2 High Frontier Summer 2004 2 High Frontier Summer 2004 High Frontier Air Force Space Command Commander Director of Public Affairs High Frontier Staff Contents Introduction Welcome to the High Frontier General Lance W. Lord . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Space Professional Development NSS Plans Strategy for Development Space Professionals Peter B. Teets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Developing Space Professionals General Lance W. Lord . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Developing Space Professionals Crucial to Critical Wartime Roles Colonel James C. Hutto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Frequently Asked Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Developing Enlisted Space Professionals Chief Master Sergeant Ronald G. Kriete . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Total Force Space Development Lieutenant General Larry J. Dodgen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Navy Develops Own Space Cadre Captain Cheryl Spohnholtz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Marines Increase Effectiveness with Space-based Capabilities & Forces Captain Ronaldo Racinez . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Space Focus SOPSC Educates Space Warriors Lieutenant Colonel Joseph E. Brouillard . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Future Forecasts SISP Provides Big Space Picture Colonel Mike R. McPherson & Major Rhonda Leslie . . . . . . . .24 AF Space Meets the GIG Colonel Mike R. McPherson & Major Rhonda Leslie . . . . . . . 26 Space & Missile Journal Vol. I, No. 1 Summer 2004
2 High Frontier Summer 2004 High Frontier Summer 2004 3 2 High Frontier Summer 2004 General Lance W. Lord Commander, Air Force Space Command Growing the intellectual properties of our space professionals will harvest more decisive, innovative and -General Lance W. Lord Welcome to the premier publication for our space professionals working in the Department of Defense and throughout the governmental agencies responsible for professional journal for space professionals of all services. This quarterly journal is designed to generate intellectual debate through thought provoking articles and essays on the strategic, operational and tactical aspects of space and missile have certainly completed the transition from a nation interested in space to a country with national interests in space. Therefore, it is absolutely critical for our nations space professionals from all organizational backgrounds to focus on the intellectual properties we will need now and in the future. At a minimum, there are three main components to any system requiring human interaction: The system hard ware, the knowledgeable and skilled operator, and the critical human and technical infrastructure necessary to support both. Of course this includes talented people required in the acquisi tion, development and sustainment of the hardware and infrastructure. We need innovative scientific minds to advance our research and development efforts. Throughout the history of na tional security space we have focused the development of hardware: satellites, launch vehicles, missile development and space operations centers, to name a few. The dedication and devotion of our Space and Missile Pioneers provided our nation with cutting edge world-class space and missile hardware. This year marks the 50th anniversary of the United States Air Forces involve ment in the development of space and achievements in the development of innovative hardware and material solutions. Since Brigadier General Bennie Schrie ver set up the Western Development Division in Inglewood, California in 1954, I believe spacepower has matured quicker and provided more substantive contributions to the American As a nation we stand tall on the shoulders of our Space and Missile Pioneers. We have continued to lead the world in the development and manufacturing of spacecraft, launch vehicles and missile components. The hardware we use to ac cess and operate in and on-orbit in space is quickly growing in complexity, therefore, we must ensure our space professionals develop at a faster pace than our technology. We need knowl edgeable and skilled operators, scientists, engineers and pro gram managers to ensure our growth in Professional Development is our plan initiated at Air Force Space Command with the ultimate goal of developing our nations cadre of space operators, engineers, program managers and scientists. The concept of Space Professional Development goes well beyond the United States Air Force. The Space Cadre is composed of almost 10,000 engineers, space operators, program managers and scientists across all orga nizational ties in our government. Most of the Space Cadre is assigned to Air Force Space Command, the National mental research labs, logistics centers, the Joint and other service staffs, as government agencies. Space Profes sional Development is not limited to members and civilians, reserves and national guardsmen in the operation, development, sustainment, application and integration of military space sys tems. Just like we have led the world in the development of space and mis sile hardware, we need to continue to lead in the development of our space professionals. Welcome to High Frontier! General Lance W. Lord (BS, Otterbein College; MS, University of North Dakota) is the Air Force Space Command commander, Peterson Air Force Base, Colo. General Lord is responsible for the development, acquisition and operation of the Air Force space and missile systems. The general overseas a global network of satellite command and control, communications, missile warning and launch facilities, and ensures the combat readiness of Americas intercontinental ballistic missile force. The general has commanded two ICBM wings and a space wing as well as served Prior to his current position, General Lord was the Assistant Vice Chief of Staff for Headquarters U.S. Air Force. The general is also a graduate of distinguished graduate from Air Command and Staff College. Introduction
4 High Frontier Summer 2004 4 High Frontier Summer 2004 The most senior leaders in the Department of Defense agree with our assertion. In 2001, the Commission to Assess United States National Security Space Management and Or ganization was established to assess space activities in support of our national security interests. The Honorable Donald H. Rumsfeld led this formal evaluation, commonly referred to as the Space Commission. The Space Commission concluded that a new and comprehensive approach to national security space management and organization was required to protect the nations security interests in space. The Department of Defense Directive 5101.2 designates the Air Force as the executive agent for space. After being designated the responsible agent for developing our nations space expertise by Dr. James Roche, Secretary and implement a Space Professional Development Strategy to ensure the development of our nations expertise in national security space. The foundation for Space Professional devel opment is a quest for continual learning. By providing edu cational opportunities throughout ones career, documenting occupational experiences and carefully matching future as signments and opportunities we have a plan to develop the expertise across all areas of military space. Formal educational of expertise. -Benjamin Franklin We must take advantage of every opportunity to stimulate our thinking on key issues in the national security of space. Documenting individual experiences is challenging for us, but we are off to a great start with over 6,000 individual records reviewed to date. You learn and grow professionally from your experiences and a life-long learner looks for ways to capture the lessons learned. This journal provides the canvas for which we can paint the intellectual pictures of tomorrows spacepower. I ask each reader to use this opportunity to grow professionally and, hopefully, increase your experience base. This journal is designed with our nations space profes sionals in mind regardless of your organizational roots. We are not developing space professionals for any one organization, but rather for our nation. We plan to include articles from our space and missile professionals on current issues with lively reader commentary, interviews with military leaders and strategists, historical essays, and book reviews. High Frontier will quickly become a primary forum for communicating the thoughts of our military and civilian professionals on issues indispensable to your development as a Space Professional. Reading furnishes the mind only with materials for -John Locke High Frontier will be a catalyst for new ideas and innovative approaches in helping us solve critical space and missile is sues. Our inaugural issue of High Frontier is dedicated to our number one priority Developing Space Professionals. the 50-year history of space and missiles. We plan to discuss current and projected space and missile capabilities, the req uisite need to gain and maintain space superiority, the future of strategic nuclear deterrence, the evolution of the Space improve our knowledge base and understanding of spaces role in conducting and supporting both theater and global military operations. Additionally, we want to continue learning about relevant air, land and sea power lessons and the integration of air and space operations to better achieve combat effects. We should strive to become experts in space while con tinuing to advance our knowledge of air, land and sea power. We are more dependent upon space today than ever before in the history of our great nation. Space capabilities enable the is an equal partner with air, land and sea forces. Space capa bilities help provide timely and accurate combat effects for our combatant commanders. Our recent campaign successes in Operation ENDURING FREEDOM and Operation IRAQI FREEDOM are well known throughout the world. The inter national community looks to the United States as the leader in space operations. Each of us has an important role in leading our military space personnel into the next generation of spacepower. Mod ern warfare is dependent upon the capabilities space systems provide. This reliance upon spacepower will continue to grow. We must ensure the development of our minds and our capa bilities is not outpaced by the ever-changing dynamic nature of modern war. This is an individual responsibility, but we must create opportunities for learning and intellectual growth. Defeating tomorrows enemy starts today. We must ensure we are ready for the future both militarily and intellectually. Finally, we must advance spacepower beyond our current capabilities and contributions to the war effort. Spacepower of the future. We will continue to work on integrating space capabilities and combat effects into the appropriate command and control infrastructure. We will Command the Future to ensure we advance the technology, knowledge and opera tional skills required for leading the worlds greatest space and missile force into what promises to be a very exciting and rewarding future. Im extremely excited about this journal. I invite your feedback as we continue to make this the best possible publi cation we can. As we continue to build upon the intellectual framework created by this journal, all systems report Go!
