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High frontier

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High frontier
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United States -- Air Force Space Command
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Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1, no. 1 (summer 2004)-Vol. 7, no. 4 (August 2011).
Numbering Peculiarities:
Vol. 2, no. 2 lacks date within publication but file name is: "Jan06_1WEB.pdf."
General Note:
"The journal for space & missile professionals"--Vol. 1, no. 1-vol. 5, no. 4.
General Note:
"The journal for space, cyberspace, & missile professionals"--Vol. 6, no. 1.
General Note:
"The journal for space and cyberspace professionals"--Vol. 6, no. 2-vol. 7, no. 4.
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United States Air Force Space Command.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
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60426098 ( OCLC )
2006230115 ( LCCN )
1933-3366 ( ISSN )
ocm60426098
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358 ( ddc )

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1 High Frontier Contents Introduction General C. Robert Kehler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Senior Leader Perspective NGA: GPS Consumer and Contributor VADM Robert B. Murrett . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Mr. Michael E. Shaw and Mr. Edward M. Morris . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Mr. Edward T. White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Industry Perspective Dr. Donald G. DeGryse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Mr. Eric L. Hultgren and Mr. Nicholas S. Blackwell . . . . . . . . . . 18 Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Ms. Sharafat Gadimova and Mr. Hans J. Haubold . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Ms. Alice A. Wong and Mr. Ray E. Clore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Col Donald E. Wussler, Jr. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Lt Col Jon M. Anderson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Lt Col Harold W. Martin and Mr. Walter Petrofksi . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Lt Col John Wagner, Mr. George Houser, and Mr. Don Skinner . . . . . . 42 The 2 nd Maj Michael A. Taraborelli . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 TSgt Teresa A. Medlock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Dr. Rick W. Sturdevant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Book Review Dr. Rick W. Sturdevant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Next Issue: National Security Space Collaboration May 2008 Volume 4, Number 3 The Journal for Space & Missile Professionals expressed in this journal are those of the authors alone Editorial content is edited, prepared, and provided by the High Frontier High Frontier High Frontier AFSPC/PA Peterson AFB, CO 80914 Headquarters Air Force Space Command Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado Commander Vice Commander Lt Col Michael Pierson Creative Editor High Frontier Staff Lt Col Scott Maethner Maj Catie Hague Maj Frank Zane MSgt Jennifer Thibault Shofne radios into headquarters descriptions of the ordnance found

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High Frontier 2 Introduction General C. Robert Kehler Commander, Air Force Space Command I nside this quarters you will discover interna tional perspectives, tactical-level paradigm shifts, tiers mony to the Senate Armed Services Committee. Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) delivers capabilities that transcend national and military boundaries and that are intrinsically and simultane ously both tactical and strategic, local and global. The Global Po as a free international utility. Contemporary American warfare is based on global vigilance, reach, and power. Space-based position ing, navigation, and timing (PNT) capabilities afforded by GPS, enhance the effectiveness of Americas joint forces by enabling de livery of swift and precise effects which provide overwhelming and decisive results with minimum collateral damage. Leading off the Senior Leader Perspective section, Vice Ad miral Robert B. Murret, USN, director, National Geospatial Intel ligence Agency, gives an inside look at how GPS provides action able geospatial intelligence to deployed forces. Next, Mr. Michael Shaw and Mr. Edward Morris highlight how the National Coordi it provides guidance to government agencies on the management of GPS and other space-based PNT systems. Lastly, in our Senior of requirements, discusses current and future GPS system require ments. Opening the Industry Perspective section, Dr. Donald De Gryse, from Lockheed Martin, discusses how the Air Force estab lishes a next-generation GPS program by incrementally increasing capabilities to meet current and future needs. Next, Mr. Eric Hult gren and Mr. Nicholas Blackwell of SpaceX, describe their plans for reusable launch vehicles and how they utilize GPS signals dur ing ascent, orbital navigation and recovery operations. Moving through the bulk of this quarters volume, we provide seven articles with topics spanning from international partnerships tional Committee on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), Ms. Sharafa Gadimova and Mr. Hans J. Haubold, programme of Australia, outline how in 2005, the United Nations established the GNSS to ensure compatibility and system interoperability, thereby saving costs through international cooperation and making PNT Advanced Technology, Bureau of Oceans, Environment and Sci ence (OES) and Mr. Ray Clore, senior advisor for GPS-Galileo Is sues, OES, give a summary of US diplomatic efforts in support of compatibility and interoperability among current and future spacebased PNT systems. Next Col Donald Wussler the vice command er at the GPS Systems Wing, Space and Missile Systems Center, elaborates on all aspects of GPS PNT development, sustainment, the military, civilian, and international communities, to include fu ture technical, leadership, and strategic challenges. Expanding on PNT strategic challenges Lt Col Jon Anderson a student at Naval General C. Robert Bob Kehler (BS, Education, Pennsylvania State University; MS, Public Administra tion, University of Oklahoma; MA, National Security and Strategic Stud ies, Naval War College, Newport, Rhode Island) is commander, Air Force Space Command (AFSPC), Peterson AFB, Colorado. He is responsible for the development, acquisition, and op eration of the Air Forces space and missile systems. The general oversees a global network of satellite command and control, communications, missile warning and launch facilities, and en sures the combat readiness of Americas intercontinental ballistic mis sile force. He leads more than 39,700 space professionals who provide combat forces and capabilities to North American Aerospace Defense Command and US Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM). General Kehler has commanded at the squadron, group, and twice at the wing level, and has a broad range of operational and command tours in ICBM operations, space launch, space operations, missile warn ing, and space control. The general has served on the AFSPC Staff, Air Staff, and Joint Staff and served as the director of the National Security was the deputy commander, USSTRATCOM, where he helped provide the president and secretary of defense with a broad range of strategic mission areas, including space operations, integrated missile defense, computer network operations, and global strike. War College, discusses near term PNT capability gaps and how to ensure the US remains ahead of the pack in military PNT. Ad dressing future command and control is Lt Col Harold Martin the AFSPC command lead for PNT and Mr. Walter Petrofski from SI International. Next, Lt Col John Wagner the commander of the 45 th Space Wings launch Support Squadron, details the integrated con tractor-government team approach employed by the GPS program and how it has become a model for responsive spacecraft process spear. First, Maj Michael Taraborelli, 2 nd Space Operations Squad ron (2 SOPS), provides a glimpse into how 2 SOPS is shifting its tactical operations paradigm to increase interaction across the ac quisitions, operations, and sustainment communities. Rounding out the Space-Based PNT section, TSgt Theresa Medlock, 21 st Operations Support Squadron, tackles the challenges brought about mendations for GPSs continued success. In the Historical Perspective section, we present an intriguing interview with Mr. Roger Easton, who received the National Medal of Technology from President George W. Bush on 13 February 2006, for his many pioneering achievements in tracking, naviga tion, and timing which led to GPS. Lastly, I have included a tran script of the prepared statement I presented to the Senate Armed Services Committee, Strategic Forces Subcommittee, United States Senate, on the 4 th of March 2008. The testimony highlights the im portant role the AFSPC team plays in delivering space and missile underestimate the importance of Congressional support as we real ize our vision of delivering responsive, assured, and decisive space power. I hope you enjoy this and future issues of and use them as part of your own space professional development regimen. The subject of our next issue is National Security Space Collabo ration. I encourage you to submit articles that spur discussion by illustrating the impacts, integration issues, and future challenges of

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3 High Frontier NGA: GPS Consumer and Contributor VADM Robert B. Murrett, USN Director, National Geospatial Intelligence Agency Bethesda, Maryland O ver the past decade, the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS), managed by the United States Air Force Space Command for the Department of Defense (DoD), has become the most exploited space-based asset the US govern ment ever developed. Since GPS provides space-based radio navigation for anyone with a GPS receiver, both military and civilian uses have increased exponentially. In fact, everything geospatially oriented today is reliant on GPS. Most military and intelligence operations depend on knowing precisely where something is located. National Geo spatial Intelligence Agencys (NGAs) mission is to provide ac curate, timely and actionable geospatial intelligence (GEOINT) to our mission partners, when and where they need it most. support operational and decision-making needs. For example, NGA provides the geospatial products that en locate and hit targets. NGA analysts build a picture for the and waterways, with man-made features, such as roads, power lines, and buildings to develop a two-dimensional or threedimensional (3-D) picture for common use. Knowing that a target of interest exists is important; knowing where exactly that target of interest is located ensures accurate targeting and minimizes the risk of collateral damage. To target an object, quently, each data layer used in the development of a GEOINT product is referenced to a standard coordinate system. US national security, transportation, navigation safety, eco creasing dependence demands that the coordinate information and reference system be both accurate and accessible. NGA plays an essential role in maintaining and improving the accu racy and reliability of GPS by providing the DoD with precise GPS orbits, satellite and station clock corrections, and Earth orientation information. NGA is not only a daily consumer of GPS but a robust contributor as well. NGA and its predecessor organizations partnered with the DoD to develop the World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 84) as the standard geodetic frame of reference. The WGS 84 global reference frame provides a mathematical representation of the Earth's shape, a 3-D coordinate system, and a gravity model which is essential for computing satellite orbits and precise lo cations on, above or below the Earths surface. WGS 84 pro vides a common, standardized reference frame for inter-relat ing and integrating all geospatial data, including GPS-derived position information. This global reference information is what allows users to determine their locations on Earth based on the precise positions of GPS satellites in space. Prior to the 1950s, coordinate systems were developed re gionally. Once satellites became available in the 1950s and 1960s, NGA was able to establish an Earth-centered, global co ordinate system. Today, the WGS 84 coordinate system, used combination of the Air Force and NGA satellite tracking sta tions distributed around the world. The more accurately NGA knows the positions of these tracking stations, the more accu rately NGA can determine the GPS satellite positions. Cur rently, NGA estimates the accuracy of these station coordinates within a few centimeters or less. As a by-product of this data processing, NGA can also detect small variations in the Earths orientation in space and its rotation rate. This information is crucial for the accurate and precise orientation and geopositioning of satellite imagery. Precise timing is the key to GPSs accu racy. Every DoD GPS tracking station and GPS satellite is equipped with an atomic clock, each of which runs at slightly differ ent rates. NGA co-located a tracking sta tion with our nations master time keepers at the US Naval Observatory (USNO) in Washington, DC. This allows NGA to take advantage of the stability, precision and ac the GPS master clock, and then to adjust all the other satellite and station clocks to the master. Senior Leader Perspective

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High Frontier 4 Reliability of service is essential to GPS effectiveness. Be ginning in the 1980s, NGA provided personnel support at the les AFB, California and the Operational Control Station (OCS) at Schriever AFB, Colorado. Additionally, NGA invested in building and operating a global network of unmanned GPS tracking stations to augment the Air Forces permanent GPS the entire GPS user community. As part of a major accuracy improvement initiative, NGA stations now feed real-time data to the GPS through the OCS at Schriever AFB. These data are incorporated into the real-time estimation process for GPS orbit determination, resulting in increased accuracy and integrity of GPS navigation signals for GPS users. Looking Forward Future improvements and maintenance of GPS augmenta tions and back-up capabilities are necessary to meet growing quirements and opportunities. For example, new foreign-based Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), such as Russias GLONASS and Europes Galileo System, provide additional options for current and future GPS users. These foreign sys tems are not yet as robust as the GPS system, but may be in future years. With ongoing efforts to assure interoperabil ity among all the systems, every system may be vulnerable to the same intentional or unintentional interference. The shear number of combined GNSS satellites, upwards of 60 to 100 in the future, may help to mitigate these effects. The defense community is exploring new mitigation strategies to counter geomagnetic storms, as well as intentional and unintentional ra dio jamming caused by man-made techniques. DoDs develop ment and implementation of a military-only code (M-code) and other new satellite features are designed to protect and preserve US strategic access to GPS, even in hostile environments. As we look toward the future and the next evolution of GPS, we must ensure interoperability and compatibility in the con VADM Robert B. Murrett (BA, History, University of Buffalo; MA, Government, Georgetown University; MS, Strategic Intelligence, Defense Intelligence Col lege) is the director of the National Geospatial-Intel ligence Agency (NGA). He is responsible for providing timely, relevant and accu rate geospatial intelligence in support of policy makers and NGA with employees located around the world in support of global operations. Following his commission, Admiral Murrett was assigned After attending the Defense Intelligence College, Admiral Mur rett was detailed to the chief of Naval Operations Intelligence commander, Second Fleet. He participated in deployments to the North Atlantic, the European theater and Caribbean aboard 4). Admiral Murrett served as the assistant naval attach to the US Embassy in Oslo, Norway. Admiral Murrett was assigned as operational intelligence of as assistant chief of staff, intelligence for Commander Carrier Group Eight and deployed aboard USS THEODORE ROOS Striking Fleet Atlantic. Next, he was assigned to the Chief of Naval Operations Staff as executive assistant to the director of Naval Intelligence, then director, Intelligence Directorate, Of duties of commander, Atlantic Intelligence Command (AIC) where he was responsible for the transition of AIC to Joint Forces Intelligence Command of which he later became the di rector for intelligence. Admiral Murrett was the vice director for intelligence, J2, on the Joint Staff. Prior to joining NGA in July 2007, Admiral Murrett served as the director of Naval Intelligence. text of geospatial information. NGA will continue its strong collaboration with the US Air Force to ensure future satellite procure ment and technological decisions consider geospatial intelligence needs and capabili ties. Additionally, NGAs continued partici pation in the International GNSS Service, the international organization that produces state-of-the-art GNSS data and products for sure that NGA stays up-to-date on the latest GNSS science and technology. As both a consumer and a contributor of GPS, NGA is committed to integrating and working collaboratively with our mission part ners as we make the best decisions to ensure our national security, safety, and stability.

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5 High Frontier Based Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Mr. Michael E. Shaw Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Washington DC Mr. Edward M. Morris National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration US Department of Commerce Washington DC I n December 2004, President George W. Bush issued the US Policy on space-based positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT), providing guidance to government agencies on the management of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and other space-based PNT systems. The policy established the Na tional Executive Committee (EXCOM) for space-based PNT to advise and coordinate federal agencies on matters related to space-based PNT. Chaired jointly by the deputy secretaries of defense and transportation, the EXCOM includes equivalentculture, Commerce, and Homeland Security, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration EXCOM through an interagency staff provided by the EXCOM member agencies. The Department of Commerce (DoC) played an instrumen tal role in establishing the EXCOM and NCO in 2005. Since Senior Leader Perspective fectiveness, leading or managing many interagency initiatives. space-based PNT, the Space-Based PNT Interference Detection and Mitigation Plan, and other strategic documents. The NCO has also facilitated interagency coordination on numerous poli cy issues and on external communications intended to spread a consistent, positive US message about space-based PNT. The for DoC, which closely associates with these interagency bod ies as their physical and institutional home. In 2005, the EXCOM co-chairs accepted an offer from thenDeputy Secretary of Commerce David Sampson to host the NCO at the DoC building in Washington, DC. Aside from being conveniently accessible to the interagency community, DoC represented a neutral ground for resolving contentious DoC also demonstrated to the world that the US government treats GPS as a national asset, not just a military system, without shifting too much weight to the civil co-chair. Finally, putting DoC at the center of space-based PNT policy activities helped acknowledge the millions of commercial users, manufacturers, and service providers who comprise the largest constituency in the space-based PNT community. of Space Commercialization budgets for this logistical support and is authorized to accept interagency resources for NCO op erations. In budgetary terms, the NCO represents a $3.5 million tions from the Departments of Defense (DoD) and Transporta tion (DoT) and nine personnel from the EXCOM agencies. The purpose of the EXCOM is to provide top-level guidance to US agencies regarding space-based PNT infrastructure. The president established it at the deputy secretary level to ensure its strategic recommendations effect real change in agency bud ery few months, the president directed the EXCOM to establish

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High Frontier 6 an NCO to carry out its day-to-day business. The business includes a great deal more than preparing meeting agendas and minutes for the EXCOM. It also includes overseeing the implementation of dozens of action items as signed across the member agencies during EXCOM meetings. These range from the resolution of funding issues to the assess ment of strategic policy options. They also include the comple co-chairs. A key function of the NCO is to track all the action items to ensure their timely execution. One of the management tools the NCO uses to encourage progress on EXCOM action items is a stoplight chart of all open assignments, indicating status as green (on track), yellow (falling behind), or red (overdue). The NCO distributes this chart monthly to agency leadership and highlights problematic items at the EXCOM meetings. Completing an action item often requires interagency coordi nation and/or dispute resolution. In such cases, the NCO serves as a facilitator seeking common ground among the interested parties. The NCO has established several processes for achiev ing interagency consensus on policy issues, including special ized staff-level working groups and an assistant secretarylevel Executive Steering Group. The NCO also established a process for interagency coordina tion of US government communications related to space-based PNT, including speeches, presentations, and other externally released documents. The goal is to ensure government-wide consistency and accuracy in public and international statements made about space-based PNT. This is particularly important in addressing false or misleading information about GPS in the public arena. plan for space-based PNT including program plans, schedules, and budgets for GPS and its augmentations. The president directed that this internal planning document be updated annu ally to ensure its relevance to agency budget preparations each year. In Au edition of the plan after many months of data collection, analysis, and coor dination. The document summarizes program dependencies for the develop ment, acquisition, deployment, opera tion, sustainment, and modernization of US space-based PNT systems. As part of the process, the NCO re viewed the adequacy of agency bud gets to support the timely delivery of US space-based PNT capabilities and services. A major focus of this effort was the need for non-DoD funding to support future, civil-unique GPS upgrades. The NCO brought the issue to the EXCOM for discussion and the issue was re Space-Based PNT Interference Detection and Mitiga The presidents space-based PNT policy directed the Depart ment of Homeland Security (DHS) to develop a national plan for detecting and mitigating interference to US space-based PNT systems. The ability to respond to intentional and unin tentional sources of radio interference is essential, as multiple sectors of the nations critical infrastructure rely on GPS and its augmentations. The NCO played an important role in moving the plan forward and coordinating it among the EXCOM agen cies prior to its submission to the president in 2007. Because the document describes vulnerabilities in US infrastructure, it is not publicly releasable. However, in April 2008, DHS released a public fact sheet and summary of the plan via the NCO Web site. The NCO works closely with the State Department to de velop and coordinate strategies for international engagement and cooperation related to space-based PNT. Such strategies have assisted in establishing or continuing successful US coop eration with Europes planned Galileo system, Russias Global Navigation Satellite System ( GLONASS), Japans Quasi-Ze nith Satellite System, and Indias Regional Navigation Satellite System. The State Departments GPS International Working the EXCOMs organizational framework. The GIWG and NCO meet quarterly to plan upcoming out and positive message about US space-based PNT programs and

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7 High Frontier policies to international audiences. US representatives speak about space-based PNT at a variety of conferences, workshops, seminars, and other public engagements. The NCO supports US participation in the International Committee on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (ICG), among global space-based PNT providers and users. The NCO contributes to US government funds supporting ICG opera tions, including regional workshops and seminars intended to teach developing countries how to use space-based PNT to im prove quality of life. In February 2008, DHS announced its decision to upgrade the US Coast Guards aging Long Range Aids to Navigation (LORAN) system to become enhanced LORAN (eLORAN). Providing a national backup to GPS for PNT services was the basis for their decision. The decision followed recommenda tions from several groups, including the EXCOM, which re viewed the issue in early 2007 and unanimously endorsed the eLORAN concept. In the following months, the NCO played a key role in driving the US government toward a decision on eLORAN. Forum The NCO chartered the National Space-Based PNT Systems Engineering Forum (NPEF) in 2007 as a mechanism for engag technical tasks related to space-based PNT. Such tasks include the investigation of GPS satellite anomalies that occurred fol lowing the transition of the operational control segment to a new, modernized architecture. The NPEF is a permanent work ing group under the NCO co-chaired by the DoD and DoT and including more than 11 agencies. In early 2006, the EXCOM directed the NCO to initiate an to develop an overall US PNT architecture focused on the year 2025. The effort coincided with a study requested by the assis tant secretary of defense for networks and information integra tion for the NSSO to develop a national PNT architecture. In addition, the under secretary of transportation for policy tasked the DoT Research and Innovative Technology Admin istration to co-lead the national PNT architecture on behalf of the civil community. The intent is to arrive at a common vi sion for the future of PNT (space-based and otherwise) that will create an evolutionary path for government-provided PNT systems and services, provide direction for science and technol ogy efforts and capital investment decisions, and identify and eliminate unnecessary infrastructure. The NCO participated as a member of the PNT architecture team, which included more than 200 participants from across the interagency com munity. The team spent 18 months assessing the detailed PNT landscape now and in the future, evaluating numerous poten tial contributing elements in the future PNT architecture, and developing strategies, vectors, and recommendations to real ize that future architecture. The teams recommendations have been approved, and the team is now moving into the planning phase of the architecture process for the recommendations. The presidents policy calls for the establishment of a fed eral advisory committee comprised of experts from outside the US government to provide independent advice to the EXCOM. The NCO and NASA developed and coordinated the charter and initial membership of the National Space-Based PNT Ad NASA provides administrative support and collaborates with the NCO on meeting agendas and taskings to ensure direct support of the EXCOM mission. The EXCOM has tasked the board to develop recommendations related to US space-based PNT leadership, strategic engagement and communication, and future challenges. The board met twice in 2007 and last met 27-28 March 2008. The NCO plays a central role distributing information to the world about US space-based PNT programs and policy. The NCO manages two public Web sites providing information national audience. The NCO also printed the contents of the website as a 16-page color brochure distributed at global PNT conferences. The NCOs second Web site, PNT.gov, provides information about US space-based PNT policy and the activi ties of the EXCOM and NCO. The site contains copies of inter national cooperation agreements and public US presentations related to space-based PNT policy. DoC provides technical support to both sites and physically hosts the PNT.gov servers. The NCO staff participates in a broad variety of conferences and other international outreach venues, including meetings of nomic Cooperation, and the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. Other forms of outreach include organizing events and exhibits. In early 2006, the NCO and DoC co-sponsored a media event at the US Chamber of Commerce celebrating the initial availability of the second civil signal (L2C), a new civilian sig nal launched as part of the GPS modernization program. The deputy secretary of commerce delivered the keynote address, crediting stable and transparent US policies for creating the multibillion industry in space-based PNT. DoC followed up by publishing an article quantifying the estimated productivity In 2007, the NCO contributed funds and other resources to ward the development of a new public education exhibit called GPS Adventures. This large-scale, immersive experience is designed to teach children and the general public about GPS technology through geocaching, a growing recreational activ

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High Frontier 8 Mr. Michael E. Shaw has served as director of the National Coordi 2005. A member of the Senior Ex ecutive Service and former com mander of the USAF squadron that operates the GPS constellation, Mr. Shaw brings many years of military and civil PNT experience to the job. He is responsible for carrying out the mission, objectives, and goals of the EXCOM in accordance with the US Space-Based PNT policy. In addition, he facilitates informa tion sharing, coordination, and issue resolution regarding agency program plans, requirements, budgets, and policies for operation of EXCOM on space-based PNT matters within the government, the public sector, and with representatives of foreign governments and international organizations. Mr. Shaw previously held management positions related to Defense for Command, Control, Communication, and Intelligence; Secretary of the Air Force for Space. He participated in international negotiations involving GPS and its augmentations including the tem, and the Nationwide Differential GPS System. Mr. Shaw was a career navigator in the Air Force, where he was director of operations, and later, commander of the 2 nd Satellite Op erations Squadron, responsible for the command, and control of the GPS satellite constellation. Mr. Edward M. Morris (BS, Engi neering, Rutgers University; MBA, Pepperdine University) is director, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Com implementing national space poli cies and promoting the capabilities of the US commercial space industry. It acts as an industry liaison within the Executive Branch to ensure the US government maximizes its use of commercially available space goods and services, avoids legal and regulatory impediments, and does not and supports the deputy secretary of commerce on the EXCOM. Mr. Morris is the US government co-chair of the GPS-Galileo Working Group on Trade and Civil Applications, responsible for ad dressing non-discrimination and other trade related issues concern ing space-based PNT. poration, most recently as senior director of Washington operations. ing key business development goals. quisition, launch operations, and HQ staff positions. He transferred rank of colonel. Mr. Morriss military honors include the Air Force Meritorious Service Medal, Air Force Commendation Medal, and Air Force Achievement Medal. He is a graduate of Air War College, where he was a distinguished graduate. ity. The exhibit is on display at the Minnetrista Cultural Center in Indiana, where it has broken attendance records. It will trav el to several other US science museums, reaching thousands of Americans across the nation. The Way Ahead In 2007, the EXCOM co-chairs directed the NCO to iden tify open action items and unresolved issues for completion by the end of 2008 to enable a smooth transition to the next ad ministration. The NCO worked closely with EXCOM member agencies to prioritize top short-term issues and compiled them into a comprehensive 2008 Work Plan. The work plan includes assignments for DoD to release an update to the GPS Standard Positioning Service Performance Standard; for DoT to decide the future of the Nationwide Differential GPS program; and for DHS to complete the Interference Detection and Mitigation implementation strategy. The NCO tasked itself to develop a 2009 transition book for the incoming EXCOM leadership. The NCO is tracking the progress of the 2008 Work Plan using the same stoplight chart process used for EXCOM action items. An assignment for DoC in the 2008 Work Plan was to sub mit legislation to Congress that would help ensure the longterm sustainability of the NCO and EXCOM. In October 2007, the administration proposed a new bill intended to update the The legislation would codify the existing relationship between DoC and the national space-based PNT policy organizations. If ization continues to support the NCO and EXCOM as one of its permanent responsibilities, regardless of future changes in of Space Commercialization to promote advancement of US geospatial technologies, including space-based PNT. The text of the proposed legislation is available at space. commerce.gov. As of the writing of this article, the bill did not have a number because its sponsor in Congress had not for mally introduced it. DoC expects this to occur during spring 2008. In less than three years, the NCO evolved from an idea into a space-based PNT community. NCO efforts have helped build the EXCOM into an effective mechanism for raising issues to the attention of senior leadership and ensuring their guidance gets implemented. While it is still a work in progress, the NCO The symbiotic relationship between the NCO and DoC pro lationship will mature as ongoing US government space-based PNT activities continue bearing fruit and DoCs support to the NCO and EXCOM progresses from a political commitment to a legislative mandate.

