1 2 2018 STrategic digest TABLE OF CONTENTS LEADERSHIP5 COMMANDERS MESSAGE 3 EMBASSY LETTER KOREA AND THE REGION13 SOUTH KOREA THE NORTH KOREAN THREAT STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENT 15 THE ROK U.S. ALLIANCE CAPABILITIES17 ROK U.S. CAPABILITIES 21 JOINT U.S. MILITARY AFFAIRS GROUP KOREA 23 INNOVATION AT USFK THE COMMANDS27 UNITED NATIONS COMMAND 29 COMBINED FORCES COMMAND 31 UNITED STATES FORCES KOREA USFK COMPONENTS33 EIGHTH ARMY 35 SEVENTH AIR FORCE 37 U.S. MARINE CORPS FORCES KOREA 39 COMMANDER, NAVAL FORCES KOREA 41 SPECIAL OPERATIONS COMMAND KOREA COMMUNITY + TRANSFORMATION43 FORCE RELOCATION 45 COMMUNITY RELATIONS THE ALLIANCE LOOKS TO THE FUTURE 47 CAMP HUMPHREYS
1 2 UNITED NATIONS COMMAND COMBINED FORCES COMMAND UNITED STATES FORCES KOREAThe UNC/CFC/USFK Strategic Digest is a Command publication by the Commands Communications Strategy Division. Editorial All material is subject to copyright to their respective sources. SENIOR EDITOR Communications Strategy PROJECT MANAGER/PHOTO EDITOR Lance Nakayama CONTENT EDITOR Dana DAmelio ART DIRECTION/DESIGN Joshua Binder EDITORIAL BOARD Maj. Joseph Tull Philip Krigbaum Tae Kim STRATEGIC DIGEST 2018 PHOTOS FROM THE COVER1. ROKN UDT during FOAL EAGLE (MCS3 Alfred A. Cofeld) 2. U.S. Vice President Michael R. Pence at the JSA (Sfc. Sean K. Harp) 3. ROK and U.S. Marines during KMEP 17-8 (LCpl. Tiana Boyd) 4. CFC Deputy Commander Gen. Kim Byeong-joo (SSgt. Monik Phan) 5. USMC F-35B Lightning II during KMEP 17-5 (USFK Photo) 6. ROK and U.S. personnel at the JSA (ROKMC Photo) 7. U.S. Soldier during Bradley Gunnery Qualication Table XII (Sgt. Patrick Eakin) 8. 8A DCG for Sustainment Maj. Gen. Arlan DeBlieck with international leaders (Pfc. Isaih Vega) 9. Charg dAffaires Marc Knapper and Gen. Brooks greet U.S. Secretary of State Rex Tillerson at Osan AB (State Dept. Photo) 10. ROKMC AAV during KMEP 17-13 (Cpl. Aaron S. Patterson) 11. ROK MND and UNC-hosted repatriation ceremony (Cpl. Jo Byeong-wook) 12. U.S. SECDEF Jim Mattis visits the JSA (Sgt. Amber I. Smith) 13. USN Sailor during MN MIWEX (MCS2 Jordan Crouch) 14. Gen. Brooks and Belgian Deputy PM and Minisiter of Foreign Affairs Didier Reynders (USFK photo) 15. ROK Minister of Foreign Affairs Kang Kyung-wha visits 2ID (U.S. Army Photo) 16. Gen. Brooks greets ROK President Moon Jae-in (Sfc. Sean K. Harp) 17. ROK Minister of National Defense Song Young-moo visits CFC (Cpl Jo Byeong-wook) 18. ROK and U.S. EOD divers during MN MIWEX (MCS William Carlisle) 19. U.S. SECDEF Jim Mattis and U.S. CJCS Gen. Joseph Dunford with their ROK counterparts ROK MINDEF Song Young-moo and ROK CJCS Gen. Jeong Kyeong-doo (Sgt. Amber I. Smith) 20. Australian Minister for Foreign Affairs Julie Bishop and Minister for Defence Sen. Marise Payne at JSA (Australian Department of Defence Photo) 21. U.S. and ROK Army Soldiers during WARRIOR STRIKE 5 (Cpt. Jonathan Camire) 22. U.S. President Donald J. Trump and ROK President Moon Jae-in (Shealah Craighead) 23. USS Ronald Reagan Carrier Strike Group at Busan (MSgt. Michael Garza) 24. U.S. CJCS Gen. Joseph F. Dunford Jr. meets with Gen. Brooks and Lt. Gen. Bergeson (PO1 Dominique A. Pineiro) 25. THAAD elements arrive in the ROK (TSgt. Rasheen Douglas) 26. ROK and Colombian ofcers (UNC Photo) 27. ROK and U.S. Navy Sailors during FOAL EAGLE (MCS1 Torrey W. Lee) 28. ROK and U.S. Marines during KMEP 17-14 (Cpl. Aaron S. Patterson) 29. USAF B-1B Lancers y with ROKAF F-15 ghter jets (ROKAF Photo) 30. UNC staff at CP OSCAR during UFG (UNC Photo) 31. USAF personnel during VIGILANT ACE 18 (SSgt. Franklin R. Ramos)
3 4 The Alliance between the United States and the Republic of Korea remains one of the strongest and most vital pillars of peace and prosperity in the world. Forged in the crucible of the Korean War, it has contin ued to thrive for nearly seven decades, overcoming polit ical, security, and economic challenges, while promoting stability throughout Northeast Asia. As the United States Charg dAffaires to the Republic of Korea, it is my great honor to serve alongside U.S. Forces Korea as we work hand-in-hand with our South Korean allies in upholding the Alliances storied legacy. As steadfast partners, the United States and the Republic of Korea share a strong relationship based on common values and goals. Both countries are staunch defenders of democ racy, free trade, human rights, and rule of law, and we work diligently to safeguard these ideals. Thanks to our two countries commitment to upholding these values and unwavering support from the international community, the United Nations has adopted the strongest sanctions yet against the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea. in securing and defending the Republic of Korea, our relationship with our Korean ally has grown much broader and deeper since its beginnings. Today, we enjoy a vibrant trading partnership, cultural exchanges, and extensive study and training programs. We also continue to collaborate on new environment, energy, and global health. Of course, this success has come at a cost. It is the product of USFKs enduring duty and dedication to securing peace and stability on the Peninsula. Thanks to the focus and tireless efforts of our U.S. Service Members who stand alongside their South Korean counterparts, we have continued to deter security threats, enrich economic cooperation and cultural ties, and make our Alliance even stronger. I extend my deepest appreciation and gratitude to those of you serving the United States away from home and your loved ones to defend the Republic of Korea. Your service is the foundation of this crucial relationship, and helps ensure we are ready for any contingency on the Korean Peninsula. Looking ahead, we will continue to uphold the Alliance as a symbol of our successful foreign policy in East Asia, and source of stability for the region and the world. The U.S. Embassy here in Seoul stands ready to once again work alongside USFK and our Republic of Korea ally toward another fruitful year to further advance this important Alliance. Sincerely, Marc E. Knapper Charg dAffaires ad interimEMBASSY LETTER CHARG DAFFAIRES MARC KNAPPERUNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF STATE ABOVE: CDA Knapper with Gen. Brooks and ROK Minister of Foreign Affairs Kang Kyung-wha in Seoul, Jun. 21, 2017.PHOTO BY SGT. 1ST CLASS SEAN K. HARP