4 High Frontier Summer 2004 High Frontier Summer 2004 5 4 High Frontier Summer 2004 Peter B. Teets Under Secretary of the Air Force In the space business it is easy to focus on hardware and technology. After all when we think of space, images of rockets launching from the pad and satellites orbiting the Earth quickly spring to mind. Because of this, at times there is a tendency to take our space professionalsthe crucial element of space powerfor granted. We do this at our peril. In my 40-plus years of space experience, both in the private sector and now in government, I have seen time and again that Mission Success cannot be achieved without dedicated, hard working, talented people. And it is our people, forged into a dedicated space cadre, who will be critical in preserving our nations decisive, asymmetric advantage in space. Developing and main taining a team of space pro fessionals remains one of my highest National Secu rity Space (NSS) priorities, and we are making consis tent and rapid improvement in this area. Adopting a Total Force approach, we will continue to develop well-educated, motivated, and competent people who are skilled in the demands of the space medium. Opera tionally, we must groom people who understand the tactical environment they support, as well as the space-unique tactics, techniques, and procedures needed. Technically, they must be schooled in the requirements, capabilities, and characteristics of vehicles that operate in space, the acquisition of space systems, and space-related research, science, and technology. They must be able to create new systems, technologies, train ing methods, concepts of operations and organizations that will sustain the U.S. as the world leader in space. These new Furthermore, they must ensure these systems are interoperable with and integrated into architectures that support the creation of lethal and non-lethal effects. This is a tall order because we are not talking about creating talking about forging an entirely new breed of warrior who will ultimately transform warfare in the same way airpower professionals did in the past century. This is a great responsi we are implementing a comprehensive DoD-level framework to guide the efforts of the military services. This framework, the Space Human Capital Resources Strategy, will ensure the space cadres of all the Services possess the necessary education, skills and experiences to meet National Security Space needs. their service-unique requirements. Any strategy for devel oping space professionals must recognize the Services have one recognizes space profes sionals in the Navy will have different skills, education and training, and experi ences than Air Force space professionals, it becomes apparent Services and their components must continue to grow and manage a unique cadre of space professionals to support their particular mission requirements. It is also important to recognize and accommodate the spe Security Space community, the National Reconnaissance workforce management strategy consistent with the goals and objectives of the DoD strategy, and understandably it is tailored to the unique requirements of the NRO. The second goal of the strategy is to synchronize and inte grate the space professional efforts of the NSS community With the establishment of a DoD Executive Agent for Space it has become clear some level of overarching management, concerning our space professionals, is necessary to provide unity of effort and guide the space community in common endeavors. This senior level of management is the cornerstone senior leadership will establish and maintain sound personnel NSS Plans Strategy for Developing Space Professionals Space Professional Development Over the last two and one half years, Ive had the great fortune to see this commu nity in action across the spectrumfrom acquisition to operations. I am thoroughly impressed by the outstanding leadership, professionalism, dedication, and ability of our men and women in the space arena. Peter B. Teets
6 High Frontier Summer 2004 6 High Frontier Summer 2004 policies. As part of this, the community must come together and establish a DoD-level education and training framework as well as ensure the Services pool the data needed to manage our DoD-wide team of space professionals. Working together we can identify best practices and apply them throughout the community. The third goal of the strategy is to continue to improve the intelligence operations. We are not developing space pro fessionals to work in isolation. Our space professionals must be sensitive to the needs of the many and varied end-users of space capabilities, and be able to formulate and articulate new space doctrine to fully control and exploit the medium of space in support of our nations security objectives. The depth and breadth of our space professionals education, training and experience must instill an understanding of joint warfare and how space capabilities are best woven into our operating concepts and war plans. Additionally, we must continue to educate our non-space professionals on what space brings to space education in our service and joint professional military education, and graduate degree programs. The last goal of the strategy is to consistently assign the best available space professionals to the most critical jobs within the National Security Space community. There are many models we are examining as we decide how best to manage people at the DoD-level. Acquisition professionals There is also the methodology for the selection and manning of joint-critical billets that may be adapted to our purpose. Regardless, we understand putting the right person, in the right place at the right time does not happen by accident. It requires effort and forethought. My goal is to create a system that serves the space community without becoming onerous or self-defeating. Over the last two and one half years, Ive had the great fortune to see this community in action across the spectrum from acquisition to operations. I am thoroughly impressed by the outstanding leadership, professionalism, dedication, and ability of our men and women in the space arena. We owe them a strategy, the Space Human Capital Resources Strategy, which will foster their development as space professionals. Truly, people form the backbone of our joint and interagency space capabilities, and we must keep this backbone strong to preserve the United States decisive edge in space. Peter B. Teets (BS, University of Colorado; MS, University of Colorado; MS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology) is the Under Secretary of the Air Force, Washington D.C., and is re sponsible for all actions of the Air Force on behalf of the Secretary of the Air Force and is acting secretary in the secretarys absence. Designated the Department of Defense Executive Agent for Space, Mr. Teets develops, coordinates and inte grates plans and programs for space systems and the acquisition of all DOD space major defense acquisition programs. As the Director of the responsible for the acquisition and operation of all U.S. space-based reconnaissance and intel ligence systems. Developing and maintaining a team of space professionals remains one of my highest National Security Space (NSS) priorities, and we are making consistent and rapid improvement in this area. Peter B. Teets
6 High Frontier Summer 2004 High Frontier Summer 2004 7 6 High Frontier Summer 2004 General Lance W. Lord Commander, Air Force Space Command This year marks a milestone for the space and missile communityits the 50th anniversary of the Air Forces Western Development Division. From the early days, General Bernard Schriever and his team of scientists, engineers, and satellite systems that led the nation into outer space, made possible arms control agreements with the Soviet Union and ulti mately helped win the Cold War. Their innovation and prescient leadership evolved into the transformational military space and missile capabilities the Air Force operates today. Although its from our space and missile heritage, its even more essential that we cast our attention toward the future. In that light, we recently unveiled a new Space Professional Cadre development program, most vital resource is people and thats why we are working hard to create a strong program that will professionally develop our next generation of Space Professionals. To achieve this goal, a number of critical initiatives are necessary. this new program came about. The Space Professional Strategy was derived in part from the 2001 Space Commission Report, which stated the Department of Defense in not on course to de velop the space cadre the nation needs. The Commission further asserted that space operators and acquirers must master highly complex technologyand operate some of the most complex systems ever built and deployed. Their declarations are certainly increasingly complex space systems, such as Transformational Communication and Space Based Radar, which will provide un precedented capabilities for our nations military. These systems will blend space with air, land and sea components in ways never before possible. A highly skilled Air Force Space Cadre will be absolutely critical if we expect to successfully design, operate and the future. Implementation of the Space Professional Strategy will lead to more purposeful and effective career development for the entire space community. This includes the Space Cadre (scientists, engineers, program managers and operators who design, acquire, employ and integrate our space capabilities), as well as other critical roles, such as intelligence, maintenance, communication, weather and logistics. The plan calls for identifying every in dividual in the Air Forces Space Cadre, tracking their unique space experiences, developing new and improved space edu program to monitor progress and status of each individual. Other Space Professionals, who are not members of the Cadre, will also receive specialized education in space missions and organizations to better prepare them for assignments in the national security space arena. Mission success will undoubtedly hinge on providing the strongest foundation of education and training possible. To that end, we already have a continuum of education initiatives in progress that are designed to enhance understanding of the space medium and the importance of integrating space capabilities into civilian sector. My vision is for the creation of a National Se curity Space Institute centered in Colorado Springs and enabled by a collaborative effort between services, agencies, and local and distant universities. I want this National Space University to be the go to place for space education. Although there will be many hurdles ahead, together we can make this vision a reality. How do we know were on the right path? With tighter bud sustain the right number of people, with the correct education careers. The Space Professional Implementation Plan gives the ible enough to accommodate changes along the way. While Air Force Space Command is already making big strides, a number of challenges still remain. Cultural shifts and change are sometimes met with apprehension and skepticism; however, these initiatives are needed to face the asymmetric challenges of the 21st century. The growing complexity and types of combat missions demand that space operators and acquirers get out in front of the problem intellectually. To maintain our nations continued preeminence in space, the Air Force must produce a highly dedicated Space Cadre to execute planning, programming, requirements development, acquisition and operation of future military space systems. This new professional development program offers the right approach, it enjoys the full support of Air Force senior leadership and we pledge to commit all of the necessary resources to accomplish our goals. recommendations in January 2001, we have been diligently work ing to identify and implement sound solutions. Space Professional Development is designed to promote career growth opportunities while thoroughly preparing our people to overcome the increas ing challenges associated with securing the ultimate high ground. In addition, merging our world-class space scientists, engineers, program managers, operators and other specialists into a more States has come to depend on. Finally, a National Security Space Institute in Colorado Springs will pave the way for educating this new Cadre, while keeping our extraordinary city as the Place for will be enduring, as we become the recognized leader in Advanced Space Education and Training. For additional Space Professional information visit the Space Professional Development Web Site at: http://www.peterson. af.mil/spacepro Developing Space Professionals Space Professional Development