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9 High Frontier An Interview with Brig Gen John E. Hyten Senior Leader Profile I n March 2008, Mr. Edward White of the Air Force Space Brig Gen John E. Hyten, AFSPC director of requirements to re ceive an update on the Global Positioning System (GPS), both current and future. The following text is the result of that inter view. Interview White: Does the Air Force consider and manage GPS as a satellite system or as separate satellites that provide positioning and timing service to its users, both military and civilian? Hyten: You have to look at it as a system of systems. The ground elements, the link elements from ground to space, and the space systems all have to work together for GPS to deliver its service. GPS provides capability for positioning, navigation, and timing [PNT] around the world. The user segment, the ground system, the links, the ground stations around the world, partner with the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency, the satellites So, it is a whole lot more than just the satellites. It is a whole lot more than any one piece of it. If any one of those pieces doesnt work, GPS doesnt work. If the ground segment at Schriever AFB [Colorado] doesnt work then the GPS constella tion doesnt work for very long. White: Putting this all together is quite a success story. Hyten: GPS is one of the greatest success stories in the his tory of AFSPC and the history of the Air Force. It went through some tough times getting started. Challengers asked, why is a satellite navigation system really needed? We have inertial navigation systems in airplanes, so why would you need a space-based satellite navigation sys tem? I think there may be a few people like Dr. Brad Parkinson and a few others out there, but not many, who thought of all the uses for GPS in the future. However, until satellites got up there and people started working with them we didnt know how effec tive and useful the system could be. And then the big decision to turn off selective availability by Presi dent Clinton was a huge step forward because that opened up GPS to the commercial market place. The deci sion last year to not even put selective availability on the future block of GPS satellites should increase you see it everywhere, from bass boats to your car, to golf carts, to precision weapons. White: It is an immensely important system of systems. What is the next step? Where are we going? Hyten: We are going to continue to improve GPS. One of the great things about the Air Force and what AFSPC has done with GPS is that we dont just deliver the minimum capability. Right now, we have more operational satellites on orbit than we have ever had before, 31. Last year, we completely replaced the ground system at Schriever; actually, we replaced two ground systems there. It used to take two squadrons to operate GPS, now it takes just one. That one squadron is operating the Launch and Anomaly Resolution Disposal Operations and a new ground system called the Architecture Evolution Program, but it is one squadron doing the whole business on a modernized system. So, you put those modernized systems together with all the new satellites and there is no doubt that GPS has become the gold standard for precision navigation and timing in the world. Every year, the signal has gotten better. Every year, the accu racy of the system has gotten better. And that is what is going to continue. We are not only going to continue to improve the ac curacy, we will continue to support the system and we are going to add capabilities in future blocks that will allow the system to be even more robust in a contested environment.

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High Frontier 10 White: All the things that have come from the simple concept of a clock in space are incredible. I was reading that the timing signals the banking industry uses are based on GPS. Hyten: The timing signal, from a civilian standpoint, is prob ably more important than the navigation signal because an ac to banking. If you want to use your debit card in a gas station, that whole system is timed off of GPS. If for some reason GPS stopped working you would not be able to use your credit card in a gas station. You would not be able to go up to an ATM and get your money. GPS. It is just amazing, because it is the most accurate clock and advantage of it and it is a whole lot cheaper than building your own clock. All you have to do is pull the time off the satellites and use it. White: And the government pays for it? Hyten: The Congress actually passes the budget and the president signs it, but the United States Air Force is the steward of that system. Congress has been very kind in supporting that program and the president has supported that program for a long time. And because of all this support, GPS has become the gold standard for the world, no doubt about that. White: What kind of feedback do you get from the users? Hyten: It is pretty exciting. We had a tech sergeant who was calling in air strikes. We were dropping 2,000 pound bombs within a few hundred yards of his position and he rarely saw an airplane. What he saw was bombs going off, taking out the en him out to Schriever just so he could see how we operate GPS, and his classic line was, I didnt know all this stuff was here and I really didnt care, I just knew that it worked. And that is really the bottom line. I was talking to a farmer from Iowa who uses GPS to lay down all the seed, all the fertilizer. His combine uses GPS tech nology. He loads all the coordinates describing what he wants to how much to lay down, how much to pick up, and where to go depending on where they are. That is a great capability for farm ers. Everyone from a young Soldier, or a young Airman, in Iraq and Afghanistan, to a farmer in Iowa is dependent on GPS and we get awesome feedback from them all. When I was the wing commander at Schriever, it was pretty exciting to get that feed back. Even many people in Colorado Springs dont realize that everything that is GPS happens because of Schriever AFB. The folks in Los Angeles deliver the capabilities, but all the opera tions are based out at Schriever. We have ground stations around the world that we hook up to, but it is the folks at Schriever that hook into those ground stations that go up on the satellite. It is really an amazing national treasure. White: Are there any urgent operational needs statements currently in the system regarding employment of GPS? Hyten: The thing that is important to understand about GPS every day somebody is calling back to either the JSpOC [Joint Space Operations Center] at Vandenberg AFB [California], or sometimes, directly into the GPS operations center at Schriever, where in the world. Whether it is a GPS timing signal in a communications hand set, a navigation signal in a handheld receiver, or whether it is a navigation signal built into an airplane, a tank, or a truck, every thing is based on GPS. Every once in a while, when something just worried about the accuracy of the signal in space. We just tweaked everything we could to make sure that the signal was as accurate as possible. But that is not really the right measure of merit. The right measure of merit is how accurate that signal is to the user on the ground. Is he getting the signal? And if what the problem is and help them work through it. We are really focused on delivering capabilities that allow making sure that the signal in space is accurate. Every day we have urgent operational needs, mostly informal, that get worked White: The system has been referred to as an enabler, but isnt it more of an empowerment? Hyten: I am not sure that either one of those terms is suf operations today and it is fundamental, basically to our entire economic infrastructure. If you say it enables, youre suggesting it makes things better. It does make things better, but if GPS just enables things and if it went away everything would be okay. We would just do things a little slower. If it went away, in many cases, we would be in a world of hurt. To me, GPS is fundamental to military operations and it is fundamental to our economic infrastructure. White: Are there a couple of generations of GPS satellites? Hyten: There are more than that. There are 13 Block IIAs, 12 are doing very well. The IIR-M is a modernized IIR and has additional signals that will help additional users. It provides better accuracy in many ways. Altogether, there are three generations of satellites and there is about to be a fourth. Then, after that, there will be Block III. And, depending on how long the IIAs end up lasting we could

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11 High Frontier pability. It is pretty amazing when you think about it because they are all operated on the one ground system at Schriever. White: What is their expected lifespan? Hyten: They are different. For the IIAs the design life is about seven and a half years and nearly all are way, way beyond that. The IIR design life is ten years and one of the IIRs is al ready beyond that. A lot of the satellites are well beyond their design life. That comes from a couple of things. One is that the satel lites themselves are proving to be more robust than we originally thought. They actually operate in medium Earth orbit, which is a very dirty environment in space. There is no such thing as a pure vacuum in space. There are all kinds of charged particles, solar particles, all kinds of things that we have to operate through in space. The medium Earth orbit is in many ways a dirtier envi ronment than any of the others. So, one of the concerns was that we were going to have problems with our satellites when we put them up. But, because of good design by a number of different vendors, they are lasting longer. And then, there is the ability of our Airmen, supported by what we call the back room folks. The back room folks consist of blue suit engineers supported by some very smart civil ser vice employees and contractors. When a satellite does break, the back room folks have the amazing ability to go up on that satel or other adjustments. They can bring that satellite back up, so it lasts even longer. There is one satellite, one of the oldest. I believe that it lasted about 17 years on orbit, an old IIA. It was called Lazarus because they had actually gone through all the redundant components and there was nothing left, and they went back to a clock that had already died once, died, euphemistically. They said, Lets turn that one back on and see if we can settle it out. There are four clocks on each satellite. So they turned the clock back on, got it to settle out, and it lived years longer. Pretty neat stuff! White: Many say, space is a contested environment. Is there a backup? Say, there was a catastrophic failure. What would be the plan B for GPS? Hyten: In the military we have a number of different methods for plan B. We still have inertial navigation systems on planes. We still have compasses. We still have watches. We still have the ability to operate like we did before GPS. All that capability is inherently there. But we wouldnt have the capability, if GPS went away, to use satellite navigation. So, we would have to use navigation and timing by some other means. We have those other means and we can go back to them. We dont practice operating without GPS as much as we should but we could go back and do that. We operated without it for gen erations. On the civil side, for navigation, there is a backup system called eLoran that provides a backup navigation and timing signal through a bunch of ground nodes, mostly along the coast. It was originally built to allow that kind of capability around ports. There is a backup, but it is more of a navigation signal only. It doesnt do anything for the banking system, for the farmer in Iowa, for the ATM system, or the stoplights downtown. You can imagine the chaos that would ensue if all of those things stopped working. This is one of the reasons why, if you go out to Schriever, you have layers of security before you can get to the nugget that is in the middle. We have very active security and in various places around the world we have redundant capabilities. We now have a backup capability that is in a geographically separate location. If Schriever went away completely, we could go to another loca very robust capability to keep the GPS system going. We work very hard to make sure that nothing happens to GPS. White: If we can go back to the Block III for a second. What increased capabilities does the Block III bring that are not avail able in earlier models? Hyten: To me the most important thing GPS III brings is a larger bus, which is the platform of the satellite. It allows you to

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High Frontier 12 do additional things. It has more power so it can provide more power to the ground. The GPS signal right now is very weak, GPS III will provide signals that would be hard to interfere with, either accidentally or on purpose. In the future we will have a more robust power system in space. We can then transmit a more powerful signal to the ground. We will have a lot of anti-jam capabilities on those future of different problems that we really cant do with the previous new capabilities are designed to provide that ensured navigation White: But, is it still available to the civil users? Hyten: Absolutely. It has more robust civil signals, and it has a lot of different features that, through multiple signals, should be able to provide more accurate capabilities to civil users, as suming you build a new ground set. user equipment can improve accuracy even further by taking multiple signals and correcting for errors created by the iono sphere. White: It bounces it around a little bit? Hyten: Yes, but say you have two signals coming through, you can actually see the error and through mathematical under standing you can take that error out and get a more accurate po sition. Most of the military signals work that way, but not all the civil signals do. They sometimes use just a single channel today. Future capabilities will have more civil signals so it allows civil and commercial companies to build more accurate capa bilities in their ground system, should they want them. A lot of them want to do that since they like to provide more accurate capabilities to their customers, it opens up a lot of things for the civil users. Most of the stuff we are putting on GPS III, besides the additional signals, provides a more robust capability to allow White: How many satellites are planned for the constella tion? Is there an upper number? Hyten: The requirement is 24 satellites plus three spares on orbit. Twenty seven is the requirement to provide enough ac the magic number. If you look at most of the analyses, the best performance is reached at 30 properly spaced satellites. The key is spacing them correctly and having enough in view so you see enough satellites to get a very accurate signal. We dont want to drop below 27, because then we start having issues with certain points on the globe that will have slightly less accu racy from time to time. But if we can stay up to 27 and ideally at of how long each satellite lasts. There is a little bit of art in keeping the constellation popu lated, because you have to try to estimate when the satellites are tend to last longer than their design life. You dont want to spend a lot of money to put more satellites on orbit when you have a healthy constellation already. Then again, you know they are going to break because they all eventually die and you cant go back and refuel them and you cant go up and change out parts. You have to plan carefully to populate ahead of time. There is a lot of math, science, and sta dozen years keeping the constellation populated. Right now, we have the most robust constellation in history. White: Is GPS the only system that is free to the users? Hyten: Well, it is the only one that is free to the world. Every system that is out there, GLONASS, and soon Galileo, they are all free to certain users. I am not sure of what the Russian busi ness plan is for the commercial use of GLONASS. I dont spend a lot of time looking at the Galileo business plan for how they want to compete with GPS, but I know that they have a charge plan in mind to try to recoup certain costs. It is a fairly complicated issue but we have made the decision nd

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13 High Frontier in the United States that GPS is a global utility that anybody can work off and we have decided that it is in the best interest of not only the United States, but the world to make GPS the gold standard for space-based navigation and timing and a utility available to the world. I believe the decisions made by the leadership of this country in GPS have been tremendous. One of the reasons that GPS is the gold standard is because of the decisions the national leader ship have made about turning off selective availability on the current constellation and removing the capability for selective dence in our international partners. They know GPS is going to be there when they need it. White: How much of a role does civil need play in the devel opment and modernization of the constellation? Hyten: There are three partners in GPS, the military user, the civil user, and the commercial user. We have to consider all three partners in the decisions that we make on GPS. It is operated by the military, so, if I had to give a tiered approach, FAA [Federal Aviation Administration], NOAA [National Oce anic and Atmospheric Administration], NASA; and the third tier would be commercial. It is a government system, built originally for the military, and we have people that are risking their lives every day who depend on it. To me the military side has to be slightly higher than civil, but civil is critical because the infrastructure we have in this nation depends on it. You also have the commercial marketplace that is worth billions of dollars and is a key piece of the entire world economy, and you cant ignore that. You have to treat all three of them as partners in the system. But, when it comes to priorities, there is a tiered order of pre cedence that is inherent in the process but we cannot ignore any one of those three areas. If we do, we are damaging the United States and either our economy, our infrastructure, or our military. You have to effectively integrate all three of them. White: That is a huge responsibility. Hyten: It is a national responsibility and an international most people that come to work GPS are military folks who have operated within military systems for a long time. Now, all of a sudden they are working on a system that is not only a military national treasure that is involved in almost everything this nation does. There are elements in the Coast Guard that work GPS from the civil perspective and there are elements on the commercial side that work various pieces of the GPS. We work with those folks all the time. It still comes back to Schriever and it still comes back to the Air Force for what we are going to do. There is a national PNT Executive Committee that is cochaired by the deputy secretary of defense and the deputy secre tary of transportation. And now the deputy secretary of agricul ture is going to be a member. The Department of Commerce is also a member. It is still chaired by defense and transportation, but really, all the elements of government are coming on board. Even though the Air Force is the one that has the budget for most of it, the national PNT Executive Committee is really the over arching piece of our federal government and has members from all elements of government. Commerce represents the commer cial sector, transportation and agriculture represent the civil sec tor. NASA is there, NOAA is there, everybody has a voice at a senior leadership level to make sure that we do the right thing by GPS. And in many cases, it is that process that has allowed the key decisions which have enabled many GPS successes. White: what is in the future for GPS? Hyten: stellation of about 30, and never less than 27. I see each one of those satellites being more capable, and I see our ground system and infrastructure being more robust and capable so the signals that go to the world 10 years from now will be even more ac curate. But the key piece that we always have to work at is Never go back. Always keep moving forward. That is what we have done for over a decade; really, sincerely managed the GPS so that it has always moved forward. And I see us always moving forward. We are not going to have a constellation of 40 satellites. The effective use of the taxpayers dollars is to make sure that the constellation is about 30, always 27 and always as accurate and capable and robust as it can be, so that it operates in a number of different environments. That is where I see GPS going. White: The one thing about space support is that it is so ubiq uitous, and yet people dont realize that it is there. It is like the silent service, if I may borrow a term from the Navy. That seems like it is both a blessing and a curse. How would you respond to that? Hyten: I look at GPS as a global utility. When you go to the about the power line, the grid, the power station downtown, the coal plant, the mining of the coal, the delivery of the oil, the dams that produce hydroelectricity, the nuclear power plants that switch is that the light comes on and that is what they expect. It is the same way with GPS. When they use their ATM card at the gas station they expect it to work. When they pull out their GPS receiver, they expect to know where they are. When they drop the bomb, they expect that bomb to go exactly where they told it to and it does. So, it really is a global utility and I think that our responsibili ty really goes back to that tech sergeant I was talking about when he said, I didnt really know where the stuff came from, I just cared that it worked. Our job is to make sure that the country that as a strength of GPS. People trust it to work, and we make it work. Thats what it is all about.

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High Frontier 14 If you talk to anybody who is part of this new silent service they feel the same way. Because the key is that you always have to deliver and when the system works you have no problem explaining to the people who are utilizing it what difference it makes in their world. White: One last question, could you tell us about the people who provide this service? Hyten: To me, the best part about this system is that it is oper ated by some really great people, from commanders, Col Teresa Djuric at the 50 th Col Clinton Crosier at the Operations Group, into the squadron, into 2 SOPS [2 nd Space Operations Squad ron], and including the leadership all the way down. They are tremendous people who live and breathe the mission. We have a huge cadre of great engineers and acquisition professionals in Los Angeles who probably know GPS better than anybody in the world. They are a tremendous part of the team. But for me, the most impressive thing, by far, is walking out ing the commands to the satellite. He or she loads the naviga tion signal on the satellite and updates the timing. That person, invariably is a young Airman, who is about two years out of high school. A 19 or 20 year-old American, and they are the ones that are responsible at the business end. Nobody else in the world tells the satellite what to do except those Airmen. To watch them do their job and to know how professional they are is the most amazing thing about GPS to me That is just a tremendous thing to watch and see. Everybody is part of the GPS team, the engineers in the back room, the engineers in Los Angeles, the entire infrastructure, the folks in the headquarters that work all the administrative is ing the commands to the satellites, has the tools and training he or she needs to make the satellites work. White: Is there anything else you want to add to what we have already discussed? Hyten: You cant say it often enough. GPS has become the gold standard for the world. Our job is to maintain that gold standard. And we are going to do it because it is critical to so many essential capabilities, both military and civilian. One of the highlights of anybody in the space business is be ing able to walk into the 2 nd Space Operations Squadron and un derstand that right here we are changing the world every day. It is pretty cool to be a part of that, whether here in the headquar ters, out at Schriever or in Los Angeles, or wherever you happen White: I think you have one of those special jobs. Hyten: Oh yeah, there is no doubt about it. I am the director of requirements now, but the real special job is Colonel Djurics job at Schriever, and the 50 th Operations Group job, and that Air mans job. They are actually doing it every day. To me, that is as good as it gets. But as a staff guy here, I am now responsible for making sure that the next generation of GPS satellites produce the right ca pabilities. That is a pretty nice transition from the job I had at Schriever as the wing commander. It is a special job, there is no doubt about it. I am very fortunate to have this position. th Brig Gen John E. Hyten (BA, Engineering and Ap plied Sciences, Harvard University; MBA, Auburn University) is the director of Requirements, Headquarters Air Force Space Command (HQ AFSPC), Peterson AFB, Colorado. He is responsible for ensuring future space and missile systems meet the op erational needs of our joint st century. General Hyten was com signments in a variety of space acquisition and operations po sitions. He has served in senior engineering positions on both Air Force and Army anti-satellite weapons system programs. His staff assignments include tours in the Air Force Secretariat, on the Air Staff, on the Joint Staff and as the director of the Commanders Action Group at HQ AFSPC. He served as a mission director in Cheyenne Mountain, and has commanded to Southwest Asia as director of space forces for Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. Prior to assuming his current position, General Hyten commanded the 50 th Space Wing at Schriever AFB, Colorado.

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15 High Frontier GPS Modernization and the Path Forward: Military and Civil Users Worldwide Industry Perspective Dr. Donald G. DeGryse Vice President, Navigation Systems Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company Newtown, Pennsylvania A vital component of our nations space infrastructure is the Global Positioning System (GPS), a network of satellites and associated ground components managed and operated by Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) at Schriever AFB, Colorado. America and much of the world depend on GPS for accu rate position, navigation, and timing (PNT) information and this space-based asset has become essential to the military as well as the public at large. The US armed forces ability to successfully execute global hanced by the precision location, guidance and navigation capa bilities delivered by GPS. Most recently, the system was integral to every military branch in the US-led coalitions success in Op eration Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom. For example, special forces mounted on horseback in Af ghanistan summoned GPS-guided precision air strikes to engage enemy targets with pinpoint accuracy and then used the system to navigate safely back to base. Likewise, in Iraq, GPS demonstrated its value by allowing cause they knew exactly where they were and where they needed enabling technology. In addition to providing mission critical capabilities to our men and women in uniform, the system also delivers essential services to civil users around the globe. We know that GPS is in creasingly used in cars to help drivers navigate unfamiliar roads and highways, but we also use it in our daily lives and may not even realize it, for instance: (1) bank automatic teller machines rely on GPS to accurately record the time of monetary transac tions; (2) international commerce in the stock market is calcu lated as GPS technology records the exact moment when stocks are traded to insure accurate exchange rates; (3) much of the food we eat is farmed using GPS; and (4) in addition to plowing and fertilizing, farmers use it to generate yield maps to identify Indeed, GPS serves us every minute of every day, no matter where we are on the planet. New applications continue to be cre ated and like the Internet, the possibilities for satellite navigation are limited only by the human imagination. As a result, the GPS industry continues to experience tremen Bay, New York, estimates last years market for satellite naviga tion hardware was $33 billion, a $6 billion increase from 2006. This growth was attributed to falling prices for all types of hardware and dramatic volume increases in the sales of porta ble navigation devices and satellite navigation equipped mobile phones in Europe and North America. The company forecasts the satellite navigation market growing to $54 billion worldwide by 2011. The need for improved navigation is obvious and a spacebased approach answers the need for accuracy, timeliness, and coverage as no terrestrial system can, which creates entirely new markets for GPS. GPS Modernization Since 1989, Lockheed Martin has worked with the GPS Wing, Space and Missile Systems Center, Los Angeles AFB, California, as prime contractor for the GPS Block IIR program. The company built 21 satellites to improve navigation accuracy and provide longer autonomous satellite operation than previous GPS spacecraft. ity to ensure its continued availability and preserve its competi

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High Frontier 16 tive and military advantages through continuous improvements. To bring new capabilities to the GPS constellation, the Air Force embarked on an effort to modernize eight existing GPS IIR spacecraft in storage. Known as the Block IIR-M series, these satellites include features that enhance operations and navigation signal performance for military and civilian GPS users around the globe. Each satellite in the Block IIR-M series includes a modern ized antenna panel that provides increased signal power to re ceivers on the ground, two new military signals for improved ac curacy, enhanced encryption, and anti-jamming capabilities for the military, and a second civil signal that provides users with an open access signal on a different frequency. Lockheed Martin and ITT have completed work on the eighth stration payload that will temporarily transmit the new third civil signal, known as L5. This spacecraft, known as SV 09, is one 2008. Future generations of GPS spacecraft, including the Block IIF program that will launch next year, will include an operational third civil signal to further improve the accuracy and perfor mance capabilities of the system. Upon successful launch of a IIR-M satellite, Lockheed Mar tins operations team works closely with AFSPCs 2 nd Space Operations Squadron (2 SOPS) and its reserve associate unit 19 the on-orbit deployment and checkout of all spacecraft systems. After completion of navigation payload initialization, the satel lites are then declared operational for both civil and military us ers. The GPS IIR-M satellite launched on 20 December 2007, is an excellent example of the US Air Force/Lockheed Martin teams responsiveness in allowing these spacecraft to begin service as record-setting on-orbit deployment in just over three days and then the satellite was declared operational on 2 January 2008 for both civil and military users. Today, the Block IIR-M satellites, as well as the 12 original improved operations and navigation signal performance world wide. Based on the navigation user range error, which measures GPS accuracy, the Block IIR and IIR-M satellites enable prop erly equipped users to determine precise time and velocity, and worldwide latitude, longitude, and altitude to within one meter. While these successes are a vast improvement over the past, the GPS architecture will need to continually improve to meet future needs. The more we rely upon GPS for precision warfare the more likely a potential enemy will attempt to disrupt its utility. Hostile jamming of GPS receivers aboard our smart munitions, missiles, aircraft, ships, and hand-helds used by our ground forces, and so forth, could degrade the accuracy needed to effectively engage their targets. This leads to major security, vulnerability, and availability concerns not only for the military, but also for the hundreds of millions of civilian users around the globe who depend upon GPS for service, for their income, and for their safety. Going Forward In planning for the future, the US Air Force has established a next-generation program that will provide increased capabilities incrementally to better meet current and future needs. Known as GPS Block III, the new program will improve PNT advanced anti-jam capabilities yielding improved system secu rity, accuracy and reliability. The acquisition of this program is based on the back-tobasics principles, an approach focused on mission success in military space programs, and calls for incrementally adding new technologies as they mature, so acquisition cycle time, cost, and schedule risk are reduced.