3 4 LEFT: CDA Knapper pays a courtesy call to the ROK Minister of Land and Transportation, Nov. 15, 2017. BELOW: CDA Knapper visits Dongseo University to meet musical theater majors rehearsing for a musical festival in Jangheung, Jeollanam-do, Jul. 7, 2017. ABOVE: CDA Knapper samples the PyeongChang Athlete Villages Korean menu with Professor Yoon Sook-ja at the Institute for Traditional Korea Food, Aug. 14, 2017. U.S. Embassy personnel host Team USA and South Korean bobsled and skeleton crews, Oct. 25, 2017.U.S. EMBASSY SEOUL PHOTO U.S. EMBASSY SEOUL PHOTOU.S. EMBASSY SEOUL PHOTOU.S. EMBASSY SEOUL PHOTO
5 6 INTRODUCTION FROM THE COMMANDERGENERAL VINCENT K. BROOKSUNITED NATIONS COMMAND COMBINED FORCES COMMAND UNITED STATES FORCES KOREAAfter approximately two years on the Peninsula, I want to offer my sincere thanks to all of our U.S., Republic of Korea (ROK) and United Nations Command (UNC) Sending State Service Members and civilians who have worked so hard and have achieved so much to ensure the defense of South Korea and the United States. The events of 2017 brought the United States and South Korea ever closer and strengthened our already ironclad Alliance. We share a unique bond, forged over nearly 70 years of serving shoulder-to-shoulder, and often in the face of great adversity. It is a bond that grows even as it is tested. Our neighbors to the north have, of course, been doing everything they can to sever that bond. In August 2017, North Korea carried out their sixth nuclear test. In addition, they have conducted an accelerated series of missile tests and claim to have the capability to launch intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs). Their actions have only further alienated them from the community of nations and strengthened the resolve of our Alliance. We have made great progress in defending and improving our ability to defend the Korean Peninsula. In April 2017, we successfully deployed the Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) ballistic missile defense system to South ties. Additionally, we worked to close or eliminate gaps in critical munitions essential for defense of South Korea. In response to provocation from North Korea, we conducted carrier exercise in ten years. Last years VIGILANT ACE exercise latest capabilities to the Peninsula and incorporating them into our combined air operations. We also continue to receive and integrate rotational brigades, which have participated in numerous combined exercises. The structure, though not the substance, of the Alliance is changing. Last year we moved Eighth Army from YongYongsan Garrison to the South Korean government. United States Forces Korea (USFK) will follow this coming summer. Commander, Naval Forces Korea (CNFK) has become a proven entity operating in a truly combined environment in Busan with U.S. personnel serving on a ROK installation, with Service Members and staff fully a part of life in Koreas second largest city. We have also worked to revitalize the UNC, increasing Sending State participation in Noncombat ant Evacuation Operations exercises. In addition, UNC-Rear has seen a 60 percent increase in visits from Sending State forces. We continue to work to improve intelligence sharing, all Sending States. Whether in training, engagements, operations, major logistical moves, administration or staff work, the Service Members, dedicated civilians, and families of all nations in our ComTheir efforts have ensured continued security and stability in Northeast Asia. 2018 will bring new opportunities and challenges, but I am with whatever comes our way. The ROK-U.S. Alliance is a partnership bound by blood and grounded in our shared democratic values. Our two countries mutual political, economic, and military cooperation will continue to contribute to an alliance of shared societal and cultural values.General Kim Byeong-joo, Deputy Commander, Combined Forces Command Ground Forces Component Command
5 6 HELP US BE READY TO FIGHT TONIGHT!U.S. Congress: Get to know us!The Command is proud of its strong relationships with our counterparts on Capitol Hill, and we regularly support Congressional delegation visits throughout the year. Visiting the Command allows our partners in Congress the opportunity to see our facilities, discuss our challenges, get a sense of the operational Think Tanks/Academia: Engage with us! Industry: Share with us!The Command is dedicated to pursuing advanced technology and innovative solutions that address the ever-growing North Friends of the Command at Home and Abroad: Follow us! Want to know more? Follow us on Facebook, Twitter, and Flickr for Command news, events, and updates! LEFT: Gen. Brooks visits Service Members stationed at Camp Bonifas, Mar. 17, 2017. ABOVE: Gen. Brooks and Command Sgt. Maj. Payton render honors during a ceremony at 2ID, Jul. 18, 2017. RIGHT: Gen. Brooks speaks with 2ID Commander Maj. Gen. Scott McKean during ULCHI FREEDOM GUARDIAN, Aug. 28, 2017. BELOW: Gen. Brooks with CFC Deputy Commander Gen. Kim Byeong-joo at a press conference at Osan AB, Aug. 22, 2017.SGT. MICHELLE U. BLESAM SGT. 1ST CLASS SEAN K. HARP SGT. 1ST CLASS SEAN K. HARP STAFF SGT. MONIK PHAN