8 High Frontier Summer 2004 8 High Frontier Summer 2004 Professionalswithin which the space leaders for the future can be developed. 3The Secretary of Defense agreed with the Commissions to prepare a comprehensive space career management plan. 4 Air Force Space Professional Strategy that lays out a sound approach for developing and sustaining space professionals. Approved cialties and disciplines required to take space systems from concept to employment Additionally, the SECAF designated the Commander of Air Force Space Command as the Space Professional Functional Authority, responsible for managing Implementing the Space Professional Strategy Beginning with our initial response to the Space Com mission Report, the Air Force focused on a Total Force space members, civilians, reserves and national guardsmen who are all highly skilled, competent and knowledgeable in the devel opment, application, operation, integration and sustainment of military space systems. All space professionals will be afforded specialized education, training and tracking of their space experience whenever they serve in space positions. A more stringent set of initiatives will apply to a subset of space professionals, known as the Space Cadre. The Space Cadre Col James C. Hutto Air Force Space Command March 2003-While engaged in a deadly firefight in Central Iraq, lead units of the 3rd Infantry Divi sion (ID) mysteriously lost their primary communication link with the MILSTAR Satellite network. In an instant, critical elements were completely cut off. Fortunately, an alert crew from the 4th Satellite Operations Squadron at Schriever Air Force Base, Colorado, quickly determined that another user inadvertently moved the satellite spot beam away from the combat zone. After initiating over-ride procedures, the beam link was restored. The 3rd ID was able to resume its coordi nated attack and went on to win this key battle. 2 This story represents just one of many recent examples of the critical wartime roles played by military space assets and the dedicated space professionals who wield them. Make no mistake; the victorious outcome of this engagement, along with numerous other battles in Operation IRAQI FREEDOM, would not have been certain without dominant U.S. military space power. During the past 20 years, space systems and the people who develop and operate them, have repeatedly dem Rest assured, this decisive role for space will only continue But this is no time for complacency. The acquisition pipe such as the Space Based Radar and Transformational SatCom systems that will provide unprecedented capabilities. These systems will integrate space with air, land and sea battle arenas in ways never before imaginedand people are the key to making it all work. More than ever, specialized space effects from these highly sophisticated systems. As a result, the Air Force must redouble its efforts in re cruiting and training talented people to design, acquire, op erate, plan, integrate and sustain a completely new generation of space weapon systems. This imperative was clearly spelled out by the Space Commission in January 2001. As noted in the space cadre the nation needs. They further asserted that space operators and acquirers must master highly complex technologyand operate some of the most complex systems ever built and deployed. This conclusion led the Commission to call for initiatives to create and sustain a cadre of Space Developing Space Professionals Crucial to Critical Wartime Roles Space Professional Development
8 High Frontier Summer 2004 High Frontier Summer 2004 9 8 High Frontier Summer 2004 is composed of nearly 10,000 scientists, engineers, program managers and space operators. At present most of these individuals are assigned to Air Force Space Command and research labs, Air Logistics Centers, Air and Joint Staffs, as fully vested in the new professional development initiatives spelled out in the remaining sections of this paper. Identifying the Space Cadre In concert with the Air Forces new Force Development program, the primary focus of our implementation efforts is on enhanced education, training and experience initiatives to ensure we have the right person, with the right education and training, in the right job, at the right time in their career. To that end, we are implementing six major initiatives that Commission and, more importantly, provide each individual with better professional tools, more purposeful development and many pathways to career success. Identify whos in the Space Cadre and determine distin guishing skills of Space Professionals individual who belongs in the Space Cadre. By reviewing Air Force Specialty Codes and individual duty histories, we can further distinguish each member and identify the unique experiences they acquire while serving in their various space assignments. In his role as the Space Professional Func tional Authority, General Lance W. Lord, Air Force Space space experience that are critical to develop and monitor now and in the future. Its important to note these experiences apply to acquirers as well as operators, but a different set of criteria will eventually be needed to track other functional specialists. The nine categories consist of: satellite systems, nuclear systems, spacelift systems, warning systems, space control, intelligence-surveillance-reconnaissance, kinetic effects, space warfare command and control and a general category for all other types of space experience. The method chosen to known as Space Experience Codes (SPECs). These codes are further broken down to distinguish between acquisition, operations and staff type of assignments, as well as much more involved. In practice, one SPEC will be awarded for each space assignment completed. We have already completed a data call on active duty members of the Air Force Space Cadre and recorded their tentative SPECs. By the fall of 2004, we anticipate completion of a similar process for government civilians, as well as the Reserves and National Guard. Institute stronger, technically oriented space education and training programs The foundation for space professional development is a continuum of educational courses spread throughout ones
10 High Frontier Summer 2004 10 High Frontier Summer 2004 poses: it measures the overall health and status of the space cadre and it sets attainable standards for education, training and experience at key points in their career. As a measurement ing the number of individuals at each level. Additionally, it establishes fair and consistent standards that comply with U.S. Air Force Force Development goals, responds to Space Commission recommendations and facilitates the assignment function that encourages individuals to meet standards in order to stay on track and competitive with their peers. There progress from a foundation of technical depth and compe tency (Level 1) in their early years, through a demonstrated ability to apply and integrate space capabilities (Level 2) at approximately the 8-10 year point and progress to extensive knowledge in space doctrine and policy (Level 3) by the 15criteria includes number of years of service, types and years of space experience acquired and appropriate levels of education and training. We have established a grandfathering process in the existing space cadre. A regulated waiver process will also be established to accommodate any unforeseen circum stances in the future. Identify each Space Cadre position and its education, unique requirements for every space job. This will involve a complete review of the requisitions associated with each position to identify education, training, experience and certi and validated with the owning units and the AF Personnel Center to establish a permanent Space Coded Billet tracking system. Ultimately, this information will be compiled into a career planning guide and catalog of space positions. In addition to providing information on every space job, the catalog will be essential for mentoring space professionals on the proper education, training and experiences they must pursue in order to achieve their long-term career goals. Issue Career Development Guidance AFSPC/CC, designated the Space Professional Functional Authority (SPFA) in July 2003 by the SECAF, will coordinate policy guidance to aid force development teams in managing the space cadre. Additionally, the SPFA will provide input to the AF Force Development Council and periodically bal ance the number of Space Cadre authorizations versus the inventory to meet the needs of the National Security Space community. and civilian cadre members. The courses are designed to bring space professionals together several times during their careers in order to stay current on evolving missions, technologies and capabilities and to prepare the individual for the next level of responsibility. Space 100 will be taught to accessions, both operators and acquirers assigned to space-related areas, giving them a foundation in space fundamentals and indoctrinating them into our unique space culture. Space 200 will be taught to Space Cadre members at the 8-10 year point and focuses on the operational environment, the design and acquisition of space systems and the integration of space capabilities into Space Cadre members starting at the 12-year point and will focus on space policy, doctrine and the strategic use of space capabilities. We are also developing a space fundamentals assignment. Each of these courses is designed to accommo date joint service, total force and agency participation. For a broader understanding of the range of space capa bilities, a small group of space cadre members are selected each year to attend the U.S. Air Force Weapons School. Upon graduation, these individuals are typically assigned to key po sitions in non-space organizations including major command planning functions and theater Aerospace Operations Centers. The goal is to better integrate space capabilities into all levels tional experience back into the space profession. Additionally, space systems, are under development to provide space cadre members with an in-depth level of expertise in the design, vulnerability, operation and employment of an individual weapon system. These experts return to their organizations to employ their new skills and enhance unit training programs. The inaugural AST course dealt with all aspects of navigation We are also working closely on developmental education and advanced degree programs as part of the new U.S. Air Air University on development of a Space Specialized Stud ies course as part of their Air Command and Staff College curriculum. We are also participating in review of graduate education programs at the Air Force Institute of Technology and the Naval Post Graduate School, as well as various civilian universities. An even more ambitious proposal was recently approved to create a National Security Space Institute in Colorado Springs that will serve as a Space Education Center of Excellence. and monitor the Cadre The glue that holds the Space Professional construct to