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17 High Frontier Dr. Donald G. DeGryse (BA, Augustana College; MS and PhD, Mathematics, Colorado State University, Colorado) serves as vice president, navi gation systems and program manager of the GPS program Systems Company. He previously served as the companys vice president and program manager of the Space Radar program, vice president of Business Development and Advanced Programs, vice pres ident of Flight Systems as well as vice president of Business Acquisition. within the company including vice president of Defense Systems tin Special Programs, headquartered in Fairfax, Virginia, where he He served as professor of mathematics at Bowling Green State University, Ohio and Gonzaga University, Washington prior to entering industry. He has completed several companyand gov ernment-sponsored programs including the Defense Systems Man Dr. DeGryse is currently an executive mentor. enhancements over the current constellation. For example, GPS IIIA provides greater than a fourfold increase in accuracy, reduc ing the likelihood of collateral damage and is more compatible with the use of low cost, smaller warhead, precision munitions like the small-diameter bomb. In addition, GPS IIIA adds an order of magnitude improve enemy to disrupt or deny our effective use of the GPS signal. The initial launch of GPS IIIA is projected for 2014. Eight GPS IIIB and 16 GPS IIIC satellites are planned for later increments, with each increment including additional capabilities based on technical maturity. Last year, the Honorable Dr. Ronald M. Sega, then under sec retary of the Air Force; Dr. Donald Kerr, director of the National commander of AFSPC, appeared before members of Congress to discuss the current US space posture. In his testimony before the House Armed Services Strategic Forces Subcommittee, Dr. Sega cited GPS III as a good example of how back to basics and the block approach works. The GPS IIIA satellite will go beyond current capabilities of GPS II, and provide a growth path forward for future blocks of GPS IIIB and IIIC, in subsequent increments. 1 The importance of inter agency integration and collaboration across the space arena was another key topic in Dr. Segas testimony. Our goal is to create partnerships within the space community, which we believe are essential to delivering requirements on cost and on schedule, en suring appropriate funding stability. Developing the next generation of GPS satellites is also a ma jor focus area of Lockheed Martin. Working closely with the evolutionary program plan based on a strong foundation of solid program execution and operational performance. As envisioned, the fully deployed GPS III space segment constellation is expected to feature a cross-linked command and control architecture, allowing the entire GPS constellation to be updated simultaneously from a single ground station (GPS IIIB). Additionally a new spot beam capability for enhanced M-Code coverage and increased resistance to hostile jamming will be incorporated (GPS IIIC). These enhancements will contribute to improved accuracy and assured availability for military and civilian users worldwide. We are extremely proud of our role in sustaining and improv ing GPS. The overall success of the Block IIR program and the new modernized Block IIR-M series is a profound testament to the close collaboration and partnership between the Lockheed Martin and Air Force team. We understand the importance of this critical system and stand ready to once again partner with the Air Force to engineer even users around the world. Notes: 1 Staff Sgt Monique Randolph, Senior leaders testify about Air Force space program, AF News, 5 April 2007.

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High Frontier 18 Mr. Eric L. Hultgren Avionics Engineer Navigation, Guidance, and Control Analyst SpaceX Hawthorne, California Mr. Nicholas S. Blackwell Avionics Engineer Navigation, Guidance, and Control Analyst SpaceX Hawthorne, California F rom the moment of liftoff to the time recovery vessels close in, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) is employed by SpaceXs Falcon launch vehicles and Dragon spacecraft manned and unmanned space transportation. During ascent and orbital navigation, GPS provides vital position data. By using GPS in conjunction with a cost-effective inertial sensing system during on-orbit operations, SpaceX achieves the same fraction of the cost. And when Dragon rendezvous and berths with the International Space Station (ISS) for NASAs Com mercial Orbital Transportation Services program, GPS will as sist the initial phases and provide a triply redundant system, sat isfying stringent safety requirements for the common crew and cargo capsule. Finally, SpaceXs tracking and recovery team will employ combined GPS/Iridium systems for locating and and cost-effectiveness of recovery operations. About SpaceX Founded in 2002 by Elon Musk, Internet entrepreneur and co-creator of PayPal, SpaceX has already developed two new liquid-fueled rocket engines, a bipropellant thruster system, avi onics, software, state-of-the-art structure, and propulsion test facilities. Additionally, SpaceX has established launch sites at Vandenberg AFB, California, and the Reagan Test Site at the Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands. A third launch site is under development at SLC-40, Cape Canaveral AFS, Florida. To date, SpaceX has conducted two launches of the Falcon 1 rocket. The Falcon 1 launch vehicle family can deliver small payloads up to 2,200 pounds (1,000 kg) to low-Earth orbit (LEO). The next Falcon 1 launch is scheduled for June 2008, and will carry the Jumpstart mission for the DoDs Operation integration and launch of space assets. In addition, SpaceX is rapidly producing development and loft up to 24,890 pounds (11,290 kilograms) to LEO. SpaceX typically reserves 10 percent of the mass-to-orbit performance (represented in these numbers), but this is negotiable. Falcon 9 will lift the Dragon cargo and crew carrying spacecraft, which can deliver over 5,500 pounds (2,500 kilograms) of cargo, or a crew of seven, to the ISS, and return the same to Earth. GPS and inertial navigation systems combine on Falcon 1 to provide an accurate and cost-effective navigation solution. The use of the Iridium satellite telecommunications network for data transmission to ground provides a low-cost communi cation solution having nearly worldwide coverage. During launch, Falcon 1 is guided to a pre-determined or Industry Perspective

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19 High Frontier bit by a GPS receiver which provides navigation signals to the combination with an inertial measurement unit (IMU), pro vides a level of accuracy in vehicle position and velocity on par with that of much more expensive inertial-only navigation systems. Since the vehicle will greatly exceed the Coordinat ing Committee on Export Controls limits placed on commer cially produced GPS units for altitude (11 miles/18 kilometers) and velocity (1,690 feet per second/515 meters per second), the GPS receivers must be customized with these restrictions re moved in order to provide data throughout ascent. tude of 50 miles (80 kilometers) and returns under parachute for an ocean recovery, three independent GPS receivers on the stage send their position data to the recovery vessel via the Iridium satellite network. The recovery vessel then picks up the stage for refurbishing and, ultimately, reuse. Meanwhile, after half an orbit, the Falcon 1 second stage performs then deploys the payload. Its GPS-derived position and velocity information is transmit ted to the ground via the commercial Iridium satellite telephone system at the time of de ployment. tic based, cost-effective IMU with moderate drift rate. The IMU provides high-rate data between GPS data points, while the GPS up dates the navigation solution to correct for IMU drift. Importantly, before each GPS that each message checksum is correct; that the position dilution of precision is nonzero and below a predetermined threshold; that the calculated position and velocity have changed since the last measurement; and that the calculated vehicle speed and altitude are within a physically reasonable range. These checks help ensure the accuracy of all GPS data used for navigation. Combining GPS and Iridium Systems 2008, will carry an experimental on-orbit navigation and telem etry system that offers the potential to greatly lower the cost of mission operations. This experiment seeks to demonstrate that an orbiting vehicle can connect to the Iridium network using the short burst data (SBD) protocol. Mission operators will receive the GPS-derived state of the Falcon 1 second stage in the form ware will accept data from the GPS receiver and then transmit that information to the Iridium satellite network, which will de liver the messages as conventional Iridium data packets to the systems ground stations. This technology offers the potential of greatly lowering the cost of mission operations for telemetry reception outside the range of the main ground station, and will allow for the upward transmission of non-critical commands from the ground to the orbiting spacecraft. The system uses a high performance GPS chipset, and pro vides a novel, low-cost solution for over-the-horizon telemetry and orbit determination. The experiment will operate in paral high-performance GPS receiver, a commercial tracking modem for communicating with the Iridium satellite telephone network, a micro-controller, battery pack, and a dual GPS/Iridium patch antenna mounted to the structure of the Falcon 1 second stage.

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High Frontier 20 GPS for Navigation on the Dragon Spacecraft All safety-critical systems carry stringent redundancy re quirements. GPS receivers provide a triply redundant system for navigation during approach to the ISS. These, and all key elements of the system, including the pressure structure, avion ics, propulsion, re-entry and landing systems, can be validated SpaceX currently has three Dragon cargo missions on the US ration that will ultimately berth at the ISS. employ a primary high performance IMU, three secondary me dium performance IMUs, and three GPS receivers that provide a triply redundant system for relative GPS (RGPS) navigation as Dragon approaches the ISS. As with Falcon launch vehicles, GPS receivers will be used to enhance Dragons navigation so lution, particularly in compensating for drift of the primary in ertial navigation system. During the duration of a few orbits, an IMU-only solution would become inaccurate by a few kilome compensates for this drift. During rendezvous with the ISS, RGPS will be the primary method of computing Dragons position relative to the ISS in side the approach ellipsoid (2.5 mi x 1.25 mi x 1.25 mi), and outside the keep-out sphere (radius 656 feet). It is anticipated that one receiver will be used for RGPS at a time, selected based on the number of satellites in lock that are common with the GPS receivers aboard the ISS. In a situation where the GPS ployed, an IMU-only navigation solution can be used to guide Dragon away from the ISS in a safe and controlled manner. GPS for Recovery covery and reuse, and tracking and recovery teams will employ a combined GPS/Iridium system to locate the expended stages. Joining the abilities of the GPS and Iridium systems permits space assets to report their precise locations from essentially anywhere on or above the Earth. In addition, they are freed from the expense and range limitations inherent to ground sta for Dragon recovery over the Apollo command module recov systems, their relative location to the assets can easily be ob tained, allowing a single operator to monitor and coordinate all recovery related assets. with its own dual patch antenna. The trackers are activated before launch and managed by a remote operator who sets the report frequency and the state of the Iridium radio frequency (RF) board by sending an email to each tracker. The GPS board begins providing location data just prior to parachute deploy ment, once velocity and altitude fall below Coordinating Com mittee on Export Controls limits. Recovery antennas are mounted on the exterior of the inter stage assembly at several stations around the vehicles circum ference. The arrangement permits a view of the horizon for all

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21 High Frontier Mr. Eric L. Hultgren (BS, Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University; MS, Aeronautics & Astronautics, Stanford University) is an avi onics engineer and navigation, guidance and control analyst at SpaceX. Mr. Hultgren is the responsible engineer for recovery avionics on Falcon additional duties related to reentry systems, navigation hardware, and guidance and control algorithms for the Dragon spacecraft. Previously, Mr. Hultgren was employed as a guidance and control analyst for advanced reNicholas S. Blackwell (BS, Aerospace Engineering Sci ences, University of Colorado at Boulder; MS, Aeronautics and Astronautics, Stanford University) is an avionics en gineer and navigation, guid ance and control analyst at SpaceX. He is responsible for and Falcon 9 guidance, navi gation, and control systems, trajectory design and analysis, and vehicle performance analysis. satellite project at the Colorado Space Grant Consortium while attending the University of Colorado at Boulder. Following his graduation in 2002, he became a satellite operations engineer for General Dynamics at the Naval Satellite Operations Center at Point Mugu, California. In 2004, he began graduate studies at Stanford University, where he focused on dynamics and controls. His interest in commercialization of space led him to SpaceX af ter earning his masters degree in 2005. three antennas during descent under parachute, and at least one antenna will have a full view of the sky as the stage rests on its side in the water. Each tracker is contained in a vibration isolat ed submersible enclosure with a 60-plus hour rechargeable bat tery pack, giving the recovery vessel, situated approximately nine kilometers from the nominal splashdown location, plenty of time to reach the stage before the trackers expire. Because ports sent by the trackers and the state of the RF board can be managed to extend mission life, if necessary. urgency attendant with locating and engaging crew-carrying um tracking system has major advantages over the line-of-sight limited Apollo command module recovery beacons which re quired the deployment of multiple aircraft in the landing area to ensure the capsule could be located promptly after splashdown. Dragon will have ablative-coated, conformal GPS antennas for each onboard tracker. By utilizing the same system in both tracking systems, and thus be easily located relative to the assets to be recovered. Thus, a single operator will be able to locate and monitor all recovery related assets and coordinate recovery der adverse circumstances where recoverable assets return out side targeted zones, and may be subject to ocean currents, the reliable and persistent GPS-derived, Iridium-reported position information should enable prompt location and recovery. GPS plays an important role in all navigation and recovery systems developed by SpaceX, and contribute to the goals of increasing the reliability and lowering the cost of space transportation. It helps provide ac curate data during ascent, orbital navigation, and during the initial phase of rendezvous and docking with the ISS. On orbit, employing GPS enables the use of lower-cost inertial sens ing systems. The upcoming launch of a novel hardware system combining GPS and Iridium satellite networks for on-orbit communications seeks to extend the abilities of both of those systems, and to provide a new, cost effective method of two-way ground-to-orbit communi cations. Finally, using combined GPS and Irid ium systems aboard recovery vessels, as well as the hardware targeted for recovery, provides for tions.

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High Frontier 22 The International Committee on Global Navigation Satellite Systems: Building a System of Systems for a Global World Vienna, Austria Vienna, Austria G lobal Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) consist of satellites, ground stations, and user equipment and are utilized worldwide across many areas of society. GNSS, operat ing in different constellations, include the United States Global Positioning System (GPS), the Russian Federations Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS), Europes European Satellite Navigation Systems (Galileo), and Chinas COM PASS. Regional Navigation Satellite Systems (RNSS), provid ing signal coverage over a number of nations or regions, are Indias GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) and Japans Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS). In an attempt to build a true system of GNSS systems in the coming decade, the International Committee on GNSS (ICG) was established in 2005 under the umbrella of the United Nations. The ultimate goal of ICG is to achieve compatibility and interoperability of GNSS systems thereby sav ing costs through international cooperation and making posi tioning, navigation, and timing available globally for societal all aspects of environment and security. 1 Following the Third United Nations Conference on the Ex ploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, held in 1999, the United Nations General As sembly endorsed The Space Millennium: Vienna Decla ration on Space and Human Development. The Vienna Declaration called for action security of transport, search and rescue, geodesy and other activities by promoting the en hancement of, universal access to and compatibility among, space-based navigation and positioning systems. In response to that call, in 2001, the United Nations Committee on the Peace ful Uses of Outer Space established the Action Team on GNSS to carry out those actions under the chairmanship of the United States of America and Italy. The Action Team on GNSS consisted of 38 member States and 15 inter-governmental and non-governmental organiza tions and recommended that an ICG be established to promote the use of GNSS infrastructure on a global basis and to facili tate exchange of information. Following workshops for the regions of Africa, Asia and the rope, international preparatory meetings and actions at the in ter-governmental level, the ICG was established in December 2005. The ICG is an informal, voluntary forum where gov ernments and interested non-government entities can discuss all matters regarding GNSS on a worldwide basis. The ICG promotes international cooperation on issues of mutual interest related to civil satellite-based positioning, navigation, timing, and value-added services. The goal of the ICG is to promote the greater use of GNSS capabilities to support sustainable development and to promote new partnerships among com mittee members and institu tions, particularly taking into account interests of develop ing nations. Progress to Date ing in Vienna in November 2006. At that meeting, the ICG adopted its terms of refer ence and work plan. Under its work plan, the ICG will con sider the establishment of ICG information centers by GNSS providers for the GNSS user community. In addition, the er Space Affairs (UNOOSA), currently serving as the ex ecutive secretariat of the ICG, developed a comprehensive information portal for the ICG and users of GNSS services. Space-Based PNT

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23 High Frontier Government members of the ICG currently include China, India, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Nigeria, Russian Federation, United Arab Emirates, and the United States of America, as well as the European Community. Associate members drawn from international organiza the Civil GPS Service Interface Committee, the International Association of Geodesy, the International Cartographic Asso ciation, the International Association of Geodesy Reference Frame Sub-Commission for Europe, the International GNSS Service (IGS, formerly International GPS Service), the Interna tional Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, the In ternational Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service, the Fdration internationale des gomtres, the European Position Determination System, the International Council for Science, and UNOOSA. Additional observing organizations include the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), the Bureau international des poids et measures, the International Association of Institutes of International Telecommunication Union. The second meeting of the ICG was held in Bangalore, In dia, from 4 to 7 September 2007, to further review and discuss global navigation satellite systems and their applications within the framework of the ICG work plan. These applications in ciency and safety of transport, search and rescue, geodesy, land management and sustainable development, and other activities. The committee addressed the use of such applications to pro mote the enhancement of universal access to and compatibility and interoperability of, global and regional navigation satellite systems and the integration of these services into national infra structure, particularly in developing nations. A major development of the second meeting of the ICG was the establishment of the forum of GNSS system and service providers (Providers Forum [PF]) to enhance compatibility and interoperability among current and future global and regional space-based systems by exchanging detailed information about planned or operating systems and the policies and procedures that govern their service provision. The PF is not a policy making body but will provide a means of promoting discussion among system providers on key technical issues and operational concepts such as protection of the GNSS spectrum and orbital Information exchanged at the PF revealed that all current and future providers were committed to their plans to deploy and/or modernize their respective global and regional satel lite navigation systems concerning the following important characteristics: (a) service to users was provided or would be provided from all systems in radio frequency spectrum bands internationally allocated for radio-navigation satellite services in L-band (960-1300 MHz and 1559-1610 MHz). Two systems would also broadcast a navigation signal in S-band (2491.005 8.25 MHz). The band 5000-5030 MHz could be used in the fu ture by one or more systems; (b) all systems were broadcasting or would broadcast an open service using one or more signals provided to users free of direct user charges; and (c) many sys meet the needs of authorized users in support of governmental functions. The third meeting of the ICG will be held in the United States in 2008. Preparations are already on-going for the fourth meeting of the ICG, to be hosted by the Russian Federation in 2009. Pursuant to elements of the ICG work plan, the coordination of future programme plans among current and future GNSS op erators, including augmentation systems, and increased aware ness of the community of users will enhance the utility of GNSS services and should result in a number of new international and national programmes that support a broad range of interdisci plinary and international activities. These activities will need a particularly in developing nations. If supported by GNSS system providers and users, UNOO SA, as the executive secretariat of the ICG and the PF, could develop a wide range of activities on GNSS applications, and encourage cooperation with and communication among region al GNSS reference systems. kind and in-cash) by the US through ICG and in coordination with co-organizers, activities focusing on building capacity in using global navigation satellite systems to support sustainable development, as follows: 1. The services of global navigation satellite systems are currently being used in a wide range of sectors including but not limited to: mapping and surveying, monitoring of environment, agriculture and natural resources manage ment, disaster warning and emergency response, avia tion, maritime and land transportation. Taking advantage of the work carried out by UNOOSA in the framework of the Programme on Space Applications and supported by ICG, a workshop on the applications of GNSS will be organized jointly with the Satellite Navigation Group of the Colombian Commission on Space and the United States of America from 23 to 27 June 2008. The work shop will be held in Medellin, Colombia. It will examine the progress of the projects launched in a similar work shop in 2005, provide fresh impetus to projects that have not yet moved forward, and will also make way for new projects related to the implementation and use of satellite navigation technology. 22. In view of critical new observations concerning the Earths atmosphere and global climate, notably from the COSMIC, DEMETER, CHAMP, TIMED, ROCSAT, and DMSP satellites, GPS ground-based receivers, airglow instruments, and radars, all of which help provide clues to the complex plasma variations and electrodynamics of the F-region ionosphere during storms, UNOOSA and ICG will organize the session on ionospheric storms and space weather effects to be held on 23 May 2008 during

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High Frontier 24 (UNISPACE III), United Nations, New York 2004; Report on the UN/ USA International Meeting on the Use and Applications of GNSS, Vi enna, Austria, 13-17 December 2004, UN document A/AC.105/846; First Meeting of the ICG, Vienna, Austria, 1-2 November 2006, UN document A/AC.105/879; Space Policy 23(2007)245-247; Second Meeting of the ICG, Bangalore, India, 6-7 September 2007, UN document A/AC.105/901; Space Policy 24(2008)58, 53-55. 2 Information on United Nations/Colombia/United States of America workshop on the applications of global navigation satellite systems, to be held in Medellin from 23-27 June 2008, http://www.unoosa.org/oosa/ SAP/gnss/index.html. 3 Information on the 12 th International Symposium on Equatorial Aer onomy, 18-24 May 2008, Crete, Greece, http://isea12.physics.uoc.gr/. 4 Information on the international training course on satellite naviga Centre for Space Science and Technology Education in Asia and the Pacif ic, in Ahmadabad, India from 18 June-18 July 2008, http://www.cssteap. org/. 5 The 37 th Montral from 13-20 July 2008 at the Palais des Congrs de Montral, www.cospar2008.org/welcome_e.shtml. the week of the 12 th International Symposium on equato rial aeronomy, Crete, Greece from 18 to 24 May 2008. This session will address all aspects of the response of the midand low-latitude ionosphere to magnetic storms and their space weather effects, including in-situ and groundbased observations as well as modelling and theoretical studies, particularly using GPS. 33. Capacity-building efforts in space science and technol ogy are a major focus of the activities of UNOOSA and ing support to the regional centres for space science and whose goal is to develop, through in-depth education, an indigenous capability for research and applications in the core disciplines of: (a) remote sensing and geographical information systems; (b) satellite communications; (c) satellite meteorology and global climate; and (d) space and atmospheric sciences. The regional centres are lo cated in Morocco and Nigeria for Africa, in Brazil and Mexico for Latin America and the Caribbean, and in In the work plan of ICG, UNOOSA will develop the GNSS education curriculum for teaching GNSS applications as part of the four above core disciplines. Currently, the re gional centres and ICG are exploring the possibility to have the regional centres also acting as ICG information centres. The ICG information centres would aim to foster a more structured approach to information exchange on tations of a network between ICG and regional centres. An international training course on satellite navigation ated Regional Centre for Space Science and Technology from 18 June to 18 July 2008. 44. In order to increase knowledge and expertise relating to GNSS world wide, UNOOSA as executive secretariat of systems and services on 15 July 2008 during the 37 th CO to 20 July 2008. In this meeting, ICG will introduce the scope of its current and future work, aiming at building a system of systems. Its focus will be on identifying future needs and requirements, in terms of technology and ap plications, both at regional and international levels, and building on the experience of nations or regions around the world. The ICG work plan will be used as a guideline throughout the different sessions. Emphasis will also be placed on the further development of the strength of the activities. 5 Notes: 1 The details on the ICG are available at the ICG Information Portal, http://www.unoosa.org/oosa/en/SAP/gnss/icg. html; Report of the Action Team on GNSS: Follow-up to the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space Ms. Sharafat Gadimova (BS, Technology, Azerbaijan State Oil Academy, Baku, Azerbai jan; MS, Engineering, Asian Institute of Technology, Bang kok, Thailand) is a programme in Vienna, Austria. She is in volved in the organization of the United Nations activities related to Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), particularly the development of the International Committee on GNSS and the activities of technology education. Previously, she worked for the Azerbaijan National Aerospace Agency in Baku and the Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Mos cow, the Russian Federation, as a researcher. Mr. Hans J. Haubold (BS, Solid State Physics, Technical Chemnitz University, Germa ny; PhD and DSc, Institute for Astrophysics, Potsdam, Ger many) is an astrophysicist from the Institute for Astrophysics, Potsdam, Germany where he has been professor of Theoreti America and the Caribbean. At the United Nations he spearheaded the development of education curricula in remote sensing and GIS, satellite meteorology and global climate, satellite communications, pal organizer of the series of annual UN/ESA/NASA workshops He supports Ms. Sharafat Gadimova in the operation of the ICG Executive Secretariat.

