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High frontier

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High frontier
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United States -- Air Force Space Command
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Peterson Air Force Base, CO
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Astronautics, Military -- Periodicals -- United States ( lcsh )
Armed Forces -- Officers ( fast )
Astronautics, Military ( fast )
United States ( fast )
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Periodicals. ( fast )
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serial ( sobekcm )
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Periodicals ( fast )
Periodicals ( lcgft )

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Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1, no. 1 (summer 2004)-Vol. 7, no. 4 (August 2011).
Numbering Peculiarities:
Vol. 2, no. 2 lacks date within publication but file name is: "Jan06_1WEB.pdf."
General Note:
"The journal for space & missile professionals"--Vol. 1, no. 1-vol. 5, no. 4.
General Note:
"The journal for space, cyberspace, & missile professionals"--Vol. 6, no. 1.
General Note:
"The journal for space and cyberspace professionals"--Vol. 6, no. 2-vol. 7, no. 4.
Statement of Responsibility:
United States Air Force Space Command.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
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60426098 ( OCLC )
2006230115 ( LCCN )
1933-3366 ( ISSN )
ocm60426098
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358 ( ddc )

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1 High Frontier Contents Introduction Maj Gen Thomas F. Deppe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Senior Leader Perspective The Armys Space Cadre LTG Kevin T. Campbell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Space 100Past, Present, and Future Maj Gen Michael C. Gould . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Taking Force Development Into Orbit Its Not About You! Maj Gen Anthony F. Przybyslawski . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 NSSI Chancellor End of Tour Report Maj Gen Erika C. Steuterman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 In Search of a Space Culture Maj Gen Richard E. Webber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Industry Perspective PeopleThe Essential Ingredient in Mission Success Dr. William F. Ballhaus, Jr. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 We Know Where to Look Mr. Dale Bennett . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Space Professional Development Ms. Patricia A. Robey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Forward to the Future: A Roadmap for Air Force Space (Part II) Col J. Kevin McLaughlin and Col Chris D. Crawford . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 United States Air Force Academy Physics Department and Space Activities Col Rex R. Kiziah, Lt Col Michael E. Dearborn, Dr. Delores Knipp, et al. . . . . . . 35 Naval Postgraduate SchoolCommitted and Prepared to Support the Space Cadre CDR Mark M. Rhoades, USN, retired and CDR William Joseph Welch, USN, retired . . 39 Your United States Air Force Weapons School Maj Christopher S. Putman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Sustaining Nuclear Expertise in AFSPC: A Way Ahead for ICBM Maintenance and Operations Lt Col Andrew S. Kovich . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 The Dark Arts: Nuclear Education in the US Air Force Maj Lance K. Adkins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 One Giant Leap for Space Intelligence Professionalism Lt Col Dana Flood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 The Space Professional Functional Authority Advisory Council Maj Theresa L. Malasavage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 A Laymans Guide to the Space Professional Development Database System Mr. Douglas J. Anding and Mr. David Boyer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Book Review Space Wars: The First Six Hours of World War III Dr. Rick W. Sturdevant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Next Issue: Space and the Joint Fight November 2007 Volume 4, Number 1 The Journal for Space & Missile Professionals High Frontier Editorial content is edited, prepared, and provided by High Frontier High Frontier AFSPC/PA Peterson AFB, CO 80914 this journal are those of the authors alone and do not Headquarters Air Force Space Command Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado Commander Vice Commander Director of Public Affairs Creative Editor High Frontier Staff Maj Troy Endicott Maj Catie Hague

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High Frontier 2 Simulation, Training, and Support, provides a way ahead to meet In the main section of this edition, space and missile experts ing from specialized education opportunities to management tools. Ms. Patricia Robey asserts how a deliberate space develop ment plan is paramount, especially in an era of increasing space reliance. Colonels Kevin McLaughlin and Chris Crawford pres ent their second article in a two-part series on the future of the Air Force in the space domain. They discuss how to better enable space thinking, culture, organization and professional develop ment. Col Rex Kiziah and his colleagues at the US Air Force Academy (USAFA) outline how the USAFA Physics Department is arming our future Airmen with the technical skills necessary to meet challenges in the space domain. CDRs (ret) Mark Rhoades and William Joseph Welch describe how the Naval Postgraduate School is forging strong bonds with national security space part ners and is poised to meet the educational needs of thousands of als with a warrior focus, a select group will have the opportunity tics at the US Air Force Weapons School (USAFWS). Maj Chris Putman takes the reader inside this school and describes in detail sociated training activities, and expected performance standards. Highlighting that missile operators and maintainers play a key role in our space professional workforce, Lt Col Andrew Kovich and Maj Lance Adkins express the continued need to develop those who guarantee the safety and se strategic deterrent, our ICBM force. Furthermore, expanding our space intelligence capabilities is necessary to meet future chal lenges in a contested medium. Lt Col Dana Flood states the need to develop intelligence profession als to lead-turn those challenges. Malasavage gives the reader in sight into the Space Professional Functional Authority Advisory Council and its role in shaping space career development, and Mr. Douglas Anding and Mr. Da vid Boyer dissect the Space Pro fessional Development Database System and its use as a career management tool. This edition of High Frontier is designed to help you better under stand how we develop space pro fessionals and arm them with the expertise necessary to meet the challenges of the future. I hope your own professional growth. Introduction Maj Gen Thomas F. Deppe Vice Commander, Air Force Space Command The United States was not built by those who waited and rested and wished to look behind them. This country was conquered by those who moved forward, and so will space. ~ President John F. Kennedy, 1962 F the United States into action when he challenged his coun that early promise, and has since transformed space into a domain upon which we heavily rely for our national security and econom ic wellbeing. Such tremendous accomplishments could not have happened without the leadership and professional expertise of our people. This recipe for success continues today where our space professionals carry on the proud legacy of our space pioneers. This edition of High Frontier acknowledges space profession als are the primary source of success in our efforts to develop, are committed to the growth of our joint space forces. Avowing bell illustrates how an Army space cadre is keeping pace on the space professionals, Maj Gen Michael Gould, 2nd Air Force com mander, outlines the evolution of the Space 100 curricula, the Air ing course for space and missile operators and acquirers. Maj Gen Anthony Przybyslawski, Air Force Personnel Center commander, ex plains how a Space Professional Development Program is a sub set of a larger Air Force-level force development and education program. The National Security Space Institute Chancellor, Maj Gen Erika Steuterman, highlights cellence and describes education al opportunities for military and civilian space professionals. Fi nally, Maj Gen Dick Webber from HQ AFSPC analyzes our space culture, relates it to professional development, and provides keen insight on its evolution. section, Dr. William Ballhaus, people are the essential ingredient workforce recommendations for successful space systems devel Maj Gen Thomas F. Deppe (BA, Management, Tarkio College, St Louis, Missouri; MS, Systems Man agement, University of Southern California) is vice commander, Air Force Space Command (AFSPC), Peterson AFB, Colorado. He assists the commander in the development, acquisition and operation of the Air Forces space and missile systems. The command oversees a global network of satellite command and control, communications, missile warning, and launch facili ties, and ensures the combat readiness of Americas ICBM force. The command comprises more than 39,700 space professionals who provide combat forces and capabilities to North Ameri can Aerospace Defense Command and US Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM). General Deppe also directs and coordinates the activities of the headquarters staff. Training School. He has commanded a ground-launched cruise in Air Combat Command. He also commanded a Minuteman III missile wing, an ICBM logistics group and was vice commander of a space launch wing in AFSPC. The general served as deputy director for operations at the National Military Command Center. He was director, logistics, and communications, chief informa He is a master missileer in both operations and maintenance. Prior to assuming his current position, General Deppe was com mander, 20 th Air Force, AFSPC, and commander, Task Force 214, USSTRATCOM. General Deppe is a graduate of Squadron Of

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3 High Frontier The Armys Space Cadre LTG Kevin T. Campbell Commanding General, SMDC/ARSTRAT Commander, JFCC-IMD Huntsville, Alabama S ome readers of High Frontier may be surprised to see space and how the Army has aggressively moved to establish and train a cadre of space experts to implement this vision. These same readers may also not know that the United States center for ordnance rocket research and development. Since historical successes in space. Americas First Space Milestone ignated the Jupiter-C because of its use in the Jupiter devel Redstone rocket designated Mercury-Redstone 3. 1 Space Force Enhancement Senior Leader Perspective fully maneuver, engage, and defeat the enemy is of far greater enhancement functions are similar to combat support opera tions in that they improve the effectiveness of forces across the full spectrum of operations by providing operational assistance 2 Communications; Position, velocity, and timing; Environmental monitoring (space and terrestrial weath er); Intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR); and Theater missile warning. US Army Space and Missile Defense Command/US Army Forces Strategic Command (SMDC/ARSTRAT) is responsible for assuring all Army forces have access to these SFE capabili ties in order to enhance their assigned missions. We do this by the Army and to plan and integrate Army capabilities in sup fense operations and provides planning, integration, control, and coordination of Army forces and capabilities in support and ground-based midcourse defense; is the Army operational integrator for global missile defense; conducts mis sion-related research, development, and acquisition in support of Army Title 10 responsibilities; and serves as the focal point for desired characteristics and ca The Armys Space Cadre In 1998, the Army recognized the need for a cadre of space profession knowledgeable of space-based capabili ties and their employment in support of several years ahead of the 2001 tasking by former Secretary of Defense Donald H. Rumsfeld to develop and maintain a The Army established the space opera tions functional area designated FA40 Space Force Enhancement.US Army Forces Strategic Command

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High Frontier 4 professionals; career specialists whose principal duties include planning, developing, resourcing, acquiring, integrating, or op erating space forces, concepts, applications, or capabilities in accordance with Department of Defense Directive 3100.1 and cused on integrating SFE into Army-wide operational and stra tegic planning. In 2005, the Army Space Council approved the formation space professionals as well as space-enablers; those personnel perform unique tasks or functions or may require skills to ap tool, to look both horizontally and vertically across the Army enlisted Soldiers. In January 2006, the vice chief of staff of the Army agreed with the Army Space Council way ahead and space locations since inauguration of the functional area in 1998. The initial authorized structure listed 50-plus joint posi tions within which was then the US Space Command, North American Aerospace Defense Command, and the National Se the evolution of these organizations into the US Strategic Com A concentrated effort began in 2006 to identify Army and Joint locations still lacking Army space expertise and to deter mine the best way to expand the presence of FA40s in these key command locations. As a direct result, Army space operations Systems Center, the Joint Functional Component Command for Space, and Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center. The Team, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, and nu merous combatant commands. Future Army efforts will focus on expanding the presence of Army cadre (both space profes sionals and space enablers) at these locations and throughout the national security space community. The ongoing cooperation between the Army and Air Force space professional cadre. As General Kevin P. Chilton, former commander of Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) said re cently, the challenge [for future space professionals] is ensur ing there is an adequate supply of smart people to run all the to choose those areas of study. I want people to understand the direct application of what they are studying in the classroom to 3 To assure standardized training of space professionals, the Army uses portions of the Air Force space curriculum in the course focusing on the concepts of orbital mechanics, acqui sition, space law, policy and doctrine, and the integration of cers (mainly combat veterans) were added to the NSSI instruc tor staff. The result is a stronger joint perspective on space currently underway to establish a graduate degree program and space professionals transcends its close relationship with Air have graduated from the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) since 1999 and keep providing timely and relevant input to the training of the Army space cadre resulted in AFSPC recently Army personnel. The Army is leveraging space expertise in support of the Examples include the Army Space Support Teams (ARSSTs) who rapidly deploy worldwide to deliver space capabilities, services, and expertise in support of ground forces to include numbered Armies, Corps, Special Forces, Marine Expedition ary Forces, and Joint Task Forces during exercises and contin gency operations. Team members serve as space subject-matter space force enhancement operations. At present, there are six active duty and four Army Reserve teams activated under the 1 st Space Battalion, 2 nd Space Company with an additional 11 teams forming under the Colorado National Guard. The endstate for the ARSST force structure is 27 teams across the ac tive, Reserve, and National Guard structures. The ongoing cooperation between the Army and Air Force continues to be essential to the long-term growth of the Armys space professional cadre.

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5 High Frontier provides an integrated, in-theater, 24-hour overhead non-imag ing infrared detection capability for processing and disseminat ing missile early warning, alerting, and cueing information data to combatant commanders and missile defense assets through the use of stereo processing of the Defense Support Program (DSP) satellite data. The TES is composed of three ground Control Station, the JTAGS, and the Tactical Detection and Reporting system. By processing DSP direct down-linked in launches to theater forces. The JTAGS in-theater capability upgraded to interface with the future SBIRS High and Space Tracking and Surveillance System satellite constellations. support, Commercial Exploitation Teams (CETs) provide re ceipt, exploitation, and dissemination of commercial satellite elements. CETs work in collaboration with National Geospa tial-Intelligence Agency support teams, the topographic com perspective. Currently the Central Command theater CET provides invaluable support by obtaining timely imagery from commercial vendors in support of those who can make a differ ence. These commercial images are key to sharing information with the Iraqi government, enabling it to assume a greater role ing to stabilize the country and build its infrastructure. Space-based capabilities provide or facilitate the exchange of vital information required to support and sustain multi-na tional and coalition operations. These complementary and re inforcing effects minimize relative vulnerabilities and enable the delivery of combat power greater than the sum of individual forts. The Armys Space Master Plan Space-based capabilities, leveraged by Army space profes sionals, provide enhanced information superiority and situ ational awareness, permitting high-tempo, noncontiguous, simultaneous distributed operations. When integrated with complementary airborne and terrestrial-based systems, spacecommanders with unprecedented options that enable strategic responsiveness. The Army has developed a comprehensive Army Space Master Plan outlining how to best guide the development of space capabilities and to incorporate those capabilities, as key enablers, into its current and future forces. There are three core Army space objectives guiding the assessment and prioritiza tems and their operational concepts to support the full range of joint ground force operations; Improve the ability to exploit space systems by the cur rent and future force; and Facilitate delivery of space capabilities that address Army requirements. Achieving these objectives requires an Army combat devel oper community that can understand, substantiate, articulate, and defend space requirements supporting the ground maneu ment, design, and deployment of national assets to incorporate responsive, assured, and timely support to maneuver com manders from the initial design phases. To fully exploit these future and current space-based assets, a complementary mix of highly trained Army space cadre and other space professionals is needed, particularly within the areas of satellite communica There are however, issues the Army must address to ensure performance level criteria to serve as the primary means of transmitting mission-critical joint command and control, Joint ater early missile warning, and Blue Force tracking activitiesrelated information and data. The Army Space Master Plan recommends the Army seek innovative solutions, including partnering with commercial providers, capacity, user access, and delays in capa bility improvements. Providing Space Technology for the ArmyOperationally Responsive Space cal Center is actively supporting in the provide tactically responsive, operation ally relevant space capabilities to the Deployed Joint Tactical Ground Stations (JTAGS).US Army Forces Strategic Command

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High Frontier 6 use the most expeditious requirements, resource allocation and acquisition processes available to meet the urgent needs of the to build smaller, cheaper, simpler satellites to provide relevant space capabilities, and demonstrate military utility through op erational experimentation. This will enable the capability to build, store, and launch on demand a class of small, inexpen concepts addressing communications on the move and persis worked in a joint, collaborative environment with the other ser ning, development, and execution. Space SuperiorityPreserving Space Capabilities Although the US currently possesses overwhelming space space-based systems, communication links, and ground sta tions potentially present attractive targets to an adversary military space-enabled capabilities requires space situational awareness. Just as situational awareness in the terrestrial sense tional awareness enables commanders to understand the factors that could impact their space information superiority. Invest ments in space situational awareness capability represent the most fundamental step in preserving our space advantage. Conclusion The joint combat operating environment has evolved, ex tending vertically into space. Space-based capabilities enable when the US Army helped launch America into space nearly 50 years ago. The linkage between the Army and space will continue to grow. The Army is proud of the rapid growth and subsequent in volvement of its professional space cadre in providing the joint terrestrially based assets. In a very short period of time, the Secure the high ground! Notes: 1 You can read about these and many other Army achievements in arspace/welcome.html.2 Army Field Manual (FM) 3-14, Space Support Operations May 2005. 3 Colorado Springs Gazette 22 July 2007. LTG Kevin T. Campbell chusetts; MS, Personnel Management, University of New Hampshire) is the com mander, US Army Space and Missile Defense Com mand/Army Forces Strate gic Command, and serves as the commander for the Integrated Missile Defense Joint Functional Component Command (JFCC-IMD). This component is respon sible for meeting USSTRATCOMs (United States Strategic ning, integrating, and coordinating global missile defense operations and support. JFCC-IMD conducts the day-to-day operations of assigned forces and coordinates activities with associated combatant commands, other STRATCOM Joint Functional Components and the efforts of the Missile Defense Agency. General Campbells previous assignments include: chief of staff, United States Strategic Command, Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska; director of plans, United States Space Com mand; deputy commanding general, United States Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, Texas; command ing general, 32 nd Army Air and Missile Defense Command (AAMDC), Fort Bliss, Texas; Assistant Deputy Chief of Staff for Combat Developments, United States Army Training and Doctrine Command, Fort Monroe, Virginia.; commander, 94 th Air Defense Artillery Brigade, Darmstadt, Germany; politicalmilitary planner (Eastern Europe/Bosnia), J5, the Joint Staff, nd AADCOM, Darmstadt, Germany; commander, 2 nd Battalion (PATRIOT), 43 rd Air Defense Ar rd Battalion (PA TRIOT), 43 rd Air Defense Artillery, Fort Bliss, Texas; chief, Unit Training Division, Directorate of Training and Doc trine, Fort Bliss, Texas; ROTC instructor, University of New Hampshire; adjutant, 1 st nd Air Defense th Air Defense Homestead, Florida, and Fort Bliss, Texas; and artillery team commander, Datteln, Germany. General Campbells military education includes the Air the Army Command and General Staff College, and the Naval

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7 High Frontier Space 100Past, Present, and Future Maj Gen Michael C. Gould Commander, 2 nd Air Force Keesler AFB, Mississippi T world. The Global War on Terror has illustrated how im portant air and space power are to combatant commanders. Even weapons systems, its people remain our greatest asset. Whether it is an Airman basic learning satellite operations or a second lieutenant making time-critical decisions in a Missile Procedures Trainer, 2 nd Air Force (2 AF) is dedicated to providing the highest quality technical training to produce the absolute best graduates in support of the Air Force and combatant commanders around the world. Second Air Force has a distinguished record of conducting technical training for space operators and aiding them in their initial space development. Through the 381 st Training Group (381 TRG), 2 AF has facilitated many advancements resulting in Procedures Training, a Web-based emulator that reproduces the Minuteman III, intercontinental ballistic missile command and control interface in the classroom setting. Also, the Solid State Phased Array Radar Training System is a leap forward in simu lator training for space surveillance and missile warning. Both operational procedures and enhanced their preparations for wing operations. In addition, the Spacelift Fundamentals course was developed to train rudimentary launch operations skills. Finally, in response to an Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) request, the professional development for the next generation of highly trained space and missile acquirers and operators. Space 100: Past Following the dissolution of Strategic Air Command in 1992 and a year-long stay in Air Combat Command (ACC), missile operations transitioned to AFSPC in 1993. 1 At the same time, we merged missile operations with space operations creating operations training, then called Undergraduate Missile Training, was transferred from ACC to Air Education and Training Com mand (AETC). 2 In September 1994, responsibility for space operations train ing, including the foundational Undergraduate Space Train ing (UST) course, was transferred from AFSPC to AETC and consolidated with the missile training units in the 381 TRG at 3 and missile operators. 4 Senior Leader Perspective In 1996, following the framework of UST, we established Undergraduate Space and Missile Training (USMT). USMT be came the Air Force Specialty Code (AFSC)-awarding course for or missile) they were assigned. The 10-week USMT course pro vided an overview of the space environment, orbital mechanics, and space and missile operations, and was organized so system experts taught students in the areas in which they had the most experience. for follow-on training in the space and missile operations career eas and skills associated with space and missile operations. Un in multiple operational and functional areas, thus broadening their knowledge of space assets and enabling them to teach the entire course to a single class and mentor the future space opera tors throughout their training. Space 100: Present community. The Space Commission determined there was a 5 and 6 Training and edu AFSPC and AETC developed and validated requirements for a 7 Development and delivery of this cornerstone course is con ducted by the 392 nd Training Squadron. Space 100 sets an edu cational foundation in space operations and effects and includes tromagnetics, space organizations, law, policy, and the unique 8 In order to include all facets of space, the course now instructs 13S (space and missile operations), 1C6 (space operations), 61S (scientist), 62E (engi neer), and 63A (acquisition) AFSCs. Space professionals from US services and agencies have also attended Space 100. Space 100: Future mander, directed an end-to-end review of the Space 100 curricu lum. The vision was a robust, exhaustive foundational course for space community personnel. The Space 100 working group, sentatives from 381 TRG, and all levels of AFSPC, met in March 2007 to address this vision. At this time, the course training standard has been revised to meet the evolving operational needs of the space community. The revised course is expected to roll

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High Frontier 8 Space 100 is progressing to provide a highly trained cadre of lenges. Some of the areas of future course development are in tor, into the course to improve satellite operational concepts as students conduct hands-on experiments with a fully functional micro-satellite. Another critical area for future development is War on Terror. In addition, with the increased emphasis placed on space acquisitions, there is a need for attracting experienced erators and acquirers of tomorrow who will be required to design and operate the most complicated and technologically advanced systems ever created. Summary More than 50 years have passed since the Soviets launched Sputnik. Since then, the Air Force has seen increasing and evolving roles for space operations and applications. The poten tial threats to our space superiority are clear and present as evi denced by events such as the Chinese anti-satellite test in Janu ary 2007. Airmen who operate and acquire space systems must continue to achieve a greater depth of experience in multiple space functional areas and an extensive understanding of the role Maj Gen Michael C. Gould (BS, Behavioral Science, USA FA; MS Human Resource De is commander, 2 nd Air Force, responsible for the development, oversight, and direction of all op erational aspects of basic military training, initial skills training, and advanced technical training for Air Force enlisted and support training in more than 250 Air Force specialties through 2,500 courses, graduating 225,000 Air men, soldiers, sailors, Marines, and foreign students annually in diverse areas. These areas include aircraft maintenance, civil en gineering, medical, computer, avionics, security forces, space and missile operations and maintenance, and multiple intelligence dis Sheppard, Lackland and Goodfellow AFBs in Texas; a training training units around the world. 2 nd Air Force also oversees all Airmen throughout the in-lieu-of/individual augmentee training pipeline at Army training sites across the country and provides an operations center for preand post-deployment support. General Gould has commanded an operations group, an air refueling wing, an air mobility wing and the Cheyenne Mountain Operations Center. His operational and staff assignments include three tours at Headquarters US Air Force, along with duty as an Air Force aide to the president and military assistant to the secre tary of the Air Force. He served as the director of Mobility Forces for Operation Joint Endeavor and, more recently, as USEUCOMs Air Expeditionary Task Force commander for the deployment of African Union troops into the Darfur region of Sudan. Prior to as suming his current position, the general was commander, 3 rd Air Force, Royal Air Force Mildenhall, England. His awards inclued Distinguished Service Medal (oak leaf cluster), Defense Superior Service Medal (oak leaf cluster), Le gion of Merit (oak leaf cluster), Meritorious Service Medal (oak leaf cluster), Air Force Commendation Medal, Air Force Achieve ment Medal. The general is a command pilot with more than 3,000 hours in a variety of aircraft. General Gould is also a graduate of the Advanced Executive ern University, Evanston, Illinois; National and International Se ment, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts; as well as Figure 1. EyasSAT.Notes: 1 Air Force Space Command Almanac shared/media/document/AFD-070409-020.pdf. 2 381 st berg.af.mil/library/factsheets/factsheet_print.asp?fsID=4582&page=1. 3 Ibid. 4 Ibid. 5 Report of the Commission to Assess United States National Security Space Management and Organization executive summary (Washington 6 Ibid., 42. 7 Air Force Space Command and Air Education and Training Com mand Space Professional Strategy 16 April 2003, 8. 8 Air Force Instruction, AFI 36-XX, Space Professional Development draft, 9.

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9 High Frontier Taking Force Development Into Orbit Its Not About You! Maj Gen Anthony F. Przybyslawski Commander, Air Force Personnel Center Randolph AFB, Texas T high to leave leadership development to chance. There fore, the American people demand we produce expeditionary ciency and effectiveness in the joint/multinational battle-space. the future is deliberately developing leaders through targeted education, training, experiences, and senior leader mentorship. to respond to changing requirements. thing to have faith in it. Faith that your weapons system will air and space poweryour profession. I think General Kevin P. Chilton, former Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) com mander, said it best in a speech to the Space and Missile De on this in AFSPC, to grow space professionals with a warrior ethos, not just a technical ethos, but a warrior ethos, and to take advantage of experiences honed in tactical schools and on program, is structured to establish knowledgeable, experienced space professionals skilled in acquiring, launching, and em of the Air Force got into force development! Though not an assignment system, your SPDP sets the benchmark for the Air Force and facilitates effective integration of the space power a broad perspective of Air Force capabilities, while simultane ously developing individual occupational skills and enduring competencies, we look to the space community to leverage their best practices. SPDP is a methodology and tracking system to articulate requirements and develop required skills within the space community. We must ensure SPDP integrates seamlessly with Air Forcewide personnel programs. There are several ways we are mak ing this a reality. First, the Headquarters Air Force Manpower, Personnel, and Services and myself are members of the Space Professional Functional Authority Advisory Council to provide Senior Leader Perspective biggest homework assignment from the council is ensuring that the Space Pro Database capabilities become a part of the new Military Personnel Data System, the Defense Integrated Mili tary Human Resource System (DIMHRS), when it goes opera tional in the fall of 2008. In order to accomplish this in a seamless manner we need to get away from spending money on parallel systems. However, we still need to ensure the unique aspects of space professional skill set growth are captured in DIMHRS. A similar example aircraft type, and experience level such as co-pilot, aircraft requirements will roll under one database umbrella, DIMHRS, to provide key data to gain synergies by the senior space devel opment team (DT) leaders and your assignment team to effec Both space professional development and Air Force-level Force needs. What confronts your DT is often the inherent con Air Force capabilities, while simultaneously developing indi Shrinking resources coupled with an ever-expanding mission means that tribal mindsets on occasion impede progress. We need to focus on the larger Air Force as a whole and not Air we must ultimately alter the career pyramid to integrate air, space, and cyberspace core competencies. We always must ask is paramount! Air Force needs to recapitalize, transform and force shape. You may be wondering how we are going to ensure the right mix of skill sets survive after force shaping. Unlike the early 1990s, we are force shaping by AFSC this time around. We are not, however, drilling down and shaping by skill sets within a The trick is to manage this while still securing and growing the proper mix of skill sets balanced among the space and missile operations (13S) community. The good news here is the hard part is behind us. We will not hold a Selective Early Retirement Board or reduction in force in 2008. Your DT and 13S assign 13S world.