10 High Frontier Summer 2004 High Frontier Summer 2004 11 10 High Frontier Summer 2004 Establish a permanent Space Professional Management To oversee the implementation process, a Space Profes sional Task Force was established in October 2002. They were responsible for writing the Air Force Space Profes sional Strategy and associated Implementation Plan, as well as directing development of the new education programs and establishing relationships with other space professional development organizations. While the task force was only intended as an interim entity, the initiatives are not self-sus taining and will require permanent management and oversight. (AFSPC/MSPAX) has replaced the Task Force and contin ues to manage the program on behalf of the SPFA, including the new Space 100, 200, 300, AST and Space Fundamentals courses, evolution of the National Security Space Institute, and implementation of reporting and tracking procedures for all space cadre members. Conclusion constantly strive to sustain the right number of people, with the time in their careers. The Space Professional Implementation Plan gives us a solid roadmap for achieving this mandate and While were already making big strides, a number of chal lenges still remain. Cultural shifts and change are sometimes met with apprehension and skepticism. However these initia tives are needed and have the full support of Air Force senior leadership. Working individually with the thousands of Space Cadre members throughout the Air Force is a monumental task, but its imperative that everyone understands how the new program works and how it interacts with force develop were working hard to implement the program as smoothly as possible. For additional information, please visit the Space Professional Web Site at: https://halfway.peterson.af.mil/ spacepro for those with .mil accounts or http://www.peterson. af.mil/spacepro for those with commercial only access. Notes: 1. Statement to the Senate Armed Services Committees Strategic Forces Sub Col James C. Hutto, Jr. (BA, The Citadel; MS, Lesley College) is the Chief, Force Devel opment and Readiness, Headquarters Air Force Space Command, Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado. He is responsible for development, implementation and funding of the Air Force Space Professional Strategy to include education, space professional liaison with the other Services vious assignments, Col Hutto gained experience in satellite command and control for the Defense Support Program, Defense Meteorological Sat ellite Program and Global Positioning System satellites. While assigned to the Air Staff in the Pentagon, he assisted in the development of the Air Forces Strategic Master Plan and Vision. Col Hutto also commanded the 6th Space Warning Squadron at Cape Cod Air Force Station where he was responsible for detecting sea-launched ballistic missiles and tracking earth-orbiting satellites. Col Hutto is a graduate of Squadron Royal Australian Air Force Command and Staff College and Air War College. committee by USECAF, 12 March 2003, 1, 8 2. The story of moving the MILSTAR Satellite spot beam in support of the 3rd Infantry Division during Operation IRAQI FREEDOM as recounted by Capt Ryan Stalnaker, 4th Satellite Operations Squadron, Schriever AFB CO 3 Report of the Commission to Assess United States National Security Space Management and Organization, Chaired by the Hon. Donald Rumsfeld, 11 January 2001, viii, xiii, xviii, 27, 42 4. Hon. Donald H. Rumsfeld, National Security Space Management and Organization, Secretary of Defense Memorandum for Secretaries of the Military Departments, 18 October 2001
12 High Frontier Summer 2004 12 High Frontier Summer 2004 A. A member of a team skilled and knowledgeable in the development, application and integration of space concepts, doctrine and capabilities to achieve national security objec tives. Q. Who is included in the Space Professional popu ernment civilians required to take space systems from concept to employment. Composed of two groups: Space Cadre composed of scientists, engineers, program managers and operators Space Support composed of personnel vital to space mission success and includes specialists such as intelligence, communication, maintenance, logistics, weather and others Q. What is included in the Space Professional Devel A. The program hinges on three areas: depth of expe rience, breadth of experience, and education and training. Each area contributes to enhancing the expertise of the space the individual and the cadre as a whole. Q. Is Space Professional Development consistent with A. Yes! Each development program will be designed to ensure that your experience emphasizes a breadth of exposure to the Air Force mission while focusing on the depth of experi ence you need to be good at your job. . The programs will be prioritized in a manner that respects your valuable time all cases there will not be one set solution for success. We will examine each individual based on credibility, depth of experience, breadth of exposure, and potential to serve the AF in higher positions of responsibility. (From General John Jumper, CSAF, Chiefs Sight Picture, 6 November 2002) Acquisition Professional Development Program, established directly to the pillars of Space Professional development depth of experience, breadth of experience, and education. ensure the entire Space Professional Development Program is achieving its goals. More importantly, it will serve as a mentoring tool for supervisors and individuals to use in ascer taining professional development paths. As noted elsewhere, but will not be a checklist for career advancement. That will continue to reside with the individual. will establish guidelines for individual career progression, and will vary by career path. It will; however, not be a checklist for guaranteed promotion or job assignments. These will continue to depend more on an individuals sustained perfor mance, rather than their chronology of job titles. The purpose of Space Professional Development is to create a purposeful and repeatable method for improving the overall growth of the Space Professional cadre. Q. If I am already serving as a Space Professional how, A. There will be a grandfathering process for current Space Professionals based on the guidelines in the Air Force Space experience and education of each current Space Professional. The AFSPC Space Professional Task Force, or designated au thority, will devise the grandfathering procedures. We expect most grandfathering will be relatively straight forward, but there will always be those gray areas that need to be resolved. The exact grandfathering process is still being developed. Check back often for updates. A. The Space Cadre will have Space Professional Expe Q. How do I stay abreast of the latest information A. The Commander, Air Force Space Command, will periodically provide updates via established public affairs methods. In addition, Air Force Space Command has estab lished this web site as a vital part of getting the word out to the Space Professional. Check it often. Space Professional Development Frequently Asked Questions Space Professional Development
12 High Frontier Summer 2004 High Frontier Summer 2004 13 12 High Frontier Summer 2004 Q. Will Space Professionals be allowed to serve in nonA. Yes. As Air Force resources, Space Professionals will still have the opportunities (and are expected) to serve in a variety of AF requirements. Selective career broadening will be allowed as well as serving as ROTC, USAFA, and PME instructors, recruiting and other key positions. Q. What tools will be available to track my progress A. A Space Professional Database is being developed to track all experience, education and training throughout a Space Professionals career and will be accessible to the individual to review their progress. Supervisors and commanders can also use this database to help guide personnel throughout their careers. Access will be protected to ensure the privacy of the individual. We envision the Space Professional Database, three key tools that supervisors will use in mentoring Space Professionals. Check this web site for more information on the database. Expected availability for the Database is fall of 2003. Q. Do other services have Space Professional pro A. Yes. The intent of the Space Commission was to develop and enhance space competence on a national scale. Each Service is developing their own program and we are in constant contact with them. We expect the programs will be Service. lead us into the future, and educating them through Space Professional Development that ensures the success of our operators, space cadre. General Lance W. Lord Air Force Space Command Commander March 2004
14 High Frontier Summer 2004 14 High Frontier Summer 2004 Professional Task Force (AFSPC/CVX) is charged with de veloping new programs, polices and procedures to implement new education and training courses to improve our knowledge base while enhancing our space culture. They have developed new ways to track our Space Cadre personnel during their careers. There are new experience tracking mechanisms and our cadre to push past the status quo and sharpen their skills in the space arena. Personnel will be deliberately developed to ensure they acquire the necessary education, training and depth of experience in space mission areas to meet present and evolving national security space requirements. Future ments by putting the right person with the right experience in the right job at the right time. That is space professional development in a nutshell. Lets jump forward to the year 2015 and Airman Doe is controlling a satellite in the Space Based Radar constellation in support of Joint Forces Air Com ponent Commander, in the PACAF Area Of Responsibility. This par ticular satellite is currently tracking a high priority target and is being used to cue a strike package and then the satellite experiences an anomaly. Will Airman Doe be ready for the chal lenge and keep our capability-based effect on target? If we implement space professional development cor rectly, they will be ready. Space is the professional development programs being instituted today will ensure our enlisted space cadre is ready for it and will guarantee our position as the best air and space force in the world. Notes: 1. Report of the Commission to Assess United States National Security Space Management and Organization. (2001). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing 2. Lord, L. W. (2003). Space Professional Strategy. (2004, Mar 04) Chief Master Sergeant Ronald G. Kriete Command Chief, Air Force Space Command This inaugural issue is dedicated to space pro fessional development. Other articles will detail the Space Commission findings and the programs to improve our man agement of space professionals. 1 However, I want to focus on the importance of our enlisted space cadre to our nation. Only in the U.S. Air Force can an Airman control a multi-billion dollar sat ellite constellation relaying time critical information for tens of around the world. How can we do this? Our Airman are successful because we provide them the best possible education and training, while they are asked to perform these highly specialized duties covering all aspects Of space operations. This time tested approach brought us to where we are today. We remain the best Air and Space Force in the world. But we cannot rest on our laurels. With the increasing complexity of new space systems on the horizon, we need to im prove our education, training and man agement of todays space professionals so we will maintain our superiority in operations as we integrate these new That is why we have space professional development. General Lord in his role as the Space Professional Functional Authority outlined his direction for development and utilization of space professionals in the Space Professional Strategy. 2 It provides overarching guidance for how the USAF will develop and manage our space cadre of approximately 10,000 officer, enlisted, civilian, guard and reserve personnel. Air Force Space Commands Space Professional Man agement Office, formerly the Space Cover of the 2001 Space Commission report. CMSgt Ronald G. Kriete (CCAF) is the Com mand Chief Master Sergeant to the commander, Air Force Space Commander, Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado. Chief Kriete is responsible for advising the commander and senior staff on effective utilization, quality of life, and progress of the commands enlisted members in the United States and overseas, encompassing 13 time zones. The chief completed Phase 1 NCO PME, Phase II NCO PME, Tactical Air Command NCO Leadership School, Air National Guard NCO Academy and USAF Senior Noncommissioned Developing Enlisted Space Professionals Space Professional Development
