services, as well as high management standards, have been confirmed by certificates that the Hospital received ISO 14001, ISO 9001 and NATO AQAP 2110. The hospital is still developing and now offers a full range of services, not only for the military but also for the rest of the society. It has always ranked high in ratings being a hospital that is reliable and friendly for patients. Bydgoszcz is home to many military institutions. Except the ones mentioned above there are some others, like Polish Armed Forces Training and Doctrine Centre or NATO 3rd Signal Battalion. However, there is one more which seems to be the most important military facility located in Bydgoszcz now. It is the Joint Force Training Centre (JFTC), one of the few B y d g o s z c z a n d I t s M i l i t a r y I m p o r t a n c e B y d g o s z c z a n d I t s M i l i t a r y I m p o r t a n c e f o r P o l a n d a n d N A T O f o r P o l a n d a n d N A T O By Tomasz Ociski The Opera Nova House

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 57 NATO institutions located in our part of Europe. The JFTC was established in 2004 and moved to its modern compound in 2009. It is a NATO focal point for tactical level training and transformation. Together with the Joint Warfare Centre in Norway and the Joint Analysis and Lessons Learned Centre in Portugal it is a part of Allied Command Transformation training network. The JFTC is committed to providing the Alliance with up-to -date training support for exercises and preparation for live missions. It supports training for NATO and Partner Forces to improve joint and combined tactical interoperability and conducts joint trainings for tactical level command posts and staffs in support of tactical level commanders. It is definitely an international institution in the full sense of the word and numbers clearly show it more than 125 personnel (both military and civilian) from 18 NATO member states The JFTC is directly supported by the NATO Communication and Information Systems Services Agency (NCSA) Squadron Bydgoszcz (NCBY), established to maintain the core CIS infrastructure and to deliver additional task is supporting Local Area Networks for NATO wide training. The JFTC, however, receives support also from the 3rd NATO Signal Battalion which is a part of NCSA. It is a NATO CIS unit responsible for providing flexible and reliable strategic communication tools to all NATO deployed HQs in support of operations and exercises to enable the deployed commander to successfully execute his mission. Poland, being the Host Nation, is obliged to support the JFTC. The JFTC Support Unit is a national Polish Unit and, as established in a memorandum between Poland and HQ SACT, supports the JFTC in the areas of budget and finance, administration, infrastructure, logistics and security. NATO is planning one more military facility in Bydgoszcz Military Police Centre of Excellence (MP COE) the mission of which will be to enhance NATO Military Police capability. The MP COE will provide expertise on all aspects of MP activities and the field of MP operations. There will be three specialized branches: Doctrine and Concept Development, Education and Training and Lessons Learned. In total, 54 multinational personnel will be employed there. To sum up, Bydgoszcz is developing which is also thanks to military institutions located here. It is easy to observe that Bydgoszcz has already established its position of a city that can provide well trained staff, necessary infrastructure and all the required support. The city is becoming more and more popular not only with foreign officers but also with tourists. It is really worth visiting. The authors is the JFTC Language Expert The JFTC Training Facility The Crossing Brda River Sculpture

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 58 PUBLICATION GUIDELINES PUBLICATION GUIDELINES 1. The articles should be submitted in English; 2. The articles should be 1000-5000 words long; 3. The articles should be delivered as electronic files on a CD/DVD to the following address: Joint Force Training Centre 85-915 Bydgoszcz Poland or sent via an e-mail to the following address: pao@jftc.nato.int; 4. The articles should be written in Microsoft Word format, single-spaced, Times New Roman font, 12 size, A4 paper size; 5. Photos sent as an illustration for the articles should be sent in JPEG files, minimum 500KB; 6. The author of the article should provide the editor with a short information about his profession, academic title, professional affiliation and contact details.

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Joint Force Training Centre Transformation Through Training 1/2012 59 Photo: Robert Sawicki, The City Hall of Bydgoszcz The JFTC Compound