7 8 STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENT NORTH KOREA regional security. The rapid pace at which North claimed to successfully test an intercontinental ballistic States as well as a thermonuclear device miniaturized to provocations, the regime continues to pursue critical capabilities in special operations and cyber forces that SOUTH KOREA committed to the democratic and liberal values on which it was founded. A divided Korea has created unprecedented global and regional challenges. For nearly seven decades, the Kim regime has used its position of absolute authority in North Korea to foment instability and insecurity across the Peninsula, threatening both South Koreas prosperous democracy and the fragile 1953 Armistice responsible for the cessation of violence across the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ). Complicating matters is the broader strategic in pursuit of divergent national aims and interests. Given Koreas central location amidst this fraught landscape, tensions on the Korean Peninsula have the potential to upend not only the region, but the world. CHINA provocations, supporting multilateral sanctions against the regime. However, China has also retaliated economically against Seoul in protest of its deployment and Beijing have pledged to normalize bilateral relations and bolster cooperation, China remains primarily concerned with
7 8 THE FIVE FINGERS: A COMPLEX DYNAMICSince the Korean War, the international conversation regarding how to approach North Korea has been dominated by RUSSIA Though Russia has traditionally occupied a limited role in JAPAN changing its constitution in pursuit of defensive posture and allowing it to play a larger role in defending itself and its pursuing its largest ever defense budget land-based missile interceptor system to area of multilateral cooperation, particularly in ballistic missile defense and training. ILLUSTRATION BY JOSHUA BINDER
9 10 In 2017, North Korean leader Kim Jong Un progressively gambled on the stability and security of the Korean Peninsula with numerous missile launches and displays of nuclear capabilities. Kim continues to defy the inter national communitys calls for denuclearization, show contempt for multilateral sanctions imposed on North Korea, and sacrifice the well-being of the North Korean people in the process. Kims intense promotion of nuclear and missile development, as well as his deliberate rejection of dialogue, suggest he is seeking one of several strategic options: pursue accept ance as a nuclear power and normalize relations with those countries willing to accept the Norths nuclear status as a fait accompli; maintain his status quo pursuit of regime survival through coercive actions and rhetorical threats; or become increasingly belligerent and, with the threat of nuclear war as a backdrop, attempt to change the status quo (i.e. end the Armistice). North Koreas top near-term priority continues to be the completed development of a credible nuclear missile capability to hold the United States and its allies at risk. In 2017, North Korea attempted to improve, diversify, and grow its missile arsenal, launching several different types of missiles of varying ranges and displaying technological developments such as the use of solid fuel propellant and improved guidance. missile of intercontinental range. On September 3, 2017, the North conducted its sixth nuclear test, claiming the device to be a two-stage hydrogen bomb capable of being placed on an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). Capabilities aside, these developments and North Korean rhetoric reveal Kims intent to threaten the U.S. mainland with nuclear-armed ICBMs, purportedly for his own survival, but also to potentially upend the regional balance of power and undermine U.S. interests in the region, to include alliances and partnerships not mean a decline in the prominence of the conventional elements of the Korean Peoples Army (KPA). Despite the largest military, Kim cannot afford the political and societal -The North Korean ThreatDiversifying Coercive Options 'Hwasong-15' Test Launch, Nov. 29, 2017. KCNA PHOTO
9 10icy. In addition to being used as a tool with which to conduct provocations and threaten the Alliance, the KPA acts as an internal control mechanism by occupying the time and efforts of a million men and women. Toward that end, North Korea continues to invest in the KPAs weapons systems and personwhen it comes to conventional military capabilities. as anti-tank weapons, air defense systems, and artillery. Although these niche capabilities will not enable the KPA to they do allow North Korea to continue to militarily threaten South Korea and U.S. elements on the Korean Peninsula. These limited conventional military improvements are and effective asymmetric capabilities beyond the nuclear and missile programs. For instance, the KPA continues to brandish its special operations forces (SOF), publicly introducing a new Pyongyang military parade celebrating Kim Il Sungs 105th birthday. The KPA also appears intent on improving its cyber capabilities, not only to develop capabilities to conduct destructive cyberattacks, but also to illicitly generate funds for use by the Kim regime. In May 2017, computer systems around the world were stricken by ransomware attributed to North Korea. This came on the heels of North Korean cyber operations that allowed the country to steal more than $80 million from international has more than 6,000 hackers that continue to improve their DMZ SEOUL PY ONG Y ANG KP A Tr oops x5000 ROK Tr oops x5000 U .S. Tr oops x5000 Kim Jong Un guides nuclear weapons personnel, September 2017. RODONG SINMUN PHOTO ILLUSTRATION BY JOSHUA BINDER
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. 2017 2018 12 Feb PUKGUKSONG-2 (MRBM) FAILED LAUNCHES 6 MAR FOUR MISSILES UNIDENTIFIED (MRBM) 28 Apr 21 May PUKGUKSONG-2 (MRBM) 26 Aug THREE MISSILES UNIDENTIFIED 4 Jul HWASONG-14 (ICBM) 28 JulHWASONG-14 (ICBM)22 Mar 20 Mar ROCKET ENGINE TEST 15 Apr 5 Apr 14 May HWASONG-12 (IRBM) 3 Sep NUCLEAR (HYDROGEN) TEST 8 Jun KUMSONG-3 (ASCM) SURFACE-TO-SHIP CRUISE MISSILES 29 Aug HWASONG-12 (IRBM) 27 May SURFACE-TO-AIR GUIDED MISSILE 29 May SCUD-VARIANT (SRBM) 15 Sep HWASONG-12 (IRBM) 29 Nov HWASONG-15 (ICBM) x4 11 12 STRATEGIC DIGESTWWW.USFK.MIL 11which it can support its weapons programs, as well as a means to collect sensitive information from other parties and disrupt infrastructure in other states. Kim likely believes such a military force with a nuclear capability establishes his credentials and legitimacy internally by demonstrating his power and strength as a leader one that can keep enemies at bay while supposedly propelling