14 High Frontier Summer 2004 High Frontier Summer 2004 15 14 High Frontier Summer 2004 Lieutenant General Larry J. Dodgen Commanding General, U.S. Army Space and Missile De fense Command/U.S. Army Forces Strategic Command It is certainly a pleasure to contribute to the inaugural edi tion of the United States Air Force Space Commands Space Journal. The United States Army Space and Missile Defense Command (SMDC) wholeheartedly shares in the Journals theme of fostering awareness and debate among the entire space professional community and we look forward to partici pating in this joint effort. Our Nation is at war. Security of our homeland, the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) and sustained engagement around vironment. Operations ENDURING FREEDOM and IRAQI FREEDOM (OEF/OIF) are demonstrating as never before resources currently being employed in OIF and OEF are de monstrably more capable, more abundant, and more integrated into all phases of combat operations. The immense combat coalition effort, has been facilitated and enhanced at every step by space professionals leveraging space products and services Leading that effort are the Armys cadre of space profes partment of Defense organizations with the expertise, access, and tools to make maximum use of space assets in all phases of operations. The Army space cadre professional ensures readily available access to the services and products of na tional, service and commercial space systems. Through each phase of operations, the Army space professional provides the To offer some background in 2000, the Commission to Assess United States National Security Space Management and Organization was established to assess the organization and management of space activities in support of U.S. national security interests. The Commission unanimously concluded that the security and well being of the United States, its allies and friends depended on the nations ability to operate in space. Referred to as the Space Commission, it strongly advocated the military departments create and sustain a trained cadre of space professionals. The Honorable Donald H. Rumsfeld, who chaired the commission until his nomination by President Bush to be the Secretary of Defense, agreed with the commis sions conclusion that a new and comprehensive approach to national security space management and organization was needed to promote and protect the nations interests in space. On 18 October 2001, Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld tasked the military departments to develop and maintain a cadre of The Army, however, had already recognized the need for knowledgeable about space capabilities to complement the actions of the signal, intelligence, information operations, and STORM and subsequent exercises, emerging technologies, the proliferation of ballistic and cruise missile technology, and the increased use of space by the government and commercial professionals. To satisfy this need, the Army, in 1998, estab lished a space operations functional area designated FA 40 Space Operations. SMDC is the Army proponent for space the Secretary of Defense, various defense agencies and among the joint combatant commands. The impact of these space operations pioneers was immediate as they contributed to the development of space doctrine and space tactics, techniques, and procedures. They turned the latest space technology into pleted the rigorous eight-week SOOQC conducted in Colorado Springs, Colorado. These graduates have been exposed to a variety of focused areas of training designed to provide them the skills required to plan and conduct space operations to support a commanders concept of operations. These areas of training include: planning space control operations, analyzing friendly force space control capabilities and limitations, recom mending space applications to support the military decisionmaking process, determining the impact of space and terrestrial weather on space and terrestrial operations, producing the space staff estimate, and apprising the command and staff on space-related missions, functions and capabilities, to name a few. The course ends with a four-day capstone command post Army Cadre Ensure Security Total Force Space Development
16 High Frontier Summer 2004 16 High Frontier Summer 2004 exercise where students must successfully apply skills from all previous instruction during a tactical scenario. Upon graduation, space professionals have demonstrated the ability to provide bility for planning, developing, training and integrating space capabilities to sup port tactical, operational, and strategic military operations. They have the access, tools, and expertise to make maximum use of space assets in all phases of operations. Army space professionals are also trained tise and guidance on conducting the space component of information operations. In training via Advanced Civil Schooling, Training with Industry, Air Education and Training Command or Space Warfare Center courses. years of basic branch Army doctrine and tactical experience arms, combat service, or combat service support branches adapt space operations to the tactical, operational and strategic malizing space throughout all Army and joint operations and activities, i.e., make the use of space business as usual. Making the use of space business as usual means being in space cadre, whether providing reach-back capability from the theater of operations to a home-station location, to aug menting our deployed forces in direct contact with the enemy, are at the tip of the spear supporting GWOT and OIF. Army Space Support Teams (ARSSTs), supporting the Coalition Force Land Component Commander (CFLCC), V Corps, 1st Marine Expeditionary Force (I MEF) and the Co alition Provisional Authority, provided space products, services, and exper tise directly to the joint warfighter. Additional spacetrained Sol diers and liaison of ficers sup ported the Special Operations Command and other deployed units. Of imagery capability, coordinated with SMDCs Spectral Operations Resource Center (SORC), used in fast-moving tactical scenarios. When the 4th Infantry Division occupied the Tikrit presidential rocket-propelled grenades and small arms. The ARSST 14 team on site pro vided the commander with imagery of the palace complex and the surrounding area. Using this current imagery, the enemy counterattacked. SMDCs SORC, crewed by Army and Air Force personnel, delivered unclas This imagery down-linked by the Air Force Eagle Vision 1 system was passed to the SORC for pro cessing and was briefed by Brig. Gen. Vincent Brooks, CENT COM, within 24 hours of imaging. Other imagery products regime. The SORC, working with ARSSTs, utilized multispectral imagery analysis to identify the locations of enemy erations, assist units with the mobile missile-hunting missions, of potential mass gravesites in the Baghdad area. Our space Soldiers with the Army Space-based Blue Force Tracking Mission Management Center (SB-BFT MMC) also worked closely with the CFLCC by providing Near-Real-Time Blue Force Tracking data to the V Corps commander for the portion of the Corps Apache Helicopter force equipped with the Grenadier BRAT (beyond line-of-sight reporting and tracking) system. The SB-BFT MMC provided support for 400 Grenadier BRAT and 2,500 miniature transmitters. Space cadre Soldiers of the Regional Satellite Communications Support Centers (RSSC) and the Defense Satellite Commu nications System Operations Centers (DSCSOC) provided reliable and responsive satellite wide-band communications support. Space professionals in the SMDC Operations Center, working 24/7, maintained situational awareness of deployed elements, responded to hundreds of requests for information and provided the essential reach-back system of connectivity with technical and operational professionals. The Armys space cadre also includes members of the Army Astronaut Detachment assigned to the Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, supporting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The Army has been involved in space since the 1950s. During that decade, the Army began work on a heavy booster rocket called Saturn 1, which later Col. Patrick G. Forrester, USA, taking a space walk while working on the International Space Station. A noncommissioned officer with the Army Space Support Team 5 during the deployment with the 1st Marine Expeditionary Force in Iraq.
16 High Frontier Summer 2004 High Frontier Summer 2004 17 16 High Frontier Summer 2004 evolved, under NASA, into the massive Saturn V that sent Americans to the moon. When Alan Shepards Mercury 3 Braun and his rocket team at the Armys Redstone Arsenal. Army Astronauts have worked on the International Space Sta tion, conducted space walks, worked on advanced robotics systems and supported crews training for scheduled missions. There are currently six Army Astronauts and two space sup ultimate high ground, as Peter B. Teets, Under Secretary of the Air Force, proclaimed. Although the Army is growing a professional core of space additionally made up of Soldiers and civilians from a variety of branches and functional areas of our service who bring a Intelligence and Signal Corps along with others, constitute a large population of space-smart professionals who work spacerelated issues and requirements fully integrated into the collective process. Other space professionals include scien tists, engineers and acquisition experts skilled and knowledgeable in research, space system development, acquisition and application of emerging technolo gies to support the Armys needs and joint full spectrum operations. They are competent and skilled in all aspects of developing, procuring, employing and the use of space systems to support full spectrum operations. Ongoing success in the GWOT and OIF is not only because of superior technology and the products mentioned previously. Success is being achieved because of motivated, educated, trained and competent professional space cadre consisting of Soldiers and civilians who are fully committed to meeting the na tional security space needs of the 21st century. The future of the Army space cadre of professionals is an exciting one as it continues to evolve and grow while developing space professionals who are trained, educated and experienced on the value of space to the joint warf ighter. Lessons from GWOT and OIF are being gathered and studied. These The Army Staff with the Deputy Chief of Staff, G-3, having the lead with SMDC in support, are currently working hard to address a number of issues vital to the long-term development of the Armys space cadre. These issues include developing consensus on space cadre membership and responsibilities; oversight; developing a comprehensive Army space cadre strategy; establishing a tracking system to identify and sup port the Armys space cadre development, education, training, retention and assignments; and obtaining proper funding for cadre training, education, administration and management. The Army is also considering an Air Force proposal to establish a joint space university called the National Space University. The concept is being deeply analyzed while resourcing issues are addressed by both services. Currently, Army space cadre professionals attend the Air Force Institute of Technology and the Naval Post Graduate School. Space professionals of the other services attend the Armys SOOQC as well. The Army is also conducting a Space Enlisted Force Study designed to provide a workable recommendation to incorporate the best mixture of enlisted force specialties as members of the Army space cadre. and develops capabilities for its fu ture force, Army space professionals will be increasingly integrated into all phases of current and future operations, planning, research, development and acquisition efforts within the Army and Department of Defense. The Army is an interdependent member of the joint space community that relies on space products and ser vices provided by national, military and commercial space systems and platforms. We are committed to the robust development of our profes sional space cadre to provide the assure complete decision dominance and decisive victory on todays and ing with the DoD in its phased strategy implementation efforts to synchronize and integrate the space cadre activities of the military departments and intel ligence community to the maximum extent possible. As space is a vertical space cadre professional will lead the effort, in collaboration with the other services, to ensure the ultimate high ground is secured. LTG Larry J. Dodgen (BS, Louisiana State University; MBA, University of Missouri; MS, USNA) is the Commanding General for the U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Com mand/U.S. Army Forces Strategic Command. LTG Dodgens military career began in Fort Hood, Texas, and spanned to various countries to include Korea and Saudi Arabia. He served in Germany as the Chief of the CINCs Initiatives Army Europe. He also served as the sixth Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Policy and Missions and the Director, Joint Theater Air and Missile Defense Organization. LTG Dodgen is Advanced Courses, the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College and the U.S. Naval War College.