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High Frontier 10 velop skill sets. We do not have a vacation assignment manage ment system! Your DT is key to ensuring that you are grown with the right skills to meet Air Force requirements. The DT is deliberate, legitimate, visible, fair, and equitable process that is demand. Here at the Air Force Personnel Center (AFPC) your 13S DT meets two to three times a year to steady-state vector tify space warriors to attend developmental education (DE) in currently it is Brig Gen Donald Alston. In addition to Gen eral Alston, the DT typically consists of senior leaders from Air Staff, AFSPC, the space and missile wings, AFPC, the National gle Squadron Command board, as well as those from other ca time by lashing up their command boards with their DTs. We realized an annual savings of $126,000 in temporary duty funds alone by hosting boards in conjunction with DT meetings, while also reducing time away from primary duty. I would like to highlight a few key things about DTs as both development plans at least annually if not more frequently. This communication tools to both your assignments team and to your DT. Furthermore, development plans inconsistent with 3849s to attend DE in residence) or a statement of intent for command send mixed signals to the DT. The new Airmen Development opment Plan with the 3849 in one virtual area. However, it is still incumbent upon you and your commander to ensure your forms are in sync. Regardless of new Web-based technologies, force development is a program that requires your participa and do not volunteer to compete for any position because you think you have to. We have streamlined the way we work these development plans, statements of intent, and 3849s. ADP is the next genera tion software application that supports force development pro the Transitional Civilian Development Plan, Web-based 3849 for Intermediate DE and SDE opportunities, as well as the DT assignment preferences or to compete for DE and command, you will have one-stop shopping in one virtual location. There cess the electronic records at their desk for all of the Airmen to print off copies of records. This tool will provide consis tencies in the force developmental process and will give the gram to articulate and match career goals with mission require ments. This new capability will also allow Airmen and their senior leaders to better communicate career desires and close the feedback loop between the individual, senior rater and de velopmental team. The best time to update your development plan is right after or in conjunction with your annual mid-term feedback and review. motion are then broken out into two categories depending on how their record racked and stacked during the board. School have to compete to go to school in residence via the DT pro cess. For IDE, 20 percent of those promoted are school selects, while for SDE the number is roughly 15 percent. When your DT determines who to send to DE in residence they have to juggle your timing or school look with seat al locations, strength of record, time on station, and so forth. Your career is not over because you are not a DE select! We have a high percentage of candidates who will attend DE in residence. Air Force wide, 58 percent of those who went to IDE in residence were candidates this summer. For 13S the rate of candidates going to IDE in residence can range from 50 percent to more than 60 percent depending on the year. We also have, in recent years, been awarding in-residence credit in some circumstances to Airmen attending an IDE equivalent program such as Naval Post Graduate School or AFIT as major selects or majors. The DT can grant this in-residence credit to those majors and major selects in this scenario who score well correspondence classes. Make no mistake though, candidates who fail to complete their DE by correspondence are, in all likelihood, removing themselves from any chance of attending school in residence! Force needs. At the end of the day when the DT looks at who gets to go to school in residence it is your accomplishments and performance that count. Having ACSC or AWC done by correspondence is an accomplishment. My advice to you, get it done. Similarly, an important change coming down the pike in all promotion boards. Those eligible are highly encouraged to complete degrees before their perspective board or risk self elimination. I realize that the Air Force has frequently changed

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11 High Frontier this policy over the years. The wheel turns due to different re quirements, different leaders and different manpower scenarios. Another exciting career broadening opportunity is the Inter national Affairs Specialist (IAS) program. The Air Force is in selected for IAS development by their DTs at mid-career (typi cally seven to 12 years commissioned service). There are two fairs Strategist or PAS. This is a one shot, out-and-back career broadening opportunity to gain international political-military one of the highest quotas in the Air Force for PAS through DE need to do a staff tour should consider PAS via the DE program based on careful consideration and mentoring with their com manders. The other IAS option is the Regional Affairs Strategist their interest (and have commanders add to your comments) on the development plan. You also need to take the Defense Lan guage Aptitude Battery Test and make sure that score shows up on your career SURF. Space professional development is not just about growing space warriors to guard our freedom. We also need to teach and develop the rest of the Air Force about the importance of your and it is not enough to simply understand how airpower puts bombs on target. The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan are in many ways expeditionary combat support (ECS) wars for the Air Force, where security forces and convoy drivers are in the most include air mobility, special operations, ECS and space. Space importantly, we need to be able to anticipate the Air Force tenets of air and space power in all venues. We are creating air, space, and cyberspace warriors who can take their skills to the peak of success and operate seamlessly through the tactical, operational, and strategic levels of war any time, anywhere on the globe. SPDP and Air Force-level force development are working in concert today to create the greatest future leaders the Air Force has seen. Nuclear deterrence, space launch and control, space warning, acquiring, and developing space systemsyour missions are the backbone of our national security now and into the future. Here at AFPC we like to think we are the guardians of our most cherished weapons system is crucial because the Global War on Terror demands we have the brightest, most skilled and capable leaders to lead our Air Maj Gen Anthony F. Przy byslawski (BS, Mathemat ics, US Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs; MS, Sys tems Management, Univer sity of Southern California) is commander, Air Force Personnel Center, Randolph AFB, Texas. The center's primary focus is to ensure around the globe have the right number of skilled peo ple in the proper grades and specialties to complete their Air Force missions. AFPC con sists of about 2,200 Air Force military, civilian, and contrac tor personnel responsible for developing personnel programs, implementing personnel policies, and conducting personnel operations for almost 500,000 Air Force military and civilians worldwide. The center manages the Air Expeditionary Force schedule and tracks the execution of delivering versatile air and space power to combatant commanders worldwide. AFPC implements comprehensive policies covering all aspects of the personnel life cycle for military and civilian people, to include accessions, education and training, assignments and deploy ments, promotions and evaluations, and retirements and sepa rations. Additionally, the center provides support for readiness and contingency operations worldwide. General Przybyslawski graduated from the US Air Force Academy in 1976. His assignments include squadron, group and wing commands in B-52, B-1B and B-2 operations. He th employed in combat during Operation Desert Fox in South west Asia, and then in Operation Allied Force in the Balkans. Under his leadership, the B-2 bombers from the 509 th Bomb eration Enduring Freedom. General Przybyslawski is a command pilot with more than staff assignments at the major command, Air Staff and Depart ment of Defense levels. Maxwell AFB, Alabama; Air Command and Staff College, by correspondence; Industrial College of the Armed Forces, Fort tive Program, Columbia Business School, Columbia Univer sity, New York; Program for Senior Managers in Government, Cambridge, Massachusetts; and participated in the Air Force Enterprise Leadership Seminar, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. General Przybyslawskis additional achievements include: 2002, Honorary Doctorate of Laws, Central Missouri State University; 2006, US Air Force Academy Prep School Hall of Fame; US Air Force Academy Class of 2007 Exemplar.

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High Frontier 12 NSSI Chancellor End of Tour Report Maj Gen Erika C. Steuterman former Chancellor, National Security Space Institute AFSPC, Peterson AFB, Colorado A lthough it is only celebrating its third anniversary, the National Security Space Institute (NSSI), the Depart ment of Defense (DoD) center of excellence for space education and training, has matured considerably and made a huge impact NSSI was the vision of General Lance W. Lord, USAF, retired, former commander, Air Force Space Command (AFSPC), and came about as a direct result of the 2001 Space Commission Report. That report, very simply, concluded that the DoD must create and sustain a cadre of military and civilian space profes sionals. General Lord accepted that challenge, and the NSSI took on the huge responsibility of educating and developing our current and future space leaders and cadre. General Lord knew that our nation not only needed it, but demanded it. The NSSI has succeeded beyond all expectations! When named chancellor of the NSSI in July 2005, I had a great deal of experience at a tier-one university in the adminis tration of executive master of business administration (MBA) programs, but absolutely no space education experience. But I used ATMs, electronic banking, pay-at-the-pump gas stations, and owned a small family farm that used precision farming. In ed from space assets and products many times a day, but, again, fessionals are doing their job so well that the military and civil ian users do not recognize or understand the complexity behind why you need more/better/different assets and funding. What in national security space. and train our space professionals, which comes directly from the Space Commission Report, and secondly, to educate our senior leadersregardless of their service, component, or functional tion to our regular offerings, the NSSI does a great deal of out reach to Congress, our sister services, governmental agencies, and coalition partners using resident and mobile courses, both long and short, standard or tailored for each audience. Although not mandated by the Space Commission Report, all variations of cadre and enhancing space effects throughout the spectrum of Equally important is the premise that, once educated and Senior Leader Perspective professionals in order to leverage their expertise, retain them coalition partners. This is being superbly managed by the Space to the NSSI was that the students were primarily Air Force. resides in the Air Force. But from my civilian experience at Purdue University, I recognized that diversity in the classroom, both with students and instructors, is extremely important. We national and international rankings as experienced at Purdue. a wide breath of experience coming from all services and differ We also have incredible depth through specialists in the form of a joint and coalition environment. To me, that meant we needed to increase the diversity in the classroom to include not only our attended the Space Fundamentals course, providing a unique op portunity for the US and Australia to learn and share together. In July 2007, an air commodore from the Royal Air Force attended Royal Australian Air Force representative. NSSI is known and sought out internationally, as evidenced by the advent of Austra lian and United Kingdom participation in our courses, and many more countries are seeking admission to our many courses. Another interesting factall Army space professionals, of their 11-week training at the NSSI by completing Space 200. All the above initiatives ensure that the training and education received at the NSSI will keep our coalition strong and improve But not everyone can attend courses at the NSSI and this has been a big challenge to educating the entire space professional force. Some space professionals are reservists or guardsmen who full-time positions to take the credentialing coursesSpace 200 and Space 300. In order to make education and training avail able to all components, the NSSI, under the superb leadership of Col David Jones, NSSI commandant, has leveraged the strengths of our Reserve Associate Unit, the Reserve National Security Space Institute, commanded by Col Sue Rhodes, for developing

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13 High Frontier our Web site, and phase two with two weeks in residence at the NSSI. Although learning at a distance is very effective, nothing can take the place of two weeks of being in a classroom with give and take among students and instructors. Students learn as much from each other as they do from the experts at the po ing opportunity that works across all services and our coalition partnersone that could be extremely valuable months or years down the road. An additional challenge for the NSSI is providing our space professionals the opportunity and, most importantly, the desire The establishment of the Space Education Consortium (SEC) is going to make that possible regardless of where the individual lives. Led by the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs (UCCS), the SEC is composed of 12 member universities and institutions within the United States and France, and has a close association with the Air Force Institute of Technology and the Naval Postgraduate School. Established in July 2004, the SEC is focused on education, research, and cooperation to support development of space professionals and enhance space systems but AFSPC is giving the SEC its full support by currently fund in August 2008, will be the equivalent of approximately half of a master of engineering in Space Systems, Engineering Manage gree at UCCS or at any one of the SEC-member universities via distance learning. Articulation agreements, or the ability to transfer course credits among SEC-member schools, are still be ing worked out, but the goal to be able to complete a space-re realized. As for the future, I envision a rotational industry chair at the NSSI, perhaps managed by the National Defense Industrial Association, in concert with the NSSI commandant, to bring a closer alliance and sharing of ideas. We are examining a le research needs to be done to see how this can be accomplished. Space education and training needs to be available to space pro fessionals outside our traditional coalition partners and the NSSI is well-placed to do that kind of outreach. Most importantly, NSSI needs to be viewed within the DoD and inclusive national for all space-related questions. We are recognized for our qual ity of teaching and instructors, our diverse faculty and students, enough, we are recognized more among our coalition partners to be recognized as the place to go for future thinking, for brain storming, and deciding where vulnerabilities lie for national se curity space and what we can do to protect our great nation and tune throughput for Space 200 and Space 300, develop addition al advanced courses, increase the numbers and scope of mobile training teams for the greatest outreach, and remain a nimble, sponsibilities and dwindling budgets. Ultimately, however, we need to use the vast expertise and experience of our instructors, and set the path for the future of national security space. That is when the NSSI will truly soar. Although I started this article as the chancellor, it was re cently announced that I will be reassigned as the Mobilization Assistant to the Deputy Chief of Staff, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance in November 2007. I have greatly enjoyed of the NSSI and work with the premier space professionals in the I hope to carry that new knowledge and understanding into my Air Staff position. Space and intelligence are inextricably linked and now that intelligence professionals is part of the space com munity, the time spent at AFSPC is even more valuable. I would like to end by sending my sincere thanks to Colonel Jones, in structors, and staff at the NSSI for a wonderful two years. I am very proud of what we have done collectively and know the organization will continue to grow in scope and importance to national security space. Keep up the good work! Maj Gen Erika C. Steuterman (BA, Purdue University, Indiana; MS, Management, Purdue Uni versity) is chancellor, National Security Space Institute and mobi lization assistant to the vice com mander, Air Force Space Com mand, Peterson AFB, Colorado. General Steutermans early as cer were to the Strategic Air Com mands 7 th Carswell AFB, Texas, and then, th Air Force Exploitation Division at to the Defense Intelligence Agency as a reserve air attach. After serving for two years as the individual mobilization augmentee as the individual mobilization augmentee to the deputy political advisor at Headquarters (HQ), United States European Command (EUCOM), Stuttgart-Vaihingen, Germany, and individual mobi Accession Training Schools at Maxwell AFB, Alabama. Prior to assuming her current position, General Steuterman was the mobilization assistant to the director, National Security Agency and the director of Intelligence at HQ, United States EU COM, Stuttgart, Germany. General Steuterman is a veteran of Operations Desert Storm/ Shield and Allied Force and served as director, Information Op erations Coordination Element while supporting the Air Force component commander at Al Udeid Air Base, Qatar.

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High Frontier 14 We need to move from a community focused on a widget in space to one that owns our com bat effects down to our air, land, and sea weapons systems. In Search of a Space Culture Maj Gen Richard E. Webber Director of Mission Support HQ AFSPC, Peterson AFB, Colorado C ulture one of those words everyone understands, but force within organizations and functional groups, but develop ing and nurturing a culture where none exists can be a consider able challenge. Building a culture is a slow, iterative process it can be enhanced but not effectively accelerated. Perhaps no one understands this better than space professionals. sivedue to a number of variables that somehow keep a fullwith space. Rapid organizational growth and change, the mul addition of new missions and systems have all contributed to a cultural identity crisis within the space community. But slowly, consistently, a common identity is emerging. We need to move from a community focused on a widget in space to one that owns our combat effects down to our air, land, and sea weapons systems. The Space Commission recognized the need in 2001 when through focused career development, education, and training, within which the space leaders for the future can be devel 1 This is a critical step in building the space profession als the nation needs. Websters Dictionary 2 The sense of culture grows out of shared experiences and values and bers. Within the Air Force, the rated community is the most com monly cited example of a cultural group, yet this culture is the result of 100 years of evolution and consists of various sub tity. Subtle changes in the rated culture have occurred over time and continue todayimpacted by new missions, new (and aging) airframes, personnel changes and a host of other vari ables. Nevertheless, the commonality of education, training, career development, and shared experiences within the rated community sustains the rated culture. Conversely, the diversity of space missions and lack of a common experiential baseline contributed over the years to diverse backgrounds and percep tions that resulted in a lack of common identity. Common Senior Leader Perspective space customs are not readily apparent. Too often space is per ceived, and treated, like a functional support specialty rather than a composite group of people and missions sharing a com mon purpose, with similar skills and values. Space Professional Development has worked hard to improve development of its space person efforts are beginning to bear fruit. The Space Professional De velopment Program (SPDP), crafted under the leadership of former Air Force Space Command commander (AFSPC/CC) Kevin P. Chilton, provides the common framework of career development, education, and training called for by the Com mission. This approach underscores a recent observation by the Independent Strategic Assessment Group (ISAG) that our know how to produce and integrate air and space combat ef but it is also operational mission-oriented requiring sys 3 SPDP offers those directly in group identitythe space professional communityand con solidates education, training, and experience credentials in a sets. The space badge is simply a visual representation of those painstakingly slow. Career Management As highlighted by the Space Commission, career develop ment is a key element in building a military culture. The SPDP construct provides several avenues to enhance culture develop into the composition and characteristics of the space profes the same time, exact documentation of space position require

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15 High Frontier ments communicates the breadth of the space mission and en ables better person-position matches that improve mission ef better vectors from the development teams and timely action by assignment teams. Better matches mean better performance, which produces better leaders. Skilled leaders reinforce unit pride and a sense of belongingnot only to the unit, but to a broader community of professionals. We need to be demanding customers of our Air Education and Training Command basic and functional development courses and processes. SPDP database tools and Space Professional Experience Codes (SPEC) can quickly provide a snapshot of all or any segment of the space professional community, 4 highlighting its municating its distinctive characteristics. In a broader context, these tools illustrate the relationships between space missions, expertise and requirements creates a common identity across all the Air Force Specialty Codes that comprise the space pro managers, intelligence specialists, and communicators. 5 In creased use of SPDP and its tools by the Air Force Personnel Center (AFPC) teams will further enhance the person-position SPECs to accurately match enlisted operators with position re quirements avoids mismatches of expertise that often occurred 6 of Intent (June 2006) also introduced a new dimension in career management of space professionals. The integration of per sonnel management, operations processes, and key leadership positions between the two organizations enhanced their support this agreement focused leadership attention on the utilization of space professionals within each organization, seeking a bal ance of manning and experience levels between the two, de velopment of a larger resource of operations and acquisition and systems of both. This combination merged two previously unique but separate segments of the Air Force space mission and strengthened the space culture. of the space professional community will positively reinforce space culture development through better unit-level mission ca pability. In January 2007, General Chilton directed a revision to the established practice of assigning Weapons School gradu person in the squadron, becomes the go-to guy for the squadron 7 Underscoring the importance of 8 that will ultimately raise the level of the entire crew force. By the threat will ensure prompt delivery of space capability when needed downrange. This builds culture! Space Education call for enhanced, career-long educationa critical aspect of space culture. The shared skills of the space professional com skills not only improves mission effectiveness but reinforces the ing a specialty for addition to the space professional commu consistent exposure to baseline space fundamentalsdoctrine, technology, system capabilities, principlesare the basis of the 300. Together, these courses provide invaluable knowledge of the fundamentals, application and integration of space in the national security arena. The near term expansion of Space 100 knowledge baseline, ensuring better understanding of space ef fects and an increased ability to communicate this capability to the greater Air Force. This is not unlike the cultural founda tion of air provided through our Undergraduate Pilot Training constructive linkage of the curricula to guarantee the careerlong element of space education is effective. The National Security Space Institute (NSSI) enhances depth of knowledge through focused advanced courses (AC) that de velop mission area experts to effectively manage operation and three are in development. The Missile Warning and Defense AC takes students from concepts and principles to advanced application and employment, including strategy, doctrine, tac ations AC provides similar content for operators and acquirees associated with precision, navigation, and timing. In response to AFSPC/CC direction and mission need, ACs in advanced orbital mechanics and satellite communications will be ready in the summer of 2008, and the NSSI is working with 20 th Air Force to provide an AC focused on nuclear operations. Developmental and professional military education are two additional areas that can provide space education to space pro Skilled leaders reinforce unit pride and a sense of belongingnot only to the unit, but to a broader community of professionals.

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High Frontier 16 fessionals, as well as to other Air Force personnel and members of the other services. The Space Commission noted that, within not stress, at the appropriate levels, the tactical, operational, or 9 Unfortunately, this is generally as true today as when the Space Commission completed its report, so this is an area that deserves the attention of the space professional community. Accurate representation of space capabilities, especially in the context of capabilities by all personnel, and sends the right signal across the Air Force and DoD on the importance of space. AFSPC has underscored the need for improvements in this area, and a dialogue with the appropriate schools has begun. Space Training Training completes the package of experiences that help build the space culture. Formal positional training is a fundamental part of the development for almost all space professionals, and combines with the Space 100, 200, 300 continuum of education Specialized training adds depth and increases individual skill sets, advancing cultural development. The Weapons School assignment policies. Several NSSI courses have a unique niche in culture development, most notably the director of space forc peditionary Force deployment, focusing on air and space center This course draws heavily on the experiences of former DIR the knowledge, understanding, and appreciation of the entire on training on applicable theater space tools. Conclusion Space professional development is a new conceptbarely Air Force, the DoD, and government, and has become the cor nerstone for development of a space culture. Its systematic ap proach to career management, education, and training will pro vide a sound professional foundation and increase the cultural focus on space as an integral part of the Air Force mission. Notes: 1 Report of the Commission to Assess United States National Security Space Management and Organization executive summary (Washington 2 Michael Agnes, ed., Websters New World College Dictionary 4 th Maj Gen Richard E. Webber (BS, Management, US Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, Colorado; MBA, Business Administration and Personnel Management, University of Mis souri, Columbia; MA, National Security and Strategic Studies, College of Command and Staff, Rhode Island) is director of In stallations and Mission Support, Headquarters Air Force Space Command, Peterson AFB, Colo multidisciplined staff of approximately 250 people and advises the commander on all matters relating to civil engineering, secu rity forces, and contracting support. graduation from the US Air Force Academy in 1975. He has commanded a missile squadron, support group, missile opera tions group, and missile wing equivalent and two space wings. His staff assignments include Headquarters North Atlantic Treaty Organization International Military Staff, the Air Staff, Head quarters Strategic Air Command, Headquarters Air Force Space Command, and vice commander of the Aerospace Command and Control and Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Positioning Satellite and Counter Communications System weap on systems. Prior to his current assignment, he served as com mander, 21 st Maxwell AFB, Alabama; Industrial College of the Armed Forces, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; LOG TECH Executive Education, University of North Carolina; and a distinguished graduate, College of Command and Staff, Naval ed., (International Data Group Books Worldwide, Inc., 2000). 3 Independent Strategic Assessment Group, Personnel and Training 4 A Space Professional Experience Code (SPEC) consists of three staff (S). The second character is linked to one of ten space mission cat detail of the specialty in the mission area. 5 Full incorporation of intelligence and communications is projected space professional community include weather and missile maintenance. 6 Prerequisite SPECs identify the experience requirements for selec tion to a space position. AFPC has agreed to incorporate prerequisite SPECs into the selection criteria for enlisted operators (1C6), thereby avoiding mismatches in experience and billet requirements by selecting 1C6 personnel solely based on time on station. 7 General Kevin P. Chilton, Space Warfare Symposium, remarks, Key stone, Colorado, 19 June 2007. 8 Ibid. 9 Report of the Commission to Assess United States National Security Space Management and Organization.