the country toward victory and success. North Korean rhetoric continues to herald Kims byungjin policy, nuclear force in tandem with economic development. His gamble is that the international communitys diplomatic and economic sanctions against his nuclear and missile programs atrophy over time, and that he can eventually normalize his and the systems existence without denuclearization. Even amid sanctions, some estimates suggest that North Koreas 2016 GDP grew by almost 4 percent. Reports indicate the increase was mainly due to growth in the mining and utility sectors that occurred before comprehensive implementation of the sanctions. In addition to these ofKorea continue to play an increasing role in the informal economy. Despite efforts to target economic activities that support the regimes missile and nuclear programs, international sanctions are instead expected to affect the informal economy, raising the prices of scarce goods. The long-term effect of sanctions and the lack of structural changes to the economy will likely inhibit last years growth from continuing regularly without years of downturns. Potential economic malaise may cause Kim to be concerned by potential discontent among the North Korean people and ensuing instability. At the same time, Kim has not implemented structural economic reforms deemed vatization because fundamental changes to the economy risk political and social change that could see him ousted. As a result, he will probably continue to rely on short-term temporary gains, probably to the detriment of the North Korean populations morale. The impact of sanctions on these efforts will likely grow, especially if China impledecreasing North Koreas trade and exacerbating economic instability factors.ILLUSTRATION BY JOSHUA BINDER
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. 2017 2018 12 Feb PUKGUKSONG-2 (MRBM) FAILED LAUNCHES 6 MAR FOUR MISSILES UNIDENTIFIED (MRBM) 28 Apr 21 May PUKGUKSONG-2 (MRBM) 26 Aug THREE MISSILES UNIDENTIFIED 4 Jul HWASONG-14 (ICBM) 28 JulHWASONG-14 (ICBM)22 Mar 20 Mar ROCKET ENGINE TEST 15 Apr 5 Apr 14 May HWASONG-12 (IRBM) 3 Sep NUCLEAR (HYDROGEN) TEST 8 Jun KUMSONG-3 (ASCM) SURFACE-TO-SHIP CRUISE MISSILES 29 Aug HWASONG-12 (IRBM) 27 May SURFACE-TO-AIR GUIDED MISSILE 29 May SCUD-VARIANT (SRBM) 15 Sep HWASONG-12 (IRBM) 29 Nov HWASONG-15 (ICBM) x4 MRBM SRBMUNIDENTIFIED IRBM ICBM F AILED LAU N C H = HYDROGEN TEST= ROCKET ENGINE TEST= 11 12 2018 All of this leads to questions about the viability of a regime that recklessly pursues destabilizing weapons of mass destruction, threatens the region regularly through belligerent rhetoric and provocative behavior, oppresses its people through a draconian system of fear and intimidation, and refuses to take the steps necessary to fundamentally improve the livelihood of its people. Kim Jong Uns options for managing potential instability can vary from maintaining the dismal status quo to executing drastic economic and social reforms, although the latter is highly unlikely. To maintain the status quo, Kim is likely to justify his means and methods as necessitated by a hostile international environment bent on undermining and overturning the North Korean system. As time passes, Kims need to manage internal dissatisfaction and potential instability by concocting external threats and rallying the people around the countrys nuclear weapons could be a growing risk to security on the Peninsula. RIGHT: Lightning Commandos LEFT: Kim Jong Un guides the test-re of a North Korean ICBM. KCTV VIDEO STILL RODONG SINMUN PHOTO
13 14 A Korean woman born at the close of the Korean War in 1953 is 65 years old this year, and has lived in her lifetime one of the most impressive stories of human accomplishment in modern history. The average Ko rean earned $67 that year. The capital city of Seoul was largely reduced to rubble during the Korean War, with as many as 1.3 million people being lost or forced to move from the city. Food was scarce. Today, Seoul is a sparkling, modern metropolis of 25 million, one of the engines of Asias incredible economic growth. Korea is a G-20 economy, on track to reach $30,000 GDP per capita in 2018. It is one of the worlds most wired societies. South Korea is known in defense and diplomatic circles as South Korea is also a critical U.S. ally, a regional economic powerhouse, a global trade hub, and a creator of technological innovation. In the face of constant threat to its security and sovereignty, South Korea has worked alongside its allies and partners to solidify its role as an impactful middle-power in a dynamic and complex security environment. The momentous changes from 1953 to today are the achievement of the Korean people. Still, this success has been bolstered by the commitment of the United States a military, economic, and political partnership that has been one of the foundations of stability enabling this remarkable story. The Republic of Korea (ROK)-U.S. partnership is not just a source of strength for the past, it is paving the road forward develop cooperation with the United States on a broad set of issues spanning international development, science and technology, economy and trade, and widespread cultural exchanges, building on decades of cooperation and shared values.ROBUST DEFENSE POSTUREWith the support of the United States, South Korea has continuously moved to create an advanced elite military in order to meet new challenges created by an increasingly provocative North Korean threat. In 2017, South Korea allocated 2.7 percent of its GDP for defense spending, the largest percent age among U.S. allies in Northeast Asia. The 2018 budget will see the biggest hike in military spending since 2009, with nearly $40 billion 9.9 percent of the overall budget earmarked for defense expenditure. South Korea is investing in critical U.S. state-of-the-art assets including the Global Hawk, PATRIOT PAC-3, F-35A, AH-64E Apaches, and additional AEGIS-equipped destroyers to position itself now and SOUTH KOREAA view of Namsan Mountain and the N Seoul Tower punctuating Seouls night skyline.SUNGJIN KIM