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25 High Frontier Promoting International Civil GNSS Ms. Alice A. Wong Senior Advisor for GPS Issues Bureau of Oceans, Environment and Science (OES) US Department of State, Washington, DC Mr. Ray E. Clore Senior Advisor for GPS-Galileo Issues Bureau of Oceans, Environment and Science (OES) US Department of State, Washington, DC T US State Department pursues an active program of pro moting international cooperation among present and planned civil Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) with the US Global Positioning System (GPS) as the central pillar in an emerging international system of GNSS. This article will pro vide an overview of US space-based positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT) policy, and give a summary of US diplomatic efforts on a bilateral, multilateral, and regional basis to support compatibility and interoperability among current and future space-based PNT providers. Like the Internet, the US GPS is now a critical component of the global information infrastructure. New applications for GPS are constantly being introduced, facilitating greater busi vironmental protection, public security, initial deployment, GPS has grown into a global utility, providing space-based PNT solutions in a stable and reliable fashion. Increasing adoption of GPS by businesses and governments for infrastructure use is made possible by the predictable and de pendable US policy framework that allows open access to the necessary elements to develop new products and services based on GPS. This framework has strengthened over time, with several key milestones worth mentioning: launched. In 1983 President Ronald W. Reagan offered free civilian access to GPS to help ensure aviation safety around the world. GPS reached full operational capability in 1995. Clinton in 1996. It set in motion the decision to set selec tive availability (the ability to intentionally degrade the accuracy of civil signals) to zero in 2000, and included important principles such as the provision of the GPS standard positioning service for peaceful civil, commer free of direct user fees. In 1997, the US Congress passed this principle into law and it remains in effect today. In 2004 President George W. Bush issued an updated US policy on space-based PNT that further improved the pol icy and management framework governing GPS and its augmentations to support their continued ability to meet increasing and varied domestic and global requirements. In 2007, at the International Civil Aviation Organization assembly, US Transportation Secretary Mary E. Peters announced that all new GPS III satellites will be built without the selective availability feature. needed to design and build new products and services using GPS, a policy that has helped unleash the power of free markets and private enterprise for the good of all users worldwide, the providing uninterrupted availability of space-based PNT ser vices; remaining the pre-eminent military space-based PNT ser vice for US and allied use; continuing to provide civil services that exceed or are competitive with other civil space-based PNT Space-Based PNT th

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High Frontier 26 services; remaining an essential component of internationally accepted PNT services; and promoting US leadership in spacebased PNT applications. To accomplish these goals, US diplomatic efforts encour age foreign development of PNT services and systems based on GPS; and seek compatibility and interoperability between foreign space-based PNT systems and GPS and its augmenta tions. Compatibility in this context means the ability of two or more space-based PNT systems to be used separately or togeth er without interfering with each individual service or signal. Interoperability refers to the ability of multiple civil global or regional space-based PNT systems to be used together to pro vide better capabilities at the user level than would be achieved by relying solely on one service or signal. Although the importance of space-based PNT compatibility and interoperability has come into sharper focus in the years immediately preceding and following the 2004 policy release, international discussions on satellite navigation have been un derway for more than a decade. In the early 1990s, our of to facilitate coordination among the US agencies working on international GPS policy issues and cooperation approaches. GIWG members include all relevant departments of the execu tive branch, including defense and transportation, and their re porting organizations responsible for key aspects of GPS and augmentation service provision, such as the Air Force and the Federal Aviation Administration. Although the spectrum of bilateral and multi-lateral diplomatic activities discussed below are led by the US State Department, our successes to date would not be possible without the technical expertise, programmatic prowess, and years of experience provided to these on-going consultations and negotiations by subject matter experts from other federal departments and agencies. The US has many productive bilateral relationships on satellite navigation is sues. US-Japanese cooperation on GPS has included regular policy and technical consultations since 1996 and is currently based on the 1998 Clinton-Obuchi Joint Statement. Japans MT-SAT SatelliteBased Augmentation System, which was declared operational in September 2007, is fully compatible and interoperable with GPS. Japans Quasi-Zenith Satel lite System (QZSS), which will improve GPS coverage over Japan, has also been designed to be compatible and interoper able with GPS. The US is working with Japan to set up QZSS monitoring stations in Hawaii and Guam. The European Union and the US signed a GPS-Galileo Cooperation Agreement in 2004. We jointly designed a new civil signal modulation known as MBOC (multiplexed binary offset car rier) that will be used on both GPS III and the Galileo open between the planned signals known as L5 on GPS and E5a on Galileo. Aside from technical cooperation, we have opened channels for bilateral communication on issues related to trade and civil applications, next-generation GNSS, and security. We have started a joint outreach initiative intended to promote the Russia and the US have been negotiating a GPS-GLONASS Cooperation Agreement since 2004. Productive technical working group meetings have been held. Russia is considering a proposal for GLONASS to adopt two new civil code division multiple access signals at L1 and L5 which will be interoper able with GPS, supporting an emerging international consensus on use of L1 and L5 for interoperable civil signals. India and the US have had policy and technical consultations on GPS cooperation underway since 2005. Interoperability be tween the US government supported wide area augmentation system and Indias planned GPS and GEO Augmented Naviga tion (GAGAN) system based on GPS, has been agreed. The US and India are also discussing greater interoperability between GPS and the planned India Regional Navigation Satellite Sys tem (IRNSS). US and India recently conducted a productive GPS-IRNSS interoperability and compatibility working group and an ITU coordination meeting in Bangalore in January of 2008. In addition to Indian efforts, the US also held a GPS pol icy and technical consultation with Australia in April of 2007 leading to the signing of a joint delegation statement on GPS cooperation. A major recent success in the multi-lateral arena was the creation of the International Committee on Global Navigation S

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27 High Frontier Summary The US is committed to keeping GPS as a central pillar in an emerging international system of GNSS. Positive results from more than a decade of robust US diplomatic, technical, and op erational cooperative efforts on satellite navigation issues are beginning to be seen. New satellite constellations and regional augmentation systems, while independently owned and oper ated, are being designed to be compatible and interoperable. As these new systems evolve from design to operation, compat ibility and interoperability will be the key to success for all. Our interagency team has achieved initial success in this regard through diplomacy, and diplomatic efforts will continue to be the rule, not the exception, as we navigate our way into a future of ever-expanding space-based PNT capabilities. Satellite Systems (ICG). The concept for the ICG emerged from the 3 rd United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and was formally established progress towards the goals of encouraging compatibility and interoperability among global and regional space-based PNT systems and promoting the use of GNSS and its integration into infrastructures, particularly in developing countries. The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) hosted the highly successful 2 nd ICG meeting at Bangalore, India in September 2007. The US is also very pleased that a GNSS Providers Forum (PF) has been set up in conjunction with the ICG. PF members consist of global and regional PNT providers: the US, European community, Russia, China, Japan, and India. Providers agreed nitions of compatibility and interoperability that are consistent with those provided above. In addition, the providers agreed that compatibility should also involve spectral separation be tween each systems authorized service signals and other sys tems signals. tion of and planning for ICG and PF meetings and functions as the ICG and PF secretariat. Workshops to encourage wider GNSS use in developing countries are supported by US funds, departments, and have been held in countries as diverse as Ma laysia, Colombia, and Zambia. The next meeting of the ICG and PF will be held at Pasa dena, California, 8 to 12 December 2008, and hosted by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the California Institute of Technology. Four existing ICG working groups will discuss future plans on: (1) interoperability and compatibility, (2) en hancement of performance of GNSS services, (3) information dissemination, outreach, and education, and (4) interactions with national and regional authorities and relevant international organizations focused on GNSS ground network infrastructure. US GNSS industry and service providers will have exhibits at and participate in parts of the meeting along with worldwide GNSS experts to discuss issues of common interest. The US is also engaging in regional cooperation on GNSS GNSS Implementation Team (GIT) activity. This team, made up of the worlds fastest growing economies, allows for regular exchange of information on GNSS developments. To date the GITs focus has been on aviation, with a test bed project coming to successful conclusion this year. A GNSS Innovation Summit will be held in Bangkok, Thailand this month to concentrate on all modes of transportation. There is also interest within APEC The US believes that APEC activity on GNSS will add value to ICG developments. Mr. Ray Clore (BA, History, Ambassador College, Pasa dena, California) has served since 2005 as senior advisor for GPS-Galileo Issues in the US State Department. He served as the science counselor at the US Embassy at Paris from 2000-2004 where he supported the negotiation of the US-EU GPS-Galileo Cooperation Agreement. He has been a ca Ms. Alice Wong (BS, Math ematics, Pennsylvania State University; MS, Computer Science, American Univer sity, Washington, DC) is on a detail assignment as senior aviation advisor for Global Navigation Satellite Systems in the Space and Advanced Oceans, Environmental and Department. She is respon sible for GPS bi-lateral co operation programs including those with the government of Australia, India, Japan, and Russia. She is also participating in multi-lateral and regional GPS cooperation activities. Prior to her assignment to the US State Department, she was held senior executive positions in the FAA responsible for com munications, navigation, and surveillance requirements imple mentation for the National Airspace System, system and software engineering, operations research, infrastructure and facility engi neering, and telecommunications. She is a board member of the International Sub Committee of the Civil GPS Service Interface Committee. She reads, writes,

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High Frontier 28 Global Positioning Systems: Col Donald E. Wussler, Jr., USAF Vice Commander, Global Positioning Systems Wing Space and Missile Systems Center Los Angeles AFB, California T he Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Wing, located at the Space and Missile Systems Center, Los Angeles AFB, California, currently supports a worldwide positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT) service to the military operators worldwide and the global civil community. This GPS service is sustained through a robust constellation of up to 32 satellites on orbit, a command and control element providing 24/7 sus tainment and anomaly resolution over the entire surface of the Earth, and a military user equipment segment consisting of liter ally hundreds of thousands of antennas and receiver-processors providing PNT information to end users. The US maintains a global leadership role in space-based PNT by pursuing its Department of Defense (DoD) military require ments while ensuring the capabilities provided meet the needs of a larger, more common segment of the user base, which includes millions of civil and commercial users, in the US and internationally. Imperative to achieving this common denomi nator approach are the goals of maintaining GPS as a corner stone of the national PNT architecture and developing a national approach to protect military PNT advantage. The national and international demands of this ubiquitous service drives the GPS Wing to pursue a high operations tempo. Fortunately, the wing is staffed by one of the worlds premier acquisition forces cover ing all aspects of GPS PNT development, sustainment and ser vice. The wing supports the acquisition and launch of several satellites a year to sustain the GPS constellation. In addition, the GPS Wing works with the 50 th Space Wing to upgrade the operational control segment to monitor PNT signals to verify service levels and other critical operational parameters. Through the application of a back-to-basics acquisition ap proach the GPS Wing is striving to deliver capability to the user equipment and high-accuracy safety-of-life applications. The wing, in consonance with national strategy, will continue to ensure and protect the US military PNT advantage while pro viding an unrivaled civil PNT service. The importance of PNT to the national security interests of the US is underscored by the high interest these issues now re ceive in the federal government. Recently, the assistant secre tary of defense for Networks and Information Integration and the under secretary of Transportation for Policy sponsored a national PNT architecture study to provide enhanced PNT capa bilities focused on the 2025 timeframe and an associated evolu tionary path ahead for government systems and services. This enterprise-level architecture will help achieve the goal of greater PNT capabilities for a broader, more common user community and will enable the evolutionary development of a system-ofsystems architecture within the targeted 2025 timeframe. Since 1983, the US Air Force has pro vided continuous civilian GPS signals to users worldwide, followed by increased assurance and accuracy as mandated by the Presidential Decision Directive of 1996 that ultimately resulted in the re setting of selective availability to zero in May 2000. These provisions and assurance of accurate GPS PNT capa bilities have driven increases in interna tional commerce and enabled still-un folding revolutionary changes in modern warfare IIIA satellite in 2014, the GPS constella tion will consist of the modernized sat ellites from Blocks IIR-M, IIF, and III. GPS satellites will then broadcast myriad signals including the new second civil signal (L2C), third civil signal (L5), and the fourth civil signal (L1C) as well as Space-Based PNT

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29 High Frontier the military code (M-Code) signal. The new modernized GPS beyond the legacy L1 C/A and P(Y) code signals. In addition to the legacy signals, the Block IIR-M satellites all have the new signals, L2C and M-code. The increased signal integrity, PNT accuracy, and heightened security architecture provided by these new signals and improvements will ensure that the GPS system will remain the unrivaled source of space-based PNT. At the time of this writing in March 2008, there are six IIR-M satellites on-orbit within the GPS constellation of 31 satellites. After all eight Block IIR-M satellites are launched and on orbit by 2008, the GPS Wing will begin to launch our next generation of mod ernized satellites, the GPS Block IIF. This will introduce the new third civil signal, L5, in the aviation-protected spectrum, and will support the increased GPS use planned by the Federal Aviation Administration. This article, will examine the current state and future pros based PNT on the military and civil user communities. It will cover the provision of timely, relevant, and accurate geospatial intelligence in support of national security objectives by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), and describe how GPS will play in the international community. Finally, it will look forward to the future technological, leadership, and strategic challenges of space-based PNT in the 21 st century. Today, both military and civilian communities are extremely reliant on GPS as the foundation of additional PNT services. For the military, GPS has become a fundamental and pervasive navigation tool for both air and ground forces. GPS also pro vides precision, day and night, all-weather guidance and timing to numerous platforms and weapon systems. US and coalition open seas. They also employ GPS-guided munitions to maxi mize military precision attack and minimize collateral damage. GPS receivers are being delivered at rates exceeding a mil lion per month. Clearly, GPS has provided an economic en gine for the country as the segments that use GPS provide more jobs and increased revenue to Americans. Many civil and mili tary systems have developed applications that build upon GPS to provide added services. In general, these systems improve capabilities such as accuracy and integrity of the basic signal. GPS augmentation services span the gamut from precision ag riculture to precision aviation. GPS augmentations have spread throughout the world. Many corporations have adopted GPS as an enabler to improve their performance while other corpora tions are completely reliant on GPS to deliver their products or services. In addition to automobile and handheld consumer devices, GPS has become the commercial main stay of transportation systems world wide, providing navigation for aviation, ground, and maritime operations. Farm ers use precision navigation through GPS and an augmentation system to plow, cul ingly to many people, auto-pilot assisted/ controlled vehicles will probably be re alized in the near future. Civil aviation is continuously increasing its reliance on satellite-based navigation in preparation routes from point-to-point with reduced dependency on ground infrastructure, re sulting in enhanced landing approaches. The potential savings from these im provements to civil aviation stem from trol infrastructure. Life-saving missions, including disaster relief and emergency services currently depend on GPS for lo cating victims and deploying resources. The potential savings in human life and

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High Frontier 30 resources worldwide are astounding. Even everyday, common place activities such as banking, mobile phone operations, and control of power grids are facilitated by the accurate timing pro vided by GPS. The NGA is tasked with providing timely, relevant, and ac curate geospatial intelligence in support of national security objectives. Geospatial intelligence (GEOINT) refers to the ex ploitation and analysis of imagery and geospatial information to describe, assess, and visually depict physical features and geo graphically-referenced activities on the Earth. GEOINT prod ucts are composed of imagery, imagery intelligence and geo spatial (mapping, geodesy) information. GEOINT can provide situational awareness for making decisions (mission planning) and supporting operations (bombs on target, search and rescue, etc.). A key component of GEOINT is an accurate geographic lo cation referenced to a standard reference frame. NGA devel oped and maintains the World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 84) which is the reference system used for all DoD operations and also provides the common foundation for all geospatial informa tion, whether used for navigation or Earth-science applications. Utilizing the ten NGA and six USAF GPS monitor stations, the WGS 84 reference frame is tied to the physical Earth. A more detailed description of NGAs role in GPS and GEOINT can be found in the article in this issue by VADM Robert Murrett, the director of the NGA. Community The international PNT policy of the US is driven by two presidential direc tives. In 1996, the US Global Position ing System Policy introduced GPS as a dual use system and presented a vision for the use of GPS to support and en hance [national] economic competitive ness and productivity while protecting US national security and foreign policy interests. 1 In response to changing in ternational conditions and worldwide growth of GNSS applications based on GPS, the US Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Policy of 2004 established two overarching PNT goals for the US: remain the pre-eminent mili tary space-based PNT service and remain an essential component of international PNT services. 2 For the wing, achieving these goals in the international arena requires the US to work within the framework of the in ternational legal system and to negotiate with the administrators of foreign PNT services. Legally, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland is the lead United Nations agency for information and communication technolo gies, including Radionavigation Satellite Service (RNSS) PNT systems. International radio spectrum law is embodied in the regulations treaty status, so they place restrictions on spectrumdependent systems, and by US policy the regulations must be adhered to. Additionally, other member nations of the ITU af ford the radio regulations similar status and authority. In the international PNT environment, the most important is sue the wing currently faces is the increasing number of RNSScapable systems being constructed by other nations and entities. As noted above, the presidents PNT policy of 2004 requires the GPS to maintain its position as the pre-eminent military space-based PNT service and remain an essential component of international PNT services. Both of these goals are facing new and growing challenges. As recently as 10 years ago, the by the US and the Russian Federation (GPS and GLONASS, re spectively). That situation is changing, and the available orbital slots and electromagnetic radio frequency spectrum are becom ing increasingly crowded environments. In addition to the US, six other countries (including the Eu ropean Union) are developing major RNSS systems. To satisfy the presidential national policy goals while maintaining good relations with foreign RNSS operators, the US has established written agreements with several administrations and maintains open channels of communication with all operators. The specif ics of these agreements are handled by the Engineering Division

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31 High Frontier Col Donald E. Wussler, Jr., (BS, Mathematics, University of Notre Dame; MS, Systems Management, Air Force Insti tute of Technology; MS, Na tional Resource Management, Industrial College of the Armed Forces) is vice com mander, GPS Wing, Space and Missile Systems Center, Air Force Space Command, He is responsible for a multi service, multinational systems wing which conducts devel and sustainment of all GPS space segment, satellite command and control (ground) segment, and GPS military user equipment. maintains the largest satellite constellation and the largest avi onics integration and installation program in the Department of Defense. Colonel Wussler was commissioned through ROTC upon signments include the Aeronautical Systems Division, two tours at the Electronic Systems Center, and Headquarters United States Air Force. He has been responsible for the acquisition and pro gramming for such systems and technologies as United States Systems, and United States and NATO Joint STARS. Addition ally, Colonel Wussler has represented the Air Force with the House and Senate Appropriations Committees for all Tactical Air, Weapons, Science and Technology and Test and Evaluation Programs, to include the F/A-22, AMRAAM, JASSM, and C2 aircraft. He also served as system program director for Force Protection Command and Control Systems. Prior to assuming his current position, Colonel Wussler was commander, Counterspace Group, Space Superiority Systems Wing, Space and Missile Sys of the GPS Wing at the Los Angeles AFB Space and Missile Systems Center. At this time, the wing believes that US rela tions with the administrators of the foreign PNT systems are relationships. Space-based PNT has revolutionized military operations, air actions, and so forth. The list is potentially endless as demand vulnerabilities also exist and continue to grow. Further, demand for even greater availability and integrity is increasing. Due to the pervasive use of GPS, a cogent strategy is required to ensure that GPS will address vulnerabilities, meet demands, and facili tate integration with other GNSS systems. Three fundamental imperatives at the core of GPS strategic vision are to sustain the constellation (24 operational satellites must be available on orbit with 95 percent probability averaged over any given day), modernize GPS capability to address vul nerabilities and keep pace with the ever-growing PNT demands US PNT policy goals and international commitments. In support of GPS availability commitments, Block IIF satel lites will begin to launch in 2009 and Block III satellites will begin to launch in 2014. The wings strategy is to integrate all three segment developments (space, control, and user) so capa manner. Hence, the GPS Wing anticipates no more aging of satellites and control while waiting for military user equipment to be developed. The wing, working with its partners at Head quarters Air Force Space Command and the Air Staff, has solidi ensure the stability required to move all three segments forward together. To successfully execute developments across the three GPS segments (i.e., space, control, and user), the GPS Wing has rein vigorated systems engineering in its space systems acquisition. In particular, the wing has reemphasized integrated product ment, risk management, etc.) and enterprise functions, such as security, test, systems engineering, and system integration. The wing has also established and maintained a stable busi ness rhythm built on executable schedules using disciplined processes. The GPS Wings strategic direction has been created and socialized with stakeholders. From an outreach perspec tive, the wing has re-established the GPS Partnership Council, bringing together its US national partners. Its clear that the US will continue to face new challenges in pursuit of its overall objective of maintaining a global leader ship role in the provision of accurate PNT services. There are many examples of the broad and deep penetration of PNT tech security concerns. With respect to future PNT prospects and challenges, its obvious the US has an outstanding GPS service record on which to build: since December 1993, the US govern ment has met or exceeded civil GPS service performance com mitments, and the US DoD remains committed to superior GPS service. The men and women of the GPS Wing look forward PNT for the US, while simultaneously pursuing mutually ben Notes: 1 US Global Positioning System Policy, fact sheet, 29 March 1996. 2 US Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Policy, fact sheet, 15 December 2004.

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High Frontier 32 Military Positioning, Navigation, and Timing: Lt Col Jon M. Anderson, USAF Student, Naval War College Newport, Rhode Island P ositioning, navigation, and timing (PNT) is a term rarely used outside of the US government, but usefully con solidates, under one banner, the various systems, policies, and activities concerned with providing positioning information, navigation capabilities, and time dissemination. By most mea sures, PNT is a thriving, healthy, global enterprise, largely due to the Global Positioning System (GPS). Provided by the US as a free global utility, the worldwide market for GPS-based prod ucts exceeds $30 billion. 1 GPS is a national asset, a tangible symbol of US economic and military might that has been so brilliantly successful, and so universally adopted, that Russia, the European Union (EU), and China have all developed GPS imitations, and are in various stages of deploying them, while more than 50 nations have developed GPS augmentations. In potential is only now being realized as new commercial appli cations emerge every year. Although the GPS program faces its own set of unique problems and challenges, these are part of system, and are not the subject of this article. The Joint Capabilities Document (JCD) for PNT, developed by US Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM), states that no PNT. 2 Although GPS is not the sole source of PNT for the US military, it is the primary source for most users. Com pared to the next best alternatives, GPS is inexpensive, reliable, and highly accurate. It has changed not only how US forces the Soldiers, Sailors, Marines, and Airmen of the US armed forces take the availability of GPS for granted, experience hav ing taught them that GPS works nearly everywhere and nearly all of the time. Most PNT challenges are therefore GPS chal or support within the Department of Defense (DoD). Some may be partially solved with emerging technologies. Others may be intractable, whether due to physics or budgets. Most ies, reports, reviews, panels, and boards that have examined the state of PNT during the past two decades. What follows is a strategic survey of three major challenges, and some potential opportunities for addressing them. Challenge 1: The Availability of PNT Although eminently functional in most environments, GPS does have its limitations. GPS signals are very weak, on the or der of a femtowatt and are easily blocked by obstructions such as buildings and terrain. 3 The signals do not penetrate under water or underground. They are vulnerable to radio frequency (RF) interference, both intentional and unintentional. The accu racy of the time or position obtained by the GPS user is directly related to the geometric relationship between the user and the visible satellites, resulting in degraded performance whenever a portion of the sky is obscured. As a result of these factors, access to PNT in the presence of geospatial impediments, which includes environments such as indoors, underwater, un derground, and both natural and urban canyons. 4 Several prominent advisory groups have examined the prob lem of availability, including the Defense Science Board, the GPS Independent Review Team, and the National PNT Advi sory Board. Given the considerable overlap in membership between these groups, it is unsurprising that a common solu tion to availability issues has emerged. All have recommended increasing the baseline GPS constellation size to 30 satellites, from the current nominal 24-satellite constellation. 5 While this solution can improve the availability of satellites when visibil ity is partially constrained, maintaining a minimum of 30 GPS satellites does not solve the problem for the more severe capa bility gaps, such as indoors, underwater, and underground. Nor is it clear that actual accuracy requirements in urban and natural canyons can bet met by merely increasing the number of avail able satellites. In many cases, more satellites may increase the to the geometry that determines positioning accuracy, a critical factor for applications such as targeting. This does not negate the value of a 30-satellite constella tion. Military and civil users have become accustomed to 29 or 30 satellites for several years, and returning to a 24-satel formance. Raising the guaranteed constellation size may also Space-Based PNT

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33 High Frontier allow reduced aircraft separation, which would improve air 6 And a larger constellation, with optimized satellite placement, could provide improved performance in some parts of the Earth, such as the Arctic and Antarctic regions. 7 Yet a 30-satellite constellation does not ad most of these gaps will not be met by GPS alone, if at all. Challenge 2: The Security of PNT Unlike inertial navigation systems and local timing sources, PNT users who are dependent on GPS must rely on external radio signals. As with radar and communications, these signals can be jammed by adversaries in a variety of ways, leading the original GPS developers to incorporate secure encryption and anti-jam features into the design. The secure military signal, known as P(Y)-code, is used by the US military, some federal agencies, and the military services of several allied nations. In addition to providing an element of assurance to the military user, the P(Y)-code signal is more resistant to jamming than the civil (C/A-code) signal, and military users have access to two frequencies, rather than the single frequency available to civil users today. The use of encryption also creates a form of military exclusivity, which provides a uniquely available signal to authorized users, although many high precision commercial receivers utilize techniques that exploit general characteristics of the military signal while ignoring the encryption. Growth in applications based on these techniques has led to a commitment by the government to maintain the characteristics until a second coded civil signal is available from the GPS constellation. Anti-jam for GPS users exists in several forms, from natural body masking on aircraft and terrain masking for ground users, to technical innovations such as adaptive antenna arrays, nar sensors. Military GPS receivers are designed to operate un der jamming conditions and are generally more robust. These military receivers also typically utilize older technology than modern commercial GPS receivers due to the much faster com mercial product cycle time and additional unique requirements levied upon military electronic equipment. High end systems, used on military aircraft, ships, and some missiles and muni tions, are typically part of an integrated navigation system, and often operate outside of the range of the most likely threat, which is ground-based jamming. In recent years, attention has mainly focused on low-end users, especially military handheld GPS receivers, which are also widely used in vehicles. For these users, size, weight, and cost are critical factors, and antijam techniques that are practical for aircraft have limited utility. Military receivers are far more expensive than most off-theshelf GPS handheld units, leading to one of the emerging issues for military PNT: the use of commercial GPS handhelds. 8 Commercial GPS receivers are inexpensive, user-friendly, and readily available. Although there is no accurate informa tion on how many commercial GPS handheld units are used by troops deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, there is abundant anecdotal evidence that points to widespread use of GPS hand helds in military operations. 9 One manufacturer even provides testimonials from soldiers on its website, 10 indicating that com mercial GPS receivers are not only widely used, but that they are very useful in day-to-day military operations. There is no reason to doubt the wisdom of commanders who authorize or encourage use of commercial GPS receivers. If each soldier could be equipped with a military equivalent, there would be no cause to resort to the commercial alternative. From a strategic perspective, though, two issues have emerged from units have found the commercial alternative reliable and use ful. Since the troops are getting by with the use of commer cial GPS, there is no pressure from operational commanders to provide adequate funding for secure GPS, leaving US forces vulnerable to emerging threats, should they manifest. Second, the widespread dependence on civil GPS signals restricts the freedom of commanders to employ local denial options against enemy GPS use, the subject of the third PNT challenge. Challenge 3: Universal Access to PNT Like cell phones, computers, and the Internet, GPS is used worldwide, by ordinary citizens and military forces of both our allies and our adversaries. From its inception, military leaders have been concerned about universal access to the precise PNT that GPS can provide. In addition to encrypting the military signals to provide exclusivity, GPS originally included a meth od for limiting the performance of the civil signal. This tech nique, known as selective availability (SA), proved too hard to bear for the US government and so has been eliminated. Today there is little difference in the accuracy available to US forces and their enemies. On 27 September 2007, the White House announced that SA would no longer be included in future GPS satellite procure ments. 11 This came seven years after SA was effectively dis directed the DoD to seek alternatives. 12 The concept behind SA was to use positioning and timing accuracy as a discrimina tor between military and civil users. The signal was intention ally degraded, a condition that could be removed by authorized users with a valid decryption key. Not only was this enor mously unpopular with the civil GPS community, it was easily circumvented by differential techniques. The Department of Transportation (DoT) funded and developed differential GPS, leading to the untenable situation where one arm of the federal government was undermining another. The White House, in