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17 High Frontier PeopleThe Essential Ingredient in Mission Success Dr. William F. Ballhaus, Jr. President and CEO, The Aerospace Corporation W ell trained, experienced, and motivated people who accept accountability for outcomes to which they have committed are the key to any successful enterprise. This is especially the case in the development of new na its of our technological capability and they operate in a very harsh environment. A single engineering or workmanship error erational involvement is limited to remote interaction and op erational recovery from problems often depends on thoughtful engineering of alternatives before launch. The government has a number of key roles in the develop ment of new space systems, all of which require trained, experi enced, and motivated people who are accountable and have the resources and authority to execute a program. with appropriate value-trades; 2. Setting and managing the acceptable level of program risk to ensure mission success and program executability ; the level of program risk; 4. Assessing contractor performance and setting proper in centives; 5. Taking accountability for the work of contractors and their supply chain and ensuring that contractors use vali dated processes that produce predictable results. Skill and experience are required on the part of the govern interest in mission success. This article focuses on the needs of the government space professional community regarding workforce skills and capa bilities, especially with respect to space system development. It visory Board (DSB/AFSAB) study of poor space program ex ecution led by Mr. A. Thomas Young, the former president of Martin Marietta Corporation who has led a number of govern ment and industry studies on space system failures and devel opment problems. 1 Here, the progress made in implementing ahead are provided. The perspectives offered are based on my having served on the study, and also on my nearly 40 years Industry Perspective in the aerospace business, especially the last seven as head of The Aerospace Corporation working daily on national security space issues. ernment capabilities to lead and manage the acquisition process responsibilities of the government require a highly competent, properly staffed workforce with authority commensurate with responsibilities. Study participants observed that during the 1990s, reductions in government personnel, cutbacks in sys tems developments, and changes in acquisition policies that resulted in the use of unproven strategies and practices caused the experienced acquisition workforce to atrophy. A poor work environment, limited career opportunities, lack of appropriate authority, and poor incentives resulted in capable people leav ing the government space acquisition workforce and inadequate recruitment and development of technically educated acquisi The study recommended a number of remedial actions, many of which have been implemented. Some of the most challeng 1. The commander of Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) tions and acquisition personnel. 2. The undersecretary of the Air Force (USECAF) should require that key program management tours last a mini mum of four years. 3. USECAF should develop a robust systems engineering capability to support program initiation and development. a. Re-establish an organic government systems engineer ing capability by selecting appropriate people from within the government, hiring to acquire needed capa bilities, and implementing training programs. b. In the near term, ensure full utilization of the com bined capabilities of government, Federally Funded Research and Development Centers (FFRDCs), and Systems Engineering and Technical Assistance (SETA) contractors Each of the three recommendations is examined below and assessed to determine what has been achieved, and additional remedies are suggested. Analysis of DSB/AFSAB Recommendation One on the Space Career Field Intent: The study team recommended the development of trained and experienced space professionals and called for rec

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High Frontier 18 Observations: Space acquisition program managerswho actually are space systems developersmust possess business management skills, strong technical backgrounds, and an un derstanding of operational concepts and employment practices to keep pace with evolving military operational experience and advancing technology. The Air Force has some outstanding ence overall given the challenges of managing development of rent major defense acquisition programs, 10 are in the Air Force sonnel who were prevalent in the past. In the 1970s and early 1980s, a contractor workforce was used for satellite operations with government leadership at key operational positions. The average experience for the contractor satellite control work force was 11 years. Today, the satellite operator workforce is military, and this workforce has less than 18 months of experi ence on average. General Kevin P. Chilton, former commander of AFSPC, understood the technical needs of his space professional com nical degrees are being encouraged to choose space as a career, with assignments that make immediate use of their academic credentials in a space operations setting, and (3) more opportu through the Air Force Institute of Technology, Naval Postgrad uate School, and Space Education Consortium. 2 but much remains to be done. First, there is a better balance of rank demographics in place today at the Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC) compared with the over supply of lieutenants and undersupply of senior captains and majors that was the norm in the early 2000s. Second, some military-to-civilian conversions have helped retain, in the civil ian program management ranks, experienced space acquisition lieutenant colonels and colonels who have retired from active missile operations and (2) acquisition but the distinction that the study recommended between ICBM operations and space acquisition and operations has not been realized. Initiating programs to recruit and retain acquisition-certi Increasing workforce competence by improving hiring, leveraging the resources of academia. Establishing a functional career ladder. Retaining personnel through military-to-civilian conver sion programs, a robust re-employed annuitant program, and a center retention initiative. It is too early to determine how completely these initiatives will be implemented and the impact they will have on develop ing and maintaining the required workforce. SMC has sought to increase experience shortfalls by adding more seasoned of manpower requirements. both the military and civilian workforce, and, for some grades, experience levels are half those at the National The national security space workforce has lost a great many civilian engineers and scientists through retire ments and the government does not have adequate or ganic replacements. This has been partially offset by increased FFRDC and contractor support. Even with military-to-civilian conversion, civilian attri tion is greater than hiring rates. Recommendations: The government needs a well-resourced, engineering-based career development program that includes both realistic, experiential training and formal mentoring. Since space is a technically complex and high-consequence business, much could potentially be learned by examining successful training and personnel practices of other high-risk mission ar are two areas that face similar personnel career development challenges both in acquisition and operations. Highly skilled and experienced personnel are needed to ensure mission suc cess in these complex, high-consequence mission areas. Train ing and personnel career management practices employed in and best practices instituted to help ensure a continuing pipeline of experienced, technically skilled people for space systems. Four other actions could be taken to improve the quality ther local control on civilian personnel actions or implement a more timely and responsive centralized system, (2) establish tablish a civilian grade structure capable of attracting the talent needed for inherently governmental positions that are needed to execute the mission (for example, program management), and (4) although the commander of Air Force Space Command, as the Space Professional Functional Authority, is responsible for managing the career development of space system program managers, system engineers, and operators, the SMC com mander should be explicitly designated as the responsible in dividual, acting on behalf of the AFSPC commander, for space acquisition workforce development. Analysis of DSB/AFSAB Recommendation Two on Four-Year Tours for Program Managers Intent: The study team recommended a minimum tour of four years for program managers with a goal of retaining key

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19 High Frontier personnel through major acquisition events. Observations: Several events have resulted in progress to ward the goal of more personnel stability. With war demands and budget pressure, the Air Force has made four-year tours routine. At SMC, space acquisition program managers now stay in place at least three years with the goal being retention through key program decision points. This is up from twoyear assignments, which had been the practice. SMC also has commandersas a result of a rigorous selection process and the leadership of the SMC Commander, Lt Gen Michael A. Hamel. Workforce continuity at all levels is extremely important to the space community because increasingly complex space mance designed in. Workforce continuity provides the basis improves its performance and its ability to manage anomalies ble workforce can be held accountable for overall program per formance and has better incentives to make strategic, missionsuccess-driven decisions. A workforce consisting of people on short-term assignments tends to make tactical decisions to meet short-term program milestones at the expense of overall pro you need to be in for the landing. Recommendations: Workforce continuity is a crucial factor ties for people to broaden their base of space experience. The typical communications satellite engineer, for example, will have very limited exposure to a reconnaissance satellite engi neer, except in common subsystem levels such as solar panels. ning, acquisition, or operations areas would result in gains in integration and understanding. It is interesting to note that pi trained and knowledgeable professionals. The same kind of panded to track and better manage the cadre of experienced space professionals. Unfortunately there is a trend to decrease combined with a space-career-development process that starts positions, would improve both the experience and motivation of the entire space workforce. Analysis of DSB/AFSAB Recommendation Three on Systems Engineering Intent: The study team recommended that the USECAF de velop a robust systems engineering capability to support pro gram initiation and development. Observations: Barriers to strengthening government systems and equip personnel. The government need to attract and retain enough technical ly educated program managers and engineers is a challenge. In will have the required capability for the next-generation work force. This is a serious concern as much of the space system portfolio is undergoing major recapitalization. Recognizing that it would take a generation to rebuild government systems engineering capabilities, the DSB/AFSAB panel recommended that in the mean time, the government should ensure full use of the combined capabilities of government, FFRDC, and SETA system engineering resources until enough organic capabilities exist. FFRDCs and SETAs are providing systems engineering execute accountabilities and functions that are inherently gov ernmental. FFRDCs can provide workforce continuity and the depth and breadth of science and engineering competence to advise the government and frame technically complex issues for government decision makers. FFRDC and SETA contrac tors can provide recommendations. But they cannot be placed in government decision-making roles. Recommendations: across the government, support, and contractor work force. This is not easy because accountabilities must be tailored to the full life cycle. The proper allocation of systems engineering tasks across the organic government, FFRDC, and SETA workforce, and among the industry team comprising prime contractors, subcontractors, and and standards for members of the space community, in cluding government, support, and contractor personnel. and standards, and promoting a common understanding of their basis and an understanding of their acceptance criteria, is essential to promoting unity of effort in the repeatable results are especially critical for a less-experi enced work force.) use of government systems engineering plans and con 4. Strengthen enterprise system engineering to ensure that the architecture of space systems permits effective inte gration, not only with other space systems, but also with air and terrestrial systems and the command and control systems. tion and engineering feasibility, and design trades in or

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High Frontier 20 Accountability and Ownership ularly aware that the resources available to him include military, government, civilian, FFRDC, and contractor personnel. For the foreseeable future, he intends to rely heavily on FFRDCs and contractors for technical competence. He has turned to The Aerospace Corporation as the FFRDC for national secu rity space to assist him in ensuring mission success. He does this by holding Aerospace accountable for mission success of on program execution issues. As I approach retirement from The Aerospace Corporation, I offer some observations here on how we have been striving continuously to increase the value we bring to our national security space customers by driving a culture of accountability and ownership. Accountability is both organizational and personal, and cor relates with value. The value of a person in a position can often be assessed by determining what that person is accountable for and how well he or she meets that accountability. business. Most space system failures I have seen resulted from someone not doing correctly what we were relying on him or her to do. The individual may have failed to perform because validated procedures, or a lack of access to channels for making problems known to higher management. At The Aerospace Corporation over the last six years, we have been driving a culture of accountability that calls for organiza result of the SMC commander holding Aerospace management on program execution issues. This ownership focus has contrib space launch and satellite system performance since 1999. Since The Aerospace Corporation has a highly educated, experienced, and stable workforce that is collocated with its customers, we have the opportunity to help educate both our workforce and segments of the government workforce. We provide, through The Aerospace Institute, space-related courses for Aerospace employees, which government customers can also attend on a space-available basis. These space and en years of space engineering experience, cross-program lessons courses are eligible for continuous learning credit. Aerospace also makes its extensive corporate library assets available to its government customers to assist in staff development and continuous learning. 3 Conclusion Progress in implementing the three DSB/AFSAB study rec ommendations to improve the space professional workforce Programs to recruit and retain competent employees have been developed. The length of military tours has been extended. The space acquisition workforce has been supplemented with FFRDC and contractor personnel. However, shortfalls continue to exist in the areas of acquisi tion workforce development, government systems engineering competence, and education/training. Committing resources skilled workforce that the government needs. The demand for space capabilities in the future will continue to grow, and the space professional workforce will remain the essential ingre nurture this indispensable ingredient. Notes: 1 Young, chairman. 2 3 www.aero.org/education. Dr. William F. Ballhaus, Jr. (BS, MS, Mechanical Engi neering, PhD, Engineering, UC Berkeley) is president and CEO of The Aerospace Corporation, an independent, nical advisor to the US Air Force and the Department of Defense on space systems. Dr. Ballhaus joined Aero space in September 2000 after an 11-year career with and vice president of Engineering and Technology. Prior to his tenure with Lockheed Martin, Dr. Ballhaus was president of two Martin Marietta businesses, Aero and Naval Systems and Civil Space and Communications. He also was vice president of Mar tin Mariettas Titan IV Centaur operations. Before joining Martin Marietta, Dr. Ballhaus was director of NASA Ames Research Center. He also served as acting associate administrator for Aeronautics and Space Technology at NASA rector of Astronautics and chief of the Applied Computational Aerodynamics Branch. He is a member of the Defense Science Board and the National Academy of Engineering and is a past president of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.

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21 High Frontier We Know Where to Look Mr. Dale Bennett President, Simulation, Training, and Support Lockheed Martin S ports columnist Rick Reilly, in a Sports Illustrated article cans at the peak of their athletic livesbrave, disciplined, ready 1 He tells of one young lady and four young men. A volleyball and an avid runner. He writes about their tremendous athletic talent. He writes about what they have in common. specialist, an Army private, and a Marine corporalwere all killed in Iraq during a two-week period in January. Warfare has never been more demanding on our country, our resources, or our precious youth. President Ronald W. Reagan once said, Those who say that we're in a time when there are no heroes, they just don't know where to look. 2 We know where to look. As training and education professionals, we have the duty to ensure that our Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen, and Marines are equipped with the skills necessary to prevail if ever and whenever they are called into combat. These heroes deserve that we deliver the best. They deserve the highest quality training and mission rehearsal systems that we can deliver. The bestand the focus of this articlein sions for modern and future warfare, how to plan for a modern ized, mission training enterprise, and how to leverage existing and evolving training concepts and technologies. Delivering this capability begins with understanding what Industry Perspective Protect, Prevent, Prevail The National Military Strategy (NMS) of our country es tablishes the ways our military will protect the United States prevail against adversaries who threaten our homeland, our de ployed forces, and our allies and friends. 3 To meet these objectives, the NMS challenges the services control any situation and defeat any adversary in the air, on land, at sea, in space, and in cyberspace. Regardless of the domain, there are three common and critical variables necessary for full spectrum dominance. First, superior technology. Second, a clear concept of operations. And third, unrivaled mission readi ness. No one doubts the superiority of our military technology. It the changing threat. Mission readiness, though, differs from readiness or people readiness is the element that trans forms technology and concepts into action. With people totally prepared and available for combat, the full spectrum dominance equation is complete. Without it, mission success is compro mised and lives are at risk. Beyond Platform Training in the world. They must completely understand and be thor quires much more. Mission-focused training can be driven to the unit level, the crew lev el, and even the positional level. Department of Defense Delivering well-trained troops begins with understanding what were asking our men and women to accomplish. Department of Defense

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High Frontier 22 sensor-to-shooter mission operations. Soldiers and Airmen must learn to operate with other organizations, other weapon systems and other service branches. They must also learn to operate, react and think in unrehearsed, unexpected, and undocumented situations. The 2003 Defense Science Board report, Training for Future are likely. They can arise with little warning. There will be minimal planning, rehearsal, or staging time. New technology and tactics will allow us to operate con tinuously and at a far faster pace than any adversary, but will challenge as often as they will support the warrior. Transformed services will force everybodyeven the most juniorto think. Current training does not prepare our individuals or units for the new, dynamic cognitive demands. 4 Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) will be challenged by these demands as much as any other organization. Space opera gencies could have little or no warning and may occur at unex pected times or in unexpected places. And during this time of modernizing and recapitalizing space systems, systems opera new tactics. Developing Space Professionals AFSPCs mission is to deliver trained and ready Airmen with unrivaled space capabilities to defend America. 5 To achieve the status and reputation of possessing unrivaled capabilities, space operatorsand no different than operators in any other domainrequire a properly architected training and 1) An individuals or organizations role in the kill chain. the context of combined military operations. How does the unit target, engage, or assess? as to deter hostile activity and ensuring, if tasked, successful airwhether force enhancement, space control, force application, or space support, can be trained and rehearsed in a like manner. the kill chain. 2) The technology provided to execute the role. Without mastery of the technology, the mission will fail. But training and rehearsal capability must help the operator (and in structor) understand that the weapons system is the tool used to participate in the overall mission of the kill chain not the mission itself. 3) The organizations sequence in the kill chain, and its ability to communicate and coordinate with other nodes as the mis sion dictates Real-time discussions and coordination between nodes in the mission operations and technologies such as high level architec ganizations with dissimilar roles and platforms the opportunity to train and rehearse together in a networked, synthetic battle space. Networked, mission-focused training and rehearsal provides immediate feedback to operators. Airmen, Soldiers, Sailors, and Marines at any point in the kill chain and operating any weapon system can in real-time experience and understand the results of their actions on any other part of the chain. A misapplied checklist, a superior tactical decision, or applications of new techniques and procedures will have an immediate, tangible im bloodless learning and a steepened learning curve. Important lessons are learned as part of intense training and mission rehearsal rather than in the turmoil of an actual engagement. 4) Training at all levels of operations Mission-focused training can be driven to the unit level, the crew level, and even the positional level. With the demand for critical thinking at all levels of operations, space mission train ingand particularly mission rehearsalcan be applied to po sitional operations at the unit, wing command post operations, can apply to the most junior of operators and to the most senior of decision-makers. Mission training no longer should be re Trained space professionals ultimately support tactical air operations and ensure mission success.Lockheed Martin

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23 High Frontier served solely for more senior operators selected for specialized programs. Planning for Performance future will provide a virtual, global, synthetic battlespace in which space forces, fully integrated with other US and allied forces, will not only train but rehearse missions. Moreover, the synthetic battlespace will permit individual and crew training of our space forces in addition to linking US units to each other and 6 This vision lists training, education and exercises together. Though each is different, collectively they form the foundation Developing human performance developing space profes sionals through the integration of training, education, and exercises is a complex process requiring deliberate planning, analyses, funding and actionin short an enterprise approach. The newly formed Space Professional Functional Authority ments to education opportunities available to space operators. But training and exercisesboth integral components of a hu man performance developmentrequire equal planning, fund ing, and action which can now be integrated. Proven practices are applied in other domains to assist in planning for a modernized training and rehearsal system. Re cently, the F-35 Lightning II program completed a comprehen sive training needs analysis for all Air Force, Navy, Marine, and Royal Navy pilots and maintainers. Similarly, Air Force Special Aircrew Training and Rehearsal Support (ATARS) program. networked training and mission rehearsal enterprise, trains six platforms and three rotary-wing systems. ATARS addresses Training Command in a coordinated bi-command approach. At the foundation of this enterprise, training needs analyses The human performance required communications terminal, fuel truck, and so forth. Mission Performance. The human performance required orative, networked battlespace. Enterprise Management. Policy, processes, requirements, quired within an organization to ensure optimized, mod ernized training across multiple platforms and missions. quirements, changing mission requirements, or resource chal roadmap provides tangible, actionable steps towards achieving a strategic training vision. It serves as the foundation for all present and future educational programs and training technolo gies. A TNA addresses dynamics that could be associated with de veloping and deploying modernized training concepts and tech nologies. Training concepts evolve rapidly, training technolo gies race forward, and missions change. The requirement for near real-time mission rehearsal increases. And as in the F-35 and ATARS examples above, training enterprises can be com plex, often crossing major command, service, and even interna tional borders. A training roadmap orchestrates these dynamics, provides an objective master plan, maximizes warrior readiness, and optimizes training resources. Applying the Proper Media Training and educa tion occur in a variety of forms and through a variety of media. The selection of the proper forum or technology is best determined by a thorough TNA. Even then, the media selection should be weighed against the constraints. Priorities might include time to train, realism of the training environment, net worked opportunities, and availability of rehearsal partners. Con straints could be the culture, costs, or instructor availability tuned-in to technology. Using a laptop, an i-Pod, a cell phone or two are not at all technically challenging for the current genera tion of learners. We are witnessing a generation of Airmen and Mission training no longer has to be reserved solely for more senior operators selected for specialized programs. Lockheed Martin Training Pyramid.

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High Frontier 24 tion and make split-second decisions. Likewise, training technology is advancing at light speed. Computer-based training, e-learning, self-paced training, and vastly improved training technologies such as automated course ware development, desktop simulation, electronic classrooms, distributed training, and virtual instructors provide unprecedent ed capabilities to make training engaging and responsive. the marketplace is paramount to getting the best performance Blended learning acknowledges the need for each type of training media, from low resource computer-based training and gaming to more costly integrated simulations and exercises. All are normally required at some point in the professional develop ment continuum. The objective is to achieve mission readiness in the most cost-effective manner by ensuring a quality training effect using the least costly method. Conclusion For AFSPC, ensuring people readiness is the cornerstone of space professional development; that is, providing space fessional development is complex and challenging and ex engage. To protect. To prevent. To prevail. Regardless of the platform regardless of the service com ponent our Airman, Soldiers, Sailors, and Marines deserve the highest degree of mission readiness. It is our duty to pro vide them a modernized, mission-focused training and rehearsal enterprise. When mission readiness is married to world-class Full spectrum dominance. Heroes. An Air Force Airman, an Army captain, an Army specialist, an Army private and a Marine corporal. We know where to look Notes 1 Rick Reilly, Gamers to the End, Sports Illustrated 12 February ly0205/index.html. 2 President Ronald Reagan, Inaugural Address, 20 January 1981, 3 The National Military Strategy of the United States, A Strategy for Today; A Vision for Tomorrow, Mar2005/d20050318nms.pdf. 4 and Logistics, Defense Science Board Task Force, Training for Future 5 Air Force Space Command Mission Statement, various documents, 6 htm. Mr. Dale P. Bennett (BS, Mechanical Engineering, University of South Caro lina-Columbia; MS, Systems Engineering, Johns Hopkins University; MBA, Sloane Fel lows Program, Massachusetts Institute of Technology) is president of Simulation Train ing and Support. Mr. Bennett is responsible for the develop ment of Lockheed Martins simulation solutions as well as logistics solutions for the US Department of Defense and interna tional and commercial customers. Programs under his cognizance include training systems for the F-35 Lightning II, the United and advanced gunnery and tactical trainer systems including the Virtual Combat Convoy Trainer. Prior to his current position, Mr. Bennett served in a dual role as president of the Integrated Coast Guard Systems joint venture and as vice president/general manager of Lockheed Martins Coast Guards Deepwater program to modernize and replace aging ships, aircraft, command and control and logistics systems. Mr. Bennetts career spans 29 years of service to industry and engineer and held many assignments of increasing responsibil ity within operations, including manager of Systems Engineering, Advanced Programs, and technical director of the Life Cycle Sup port Facility in Ventura, California. His diverse background also includes experience in business development, strategic planning, operations analysis, Independent Research and Development, and bid and proposal efforts. In 1975, Bennett enlisted in the US Air Force and received an honorable discharge in 1979. A strong supporter of educational enrichment programs for children, Bennett has served on the Ex ecutive Board for Junior Achievement of Central Maryland as well as the Maryland Science Center Board of Directors. He is a member of the US Naval Institute, Navy League of the United States, and American Society of Naval Engineers. The military must train and rehearse missions for modern and future warfare and leverage existing and evolving training concepts and technologies to ensure success. Department of Defense

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25 High Frontier Ms. Patricia A. Robey Director of Human Resources and Manpower Space and Missile Systems Center Los Angeles AFB, California A t the half century mark, space has truly reached a major domain, enabling military operations, global commerce, and civil research around the world. In 50 years, it has grown from jor government and industry sector with an entire host of appli military space capabilities, the new millennium has shown that the capabilities and space systems we have come to depend so much upon, may now be threatened with the prospect of dis ruption, denial, and even destruction. As such, the USAF, as the designated Department of Defense (DoD) Executive Agent for Space, must vigorously invest in a long-term human capital and investment strategy geared at developing a cadre of space professionals, that are not only the military space systems of today, but predicting, assess ing, and accounting for poten tial threats, thereby ensuring adequate protection and as sured access of those systems in the future. In a bold step to address this critical need, Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) has developed a Space Professional Develop ment Program (SPDP) with a deliberate focus on growing the thought leaders for space, by arming them with the ex pertise, experience and skill, that will guarantee the preser to access, operate, and eventu ally traverse this next frontier. Space capabilities today can be viewed as ubiquitousen abling and enhancing nearly all aspects of modern day so ciety. From commercial ap plication in banking and auto mated teller machines, radio, and television, to civil roles such as weather and research, and military defense of the nation, space capabilities are central to our well-being and way of life. It has such a point of criticality, few things can operate without it, and loss of these capabilities would in effect, hamper or even paralyze society. For this very reason, the events of the past year have given pause for those in the space community. International testing of missiles, and anti-satellite technology have highlighted the threat to assuring space capabilities, and clearly announced the fact that space can ities to enhance our way of life, the next 50 years may very well be spent not only sustaining those capabilities, but protecting our ability to employ and operate those assets. Responsiveness space will also demand a new paradigm and approach. Fortu nately, the legacy of the nations space heritage provides a valu able blueprint and starting point in addressing the development of the next regime of space leaders and pioneers. personnel within the greater space enterprise have always been a hallmark of the community. From the early days, space professional pioneers like Dr. Wernher von Braun of NASA and Gen Bernard A. Schriever of the USAF, Western Devel opment Division (WDD), led the research, development, and systems in support of our of Sputnik in 1957 by the So viet Union, sparked the nations resolve, and led to relentless perpowers raced into this new frontier. The initial cadre of preeminent engineers, scien tists, and program managers as sembled by General Schriever at the WDD, began managing ICBM and satellites systems development; and provided an incubator for some of the na tions greatest ideas for space. The culture that emerged es pousing values such as strong leadership, intense mission focus, technical expertise and competence, healthy checks Sculpture of General Bernard A. Schriever. Space Professional Development

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High Frontier 26 and balances across processes and organizations, personal and organizational accountability, skill and workforce diversity, and high standards of conduct, enabled the organization to achieve remarkable successes. forward for the last 50 years, bearing such remarkable military space programs as GPS, Defense Support Program, Defense Meteorological Satellite Program, Evolved Expendable Launch proved that space would play a critical role and serve as a key increased, it was evident that the role it would serve in warfare ensure that space was advocated and articulated, and capabili ties delivered in order to produce maximum combat effects. The recommendations of the Space Commission also served to formally establish the Air Force as the lead service and exec utive agent for space within the Department of Defense (DoD). The ensuing realignment of organizational roles and responsi bilities included establishing the undersecretary of the Air Force ing mechanism for space programs, consolidating oversight of space acquisition, and enhancing the development of space professionals. Realigning space responsibilities to the United ing it the combatant command for space with responsibility and authority for global military space capabilities. This command now looks to its service components and defense agencies to provide operational expertise, mission capabilities, resources, and effects to other supported regional combatant commands around the globe. The United States Air Force space profes sional of the future will serve in this role, focusing not only on systems and satellites, but also on the operational capabilities and effects they provide. The space professional will be re garded as the thought leaders in space, taking full responsibil ity and standing accountable for the combat effects space pro duces, resulting in a well-integrated global space operational mission. This will serve to bolster the Air Force in its role as executive agent for space, with the authority, responsibility, and making the service not only the mandated focal point for DoD Space, but also the preferred provider by virtue of the talent and expertise of the space professional. of space capabilities, it is clear that a dedicated and deliber ate effort needs to be made regarding the development of the military space professional. While the early history in space served as a template for general values and culture inherent in developing space cadre, as we approach the next half century in space, new dimensions, demands, and dynamics will require a new approach to cultivating the future space leaders of tomor the right experience and the right knowledge into the right jobs, nance as the leading spacefaring nation of the 21 st century. Ms. Patricia A. Robey (MPA in Public Administration and Bachelor of Applied Science, Troy State Uni versity; Associate of Applied Sci ence, Community College of the Air Force) is the director, Manpower and Personnel, Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC), Los Ange les AFB California. She is responsi ble for providing direction and cen ter integration of human resource management enabling the center commander to effectively manage the SMC mission. Her areas of responsibility include strategic planning, process integration, oversight of special studies and corporate process management of the total human resource activity across the Center ensuring higher headquarters policies and regulations are implemented at SMC. Ms. Robeys previous assignment was the director, Human ous personnel management specialist capacities to include chief, assignment at HQ USAF, Force Sustainment Division, Pentagon, Program Manager for various programs and the Air Force repre Personnel Management; and the Department of Labor. Ms. Robey served honorably in the Air Force Reserve dur ing which she held various specialty codes over the course of a decade. Ms. Robey has been awarded the Meritorious Civilian Service Award, the Exemplary Civilian Service Award, numerous Notable Achievement Awards, and numerous Letters of Commendation and Performance Awards. Ms. Robey is also a twice-recognized telligence Operations Specialist). Space Professionals in Action.