13 14beyond the transfer of wartime operational control from the United States to South Korea. The ROK Military is also developing new options to ensure national security and regional stability, such as the Korea Air and Missile Defense (KAMD), Kill-Chain, and Korea Massive Punishment Retaliation (KMPR). In addition, Seoul has worked with its allies to revise an agreement on missiles lifting a limit on payloads which will help South Korea diversify its missiles to better counter North Koreas improving ballistic missile capability. In 2017, the ROK military took the lead in the planning and execution of annual ROK-U.S. Alliance Command Post exercises. South Korea has proven itself to be a true and trusted miliU.S. counterparts in Vietnam, Iraq, and Afghanistan. South Korea is also an important contributor to global peacekeeping and security efforts, sending over 1,000 of its 625,000 active duty Service Members to support operations in the Middle East, Southeast Asia, and Africa.PROSPEROUS ECONOMYSouth Koreas drive continues to fuel its innovation today. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, as of October 2017 the nation has grown to become the seventh largest exporter in the world and the sixth largest importer of U.S. goods. The country that cultivated world-class entrepreneurs who formed international business leaders such as Samsung and Hyundai is now nurturing creative ventures and start-ups through its technological infrastructure. This future-oriented plan will allow the country to cement its role as an irreplaceable middle-power in the region.VIBRANT DEMOCRACY the heart of Seoul. The concerted voice of the masses in Gwanghwamun led to a smooth, democratic, constitutional and, successful transition of power. The peaceful candlelight not just economic, but also has empowered the greater freedom of the Korean people. In the context of its prosperity and the stability supported by the ROK-U.S. Alliance, South Korean society allows the public to actively and openly discuss various political issues with the government without fear of repercussion. In 1953, our newborn Korean, looking out from Gwanghwamun, would have seen little but emptiness and destruc tion. Today a grandmother, she can see Koreas story the skyscrapers built through Korean prosperity, dedication, and ingenuity; the people power of democracy; and a continued commitment by all Koreans to build a better tomorrow. LEFT: With her brother on her back, a war weary Korean girl trudges by a stalled M-26 tank at Haengju, Korea, Jun. 9, 1951. TOP LEFT: War damage in a residential section of Seoul, Korea. The capitol building can be seen in the background (right). Oct. 18, 1950. TOP RIGHT: Deoksugung Palace Today, Seoul, South Korea.MAJ. R.V. SPENCERSGT. 1ST CLASS CECIL RILEYCAROLINE COENEN
15 16 The ROK-U.S. Alliance built on mutual trust and shared values of freedom, democracy, human rights, and rule of law has never been stronger. The two na tions have expanded their partnership, working side-byside to develop the Alliance in a mutually reinforcing and future-oriented manner. Bolstered by an enduring relationship and a commitment to safeguarding the Kore an Peninsula, the Alliance has prioritized strengthening close communication and decision-making mechanisms to respond effectively to a dynamic security environ ment.A PROVEN PARTNERSHIP2017 was a year of political change and diplomatic challenges. Both the United States and South Korea elected new administrations to their national governments, putting their democratic values into practice and continuing to expand their partnership under Presidents Donald J. Trump and Moon out of North Korea. An uptick in ballistic missile testing almass destruction (WMD) capability, and a sixth nuclear test put them even closer to their desired end state of possessing an arsenal of nuclear-capable intercontinental ballistic missiles. In the face of this threat, the ROK-U.S. Alliance remained the bedrock of regional security in Northeast Asia. The October 2017 49th ROK-U.S. Security Consultative Meeting (SCM) between ROK Minister of National Defense Song Young-moo and U.S. Secretary of Defense James Mat tis, emphasized the high degree of cooperation the ROK-U.S. Alliance represents. The Minister and the Secretary strongly condemned North Koreas behavior in the SCMs Joint Communiqu as reckless, disruptive, and clearly in violation of numerous United Nations Security Council resolutions. They also approved a new framework for an Extended Deterrence Strategy and Consultation Group (EDSCG) to strengthen Alliance readiness against North Korean nuclear and missile threats. The United States is committed to providing extended deterrence for South Korea using the full range of military capabilities, including the U.S. nuclear umbrella, and conventional strike and missile defense capabilities. Intergovernmental meetings between the United States and South Korea took place throughout 2017 on topics related to cyber warfare, countering WMD, and the future of the Alliance. Additional enterprises last year included the deployment of the Terminal High-Altitude Area Defense system, new meetings focused on extended deterrence, and more multilat eral exercises, such as the Maritime Interdiction Operations exercise conducted by ROK, U.S., and Australian forces with observers from members of several United Nations Command Sending States, and Germany. AN ENDURING ALLIANCEThe ROK-U.S. Alliance is an extraordinary example of bilateral military and diplomatic cooperation, as demonstrated through the day-to-day interactions between the Alliance and its part ners. This includes enduring engagements exercises and meetings like the Korea-U.S. Integrated Defense Dialogue and new initiatives that aid in the defense of South Korea and KEY RESOLVE and ULCHI FREEDOM GUARDIAN, ensure that THE ROK U.S. ALLIANCE RIGHT: ROK Armor School personnel visit 1-8 CAV at Camp Humphreys, Oct. 24, 2017.SHEALAH CRAIGHEAD PFC. SEONG JOON KIMLEFT: President Donald J. Trump and First Lady Melania Trump visit South Korea, Nov. 7, 2017.