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High Frontier 34 the Presidential Decision Directive (NSTC-6), directed DoD to protect US military use of GPS in the presence of jamming, de velop the means to prevent the use of GPS by adversaries, and ensure that civil users outside of the area of military operations would be unaffected. 13 This initiative was commonly known as navigation warfare (Navwar). Although elements of Navwar already existed, the three tenets (protection, prevention, pres ervation) embodied the notion that GPS was outgrowing the security features embedded in its design, and a different ap proach was needed, one that did not include SA. The Navwar 10, USC, 14 and the White House 2006 policy on space-based PNT. 15 The only practical method of denying use of GPS to an en emy while limiting the effects to a geographical region is to employ local electronic warfare (EW). Unfortunately, the GPS civil and military signals share the same frequency range. Al though the military originally enjoyed access to a second fre quency unencumbered with a civil signal, pressure from civil agencies led to this frequency becoming dual-use as well. After searching for a tractable solution that would enable military use of GPS in the presence of friendly jamming of the civil GPS signal, the Air Force developed a new military signal, M-Code, separated from the civil signal to provide secure GPS to mili tary users in the presence of Navwar prevention operations. M-Code offers several advantages in addition to spectral separation. Its design increases the accuracy and jamming re sistance of the military signal, and it includes several enhanced security features. As of this writing, six M-Code capable satel lites are on-orbit, and receiver development is rapidly maturing, although receivers are not yet in production. However, even with the most optimistic projections, M-Code capable receiv ers will be in the minority for at least a decade, if not longer. The DoD has invested heavily in current GPS capability, and these systems will be replaced by attrition, which could mean a sizable minority of legacy GPS receivers for the next 20 to 30 years. The problem is further compounded by the large number of commercial receivers used by military forces. To date, the threat of adversary GPS use has not emerged in a direct way leaving the issue dormant for nearly a decade. No single solution exists for these three challenges, although many solutions address all three to some degree. Several op portunities are already available, while some will require fur ther investment. The three issues of availability, security, and exclusivity are fundamental to GPS, but improving GPS itself GPS Modernization GPS modernization includes the addition of new civil sig nals, improvements to the accuracy and integrity of the sys tem, and a new military signal. The next generation of GPS satellites, GPS III, will include higher power M-Code signals, which will improve both reception in the presence of interfer ence and operation in some impeded environments. Given the high cost of improving the space segment, as well as the long time horizon required for implementing new capabilities, GPS III represents the effective end-state for the GPS space segment and further improvements are too far in the future to consider as opportunities. for military PNT is the migration to modernized military GPS user equipment (MGUE), comprising new equipment designs higher security, and higher-power signals. DoD policy requires certain categories of military users to upgrade to MGUE by the time the 24 th M-Code capable satellite is operational, 16 or approximately 2014. Congress appears to be supporting this cal year 2008 budget. 17 The most essential requirement for MGUE migration is for the military services to program funds for MGUE procurement during the next 10 years. To curb the growing use of commercial GPS receivers by US forces, a lowcost MGUE variant is needed. Achieving this may require very large procurements to reduce the unit cost or a major capital investment by DoD. Military GPS Augmentations Although generally operating in more benign environments, civil GPS users enjoy a wide variety of capabilities unavailable to most military users. This is in spite of civil dependency on a single GPS frequency and a weaker signal structure. To iden tify potential solutions to military PNT challenges, it is useful to examine how GPS civil users have overcome its shortcom ings during the past two decades. For many applications, civil requirements are far more strin gent than for the military. Centimeter-level accuracy for sur veyors and precision farming, six-second anomaly reporting for aviation safety-of-life, and indoor mobile phone location are some of the services that standalone GPS cannot meet. Al though many civil augmentations to GPS were developed when SA was the primary source of positioning error, they continue to be widely used due to the improvements in accuracy and in tegrity they offer. DoTs National Differential GPS system in cludes 39 coastal stations and 38 inland stations in the US, and can improve GPS accuracy to less than one meter. 18 Similar systems are operated worldwide by 50 countries. The Interna tional GNSS Service (IGS) operates more than 400 monitoring stations worldwide that track GPS and other satellite navigation systems and provide accurate orbital and timing data for preci sion users, 19 albeit not typically in real time. The Federal Aviation Administration operates the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS), which utilizes geostation ary satellites and a network of ground stations to provide dif ferential corrections and integrity warning to much of North America. Similar systems are being built by the EU, India, and Japan, and even more advanced space-based augmentation sys tems (SBASs) are in development, including Japans Quasi-Ze nith Satellite System (QZSS). 20

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35 High Frontier network is a prime example of a successful commercial SBAS, providing 10 cm accuracy to subscribing users worldwide. 21 Augmentation systems for military PNT have been wide ly studied, but development has been limited. The Talon NAMATH (TN) program, developed as an Air Force experi mental capability, improves GPS accuracy by providing the ac curate orbital and clock data available at the GPS master con trol station to worldwide users via a secure DoD network. 22 TN may be upgraded to improve anti-jam in some receivers, by enabling a technique known as data-stripping. The primary limitation of TN is connectivity; users must have a means of loading the data in GPS receivers, by tactical datalinks or other means. This limits its utility for handheld and vehicle mounted GPS users. Pseudo-satellites (pseudolites) are ground, sea, or air-based transmitters that transmit GPS-like signals, usually at far great er power than the GPS satellites. Several pseudolite programs have been tested, notably by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) with its Global Positioning Experi ments (GPX) program. GPX employed airborne pseudolites and demonstrated positioning for users on the ground in very high levels of jamming, although with degraded accuracy. 23 Once testing was complete, DARPA was unsuccessful in gain ing traction within DoD to continue development of GPX. One military augmentation system that has gained recent at tention within DoD is Boeings iGPS program, which uses the Iridium constellation of 66 low-Earth orbit (LEO) satellites to integrate communications and navigation and provide accurate ephemeris and clock data as well as enhanced anti-jam capabil ity for users equipped to receive both GPS and Iridium signals. budget, which was denied by Congress. 24 However, Congress did approve $10 million for further concept development, and the Navy has requested $61 million in FY09 for iGPS receiver development. 25 Although the concept is technically promising, it requires new receivers that integrate GPS, Iridium, and an inertial measurement system, as well as a US government com mitment to bear some or all of the cost to sustain the Iridium constellation. Together, GPX and iGPS illustrate the primary challenge in developing joint GPS augmentation systems for military PNT. Unlike GPS satellites, ground control systems, and user equip sponsible for augmentations or for integration of separate PNT capabilities into production military GPS equipment. DARPA effectively matured their GPX concept, and some of the results have been incorporated into GPS systems engineering docu ments. But there was no home within DoD for pseudolites. On the other hand, iGPS obtained traction due to Boeings ag gressive marketing to decision makers in DoD, a strategy that proved effective. However, it requires the continued support of its DoD champions, which in the normal cycle of retirements and new appointments may not endure. DoD lacks the institu tional structure for evaluating promising PNT enhancements, conducting a comprehensive cost/risk assessment, choosing the pability. Instead, PNT enhancements tend to be point solutions programs. The few exceptions, such as TN and GPS modern ization, are Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) projects, with associated program elements and major command advocates. Perhaps the best approach for demonstrating and evaluating potential military PNT augmentation systems is through joint experimentation. GPS augmentations are not typically depen dent on advanced technology, but on systems integration. Nor are they service-unique. The advantage of joint experimenta tion is that the focus is on near-term solutions and leveraging existing capabilities. Fortunately, a suitable organization al ready exists with the appropriate charter and expertise for joint PNT experimentation, the Joint Navigation Warfare Center (JNWC). The JNWC was established in 2004 by the deputy secretary of defense under USSTRATCOM, and has extensive experience in GPS testing. Expanding the JNWCs role to in clude experimentation with solutions to the primary PNT gaps would require only a modest increase in funding, certainly less than the $81 million the DoD originally planned for iGPS. As GPS dependence has grown, the civil PNT community has explored suitable backup systems, should GPS become un available. This is particularly a concern for safety-of-life appli GPS is unique in enabling, in one signal set, determination of the three dimensions of position, as well as precise time. The leading candidate appears to be enhanced long-range naviga tion (eLORAN), which is an upgrade to LORAN-C. eLORAN will enable two-dimensional position determination to an accu racy of 10-20 meters, and utilize a low frequency, high power signal. 26 rity enhancements, could be the basis for a local military PNT capability that would work in many of the impeded environ ments that prohibit GPS use. Another concept that has been explored within DoD is the use of network-assisted GPS, which uses techniques similar to cellular phone networks and the E911 system. Integrating communications and navigation is one of the most effective means of enhancing GPS. A connected GPS receiver can receive encryption keys, satellite data, and timing information; it can also report its position to command ers and cooperate with other PNT users to improve positioning accuracy. Even a relatively low-bandwidth, low-cost data link ting keys, or reporting position. As with GPS augmentations,

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High Frontier 36 these would be suitable areas for joint experimentation by the JNWC. Technology Enhancements Emerging technologies such as the chip-scale atomic clock (CSAC) and the micro electro-mechanical systems inertial measuring units (MEMS IMUs) will likely improve the capa bilities of both GPS and autonomous PNT. The Navys Navi gation Nugget uses both technologies, integrated with a GPS receiver. 27 The CSAC and MEMS IMU provide accurate time and motion sensing, which can aid a GPS receiver in main taining signal lock in the presence of jamming. The Army has also evaluated various technologies to enhance urban and in door PNT, including MEMS IMUs, enhanced dead reckoning systems, network-assisted GPS, scene matching, and local RF ranging systems. 28 The holy grail for autonomous PNT is a underwater. Responsibility for development, acquisition, and procure ment of PNT systems resides in the Air Force, Navy, and Army acquisition centers. Although the GPS Wing, part of AFSPC, is primarily responsible for GPS security and MGUE develop ment, PNT solutions are primarily the responsibility of individ ual programs. For integrated communications and navigation, or PNT augmentation systems, there is no single organiza tion responsible for developing user PNT systems, which are increasingly embedded applications, rather than standalone devices. Organizational roles and responsibilities need to be ed communications/navigation and blended sensors. Galileo The Defense Science Board rec ommended in 2005 that military GPS user equipment exploit all available signals to improve accuracy, robust ness, and integrity. 29 Europes Galileo system, currently under development, utilizes two of the same frequencies as GPS, including the primary frequency, known as L1. The US government, led by the State Department, but with tech nical expertise provided by AFSPC, has exerted enormous efforts to ensure both compatibility and interoperability between GPS and Galileo. Even while the National PNT Advisory Board rec ommends 30-plus GPS satellites to improve geometry and provide better accuracy for military users in urban/ natural canyons, there are no plans to include Galileo capability in future military receivers. If Galileo achieves its goal of 30 satellites, the combination of GPS and Galileo may exceed 60 satellites, allowing near optimal geometry for most users. Military users could include Galileo satellites as an augmentation to GPS for accuracy improvement, while still relying on the GPS M-Code as the primary source for se Gen James B. Armor, USAF, retired, went even further when he suggested the US should offer to have the EU operate and build GPS satellites, yielding a jointly managed constellation. 30 This approach would easily yield 40 to 50 satellites, at lower cost for in US PNT policy. Electronic Warfare For the Air Force and the Navy, EW has traditionally fo cused on suppression of enemy defenses (SEADs) and commu nications jamming, utilizing low-density, high-demand assets. 31 Such systems are high-power, broad-area jamming systems, possibly unsuitable for Navwar prevention, where signal fratri cide is a critical concern. A new opportunity has emerged from recent operations in Southwest Asia. The deployment of more than 30,000 jammers to Iraq and Afghanistan to combat the improvised explosive device (IED) threat awakened the Army and the Marine Corps from their decades-long neglect of EW. 32 As a result, the Army has created an EW Doctrine Center, 33 and the Marine Corps has revisited its EW vision, transforming from platform-centric jamming to distributed capability. 34 Un like traditional SEAD assets, the large number of lower-power jammers, deployed with ground units, and the associated tactics that have been developed to minimize harm to friendly users have created a potential opportunity. Combined with effec tive modeling tools, it may be possible to develop Navwar tactics that utilize space and time to control effects, limit ing both signal fratricide against mili tary users and undesirable impact on civil users. Incorporating land-based EW into joint training, exercises, and experimentation will aid in developing tactics, techniques, and procedures for Navwar prevention operations. According to Kinklers Second Law, all of the easy problems have been solved. 35 The PNT capability gaps exist because they are hard problems, subject to physical and budgetary constraints. Along with other information technolo gies, PNT capabilities will continue to between the US and its potential adver saries. Although it is tempting to wait there is no assurance that technology can solve these problems affordably.

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37 High Frontier Developing PNT augmentations, effectively using existing technologies, integrating the most useful and promising with GPS, and increasing joint experimentation can all contribute to that the US remains ahead of the pack in military PNT. Notes: 1 Jayashree Adkoli, Research Firm Predicts GPS Market will Reach $30 Billion by 2008, 11 December 2007, http://www.tmcnet.com/voip/ ip-communications/articles/16261-research-firm-predicts-gps-marketwill-reach-30.htm. 2 United States Strategic Command, 28 September 2006, 4. 3 Mark C. Crews, Global Positioning System International Challenges and Opportunities in the 21st Century, 3, no 2 (March 2007): 38. 4 13-14. 5 Meeting Minutes, National Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT), Advisory Board, 4-5 October 2007, 7-8. 6 Ibid., 20. 7 Ibid., 8. 8 The GPS Wing has produced a comprehensive video outlining the dangers of commercial use of GPS. http://www.archive.org/details/GP 9 As a student at the Naval War College, the author has had numer ous interactions with Army and Marine battalion commanders recently returned from Afghanistan and Iraq. All stated that they nearly always carried commercial GPS receivers with them during operations, as did most of their troops. 10 Garmin, Your Garmin, Your Story, http://www8.garmin.com/prod ucts/rino/testimonial.html. 11 The White House, Statement of the Press Secretary, http://www. whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2007/09/20070918-2.html, 18 September 2007. 12 Presidential Decision Directive NSTC-6, The White House, 28 March 1996, http://www.fas.org/spp/military/docops/national/gps.htm. 13 Ibid. 14 US Code Collection, Title 10, Subtitle A, Part IV, Chapter 136, 2281, http://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/html/uscode10/usc_sec_10_ 00002281----000-notes.html. 15 US Space-based Positioning, Navigation, And Timing Policy, fact sheet, 15 December 2004, http://pnt.gov/policy/.. 16 ASD/NII memorandum, Global Positioning System User Equip ment Development and Procurement Policy, 7 August 2006. 17 Congress Pares GPS III Funds, Slams Air Force Space Acquisition Efforts, 28 November 2007, http://www.insidegnss. com/node/393. 18 National Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) Advisory Board, meeting minutes, 18. 19 Ibid., 6. 20 Space-Based Positioning Navigation and Timing, National Execu tive Committee, GPS Augmentation Systems, http://pnt.gov/101/augmen tations.html. 21 NAVCOM, The Star Network, basics, http://www.navcomtech.com/ StarFire/. 22 Michael A. Mras, Air Force Tactical Exploitation of National Capa bilities, 4, no 2 (February 2008): 35-36. 23 Maryann Lawlor, Researchers Locate Satellite Options http:// www.afcea.org/signal/articles/anmviewer.asp?a=480&print=yes, Novem ber 2001, 24 Sebastian Sprenger, i-GPS Plan Stumbles on Capitol Hill, Fed 4 June 2007, http://www.fcw.com/print/13_18/ news/102863-1.html. 25 report on the Defense Department, Congress and the defense industry, 12 February 2008, http://defense.iwpnewsstand.com/in sider.asp?issue=02122008. 26 Meeting Minutes, National Space-Based PNT, 17. 27 Randy Rollo, Navigation in a Nugget: SPAWAR Leverages New ChipScale Atomic Clock, 1 September Lt Col Jon M. Anderson (BS, Electrical Engineering, University of Kansas; MS, Electrical Engineering, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology; PhD, Electri cal Engineering, Air Force Institute of Technology) is currently a student at the Na val War College in Newport, Rhode Island. Commissioned sile launch operator at the 44 th Strategic Missile Wing at a Future Radar Systems analyst at the National Air Intelligence Center at Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio. His next assignment was chief engineer for Navigation Warfare and GPS Modernization, and led the engineering team that developed the next generation he served for two years as a technical advisor at the Air Force Op erational Test and Evaluation Center at Kirtland AFB, New Mexi co. In 2004, Colonel Anderson was assigned to the Directorate of navigation, and timing policy issues at Headquarters Air Force. Colonel Anderson has been awarded the Defense Meritorious Service Medal, Air Force Meritorious Service Medal and the Air Force Commendation Medal with oak leaf cluster, the Air Force Achievement Medal, and was a recipient of the Arthur Flemming Command and Staff College, Air War College, and the Air Force Institute of Technology. get/ArticleStandard/Article/detail/458589?contextCategoryId=25182. 28 Paul Olson, US ARMY CERDEC/C2D Program in Urban/Indoor Positioning and Navigation, Precision Personnel Locator Project Work shop, 7 August 2007, 7. 29 Defense Science Board Task Force on the Future of the Global Posi tioning System, October 2005, 18. 30 1 September 2007, http://mg.gpsworld.com/gpsmg/article/ar ticleDetail.jsp?id=452348. 31 John A. Tirpak, Where Next With Electronic Attack?, 89, no 10 (October 2006): 30-31. 32 IED Fight, http://www8.janes.com/. 33 Stephen Trimble, US Army Moves Back Into Electronic Attack Mission, http://www8.janes.com/. 34 of Electronic Warfare, 50, no 12 (June 2007): 22. 35 bbc.co.uk, guide entry, Jesters Condescending English Dictionary K, http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A427925.

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High Frontier 38 Controlling GPS: Space-Based PNT Lt Col Harold W. Martin III AFSPC Command Lead, PNT Programs Peterson AFB, Colorado Mr. Walter Petrofski GPS Project Lead SI International Peterson AFB, Colorado T he Global Positioning System (GPS) has revolutionized navigation, military maneuver, and commercial trans portation and is now transforming information infrastructures around the world. Originally, GPS was designed as a dual-use system with the primary purpose of enhancing the effective ness of US and allied military forces. Since it obtained ini tial operational capability, GPS has rapidly become an integral component of the emerging global information infrastructure. Its applications range from mapping and surveying to inter cellular networks. The growing demand from military, civil, cial GPS equipment and service industry that leads the world. In fact, GPS-related goods and services are expected to grow to an expected market size of US $757 billion by 2017. 1 How ever, challenges have arisen to GPS sustainment and growth. While the space segment gets most of the attention from the technology community and the user segment has millions of user-constituents, the control segment (CS) has been the prov ince of a smaller body of experts and professionals. Since its inception, the heart of the GPS CS was a 1970sToday the Architecture Evolution Plan (AEP) is becoming the key element of an overall modernization plan to improve opera tions, sustainment, and enhance world wide GPS service. AEP is a planned, phased delivery of a modernized command and control system for GPS Block II/IIA/IIR/IIR-M/IIF satellites. It delivers upgrades that ultimately provide GPS users with a more accurate and more useful positioning, navigation and tim ing (PNT) product. According to Lt Gen Michael A. Hamel, Space and Missile Systems Center commander and program continuously improving mission performance and provide a foundation to incorporate new capabilities in the future. 2 Key aspects of AEP include: A transition from the CS mainframe architecture to a dis tributed computing environment An upgrade to a graphical user interface (GUI) for the satellite operator A new security architecture A new master control station (NMCS) at Schriever AFB, Colorado and an alternate master control station (AMCS) at Vandenberg AFB, California An increase in GPS monitor station (MS) network assets An increase in ground antennas (GA) for contacting GPS satellites An improved capability to control new generations of GPS satellites. How do these improvements add capability for GPS users? Distributed computing is a method of computer processing in which different portions of an application run simultaneous ly on two or more networked computers. Several computers working different parts of the application can merge or blend results in a predetermined, phased sequence. Distributed com architecture upgrades and technology updates. AEP operators can run applications simultaneously instead of handling each in turn. Consequently, operators can address two or more anomalous situations at the same time thus reducing the time users are negatively impacted by anomalies. Additionally, AEP shortens the time between the operators entry of a satellite command to the actual effect on the satellite. GUI is a method of interacting with computers that enables the satellite operator to use a mouse to manipulate windows, icons, and menus. For almost two decades GUIs have long been the standard computer interface and stand in sharp con trast to command-line interfaces of the mainframe era. The advantages of GUIs include: making computer operations more intuitive and easier to learn and use; providing immediate, vi sual feedback about the effect of each action; and leveraging the powerful multitasking capabilities of modern operating sys accomplishment, thus reducing the time it takes to detect, iden tify, analyze, and resolve anomalies. Fewer, less cumbersome commands, performance monitoring tools, and other applica tions on the screen provide operators with better situational awareness and ultimately improves decision-making. Most AEP enhancements trace back to 1995 when the GPS (TNT) to identify potential GPS performance improvements cluded representation from all of the relevant DoD organiza tions. Based on the recommendation of the TNT, an effort known as the Accuracy Improvement Initiative established four major objectives: 3

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39 High Frontier Add data from the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) MS network to that available from the CS tracking network and use the additional data for L-Band monitoring and orbit prediction Transition the CS orbit determination/prediction process proved geophysical and dynamic models Incorporate additional GAs for contacting GPS satellites Increase the navigation message upload frequency to three per day for each satellite. AEP will provide the ability to implement the next genera tion security architecture known as selective availability/antibution of cryptovariable keys. PPS users will have the ability to key their receivers using over-the-air-distribution and overthe-air-rekey procedures. Formerly, the 1 st Space Operations Squadron (SOPS) per formed GPS launch and early orbit, major anomaly resolution, and disposal operations. The 2 SOPS performed routine dayto-day operations. Today, with the development of the Launch, Anomaly Resolution, and Disposal Operations system, the 2 SOPS and 19 SOPS perform these cradle-to-grave GPS operations in one facility known as the NMCS. Additionally, the develop ment of a fully redundant and geographically separated AMCS to backup the NMCS ensures continuity of GPS operations. From an historical perspective, the GPS constellation was operated with the original six Air Force MSs for more than 20 years even though those stations did not provide complete glob a global map and clearly shows three unmonitored regions (red) with the largest unmonitored region occurring off the southwest coast of South America. Figure 2 shows the distribution of coverage for the original time. This helps illustrate the fact that with only six MSs the loss of any one MS could substantially increase the portion of The addition of NGA MSs has eliminated all unmonitored MS coverage have also been eliminated, and on average, GPS satellites are seen by more than four MSs. The impact of these additional resources improves naviga tion uploads through better predictions as a result of the in

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High Frontier 40 users to have an increased situational awareness of the GPS capabilities is outgrowing the capacity of AEP. The demands pandable systems that can meet future needs without extensive redesign and operational disruptions require a satellite control system that takes advantage of modern enterprise architectures and new software development tools. Other drivers that man date a new CS design include: a new focus on effects-based operations (PNT battlespace awareness); a focus on capability to enable operators to implement capabilities to meet future op erational needs; information assurance; and safety assurance. The continuation of AEP was considered but rejected because it lacks the robust infrastructure and architecture needed to sup port evolving GPS III capabilities and requirements. Based upon numerous studies, the best alternative to overcome system jam), increase position accuracy (zero/low-age-of-data), and by decreasing the amount of error in position accuracy over time. The increased number of MSs decreases the time it takes operators to detect, identify, and correct anomalies. For commanding GPS satellites, the CS originally had four GPS GAs located at Kwajalein, Cape Canaveral, Diego Garcia, and Ascension Island. The coverage provided by these original ellite Control Network remote tracking stations through AEP 8. As a result, the average number of GAs visible to the GPS constellation has increased from under two to approximately four. Even though AEP has made great strides in improving GPS capabilities, much work needs to be done to continue moving forward. AEP cannot put a navigation message onto, or fully control, the modernized signals such as the second civil sig nal or the dedicated military coded signal of GPS Block IIRM and IIF satellites. Neither can AEP control the future GPS III satellites. Furthermore, the need for satellite operators and

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41 High Frontier facilitate near real-time command and control (crosslinks) was to develop a new CS that has been designated thes. OCX will provide command, control, and mission support for the GPS Block II and III satellites, as well as support to existing and new interfaces. OCX transforms the focus of GPS operations from satellite command and control to user-oriented, effects-based operations. Using OCX enables AFSPC to plan and control the constellation effectively so it can continue to provide full spectrum PNT information to all GPS users. As a replacement CS for GPS, OCX will incorporate net-centric op erations (open architecture) technology that allows the system to evolve to meet growing GPS mission requirements. It will play) architecture that fully implements leading government and industry open systems standards. 4 OCX will be a key step in achieving the Air Force space en terprise goal to establish common and compatible architectures, systems infrastructures, and open standards for all Air Force satellite command and control. The OCX approach will enable the Air Force satellite command and control systems to network solutions that can adapt rapidly to changing environments and ties in full support of GPSs back-to-basics block acquisition strategy. Proceeding along its own block acquisition strategy, OCX will be synchronized to support launch; telemetry, track ing, and commanding; on-orbit checkout; and operations of the Notes: 1 Global Positioning Systems (GPS): The Road Ahead, RNCOS Re port CICQ1149304, 1 May 2005. 2 Air Force Completes Transition of GPS Fleet to Upgraded Control System, Los Angeles AFB Press Release 010907, 17 September 2007. 2 T. Creel, A. J. Dorsey, P. J. Mendicki, J. Little, R. G. Mach, B.A. Renfro, Accuracy and Monitoring Improvements from the GPS Legacy Accuracy Improvement Initiative, proceedings of the ION NTM 2006, Monterey, California, 18-20 January 2006. 4 Air Force Space Command Capability Development Document for Global Positioning System III, 23 July 2007. 1. B. J. Stanton, R. Strother, Analysis of GPS Monitor Station Out ages, ION GNSS 2007, Fort Worth, Texas, 25-28 September 2007. 2. B. J. Stanton, GPS Ground Station Gap Analysis, HQ AFSPC/ A5NN, 12 September 2007. Mr. Walter Pete Petrof ski (BA, Wilkes Univer sity; MSSM, University of Southern California; BA and MA, University of ColoradoColorado Springs) is the GPS project lead for SI Interna tional, Incorporated in Colo rado Springs, Colorado. He is responsible for supporting the command lead, Position ing, Navigation, and Timing Programs, Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) in the development of the GPS III and Military GPS user equipment ca pabilities documents. Mr. Petrofski retired from the Air Force in th Combat Crew Training Squadron; team chief, AFSPC Inspector General; base commander, Thule AB, Greenland; and AFSPC competition advocate. He was the School, Army Command and General Staff College, and Air War College. Lt Col Harold W. Martin III (BS, Honors Mathematics, Pur due University; MS, Space Op erations, Webster University) is the Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) command lead, Headquarters Air Force Space Command, Peterson AFB, Colorado. He is respon sible for leading a matrix team across the command to syn chronize issues across Global Positioning System (GPS) re ceivers, satellites, and ground systems; advocating PNT re quirements for the command; developing budget investment strategy and enabling concepts; and represents the PNT capabil ity area to sister services, US government, and international agen cies. Colonel Martin was commissioned as a distinguished military st 2 nd bomb Wing to Southwest Asia for operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. Since then, he was the top graduate at Un st Space Operations Squadron, where he conducted launch and early orbit operations weather, warning, communication, and intelligence satellites at levels from squadron through Air Staff and was the director of the Air Force Deputy Chief of Staff for Air and Space Opera tions Action Group. Prior to his current assignment, he was the nd Space Operations Squadron, where he oversaw all operations for the 32-satellite GPS constellation, the largest in the Department of Defense, and provided precise navigation information for over 43 major combat actions in Iraq and Afghanistan. Command and Staff College and Air War College.