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27 High Frontier Forward to the Future: A Roadmap for Air Force Space (Part II) Col J. Kevin McLaughlin Commander, Space Development and Test Wing Kirtland AFB, New Mexico Col Chris D. Crawford Commander, 21 st Operations Group Peterson AFB, Colorado From Now (Part I) Forward to the Future cally on the Air Force future in space. Part I of Forward to the Future: A Roadmap for Air Force Space was featured in High Frontier, volume 3, number 4. The thesis of the article is that the nation will be vitally dependent on Air Force space person path that will enable space professionals to develop capabili retrospective look at Air Force space culture, with an emphasis phasized that culture is the central ingredient for future success. driving erosion of the US lead in across the board space capa toward reversing that trend. Because the background, context, in Part I of this article, it is important that the reader fully digest all of Part I before tackling Part II. The changes required are not and comprehensive action plan and should not be tied to, nor recommendations are interconnected, so we believe all are nec essary if the Air Force is to successfully lead future space power Forward to the Future Focus Area 1: Recommended 2025 Capability Goals Primary Finding: 2025 space capabilities must include the ability to establish space superiority as needed to enable US freedom of action; assured and robust strategic global utilities of globally responsive, precise, tailorable combat support and combat effects focused on the needs of combatant commanders. All of these capabilities must be fully integrated into the global and unmanned systems operating in all domains. The key is having a set of clear goals and supporting objec tives to guide our community actions and to create focus among leaders at all levels. 1 Consistent focus over time is required to achieve long term success and overcome the cultural and or Space Professional Development ganizational fragmentation detailed at length in Part I of this article. The task of reforming ourselves to ensure the Air Force is capable of meeting the challenges of 2025 would be simple if of this article we outlined a scenario that demonstrated how one of our competitors might take actions that could fundamentally threaten military operations by 2025. However, a major power confrontation is not the only scenario that must be addressed. It yet addresses the most likely challengesa capability versus threat-based approach. After describing our view of this future, we will make recommendations to ensure our immediate ac tions produce appropriate culture, personnel, and processes ro adapt to the unexpected. For these reasons, and in the interest of brevity, we will limit this discussion to the central challenges as we perceive them. These challenges are both international and domestic in nature. Internationally, trends indicate US space capabilities will be derived information and services in Desert Storm, Iraqi Free dom, and Enduring Freedom did not go unnoticed. Worldwide military writers and planners have written very detailed ac counts of how the US exploits space and how this US reliance of these writers realize that negating US space capabilities is necessary in order to confront or challenge the US military. 2 Additionally, space technologies, which were considered exotic in the 60s, 70s, and 80s are now common-placelaunch and on-orbit capability is available to almost any nation willing to invest the money to buy products or services or develop an in digenous program. In addition to major power competitors, we must remain pre pared to counter non-state actors and other organizations, which will continue to threaten modern society by committing targeted acts of terror designed to erode trust in governments and civil institutions. These groups have demonstrated a talent for em ploying the newest technology in support of their ends. The US will have to develop a complex measure and countermeasure model to deal with sophisticated non-state actors. This will re magnitude of 9-11 can cause extensive excursions, which will force us to rethink our foundations. Therefore, 2025 capabili tential threats and requirements. Another likely trend in warfare is the continued increase in

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High Frontier 28 the requirement for data, including space-derived data, at all or Information enhanced combat will require the space community to provide assured data and data pipes for both the production and distribution sides of the enterprise. In addition, the com munity will need to be able to protect and reconstitute space elements of the information grid. 3 Simultaneously, while planning to prevail at both ends of the plan to do so in light of domestic politics. Primary domestic challenges include limited budgets, and the internationally pro vocative nature of military space capabilities. The costs associ ated with health care for an aging population, continued conduct conventional forces will each contribute to severe budget con straints that will force hard decisions. 4 However, these same stimulate true innovation, if we embrace the opportunity. 2025 force. In a contested environment, this force must improve upon the availability and quality of global space capabilities, be responsive to small scale highly-dynamic tactical challenges, ensure seamless delivery of space effects, identify and neutral ize adversary threats and capabilities, and rapidly replenish lost capabilities. These challenges warrant close examination of all our past assumptions about who we are and how we function. Assumptions that are counter to building this type of force must will likely be paid for in American casualties on a future battle Recommendations: The assumption that space is a sanctuary must be aban doned. Since the launch of Sputnik 50 years ago, space has been a medium open for competition. The level of 2007 launch of the Chinese anti-satellite weapon had a reality that space is open for competition, whether eco nomic, diplomatic, political or military (by force). Be cause it is open for competition, rules must be established, sanctions agreed to and an ability to enforce them estab space medium must work to make others aware that the era of unchallenged space exploitation is rapidly ending, if it did not end on 11 January 2007. Commensurate with this shift in mindset must be a shift in resources. It is folly for our nation to continue to build and deploy military, out accompanying plans to defend them. Do not allow political debates about space weaponization detract or impede the imperative to achieve space superi space defense capabilities. Diplomacy and the political impacts of the US developing space-based weapons are serious concerns, however, we need to forge a national consensus that space superiority is as critical to our na leadership needs to consider the full risks and consequenc es associated with each course of action. To date, we do not believe the risks of failed space superiority have been as convincing as some suggest. If diplomacy fails, our cannot fail to be prepared. As space operators we must remember it is our job to defend against capabilities, not intentions; intentions can change overnight. Space power cannot be developed overnight. Formally include space systems as part of deterrence and escalation control. Work to establish unambiguous tripwires that when crossed by other nations will result in the our ownbe they political, diplomatic, or military. It is likely that some of these have already been crossed in the areas of development of ground based jammers, directed energy weapons, the Chinese direct ascent antisatellite (ASAT), micro ASATs, and ballistic missile technology. 5 produces technical and operational experts that are capa ble of conceiving, building, and employing the 2025 force described above. It is the full spectrum of future space capabilities that drives our urgent need to develop train ing, education, and promotion models that will ensure our liver space capabilities as part of an integrated military force. The individuals must have the expertise to develop, to dynamic threats in an environment characterized by short planning timelines, uncertain support, and austere funding. This cannot be accomplished by technicians, but only by individuals with a broad and deep understand ing of joint warfare, developing threats, and an engineer ing level understanding of space technology limitations. Stated another way, the force needs individuals who can recognize and predict the threats, determine counter mea sures, and develop doctrine, processes and technology that enable development and implementation cycles that are substantially shorter than those that are currently the norm. We need to develop people who are not only able and comfortable with manipulating the data our weapon systems discharge, but who also understand what makes them work and better yet what to do when they fail. Space operators must take a stake in ownership and devel opment of a global information grid, which is robust and well defended to ensure that access to data and services cally isolated area and those who are engaged on a global scale. The full realization of the global information grid will be as revolutionary as the steam engine or the micro processor, as it will fundamentally alter the nature of how we prosecute war. The space community will play a criti cal role in this revolution. Space operators will need to

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29 High Frontier (1) establish their segments of the global information grid, (2) develop tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) for requesting and delivering tailored information in the most develop hardware and TTPs to rapidly detect and neutral ize threats to the space segments of the grid, and (4) be capable of rapidly restoring services after any threats have been neutralized. Focus Area 2: The Intellectual FrameworkIt Drives Everything and It Must be Right Primary Finding: Space is a medium (domain), not a mis sion. The intellectual framework for space power must be driv en by the inherent attributes and principles of space power. The current framework is organized around who owns what and unnatural groupings of dissimilar missions. The current mindset and terminology to describe and guide the proper use of space forces in military operations are essential for long-term continu ity of action and capability growth. To date they have not been developed. The current organizing principles drive the ineffec manage our work force, what types of skills sets are needed by our people, and where we spend our money. The Air Force has and evaluation for a set of fundamentally different missions. In many cases, this model negatively impacts mission accomplish ment. ing and guiding the proper use of space forces over the longterm, have not been developed. Space is a medium for military operations in its own rightmuch the same as land, air and seanot simply a functional area like intelligence, logistics, or personnel. 6 has been to treat the space domain as a set of disparate missions, systems, or functions spread across a multitude of services and agencies. 7 To correct this weakness, a new and comprehensive intellectual framework for space power is required to provide the principles that are needed to link critical concepts such as grand strategy, operational art, tactics, and capabilities. 8 Such a framework is also critical to grounding our approach to organiz ing, training, and equipping space forces. Though there have been some efforts in the past to develop a framework for space power, none have really impacted US military space thinking. any proposed linkage between a top level framework and how we should organize, train, and equip space forces. Without this vitally needed framework, the Air Force will be principles, and terminology to describe and guide the organiz ing, training, and equipping or the proper use of space forces in military operations that are essential for long-term continuity of action and capability growth. It is also likely that we will have the wrong principles driving the wrong approaches to how we types of skill sets are needed by our people, and where we spend our money. Implementing the following recommendations will enable the Air Force to move forward in this critical area and begin to make the adjustments necessary for the future. Recommendations: Acknowledge that space is a medium, like sea, air, and land. It has different inherent attributes and operates by a set of physical principles unlike any of the others. The au thors recommend that Air Force Space Command create a dedicated doctrine staff, perhaps aligned with the Nation al Security Space Institute (NSSI) assigned to AFSPC. Results of the effort should consolidate space community thinking regarding updated doctrine that would be shared broadly within rest of the military and public. Doctrine is bate among practicing space professionals, and will con tinually evolve and incoporate fresh thinking and ideas. Recognizing the fundamental principle of space as a medi Space Superiority, Strategic Spacelift, Global Information Services, Global Surveillance and Tracking, and Space combatant commander support for theater level effects in any mission area). 9 airlift, and special operations communities, they would be linked by the common attributes and competencies in volved with operating in the space medium, but would be functionally separate. Each area would be allowed and encouraged to develop their own sub-culture and would require different TTPs and methods of employment, dif ferent concepts of operation, different capability require ments, and training. This step is critical if we are to grow the expertise and depth of experience to progress in each area. The authors recommend that the AFSPC command er (CC) establish processes to create separate missiondriven, commander-owned tactical doctrine, TTPs, train ing and evaluation, skill set requirements, and so forth for AFSPC should create a separate ground-based Global Strike mission area for both intercontinental ballistic mis sile (ICBM) operations and the emerging Conventional Strike Missile mission. This sixth AFSPC mission area every regard. There would be different accession require ments, career paths, and so forth. The premise behind this recommendation is sound, though expected to be contro versial. It is not meant to foster a theological debate or vital nature of our mission must drive a brutally candid assessment and a discussion that acknowledges the fact that the military mission must always drive the need for experiences, TTPs, operational art, and cultures. While we are all airmen, there are other areas where the mission

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High Frontier 30 drives unique attributes for its people. The differences between the missions of our current space and missile missions are one of these areas. 10 The authors would rec ommend that AFSPC initiate a study to determine the best mechanism for achieving this goal. Increase emphasis on the delivery of combat effects and operating machines. Determine which of these missions require uniformed military operators due to their inher ently military nature. Focus attention on developing mili tary operators in those areas that provide the most direct military effects. In a related step, AFSPC could contract out functions such as basic satellite telemetry, tracking, and command ing (TT&C), network, and range operations positions in the Global Information Services and Global Surveillance and Tracking mission areas. This action would replace in selected roles to make key operational decisions and to gain necessary experience. Both authors have extensive experience in military and na tional satellite operations and have fervently argued against such a move during the course of their careers. However, our views have changed for two fundamental reasons. First, the satellite operators to move away from the machine-oriented fo cus on operating satellites to an effects-oriented focus on de livery of capability to an end user. As a relevant analogy, Air Combat Command has dealt with similar issues in those mis sion areas involving aircraft such as the RC-135 Rivet Joint and E-3 Sentry. In both cases, the Air Force came to realize that the mission was being conducted in the rear of the plane and the aircrew supported the back-end mission. AFSPC needs a satellite operations. Another reason is to consider this approach is practicality. AFSPC has many new missions on its horizon, especially in areas such as operational command and control of space forces, delivery of integrated space effects, space defense, space situational awareness, and so forth. However, the con be no new people available to the Air Force, especially aligned against space-related mission areas. AFSPC could solve many, if not most of its manpower shortfalls by realigning and pri oritizing its space operations personnel and space career paths. The authors recommend AFSPC initiate the necessary efforts to plan and implement this recommendation at the earliest pos sible date. Focus Area 3: People: Nurturing Our Most Important Resource Primary Finding: ground, training, and educational and operational experiences needed in the future. This shortfall exists at all levels, but is perhaps most acute in the current generation of Air Force Space verge of leading our community. Inadequate educational guide sion areas combined with procedure-focused training structures leave the community without well prepared, capable space pro fessionals. The space capabilities required in 2025 imply weapon systems we have barely imagined and those weapon systems will need experts to operate, employ, and command them. The Air Force and AFSPC made a number of positive chang es in response to recommendations from the Space Commis sion, such as creating the National Security Space Institute, the Space Professional Functional Authority, the Space Professional Development Database that allows th command to track space professionals and their experience. However, the effectiveness of these changes was limited. Part I of this article described the cultural evolution of the space community within the Air Force and AFSPC over past decades. 11 In the period immediately fol lowing the Space Commission, it is arguable that cultural views and interests within AFSPC, rather than an objective analysis of future mission needs, were key factors in determining how For that reason, the command was unable to develop separate stringent technical requirements for new accessions, to outline new career paths that emphasize technical depth and experience depth and rigor to space professional training. Ensuring our Air Force has the right people to lead and ex ecute future space missions is one of the most important respon sibilities of our service. It is too important to allow cultural bias to dictate our way ahead or to adopt solutions based on the low est common denominator among dissimilar weapon systems and make decisions in this key area based on our current and pro jected assigned missions and on brutal, objective assessments of what each mission area demands in terms of our people. Finally, space leaders of tomorrow will carry a much heavier and the ability to apply it in highly complex and integrated envi ronments (experts in operational art) are what must drive us to education, and training. For the above reasons, the current model of growing space isting education and training policy for accessions to ensure we guidelines and goals, and the training structures needed to sup Superiority, Strategic Spacelift, Global Information Services/ Utilities, Global Surveillance and Tracking, and Space Special

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31 High Frontier ticle; and (3) create targeted opportunities to build professionals within each mission area that today are separated by arbitrary functional boundaries, especially between the current 13SXX space operations community and the 6XXX acquisition com munity. Recommendations: Create a new set of AFSCs within the 13XXX umbrella for each mission area within AFSPC. The recommended Mission Area AFSC Space Superiority 13FXX Strategic Spacelift 13LXX Global Information Services/Utilities 13UXX Global Surveillance and Tracking 13RXX 13SXX Ground Based Global Strike 13NXX The Air Force will have to manage overall space and ground based global strike personnel resources at the macro level, however, each AFSC should be managed cal and experience requirements, cultures, career tracks, and so forth. It would be important to understand which portunities should be created early in a career, and should authors recommend the AFSPC/CC, as the Space Func tional Authority, direct the development of an implemen tation plan for the above recommendations. Manage accessions into the above AFSCs to ensure each new accession meets requirements driven by the mission. This is a necessary requirement for any military mission area and should be reemphasized in Air Force space mis sion areas. For space AFSCs, place a heavy emphasis on the ability to meet stringent technical prerequisites in space-related disciplines such as engineering, mathemat ever, it would be useful to create a series of tests to allow technical aptitude. This would allow for a needed mix of academic pedigrees in the space community. The authors recommend the AFSPC/CC, as the Space Functional Au thority, direct the development of an implementation plan for this recommendation. Educate all space accessions on the science and art of space, not just the procedural actions required at the ing and education in space-related science, engineering, application, theory, and doctrine curricula should be developed The curriculum should be intense and de innovative operation of complex space systems. The goal will be achieved by teaching broad background on theory on ensuring each student possesses a strong science and technical foundation to provide theoretical background knowledge on space systems design and operation. Sub jects might include advanced propulsion, power systems, control and guidance, space communications, space envi ronment, and orbital mechanics. Fundamentals of space craft, launch vehicle, and ground system design would also be part of the curriculum. This is only a represen tative sample of the training that might comprise initial space training. The authors recommend AFSPC work with Air Education and Training Command to institute an undergraduate space training program for new accessions dergraduate global strike program for new accessions into Establish separate weapon system lead-in courses for all undergraduate course graduates, based on their initial op erational assignments in Global Strike, Space Superiority, Strategic Spacelift, Global Information Services/Utilities, erations, that would then be followed by weapon system Develop new career tracks within the new space AFSCs breadth across a variety of space disciplinesRDTE&E, acquisitions, and operations. This will require the AFSPC/CC to take an active role in breaking down the existing functional stovepipes in the 13SXX, 6XXX, 33XX, and 14XX communities. The Air Force must ensure that space operations person key leadership jobs, including senior positions in service and joint staffs to ensure the appropriate experience level Focus Area 4: Processes and ProgramsMaking it Happen Primary Finding: Air Force space organization, management, processes, and programs are fractured, overly bureaucratic, and often underachievingthere are few in-depth institutional com petencies, little focus on developing fundamentally new capa the demanding security environment requires. At times they are too cumbersome, hierarchical, and bureaucratic. Past procure ment problems with replacement constellations and the lack of sustained focus on development of innovative new concepts has The primary space mission of the Air Force and AFSPC is to Table 1. New AFSC Breakout.

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High Frontier 32 to ensure the Air Force can do the same in support of our mis sions in the future. Unfortunately, the attention of our most se nior space leaders is often focused on the crisis or the initiative of the moment. Defending the budget, advocating support for acquisition efforts, and dealing with budget cuts are examples of major time demands for our leadership. In this environment, our senior leaders are unable to devote attention and have less underpinning every aspect of the Air Force space organize, train, and equip mission, especially at the levels below their di rect level of supervision. Why is this important? Because the lower level processes and the manner in which they are manned and organized are the primary engine behind any large bureaucratic organization. Un derstanding the innermost, core issues is essential for any senior organization respond and meet their intent. Despite concerted and creative effort by recent leaders, AFSPC still suffers from this weakness. The current A-staff structure organized around functional sues versus on how those issues (i.e., requirements, manpower, in an integrated fashion to produce operational level capabili ties at the execution/unit level. This paradigm forces numbered air forces (NAFs), wings, groups, and squadrons to constant that are mainly concerned only with their area of them resolved. The approach required to resolve even a few that rarely work together and are almost never integrated in their activities. The bottom line is large expenditures of effort that focus attention away from mission accomplishment resulting in suboptimum support processes and outcomes. the command based on recommendations of the Space Com mission. While the Commission was not prescriptive in how to create a vastly different AFSPC organization with cradle-tograve responsibility for space RDT&E, acquisition, and opera tions. 12 In most regards, this transformation failed to material ize and most would argue the SMC merger was simply a patch change from Air Force Materiel Command to AFSPC. Many senior leaders are beginning to openly discuss this issue and some are wondering if the merger was a mistake. 13 This phenomenon is not the result of malfeasance or a direct desire to hamper the mission. At the highest level, it is driven lack of an overarching intellectual framework for Air Force space capabilities, no consistent Air Force articulation of space capability goals, and the inability to produce the expertise our command needs, all exacerbate this problem. Because of these weaknesses, our command is not organized properly, does not have the right experience in the right places, and does not have the processes needed for the future. There are some indications that senior leaders are beginning to grasp this issue. Current ef the command is beginning to ask the right questions. However, the authors offer the following recommendations to address stated shortfalls. Recommendations: equipping space forces. In particular, the bulk of the com mand would become organized around cradle-to-grave responsibility for providing end-to-end capability in each (Space Superiority, Strategic Spacelift, Global Informa tion Services/Utilities, Global Surveillance and Track team for Ground Based Global Strike. This would be cept tried in AFSPC during the late 1990s. In this case, Space and Missile Systems Center, and 14 th Air Force would be re-aligned to the mission and capability focused organizations As a notional example, the command should create a new Directorate of Space Superiority Requirements, organization would have cradle-to-grave responsibility for delivery of space superiority capabilities that could would be responsible for requirements, acquisition, and personnel/manpower, and communications needs in the space superiority mission area. The directorate would be comprised of personnel from each of the current AFSPC functional staffs currently dedicated to the space superior Space Superiority Systems Wing, and some operational personnel from 14 th Air Force and 21 st Space Wing. A5, A7, and A8/9 would be moved to lead the new Glob al Strike, Space Superiority, Strategic Spacelift, Global Information Services/Utilities, Global Surveillance and of the mission area directors would report to the AFSPC/ CC, but similar to the model at AFSPC launch wings the for Space for all acquisition issues. 14 14 th Air Force (14 mission areas. 14 AF would continue to organize, train, equip, command, control, and employ Air Force space forces to support operational plans and missions for US combatant commanders and remain the Air Force Com ponent to US Strategic Command for space operations. However, their focus in the operational wings would be

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33 High Frontier strictly on readiness, operations, tasking and employment of space capabilities in response to combatant command er needs. Philosophically, this role would be similar to the missions performed by the National Security Agency for overhead signals intelligence and the National Geo spatial Agency for overhead imagery intelligence in that those agencies are responsible for tasking and employing overhead capabilities that are provided by the National Mission Area directors should be held accountable for current and future overall mission performance. They should have authority to create mission-focused, tailored operational instructions. Small functional staffs would be retained in the HQ ments and resources would be shifted to the new mission sure that appropriate processes are followed in their area of responsibility. Continuing the notional example from above, the requirements functional would ensure that re quirements related documents are produced at the right correct format for a particular program. However, the mission area director would lead the development of re quirements for Space Superiority, would determine their In addition, the command should create a program and purposes. First, it would be charged to establish the com mon operational standards and approaches to which all AFSPC mission areas would have to conform. Second, they would help establish relative priorities for the com conduct analysis and recommend inter-mission trades and of resource execution, it would have power by virtue of the fact that it reported directly to the vice commander. In order to eliminate unnecessary red tape and bureau to radically streamline core processes that have become overly cumbersome, bureaucratic, and unresponsive to the needs of the mission. Immediately empower an outside agent (not associated with the function) to review deleted functional instructions for partial reinstatement based on merit and value-added to the mission. Give SMC responsibility for creating development plans, and authority for allocating all space science and tech nology (S&T) funds consistent with mission area director guidance. Continue to increase funding within Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) for Space S&T, but more directly tie DARPA and AFRL efforts to focused as opposed to recent trend towards building, integrating, and operating spacecraft. Successful Implementation: The Hard Part 15 ous to conduct, or more uncertain in its success than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things. Because the innovator has for enemies all those who have done well under the old conditions, and lukewarm defenders in those who may do well under the new. ~ Niccolo Machiavelli 16 While each of the changes we recommend are in themselves important it is critical that they be addressed as a group. We have attempted to structure our recommendations so as to cov er the range of mechanisms, from picking the right accessions fundamental cultural changes that will produce long term ef fects. We must conclude with a call for urgency among our space professional brethren on these nationally critical issues. 17 international advantages our current military status provides is likely waning. This sense of urgency must be supported by real commitment at all levels to push the envelope of capability for decades to come. 18 19 The future of Air Force Space is in the hands of the current and future space professionals. While skilled leaders such as tions will be important to this future, the future really lies in the hands of the thousands of young people that will shape the Air Force over the next several decades. Forward to the Future is geared to them more than anyone. Notes: 1 Lt Col Fred Gaudlip contributed to this section. 2 Wang Hucheng. As quoted in Part I clearly articulates this view from the Chinese perspective. 3 Max Boot, War Made New 426-7 addresses the criticality of space capabilities in the information age. 4 George W. Bush, The Budget Message of the President, 6 Febru Robert M. Gates, Testimony before the Senate Appropriations Committee, Defense Subcommittee es/speech.aspx?speechid=1150 provide discussion of the budgetary chal lenges we face now and into the future. 5 Boot, 443-5, gives a brief but relatively thorough overview of poten tial threats to satellites and other space-based possibilities. 6 Report of the Commission to Assess United States National Security Space Management and Organization executive summary (Washington 7 Col Bruce M. Deblois, Beyond the Paths of Heaven: The Emergence of Space power Thought, ix-x. Col Bruce M. Deblois argues persuasively that the argument that dition to the profound differences between the physical laws governing

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High Frontier 34 amphibious mission certainly illustrates the fact that there is no absolute not been merged, because the optimum system approach is to design ve hicles to operate on land and sea respectively and not to design a system to do both. It is technically possible but not advisable. A land vehicle will to exploit those environments. 8 Space Power Theory, military purposes to support consistent planning and action. Additionally some of his fundamental precepts have not been incorporated into our Air & Space Power Journal, Sum superiority representing a positive start in this direction. 9 delivering tailorable and responsive combat effects for the combatant commander in a time relevant to his needs. This mission area would also drive to develop new and unknown special capability options across the spectrum of space warfare. 10 Per the argument in note 7 on amphibious capabilities, we would and thus require their own doctrine, training, etc. 11 Col J. Kevin McLaughlin also authored the Space Commission Staff background paper on this topic, which provides additional detail on the 12 Space Commission report, 90. 13 This issue, as well as a number of other Space Commission recom mendations, have been discussed by senior leaders in the Air Staff and AFSPC over the past year or two. The authors have been direct witnesses to some of these discussions and have heard of others second hand. 14 Careful study would be required to understand how the acquisition discharge his or her duties in this model. The model established with the Launch Groups at the 30 th and 45 th Space Wings might be used to allow the mission area directors to report to the AFSPC/CC for non-acquisition 15 The authors believe the proposed changes in this article and the keys to successful implementation are consistent with the reinventing govern 16 Niccolo Machiavelli, The Prince, trans. W.K. Marriott (Ann Arbor, 17 Boot, 463. Points out that most of the more successful innovators were insiders not outsiders. 18 Harvard Business Review, March-April, 1995, 59-67. There are dozens of books and articles on the topics of managing change, transformation, re inventing government and innovation. Kotter provides an excellent, con cise, and common sense set of guidelines. An article on how these changes should be managed would add considerably to the debate. 19 Boot, 458-466. Articulates the role that innovation, culture and oth the authors believe space can continue to offer in the future. Realizing these breakthroughs requires more than revolutionary technology but Stone, Confessions of a Civil Servant: Lessons in Changing Americas Government and Military ers, Inc., 2003), provides multiple valuable anecdotes on successful and theme in many of the works on these topics is the need to reward innova an organization (see chapters 2 and 3). Col J. Kevin McLaughlin (BS, General Studies, USAFA; MS, Space Systems Management, er of Space and Missile Systems Center, Space Development and Mexico. The wings mission is to develop, test, and evaluate Air Force space systems, execute ad vanced space development and demonstration projects, and rap idly transition capabilities to the Colonel McLaughlin was com served in a variety of space operations and staff positions. His experi ence in space operations includes space control; space launch; sat ellite positioning, navigation and timing; and satellite command and control. His operational assignments include commander, 50 th Opera tions Group; commander, 2 nd Space Operations Squadron; and chief, Current Operations Flight, 45 th Operations Support Squadron; deputy chief standardization and evaluation, 45 th Operations Group; chief, Launch Operations and Titan IV Launch Controller, Titan Combined ter, Cheyenne Mountain Complex. Colonel McLaughlin has served in staff assignments at the Of a professional staff member on the Commission to Assess National Security Space Management and Organization chaired by Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld. Col Chris D. Crawford (BS, Statistical Mathematics, Univer sity of Alabama; MBA, Univer nedy School of Government, Harvard University) is com mander, 21 st Operations Group, 21 st Colorado. He is responsible for the readiness and tactical execu tion of AFSPCs largest opera tions group with 16 units located across the world. The colonel leads 1,200 people who defend the US through exploitation of space by providing missile warning and space control to the National Military Command Center, North manders, and combat forces. Colonel Crawford has served in various duties including as a sat ellite operator, as a space surveillance crew commander, and as chief of Standardization and Evaluation. He served on the AFSPC staff as chief of Space Control Mission Concepts and on the Headquarters Air Force Staff as chief of Space Control Plans and Operations, executive Colonel Crawford also served in National Security Space operations the director of the Coalition Forces Land Component Command, Air Component Coordination Element during Operation Iraqi Freedom. He also commanded the 50 th Operations Support Squadron, Schriever AFB, Colorado.