~720,000 ~3,500,000~625,000 ~30,000 T O D A YW A R ROK Deputy Commander U.S. CommanderMinister of Defense Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Military Committee Meeting Security Consultative Meeting Chairmain of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Secretary of DefenseCombined Forces CommandROK President U.S. President =10k ROK Troops =10K U.S. Troops rrfff 15 16and demonstrate joint determination to defend the Peninsula and the region. Beyond the Korean Peninsula, South Korea supports the United States and the international community through peacekeeping operations, stabilization and reconstruction efforts, regional security cooperation initiatives, and humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. Seoul has also taken important steps to increase its cooperation with its neighbors, bolstering multilateral cooperation particularly in the areas of missile warning, anti-submarine warfare, and deterrence operations. The United States, South Korea, and region, and cooperation among these nations is essential to achieve shared stability. Moving further into the 21st century, the ROKU.S. Alliance continues to provide for the security of Northeast Asia and beyond, evolving to meet the emerging threat from ground, sea, air, space, and cyber domains. The increased importance of the space and cyber domains has led to new areas of cooperation for the Alliance, including the inaugural Space Cooperation table-top exercise held last year and the ROK-U.S. Cyber Cooperation Working Group. As science and technology continue to advance, the Alliance is committed to remaining ahead of potential threats these domains may pose.CREATING A COMBINED FUTUREPresident Trump and President Moon agreed in June 2017 to the expeditious conditions-based transfer of wartime operational control (OPCON). The ROK government has pledged to complete the preparations necessary to exercise OPCON in accordance with the signed Conditions-Based OPCON Transition Plan (COTP), including the acquisition of critical capabilities and defense reform. The proposed future organization of the Combined Forces Command will be tested and revised The two nations will create Alliance Guiding Principles to determine combined defense posture post-OPCON transition. 2018 will see South Korea and the United States renegotiate the Special Measures Agreement (SMA), a bilateral cost-sharing agreecontributions to the defense of the Peninsula. South Korea reinforces the Alliance by funding approximately 41 percent of the day-to-day non-personnel stationing costs for USFK. In addition to being a vital cooperative framework that strengthens the posture and readiness of USFK, the majority of SMA funding is recirculated throughout the Korean economy via and the implementation of local construction work. The 2018 SMA will solidify the ROK-U.S. partnership across multiple levels and enhance its ability to respond at any time to the North Korean threat.The ROK-U.S. Alliance remains one of the worlds most unique partnerships, forged in the crucible of war and predicated on a mutual commitment to each other, their international partners, and the values they hold dear. Though the future may hold uncertainties, one thing is certain: the ironclad partnership that binds these two nations will endure. BELOW: U.S. military police and ROK Navy Special Duty Team members prepare to engage a notional active shooter and hostage situation at Busan Naval Base, Mar. 16, 2017. SGT. URIAH WALKER ILLUSTRATION BY JOSHUA BINDER
17 18 ROK U.S. CAPABILITIESUnited States Soldiers, Airmen, Sailors, and Marines have been stationed in South Korea for over half a century, and the requirement for a robust alliance has never been greater. Situated at the epicenter of one of the worlds most geopolitically volatile regions, the Korean Peninsula is of particular strategic importance to U.S. policy and posture across East Asia. With North Korea continuing to engage in frequent provocations that threaten the stability of the United States and its Allies, the enduring strength of the Republic of Korea (ROK)U.S. Alliance is paramount to the mission of the Com bined Forces Command (CFC) and U.S. Pacific Command (PACOM). In order to ensure that the Alliance remains ready to Fight feat North Korea, South Korea and the United States prioritize the development and deployment of a wide array of military assets. These capabilities, coupled with the Alliances ability to draw from the United States deep wellspring of maritime, aerial, and ground weapons systems, make for one of the CAPABILITIES DEVELOPMENTThe United States and South Korea continue to work together to bring the latest in military technology to the Peninsula, ensuring the development and growth of a modern, interoperable, and well-equipped force. The recent deployment of the Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) system to South Korea is one such example. THAAD not only bolsters readiness, but also contributes to a layered missile defense capability, providing ballistic missile intercept and destruction from projectiles inside or outside the atmosphere. Working in conjunction with Theater Security Packages (TSP), THAAD is in and of itself a symbol of deterrence while demonstrating the United States commitment to defending South Korea, its allies, and its coalition partners in United Nations Command. Recognizing the importance of maintaining and improving capabilities to successfully deter provocation, South Korea recently began ballistic missile defense modernization. Once completed, ROK Patriot ballistic missile defense forces will have increased range and greater lethality against theater ballistic missiles. This modernization works in conjunction STAFF SGT. ALEX FOX ECHOLS III The ROK Air Force Aerobatic Team, the Black Eagles, perform above two U.S. Air Force F-22 Raptors during the 2017 Seoul International Aerospace and Defense Exhibition at Seoul Air Base, Oct. 21, 2017.
17 18 with the current frameworks layered system approach, which enhances the battle space for ballistic missile defense and provides a simultaneous deterrent and defensive capability. Successful defense against North Korean aggression draws not only from the aforementioned capabilities, but hinges on continued investment in improving the weaponry and munitions at the Alliances disposal. The ROK Army (ROKA) recently developed the Korean Smart Top-Attack Munition tank munition with an effective operating range of 2-8 km. This extended range and ballistic trajec tory allow the vehicle to remain concealed behind known locations of enemy to provide effective and structures. The ROKA also has a robust artillery capability of proven and increasingly more modern systems. They have most recently upgraded the self-propelled 155mm K9 that can accuracy. These capabilities directly increase the Alliances ability to deter aggression and defend the Korean Peninsula. The integration and synchronization of combined and joint power and respond to a North Korean provocation. Considered altogether, the development and deployment of advanced capabilities contribute to a simple and resounding message: the Alliance can strike anywhere, anytime, and anyplace without hesitation. This steadfast commitment not only assures our allies in the international community, but works in conjunction with the Alliances deterrent capabilities to produce a well-rounded and highly trained combined force.RAPID FORCE PROJECTION & RAPID RESPONSEThough the ROK-U.S. Alliance is prepared to defend the Koin supporting the United Nations Commands primary mission of maintaining the Armistice through deterrence. In turn, effective deterrence relies on the Alliances ability to coordinate, develop, and implement increasingly interoperable capabilities that provide both the ROK and U.S. governments with a full suite of options for dealing with any and all North Korean aggression. Successful, enduring deterrence is predicated on two readiness; the second is communicating that readiness level throughout the region. The ROK-U.S. Alliance has two distinct capabilities that work in concert to ensure the maintenance of tangible military readiness and its communication to allies and adversaries alike: Rapid Force Projection and Rapid Response. Through these capabilities, the strength of the ROK-U.S. Alliance is convincing and its commitment to deterrence is explicit. Rapid Force Projection is the ability of the ROK-U.S. Alliance to quickly project forces to the Peninsula in order to deter North Korean provocation and reinforce the Armistice. As seen in various PACOM multiand bi-lateral training events, the Alliance can exercise readiness to support deterrence by rapidly changing postures with the employment of airborne forces and aerial delivery of combat power. In September 2017, for Korean Peninsula by C-17 aircraft from the continental U.S. ROK Air Force (ROKAF) and U.S. Air Force (USAF) forces demonstrated Rapid Force Projection during RED FLAG Alaska. Fighters supported by multiple aerial refueling operations ranges in Alaska. The USAF also deployed F-35As to Korea in support of the Air Defense Exposition in October 2017, while PACOM provides Rapid Force Projection with the ongoing TSP from the United States. Rapid Response the ability to rapidly respond to a North Korean provocation complements Rapid Force Projection by allowing the ROK-U.S. Alliance to quickly react with precision deep strike capability to dissuade provocation. On July 5, 2017, military personnel from the ROK and U.S. Armies conducted a combined show of force following a North Korean intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) test. Utilizing the ROK Hyunmu-II Missile and the U.S. Army Tactiing the ability of the ROK-U.S. Alliance to emphatically and quickly respond with deep strike capability anywhere, any sula in a show of force alongside ROKAF and Japan Air Selftest on July 29, while South Korean forces conducted a joint precision missile strike from air, land, and sea within minutes SGT. 1ST CLASS KWON HYEOK-KI The ROK 11th Divisions Black Dragon Battalion conducts live re training with K9 Howitzers, August 2016.