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High Frontier 42 Space-Based PNT Lt Col John Wagner Commander, 45 th Launch Support Squadron Patrick AFB, Florida Mr. George Houser GPS IIR Launch Operations Site Manager Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company Patrick AFB, Florida Mr. Don Skinner GPS Manager, Eastern Range Directorate The Aerospace Corporation Patrick AFB, Florida ~ Carl von Clausewitz T he Global Positioning Systems (GPSs) position, navi gation, and timing signal is a keystone to the evolution of precision warfare and a large factor in the current revolu tion in military affairs. During the last two decades, our joint gaging, and assessing enemy targets along with nearly all joint force operations leading toward those ends have resulted in a smaller but more effective force. Resup ply missions, for example, now occur at precisely the right place and time even in featureless terrain without fear of misreading maps or distance. This right place, right time mindset has also revo lutionized worldwide industry, as GPS is the standard baselining billions of daily decisions in our global economy. Responsive Spacecraft Processing These are motivating factors toward total mission success. As we write this article, our combined government/con tractor spacecraft team completed the remaining GPS IIR spacecraft. A Delta II to orbit on 15 March 2008. IIR-19(M) is the sixth modernized GPS replenishment IIR(M) spacecraft, carrying the stronger military code and a second civil signal called L2C that provides 24 dB of increased protection against cross correlation and continuous wave interference, increasing the power for signal reception on smaller devices, and enabling dual frequency users to perform a number of new applications that include advances in agriculture and oil and mineral ex ploration. This spacecraft replaced GPS IIA-15 (launched 9 September 1992) in a 10,898 nautical mile orbit. It was the 47 th GPS vehicle launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Sta tion ( CCAFS) after arriving from the factory on 20 September 2007, undergoing initial inspections and then storage here at CCAFS while our team processed IIR-17(M) (launched 17 Oc tober 2007) and IIR-18(M) (launched 20 December 2007). Upon removal from storage in early January, we put IIR19(M), also known as SV08 or SVN48, through its paces in to ensure mission success while avoiding multiple shifts and a large workforce but still being in synch with the booster readi checkout spacecraft electrical and mechanical systems, a com patibility test to ensure the vehicle can communicate with its ground station and control networks, installation of the solidpropellant apogee kick motor, an accurate spin balance and ad justment, spacecraft fueling followed by mate to the booster

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43 High Frontier upper stage, and transport from our processing facility to the launch complex. After mate to the Delta II booster, we perform satellite pad functional testing to verify no damage occurred to the GPS spacecraft during transport to the launch complex. Following payload fairing (PLF) installation, post-fairing satel lite aliveness tests are performed to ensure no inadvertent dam age occurred to the satellite during the PLF installation process. spacecraft. These nominal activities are typically interspersed incremental readiness reviews chaired by the 45 th Launch Sup port Squadron (45 LCSS) to ensure the spacecraft contractor, facilities contractor, and government agencies all are on the same page to press forward with acceptable technical risk to the next major phase of activity. While much has been said regarding the need for ship and shoot spacecraft, the need to checkout, fuel, and integrate the spacecraft with the launch vehicle will remain. Vehicle inspec tion, mechanical and electrical testing, compatibility testing, fueling, integration and fairing encapsulation are all neces sary steps for vehicles designed to operate continuously and autonomously for several years after they leave CCAFS s beaches. Fourteen GPS Block IIA spacecraft, for example, continue to outlive their original 7.5 year design life with an average age mission success credit goes to the work done at the launch base. As spacecraft programs mature and encounter component, or box-level issues with vehicles in various stages of production or even on-orbit, unplanned but necessary checkout and rework is es were removed, reworked and replaced while processing 28 GPS IIA spacecraft for launch due to reach-back concerns, upgrades, and failures discovered during launch site testing. All of the rework was performed by a resident government and contractor team at the launch base, enabling therefore less risk than transporting the vehicle back to the factory for rework. Not one of the GPS IIA spacecraft returned to the factory for repair or systems-level space environmental retesting, and each of these vehicles performed well beyond de sign expectations on-orbit. The CCAFS team re turned only three GPS IIR vehicles to the factory: return, one for a mission data unit issue, and only one for major rework. The latter was only after extensive fuel purging over the course of a month as IIR-3, GPS SV-10 returned to Valley Forge for rework and was selected for modernization af ter water leaked through several openings in the SLC-17A white room 8 May 1999. The SV-10 spacecraft will now be the last IIR mission, IIR-21(M), scheduled for launch in September 2008. Successful spacecraft pre-launch processing requires a myr iad of people and processes working together in specially de room facility usually designed for 10 to 100,000 class clean or better, meaning less than 10 to 100,000 particles in a cubic foot of air, depending on the cleanliness requirement. This is considerably clean, as millions of dust, skin, and other par ticles are present in a normal standard cubic foot of air. In addition, some type of administrative facility to generate and review procedures and drawings must be available along with a control center for commanding and monitoring the many te lemetry points on each of the spacecrafts subsystems during testing and launch. Other critical facility system support comes in the form of extensive and maintained voice, video, and data communication systems between the satellite, the satellite pro cessing facilility, the launch complex, and the control segment which ultimately takes control of the satellite in space. Other critical satellite processing facility subsystems for GPS include a spin balance machine, a granite table for solar panel deploy

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High Frontier 44 ment, overhead cranes, fuel scrubber systems, radio frequency antenna systems and facility nitrogeneach of these systems and subsystems must be continuously maintained and ready for required for the spacecraft test equipment located in processing areas. At CCAFS we are migrating away from multiple aged facilities requiring continuous repair to an upgraded Spacecraft Center of Excellence not only for GPS, but one that all Depart can leverage for economies of scale within a secure area. Mission Assurance and the Mission Success Partnership All of the planned testing is outlined in a contractor provid work steps are written in processing procedures and carefully reviewed by contractor and government personnel prior to im plementation. This effort reduces the probability of procedure related errors by eliminating obvious mistakes ahead of time hardware. When the approved procedural steps do not produce ered, the root cause must be properly isolated and identi issues could very likely lead to, and has led to, mission degradation or failure. 1 The importance of mission assurance and an independent risk as sessment provided by the government team is a critical factor in maintaining a solid track record of success for DoD spacecraft missions since the 1999 Broad Area Review. Some of the main which we have many on new programs), singlepoint failures, nonconformance, test anomalies, position/out-of-sequence work, and out-of-fam ily results. 2 For GPS, government team members have always been imbedded in and responsible for launch base processing. This prevents a single individual from independently making critical trades or assessments without providing a rationale to the government customer. Mission failures do not just happen during launch or on misinterpretation of a poorly worded procedure during assembly in the factory or processing at the launch base. The GPS team continually con ducts parallel contractor/government reviews and all members roll up their sleeves to tackle chal lenges as they arise, always with a critical eye on technical risk. This teamwork was evident when it was dis covered that one of 48 threaded captive fasteners required to install the apogee kick motor (AKM) to the spacecraft for the GPS IIR-16(M) mission 48 bolts installed was discarded when further analysis revealed ated a localized shear producing off axis thrust and possibly mission failure. Rather than aborting the scheduled mission and returning the vehicle to the factory for rework, the launch base team designed, fabricated, and installed a unique pin bracket risk to mission success. Another example of integrated teamwork occurred during the IIR-18(M) mission. We encountered a problem while at tempting to mate a safe and arm connector just prior to the transfer to the launch complex. Upon investigation, two of the four alignment keys should have been removed from the con nector per a 10-year-old engineering change. A jumper harness was fabricated and installed after the spacecraft was mated to the booster, and analysis performed by both contractor and gov was needed to counter the slightly off-axis jumper harness. The team worked together on the solution, yet performed indepen

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45 High Frontier dent technical analyses to validate the results while minimizing technical and schedule risk. Numerous other examples illus trate how proactive and positive teamwork between contractor and government personnel at the launch base leads to mission success. Each GPS block has been a superior spacecraft de sign, but the CCAFS team performed critical cross-checks en contractor/government team performing a launch rate (IIA) that peaked at nine launches in 15 months and now less than 50 people on the IIR combined launch base team processing one to three vehicles simultaneously. The GPS spacecraft processing team successfully processed and launched 28 II/IIA and 19 IIR spacecraft and all but IIR-1 (launch failure) performed success fully on-orbit. 3 The criticality and importance of an integrated spacecraft processing squadron is only just beginning to reappear. The nexus between space acquisition and space operations is here at the launch base, where various contractors assemble, test, and integrate thousands of components that comprise space and launch vehicles. During the past decade, we have come to to get a booster to put a payload in a precise orbit. However, if the spacecraft does not deploy, communicate, and perform as tory and range teams consisting of hundreds of people and years of effort quickly become futile. Worse, a capability needed to support joint forces worldwide is not realized. Though not ob vious by name alone, the 45 LCSS is charged with conducting mission assurance, technical surveillance, and risk assessment for DoD payloads launched from the Eastern Range, along with sile Systems Centers spacecraft system wings and other DoD LCSS traces its heritage to the 6555 th Aerospace Test Groups Space Vehicle (SV) Division from the 1970s to the early 1990s under Air Force Systems Command and the 45 th Spacecraft Operations Squadron (45 SPOS) from 1991-1994 under Space Command. In back to the future irony, major issues facing (Space Test Program-1, Space Based Infrared System, Ad vanced EHF, Wideband Global SATCOM, Mobile User Objec tive System, GPS IIF, and others) while facilitating new starts and base support agreements for programs such as GPS III. In summary, the integrated contractor/government team ap national model for responsive spacecraft processing and we spacecraft processing through the 45 LCSS. We have launched more GPS vehicles than any other in the Air Force or DoD, and the critical lesson from this program is understanding that sustained mission success depends on a good spacecraft design, tractor and government technical team here at the launch base. This expertise is critical to properly assess and overcome the varied challenges encountered while processing spacecraft for launch. This approach demands that all team members fully partici pate in the process and be held accountable for their actions. The government team is held accountable through the mission assurance and risk assessment process and the government team holds the contractor team members accountable for their ac tions through contract oversight and periodic award fee cycles. Thus, the integrated contractor and government teams function as a complex interdependent force while solving problems, yet each take advantage of independent validation processes to maximize mission success. The teaming of both contractor per sonnel and government personnel at every level in the process provides the greatest synergy at the lowest cost due to participa tory leadership with the accountability necessary to maximize success. The inclusion of both teams as mission partners pro vides a natural blend of knowledge, skills, and abilities capable to space, and ensured spacecraft mission success once in space. Notes: 1 Paul Cheng and Patrick Smith, Learning from Other Peoples Mis takes, 8, no 2 (Fall 2007): 20-24, US Government Satellite and Launch Vehicle Failures from 1990 to 2006, 22-23. 2 Tom Frietag and Bernardo Higuera, The Role of Independent As sessments for Mission Readiness, 8, no 2 (Fall 2007): 6-9. 3 Combined constellation operational average life to date is now over nine years. GPS IIA-11, launched on 3 July 1991, is the oldest GPS cur rently operational on-orbit, www.GPS-Today.com. ~ George W. Bush, 23 September 1999

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High Frontier 46 Lt Col John Wagner (BS, As tronautical Engineering, USA FA; MS Astronautical Engi neering, AFIT; MBA University of Maryland-Europe; MMOAS, ACSC; MAAS, SAASS) is the commander of the 45 th Cape Canaveral AFS, Florida. for payload processing, launch vehicle integration, and critical infrastructure for Department of Defense spacecraft launched from the Eastern Range. Colo as a Titan IV launch vehicle engineer responsible for Titan IV propulsion, mechanical systems, payload fairings, and payload integration for national security spacecraft. grams European Ground Station. He later served as an opera tions evaluator and the commander of the Operations Support Flight, responsible for training, crew force management, opera tional procedures, and mission analysis. In 2000, Colonel Wagner was assigned to the Space War fare Center as the chief of advanced technology and later as the deputy chief of the Wargaming and Simulation Branch. In Colonel Wagner later served as the speechwriter for the com mander of AFSPC, authoring congressional testimony, posture statements, command priorities, and more than 200 national and th Canaveral AFS. Colonel Wagner is a distinguished graduate of School, and Air Command and Staff College. He also gradu ated from the School of Advanced Air and Space Studies and Air War College (correspondence). He was a National Finalist for the White House Fellowship and received the Rotary Na tional Award for Space Achievement in 2002. Colonel Wagner previously authored Increasing the Solvency of Spacepower, High Frontier Mr. George Gordy Houser (BS, University of Central Florida; BSME, UCF) has served as the launch operations Martin at CCAFS where he has had the honor to lead a team of top notch satellite profes sionals to successfully process satellites from launch complex mid September 2008. Mr. Houser spent all but three years of his 28 year aerospace career at Cape Canaveral AFS (CCAFS), Florida. He started working as an airframe and powerplant mechanic with Eastern etta to work on the Titan 34D propulsion systems. Titan IVB solid rocket motor upgrade team which successful ly oversaw the construction of new facilities and upgrades to existing infrastructure (railroad tracks, launch frames, etc.) at CCAFS in addition to many successful launches it provided our nation access to space. Mr Houser was involved in facility ing sustainment for the heritage Atlas programs (IIA, IIAS, III), as well as, Titan IV at CCAFS and vandenberg AFB, California. He has been a registered professional engineer with the state of Florida since 2002. Mr. Houser was responsible for performance, cost and sched ule to construct one of the three Atlas V major facilities that were Operations Center (ASOC) became his design showcase in that it took an existing structure (Motor Inert Storage MIS) and transformed it more than 22 months to state-of-the-art horizon Mr. Don C Skinner Jr. (BS, Electrical Engineering, Uni versity of Central Florida) is the manager of the GPS Spacecraft Group within the Eastern Range Directorate of The Aerospace Corporation. Mr. Skinner began his aero as a summer hire with Rock well International supporting the Space Shuttle program. He continued to support various Shuttle mission while pursuing his engineering education part time. mechanical quality engineer reviewing and approving real time Shuttle Orbiter engineering/procedure changes at the Orbiter Processing Facility, VAB and Pad 39A. Upon completion of shuttle orbiter communication system engineer where he main tained test and launch responsibility for the Orbiter S-band as a summer intern. He joined the GPS program in December he activated and tested the two dedicated ground test stations. He continued with the GPS program, joining The Aerospace Spacecraft. Mr. Skinner has participated in 47 GPS missions processed and launched from Cape Canaveral. He has par years.

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47 High Frontier The 2 nd Maj Michael A. Taraborelli GPS Tactics and Mission Analysis Flight Commander, 2 nd Space Operations Squadron Schriever AFB, Colorado I t is nearly impossible to read an article about space power without seeing the three-letter designation GPS [Global Positioning System] and its revolutionary capability to pro It is also nearly impossible to open up your Sunday newspaper without reading an article about the latest GPS innovation or gadget on sale at the local electronics store. The fact of the matter is that GPS is integrated into the very fabric of our mod ern world. More than 1 billion people have come to rely on the precise timing and navigation signal that is as responsible for dropping weapons with precision as it is for guiding civil ians safely through their daily journeys. There are countless ways in which GPS helps the world manage its daily affairs; this signal is so prevalent and reliable that it often is taken for granted. But what does it take to provide the most accurate positioning and timing signal in the world? Who makes it hap pen and what goes on behind the scenes? This article highlights the operational hub of GPS, the 2 nd Space Operations Squadron (2 SOPS), 50 th Space Wing, Schriever AFB, Colorado and its transformation during the last few years. The 2 nd Space Operations Squadron is a 150 member team of military and government civilians. In addition, there are approximately 100 Federally Funded Research and Develop ment Centers (FFRDC) and commercial contractors providing direct world-class support to the 33 satellite constellation. The constellation itself consists of Boeing Block IIA and Lock heed Martin IIR and IIR-M (modernized) satellites orbiting the earth at approximately 10,900 nautical miles in six equi-distant planes inclined at approximately 55 degrees. The current con stellation was designed to employ 24 satellites but the superb durability of the satellites coupled with the experience and the even more clever minds supporting the satellites realized a 33 percent increase in constellation capability by extending that capacity to 33 satellites. The last few years were marked by unprecedented change in the squadron. At the forefront was the addition of an Air Force Reserve associate unit, 19 SOPS, which partnered with 2 SOPS (2/19 SOPS) to embark upon the most critical phase of GPS ground control systems: the Launch, Anomaly Resolution, and Disposal Operations (LADO) system in December 2007 and the $850 million Architecture Evolution Plans (AEPs) Master Control Station (MCS) in September 2007. The accomplish ment of these monumental tasks garnered editors choice as one of three most out standing 2007 space achievements. The MCS is engineered on a distributed architecture system and allows telemetry, track ing, and commanding operations from the Air Force Satellite antennas thereby more than doubling the contact capacity for updating GPS satellites with critical navigation and timing data. ber of satellite sorties with the help of a phenomenal ground maintenance team which also ushered in the new LADO sys tem. The LADO system replaced the command and control sys tem and the 1 SOPS GPS mission for launch, anomaly reso lution, and disposal operations which are now under 2 SOPS satellite control purview. Key to the successful readiness and launch on the LADO system was support from 19 SOPS. The of SVN-56 and was a resounding success. Since then, three more modernized GPS Block IIR satellite launch missions have been successfully completed and the squadron is poised to launch the last two IIR-M satellites, SVN-49, and SVN-50, with transitioning two internal ground control segments, it was and additional capability for civilian users from the space seg ment. Major Initiatives In a recent article, Air Force Space Command Commander, General C. Robert Kehler highlighted the importance of operating in three domains: air, space, and cyberspace while noting that: Maintaining a future joint mili tary advantage in an era of exponential change requires a more concerted effort to integrate these domains. 1 It is clear that change and technology are advancing at a faster rate than ever and becoming more important is the integration of these three domains. Over the last few years, 2 SOPS undertook an effort to transform itself as a squadron to keep pace with changes in the position, navigation, and timing landscape to integrate these three domains. While 2/19 SOPS accomplished a number of major initiatives, the following highlight the top three. operations section is a 24/7 operations center that interfaces with the military and civil GPS user communities providing provides more than 100 varying daily products such as satel lite observation geometry, accuracy predictions, and interfer Space-Based PNT

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High Frontier 48 possible support from space. In addition to planning products, the user operations section advanced integration of the three domains one step further with delivery of precise data to theater yielding an accuracy boost for equipped GPS users. The ability to quickly process information from the space and control seg on the ground and in the air was a monumental achievement for the squadron and for military operators the world over. The second major initiative was the Fly 32 team which re claimed two pseudorandom noise (PRN) numbers that are also sively for test purposes, and grow the constellation size to 32 satellites realizing the full MCS constellation capacity of GPS. In particular, a combined 2 SOPS, 19 SOPS, GPS Wing, and contractor team successfully reclaimed PRNs 12 and 32 fol lowing a nearly 1.5 year intensive team effort by completing a series of technical interchanges, tests, and integrated weapon platform assessments. The team incrementally brought back PRN 32 from an unusable status and successfully set the re cord-breaking 31 st ruary 2008. Incidentally, the satellite broadcasting PRN-32 is the oldest-ever, operational GPS satellite on record at 17.5 years. SVN-23, launched in November 1990, was once deemed failed due to extensive vehicle challenges but was brought back from a mothballed state through the combined efforts of operators, maintainers, vehicle contractors and FFRDC advi sors. Again, the integration of a previously decommissioned space asset with the innovative technique of double-booking a PRN to allow for simultaneous operational and test use in the domain of cyberspace, granted two more mission-capable satel lites for sea, air, and land users worldwide. One additional GPS satellite can make a difference between getting a degraded GPS signal and getting an accurate GPS-based location, whether it is es have urban areas where a GPS user can only see a slice of the sky, an effect known as the urban canyon, which means that they can not see all the GPS satellites that would normally be in view. This 31 st satellite can not only help defeat the limitation global constellation geometric performance. The third major initiative was the Legacy Accuracy Improve ment Initiative (LAII) where the initial 10 additional National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) monitoring stations were added into the control segment. The addition of this data and ephemeris states necessary for keeping satellites updated, boosted signal integrity monitoring to more than 99 percent by three or more monitoring stations and boosted signal-in-space ranging accuracy by approximately 10 percent. LAII is incor porated in the AEP baseline and is providing increased mission robustness to the six operational control segment monitor sta tions. At the heart of the success of the last few years of unprec edented change were the people. Lt Gen William L. Shelton noted in a previous article, As we plan for the future, one thing is certain: space capabilities will be called upon at an increasing rate and it will be up to the men and women standing watch today to present a future that provides persistent, predictive space capabilities for the nation. 2 The men and women are at the heart of space systems and make possible the progress necessary for completing change and forging the GPS future. The following are three operating con structs and key lessons learned that have served 2 SOPS well during the last few years and will continue to serve as a model for the squadron in the years to come with respect to bringing new capabilities on-line. Reserve Augmentation. The 19 th Space Operations Squad ron, the reserve associate unit to 2 SOPS, was key in the recent advancements of assuming two new ground control systems, a new mission, as well as providing daily operational support. There are a number of reserve personnel directly embedded within 2 SOPS which provide corporate memory and conti nuity to an ever-rotating active duty force. The combination of new experiences from rotating active duty members combined with the depth of corporate knowledge from the reserve unit provide a high degree of synergy for bringing new capabilities servist to transition a newly launched satellite from the LADO system to the AEP system two days earlier than accomplished on Legacy systems. This action was enabled by creatively us ing a new system to accomplish an analysis the Legacy system could not perform and resulted in the ability to bring a satellite into the prime ground control segment two days sooner. The reservists in-depth system and mission knowledge combined with taking time to creatively think of a new way to do business yielded an operational improvement and standard for future satellite launches. By not only focusing on the process itself, but the inputs going into the process, a capability now exists for improved constellation management options! Future Development. In his article, Dr. Michael Stumberg discussed the need for military organizations to trans form and be adaptable to the ever-increasing rate of change in the world of information age warfare. 3 As the advance of technology accelerates and changes occur at a faster rate, the the development of new space systems. A paradigm shift took

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49 High Frontier place where the squadron became a bigger stakeholder in the acquisition process as well as increased interaction with end users. This paradigm shift is becoming more apparent as the combined 2/19 SOPS team is more of a partner rather than a part of the development of new satellites and systems with the acquisition community. The addition of the AEP and LADO control systems required operators to work shoulder-to-shoul der with developers in bringing on these two new systems. Operators bring a wealth of knowledge on the current system and are in the best position to make recommendations on how the system can operate better in the future. Even though the MCS is not yet one year old, design is well underway to the next-generation OCX ground control system. With the rate themselves increasingly more involved with development. This same involvement with the ground control segment is also extending into the future GPS III satellite design and bring ing to the table knowledge and experience gained from users worldwide through the user operations section. Employing and Not Monitoring Your Weapon System. The user operations section has opened new lines of commu nication with military operators and civilian users all over the world, including a trusted user network (comprised of various agencies and organizations). From the farmer in North Dakota to the operator in Afghanistan, feedback from a myriad of users has helped reveal problems and brought new ideas to roll into future development as well current operations. The feedback from the user to the squadron operating GPS also allows the squadron to better serve the end user which in turn helps us to employ the GPS satellite system in a more useful way. A lot of the employment is found in the connection through the domain of cyberspace and how we are able to distribute a high number of daily products via the communications networks. Additionally, the information gained from the end user, when fed back to the acquisition community, can leverage resources to bring to bear capabilities once thought far off or even not yet conceived. The key is creating an open communication loop between the end user, operator, and acquisition commu nity. It is becoming increasingly important for the squadron By solidifying lines of communication with other military and civilian users and development agencies, the 2/19 SOPS team the community. Beyond the Horizon As 2/19 SOPS looks forward to launching the next-gen eration IIF satellites and partnering in the development of the OCX ground control system and GPS III, there is still much work and innovation that continues within the squadron. While the MCS can control 32 satellites for GPS, 2/19 SOPS has set in place a plan to maintain additional satellites until the end of their serviceable life in LADO. The squadron continues to lean forward with increasing interaction between the end user and acquisition communities to collaboratively bring more capabil ity to both military and civilian users utilizing readily available resources. By increasing communication within the GPS total system, 2 SOPS will continue to integrate and exploit the three domains of air, space, and cyberspace and give all users unprec edented capabilities in the future. The GPS team consists of many: 2 SOPS, 19 SOPS, the GPS Wing, The Aerospace Corporation, Lockheed Martin, Boeing, and a number of other contractors and supporting agencies. The recent improvements of LAII, operating 33 satellites, and just the start. As 2/19 SOPS shifts its operations paradigm with increased development and user interaction, its success will solely rely on the efforts the military and civilian space profes sionals from the acquisition, operations, and sustainment com munities. This paradigm drives itself to integrating the three nd and 19 th Space Operations Squadrons are dedicated to providing the best position, navigation, and timing signals to military and civil us ers and remains second to none! Notes: 1 General C. Robert Kehler, Shaping the Joint Fight in Air, Space, and Cyberspace 49, 2 nd Quarter, 2008. 2 ence Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow, 3, no 4 (August 2007): 18. 3 Dr. Michael F. Stumborg, The Elements of Successful Military Transformation: Applying Lessons Learned from Science, History, and Corporate America, 3, no 4 (August 2007): 46-48. Maj Michael A. Taraborelli (BS, Civil Engineering, U.S. Air Force Academy; M.B.A., Pepperdine University) is the GPS tactics and mission anal 2 nd Space Operations Squad ron (2 SOPS), Schriever AFB, Colorado. He is responsible for GPS constellation main tenance and planning. His previous assignments include: student squadron commander, School, Maxwell AFB, Ala School and has completed Air Command and Staff College by correspondence.