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35 High Frontier United States Air Force Academy Physics Department and Space Activities Col Rex R. Kiziah, Lt Col Michael E. Dearborn, Dr. Delores Knipp, Dr. Geoff Andersen, Lt Col David J. Lee, Maj Brian K. Bailey, Lt Col Charles J. Wetterer, Dr. M. Geoff McHarg United States Air Force Academy Colorado Springs, Colorado T he Physics Department of the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) offers an extensive set of space-re lated academic courses and operates several research centers and complexes in which faculty, full-time researchers, and cadets conduct real-world space research. Both the academics and re search activities are highly collaborative and integrated with the space curricula of the Astronautics, Economics and Geospatial Sciences, Military Instruction, and Political Science departments. They are also collaborative with the other USAFA centers ex ecuting space efforts. As an example, a cadet who decides to major in physics at USAFA can choose the applied physics track of space vehicle design, which is a combination of space physics courses taught by faculty in the Physics Department and astro nautical engineering courses taught by faculty in the Astronautics Department. Additionally, cadets have the option to tailor this applied physics track. For example, they might choose to include space-related coursework from various other USAFA academic level course on US National Space Policy and Law. The remain space-related work being done at the research centers directed by the Physics Department, as well as other ongoing and planned departmental space research activities. Particular emphasis is placed on how these efforts are used to train, educate, and de velop our cadets so that they enter the Air Force with a great foundation and understanding of the importance of space to our military and our nation. Laser and Optics Research Center search and cadet education in optical technology relevant to the relevant to space situational awareness (SSA). For example, re searchers have successfully developed methods by which inex pensive holograms can correct distortions in large optical com ponents. In essence, this is much like creating corrective glasses for mirrors that are no better quality than hub-caps. This has potential for next-generation high resolution imaging from gos sible to replace conventionally formed optics altogether and cre Space Professional Development containing millions of microscopic holes. Beyond the immediate surveillance applications, several other projects are aimed at better understanding the environment in which Air Force assets operate. A novel holographic wavefront sensor is being built to characterize atmospheric turbulence at a rate 100 times faster than any existing device while removing the need for complex computer hardware. This will have immediate applications in directed energy weaponry, optical communica tions, and laser targeting. In another project a high spectral reso lution detector has been developed to characterize atmospheric temperaturessomething which will allow for improved weath er modeling and prediction. In the future this device may also be used in laser radar systems for turbulence avoidance systems at airports and within aircraft themselves. The future of these and other projects is guaranteed through collaborative efforts with the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), the Joint Technology other agencies. feet of laboratory space dedicated to research in lasers, optics, and optical materials. The laboratory includes nearly 20 continu ous-wave or pulsed-power lasers covering a wide range of pow ers and frequencies. These laser systems, in addition to a vast collection of optical sensors, electronics, optical tables, vacuum equipment, and shared machine shop are worth in excess of $6 million. Space Physics and Atmospheric Research Center The mission of the Space Physics and Atmospheric Research Center (SPARC) is to give cadets a chance to participate in realworld applications of space to the Air Force mission. Cadets work one-on-one with a SPARC faculty member on projects spanning the basic areas of SSA, defensive counterspace (DCS), and force enhancement (FE). The SPARC has three full-time PhD research members and an additional seven part-time PhD teaching fac ulty members performing $500 thousand of research annually. SPARC has over 3,000 square feet of laboratory space dedicated to plasma and applied physics research directly applicable to the SSA, DCS, and FE missions. The laboratory includes a large vacuum chamber capable of testing small satellites and satellite plasma sensor subsystems, and a small clean room for space sen sors fabrication. The plasma chamber has multiple ion sources capable of emulating a low-Earth plasma environment. The labo ratory is also equipped with optical tables, electronic benches, and a full machine shop. In the area of SSA, SPARC members believe it is critical that the Air Force develop better space weather prediction capabili

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High Frontier 36 of ubiquitous in-situ ionospheric measurements so that we move to a data density that supports reliable space weather forecasts. Currently the only continual in-situ space weather ionospheric cal Support Program satellites (in the future the Communications These satellites provide excellent ionospheric measurements for inclusion into space weather models, such as the Global Assimi lation of Ionospheric Measurements model. Unfortunately, each of these satellites, despite their sophisticated their instrument suites, can only sample one location in the space environment at any time, limiting the data available as inputs to the models. We need to consider every future satellite as a potential plat form to house space weather sensors. To accomplish this it is necessary to determine which measurements are needed, and then measurement of this parameter. Most importantly, the instrument must be small enough in terms of mass, power, and telemetry that it is under any payload margin of the host spacecraft. With extensive cadet participation through independent study, the SPARC has developed a suite of plasma sensors we call smart skin sensors. These sensors are physically small, and contain embedded electronics allowing them to become part of the skin of the satellite. An example of the smart skin sensor is the prototype Integrated Miniaturized Electrostatic Analyzer (iMESA), ics for the package contained on a printed circuit board mounted behind the sensor head. The electronics contains an embedded type version of iMESA the Smart MESA since the electronics are not yet embedded into the ceramic sensor. The iMESA sensor provides ionospheric plasma density and temperature measure ments. Effectively, iMESA provides the Air Force with a simple Cadets worked with SPARC faculty to deliver Smart MESA to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and will be sent to the International Space Station in the summer of 2007. Cadets are currently working to put iMESA onboard the putting smart skin sensors onboard Academy small satellites, ca dets are working to put Smart Mesa on the Atmospheric Neutral Density satellite developed by the Naval Research Laboratory. Smart skin space weather sensors are about to become a reality. Local Anomalous Noise Experiment (PLANE) designed by USA FA physics faculty and the Flat Plasma Spectrometer (FLAPS), designed by Dr. Frederico A. Herrero of Goddard Space Flight Center and manufactured by the John Hopkins University Ap plied Physics Laboratory. PLANE characterizes in-situ plasma turbulence around the space craft by distinguishing variations in the global plasma environment from with the spacecraft itself. FLAPS is a true micro electro-mechanical in strument, and is more capable than iMESA, holding out the promise of being able to detect the presence of other satellites by observing the ion trails left by the propulsion systems of external satellites in the low-Earth or geosynchronous orbital environ ments. Figure 2 shows a picture small satellite. FalconSAT-3 was a secondary payload on the Secondary Express mission, which launched in March 2007. SPARC believes cadets learn best when motivated and chal lenged in equal parts. Both the motivation and the challenge like the development of smart skin sensors. Gravity Probe-B In a joint effort between the Astronautical Engineering and Physics Departments, the USAFA has established a fully func Gravity Probe-B (GP-B) satellite. This satellite was developed by NASA and Stanford University to test subtle, previously un measurements required precise, unprecedented gyroscopes, which required an extremely low cryogenic operating tempera ture. The expendable cryogen has been exhausted, and the pri mary relativity mission has been completed. However, there re along with partners at AFRL, will endeavor to take advantage of for the remaining life of the spacecraft. Besides the residual science capability of the satellite, and in as national security space professionals during their careers, USAFA will maximize cadet involvement in the operation and analysis of the GP-B satellite and its data. This will provide the Figure 1. Proto-type of the iMESA instrument, left image is the sensor head (exposed side of the instrument), right the electronics (back side of the same instrument) Figure 2. The bifurcated re tarding potential analyzer, which is the sensor head for Plasma Local Anomalous Noise Experiment (PLANE). model of Flat Plasma Spec trometer (FLAPS).

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37 High Frontier cadets with a priceless opportunity to plan and execute operations and perform data analysis on a NASA satellite system compa rable in scope and complexity to space platforms that they may encounter later in their Air Force careers. Cadets will be exposed to a broad array of issues and challenges that face all space mis sions. They will gain invaluable experience dealing with mis network of ground stations and their Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System. The residual science capabilities for the satellite fall into two basic categories. The former relativity gyroscopes are still able to function as precise accelerometers. This fact would conceivably allow measurements in the areas of aeronomy (e.g., a detailed study of atmospheric upwelling and the drag this causes to orbit gravity gradient). The second category of science capabilities would deal with using the attitude sensors for measuring effects other than originally intended. The star cameras could be used ers could be used to measure radiofrequency scintillation or other effects degrading GPS performance. The turnover of command and control of this NASA satellite to USAFA represents an unprecedented opportunity for an under graduate institution. The potential for future payoff both in terms enormous. Space Weather Education The Physics Department has been at the heart of the devel opment of an undergraduate, interdisciplinary course on space environment and space weather. Space weather is a long-stand ing concern for DoD and has recently been added to the list of hazards requiring mitigation at a national level. Upper-class ca dets from any major have the opportunity to take this course and course has broadened to serve physics, astronautical engineering, space operations, and basic science majors. The course investi basic familiarity with the physics of the space environment and go on to investigate effects on natural and human-made systems. tems. To support this course development effort, the department has teamed with the AFRL, the National Science Foundation and edge required for such a course. In addition to outlining the basic elements of the quiescent and disturbed space environment, the text includes individual chapters on impacts on humans, hard ing, and forecasting space weather. and those enrolled in related independent study courses have the opportunity to present course projects at the National Space Weather Workshop in Boulder, Colorado, and at the local multiinstitution Undergraduate Research Forum held each year in Col orado Springs, Colorado. NASA also provides summer research opportunities for cadets interested in investigating cutting edge models likely to transition to DoD. Additionally, these cadets are able to investigate plasma bubble models and solar irradiance models, both headed for applications in the realms of GPS signal scintillation and satellite drag, respectively. Faculty members maintain and develop their skills in this program; interaction with the Air Force Weather Agency and Air Force Space Command; and panel and committee work with the National Space Weather Program (NSWP). The NSWP (a joint program between DoD and the Departments of Commerce, En ergy, and the Interior, as well as the National Science Foundation) focuses on transitioning research to operations and championing space weather education for the public and space professionals. Intelligence Education The Physics Department is proud to have a number of faculty and staff who have served in the intelligence community. As a to be familiar with how the physics we teach directly applies to intelligence systems and operations. For the last few years, the research projects to gain exposure to how technically challenging space intelligence systems are. In addition, many of these cadets return and conduct research during the academic year with de partment faculty and staff. Starting in summer 2007, these sum mer experiences are being extended to mission ground stations intelligence users on a minute-by-minute basis. These cadets will enter the Air Force with a better appreciation of how their tech They will be better informed customers of intelligenceits ben plication blocks of material to our upper division physics courses that show cadets how the concepts they are learning apply to the basic design of space systems. These topics will be at both the develop additional research opportunities at USAFA. With the soon-to-be-constructed 1.6-meter telescope, we are uniquely as serve as an avenue of new technology demonstration in con cert with the FalconSAT program. Space Situational Awareness The Department of Physics operates an observatory near the

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High Frontier 38 cadet area which houses a 61-cm telescope, a 41-cm telescope, and several smaller telescopes. Cadets obtain practical experi ence with SSA techniques by operating these telescopes in vari ous physics courses and during cadet independent research proj ects. Current observatory research and the various laboratories in the cadet physics courses focus on three main astronomical tech of astronomical objects are studied, including minor planets and eclipsing binary stars, as well as Earth-orbiting satellites. Much of this research is conducted collaboratively with astronomers at other universities and researchers in the AFRL. For example, course includes obtaining a light curve of a geostationary satellite and then using this light curve to construct a model of the satel modeling, light-curve inversion code used in this lab was origi nally written by department faculty and physics research cadets Center during summer research. The USAFA observatory will soon be expanded to include a 1.6-m telescope, with rapid slew capability, based on the central Large Aperture Mirror Program. This new telescope will be ca pable of tracking satellites in low-Earth orbit (down to ~200 km) particular, we plan to use the new facility to provide training for cadets and other DoD personnel, as a test bed for instrument de velopment, and for additional collaborative activities in conjunc located at Kirtland AFB, New Mexico and the Air Force Maui permit exploration of additional research areas such as lidar, laser communications, and satellite illumination. Construction of the new telescope and facility is scheduled to begin in early 2008 and be completed by mid 2009. Dr Delores Knipp (BS, Atmospheric Science, University of Missouri; PhD, Atmospheric Science, emphasis space physics, UCLA) is a professor of physics with the USAFA, where she teaches courses in physics, solar-terrestrial interactions, space weather effects, and astron omy. She also teaches in the USAFAs interdis ciplinary meteorology program. Lt Col Charles J. Wetterer (BS, Physics and Astronomy, University of Maryland; PhD, Physics, University of New Mexico) is the director of faculty development in the Depart ment of Physics, USAFA, Colorado. He has served as the director of the USAFA Obser vatory, Director of Research, Director of Ad ing multiple tours in the department. Lt Col David J. Lee (BS, Electrical Engineer ing, North Dakota State University; MS, Space Operations, Air Force Institute of Technology; PhD, Engineering Physics, Force Institute of Technology) is an assistant professor of Phys ics at the USAFA. Prior to this assignment he was a SPO division chief for advanced imag ery programs at the National Reconnaissance Dr. M. Geoff McHarg (BS, Physics, Mis souri Southern State College; MS, Engineer ing Physics, Air Force Institute of Technology; PhD, Physics, University of Alaska, Fairbanks) is the director of the Space Physics and Atmo spheric Research Center (SPARC) in the De partment of Physics at USAFA. As SPARC director, Dr. McHarg is responsible for leading loads for the USAFA small satellite program. Col Rex R. Kiziah (BS, Physics, US Air Force Academy; PhD, Physics, The University of Texas at Austin) is a permanent professor and the head of the Department of Physics, US Air Force Academy (USAFA), Colorado Springs, Colorado. He leads a 50-member department which educates, trains, and inspires 2,700 fu ics and meteorology undergraduate courses. Lt Col Michael E. Dearborn (BS, Physics, USAFA; MA, Physics, The University of Tex as at Austin; PhD, Optical Sciences, University of New Mexico) is deputy head of the Depart ment of Physics, USAFA, Colorado Springs, Colorado. Colonel Dearborn also serves as chief scientist for the USAFA small satellite program. Dr. Geoff Andersen (BS Physics, Adelaide University; PhD Physics, Adelaide University) is a research physicist in the Laser and Optics Research Center at the USAFA. His area of research is large optics for space applications. correction of aberrated mirrors, wavefront sensing and diffractive optics. Recently he has become involved with the construction of a meter class telescope at the Academy. Maj Brian K. Bailey (BS, Physics, Carnegie Mellon University; MS, Astronautical Engi neering, Naval Postgraduate School; MBA, assistant professor of Physics, USAFA, Colo rado. He is responsible for the Physics Depart ment budget planning and execution as well as instructing over 70 cadets a semester in phys ics and systems engineering.

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39 High Frontier CDR Mark M. Rhoades, USN, retired Lecturer, Naval Postgraduate School Systems Engineering/Information Sciences Departments CDR William Joseph Welch, USN, retired Lecturer, Naval Postgraduate School Information Sciences Department Monterey, California W hen former Air Force Space Command Commander (AFSPC/CC), General Lance W. Lord, retired, stated, uate School (NPS) Space Systems Academic Group (SSAG) heard a vision in the making. So as General Lord set a course to address Space Professional Development, the NPS SSAG com mitted itself to meet some of the graduate education needs of the nearly 10,000 members of the space cadre. Education is an essential element to upgrading the space cad and Space Commission reports and NPS could not agree more. In addition to making the space cadre more technically skilled, education is also an effective tool to promote employee reten tion. Given the recent criticism that much of the space cadre work is being performed by contractors, 1 retention of knowl edgeable, skilled government employees is critical to continue to build a robust cadre. acquisition managers coming into the Air Force with technical degrees has declined over the past 15 years, from 68 percent in 1990 to 16 percent in 2005. 2 This decline in acquisition manag ers with technical degrees, coupled with other factors, threatens space acquisition workforce and meet national security space mission needs. 3 NPS has designed curricula and methods of re mediation to allow students with demonstrated good academic grams even if they do not have a technical undergraduate de gree. Distance Learning Offers Best Method to Reach Majority of Space Cadre US Air Force space professionals, as well as other Air Force vanced education. This educational requirement can be serviced by combinations of resident and distance learning (DL) pro Naval Postgraduate SchoolCommitted and Prepared to Support the Space Cadre Space Professional Development there must be a plan to provide educational opportunities to the enlisted and civilian members as well, including the reserves and national guardsmen in the operation, development, sustainment, application, and integration of military space systems. 4 Many attend residential education due to operational requirements. location, are better suited to meet the educational requirements for these personnel. In addition, DL programs have the added advantage of being able to follow the student through temporary additional duty or permanent change of station moves. Educa tional technologies have grown over recent years, now allowing almost all forms of instructor/student engagement over the stu high-speed internet with a properly equipped computer, he/she can attend classes. DL education provides an opportunity for space cadre members to pursue an advanced degree while still the student builds and applies his/her skill set gained through the education program. The most successful students have been ible work schedules and regular periods each week that can be dedicated to DL. NPS is set to fully engage this requirement with demonstrat ed excellent resident and DL programs. NPS offers a master of science in space systems operations and master of science in space systems engineering in residence and now offers two a masters of science in space systems operations degree. All age of the space cadre is to achieve the educational goals set Naval Postgraduate School Space Systems The NPS SSC is an accredited four-course, graduate-level of the four courses listed below. The courses are offered se quentially, once per academic quarter. SS3011 Space Technology and Applications PH3052 Physics of Space and Airborne Sensor Systems SS3613 Military Satellite Communications PH2514 Introduction to the Space Environment The SSC courses are delivered through asynchronous Webbased interaction. The assignments, content, and engagement

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High Frontier 40 are paced week-to-week by the instructors, and students have ing during each week. The only prerequisite is a baccalaureate degree. 5Feedback from recent SSC students: the educational expectations of high performing professionals. Many organizations and companies have embraced the policy of lifelong learning for their most capable leaders. Given the requirement to complete a solid BS program, almost continu ous subsequent education is required. This education takes the form of short courses, both resident and distant, as well as DL courses. The previous educational model, an 18-month (approx imate) out-of-cycle resident educational model is less embraced. Companies, such as Cisco, IBM, Motorola, and so forth, expect their technical and supervisory personnel to be in some type of class continuously. USN leaders have taken a step toward this I found the discussions on the current and future of the mili tary space programs to be of the most interest to me. This subject directly impacts areas of my responsibility. I also believe every would give them an appreciation of the complexities of receiv Group extended an invitation to 10 USAF space professionals for enrollment into the SSC program. Despite short notice, the response from the Air Force space professionals was astound ing. NPS received more than 130 applications in less than two weeks. NPS has offered the SSC to USAF, Navy, Army, and space professionals will further cement the Naval Postgraduate School's commitment to educating USAF space operators. The four courses of the SSC are also part of the NPS master gree program. Completion of the SSC represents 25 percent of the course work necessary for the degree program. Naval Postgraduate School Master of Science in Space Systems Operations Program and US government civilians with knowledge of military op portunities and applications in space. Students are provided in struction about the operation, tasking, and employment of space surveillance, communications, navigation, and atmospheric/ oceanographic/environmental sensing systems as well as pay space and information products. Courses are delivered at the ing, Web-conferencing tools, and Web-enhanced online cours civilians. Admission requires a baccalaureate degree with a grade point average of 2.6 or better, completion of mathematics through differential equations and integral calculus, and at least one course in calculus-based physics. A security clearance is not required for most courses, but is highly recommended. Stu requirements as on-campus students. Current Course of Study SSO Fall Entry Quarter 1 SS3011 Space Technology and Applications PH2514 Introduction to the Space Environment Quarter 2 SS3500 PH3052 Physics of Space and Airborne Sensor Systems Quarter 3 Intro to Communication Systems Engineering AE4830 Spacecraft Systems I Quarter 4 Communications Systems Analysis SS3613 Military Satellite Communications Quarter 5 SS3041 AE4831 Spacecraft Systems II Quarter 6 SS0810 Thesis (or sponsor directed course) Quarter 7 SS0810 Thesis SS4051 Military Space Systems and Architectures Quarter 8 SS0810 Thesis ( TBD) (2 nd Sponsor Directed Course, if desired.*) Plans are in development to offer courses in Space Control and MA SIPRNET/JWICS, provided students have the clearances and access. apply. Central Sponsor Funding Greatly Enhances Participation NPS has several limitations imposed by Title 10. NPS is not allowed to accept Department of Defense (DoD) Tuition NPS can accept Acquisition Workforce Tuition Assistance be cause it is managed by a DoD component. NPS recommends that large commands centrally sponsor opportunities for their ences with other NPS DL curricula, funding by a central sponsor

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41 High Frontier discounts for sponsors who commit to 10 or more students), (3) the sponsor(s) has opportunities to recommend and guide areas the enrollment selections, (5) the funding sponsor(s) can tailor some of the curriculum content, and (6) people are nearly 10 times more likely to apply for educational opportunities that are of top-quality applicants. Naval Postgraduate School Program Strengths NPS has a faculty with a wealth of space experience. As an interdisciplinary association of professors, the SSAG serves as the focal point for all space-related research performed at NPS. In addition to resident faculty, the SSAG has a number of full-time chair professors to bring industrial, military, and Tactical Exploitation of National Capabilities Program, Navy Space Technology Program, and the Naval Network and Space security focus to the NPS space program. A major goal is to couple NPS space research efforts with accomplished through space-related thesis research in several as an educational tool for students. The SSAG oversees clas ties and helps facilitate their placement in follow-on tours. In addition, student-produced Space Capstone design projects are critically reviewed by an external panel composed of members from industry, the military and the government. Lastly, NPS of all other services, including civilians. Conclusion Space education is a critical enabler for a sound and robust space cadre. DL curricula, when properly designed, delivered and funded, can reach a majority of the space cadre where they work and live. NPS has a long legacy of providing world-class space education and prestigious alumni, including 33 astronauts. NPS stands ready with its robust space education programs to continue its legacy of serving the space cadre. Notes: 1 De fense Space Activities: Management Actions Are Needed to Better Iden tify, Track, and Train Air Force Space Personnel, Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Strategic Forces, Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives, September 2006, 9. 2 Ibid, 14. 3 Ibid. 4 High Fron tier 5 edu/DL/Cert_Progs/SS.asp. CDR Joe Welch, USN, re tired (BS, General Engineer ing, US Naval Academy; MS, Space Systems Operations, Naval Postgraduate School [NPS], Monterey, California) is an instructor at the Naval Postgraduate School, teach ing courses in Information Science and Space Systems. He is currently the program coordinator for the Naval nated the delivery of postgraduate educational programs which hower. He has completed a variety of cruises to the Mediter ranean and the North Atlantic. During his career he served as the Program and Technical Support Division, Defense Plant CDR Mark Rhoades, USN, retired (BS, Aerospace Engi neering, University of Michi gan; MS, Aeronautical Engi neering, Naval Postgraduate School [NPS]; MS, Systems Engineering Management, NPS) is the academic associate for the NPS Master of Science Space Systems Operations Distance Learning (DL) Pro gram. He is also a lecturer in the NPS Systems Engineering and Information Sciences departments. He is responsible for the management of more than 300 distance learning students in the Systems Engineering, Systems Engineering Management and Space Systems Operations DL programs. Commander Rhoades has served as a Systems Engineer for Naval Air Systems Command and as a Deputy Program Man geles, AFB. In 2001, he was assigned to the Naval Postgradu Space Systems, Systems Engineering and Analysis, and Sys tems Engineering Management (PD-21) curricula where he excellent academic standards and were operationally relevant to the Department of Defense.