18 High Frontier Summer 2004 18 High Frontier Summer 2004 CAPT Cheryl Spohnholtz Navy Space Cadre Advisor Early in its history, the United States Navy began to exploit the ocean of space in direct support of ships deployed to the far reaches of the globe. The U.S. Naval Observatory was established in 1844 and has since played a leading role in astronomy, precise measurements and time keeping. The Observatory has been a major contributor to the modern space era through its accurate measurements of the Earths motion, global coordinates and the maintenance of precise time standards. The Navys research and devel opment community has been on the forefront of space science and responsible for the introduction of major space-based systems in navigation, surveillance and communications. And operationally, the Navy has employed satellite systems to enable the Fleet to perform vital command, communications, control and surveillance functions. Navy and Marine Corps forces are consistently the largest users of space systems and space-derived information. At the threshold of the 21st century, the Navys use of space is critical to the execution of every phase and component of its mission. In spite of its longstanding and accomplished history in the exploitation of space, the Navy has not institutionalized a specialized career path in space for its members, in the same way it has developed surface, aviation and submarine warfare communities. Initially, the service elected, instead, to capitalize on the space education and experience of its with the development of space operations and space engi neering curricula at the Naval Postgraduate School, the Navy billets on numbered Fleet staffs and at commands ashore, the service began assigning Navy members with matching codes to those positions. More recently, the Navy has begun efforts to build a cadre employees. The Naval Space Cadre Working Group was formed in 2001 in response to Secretary of Defense Donald Commission to Assess United States National Security Space Management and Organization. In October 2001, Secretary Rumsfeld directed the armed services to maintain a cadre will be incorporated into all military operations. The Naval Space Cadre is composed of active-duty and Navy Develops Own Space Cadre sonnel, along with Navy civilian employees from a wide and experience standards established for a particular certi expertise horizontally and vertically integrated within Navy and Marine Corps active duty, reserves and civilian employee communities organized to operationalize space. Still without civilian workforce to create the cadre. the standup of the Naval Space Cadre Working Group and culminated in a naval message (NAVADMIN 201/03 DTG codes of 6206, Space Systems Operations, and 5500, Space civilian cadre members is more challenging, as these groups billets. These jobs are in Navy, joint and National Security Space organizations. Space cadre members are currently assigned throughout the National Security Space arena, curity Space Architect, National Security Space Integration, organizations that deal with space. space cadre advisor. This position is responsible for the es Cadre, including both the people and the billets. A focused effort to develop a naval space cadre web pres ence on Navy Knowledge Online (NKO) has been spearheaded by Lt. Cmdr. Zigmond Leszczynski, space requirements of and updated a naval space cadre site on NKO to incorporate recommendations and content from a wide range of military space-related organizations. Contributors include the Naval Postgraduate Schools Space Systems Academic Group for space cadre education; Naval Network and Space Operations Commands (NNSOC) Distance Space Support Teams for reachback on NKO-S; Joint Space University (JSU) for in structor collaboration; the Air University Center for Space Studies to promote the Navy space cadre to the Air Force; and the IP community for intercommunity thread sharing. Total Force Space Development
18 High Frontier Summer 2004 High Frontier Summer 2004 19 18 High Frontier Summer 2004 Information and news on Navy space initiatives and programs is provided in a reference library that includes publications such as the Naval Space Forum by Space and Naval Warfare Systems Commands Space Field Activity and Domain magazine by NNSOC. The Air Force Space Operations School introduced their instructors to the space cadre section on NKO, which im mediately resulted in online collaboration for Navy inputs to Space 200. Naval Networks and Space Operations Command provided JSU with study guides and briefs for their Navy Satellite Communications Course and Naval Space Systems Application Course. Both contain a wealth of information to facilitate Space 200 development. resenting naval interests as a partner with the Air Forcethe executive agent for spaceby continually innovating and de veloping new products and processes to support naval needs and by ensuring those products and processes are integrated of making space tactically relevant to naval operations, as well Space community. The USS Iwo Jima sits off the coast of Souda Bay, Crete waiting for the order to deploy 26th MEU forces to northern Iraq. CAPT Cheryl Spohnholtz (BS, USNA; MS, Naval Postgraduate School) currently serves as the Navy Space Cadre Advisor, a newly estab lished position to help the Navy better manage its people with space expertise. Capt. Spohnholtzs career has focused on information technology, specializing in satellite operations. Her assign ments in the space arena have included serving as the Worldwide Military Command and Control Technical Advisor for Operations and Launch Officer, Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Association Senior Navy Fellow, communication policy issues, Commander, Naval Computer and Telecommunications Station and Space Architect. (Photo unavailable)
20 High Frontier Summer 2004 20 High Frontier Summer 2004 Capt Ronaldo Racinez Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps From its inception, the Marine Corps has modeled rooted in operations conducted abroad. Marines have main tained this expeditionary ethos by focusing on our ability to embark equipment and personnel, acquiring equipment that can function in an expeditionary environment, and maintaining a high tooth to tail ratio. Generally, if we cant embark it on a ship or a plane, we feel we dont need it. Task Force (MAGTF). The MAGTF is a combined arms force that brings together aviation, ground forces, combat service support and a command element to execute missions. The Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU) is the crown jewel of Marine Corps expeditionary forces. Built around a Bat talion Landing Team, MEUs are MAGTFs that are constantly deployed around the world in support of theater combatant commanders. The MEU, with its organic aircraft, artillery, armor, and infantry, as well as its ability to sustain itself, have made it the force of choice for crisis situations. Once on sta tion, the MEU can reach 75 percent of the worlds littorals in tasked by the supported combatant commander. The MEU can task organize itself to suit mission requirements and can employ a tailored combined arms force very rapidlythis force can be the introduction of more robust combat forces. Increasing the combat effectiveness and combat power of our MAGTFs requires us to continually evaluate our capabilities. In doing so, we need to ask ourselves what is the next step? and focus our effort on the enablers that will ensure the Marine Corps is able to maintain its expeditionary edge and ethos. One of these next steps is the continued integration of space-based capabilities into Marine Corps systems and operations. Space Operations Space operations and space-based capabilities have become more important to 21st century warfare. While the Air Force of space-based systems which joint and coalition forces rely, it is the individual services responsibility to ensure it can leverage space-based capabilities as well as contribute to the development of future space-based capabilities. In fact, the Commandant of the Marine Corps is directed in DoD Directive 5100.1, to organize, train and equip Marine forces such that they can conduct land, air and space operations essential to a naval campaign. directed the mission to oversee DoD space operations to the Commander, U.S. Strategic Command. This along with other key mission areas designated for USSTRATCOM prompted the Commandant of the Marine Corps to direct the establishment of a USMC Service component to support the combatant com mander. MARFORSTRAT represents USMC capabilities and interests and advises the USTRATCOM commander on the proper employment and support of USMC forces. In support of USSTRATCOMs space operations mission, MARFORSTRAT coordinates with USSTRATCOM and the other components on the development of space operational plans, space support to global and theater operations, space requirements and space operating concepts. Marine Corps Cadre of Space Professionals The Marine Corps ability to fully leverage space-based capabilities and to integrate space operations in support of our core missions will also require the creation of a Marine Corps cadre of space professionals, capable of supporting MAGTF operations and contributing to National Security Space ef forts. The Marine Corps is not creating a space occupational goals and strategic objectives for creating a cadre of space professionals. With a cloud of dust created by a CH53E Super Stallion behind him, a communicator with Fox Co., 2nd Battalion, 6th Marines, the ground combat element of the 22nd MEU (SOC), talks with higher headquarters via a satellite radio during a long-range helicopter raid. The 22nd MEU returned in late August from a six-month deployment to the Mediterranean, Horn of Africa, Persian Gulf and South Asia regions. Marines Increase Effectiveness with Space-based Capabilities & Forces Total Force Space Development
20 High Frontier Summer 2004 High Frontier Summer 2004 21 20 High Frontier Summer 2004 The Marine Corps goal is to produce and maintain a cadre of Marines, active duty and reserve and civilians with a diverse set of primary Military Occupational Specialties (including ground, aviation, combat support and command and control) who are: 1. Trained in joint space operations planning; 2. Educated in National Security Space (NSS) activities; 3. Experienced in space requirements generation, concept development, planning, programming, acquisition and/or operations. The Marine Corps strategic objectives in creating a Space cadre are: To support the vision and goals of Marine Corps Strategy 21 by creating a cadre of Marines who understand both the capabilities of a Marine Air-Ground Task Force and the unique advantages to be gained by fully exploiting current and future space-based systems To increase the integration of current and future space-based capabilities into Marine Corps systems to support the Corps Expeditionary Maneuver Warfare capstone concept and to enable FORCEnet and the transfor mational naval operational concepts of Sea Strike, Sea Basing and Sea Shield To shape the development of future space systems to meet Marine Corps collaboration with all NSS partners To increase the effectiveness of our operating forces through effective planning, integration and coordination of space-based capabilities and as signed space forces To increase the distribution of Marines with space training and experience throughout not only the NSS and joint community, but more importantly through out the operating forces to inject space-knowledge at the individual unit level Way Ahead The Marine Corps has already taken the initial steps to create designator, Military Occupational Specialty (MOS) 9933, for Marines trained in joint space operations and have experience in a space-related billet. The Marine Corps space cadre also Space Systems Operations curriculum at the Naval Postgraduate School. As we move forward, we will continue to integrate our enlisted and civilian Marines with space training and space experience into the space cadre. There are a number of billets that already require either the 9933 or the 9666 MOS throughout the Marine Corps supporting establishment and in joint commands. The Marine Corps is continuing to evaluate its structure to identify additional billets needed to support our strategic space cadre objectives. This year, the Marine Corps expects to request additional space bil lets to support the Marine Corps operating forces and the DoD Executive Agent for Space. We have also started to revise and update the space opera tions lessons in our Professional Military Education programs so that every Marine will learn how space contributes to the Space and Missile Defense Command and Air Force Space Command to develop training courses that will support the development of a Marine Corps space cadre. In the past, many Marines have completed space operations training courses and over the past year, Marines have attended the FA-40 Space Opera prototype Space 200 course at the Space Operations School, Colorado Springs, Colo. The Marine Corps will continue to send personnel to space training courses, not only to provide them with the space training they need but more importantly to interact with personnel from the other services. This interaction in the class room will help foster the understanding necessary between the services that will lead to a more capable joint force. The Deputy Commandant for Man power and Reserve Affairs is coordinating the Headquarters, Marine Corps effort to develop a cadre of space professionals and is working closely with the other departments to ensure the Marine Corps can quickly meet our strategic space cadre objectives. Capt Ronaldo Racinez (BS, Northwestern University; MS, Naval Postgraduate School) is currently serving as the National Security Space and Space Integration Branch; Strategy and Plans Division; Plans, Policies and Operations Department; Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps. One of his primary responsibilities has been the development of the Marine Corps cadre of space professionals. Capt Racinez completed Marines from the Joint Task Force Enabler, 24th Marine Expeditionary Unit, conduct an operations check on a satellite set up during a communications exercise at Camp Lejeune, N.C.