rf nr tb tb tb tb tb tb tb tbtb tbt tbtt tbt tbt USFFMS APPROVED PLANNEDAH-64E AP ACHE ($1.6B) GL OBAL HAWK ($7 40M) GEM-T MIS SILES ($120M) F-35A JSF ($6.3B) P AC-3 UPGRADE ($1.2B) AEGIS DESTROYERS ($1.7B) KF-16 FIGHTER UPGRADES ($1.9B) SM-3/SM-6 ($TBD) MARITIME HEL O ($TBD) MODE5 UPGRADE ($1B) P-8 MARITIME P A TROL AIRCRAFT ($1B) BMD UPGRADES OF ORIGINAL THREE KDX-III AEGIS DESTROYERS ($TBD) LINK 16 SCT s ($400K) 19 20 of a North Korean launch on November 29. In addition to land-based Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) systems, the U.S. Navy has BMD capable ships in the region. The ROK also maintains three KDX-III (Korean Destroyer eX perimental) destroyers with radar systems comparable to the version used by U.S. Navy vessels. The ROK is also in the process of purchasing of Standard Missile-3 (SM-3) interceptor missiles from the U.S. for a multi-layer missile defense system. The SM-3 would allow ROK Aegis destroyers to engage ballistic missiles and further contribute to the defense of the Peninsula. The dual tools of Rapid Force Projection and Rapid Response allow the Alliance to speak to the international community, and most importantly North Korea. The modernization of equipment and transparency of goals reinforce the Alliance narrative and emphasize its robust, all-around approach to deterring North Korean aggression and defending the Peninsula at all costs. The totality of the ROK-U.S. Alliances efforts to bolster its capabilities taken in tandem with Rapid Force Projection and Rapid Response efforts from sea, land, and air echo the Alliances commitment to deterring North Korea, defending the Peninsula, and defeating all threats that jeopardize international peace, security, and stability. In the enduring spirit of the ironclad partnerships unyielding will, the ROK-U.S. Alheartedly committed to the defense of stability and prosperity in Northeast Asia. South Korea has invested more in U.S. defense industries in the last 15 years than in the previous 50 years combined. ROK INVESTMENTS IN U.S. DEFENSE INDUSTRIESILLUSTRATION BY JOSHUA BINDER
19 20 LEFT: ROK Air Force F-15s during a 10-hour mission over the Korean Peninsula with two U.S. Air Force B-1B Lancers, Jul. 30, 2017. The Navys forward-deployed aircraft carrier USS Ronald Reagan and the forwarddeployed Arleigh Burke-class destroyer USS Stethem steam alongside ships from the ROK Navy, Oct. 18, 2017. RIGHT: A ROK AH-64E Apache Guardian attack helicopter res a Stinger air-to-air guided missile at the Daecheon Firing Range, Dec. 13, 2017.TECH. SGT. KAMAILE CASILLAS ROK ARMY PHOTO MASS COMMUNICATIONS SPECIALIST 2ND CLASS KENNETH ABBATE
21 22 JOINT U.S. MILITARY AFFAIRS GROUP KOREAJUSMAG-K is an integral part of the U.S. Embassys Country Team that works directly under the U.S. Ambassador to South Korea and reports to U.S. Pacific Command (PACOM). As a PACOM Security Cooperation Organization, JUSMAG-K maintains close coordination with United Nations Command, Combined Forces Com mand, and U.S. Forces Korea, as they support the ROK Governments effort to enhance the capabilities of its armed forces. JUSMAG-K operates under Chief of Mission Authority and works with the larger defense community toward a mutually beneficial developmental defense cooperation program. Currently, the JUSMAG-K is head quartered at U.S. Army Garrison-Yongsan and maintains offices at the ROK Ministry of National Defense and Defense Acquisition Program Administration. JUSMAG-K traces its origins back to 1888, when Brigadier General William McEntire Dye, a U.S. Civil War hero, arrived in Korea and was appointed Chief Military Adviser to the Korean Government under King Gojong. Modern day military assistance to Korea began in October 1945, and the Korean 1950. As South Korean economic development took off in the early 1970s the ROK military began to procure U.S. defense articles and services via Foreign Military Sales or Direct Commercial Sales, rather than through the Military Assistance Program (which grants training and equipment to developing countries), JUSMAG-Ks role has grown alongside South Korea and its Armed Forces. The ROK military is a true success story, growing from a constabulary to a world class modern force as part of a strategic partnership with the United States. Commensurate with this growth, and to recognize the maturity of the ROK Armed Forces, the former Joint U.S. Military Assistance Group-Korea was renamed the Joint U.S. Military Affairs Group-Korea in 1992. The United States and South Korea currently manage a Foreign Military Sales (FMS) portfolio of over $26 billion, as South Korea has committed to a number of Alliance critical military capabilities, particularly in the areas of Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR), Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD), Air Superiority, and Maritime Security. Between 2013 and 2016, South Korea spent $14.7 billion in U.S.-origin procurements via FMS, while the U.S. government also authorized $34 billion in licensed defense articles and services F-35A Lightning IISTAFF SGT. MADELYN BROWN
21 22 via Direct Commercial Sales from U.S. industry for export to South Korea. Some examples of recent acquisitions include: Global Hawk unmanned surveillance aircraft, PATRIOT PAC-3 Upgrades, AEGIS KDX-III Destroyers, upgrades to the F-15K and KF-16, F-35A Joint Strike Fighter aircraft, and AH-64E Apache Attack helicopters. These capabilities and commitments are deROK-U.S. Alliance, as well as meet many of the conditions required for successful transition of wartime operational control to the ROK. Additionally, the United States is working with South Korea as it continues to develop its own indigenous defense industry to further meet defense modernization requirements. North Korea continues to pose an ever-increasing, complex and catastrophic threat to the Peninsula and beyond. This requires the Alliance to bring to bear the most agile, lethal, and effective capabilities to deter, and if necessary, defeat