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High Frontier 42 Your United States Air Force Weapons School Maj Christopher S. Putman th Weapons Squadron Nellis AFB, Nevada Space professionals must acquaint themselves with the air, and services they can contribute, while the non-space forces had better learn how they can support space operations so the whole force becomes more lethal and responsive. 1 ~ General Charles A. Horner, USAF, retired W craft units throughout the United States Air Force (USAF) for throughout Air Force Space Command (AFSPC). Space weap and space power application, contributing to effective employ ment of space capabilities. Concurrently, graduates who re main outside the command continue to integrate with and teach non-space forces. The Space Weapons Instructor Course (WIC) at the United States Air Force Weapons School (USAFWS) has produced predominately with operational level organizations outside of AFSPC, notably at numbered air forces around the world. The focus of these graduates was and continues to be integration of space capabilities across the joint spectrum of warfare. Chief of Staff General T. Michael Moseley highlighted this focus in the August 2007 High Frontier Journal ence of space expertise in combat theaters cultivates the inte gration of space into the planning and execution decision-mak 2 However, recent emphasis from General Kevin P. Chil ton, former commander of AFSPC, has provided a vector that now sends centage of Space WIC graduates back to tactical level AFSPC units where the graduate tics, techniques, and procedure (TTP) person in the squadron, be comes the go-to guy for Space Professional Development 3 tracks seem to compete for limited educational resources within an already crowded weapons school curriculum. The USAFWS and 328 th Weapons Squadron (WPS) meet these diverse needs from Nellis AFB, Nevada. In illustrating how the 328 WPS meets the varied USAF interrelated audiences and their potential questions with respect to the Space WIC. First, squadron, group, and wing leadership throughout the Air Force who seek to nominate an applicant to what is the Space WIC so that I can recommend the right personnel? what can I expect as a USAFWS student? how is the course currently structured so that I can better pre pare personnel selected to attend? Weapons School History The USAFWS began with the signing of letter 53-24 by Gen as the USAF Aircraft Gunner School at Nellis AFB, the school 4 The stand up of Air Combat Command the previous year began a mated with the introduction of the B-52, B-1, and Intelligence WICs. The post Desert Storm era saw the USAFWS build upon integration lessons learned and add additional WICs to include HH-60, RC-135, EC-130, Space, MC-130, and AC-130. Since the beginning of the Global War on Terrorism, the USAFWS has furthered its integration efforts by incorporating stealth platforms to include the F-22A scheduled for an initial class in 2009. The most recent change to the USAFWS was the 5 July 2006 merger of Mobility Weapons School C-130, KC-135, and C-17 aircraft with the USAFWS. This act created a single in tegrated weapons school executing the current USAFWS mis 5 The USAFWS consists of 16 squadrons implementing 20 WICs representing 17 aircraft types plus two Intelligence WICs and the Space WIC. Nine squadrons are located at Nellis AFB with seven geographically separated across the United States. The current structure permits the USAFWS to annually gradu ate approximately 200 students over the course of two classes 6 Although separated, all students are brought together three times during the program for core academics at the beginning

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43 High Frontier and middle of the course and for the Mission Employment (ME) Phase just prior to graduation. Additionally, WICs interact on a more limited basis throughout the course to support syllabus requirements. Weapons School Focus tainty and ambiguities of combat in the 21 st century, the pre mier school for advanced instructor training and employment of USAF weapon systems continues to adapt to the challenges of today while keeping an eye on the emerging threats of to morrow. The Commandant of the USAF Weapons School, otic, volatile and uncertain, we owe it to our Air Force and our nation to produce the most lethal warriors capable of integrat cal and operational levels. We must increase the realism and 7 To accomplish its mission, the USAFWS focuses on build ing specialized and core skill sets to create humble, approach skill sets throughout the course, evolving into a credible expert not stop at just being credible, he will be ineffective as both a teacher and advisor if he is not also humble and approachable the training audience and allows free interaction with students. leadership and peers and ultimately diminish his utility to the unit despite his technical expertise. 8 The humble, approachable, and credible mindset permeates all aspects of instruction on the specialized and core skill sets. tem, as discussed later in this article with respect to the Space WIC. Core skills are those which all weapons school graduates must possess regardless of weapon system background. The core skills focus on communication, problem solving, integration, organization, and leadership. Communications skills necessary for effective instruction include mastery of vanced writing ability. Students learn advanced problem solv ing techniques and how to function as a unit advisor on tactics. Students also venture beyond their weapon system so that they processes, USAF and joint weapons and tactics, and integration of forces for composite operations. Additionally, students learn organizational and leadership skills necessary to run the weap ons and tactics function. Finally, graduates hone their leader ship and planning skills as they function as a mission planning cell chief. 9 The USAFWS uses a building block approach to train weap communications skills, time management, and coping with stress. Students grow as they give and receive constructive feedback. Ultimately, they will critique their own performance and develop corrective actions. The USAFWS certainly can not teach the students every technical detail or expose them to will, however, have the skills necessary to critically analyze problems, develop solutions, execute, and debrief to any prob lem they may face. By developing the core skills throughout the course, the USAFWS produces humble, approachable, and 10 Space WIC The Space WIC syllabus, 328 WPS mission statement and 328 WPS objectives support both the USAFWS objectives and AFSPC guidance. The Space WIC syllabus details the over all training strategy and approximate amount of instruction re quired to attain course goals and graduate. Total training time consists of 473.5 hours of academic classroom instruction plus course. 11 The current 328 WPS mission statement used to support the instructor training in the employment of select weapons sys Additionally, the 328 WPS developed six primary squadron cialized skill sets for Space WIC students and guide syllabus implementation. 12 fects and space superiority. ning/execution of air and space power. solvers 6. Apply security measures in any given situation. Instructors use the squadron objectives when evaluating stu dent mission performance and providing feedback. The perfor mance standard for the students gradually increases throughout the course. The rising scale allows students to learn the new, and in some cases foreign, core skills, make mistakes, identify subsequent graded events. tors to adapt the course structure and instructional techniques to the diverse and sometimes unique background of our students. The 328 WPS can also quickly incorporate emerging space is sues, ensuring students graduate armed with current TTPs and system knowledge. Systems Phase The space syllabus begins with approximately seven days of Core 1 instruction attended by all USAFWS WIC students. Classes cover subjects such as infrared and radar missile theo

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High Frontier 44 ry, precision guided munitions, and threats. The commonality of this instruction builds a baseline among all students and pro students from other WICs. Upon completion of Core 1, students enter the longest phase of the syllabus, Systems Phase, which lasts approximately two and half months. Students build their space systems knowledge theater command, control, and communications, navigation warfare, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR), theater missile defense (TMD), and space superiority (SS). While the phase concludes with the SS Block, space supe riority has been integrated into all blocks of instruction. As students learn each system, they analyze how to protect that system for friendly use and deny its use by the adversary. classroom academics with associated exams. Systems Phase academic instruction focuses on the requisite amount of system knowledge so that the students can employ space systems in a student will not need to know how to update the GPS naviga tion message, but may need to know the structure of the GPS navigation message in order to assist F-15E students in devel oping small diameter bomb tactics. Further, Systems Phase not only introduces system capabili ties and limitations but also concentrates heavily on their ap plication. For instance, instructors use the combat search and rescue (CSAR) mission area during the ISR Block to highlight the application of space-based systems. Students then take Throughout the phase, instructors from other WICs teach relevant supporting weapon systems to the space students as applicable to the current block. As an example, students learn RC-135 Rivet Joint capabilities and limitations during the ISR Block. Students must then be able to integrate these weapon systems with space systems during subsequent academics and missions. Each Systems Phase block concludes with two missions or operational problem presented to the student. Students may perform the mission solo or as part of a group. The student has a set amount of time to solve the problem, known as mission planning. The problem may consist of anything from teaching space-based ISR capabilities to an HH-60 pilot to performing a GPS interference and navigation tool (GIANT) run to develop ing a personnel recovery command and control architecture. In structor assistance during mission planning decreases through out the course as students build their problem solving skills. At the appointed time, the student presents the mission solution to Missions may be observed by instructors from other WICs as well as supplemental personnel such as 57 th Wing leadership, Air Force Warfare Center leadership, and previous weapons school graduates. These audiences provide critical feedback to students but do not evaluate the mission. Upon completion of the mission, the student will debrief their performance to determine (a) what went wrong, (b) what student teaches the debrief to the instructor. trainer ride many times, a space WIC student may only be eval such as GIANT. It is up to the student to accurately identify er possibly after graduation). In addition to applying space knowledge and developing core skills, students begin to integrate with other WICs during Sys tems Phase missions. Students will not have all the answers to complete many missions and must utilize student and instructor expertise from other WICs to accomplish the mission. The diverse background of the students presents a unique challenge. A class typically has students from different space backgrounds, each with their own area of expertise. The vol ume and complexity of the material throughout the course means the students must teach each other based on their indi not accomplish the syllabus alone. To aid in this process, in for students to improve any weaknesses they may have with respect to specialty or core skills. Plans Phase Upon completion of Systems Phase, students begin the oper ationally focused Plans Phase. Because many space effects are planned and executed at the operational level of war (by both the theater and space joint functional component command), students are exposed to space doctrine and how it is applied to deliberate and crisis action planning. This phase is directly assigned to AFSPC squadrons can also use this knowledge in developing unit actions to effectively support operational ob -Weapons School Graduates at the Combined Operations Center.

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45 High Frontier jectives. Further, these graduates can expect to deploy to a career. Finally, these skills are equally applicable to the large number of graduates who will be assigned to (or augment) the Block and Crisis Action Planning Block. Each block follows a construct similar to the previous phase where academics pre cede several days of mission planning, concluding with mission execution. Phase academics concentrate on operational level processes and TTPs. The Plans Phase also adds numerous sem inars to the educational method where instructors and students work together to solve planning problems. A unique aspect to Plans Phase is that all student developed planning products are cumulative and will be used in subse quent seminars and missions. Students thus continue to hone problem solving skills by identifying and correcting errors; to the level success on the next event. Additionally, all products tion Phase. dents to integrate space into theater campaign plans. Through numerous academic seminars, instructors work with students to develop the air portion of the campaign plan and then assign students the task of developing the supporting space compo nents. Among other tasks, students develop appropriate tactical objectives, tactical tasks, and measures of effectiveness to gain During the process, students must demonstrate their credibility cal knowledge when building their planning products. unit) planning considerations throughout the phase. The stu The desired effects establishes which space units support the campaign. Further, students decide how to best integrate the space effects with the overall campaign plan to achieve unity of effort. integrate with students during mission planning and provide re planning decisions. Through this process students realize the and that neither can operate in isolation. Integration Phase Unlike the previous phases, the Integration Phase has no test able academic lessons. Students do, however, attend Core II classes with the other WICs at approximately the halfway point of the course. Core II classes continue to build a common level of knowledge among all students and focus on weapon system capabilities, limitations, and employment considerations. As part of Core II, all students receive a tour of the extensive Ne vada Test and Training Range (NTTR) complex. Two days of Core II academics concludes with tactical problems. Students are divided into focused groups to develop solutions to tactical problems such as integrated air defense system takedown or CSAR. This is the initial opportunity for students from all the various WICs to work together to solve a common problem. space superiority actions for a select time slice of the air tasking Plans Phase. While there are technically no outside agencies supporting this mission, the students experience integration when they are divided into different agencies to execute their vault. Instructors act as other supporting agencies. Students execute from the 328 WPS building where each room is desig nated as a different agency. The essential value of this mission which participate may vary from class to class, but typically th Space Control Squadron (SPCS), 4 SPCS, and the 21 st to their normal mission requirements, students must lead per sonnel assigned to the exercise at each supporting unit. Thus, ning and executing the mission. essentially reaccomplish all planning actions from the Plans type of fog and friction, forcing students to rapidly adapt their problem solving and communications skills. Location assign ment ensures that students lead personnel who likely have more lenge for the students. Students also test their skills as a cred ible advisor when they brief recommendations to senior leader ship at each location rather than instructors. The senior leaders ing instructor skills by teaching not only integration concepts to supporting personnel but also the debrief process. Instructors observe students to see how well they lead the identifying problems and associated root causes, and then de dents to meet syllabus requirements, but also a chance for stu dents to build relationships with the supporting organizations

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High Frontier 46 provides an arena for supporting organizations learned. to Hurlburt Field, Florida, for a week long joint special operations forces planning and execution mission. The scenario presents numerous opportunities for the students to present informal lessons on space capabilities, develop exercise inputs, and assist in developing command and control procedures. Toward tions aircraft. Remaining Integration Phase missions concentrate on integration with the Nellisbased WICs. Students learn tactical CSAR procedures then play the role of an actual survi vor on the NTTR in support of a scenario. Students then use the knowledge gained on the range to teach a focused lesson on CSAR procedures. Next, students are Throughout Integration Phase, students should take every available opportunity to teach students from other WICs space capabilities and limitations as they apply to the problems they must solve. At the completion of each mission, the space stu dents share their lessons learned with the other WICs as well as help construct overall group lessons learned that apply to all WICs. Mission Employment The capstone phase for all students is ME. ME consists of multiple large force employment missions, each with its own focus such as strategic attack and dynamic targeting. ME par ticipation is not limited to the USAF WICs but receives sup port from across the services, enabling true joint planning and execution. Core III precedes formal commencement of ME and focuses processes. Core III concludes with an operational planning ex ercise, typically lead by a space student. Space students participate in two to three ME missions over the course of two weeks. Missions start with one to two days of mission planning followed by execution and debrief. In structors provide the space students a list of space assets avail able for the mission. Students determine where space can and cannot support the overall plan and integrate appropriately during planning, execution, and debrief. Instructors and space unit augmentees simulate supporting organizations during all aspects of the mission. As in Integration Phase, all students come together to determine overall group les lessons learned. Although space does not participate in ev ery ME mission, space effects play key roles in several missions. For example, elimina weapon to preserve friendly assets forms the basis of the dynamic targeting mis sion. In effect, all Weapons School students work together to maintain space superiority. Supporting Syllabus Components dents go on several TDYs to the space iting these organizations allows students to inter act with system experts, ask questions, and solidify planning considerations students will use during their Front Range, and the national capital region. Timing of the visits varies with each class based on availability of supporting organizations. planning, debrief procedures, tactics development, and the Tac page paper on a near term issue (less than 18-24 months) that can be solved through the use of TTPs rather than a material their gaining or losing squadron and then go on to implement the solution after graduation. Students that do well on their explore all details necessary for an executable solution rather than generically covering a broad topic. The paper can be a tion skills. Assigned soon after selection to the USAFWS, each 13 Finally, two supplemental programs outside the 328 WPS help prepare students for success in the Space WIC. All stu dents attend a Weapons School Preparation Course (WSPC) at the National Security Space Institute before arriving at Nellis AFB. WSPC facilitates smooth transition into Core I and Sys tems Phase by highlighting space and Air Force systems con 14 While still in its formative stages, local spin-up conducted by the wing weapons and tactics func tion further prepares students for the rigors of the Space WIC. Unlike WSPC, wing spin-up is unit and individual dependent. Areas of focus for wing spin-up programs can include unit spe

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47 High Frontier instruction. Wing spin-up also provides an excellent opportu nity to begin work on the student paper with a weapons school A View From the 328 WPS Although the Space WIC syllabus teaches students the skills lend themselves to success in the program. First and foremost, an applicant should be a competent classroom and weapon system instructor. Spending extra time at the Weapons School missions. The applicant should be comfortable learning and and be a creative thinker. These traits facilitate solving com plex problems in a resource constrained environment. Finally, to master the debrief process, an applicant should be receptive to constructive feedback and have an ability to conduct an hon est self assessment. The Future As previously stated, the Space WIC syllabus constantly changes to meet the needs of the USAF. The 328 WPS is con sidering several changes to the syllabus and squadron objectives to ensure the USAFWS continues to provide quality graduates doubling the number of Systems Phase missions. This provides cation, planning, problem solving and, most importantly, de brief skills. Additional initiatives include further integration of select courseware to read-ahead manuals that can be discussed as part of wing spin-up programs. To ensure these changes meet the needs of the USAF, the 328 WPS will host a syllabus review conference in the summer of 2008 at Nellis AFB. The 328 WPS welcomes inputs prior to and attendance by all concerned parties during the rewrite conference. Conclusion low 328 WPS instructors to develop core and specialized weap USAFWS equally prepared to assume either the weapons and tactics function in an AFSPC squadron or to integrate space ef to meet the diverse needs of the USAF for space weapons of The USAFWS and 328 WPS are key components of an liver trained and ready Airmen with unrivaled space capabili Notes: 1 High Frontier 2 High Frontier 3 General Kevin P. Chilton, Space Warfare Symposium, remarks, Key speech.asp?id=334. 4 5 tation, USAFWS, Nellis AFB, Nevada. 6 Ibid. 7 8 9 Ibid. 10 Ibid. 11 ACC Syllabus, Space WIC April 2007, 11-13. 12 13 See the Weapons School links in the bibliography to read previous student papers. 14 www.peterson.af.mil/library/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=4933. Maj Christopher S. Putman (BS, Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida; MAS, Aerospace Management, EmbryRiddle Aeronautical University) th ons Squadron, United States Air AFB, Nevada. He is responsible for directing 15 instructors in ex ecuting the graduate-level Space labus to produce space weapons After graduating from OTS in 1995, Major Putman began his th Spe th Equipment Maintenance Squad ron. After completing USMT (Top Graduate) and DSCS III IQT, DSCS III Operations duties at the 3 rd Space Operations Squadron. coming chief, Space Operations and later chief, Space Plans with the 609 th Air Operations Group, Shaw AFB, South Carolina. He deployed numerous times to the Prince Sultan AB and Al Udeid AB CAOCs in support of OIF, OEF, and HOA operations. Command and Staff College (non-resident), and USMC Com mand and Staff College (non-resident).

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High Frontier 48 Sustaining Nuclear Expertise in AFSPC: A Way Ahead for ICBM Maintenance and Operations 1 Lt Col Andrew S. Kovich Commander, 90 th Maintenance Operations Squadron F. E. Warren AFB, Wyoming E. LeMay said, Go to maintenance. You need some experience in logistics It was a great move. It gave me a much better understanding of logistics and maintenance. I had thousands of airmen working for me. Normally commanders under the cen tralized system had few enlisted men working for them It was to wing commander, but I realized, as General LeMay advised, I could learn a great deal more in maintenance. 2 ~ General David C. Jones, former Air Force chief of staff and chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff B uilding and preserving Department of Defense (DoD) this endeavor by organizing, training, and equipping space and 21M) to perform nuclear duties. Nevertheless, a 2001 study 3 have fewer total years in nuclear assignments) compared to a 4 and perceptions that nuclear experience is of declining value in 5 These challenges must be addressed effec tively because nuclear weapons in general and intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) in particular, will continue to play a vital role in the defense of the US for the foreseeable future. The purpose of this article is to discuss these issues and offer poten tial solutions to the nuclear expertise challenge. The shrinking size of the ICBM community over the past 15 Space Professional Development Additionally, the prospects for developing quality, experienced the future are not positive. Force shaping policies and the fact ICBM maintenance is a subset of munitions maintenance could in the ICBM community. In short, the Air Force is simply not growing enough future ICBM leaders with an understanding of is clearly needed. Senior leaders must create a vision for the future to ensure knowledgeable, experienced personnel are in Personnel in the combined munitions and missile mainte nance and the combined space and missile operations career focus is often lost. This is a result of the 1999 merger between munitions and ICBM maintenance, as well as the 1994 merger 6 The majority expected to major in one aspect of space operations and minor in termediate development education, only seven are selected each year for internships at the national labs. 7 Moreover, as a Na spend less time on strategic nuclear planning and targeting and 8 While this may be somewhat appropriate given the current strategic environment, the DoD and the USAF sustain, and employ nuclear weapon systems. 20 th Air Force (20 AF) has done a good job over the past two years addressing edu cation at the basic and intermediate levels by creating the Min uteman III tactics, techniques, and procedures volume, as well as developing an advanced ICBM course to be administered by the National Security Space Institute. However, these initiatives will take time to build the nuclear expertise the service will need in the future. Further, education is only one piece of the puzzle, the appropriate level of experience is also necessary. Part of an

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49 High Frontier their knowledge while at the same time increasing their under standing of the nuclear and ICBM missions is needed. A tour in ICBM maintenance following an ICBM operations assignment provides this breadth and depth of nuclear experience. In other words, an ICBM operator who broadens into ICBM maintenance should be as competitive for senior leader positions as the of Making ICBM maintenance a safe option (with regard to future command competitiveness) for ICBM operations personnel to the command with another avenue for producing both nuclear and maintenance expertise. 9 Additionally, ICBM maintenance community. They too must be allowed to broaden their ICBM experience. Force shaping has eliminated and may continue to eliminate personnel, balancing the year groups could negatively impact the nuclear experience in 20 AF. For example, if a 21M year group strong background in ICBM maintenance may or may not exist. 15 or more years in service are ineligible for force shaping. The (as far as total active Federal military service to date plus duty to assume leadership roles is remote. This is an important 10 While force shaping is certainly a factor, another problem facing the ICBM maintenance community, future force shaping deci sions are sure to impact missile maintainers, as the afterthought related duties. So, where does this leave the ICBM maintenance community? The gap in strategic leadership and vision on the part of the ICBM maintenance community has forced maintenance group cers in critical positions. For example, the Missile Maintenance perience for their entire career. At one base, for example, these they have not been allowed to mature into the ICBM leaders and capable mentors needed by 20 AF. Senior leaders in the ICBM maintenance community are re sponsible for addressing these personnel issues both internally and externally. Internally, MXG/CCs have to weigh the draw comes problematic because of their own lack of experience. Fi the broad USAF experience to be an effective leadership asset for mentoring. While these internal considerations impact lead ers at the tactical level, the external environment also presents challenges at the strategic level. Two external pressures will challenge senior leaders when addressing the problem of declining ICBM maintenance ex maintenance experience, many senior ICBM maintenance lead ers still argue for a combined munitions and missile maintenance commanders in 20 AF with a primarily munitions background. tions experience in the 20 AF maintenance community. 11 Ad experienceoperations and maintenance. This remains the case with all three of the current MXG/CCs (and their deputies) having ICBM operations experience. Moreover, a clear major ity of the current ICBM maintenance leadership in 20 AF have ICBM operations experience, including some who have spent the majority of their careers in operations. 12 A second external pressure is the resistance within the ICBM community to allow maintenance leaders came from operations, maintenance paro occur have prevented some senior missile maintainers from viewing a merger of the ICBM operations and maintenance ca

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High Frontier 50 for fear of sidetracking their careers. All senior leaders in the ICBM community need to challenge these beliefs and work to move beyond tribal loyalties to establish the good of the ICBM mission as their primary goal. Conforming to the status quo with regard to maintenance of is the ability of ICBM leaders to negotiate a viable solution with disparate factions. In this case, the two groups that need to be educated on the value of ICBM maintenance manning changes are the ICBM operations community and the senior leaders in the ICBM maintenance community who believe that better 21M career paths reside in the larger USAF maintenance community negotiation is to understand not only what outcome should oc cur but why that outcome is desired. 20 AF needs to create and foundation in both missile operations and missile maintenance. between operations and maintenance is needed. Missile opera taining safe, secure ICBMs on alert. These skills include a thorough understanding of security, technical order usage, code procedures, weapons system safety rules, standardized training and evaluation processes, and an intimate knowledge of emer are taught how to produce credible combat capability and sustain a weapon system. They understand the challenges associated with modernizing a weapon system and the monetary and logis gain important leadership and management skills not typically available to operations crew members who rarely get the oppor tise in nuclear weapon systems. nuclear expertise in both ICBM operations and maintenance be tracked as part of the Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) space professional program. In order to ensure the ICBM mission remains viable through at least 2030, experts in ICBM opera tions, maintenance and acquisition need to be created and main tained. 13 skill sets to provide logistics and maintenance expertise to the command as a whole. To ensure AFSPC preserves this logistics and maintenance expertise while maintaining the ability to carry 13S and 21M communities needs to be encouraged and tracked within the space professional program. There is a precedent within AFSPC for such a program. AFSPC acquisition profes between space operations and space acquisition assignments. space operations assignments. As part of the AFSPC space pro fessionals program, space acquirers have been able to cross over signments and operations assignments easily. Despite being part of the larger Air Force acquisition community, the pressure upon cause space acquisition professionals have a four-star advocate, the AFSPC/CC who defends the need for a focused cadre with space acquisition expertise. This ability to transition between operations and acquisition assignments throughout a career pro fettered ability to move between ICBM maintenance and opera tions builds a depth of nuclear and ICBM experience as well as breadth in the logistics/maintenance area. Further, this breadth and depth is far more valuable to the ICBM mission area than the ICBM operator who performs a space operations crew tour or the 21M doing conventional aircraft munitions or maintenance business. However, it is important to establish a core number of School graduates will eventually provide one avenue for ICBM operations experts to remain in the ICBM community without opportunities to ICBM maintenance will likewise help to pro vide an expanded career path for ICBM experts. Further, this ICBM leaders of the future need to have knowledge depth in the unit level is a must. However, the growth of nuclear experts vision for how future ICBM experts should be developed. After completing an initial assignment in ICBM maintenance, an of tour. Successful performance during this tour will open doors for future operational assignments. These future assignments include instructor and planner duties in unit weapons and tactics or as strike planners or nuclear command and control experts back to an operations group as chief, standardization and evalua house, crew members with a mix of instructor, evaluator, and/or emergency war order experience should cross over for a main acquisition assignment at the depot to perform ICBM sustain ment duties at Hill AFB, Utah, or transition back to operations