22 High Frontier Summer 2004 22 High Frontier Summer 2004 Lt Col Joseph E. Brouillard Space Operations School The U.S. Air Force Space Operations School (SOPSC), Colorado Springs, Colorado, founded on 28 June 2001, strives to be the Air Corps Tactical School of Space. The SOPSC mission is to be the Air Force lead in the de velopment and instruction of space tactics, techniques and procedures (TTP), concepts and systems knowledge required Through its education and training programs, the SOPSC as School Background The SOPSC has experienced a similar development path as early airpower development. Airpower came of age at the close of World War I. The battles of St. Mihiel and MeuseArgonne provided proof that air forces could affect ground post-war era nearly every major power established an air arm and integrated it with its armed forces. The initial airpower cadre was poorly trained in air tactics and techniques. To remedy this, the Army established the air units. Later, in 1926, the institution became known as the Air Corps Tactical School (ACTS). The ACTS educated and returned system experts to their squadrons. Throughout its existence, the ACTS was the intellectual center of the pre-World War II Army air arm. Although its ploy airpower, the school became inextricably involved in the development of air doctrine and the push for new airpower technologies. Indeed, for the more than 20 years between WWI and WWII, air doctrine and tactics proved to be the cornerstone of the Tactical School. Operations DESERT STORM and IRAQI FREEDOM gave power is in its infancy much as airpower was in the 1920s. The SOPSC sees space TTP development, education, training, strategy and doctrine evolution as our primary DoD contri bution. The outcome of SOPSCs mission today will impact our nations ability to wage and win future wars. Mission Today The Space Warfare Center, Schriever Air Force Base, Colorado, is the Air Forces center of excellence for space tactics and theory development and the SOPSC serves as the medium for educating space warriors. It helps further space power development by bringing together people from many scientists, engineers and program managers. Since its inception in 2001, the SOPSC instructed more on tactical aspects of space power. In addition, the SOPSC provided computer-based training programs serving a much larger audience. The SOPSC trains AFSPCs Air Expeditionary Force de ployers and senior leaders to effectively employ space assets in Air Operations Centers (AOC). In doing so, the SOPSC to include the use of AOC checklists. From the AOC space desk to the theater Director of Space Forces, todays AFSPC integrate space across the spectrum of deployed operations. SOPSC trains staff members and senior leaders from the Pentagon, U.S. Stragtegic Command and NASA on DoD space system capabilities, applications and limitations. This service is essential to those who do not have a space background and a good review for those whose careers have brought them back to space. In addition, the SOPSC has a robust liaison program with the joint community, U.S. Air Force Academy, NATO and Air University. Through this program, we provide mutual training support and leverage other communities to improve and update our courses. Space Professional Education and Training space professional education and training. Eventually, the SOPSC was given the mantle for AF and joint-level space professional education. Based on a recommendation from the 2001 Space Commission Report, the DoD determined that the development and sustainment of a cadre of space professionals was a top priority. DODD 5101.2 designates the Air Force as the executive agent for space. In support of this initiative, the SOPSC, working with Air Force Space Command and sister DoD organizations, successfully de course, Space 200. Space 200 is a four-week course geared toward mid-career point. Portions of Space 200 were taken from existing SOPSC of acquisition, engineering and nuclear operations. Space 200 SOPSC Educates Space Warriors Space Focus
22 High Frontier Summer 2004 High Frontier Summer 2004 23 22 High Frontier Summer 2004 Conclusion The SOPSC is a very dynamic and responsive organization. Our training and education has immediate impact in the AOC and in the future through better understanding of space acqui and important training and education void enabling space-savvy train today will make the difference in our present and future Space 100 is the entry level space professional education and training course. This course is owned and executed by Air Education and Training Command, Vandenberg Air Force scheduled for early FY 05. Space 300 will target the 12-15 year group of the space cadre. The course, currently under development, will be a four-week course building upon the concepts learned in Space 200. Space 300 will explore OPLAN conception, development and the strategic thought and doctrine behind the employment livery in September 2005. The SOPSC developed and executed the Space Support Course (SSC) to educate new space personnel. The SSC, a one-week course, provides the educational and training bridge for new space support personnel no matter where they are enlisted and civilian personnel from all services expected to serve one space tour and return to their parent organization. Space 100, 200, 300 and the SSC are generalized courses geared towards the introduction, tactical application and strategic planning of space assets. Due to the number of sys tems, vast applications and complexity of space assets, these courses are, by necessity, overviews. To gain operational depth in space systems, the SOPSC created advanced space training courses. Advanced Space Training During the early years of airpower development, the ACTS educated and trained experts in airpower employment (i.e. pursuit, bombardment, air-to-air engagement) and tactics and they also pushed for new technologies. These airpower experts returned to their squadrons as instructors and tacticians and obtained measurable results when called upon in combat. This visionary concept was revolutionary for its day. Today, with the foresight of General Lance W. Lord, Air Force Space Command commander, Advanced Space Train space systems cannot be taken for granted. From design to employment, our space systems must bridge tremendous gulfs in time, technology and applications. AST courses are intense 12-week Weapons School-level, in-depth, systemthe opportunity to be the newest DoD space experts. AST courses will develop experts in missile warning, space control, satellite communication and others and return these space-system experts to their squadrons and wings, coding them for future assignment and deployment needs. ASTs will tactics, command and control structure, contingency opera tions, design, acquisition and overall operational integration. The SOPSC feels that the AST courses will make the most contributions toward space power in the future. Lt Col Joseph E. Brouillard (BA, The College of Charleston; MAS, Embry Riddle Aeronautical University) is the Director, Faculty Development, Space Operations School, Space Warfare Center, Schriever Air Force Base, Colorado. Currently, he manages the schools Space Professional Education and Training, development to include Space 200 and Advanced Space Training courses. During OSW and OEF, Lt Col Brouillard served as the Deputy Air Mobility Director and Chief, Tanker Combat Operations in the Combined Air Operations Center located at Prince Sultan Air Base, Saudi Arabia. Lt Col Brouillard is a Master and Staff College and Air War College.
2 4 High Frontier Summer 2004 2 4 High Frontier Summer 2004 Col Mike McPherson, Commander, 607th Air and Space Communications Group Maj Rhonda Leslie 14th Air Force/A6 The Single Integrated Space Picture (SISP) initiative is on track gaining momentum and capability, delivery and implementation at Air Force Space Command, Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado. The SISP is a leading edge initial operational pro totype that stands to radically overhaul and enhance space and information awareness for U.S. and allied warf ighting and peacekeeping capabilities, to help transform military forces and ensure national security. SISPs primary purpose is to pro vide global and theater commanders the data, intelligence and means to proactively monitor, assess, plan and execute, thus the command and control space forces to optimize and achieve necessary effects. The concept was conceived and development chartered in response to the need for and synergy gained from a single, coherent view of all space forces capabilities, threats and effects. When fully operational, a future full-spectrum SISP will enable space situational awareness, space planning and automated machine-to-machine collaboration with Space and Theater Air Operation Centers (AOCs). It will also display health and status of mission systems and provide decision support, near real-time status of forces, and visibility of military, national agency, civil and commercial space assets. SISP will demonstrate the abil system data as well. As the SISP ma tures, it will eventually become a crit ical member of the Global Information Grid (GIG). The GIG is the globally interconnected, end-toend set of information capabilities, associated processes and personnel for collecting, processing, storing, disseminating makers and support personnel. SISP will powerfully facilitate the integration of space as sets into military operations, provide reliable information in near real-time and enable commonality and interoperability between services and forces. This weapon system will employs satellite communications, var ious mediums and forces throughout air, surface, ground, space, undersea and cyberspace. SISP will provide a vast foundation for network-centric warfare and technologically enhance U.S. Homeland Defense efforts. The tailored common operating picture directly supports the DoDs Family of Interoperable Operating Picture and is envisioned to be employed by global and theater users at all echelons of commandJoint Task Force, C2 Nodes as well as others. The graphical user interface (GUI) available via a Space Common Desk top will provide users with a Global Mission Summary view, theater-spe cific health and status lookup and status alert via the Mission Critical Reporting System web interface, and also enable the launching of various other applications. The software is a combination of government and commercially developed web-based applications. The SISP GUI interfaces with various modeling and simulation tools (used for course of action devel opment) and is GCCS compliant. SISP architects utilize a dual-track development approach via rapid pro SISP Provides Big Space Picture Future Forecasts Col Michael R. McPherson (BS, USAFA; MS, Western New England College; MS, Air Force Institute of Technology; MS, Naval War College) is Commander of the 607th Air and Space Com munications Group, Osan Air Base, Korea. Work ing directly for the 7th Air Force commander, the group provides communications support for he Korea Air Component Command with emphasis on command and control connectivity. Prior to his current assignment, Col McPherson was the Chief, Architecture and Integration Division at Headquarters Air Force Space Command and was responsible for policy, architectures, integration, interoperability and security of communications and information systems. He was also responsible for building Air Force Space Command a single integrated space picture, necessary for providing battlespace awareness to command and control its space forces. His other assignments have included the Air Force Operational Test and Evaluation Center, Pentagon, U.S. Strategic Command and to countries in Europe and the Middle East. Col School, Air Command and Staff College and Joint