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High Frontier 50 the Challenges Ahead TSgt Teresa A. Medlock Lead Specialist Missile Warning Support Element 21 st Operations Support Squadron Peterson AFB, Colorado N ot since the advent of the information age has any single aspect of technology had such a profound effect on the lives of people worldwide as Global Positioning System (GPS). Space-based position, navigation and timing (PNT) has moved into a close race with the internet by extending its impact and concept focused on providing highly accurate, round-the-clock PNT in any type of weather. 1 cantly improved military navigational capabilities in all types of operational environments. Since then, GPS and the PNT data that it provides have grown immensely. Its applications now impact military, governments, and civilians alike and it has proved to be an important part of the way the world conducts its business. All of this growth however, is not without challenges. The program ization every day. Finding and implementing solutions to these lenges that they have ever faced. The use of GPS data has provided our military with great ad vantages since the programs inception. Its use in military opera tions, has virtually guaranteed continuous operational superiority in any sea, land, or air environment. At sea, GPS data helps to ensure safe passage of carrier battle groups through the Persian capabilities to direct troop movements. In the air, it allows pilots to easily locate the enemy and ensure on target munitions deliv ery. All of these applications of GPS have had a great impact on operations that will continue to grow as new technology advances take hold. The usability of this data in technological applications has also tionized the way in which governments and companies achieve their business objectives. Improved accuracy of location informa tion has proved invaluable in surveying, transportation, and com munications applications. Its use over cell phone networks can provide users with their location, download maps, and even guide them to their destination. It has the ability to locate the nearest police station or hospital, assist in locating a hotel, and provide plications are also quite impressive. It allows emergency services to identify the location of persons needing assistance, provides tracking systems for vehicles such as taxis, school busses, am walk to and from school. The contributions of space-based PNT are almost too many to count. With each passing day the list becomes even longer and each new capability brings a new set of challenges. The manag ers of the GPS program work to overcome these hurdles and en sure that the data provided is accurate, secure, reliable, and usable for the military and their civilian counterparts. Some of the most daunting challenges they face include improving the security of GPS data and the modernization of program elements. The Security of GPS Data Unfortunately, the world we live in can be a dangerous place making it necessary for all of us to be concerned with security in every aspect of our lives. Any type of data can be a target for those with other than honorable intentions. GPS is no exception. GPS signals use very low power making them vulnerable to various forms of interference. 2 The characteristics of this interference can dent on GPS data. Jamming is used to deny access to GPS signals and has been known in the past to cause real problems in both military and civilian sectors. Any crafty individual with internet ated by this jammer could prevent GPS data from reaching users across an entire city or town. In-car navigation systems, vehicle tracking systems, timed communication systems, cell phone sites, other hand works quite differently; it generates signals that appear to be accurate GPS data when in fact they are not. 3 A spoofed signal could cause a receiver to produce incorrect or misleading information, inaccurate timing signals and positional information that could result in weapons or troops being led dangerously off Thankfully, program managers and those on their team have had the foresight to develop and implement anti-spoof and anti-jam technologies and other security improvements into current system architectures. As successful as these efforts have been, we must continue to seek improvements in security technologies for all us ers program wide. In order to assure readiness for the future, GPS program man agers must continually review current and imminent requirements. Four areas that are of particular note with regard to modernization are constellation design, satellite development, ground equipment maturity, and user equipment capabilities. Correct oversight of these areas will ensure that GPS can continue to keep pace with changing technology while providing users the reliability and us ability they have come to rely on through the years. Modern ization of any system can be a tedious process. In many cases getting satellite, constellation, or equipment changes developed, under even the best conditions. Streamlining review and imple Space-Based PNT

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51 High Frontier greatly accelerate these undertakings and make them much more economical. Constellation design is a very important aspect of moderniza GPS, those with spares, and those without, each having its merits. constellation management will continue to be a costly and neces sary endeavor. Program managers must ensure that the design of the event of a satellite failure as well as expandable to meet ever increasing user demand. Development of new satellites is also a critical facet of the pro and 2013. 4 Once fully implemented, performance will be notice ably improved. GPS III will enhance current capabilities while features include a new civil signal operating under an open ser incorporation of a Distress Alerting Satellite System that would make it compatible with the COSPAS-SARSAT international search and rescue system. 5 This next generation of satellites will breathe new life into the program while extending its operation for years to come. The ground equipment associated with GPS has been in opera tion for a number of decades and has served the program well by providing satellite command and control as well as monitoring of GPS data. There is one question however that every program manager, operator, engineer, and maintainer asks themselves from time to time. How can we ensure the operation of our equipment as it ages? Fortunately, the answer to this question has been an swered for GPS. Plans for upgrading ground equipment are well underway and the changes will greatly enhance the systems op erational capability and sustainability in the decades ahead. The recent transition of ground segment operations and completion of the fourth phase in the Architecture Evolution Plan went excep tionally well and was virtually seamless to the users of GPS data. 6 The new Operational Control Segment will provide full command and control of current and future series satellites. 7 Replacement of aging legacy mainframe computer equipment that can be up graded as technology advances is also part of the modernization plan. 8 by operators and maintainers alike. GPS success has set the stage for its own growth over time. This, in and of itself, presents its own challenges. In the earli est stages of the GPS program, developers must have questioned what the new navigational capability could do for the future and how they would get it to those that could use it. The question is still a viable one. As new technologies become available it seems that everyone wants to get on board with GPS. In this realm we do face a problem. The development of receivers usable in tactical environments takes time, and these units must be able to withstand the rigors of wartime environments. Plans are in the works to develop a new version of receiver for military use, but years down the road. 9 Future integration of GPS enhancements into unmanned aerial vehicle aircraft, missile intercept capabili ties, and robotics applications would also greatly contribute to our TSgt Teresa A. Medlock (BS, Infor mation Technology and Computer Systems, American Intercontinental University) is currently assigned as lead specialist missile warning sup st Operations Support Squadron, Peterson AFB, Colorado, where she provides operational sup port to 22 geographically separated units throughout AFSPC. She was previously assigned as instructor satel lite wideband and telemetry systems, th Training Squad ron, Fort Gordon, Georgia, where she taught ground mobile forces SATCOM terminals, GPS, space systems, and telemetry equipment th Com munications Squadron, Hickam AFB, Hawaii, she served as a main tenance controller and satellite wideband and telemetry systems journeyman providing support to Joint Typhoon Warning Center storm tracking operations. She also served as a space systems jour neyman at McClellan AFB, California, where she performed du ties in support of depot operations by maintaining, repairing and refurbishing Defense Meteorological Satellite Program equipment and was involved in several initial operational test and evaluation efforts with various types of weather satellite tracking equipment. militarys operational capacity and ensure continued superiority, but these changes take time as well. The need for the technol ogy has now overtaken its availability and strides to improve this biggest challenge. In order to properly address these issues and continue to suc ceed, ultimately two things will be required; strong program lead ership and continued funding. Given strong leadership that can tinue to evolve in the years to come with its reach and versatility extending even further into our lives. Trying to predict just how far it will go would be impossible, but if the last thirty years have been any indication, it is a safe bet that its roles in the military and civilian sectors will be huge. The leadership of this important program has done well in getting us this far. There is little doubt that the GPS program will continue to easily weather the storm and come out ready to meet any challenges that lie ahead. Notes: 1 Lt Col G. Tovrea and Dr. Aaron Pinker, Contributions of the Global Positioning System, Chronicles Online Journal Ar chives, 1995-1998, 4. 2 Effective Solution to GPS Vulnerability Testing, 3, no 1-2 (2004): 40-44. 3 Steve Callagan and Hugo Fruehauf, SAASM and Direct P(Y) Signal Ac quisition, Journal of Defense Software Engineering, June 2003. 4 slide 10. 5 GPS JPO Rethinks GPS III Strategy, Global View, April 2005. 6 Don Jewell, Leadership Talks, Back to Basics, Interview with Col Dave Madden, October 2007, 31. 7 Ibid., 26. 8 Ibid. 9 Ibid., 30.

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High Frontier 52 Dr. Rick W. Sturdevant Deputy Command Historian Peterson AFB, Colorado T he following interview by Dr. Rick W. Sturdevant with Mr. Roger L. Easton, Sr., occurred as a series of e-mail exchanges during December 2007, with an addendum in late March 2008. Throughout the last half of the 20 th century, Easton contributed mightily to US Navy space activities from develop ment of sounding rockets to design of the Vanguard satellite, and from development of the Naval Space Surveillance System (now the Air Force Space Surveillance System) to the design of experimental satellites for precise navigation and timing. His innovative leadership of the experimental Timation and Navi gation Technology Satellite projects during the late 1960s and 1970s, resulted in technical achievements that became primary features of todays Global Positioning System (GPS). For his many pioneering achievements in spacecraft tracking, naviga tion and timing technology that led to GPS, Easton received the National Medal of Technology from President George W. Bush on 13 February 2006. Interview Sturdevant: Mr. Easton, you came to the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in Washington, DC, in 1943 as a physicist re searching radar beacons and blind-landing systems for aircraft. with, space? Easton: I transferred to the Rocket-Sonde Branch in 1952. There was an opening for which I applied, and I obtained the assignment. That branch was heavily involved in space, and so was I. Sturdevant: Would you summarize your role in Project Vanguard satellite? Easton: My role in Project Vanguard was to supervise the cells in space and to provide two temperature measurements of the satellite. Sturdevant: What were the major challenges in your inven tion of the Minitrack system for tracking the Vanguard satel lite? Easton: First, I did not invent Minitrack. It came from an X-band tracking system. Milt Rosen suggested we use a similar system at a much lower frequency. I looked at any problems such a change might entail. Essentially, there were none, and Minitrack was born. The only possible challenge was to pro vide a suitable transmitter in the satellite. We tried subminiature tube transmitters Bell Telephone/Western Union devel oped a very nice transistor for the task, and the problem was solved. Sturdevant: Why was it necessary to develop the Naval Space Surveillance System (NAVSPASUR), and how did you improve the original NAVSPASUR fence? Easton: NAVSPASUR was developed satellite over the US without our know ing about it. The system was improved continuously with the addition of receiv ing stations, with the addition of a large transmitter in the center of the line (Lake Kickapoo transmitter), with the addition of longer receiving antennas, and with Historical Perspective

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53 High Frontier the changes in the receiving system to improve its sensitivity by about 24 decibels, a four-time increase in range. These changes enabled the system to detect objects at geostationary ranges. Another change was the addition of a second line, this one in southern Texas. This line was a true ranging-and-detection sys determined soon after the second fence was crossed. This in formation was most useful when a large number of pieces were present, as when satellites blew up or were blown up. Sturdevant: In what basic ways did NAVSPASUR differ from Minitrack? Easton: The main difference between Minitrack and the NAVSPASUR is that Minitrack used a signal transmitted from target. This difference had huge implications. For example, while the antennas for Minitrack were 50 feet long, those for NAVSPASUR were up to 100 times as long. Sturdevant: How were your efforts to improve NAVSPA SUR connected to your conception of using satellites for what has become known as precision navigation and timing? Easton: We had a problem with synchronizing the transmit ter to the receiver. We tried carrying cesium beam standards be tween the two sites, but the distance (about 100 miles) was such that the standards drifted between comparisons. Then came the idea: wouldnt this be an ideal place to use a satellite that would be visible to both transmitter and receiver simultaneously. Then the satellite needs only a modulation to serve as a source of syn chronization. And so a satellite, was built for this very purpose. However, before the satellite was built, the idea of using this technique for navigation came forth, and Timation [TIMe/navigATION] was born. Sturdevant: What was your role in the development of the Timation satellites during the 1960s and 1970s? Easton: I headed the Space Applications Branch from 1958 to 1980. Sturdevant: How did those satellites evolve from through ? Easton: Both Timation satellites (1 and 2) used crystal os cillators as frequency sources, the main difference being that Timation 2 had larger solar panels and a more powerful trans mitter. At about this time Robert Kern and Arthur McCoubrey found a small rubidium oscillator being built in Germany. We hurried over to Switzerland and procured units for the Timation also known as time for launch, and they worked well for many months. For the satellite, also known as Mr. Kerns company built two cesium units. These, unlike rubidium units, have the characteristic of being absolute frequency sources and, hence, were ideal sources for checking out Einsteins theory that clocks are in. Sturdevant: How did you feel when you learned that the Air velopment of a space-based navigation system to replace Tran sit? Were you personally involved in the transfer of Timation concepts and technology into the joint program when it began? Easton: I was greatly disappointed, because the Navy had been the lead service in this program and allowed itself to be outbid by the Air Force. As to whether I was personally in volved in the transfer of Timation concepts and technology, the one individual assigned permanently to the JPO to transfer in formation. Sturdevant: What features of the GPS were derived in whole or part from Timation? Easton: The entire concept of having a time-based system TIMe navigATION. Timation was invented in 1964, and the on 27 November 1967. The earliest mention I have found in the same magazine for something like 621B is described in the 18 December 1967 issue. There, a concept for having an was described. A four-satellite, Y-shaped constellation was described, with three or four such constellations required for global coverage.

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High Frontier 54 Sturdevant: In what ways did GPS im prove on Timation? Easton: I cant think of any ways that GPS improved on Timation. Essentially, they are the same system. I might add that a proposal by Roy Anderson of General Elec tric to NASA had, essentially, the same con stellation as GPS has, and it was proposed several years earlier. Sturdevant: The Spring 2007 issue of contained an article by Don Bedwell about the history of GPS develop ment. Bedwell claimed that Col Bradford Parkinson, who had overseen the Air Forces 621B navigation satellite program before be believed the side-tone ranging signal used in Timation was more vulnerable to jamming than the system 621B spread-spectrum type of signal adopted for GPS. Would you like to comment on this assertion? Easton: The only cases of jamming of GPS that I know of were reported in some time ago. The source of this jamming was determined to be a local oscillator on a television set that fed directly into the GPS. I dont remember our Tima tion signals ever being jammed. It might be instructive to look into why GPS jamming is so rare. The answer has to do with the environment the GPS re ceivers are in. GPS receivers are usually in places where people are scarce. The reason for this placement is that if many people are present, then someone or many know where he or they are. Of course, this statement is not always true. A person in con gard to the next turn he must make. But in most circumstances the navigator is alone in a boat or in an aircraft or on a hunting If the jammer knows where the navigator is, he can overload the navigators receiver with high-level signals, or noise, and make reception impossible. Another tactic that the jammer can use is doors open. What can the user do to mitigate the jamming signals? One thing he can do is use a directional antenna to pick up the navi gation signal. Its a bit complicated, because he would need one directional antenna for each navigation satellite he intends to use. But, he could obtain perhaps 20 decibels less jamming with this technique. Jamming a user who is silent is not an easy task. Even jamming side tone ranging (STR) is not easy. The problem to the user is geometry and the square law. Its pretty ellite emissions off the table, the only thing left is to jam the received signals. And even that is not easy. That said, a study of PRF (pulse recurrence/repetition frequency) versus STR is called for. Sturdevant: Were there aspects of Timation that the GPS GPS better? Easton: There are some changes that might improve GPS marginally. A higher inclination for the satellites will improve the high-latitude coverage. An eight-hour orbital period would improve the signal strength but only marginally. I might add that it appears to me GPS should have a program to get rid of its old satellites. The space world is getting cluttered. Sturdevant: Undoubtedly, a number of individuals who worked with you or for you over the years helped advance your ideas and the resulting technology. Would you care to identify Easton: One individual, Mr. Kern, helped by keeping the pressure on to use atomic frequency units. Not only did he keep the pressure on, but he and Mr. McCoubrey found the source in Germany, and they built the small cesium units that did such a late Don Lynch, who calculated the Einstein effect and got it right on. Dr. Vince Folen was a reliable source for Einsteins theory. Al Bartholomew supervised the construction of the sat ellite that provided the information. James Buisson and Thomas lation of satellites. I should not forget the support of the Naval Air Systems Command. Here I remember Capt David Crockett, Cdr David Heerwagen, John Job, and Chester Kleczek, all of the command. And, of course, there were many others.

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55 High Frontier Sturdevant: Chester Kleczek has said the Russians detected the range-measuring technique pioneered in and based their Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) on it. What do you think? Easton: If the Russians have atomic frequency sources on all their satellites, and I believe they do, they are in all probability using the Timation technique. So, I agree with Mr. Kleczek. Sturdevant: When you were experimenting with satellite navigation in the 1960s and 1970s, did you foresee the possibil ity of it becoming what many now call a global utility? Easton: We foresaw a large population of users for the sys tem, but we were careful not to over-emphasize the possibility as it might have been too much for the bean counters. It was one of those times that you walked a thin line. Sturdevant: I noticed you still are working as an NRL con tractor. Have you been working on space-related projects? Easton: 2007 and early 2008, the space-related project concerned the We gathered information for the March 17th celebration. We a triumph. Also, we had some good copies of the satellite, but we needed to determine which one we wanted to disassemble to show the internal construction. Determining who is still alive among those who worked on passed on that one must be careful to know who is still living. projects technical director, is in pretty good shape and talked to two of my friends. They say he looked well. Sturdevant: What part of celebrating the Vanguard satellites Easton: Knowing that Milt Rosen is alive and well was ex tremely pleasant. Another high point was learning that a high school teacher attended and was thrilled. She gives her students a feeling for space. Sturdevant: guard satellites orbital lifetime was estimated to be 200 years, you feel, knowing the satellite will have so many more birth days in space? Easton: Its nice to know that an old friend has many years ahead of it. Sturdevant: What are you working on now that Vanguards birthday party is over? Easton: My current project is to set the record straight on the origins of GPS. I had one of the magazines straight and, then, the magazine was sold! Life is like that. Dr. Rick W. Sturdevant (BA, History, University of Northern Iowa; MA, History, University of Northern Iowa; PhD, Uni versity of California, Santa Bar bara) is deputy command his torian, Headquarters Air Force Space Command (HQ AFSPC), Peterson AFB, Colorado. He joined the Air Force History and Museums Program in April Information Systems Division, Scott AFB, Illinois, and moved one year later to the Chidlaw Building near downtown Colora do Springs as chief historian, Space Communications Division Dr. Sturdevant appears frequently as a guest lecturer on space history topics and is author or co-author of chapters or essays in Beyond the Ionosphere: Fifty Years of Satellite Communication Organizing for the Use of Space: Historical Perspec tives on a Persistent Issue Golden Legacy, Boundless Future: Essays on the United States Air Force and the Rise of Aerospace Power (2000); Air Warfare: An International Ency clopedia (2002); To Reach the High Frontier: A History of US Launch Vehicles (2002); The Limitless Sky: Air Force Science and Technology Contributions to the Nation (2004); and Encyclo pedia of 20th-Century Technology (2005). His articles or book reviews have appeared in such journals as Space Times Journal of the British Interplanetary Society Air & Space/Smithsonian , Air Power History High Frontier: The Journal for Space & Missile Professionals and Journal of the West He sits on the editorial board of Quest and on the staff of High Frontier Dr. Sturdevant is an active member of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), American Astronautical Society (AAS), British Interplanetary Society (BIS), and Society for the History of Technology (SHOT). His professional honors Readers seeking more information about Mr. Roger Easton and his space-related activities, particularly space-based navigation and timing, should consult the following sources: 1. Richard Easton, Who Invented the Global Positioning System? 22 May 2006, http://www.thespacereview.com/ar ticle/626/1. 2. Richard Easton, Timation and the Invention of the Global Position ing System: 1964-1973, 14, 3 (August 2007):12-17. 3. Roger L. Easton, Global Navigation Flies High, 20, 10 (October 2007): 34-38. 4. Constance McLaughlin Green and Milton Lomask, (Washington, DC: NASA, 1971), http://history.nasa.gov/sputnik/toc. html. 5. Thomas B. McCaskill, GPS Inventor, http://www.gpsinventor. com/?page=home. 6. February 1959 issue.