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51 High Frontier tions and maintenance communities. and results in a lack of leadership support for 13S to 21M crossan operations tour. Many senior 21M leaders in AFSPC see themselves as part of the larger USAF maintenance community Indeed, the future of ICBM maintenance is tied more closely to ICBM operations than it is to the aircraft maintenance com munity. Senior 20 AF leaders need to address these challenges possess solid experience in both communities will possess the nuclear expertise required to be better able to effectively address the future challenges of the ICBM force. intentionally grown leaders like themselves. Despite the fact that most ICBM maintenance leaders have performed in both operations and maintenance, they have been slow to adjust main tenance career paths to formalize a process to continually do so. the operations or logistics communities. This ability will not only be good for the ICBM community, it will communicate to outsiders that AFSPC and the USAF are good stewards of the nuclear mission. The creation of group (maintenance and opera tions) and wing commanders with a mix of ICBM operations and ICBM maintenance experience will encourage the needed crossleaders must provide a vision for the future larger than the chal lenges associated with putting missiles on alert. Without such a vision, the endeavor to safeguard nuclear expertise and develop more ICBM leaders is at risk of failure. Notes: 1 maintainer or as an ICBM operator. This article is a think-piece that I hope will encourage serious discussion about the improvement of the nuclear mission in general and the ICBM mission in particular. 2 Edgar F. Puryear, American GeneralshipCharacter is Everything: The Art of Command 3 ment of DoD Staff Nuclear Expertise Final Report, 21 December 2001, 7. 4 Ibid., 6. 5 Air Force Magazine 17 February 2000, www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/cc/neary.pdf. 6 Center for Counterproliferation Research--National Defense Uni versity and Center for Global Security Research--Lawrence Livermore st www.ndu.edu/inss/books/Books_2001/US%20Nuclear%20Policy%20%20Nov%2001/USNPAF.pdf. 7 Information taken from 2007 message from AFSPC dated 141553Z tion (IDE/SDE) Designation Board (DEDB) Nomination Procedural Mes sage and Civilian Developmental Education (CDE) Nomination Call. 8 US Nuclear Policy for 21 st Century, 4-35. 9 experiences. Moving from one operations assignment to another opera ties; it only exposes them to multiple systems. In short, an ops to ops move is not the correct broadening endeavor to build nuclear expertise. 10 service plus another 10 years of enlisted time, becoming a Sq/CC will many are not willing to make. Unfortunately, the effects of these man power decisions will not be felt for 10 to 12 years when the lack of quali 11 For the purpose of this article, operational munitions experience is 12 In 2007, the majority of the top seven positions at ICBM mainte maintenance backgrounds. 13 of 21 MXG leaders in 20 AF have ICBM operations and ICBM maintenance experience. The experience of the one with ICBM mnx and space acquisition experience; one with engineer ing, space lift mnx and ICBM mnx experience; one with only three years of ICBM mnx and rest space operations; one with space operations and ICBM mnx experience; one one with communications and ICBM mainte nance experience. 13 The nuclear competency in the space professional program needs to ICBM depot (sustainment), ICBM acquisition, and Nuclear munitions. Lt Col Andrew S. Kovich (BS, Bowling Green State University, MS, Central Michigan Univer sity, MMOAS, Air University) is the commander, 90 th Maintenance career, he has held a wide variety of leadership positions in space/ missile operations and mainte nance. He served as an ICBM crew commander, crew instructor, senior standardization/evaluation crew commander, maintenance standardization/evaluation, and and 20 th Air Force staffs as an ICBM strike planner, policy/doctrine and Procedures. st Century: A First-Quarter Team in a Four-Quarter Game, published in the July-August 2006 edition of Military Review and th Air Force: Developing 21 st Century Strike Planners, published in the August 2007 edition of High Frontier.

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High Frontier 52 The Dark Arts: Nuclear Education in the US Air Force Maj Lance K. Adkins Program Element Monitor ICBM Applications Programs Directorate of Plans and Requirements HQ AFSPC, Peterson AFB, Colorado Background: On the Shoulders of Giants setting them to work on a single project. Under the aegis of the Manhattan Engineering District, around 130,000 physicists, engineers, mathematicians, Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen, and rep resentatives of nearly every trade and profession attempted to, ar chain reaction in a large mass of uranium, by which vast 1 The Manhattan can be attributed to the talents of the people involved, as well as to the amount of support the program received at the highest levels. Spurred on by the aggressive leadership of Brig Gen Les progress was amazingly rapid, especially considering the scope of the program. Extending from coast to coast, the Manhattan District constituted a responsive infrastructure that conducted weaponized the components, acquired the delivery aircraft, and Nuclear weapon education also received its start during this period, most notably of 50 young physicists, chemists, and en project is to produce a practical military weapon in the form of a bomb in which the energy is released by a fast neutron chain reaction in one or more of the materials 2 lectures became famous among the small group of cognoscenti familiar with the theoretical grounding for what this paper education in the science and mechanics of nuclear weapons. 3 Space Professional Development Naturally, there are many aspects of nuclear weapons, in cluding policy, strategy, and tactics, which are all vital to a the inner workings of nuclear weapons and their effects with which this article is concerned. Just as the Manhattan District physicists and engineers built upon their existing education al backgrounds to become conversant in the complexities of number of Air Force personnel will extend themselves into the realm of nuclear weapons so that they can competently advise policy makers on Air Force needs and capabilities and those of potential adversaries. This paper intends to examine why an aggressive nuclear education program is needed, the state of the Air Force programs, and discuss opportunities for those who wish to deepen their nuclear knowledge. weapons and warfare has been considerably lessened. How ever, as modern technology makes it increasingly easy for other nations to construct or acquire nuclear weapons, it is apparent waning in its prominence on the world stage. In order to exact due diligence in the defense of the nation, therefore, it is incum bent upon the Air Force to maintain not only a capable deterrent to forestall enemy attack, but also to sustain an elevated level of discourse on this frequently very emotional subject. Engaging others domestically and internationally on nuclear issues helps to ensure that the implications and responsibilities they oblige are understood, as well as the consequences of failing to abide by them. How then, does the Air Force preserve the capability The Trinity Site, Location of First Nuclear Test. Maj Lance K. Adkins

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53 High Frontier to enable both deterrence and discourse? As with any other dif The Cold War With the signing of the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, the mili tary-led Manhattan District was dissolved and responsibility of design and assembly of nuclear weapons passed to the civil ian Atomic Energy Commission, with military interests being taken into account via a Military Liaison Committee. 4 The Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC), fueled by the competition of the Cold War grew progressively larger, eventually compris ing 27 design and production sites as well as the Nevada Test Site. Employing hundreds of thousands of people and eventu ally spending more than $0.52 trillion for weapon development testing and manufacturing (in FY 2006 dollars), the NWC was an enormous undertaking by any standard. 5 During this time, nuclear weapons evolved from crude devices with questionable that could withstand all but the most cataclysmic accidents without fear of nuclear detonation. The scientists and engineers who developed these weap knowledge of the importance of their work to national secu and developers of the various delivery systems, platforms, and defense systems, which, between 1940 and 1996, consumed an additional $6.4 trillion (FY 2006 dollars) or approximately 29 percent of all military spending. 6 From 1950 to 1963, the US produced 39 new nuclear weapon systems and reached a maximum level of output of 7,000 weapons per year, a startling indication of both the level of talent organic to the NWC and the pressure the Cold War placed on it. 7 It is important to real ize the scope of the effort to better understand the necessity of education and training. By no means was nuclear specializa tion unusual. In many circles within the military, it was simply expected. Stories of munitions personnel who spent their entire careers working on a single type of weapon abound (the B28, for example, had a particularly long 33-year operational lifespan). However, nuclear education was generally left to universities, augmented by weapons laboratories (Lawrence Livermore Na tional Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory [LANL], Sandia National Laboratories [SNL]) where required. During year. 8 The large number of active weapons programs provided many opportunities for military personnel to become educated. Post Cold War and Nuclear Marginalization The dissolution of the Soviet Union clearly delineated the start of a decline in the fortunes of the US nuclear establish ment. The Cold War was won and the tactical Air Force pressed its new-found advantage over the strategic. Strategic Air Com mand (SAC) was eliminated as an Air Force major command, with US Strategic Command emerging as the joint strategic and equipping the former SAC personnel fell to a variety of other commands, none of which were initially well-equipped to handle it. Just as telling was the reduction in active weapons programs, which dropped to zero. Many opportunities to con tinue the nuclear education of military members were lost. By personnel were cut from 16 to just two to four per year, with ly taking the available slots. 9 Problems with the handling of nuclear weapons and personnel emerged almost immediately. A Defense Science Board Task Force report on Nuclear Deter rence published in 1998 noted several trends directly affecting Credible deterrence requires that policy and strategy be underpinned by ready forces (trained and exercised) and 10 term implications is the widespread perception in both the Navy and Air Force that a nuclear forces career is not the highly promising opportunity of the past era. 11 Issues (i.e., weapons of mass destruction threats from proliferation, ambiguous requirements, etc.) are more, not less complex, than the classic Cold War issues and require far deeper and broader intellectual focus than is evident at present. 12 but has maintained a strong program of managing nucle ar experienced personnel. There are programs to train, civilian personnel with nuclear expertise. 13 While the level of expertise in Air Force nuclear capable operational units remains robust, the Air Force has been through a serious decline in focus on managing, tracking, staffs. 14 Assign experienced individuals to critical billets Develop career paths to ensure future experience Nuclear science and engineering track First assignment experience in nuclear systems Select for MS/PhD-level education labs, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Unit command Nuclear operations track First assignment in intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM), space, aircraft nuclear systems Secretary 15 As will be seen, most of these suggestions were taken to

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High Frontier 54 heart by the Air Force and later implemented. In addition to the Defense Science Board report, the Na tional Defense Authorization Acts of 1997 and 1998 contained tions for addressing them. 16 The report highlighted problems lack of new weapons programs, competition from the private sector and an aging workforce represented clear threats to the ability of the NWC to maintain existing weapons under the Stockpile Stewardship Program and to reconstitute a weapon development program should the need emerge. Two of the Chiles Commission recommendations dealt spe nuclear education language. 17 However, the recommendation gram and the LANL Theoretical Institute for Thermonuclear and Nuclear Studies (TITANS) as being positive examples of ways to bring new laboratory employees up to speed on nuclear weapons. 18 These two programs later formed the basis for the Air Force National Laboratory Technical Fellowship Program (NLTFP), which continues today. The problems highlighted by the Chiles Report were suf for Fiscal Year 2000 required that the secretaries of Energy and the DoD, and the contractors of those departments in order to 19 The Program). Maj Gen Robert L. Smolen, then director, Nuclear and Counterproliferation on the Air Staff summed up the problem succinctly in testimony before the Senate Armed Services Com out our people, even our most effective weapon systems are of little value. As always, we will continue to place the utmost emphasis on recruiting, retaining, equipping and training our entire nuclear force. However, our cadre of experienced nuclear engineers, scientists, and even military leaders is declining. As they retire, they take years of experience away with them. 20 It should be noted that General Smolen was one of the stron gest voices advocating the rebuilding of nuclear expertise in the Air Force. Air Force participation in the Sandia Weapon Intern Program and later creation of the NLTFP is largely attributable Most recently, the Deputy Assistant to the Secretary of De fense for Nuclear Matters, Mr. Steve Henry offered up another look at nuclear personnel and skills retention as a topic for a 2007-2008 Defense Science Board study. Being almost ten ting that ADM Chiles once again lead the study. Interviews are currently being conducted around the country in an effort to once again characterize the health and status of the nuclear workforce. According to Mr. Dan Wilmoth from the Nuclear ons decreases, each weapon becomes proportionately more important, with experts on the weapons growing consequently released until June 2008, Mr. Wilmoth indicated that prelimi nary results seemed to show an improvement in the state of the workforce as compared to the 1999 Chiles study. As one might expect, those work centers that are conducting meaningful re search and development on high priority programs seem to be 21 Why Do We Still Need Nuclear Experts? For sixty years, nuclear weapons have been one of the Air thrust the nuclear mission into a rhetorical back seat, and, for a variety of reasons more political than logical, it appears mori bund. But while some voices in the US wish to free the nation ence upon their neighbors or destroy them outright. These more recent concerns about proliferation combined with the increas ing probability of acts of nuclear terrorism have once again in creased the likelihood that nuclear weapons will see use some where in the world. Because of this increasing danger, it is vital that the Air Force have not only people who understand how to employ nuclear weapons in wartime, but also understand their construction, inner workings, and effects. A nuclear detonation in peacetime is most likely to be either the result of a terror ist attack or an accident, and in either case, decision makers will need to understand the implications of the event, which are manifoldthough not necessarily apocalyptic. When thinking about nuclear weapons, a cool headboth rare and immensely valuablecomes from education given by true experts on their subjects. Fortunately, capable teachers are readily available in the programs available to Air Force personnel. In addition, it is important for the Air Force to ensure that its

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55 High Frontier corps of nuclear expertise is constantly being revitalized. Hav ing a force that is too old and retiring and having one that is too young both present problems, as the National Laboratories have discovered. Bringing younger Airmen into the nuclear fold is essential for maintaining its vitality and allows for them to be further mentored by their superiors, ideally vectoring them into assignments and opportunities that are valuable for both the Air Force and the individual. A similar danger lies trying to recon stitute a nuclear cadre with new or inexperienced personnel. The cessation of underground testing and active weapons pro weapons that were learned only through experience and that are soon forgotten. The example of reinstating nuclear pit produc involved. From the closure of the Rocky Flats plant in 1989 to tonium Facility 4 in 2003, no nuclear pits were produced in the United States, nor could they be. 22 It took the intervening 14 years to build the infrastructure and relearn the required skills QC1 quality control policy, meaning that the pit could be used underground test. The answer for the Air Force is to enthusiastically encourage and support a coherent and constant program of nuclear edu cation paired with meaningful assignments to further sharpen skills and the ability to think critically about nuclear issues. The strategy currently being embraced by the Air Force com prises several programs that, while of limited availability, are also of very high quality. Additionally, nuclear experience is methodically tracked by the Air Force Personnel Center and the The goal should be to produce well-informed personnel who can step into a variety of roles and lead whatever nuclear-re Educational Opportunities: For Those Select Few Who Possess the Predisposition The opportunities available today for an Air Force-spon sored nuclear education are some of the best that have ever existed, despite the end of the Cold War and the current nu clear malaise. The NLTFP (formerly the Nuclear Technology Fellowship Program or NTFP) has expanded from the origi (ANL) at the Intermediate Developmental Education level and military participation in 1999 until the class of 2004, partici pants in the NTFP were chosen by a special board made up of nuclear-credentialed personnel from the Air Staff. The Class of sen from IDEand SDE-selected personnel under the Air Force Fellows program. The Sandia Weapon Intern Program started as a two-year program with a transfer credit agreement for an optional accompanying master of science degree in engineering mechanics from New Mexico Tech. Starting with the class of 2005, it was reduced to a single year as an Air Force fellow ship and lamentably lost the master of science degree in the process. 23 The other laboratory fellowships have always been a one year in length and never carried an accompanying degree. They have, however, permitted a larger number of personnel to participate. While the Sandia program only accepted three or four Air Force interns, the NLTFP accommodates ten per year. nuclear education exist, including mastersand doctorate-level degrees through AFIT in nuclear engineering. This program has available courses in generic weapon effects as well as spe courses in simulation. 24 At a less technical level, numerous other courses exist for military personnel, such as courses via the DTRA Defense Nuclear Weapons School (DNWS). These ing nuclear fallout simulation software or for accident response command and control, but some more general classes are also tion for the 21 st 25 Most courses are taught on campus at Kirtland AFB, New Mexico, but some of the courses travel to various bases with personnel requiring training and a distance learning program is under development. The DNWS is also the home nuclear weapons with many unique nuclear artifacts. For those not able to travel to Kirtland AFB, there are ad ditional courses available, such as the 20 th Air Force-sponsored Advanced ICBM course. This course provides a background in a variety of ICBM disciplines including tactics, strike planning, security, and testing. Another option is a four-day Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear class offered by Head tions and generally targeted toward Air Force scientists. 26 It also contains a unit on the workings of nuclear weapons. This what can be done with a cadre of enthusiastic nuclear experts to expand the educational opportunities for those with an interest Bringing younger Airmen into the nuclear fold is essential for maintaining its vitality and allows for them to be further mentored by their superiors, ideally vectoring them into as signments and opportunities that are valuable for both the Air Force and the individual.

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High Frontier 56 18 Ibid., 31. 19 US Department of Defense and US Department of Energy, Nucle ar Skills Retention Measures within the Department of Defense and the Department of Energy esCommission11032000.pdf. 20 Congress, Senate, Armed Services Committee, Strategic Subcom mittee, Statement of Brigadier General Robert L. Smolen, director Nucle ar and Counterproliferation, 108 th Cong., 1 st armed-services.senate.gov/statemnt/2003/April/Smolen.pdf. 21 Telephone conversation with Mr. Dan Wilmoth, 7 September 2007. 22 Douglas D. Kautz, David B. Mann, Richard G. Castro, Lawrence Los Ala mos Science, 23 NR2001/mous.htm. 24 en/ENP/csInfo.cfm?type=ne. 25 Defense Threat Reduction University, Course Catalog 2008 (Albu 26 Telephone conversation with Mr. Nick Motowylak, 26 September 2007. 27 28 fessional course in August of 2006, ICBMs and nuclear employment mer ited less than 4 hours of instruction out of approximately 175 hours total. in nuclear matters. Additionally, those interested in improv ing their understanding of the nuclear community may want to consider joining an organization such as the Project on Nuclear national Studies. Founded in 2003 to discuss how to sustain the a professional organization for discourse on all things nuclear and presents several conferences annually both in the US and the UK. It also provides a forum for the publication of schol arly papers on deterrence and nuclear-related issues. 27 When taken as a whole, the Air Force nuclear education program can be characterized as small but relatively healthy, with excellent opportunities available at various levels. Im provements still need to be made, particularly with regard to more junior Airmen and civilians, easily achievable through an increased emphasis on nuclear studies in Air Force education al programs such as the excellent space professional courses taught at the National Security Space Institute and more support for the grass-roots efforts like the Advanced ICBM course. 28 increasing available billets in the GNE programs would also ing more PhD-level opportunities available for the more senior. The Air Force has always placed a strong emphasis on educa tion for its people, and, considering the extremely high stakes Notes: 1 Albert Einstein and Le Szilrd to Franklin D. Roosevelt, president me70/Manhattan/einstein_letter_photograph.htm#1. 2 Robert Serber, The Los Alamos Primer California Press, 1992), 3. 3 general public. 4 Charles R. Loeber, Building the Bombs: A History of the Nuclear Weapons Complex 2002), 77. 5 Ibid., 186. 6 Ibid., 187. 7 Ibid., 81. 8 pdf. 9 Ibid., 22. 10 Ibid., 13. 11 Gen Larry Welch, USAF (Ret) et al., Final Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Nuclear Deterrence 1998). 12 Ibid., 13. 13 Ibid., 27. 14 Ibid., 27. 15 Ibid., 29. 16 ADM (USN, retired) H. G. Chiles, et al., Commission on Maintain ing United States Nuclear Weapons Expertise Report to the Congress and Secretary of Energy LLNLCompetition/ReportsAndComments/chilesrpt.pdf. 17 Ibid., 26-34. Maj Lance K. Adkins (BMu sic, University of Tennessee; MS, Space Studies, University of North Dakota; MS, Engi neering Mechanics, New Mex ico Tech) is program element monitor for ICBM Applications Programs in the Directorate of Plans and Requirements, Head quarters Air Force Space Com mand, Peterson AFB, Colorado. He oversees efforts for ensuring the preservation of the ICBM industrial base and development of technologies for future ICBM implementations. th Flight Test Squadron (TOP HAND), and space superiority sec tion chief, Directorate of Transformation, Space and Missile Sys tems Center. to wear the Command Space Badge.

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57 High Frontier One Giant Leap for Space Intelligence Professionalism Lt Col Dana Flood Deputy Division Chief, Intelligence Plans & Requirements HQ AFSPC, Peterson AFB, Colorado D (AFSPC) existence, the relationship between space and in telligence operators has been a strong partnership, albeit one that was marred by occasional mutual misunderstanding and frustra tion. Partially these problems were the result of an overall Air Force culture that was ambivalent about the role of the intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) community. Partially they were the result of a space culture that, in the words of Lt Brent 1 And part of the blame falls on the Air Force intelligence community itself. The space intelligence com munity failed to build a space intelligence formal training program for nearly a decade after such rigorous training and education had als assigned to space units had less expertise than their counterparts personnel within the command and thus perpetuated a culture in which intelligence could be largely ignored. Taken together, these factors led to much wailing and gnashing of teeth among many intelligence professionals assigned to units in the space community. They believed that despite the fact that AFSPC operates platforms with ISR capability, there had been in techniques, and procedures to process, exploit, and disseminate this nity. Despite the growing awareness of risk to space platforms, too often the space situational awareness (SSA) and defensive counter space communities neglected the vital questions of threat analysis and intelligence preparation of the battlespace that might better de ness of the role of ISR personnel within the non-rated operations career family, there was no all-encompassing formal integration of intelligence personnel within the space community. Despite awareness of these areas for improvement, there was little incentive for ISR personnel to spend enough time in the space community to truly develop expertise with the mission set. Hence, most intelligence professionals who were assigned to space com There was simply little reason to stay longer or to seek a second assignment in the community. But that is beginning to change. space badge once the AFSPC commander as the Space Profes space professional positions. By taking this step, General Chil ton recognized and acknowledged that formally adding ISR per sonnel into the space community is fundamentally a good thing for both the command and the Air Force as a whole. Properly helps to fully integrate intelligence into the series of space mis Space Professional Development sions, and thus helps to ensure that intelligence is no longer an afterthought in the space community. From Conception to Reality This change has been a long time coming. Indeed, the 2001 Commission to Assess US National Security Space Management number of mission areas for space operations and prominently in cluded ISR. But the initial implementation of formalized space professional accreditation largely bypassed ISR personnel and be gan by focusing the process on space operators, scientists, engi Force Specialty Codes (AFSCs) were included in the initial plan, inclusion, even if they were serving in space or space intelligence squadrons. This appears to have been more a factor of the inevitable grow ing pains of organizational change, rather than an intentional slight. As the professionalization concept matured, more AFSCs were added. Thus, inducting intelligence personnel formally into the and contributions of ISR personnel to the space mission set. It is important to note that, as with other specialties inducted into the space professional program, earning space badges does not con stitute the granting of a secondary AFSC. Indeed, the space badge is not an AFSC emblem. Rather, it is a badge worn by those of any communications and logistics professionals. In fact, even Army Command are wearing the Air Force space badge. Intelligence and communications personnel who earn their space wings will be This does not mean, however, these newly-minted space profes reers. There is a persistent worry among ISR personnel that being granted any particular SEI will pigeonhole them and dramatically limit their future viability across the incredibly broad spectrum of positions within the intelligence community. These fears, how ever, appear to be groundless. Major Stockwell also noted that intelligence personnel with space backgrounds could use that expertise outside of space command (for example within the Air Force ISR Agency or at the Air Staff) just as easily as they could move along an entirely different career The Space-Intelligence Partnership Space professional accreditation helps to forge a stronger part nership between space and intelligence personnel. The complex