2 4 High Frontier Summer 2004 High Frontier Summer 2004 25 2 4 High Frontier Summer 2004 processes. This ensures that the underlying technology re mains leading edge and is supportable. SISP Jumpstart was Since then, Spiral 1 initial operational prototype capability was delivered to the Space AOC at 14th Air Force, Vandenberg AFB, CA on 21 Jan 2004. Its features allow the Space AOC to augment its baseline capabilities and address real-world situations. Upon receiving the Spiral 1 capability, Maj. Gen. Michael A. Hamel, 14th AF commander remarked, this is an extraordinary effort. It is an excellent example of the power of information technology to rapidly add value. The capabilities provide combat capability. 14th AF wants to get its hands on as much spiraled capability as possible as quickly as possible and will continue to be a demanding customer because it loves what the command is doing with SISP. SISP continues to evolve as it is continually upgraded and demonstrated to joint-service leadership and organizations. The next step is to implement the sustainment plan to ensure Spiral 1 is fully supportable. The Spiral 2 design is baselined Space AOC and HQ AFSPC Command Center are currently the prime customers and prototype execution proving ground locations. The Spiral 2 design will be demonstrated during the Joint Expeditionary Forces Experiment (JEFX) and upon completion, Spiral 1 and 2 capabilities will be transitioned into a formal acquisition program (the next version of the Space Battle Management Core System). Finally, work has already been started on requirements for Spiral 3 capabilities due for delivery by January 2005. This weapon system will provide reliability and flexibility as it employs satellite communications, various mediums and forces throughout air, surface, ground, space, undersea and cyberspace. Col Michael R. McPherson
26 High Frontier Summer 2004 26 High Frontier Summer 2004 services by advocating a common baseline of the information lifecycle. The goal for the space info-structure is to be fully operational and seamless across the entire Global Information Grid (GIG). The space infostructure provides seamless connectivity support across all operations, command and control and mis sion support functions. The GIG is a globally interconnected, end-to-end set of information capabilities, associated processes and personnel for collecting, processing, storing, disseminating and man ers and support personnel. It includes all owned and leased communications, computing systems and services, software, data, security services and other associated services necessary to achieve Decision and Information Superiority. The GIG supports all Department of Defense, national security and related intelligence community missions and functions (stra tegic, operational, tactical, and business), in war and peace. 3 It provides capabilities from all operating locations and de ployed sites and interfaces to coalition, allied and non-DoD users and systems. The GIG interfaces with various space and C4ISR (Command Control Computers Communication Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance) assets to de liver seamless communications needed to provide command and control (C2) function necessary to support Air Force required capabilities. The foundational tie for the Air Force infostructure and space infostructure is the enterprise services component of the GIG, called the GIG Enterprise Services (GES). The GES is a suite of value-added information, web and computing capa bilities that will improve user access to mission-critical data. 4 GES consists of services such as collaboration, mediation, enterprise systems management and situational awareness that span across both infostructures. Compliance of space assets to the space infostructure is mandatory and key to achieving the Air Force core compe tencies of Information and Space Superiority. Air Force Chief of Staff General John P. Jumpers policy letter dated 6 August 2002, emphasized the need for interoperability among joint and service-level architectures and their associated systems. and peacekeeping efforts because the United States military must transport large volumes of data at light speed. The capabilities, satellites and equipment, communications links and nodes and ground stations for data relay, help ensure the availability of robust, reliable and secure communications for providing intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) support, precise navigation and targeting, early missile warning and adverse weather developments. The space infostructure architecture will facilitate interop erability among jointand service-level architectures and their associated systems. It will aid in establishing policy, Col Mike McPherson, Commander, 607th Air and Space Communications Group Maj Rhonda Leslie 14th Air Force/A6 As the 21st Century United States Air Force is reborn and transforms its organization, operations and technological Force Space Command (AFSPC) is framing a multi-faceted, multi-lane, multi-vehicle, open thoroughfare virtual network that provides military command and control to air, space, land and water. This visionary space infostructure development paves the way for radical change, space superiority, opera the AFSPC cadre of space professionals, the Guardians of the High Frontier. 1 AFSPCs mission is to defend the United States through the control and exploitation of space. This mission is achieved though the employment of six functional concepts: assured ac cess to space; C2 of space forces; global information services; global surveillance, tracking, and targeting; prompt global strike; and space superiority. These concepts support U.S. Objectives for Space to: promote the peaceful use of space, use the nations potential in space to support U.S. domestic, economic, diplomatic and national security objectives and develop and deploy the means to deter and defend against hostile acts directed at U.S. space assets and against the uses of space hostile to U.S. interests. 2AFSPC Directorate of Logistics and Communications infostructure architects are developing the framework that will consolidate AFSPCs patchwork infostructure under a single mission system construct. It supports the Air Force infostructure requirements of situational connection to bat oritized information delivery and network-centric enterprise The role of space in the global information grid AF Space Infostructure Meets the GIG Future Forecasts
26 High Frontier Summer 2004 High Frontier Summer 2004 27 26 High Frontier Summer 2004 operational procedure and guidance to transition from a program-centric vertical acquisition approach to capabilitiesdriven horizontal acquisition. This approach is designed for implementing, operating, maintaining and evolving the com munication and information systems and services essential to achieving capabilities in the Space and C4ISR Capabilities CONOPS (Concept of Operations). The Space & C4ISR Capabilities CONOPS, is one of six capability CONOPS in the Air Force. These are transforming Air Force planning, programming, requirements and acquisition processes from their current system organized structure to a who brings what seeks to guide the development of advanced space, C2 battle management, communication and computer systems, and ISR to provide predictive battlespace awareness, facilitate precision attack, and ultimately compress the Kill Chain. The Space and C4ISR CONOPS advocates the capabilities that result in globall y responsive and persistent forces that become the centerpiece of Joint C2 architectures. Information will be delivered to leaders and decision-makers in the prior ity and format they specify. From this comes our family of for the future with: targeting quality surveillance and reconnaissance from space; updated communications links and technology to enable the ability to seamlessly command and control forces in any theatre of operations; robust space situation awareness, to include character ization and reporting; defensive and offensive counterspace capabilities; and investments in non-nuclear prompt global strike along with continued modernization of our land-based deterrent. Our investments in Air Force Space Command support this. AFSPC is truly a stakeholder in advanced C4ISR for the future. Our CONOPS overcomes the stovepiped systems mentality and outlines our future capabilities. The Space and C4ISR operational concept graphic (OV-1) shows how the implementation for this architecture enables architecture shows how data is pushed, pulled, processed or stored horizontally across the surface, air and space domains by using Air Force information infra structure and ultimately the GIG. C4ISR is the key enabler for our militarys transformation. It ensures the consistent implementation and ef fective employment in all operations and provides the necessary information for effective command and control of all our forces. C2 is an operational art that is supported by the commu nications and intelligence required for mission accomplishment. C4ISR architecture is a representation, as of a current or future point in time, of the C4ISR domain in terms of its com ponent parts, what those parts do, how those parts relate to each other, and the rules and constraints under which the parts function. 5 As stated by Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, The development and deployment of a truly modern and effective command, control, communication and intelligence system is fundamental to the transformation of the U.S. military forces... Space, Decision and Information Superiority are essential for effective and timely battle management and pre dictive offensive and defensive action. Thus the need for a net work-centric system of systems, the Global Information Grid, that provides among other services interoperability, bandwidth on-demand, immediate and continuous transmission of infor collaboration, information assurance and management, shared data and diverse routing. Global Enterprise Services ensure the ability to deliver the right information, to the right place, at the right time. Air Force Space Command is transforming the space com decision makers to act instantly, decisively and effectively. A knowledge-superior Air Force requires careful blending of air and space operational know-how with a robust, reliable communications and information infrastructure or infos network centric capabilities and services (infostructure) that have grown piecemeal over many years. It is now necessary to operate our infostructure as a single integrated mission system in its own right: the space infostructure. Space infostructure architecture represents a net-centric baseline for the infor mation lifecycle to support the space missions of Air Force Space Command. The net-centric operations and warfare framework comes from the GIG and Air Force infostructure architectures, which provide the basis for the space infostruc ture architecture. This architecture is essential to achieve the Notes 1. Infostructure is the shared computers, ancillary equipment, software, in the acquisition, storage, manipulation, protection, management, move ment, control, display, switching, interchange, transmission, or reception of data or information in any format including audio, video, imagery, or data, whether supporting Information Technology or National Security systems by incorporation, protection, detection, and reaction capabilities. 2. U.S. Objectives for Space, De fenseLINK, available online: http://www. defenselink.mil/pubs/spacechapter3.pdf 3. Global Information Grid, Defense Information System Agency (DISA), available online: http://www.disa.mil/ns/gig.html 4. GIG Enterprise Services, Defense Information System Agency (DISA), available online: http://www.disa.mil/main/ges.html Navy Chief Information Officer (DONCIO) website: http://www.don-imit.navy.mil/glos Maj Rhonda L. Leslie (LA, City Colleges of Chicago; BS, Amber University) is an IMA on assignment to 14th Air Force. Maj Leslie serves as the 14th AFs liaison to Headquarters Air Force Space Command Logistics and Communication Architecture Branch. Shes also a member of the Single Integrated Space Picture prototype devel opment and SATCOM subpanel. Maj Leslies career includes serving as a Space and Missile Technician, Avionics Sensor Systems Technician and a Radio Relay Communications Technician among others. Maj Leslie is a graduate of Squad Training and the Academy of Military Science. (Photo unavailable)
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