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High Frontier 56 General C. Robert Kehler Commander, Air Force Space Command Before the Senate Armed Services Committee Strategic Forces Subcommittee United States Senate 4 March 2008 Introduction Mister Chairman. Senator Sessions and distinguished members of the subcommittee, it is an honor to appear before you today as Space Command (AFSPC). I am proud and humble to lead and represent over 39,000 active duty, Guard, and Reserve Airmen; government civilians; and con tractors who deliver space and missile capabilities to America and a year. We do this as an integral part of the United States Air Force and cyberspace in order to deliver Global Vigilance, Global Reach, and Global Power for America. Assuring the Nations access to space, protecting our freedom to operate in space, and providing sions. The men and women of AFSPC serve around the globe. From AFSPC Headquarters, Fourteenth Air Force (14 AF), Twentieth Air Force (20 AF), Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC), Space Innovation and Development Center (SIDC), and a host of deployed and forward locations, our space professionals are or ganizing, training, equipping, and providing the space capabilities with your help and support and delivered by the Airmen of AFSPC to the commander, United States Strategic Command (USSTRAT COM) are helping to maintain Americas freedom, security, and prosperity. Last month, I visited a number of units and commanders in the United States Central Command (USCENTCOM) area of respon his mission. His bomber crew planned their missions using intel ligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) terrain mapping and weather data from space systems; the aircraft carried Global Positioning System (GPS)-aided Joint Direct Attack Munitions lite communications (SATCOM) data links; the tanker and bomber crews coordinated air-refueling operations using GPS; and strike assessment was conducted. This pilot also knew that a combina tion of space, air, and terrestrial assets would immediately come to his assistance if his crew came down in hostile territory. In effect, space assets would take the search out of search and rescue. In the every mission and every operation. Every commander I visited Space power gives Americas joint forces a decisive advantage and has shaped the American way of warfare. Today, Americas joint forces are interconnected, have global cognizance, and can produce swift and precise effects providing overwhelming and de cisive results with minimum collateral damage. Our friends and adversaries alike have noted this decisive advantage. As a result, having witnessed or learned the cost of challenging the United States head-on, would-be adversaries are actively pursuing asym metric strategies to challenge our advantages in air, space, and cy berspace. The evidence is clear and convincing. During Operation Iraqi Freedom, we experienced GPS jam ming and since then we have witnessed a worldwide proliferation of technology that can be used against our space systems. Our space capabilities face a wide range of threats including radio fre quency jamming, laser blinding, and anti-satellite systems. The emergence of these threats requires a broad range of capabilities, from diplomatic to military, to protect our interest in space. Our National Space Policy acknowledges that space is vital to our national security. We are not alone in our use of space. Today, 28 foreign militaries operate in space. domains for granted. From this point forward, we should expect to be challenged not only in the air, but in and through space and will be won without the ability to achieve air, space, and cyber challenges as we look to the future. Therefore, it is crucial that we develop and resource a strategy that protects our space advantages and ensures we remain a world leader in space. for AFSPC and to describe for you our plan to conceive, acquire, employ, and execute Air Force space and missile capabilities in an increasingly complex, dynamic, and challenging global environ principles that characterize our approach, highlight some of our budget request supports our strategic way ahead. As always, AFSPC undertakes our important mission with three and prepare for tomorrows challenges. We look forward to work ing with your committee and the Congress to achieve our goals. Mission Deliver space and missile capabilities to America and its Our mission is clear. For over 50 years, the Air Force has led the Nations military space efforts, and AFSPC continues that her itage as we deliver space power to USSTRATCOM, joint force commanders around the globe, the services, the intelligence com munity (IC), civil agencies, commercial entities, and allies. Congressional Testimony

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57 High Frontier Vision Americas space leaders delivering responsive, assured, de cisive space power The USAF provides air, space, and cyberspace power as part of a must remain assured under stressing conditions, it must contribute decisively as an integral piece of the larger whole, and it must be developed and wielded by space professionals who are recognized tions. The following principles shape our approach and underpin our mission and vision: The Nation has entrusted the Air Force and AFSPC with advocating, acquiring, and operating capabili ties that are vital to our National security, economic growth, public safety, and welfare. The men and women of AFSPC help defend our homeland and our global interests abroad with space and ground-based missile early warning systems; connect national leaders and the military with secure global satellite communications; assure access to space for military, intelligence, civil, and commercial purposes with medium and heavy space lift and range capabilities; keep watch over the space domain by tracking thousands of space objects; provide planners and commanders with critical environmen tal information; and deliver persistent position, navigation, and timing (PNT) signals to worldwide users from GPS, international utility. Many of these space systems are also called upon for help in disaster relief and search and rescue operations, at home and abroad. Additionally, our Nation operate, and support Americas land-based strategic deter rent, the intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) force. Nuclear deterrence remains the ultimate backstop of our security by dissuading our opponents and assuring our allies through ex tended deterrence. Our Nations security relies heavily on the responsive and stabilizing attributes of AFSPCs ICBM force. Air Force operations extend across the mutually supporting and reciprocally-enabling domains of air, space, and cyberspace. Thus, Airmen who are experts in the space domain play a key role in integrating capabilities to create a decisive joint military advantage. Cross-domain integration is the key. AFSPC delivers capabilities that transcend national and military boundaries and are intrinsically and simultaneously tacti cal and strategic, local and global. As a result, the men and the command and control of our forces and the way we pro vide and present them to USSTRATCOM. At the same time, we recognize the unique space requirements of US geo graphic combatant commanders around the world, and know that we must provide joint force commanders with the space capabilities they need to see, know, and decisively act. Our increasingly net-centric, joint expeditionary force operates with smaller forward footprints and a greater dependence on reachback organizations. Space capabilities are inextricably embedded in an ever-more-effective arsenal of modern weaponry and are threaded throughout the fabric operations would be far less precise, focused, timely, coor respect. Space acquirers, developers, and operators must be tech nically astute and tactically competent to ensure mission success in the space domain. While necessary, technical st century chal lenges. Today, AFSPC people must be adequately prepared to operate space assets and assure space capabilities in an increasingly contested environment. The Airmen and civilian space professionals of AFSPC serve a Nation al mission and our skills and expertise are National assets. Since the beginning of the space age, Airmen have contribut men are serving the military space mission today in AFSPC, many other Airmen are working elsewhere in the govern ment within national security and civil space organizations. Commercial space companies and the space industry also abound with space professionals who gained training and experience while serving our Air Force. While these principles shape our views, our sights are set di rectly on supporting the Air Force commitment to provide forces across the range of military operations to protect US interests and values; to assure allies; to dissuade and deter potential adversaries; and if deterrence fails, to defeat those who choose to become our enemies. In answering this call, with Congressional support, the space professionals of AFSPC last year delivered space and missile capabilities with great success. A Year of Successes AFSPC activities in 2007 supported the Expeditionary Air Force, delivered and demonstrated space and missile capabilities, improved relationships across the space enterprise, and cared for our Airmen and their families. We are also optimistic that we have made progress toward solving our systemic acquisition problems with our back-to-basics approach. Here are several of our key ac complishments: oping a strong bond between AFSPC and the Airmen, Sol diers, Sailors, and Marines who rely on our capabilities. satellites are lasting years beyond their original predicted life spans and are exceeding expectations every day. AFSPC added to our all-time record which now stands at 56 successful National security payload launches in a row; we continued a string of excellence with 19 out of 19 successful operational launches using the Atlas V and Delta IV evolved

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High Frontier 58 expendable launch vehicles (EELVs). of a Delta IV Heavy EELV, which carried the last Defense Support Program (DSP) satellite into orbit. Without interruption of services, AFSPC completed the tran sition of the GPS ground control segment to the new Archi old command and control (C2) architecture with one that enables responsive PNT services. Last year, AFSPC launched Glory Trip-193 to certify the use of the Mk 21 safety enhanced reentry vehicle (SERV) on the Minuteman III (MM III) ICBM. Additionally, this test demonstrated the capability of our ICBM force. In addition, AFSPC sustained and expanded use of the Total Force. Last year, at Minot Air Force Base, North Dakota, Schriever Air Force Base, the AFSPC Reserve Forces are growing with the transition of the 310 th Space Group to wing status. We privatized nearly 2,500 military family housing resi dences at Peterson, Schriever, Los Angeles, and Vandenberg Air Force Bases. Additionally, 351 AFSPC families moved into newly privatized units at Buckley Air Force Base. Finally, AFSPC experienced one of the safest years in its Moreover, AFSPC has had zero major weapons mishaps in zero major space mishaps in over two years. As proud as we are of our successes, AFSPCs strategic way forward is to focus on delivering the space and missile capabili ties needed today and tomorrow by balancing recapitalization and modernization investments, implementing organizational and cul tural changes, and maturing our space professionals. The Way Ahead To defend America and provide needed capabilities to the joint confront the challenges of a dynamic strategic environment. The FY 2009 budget request carefully balances a number of critical priorities. Priorities Maintain perfection as the standard for nuclear operations, maintenance, security, and support In AFSPC, we are absolutely committed to providing a credible, safe, and secure strategic deterrent. At any given moment, about 1,200 of the nearly 10,000 Airmen in 20 AF are on duty in the Wyoming, Nebraska, and Colorado. These young professionals understand the awesome responsibilities entrusted to them and will dence for granted. This year we will continue to sustain the Min uteman ICBM system as we selectively improve security measures and implement any necessary recommendations resulting from various nuclear reviews. decades. We follow these standards to the letter and focus on structured, intensive training for our maintenance, security, and operations personnel. The FY 2009 budget request continues the Congressionally approved $6.7 billion life-ex tension programs that will sustain the MM III to 2020 as we work to identify further investments that may be required to sustain the MM III force to 2030. In January 2008, we completed deployment of the Guidance Replacement Pro gram (GRP), which replaced some of the 1960s-generation electronics in the guidance system. Currently the Propulsion Replacement Program (PRP), which replaces aging motors and propellant as well as environmentally unsafe materials and components, is 82 percent complete. The remaining sion System Rocket Engine Life Extension Program [PSRE LEP] upgrade) are still on target for completion by 2012 and 2013, respectively. The SERV program enables the use of the Mk 21 reentry vehicle on MM III missiles, providing and enhanced safety. The PSRE LEP is extending the design life of this subsystem by replacing components originally produced in the 1970s. robust capabilities funded under the ICBM Security Mod ernization Program (ISMP). Last year, we completed the installation of concrete headwork barriers at all operational launch facilities (LFs) to ensure the safety and security of our nuclear arsenal. In 2008, we are continuing to improve realtime situational awareness for our security forces through the Remote Visual Assessment (RVA) program. AFSPC is also replacing LF access doors with ones that enable our per sonnel to more quickly secure the silo hatch in case of a se curity threat during maintenance operations. In addition, we are increasing the physical protection of our LFs with better technology and more effective tactics. AFSPC is also taking steps within our budget this year to add security surveillance cameras at our missile alert facilities (MAFs) and to add GPS tracking capability to payload transporter (PT) vans. Looking to the future, the FY 2009 budget request responds to USSTRATCOMs PGS needs by developing and demonstrating critical concepts and technologies for a conventional strike alternative. To increase our deterrence and conventional strike capabilities, AFSPC is investing in research and development of technol ogy for guidance, reentry vehicle, and propulsion systems with the ICBM Demonstration/Validation (ICBM DEM/ VAL) program, and is aligning these initiatives with the re sults of the recently completed PGS Analysis of Alternatives and with the Congressionally directed DoD-wide investment account. Ensure mission success while delivering planned capability improvements Joint force commanders and the forces they lead rely on the capabilities provided by AFSPC, and our operational commitment to deliver those capabilities to them every day can not falter. In addition to this operational commitment, we must also meet our

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59 High Frontier to deliver several major new Military SATCOM (MILSATCOM); PNT; and ISR capabilities over the next 18 to 24 months. The demand for satellite communications and bandwidth continues to grow. Aged in many cases beyond their design, Milstar and Defense Satellite Communications System-III (DSCS-III) continue to provide critical commu nications services for much of the Nations daily secure and unsecure military and diplomatic activities as we deploy the next generation of advanced MILSATCOM capabilities. The Wideband Global SATCOM (WGS) program pro vides communications capabilities greater than the entire constellation of DSCS-III satellites and increases cover age, capacity, and connectivity for deployed tactical forc es. In 2007, AFSPC launched WGS-1 and the Air Force negotiated a partnership with Australia to use the constel lation and fund the procurement of a sixth WGS satellite. The FY 2009 budget request funds continued operation of WGS-1, on-orbit checkout and operation of WGS-2, and launch technical support and on-orbit checkout of WGS-3. WGS-4 and WGS-5 are currently in fabrication. Our Advanced Extremely High Frequency (AEHF) pro gram affords strategic and tactical users with secure, survivable anti-jamming and antiscintillation communi cations. Each AEHF satellite has about 10 times the ca pacity of Milstar II. The FY 2009 budget request supports the launch and on-orbit checkout of AEHF-1; completion of integration and testing of AEHF-2 for launch in 2009; continued assembly, integration, and testing of AEHF-3; contracting of AEHF-4; and work on the Mission Control Segment. AFSPC is deliv ering PNT capabilities which are providing critical military the centerpiece of global PNT services, and the GPS con stellation enables an ever-increasing arsenal of precise mu nitions from the mainstay JDAM to the Air Forces new, small-diameter bomb (SDB) and from the Armys Guided Multiple Launch Rocket System (GMLRS) to its Excalibur 155mm artillery round. Airmen in C-130 and C-17 aircraft are resupplying ground combat units in nearly, impossibleto-reach places in Afghanistan by using the remarkable Joint Precision Air Drop Systems (JPADS), which have steerable parachutes with GPS guidance. Last year, AFSPC launched two modernized GPS IIR-M eight GPS IIR-M satellites on-orbit, AFSPC is launching the remaining three in 2008. The follow-on block is GPS IIF which will have an ex tended design life of 11 years, include additional civil sig nals for improved accuracy and safety-of-life services, and increased power to reduce vulnerability to signal jamming. The ground segment includes a master control station and a worldwide network of dedicated antennas and monitor ing stations. The FY 2009 budget request supports launch and support of two GPS IIF satellites and delivery of the In concert with upgrades in the GPS space segment, we are also improving the GPS ground segment. AFSPC launched the last two GPS IIR-Ms using the new Launch, Anomaly Resolution, and Disposal Operations (LADO) system; replacing an obsolete command and control sys tem with a more modern and sustainable one. Our Nation has relied on Air Force space-based missile warning systems since the early 1970s. AFSPCs Defense Support Program (DSP) provides mis sile warning, missile defense, battlespace awareness, and technical intelligence collection capabilities. The Spaced Based Infrared System (SBIRS) program pro vides missile warning, missile defense, intelligence, and battlespace awareness capabilities and will replace DSP. The SBIRS constellation will consist of four geosynchro nous Earth orbit (GEO) satellites and two highly elliptical orbit (HEO) payloads. ceed expectations in its checkout phase resulting in ap proval for early use in December 2007 and is on track to reach full operational acceptance in mid-2008. Addition ally, HEO-2 has been built. On SBIRS GEO-1, AFSPC planning a launch in 2009. The FY 2009 budget request for SBIRS funds development, integration, and test of GEO-1 and GEO-2 satellites and ground systems; funds initial HEO operations; fully funds HEO-3 and GEO-3 procurement; funds HEO-4 advanced procurement; and The HEO-3 and HEO-4 payloads are designated as con stellation replenishment assets. Delivery of space capabili ties begins with a successful launch. Our two space launch ranges at Patrick and Vandenberg Air Force Bases continue to be the lynchpin for Americas assured access to space. At our Eastern and Western Ranges, AFSPC supported 23 successful military, civil, and commercial launches in 2007. The FY 2009 budget request supports sustainment and modernization of our launch ranges. This year, AFSPC is deploying a new Air Force Satel lite Control Network (AFSCN) antenna at Vandenberg Air Force Base which will facilitate over 30 satellite con tacts per day. The AFSCN continues to be the Nations backbone for satellite operations. AFSPC is upgrading antennas with the Remote Tracking Station (RTS) Block Change to ensure command and control of on-orbit capa get request funds the operation and gradual modernization of the AFSCN. Increase space protection capabilities The USAF and AFSPC play a key role in defending the Na tions military, intelligence, civil, and commercial space capabili ties. The Air Force is uniquely charged with mission responsibili ties to provide forces to defend United States space capabilities. Our strategy and investment approach balances the need for space situational awareness (SSA), protection of space capabilities and

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High Frontier 60 protection of terrestrial forces from threats posed by adversary use of space against our interests. We must increase SSA while we address operational and physical vulnerabilities in our space, ground, and link seg protect space capabilities that strikes the right balance among awareness, hardening, countermeasures, reconstitution, and alternate means. The Integrated SSA (ISSA) program provides USSTRAT COM, Joint Functional Component Command for Space (JFCC-SPACE), and the joint community with an integrated source of current and predictive space events, threats, and space activities. By employing a near real-time, net-centric construct, AFSPC is achieving higher accuracy space sur veillance through fusion of other SSA elements. Funding from the FY 2009 budget request increases our ability to characterize the space domain by focusing on space-event processing and analysis to include high-accuracy conjunc tion assessments and rapid-maneuver processing. sensors to improve space surveillance capabilities. The track small objects in lowand medium-Earth orbits (LEO and MEO) using three ground sites. The FY 2009 budget request for this program supports development awards to at least two contractors. Additionally, the Space-Based Space Surveillance (SBSS) program offers the ability to detect and track space objects; primarily those in GEO. With the FY 2009 budget request, AFSPC is completing development of SBSS Block 10, launching the satellite in FY 2009 and working toward development of SBSS Block 20. System (RAIDRS) Block 10 program detects and geolocates portable ground systems. In 2007, AFSPC activated the 16 th Space Control Squadron at Peterson Air Force Base to oper ate RAIDRS and we deployed one system to the USCENT COM Theater to protect over 400 SATCOM links. The FY 2009 budget request continues funding for the RAIDRS Block 20 update which is introducing an automated means to characterize anti-satellite (ASAT) and directed energy at tacks on space systems and services. Building a comprehensive SSA picture includes a fully col laborative, net-centric space command and control architec proved our Nations global space. AFSPC is committed to improving protection of ground, link, and space segments. While some of our space capabili ties are well protected, AFSPC is taking into account that we will likely face a wider range of threats in the space domain and on the ground through links that control these systems. As we move forward to modernize and recapitalize, the na ture of these threats means we are going to engineer space protection into our new systems. To help us make informed decisions about how best to pre serve space capabilities, AFSPC is establishing the Space Protection Program. This program will focus our efforts and provide decision-makers with strategic recommendations on how to best protect our space systems and stay ahead of the threat. We are already strengthening and unifying relation ships across the defense and intelligence community. Attract, develop, and retain space professionals While AFSPC is developing and wielding remarkable capabili ties, the source of our tremendous accomplishments is our space professionals. Our challenge is to continue attracting, develop ing, and retaining Airmen with the skills necessary to maintain our competitive advantage. AFSPC is working with our partners in Air Education and Training Command (AETC), academia and elsewhere, to educate, train, and cultivate experts in the space do main who are both technically and tactically competent, and who Since 1996, the United States Air Force Weapons School (USAFWS) has graduated 180 space instructors from a pool of AFSPCs best and brightest. Last year, AFSPC and the USAFWS continued their partnership in developing and delivering world-class graduates to expertly employ space and missile capabilities and to instruct the next generation of space operators. The tactical mindset is also evolving on the nuclear side. AFSPC is operating a world-class center focused on train ing nuclear security professionals. To ensure we are provid ing the most secure nuclear deterrent, 20 AF operates the Nuclear Space Security Tactics Training Center (NSSTTC) at Camp Guernsey, Wyoming. In 2007, this facility trained over 1,700 security forces on nuclear security and expedi tionary tactics. AFSPCs National Security Space Institute (NSSI) is estab lishing itself as Americas premier campus for superior space professional training and education. Last year, the NSSI from 2006. Over 350 of those students were from other Ser lied partners. In 2008, AFSPC is partnering more closely with Air University (AU) as it looks to transition more class es to AU in 2009. listed space professionals for a fully funded University of and space systems, engineering management, information and communications systems, and space policy. This year, AFSPC is selecting its second class and is using this pilot program as a catalyst for a masters degree. Sustain AFSPCs enduring missions and mature emerging missions To better meet 21 st century challenges, AFSPC will recapitalize its force to sustain enduring space force enhancement capabilities bilities in a contested domain. Fully recognizing we do not cur rently have a capability to perform maintenance or repairs on or bital assets, we are committed to protect and reinvigorate satellite constellations to provide the level of utility expected by users all over the globe. Additionally, AFSPC will work with appropriate government agencies to explore opportunities for enhanced com mercial, allied, and international partnerships.

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61 High Frontier Since last year, the Joint Requirements Oversight Council (JROC) validated requirements for increased worldwide protected communications capabilities to extend the groundbased Global Information Grid (GIG) to deployed and mo bile forces and to support Comm-on-The-Move, the Armys Future Force Initiatives, the Navys ForceNet, and the Ma formational communications capabilities and is studying a future MILSATCOM architecture investment strategy in re sponse to Congressional direction to procure a fourth AEHF satellite. The FY 2009 budget request continues technology maturation and design of TSAT. With GPS III, AFSPC is planning to further en hance military and civilian PNT capabilities by providing higher power, increased anti-jamming capability, and com patibility with European Galileo signals. By implementing a block approach, AFSPC will use the FY 2009 budget request for GPS III Block A development and preliminary design review, capability insertion for Blocks B and C, and risk re duction and concept development of the control segment. In addi tion, AFSPC is planning to continue the critical space-based infrared warning systems into its third generation. With of-view sensor testing and technology maturation activities along with development of an integrated test bed. AFSPC is also embracing emerging missions such as missile defense. Last year, the UEWR program achieved several milestones when USSTRATCOM operationally accepted two UEWRs. As a test, the Beale UEWR and its crew acquired and tracked a abling the successful destruction by an interceptor launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base. The FY 2009 budget re quest supports sustainment and operation of the Beale and Fylingdales UEWRs. Last May, AFSPC successfully teamed with its sister services and interagency tion approaches and capabilities to prepare the United States to respond to a contested space domain, to better respond to associated launch and control systems. AFSPC is continuing strategic capability and to export concepts to the broader Air Force space enterprise. The FY 2009 budget request sup ports the launch of TacSat-4 and continues the development Improve the strategic acquisition, delivery, and sustainment of space capabilities In todays world of rapid technological advancement and prolif eration, we cannot afford to do business as usual when it comes to delivering space capabilities. We require a new strategy for how we develop, deliver, and sustain space systems that is more than an incremental progression of acquisition processes and manage ment methods. Such a strategy requires a paradigm shift with an end-state that deploys needed space capabilities more quickly than practices. To effect organizational and cultural changes, AFSPC is re viewing and adjusting its organization construct and process es. At the beginning of 2008, we reorganized Headquarters AFSPC activities, functions, and relationships to enhance our ability to act as a single, integrated organization. Our next step is fostering external relationships. AFSPC is clearly articulating the need for science and technology, re search and development, acquisition, sustainment, and train ing to Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) and AETC. We are also intensifying collaboration with Air Combat Command (ACC), including the USAF Warfare Center (USAFWC). Furthermore, AFSPC is supporting other ma jor commands with space expertise and analysis. We are also working on proper alignment of development, acquisition, and sustainment activities. We continue to build a more powerful and effective partnership with AFMC and authorities. Finally, we have chartered a special study group to exam ine alternative acquisition strategies and recommend ways to shorten the time it takes to put space capabilities in the Improve integration across the air, space, and cyberspace do mains Integration across air, space, and cyberspace is more than com bining and disseminating data among interrelated architectures. If air, space, and cyberspace power each have a value of one, the sum of these capabilities is far greater than three. AFSPC is working with the other Air Force major commands and domain experts to develop shared strategic plans, operational concepts and architec tures, doctrine, as well as tactics, techniques, and procedures for and cyberspace domains can be leveraged and mutually supported within a joint construct. AFSPC is teaming extensively with the USAFWC and USSTRATCOM to increase space scenarios across the full spectrum of exercises. In March 2007, AFSPC conducted the most comprehensive space wargame to date with 470 allied partners. This wargame focused on the future and ex plored global space system architectures, technologies, and C2 relationships; tackled concepts for integrating space with trends and their implications. We look forward to the next game in 2009. The Total Force AFSPC team plays an important role in deliver commands. These capabilities provide a decisive advantage for our national security and prosperity. With the continued support of the Congress, AFSPC is postured to continue to maintain a crucial leadership role as we realize our vision of

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High Frontier 62 Book Review GNSSGlobal Navigation Satellite Systems: GPS, GLONASS, Gali leo, & more. By Bernhard Hofmann-Wellenhof, Herbert Lichtenegger, and Elmar Wasle. New York: Springer-Verlag Wien, 2008. Figures. Ta bles. List of Abbreviations. Bibliography. Index. Pp. xxix, 516. $79.95 Paperback ISBN: 3211730125. A n extension of Bernhard Hofmann-Wellenhofs bestsell ing which appeared in 1992 follows the contours of that this new volume is described by the authors as a universitylevel introductory textbook, but they might have been more accurate if they had labeled it as best suited for intermediate-toadvanced classroom use. Also, like the earlier book, this one is intended to serve as a reference for students, scientists, and pro navigation, and related disciplines. The authors, all specialists in geodesy with academic connections to Austrias Graz Uni versity of Technology, stress that their backgrounds might cause geodetic perspectives sometimes to dominate this introduction to GNSS theory. Primary author Hofmann-Wellenhof has crafted a brilliantly succinct discussion in the books foreword on the meaning of Global Navigation Satellite System and GNSS, its abbre viation. He focuses on usage, in singular and plural form, of the word system. At present, from his perspective, the US GPS and the Russian GLONASS each comprises a separate GNSS; once developed and deployed, systems like the European Galil eo, Chinese Beidou, and Indian IRNSS each will be a GNSS. To the extent that these several GNSSs achieve compatibility and interoperability, they constitute a single GNSS that offers better performance at the user level than does any one of the GNSSs by itself. Sticking as much as possible to GNSS in the generic sense, Hofmann-Wellenhof and his fellow authors describe various refer ence systems, satellite orbits, satellite signals, observables, mathematical models for posi tioning, data processing, and data transforma tion in a veritable tour de force. The result amounts to 14 intellectually challenging chapters. These begin with a historical review of the origins of survey ing and the development of global surveying techniques. They conclude with the future of ongoing development. Sandwiched between these thin slices are thick, meaty portions on the seven topical areas mentioned in the pre vious paragraph, each heavily peppered with mathematical formulas and a healthy sprin kling of online source materials. To complete their menu, the GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, other systems, and some GNSS ap information on its history, project phases, management and op eration, reference systems, services, segments, signal structure, and outlook. Readers can also sink their teeth into tastefully prepared subsections on what the authors characterize as global, regional, differential, augmentation, and assistance systems. Fi nearly thirty pages of bibliographic material serve as a guide to other, potentially delectable morsels. coverage of certain aspects of GNSS. We still await a booklength, scholarly history on the development of GPS and its ex perimental precursors. From a military standpoint, some might label (Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 2002) by Michael Russell Rip and James M. Hasik a small step in that di rection, but much research and writing remains unaccomplished. As for GNSS applications, this reviewers NAVSTAR, the Global Positioning System: A Sampling of Its Military, Civil, and Commercial Impact, a chapter in the recently published (Washington, DC: NASA, 2007) by editors Steven J. Dick and Roger D. Launius, could prove more satisfying than what appears in In terms intelligible to the vast majority of people, parts of the GNSS story have thus far appeared only as snippets in popular magazines and trade journals or online at websites like and Before you rush to purchase heed the following words of caution. Intellectu and the inattentive will be sinking into tex tual quicksand before the end of the second chapter. The mathematically challenged will abandon all hope of understanding when they confront page after page of complicated equa tions. Even some who possess a solid ground ing in trigonometry, linear algebra, and basic calculus might protest as their brains undergo synaptic strain. This is not a book for someone seeking basic knowledge about how GNSS operates and what its applications might be. For those requiring a rigorous introduction to the theories underpinning GNSS, however, this volume is the place to start.

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