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High Frontier 58 Lt Col Dana Flood (BA, History, University of Portland, Oregon; MS, Strategic Intelligence, Joint Military DC; MA, National Security Studies, Rhode Island) is the deputy division chief for Intelligence Plans and Re quirements, Air Force Space Com mand, Peterson AFB, Colorado. nature of space operations in the modern world makes the old para digm of having space personnel viewed as the sole operators of the mission (with support provided by ISR personnel) obsolete. in tandem as a single organized crew to ensure mission success. Predator crews, for example, are an inseparable mix of a pilot up by a team of communicators, maintainers, and so forth, and are tied into the larger command and control ISR community via the Distributed Common Ground System. For space systems and mis sions, one should look at the role of intelligence operators in much the same way. Indeed, there is a great deal of mission growth potential in the space ISR realm, and in order to take full advantage of it, trained space intelligence operators are required. For example, the new Space-Based Infrared Systems does not merely have an impressive constantly staring surveillance capability. With its steerable and taskable sensor, it adds a reconnaissance potential that is new to the command. 3 This means that AFSPC has the potential to add a vast amount intelligence to combatant commanders. But it takes trained ISR specialists to manage the process of tasking, collecting, processing, exploiting, and disseminating. With a greater partnership between AFSPC space and intelligence operators, the command has the po This should be a key priority for space intelligence professionals. As the Space Commission reported, the intelligence community ning and funding its [TPED] system for intelligence. If not deliv ered in a timely way to the user, even the best information is worse 4 Greater involvement in the process by ISR personnel poses a surveillance and reconnaissance assets. Intelligence personnel have neither the expertise nor the desire to own and operate the sat ellitesthey care simply that the data gets into the system and gets be in violent agreement. Training and Accreditation complete. For an intelligence specialist to earn the basic badge, for example, requires completion of the Space Intelligence Formal Training Unit (IFTU) course (which has been accredited by the 100), and serve one year in a space intelligence position. Those who attended earlier versions of the IFTU course, or entered into the community prior to the creation of the course, will be grandfa thered into the program after two years in an appropriate position, much as 13S personnel were grandfathered into the space profes sional community based on their previous experience. As space professionals advance in their career, the requirements for higher level accreditation line up more exactly with those of their space brethren. Earning the senior space badge, for example, requires completion of the requirements for the basic badge, plus completion of Space 200 and 60 months of experience in space po sitions. To earn the command badge requires the addition of Space 300 completion as well as 84 months in space positions. These gence personnel will wear space wings on their uniform. Those rare few who do, however, will be among the elite space ally any position within the space community. The Way Ahead The inclusion of ISR personnel within the ranks of Space 200 and 300 classes will also help to build esprit-de-corps and a sense of common purpose, and will, over time, break down some of the cultural barriers that regrettably still exist between some space and intelligence personnel. tract, develop, and retain people with the expertise necessary to professionals to have more than one assignment in the space com munity throughout their careers, building expertise as they do so. That expertise will then be leveraged into providing improved ISR support both internally and externally. Internally, AFSPC gains better threat insight and target analysis to improve SSA, as well as offensive and defensive counterspace operations. Exter cally increase the amount, quality, and timeliness of ISR support to professional cadre represents not just a small step for intelligence personnel, but a giant leap for the combat capability of AFSPC as a whole. Notes: 1 High Frontier 2 Space Intelligence Professional Program, staff summary sheet, 21 May 2007. 3 af.mil/library/factsheets/factsheet_print.asp?fsID=5330&page=1. 4 Report of the Commission to Assess United States National Security Space Management and Organization executive summary (Washington

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59 High Frontier The Space Professional Functional Authority Advisory Council Maj Theresa L. Malasavage Command Lead, Space Professional Education & Training HQ AFSPC, Peterson AFB, Colorado C hange has been the watchword since the Space Com mission recommendedand the secretary of defense di rectedthe restructuring and revitalization of the Department of Defense space community. The reforms called for by the Space Commission presented a special challenge since the changes needed to be consistent with current Air Force processesin cluding the emerging force development construct. Since the Air Force space professional development effort began in earnest in 2002, the Air Force has witnessed the emergence of new edu cation requirements, new ways to measure and document space of opinions and emotions, misunderstanding and misinformation among a wide range of people internal and external to military Until this year, the Air Force Space Professional Development Commission, has been perceived as a uniquely Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) initiative, with minimal recognition or sup port across the Air Force. To get the details of the SPDP, space professionals had to hear the Space Professional Management ters. Formal policy and an Air Force-wide process were lacking, yet needed to give the SPDP legitimacy. Efforts are underway to satisfy these needs. The required policy is being addressed by an Air Force instruction on SPDP, currently in Air Force-wide coordinationand expected to be completed next year. More the development and sustainment of space expertise. This pro cess is driven by the Space Professional Functional Authority Advisory Council (SPFAAC), under chairmanship of AFSPC commander (AFSPC/CC) as the Space Professional Functional Authority (SPFA). Exactly what is this body with the unwieldy title and awkward acronym, and what does it do for our space pro community? The SPFAAC underscores the importance of SPDP, sanctions its programs and initiatives, and makes it work effectively within the Air Force framework. In July 2003, the secretary of the Air Force designated the commander of AFSPC as the SPFA. 1 In that role, AFSPC/CC must ensure integration of force development with the SPDP and is responsible for the health of the Air Force space profession al community. Additionally, SPFA interacts with the other Air Space Professional Development Force functional authorities (FA), whose oversight and responsi order to ensure effective development and utilization of all space managing the space pro community is a special challenge, since tions (13S), scientists (61S), engineers (62E), and program man The addition of intelligence (14N and 1NX) and communica tions (33S) AFSCs are almost complete. General Kevin P. Chil ton (former AFSPC/CC) made the concept of a dedicated space functional authority a reality, and was a positive step toward en suring the need for space expertise across all space pro AFSCs is recognized as a legitimate Air Force concern. General Chilton underscored the importance and unique aspect of this role during meeting in April 2007. General Chilton emphasized that he was SPFA is on equal footing with the traditional AFSC-associated FAs, working cooperatively with them to guarantee Air Force and space needs are met. Figure 1 illustrates the relationship of the SPFA to the other FAs. 2 Notice that the responsibilities of the SPFA and the FAs are fundamentally the same, except the represent the percentage of individuals in the applicable AFSCs individuals, but has an interest in tracking their expertise in case it is needed to meet space needs. The challenge for the SPFA and FAs is to collaborate in the development of these individuals to ensure that an ample inventory of space expertisewhile at the same time adequately addressing other Air Force needs for that AFSC. The SPFA relies on the SPFAAC to ensure this process is effective and successful. The SPFAAC provides Total Force, strategic oversight for the Air Force SPDP to meet current and future space mission re quirements. 3 In essence, the primary role of the SPFAAC is to assist the SPFA in developing policy regarding the management of the Air Force space pro community. This includes develop ing overarching policies on the composition and professional Space Professionals/ Total Inventory 33S 14N 6X 13S/1C6 33S 14N 6X FAs Ed & Trng Career paths SPFA capabilities Ed & Trng Career paths Figure 1. SPFA-FA Relationship.

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High Frontier 60 provides guidance to the developmental teams, who provide as planning, programming, acquisition, operations, intelligence, and communications. The SPFAAC has gained momentum and now includes the right membership to effectively address space needs. The expansion of the SPFAAC membership is consistent with a recent report submitted by the Independent Strategic As beginning and forum to address needs and issues in the career 4 SPFAAC membership is also based on an ISAG recom mendation. Space Professional Functional Authority Advisory Council Composition The Council is composed of a broad and diverse group of key individuals with direct impact on space professional develop ment. Chaired by the AFSPC/CC, the principal members from AFSPC are the vice commander; numbered air force and cen ter commanders; applicable headquarters directors (A1, A2, A3, A4/6 and A7); the NSSI commandant, and the command chief. Representatives from Air Education and Training Command (AETC) include the commander, AETC; the Air University com mander; as well as the 2 nd Air Force and 381 st Training Group commanders. Air Force-level representation includes the assis tant secretary of the Air Force for Acquisition (SAF/AQ), chief XC), selected deputy chiefs of staff (A1, A2, A3/5), and the com mander of the Air Force Personnel Center (AFPC/CC). Finally, council membership. Clearly, every aspect of space pro develop ment is well represented at the highest levels. action itemsall currently underwaydesigned to enhance the SPDP and make the space pro community more effective. There vamping the Space 100 course, and (3) advancing educational Space Professional Community Expansion Each meeting of the SPFAAC requires a review of space pro community expansion. The goal of the expansion effort is to en sure that all specialties directly impacting the space mission are factored into the SPDP framework; it will taper off as the com munity matures, but is a key near-term focus area. The space pro community needs to include all those who contribute to the space mission for proper development of space expertise, and is not simply a loose grouping of functional areas with some space the space pro community are higher than one might expectand not always in the best interest of improved delivery of space ca pabilities. That is why consistency in determining if a functional group ought to be considered for inclusion is critical. Before an standard set of factors. First, do the duties include direct respon the duties must be space-related. Therefore, while it may seem mold, not all those in the AFSC will considered space pros only those who perform space duties. For example, engineers can complete an entire career without performing space duties; however, those with space backgrounds may prove valuable for selected space-related follow-on assignments as more senior of pros. Additionally, space knowledge must be required to do the educational and ex perience milestones that are consistent with the framework and There is still much work to do once the SPFAAC recommends works closely with AFSPC representatives and the associated Air Staff functional managers. Buy-in from the FAs and func tional managers is essential from the start. Individual and billet tion with the National Security Space Institute. However, intel ligence personnel will take Space 200 and 300 to achieve Level criteria, inclusion as a space pro requires further scrutiny. As mentioned earlier, there are many who desire to be space pros, maintainers will be considered next. Finally, there are many ment of a version of SPDP tailored for civilians will be underway this fall. The rate of expansion has tapered off, but requests con tinue to surface and each one is considered on its own merit. Space 100 Restructure on space education and the technical competence of space pros. over the years, and some space professionals feel the change has not always been in the best interest of space operations. Space 100, the introductory non-AFSC awarding course, has come un der particular scrutinyand for good reason. Initial space train ing has gone from the highly technical, in-depth approach of the 1980s to a high-level overview of space fundamentals. For a a happy medium. The SPFAAC recognized this and concurred with an ISAG recommendation to assess and modify the content of Space 100 to make it a more viable introduction to space.

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61 High Frontier There is a need for more technical competency for space pros, beginning with Space 100. Space 100 graduates should be well-versed in all space missions, capable of articulating the im ISAG recommendations point to a need to focus on both breadth and depth. 6 Space 100 should provide both a cultural and profes sional foundation. approach to the task of enhancing Space 100. The working group was composed of all of the key Space 100 stakeholders. 7 the course of six months, groups at various levels developed a detailed course training standard (CTS) that called for an in creased level of technical competence and increased focus on the fundamentals of space systems. The group took the traditional outcomes desired for each phase of the course. These outcomes erations and acquisition relationships, mission systems and ca pabilities, technical fundamentals, and joint space integration. Clearly, the revised Space 100 is a major change from the cur rent versionundoubtedly longer more challenging, with high will better prepare space pros will be validated through proto oversight. The CTS is now in the hands of AETC. The biggest concern is not the length of the course, rather the content. This space pros deserve a Space 100 that is both a challenging and productive experience. The SPFAAC promises to keep space education in its sights. Technical Competence Space education does not end with Space 100, since space pros also take Space 200 and 300 at key career milestones. But Space 100, 200 and 300 are not the only means of increasing technical competencethere are an increasing number of educa tional opportunities not included in the SPDP framework. Today, space operators do not necessarily have technical backgrounds. Another goal of SPDP is to increase the technical credentials of 13S accessions to ensure a standard technical base across the space pro community. Another SPFAAC initiative is aimed at doing just that, establishing mandatory technical credentials for gram through the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs (UCCS). In addition, a recent Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) offer, in a show of support to Air Force space pros, funds a small group of individuals to participate in the NPS Space Systems ties available through the Air Force Institute of Technology and increased participation by the Space Education Consortium, led by UCCS, are also realistic options. resourcesnot just facilities, but peopleis essential if the US is to remain the world's leading space-faring nation. The US gov ernment needs to play an active, deliberate role in expanding and deepening the pool of military and civilian talent in science, en 8 The initiatives mentioned here aim at deepening the pool and accurately identifying space expertise to ensure US space supremacy. The Air Force must continue to develop knowledge able, technically competent space pros. The SPFA, aided by the SPFAAC, is responsible for a wide range of space person nel responsibilities, but the most critical is development of space areas for added emphasis obtained through leadership feedback, tral role in development of space capabilities, manifested by topcaliber professionals, is a critical element. Notes: 1 2 Council (SPFAAC) , 3 4 Personnel and Training Task Force of the Independent Strategic As 5 Gen Kevin P. Chilton, comments SPFAAC meeting, 8 August 2007. 6 Personnel and Training Task Force of the Independent Strategic As 7 AF, 20 AF, SMC, NSSI, 381 TRG 8 Report of the Commission to Assess United States National Security Space Management and Organization executive summary (Washington Maj Theresa L. Malasavage versity, Pennsylvania; MS, Education, Capella University, Minnesota; MMOAS, Air Com mand and Staff College) is the command lead for Space Educa tion and Training, HQ AFSPC, Peterson AFB, Colorado. She is responsible for all education and training issues related to space professional development for the USAF. Major Malasavage entered the Air Force in 1995 as a distin career includes assignments as a Peacekeeper intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) operator at the 400 th Missile Squadron, an ICBM instructor at the 392 nd commander at the 2 nd Space Operations Squadron (GPS). Major Malasavages awards include the Meritorious Service Medal, the Air Force Commendation Medal (two oak leaf clusters), and the Air Force Achievement Medal.

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High Frontier 62 A Laymans Guide to the Space Professional Development Database System Mr. Douglas J. Anding Senior Database Architect/Developer Mr. David Boyer Senior Software Engineer HQ AFSPC, Peterson AFB, Colorado W O-4 with a minimum 24 months satellite opera tions experience, preferably in global positioning sys desired. Acquisition experience desired. Masters degree com pleted. ucationhow many space professionals meet these criteria? Five years ago, no tool existed that would be able to screen the 11,000 sition. Today, through the power of the Space Professional Devel The above example illustrates two important aspects of the as In concert with traditional assignment processes, SPDD is a tool that enables matching personnel to billets; it is also used to gener ate metrics that measure the health of the space professional com munity and the effectiveness of Space Professional Development Program (SPDP). The genesis of the SPDD begins with force de velopment (FD) and the formation of the SPDP. Force Development and Space Professional Development FD is a term Airmen have heard a lot over the years, but most Airmen are more concerned with practical application. They want wonder how FD will affect their careers and will they need more training or education. Air Force Policy Document (AFPD) 36-26 Total Force Development maintain a capabilities-based manpower requirements system that captures sustained and surge billet requirements and is comprised of the appropriate force mix (active duty/air reserve component/ civilians) of the Air Force Core Competencies to produce a di As the Air Force began to implement the FD concept, the Space Commission recommended changes to the organization of the space community and called for enhanced career development to form a space cadre. 1 Department of Defense (DoD) issued a memo directing services to implement the recommendations. The Air Force followed with guidance in the form of the Air Force Space Professional Strat egy, 2 Space Professional Development SPDP. As outlined in AFDP 36-37, Space Professional Develop ment, linked with SPDP execution efforts, established policies to ensure appropriate space education, training, and experience programs are available to all eligible Air Force space professionals. An establishes levels based on space education, training, and experi ence in space related positions. ed a structure to systematically characterize the depth and breadth of skills across the space professional community. However, the structure was useless without an effective tool to document, up date, manipulate, and retrieve personnel data in a timely manner necessary for career management. An additional focus point from the Space Commission was the need for improved personnel-bil have a comprehensive view of all space career positions within the national security space community and the means to manage individual assignments among the acquisition, operations, and in 3 professionals; document their experience; track their SPDP certi ria); and capture requirements for each Air Force space billet in the national security space community. It is also a ready source of valuable metrics that measure the health of the space professional community and SPDP effectiveness. Space Professional Experience Codes An integral element of the SPDD is the ability to identify spe Figure 1. Space Professional Development Database Functions.

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63 High Frontier across diverse space mission areas. The Space Professional Task depth of experience. Instead, the task force devised an innovative ence requirements for space positions through Space Professional Experience Codes (SPECs). SPECs enable the matching of space skills to job requirements, proach to document experience with a range of valuable capabili effective dates; critical capability to measure depth and breadth. Capturing common space experience for the Total Force and any Air Force specialty code (AFSC) or functional group. Applicability to positions and peopleused to establish space billet requirements and identify the experience gained while in the position. Ability to track a broad range of mission/functional catego ries. Broad enough to be manageable, narrow enough to capture unique skills and experience. A SPEC consists of three characters that provide insight into ence; conversely, an engineer (AFSC 62E) assigned to a space third character the specialty in the mission area. 3 The 62E working in space op Systems; 3-Precision, Navigation, and Timing. SPECs form a comprehensive construct to de lineate operations, acquisition and staff duty and capture a host of experience categories across the space mission areas, AFSCs, functional con cepts, and the entire range of space missions and broad selection of task-based competencies. The SPEC concept provides a user-friendly, manage SPEC breakout is available on the Space Profes sional Development Web site. 4 of the space professional community. For in Division (A3C) is planning to adopt a similar construct for track network. What is the Space Professional Development Database? The SPDD system is a combination of computer programs and databases residing on a Microsoft SQL server. 5 Six databases, each with multiple tables, store various types of information for lets. SPDD users access data through a Microsoft Access frontend, 6 with one front-end for each database. The front-ends allow users to manage and retrieve space professional information. SPDD development was evolutionary; SPDP maturation, drove the migration to Microsoft SQL. Currently, the six SPDD over $50 thousand in hardware and software and 7.5 man-years in the development of the SPDDa bargain compared to the initial commercial estimate of $1.3 million startup and recurring cost of $50 per year per record. With over 500,000 records in the current databases, recurring maintenance costs would top $25 million. the system to meet SPDP needs; for instance, adding additional front-end to enhance the user interface across the databases. The SPDD employs multiple software packages to manage the databases. SAS a commercial database program, converts the Air Force Personnel Center (AFPC) data to a usable form for up 2005 is used to develop stand-alone routines to correct and con vert data from the AFPC SAS by the SQL server. 8 SQL programs are then used to expand AFPC codes into more descriptive text. Microsoft Access is used for the database front-ends, with over 100,000 lines of code written utilities. Figure 2. Space Professional Experience Code Capabilities.

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High Frontier 64 Components of the SPDD puts; databases; and outputs. Inputs: Military Personnel Data Sys tem (MilPDS) and Millennium are AFPC systems that provide the data record. Databases: six individual databases contain most of the Total Force records, making SPDD a system of databases. Outputs: Single Unit Retrieval Formats (SURF), Personnel Ac counting System (PAS) reports, Miscellaneous (Misc) reports and queries. The following paragraphs provide detailed description of the database system. SPDD data originates from three sources. MilPDS contains duty information for all Air Force personnel, including over ians, and subsets of Air National Guard (ANG) and reserves. An Air Force positions, including more than 800,000 billets (AD, guard, reserve, and civilian). The Millennium database was used education, and training data for more than 11,000 personnel and put is vital to maintain the billet database with the required educa ANG Enlisted and enlisted SURF: The most common SPDD product is the space profes tory tailored to provide relevant SPDP data such as SPECs and ac requests and usually turns the request the same day. Commanders may also request multiple SURFs for the space professionals in their organization to use for mentoring, assignment actions, and general information. In addition to individuals and commanders, PAS reports: PAS reports contain billet information used to space professionals insights into space billets. Misc reports: Requests for Misc reports originate from mul tiple organizations for a variety of reasons. A key user of these reports is the SPFAAC that uses a set of standard metrics to assess the health of the space professional community and effectiveness fense Science Board as they assessed the depth of nuclear (ICBM) Breakouts of space professional experience by organiza tion, SPEC and time categorized by rank and AFSC. Assessments of personnel inventory against current and forecasted billet requirements. Assessments of diversity and amount of space experience across the various mission areas. Queries: Database queries support a diverse range of SPDP needs, from generating the course eligibility lists for Space 200 professional. As illustrated in the example at the start of this ar ticle, SPDD users, such as the AFPC assignment teams, can use Peaknet, the Peterson AFB Intranet, or by using separate, standalone copies of the database distributed to AFPC, SMC, and the space operators), and HQ AFSPC/A3C (space control). Due to to the SPDD via the Internet (i.e., space professionals cannot independently generate their own SURF). Plans are in work to incorporate SPDD into the Defense Integrated Military Human Resources System which will allow users to access their space pro SURFs through the Air Force Portal in the future. A unique product of the SPDD is the Space Professional Career ment and mentoring tool, providing detailed information on posi tions, locations, organizations, and job requirements. Space pro 7 The cess; once on the Web site, users may elect to enable common ac cess card (CAC) login. Currently, more than 1,727 user accounts Billet Database An online, searchable compendium of all Air Force space jobs Figure 3. Space Professional Development Database Structure.

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65 High Frontier Job descriptions, experience required (prerequisite SPECs), SPEC earned, other requirements, locations, and required education (if applicable) 9SPDP framework pros Detailed unit descriptions, mission statements, and hyper Broader Application Although designed for SPDP, the SPDD has potential for use by other communities. The SPEC and database construct can be applied to any mission subset with a mix of skill requirements and personnel categories applied to missions, functional areas, or skill construct with notional SPECS and database structure. cludes electronic warfare operations, network warfare operations, DoD and national mission areas to track personnel with multi ple skill sets, working in related mission areas. For instance, the regardless of parent organization with their expanded SPECs. Conclusion The SPDD is a cost-effective and versatile system that has al lowed the rapid maturation of the SPDP. Going back to FD and space-related Air Force positions, the SPDD system has docu mented the skill sets and provides a means of shaping career deci are accurately recorded in the SPDD to allow personnel matching insight into all Air Force space positions. The space professional, wondering what his next job is going to be and what training may be required, can request a space professional SURF, access the plan for the futureenabled through the power of the SPDD. Notes: 1 Report of the Commission to Assess United States National Security Space Management and Organization executive summary (Washing 2001). 2 General (USAF, retired) Lance W. Lord, Space Professional Strategy (2003), Sep af/USAF/AFP40/Attachment/20070131/ Strategy.pdf. 3 The 3 rd unit or weapons system) than the 10 space mission categories itemized in the 2 nd char acter.4 Space Professional Development Air www.my.af.mil/gcss-af/afp40/USAF/ep/ globalTab.do?command=org&channelPage Id=-1717017. 5 Structured Query Language (SQL) is a standard language used in the database industry. There are different variations that have been imple mented by commercial concerns, but all are based on a SQL standard. 6 A front-end is used to access information from a database and can be a commercial product or created by the user. The front-end for the SPDD is a group of form and programs that allow the user to access, view, and manipulate the information in the database in a friendly format. Microsoft Access is used to create projects which act as front-ends and can be devel 7 for supporting the database and for a large application to will be like a consolidated front-end accessing all of the different databases from one program. 8 9 Figure 4. Notional Intelligence Community Concept. Mr. Douglas J. Anding (CCAF, Space Operations; BS, Computer Information Systems Management, Colorado Christian University) is the senior database architect/developer at Scitor Corporation supporting the Space Professional Management Of ters Air Force Space Command, Pe terson AFB, Colorado. He was part of the original Space Professional De velopment Task Force in 2002, and initially developed the Space Professional Development Database and Space Professional Ex perience Code construct currently used to track all USAF space professionals. Mr. David A. Boyer (BS, Electrical Engineering, USAFA; MBA, Golden Gate University; MA, Computer Sci ence, Colorado Technical University) is a senior software engineer at Sci tor Corporation supporting the Space Air Force Space Command, Peterson AFB, Colorado. He has supported the Space Professional Development Database system since 2004 and is responsible for requirements development, database and software design, and all programming aspects of the database.

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High Frontier 66 Book Review Space Wars: The First Six Hours of World War III Space Wars: The First Six Hours of World War III. By Michael J. E ditors of professional journals, generally speaking, solicit standard, some High Frontier subscribers might judge as mis placed an examination of Space Wars Written by Michael Cou matos, William Scott, and William Birnes, this book certainly transcends past and present. Nevertheless, its details about US space systems, facilities, organizations, and capabilities adhere closely to what currently exists or, reasonably, might be contem plated. We need only listen, furthermore, to the evening news to sian scientists, terrorists, Iran, China, and North Korea. Whether Space Wars Lest divulging too much of the plot spoil the suspense for Space Wars this reviewer will do his best to highlight only the barest minimum. Faulty signals from global positioning system satellites cause US missile strikes to go awry, followed by sudden service disruptions involving other military and commercial satellites. Defense, intelligence, and other US national security organizations scramble to explain and respond to this unexpected situation. After identifying the immedi ate source of the on-orbit problems and acting successfully by various means, mostly covert, to neutralize further threats, US occurs during thirty springtime days in 2010. professionals and a general audience. A for mer naval aviator, Coumatos served with US Space Command during the early 1990s be ing director. An electrical engineer, graduate tional Security Agency, Scott recently retired as Rocky Mountain Bureau Chief for Aviation Week & Space Technology magazine. Birnes, a wide variety of topics. By pooling their re spective talents, this trio infused Space Wars with incredibly rich technical detail and pre sented it in terms understandable to lay read ers. space organizations and capabilities should tain the plausibility of what occurs in Space Wars Members of the US defense establishment undoubtedly will nod in agreement their opinion, listens too frequently to idealistic, nave, non-mili tary advisers. Above all, the need for the United States to protect its military, civil, and commercial space systems in both peace time and wartimei.e., to maintain space controlwill lead many of these readers to admit that a defensive posture could blur into offensive action. Not everyone, however, will rate Space Wars outstanding or of preemptive military action at the expense of diplomacy. A diplomatic and military, and notice these tend to have more nega tive than positive long-term consequences. A handful even might American people, their representatives in Congress, and highcritical, real-world space issuescreeps too near the surface of When all else is said and done, perhaps the most intriguing and innovative aspect of Space Wars is the use of wargaming to aid decision making in near-real timeto expose hostile intent and to develop strategies to counter that intent. The authors remind readers that Sun Tzu advocated wargam asymmetriesthe traditional and the unex pectedthat are organic to warfare. In Space Wars the wargamers and the battle staff at US Strategic Command convene in parallel to help their commander and other national leaders understand, in a much wider context and at an accelerated pace, what is required to however, the best insight might come from the subtleties of Taoism, knows that the key to survival in an ongoing confrontation is to know what one should not do and when not to do it.Reviewed by Dr. Rick W. Sturdevant, Deputy Command Historian, HQ Air Force Space Com mand.

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67 High Frontier High Frontier