this threat. This must be a combined effort between both governments, militaries and industry partners. Through JUSMAG-K, the United States and South Korea work together to develop and implement capabilities that stay ahead of the threat and deter aggression. In addition to the acquisition and implementation of particular security assistance programs, JUSMAG-K also facilitates co-development efforts between Seoul and Washington to ensure the Alliance stays on the cutting edge of innovation and future capabilities. Leveraging each countrys technical expertise in these areas, some of the more technologically advanced projects under co-development include: directed energy weapon systems; GPS anti-jamming capabilities; Next Generation Infrared Sensing; Autonomous Situational Awareness; Improved detect, track, defeat of aerial target threats, Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) Elimination in Underground Facilities, and Terrestrial Laser Communications, to name a few. The United States and South Koreas security cooperation relationship has not only endured, but has evolved into a strategic defense partnership to deter threats on the Korean Peninsula and cooperate, both regionally and globally, to maintain peace and security. In light of an increasingly dynamic and challenging regional and global security environment, JUSMAG-K continues to develop into an agile and responsive organization that is strategically focused, operationally requirements on the Peninsula. JUSMAG-K remains an integral component in the coordination and shaping of regional and global security cooperation and assistance efforts with South Korea. Source: JUSMAG-K CURRENT CAPABILITIES FUTURE CAPABILITIESGlobal Hawk (unmanned aircraft systems) Support to ROK Kill Chain Patriot Missile Batteries Support to Korean Air and Missile Defense Aegis KDX-III Destroyer Continued ISR enhancements F-35A Joint Strike Fighter Air Superiority enhancements AH-64E Apache Helicopter Maritime Security enhancements KF-16 Fighter Upgrade Additional Ballistic Missile Defense capabilities Various Munitions: (Air to Air, Air to Ground & Anti-ship missiles, Smart Bombs, etc.) Other systems and munitions to enhance Alliance interoperability MAJOR REPUBLIC OF KOREA (ROK) FOREIGN MILITARY SALES/CAPABILITIES ROK KDX-III class destroyer Sejong the Great steams in close formation as one of 40 ships and submarines representing 13 international partner nations during RIM OF THE PACIFIC, Jul. 28, 2016. ROK AH-64E Apache arrival at Busan Port.JUSMAG-K PHOTO MASS COMMUNICATIONS SPECIALIST 1ST CLASS ACE RHEAUME
23 24 Innovation AT USFK The Center for New American Security notes in its Future Foundry: A New Strategic Approach to Military-Technical Advantage that U.S. defense supremacy has always rested on the shoulders of the highest quality fighting men and women in the world, ably complemented by the vast technological and manufacturing prowess of American industry and innovation. United States Forces Korea (USFK) endeavors to become a hub for these emerging technologies, innovative approaches, and the application of game changing capabilities. With the addition of Republic of Korea (ROK) and United Nations Command (UNC) partner capabilities, USFK seeks cutting-edge approaches to solve tough operational challenges in a highly dynamic environment. The Emerging Capabilities and Innovative Effects Division (EXD) works to close capability gaps, offering a new approach to generate and maintain technological superiority through unique partnerships with defense, government, industry, and academic organizations in the United States, South Korea, and UNC Sending States. These partnerships will leverage emerging capabilities and seek innovative effects in support of Command operations and activities on the Korean Peninsula during armistice, and, should deterrence fail, contingency operations. Technology is accelerating at an astounding rate, giving opportunity to seek smaller, more agile, and more lethal capabilities. At the tactical and operational levels, these unique capabilities expand the destructive power of the operating force and increase the Commanders reach deep into the battle space. At the strategic level, integration of advanced technology and emerging capabilities will further enhance interoperability between ROK and U.S. forces, strengthen the ROK-U.S. Alliance, and bolster the defense of South Korea. USFK offers a unique opportunity to test emerging capabilities in theater during regularly scheduled exercises. Exercises are conducted on a regular basis at the tactical, operational, and theater level in a dynamic operating environment. Early incorporation of developing technology and emerging capabilities provides unique insight into capability and capacity gaps and provides immediate feedback from the user level to further development. Partners working Korean Theater issues are encouraged to team with EXD to help USFK to achieve technology overmatch. Strategy and Effects Directorate (FXD) and Command (USPACOM) Resources and Assessment Directorate EXD ENGAGEMENTS IN 2017 Asymmetric Warfare Group (AWG) Booz Allen Hamilton Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Defense Digital Service (DDS) Defense Experimentation Unit Experimental (DIUx) Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratories (MIT-LL) The MITRE Corporation National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Rapid Equipping Force (REF) ROK Agency for Defense Development (ADD) ROK Ministry of National Defense Stanford University
23 24 TOUGH CHALLENGES AND POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS evolve dramatically and now presents an capabilities to rapidly respond and destroy North Korean artillery and ballistic missiles these threats, it will severely hamper North (J8) to form a cross-command Rapid Capabilities Cell (RCC). The RCC is focused on capability gaps with the intent of delivering solutions on an accelerated timeline. These partnerships impact the tactical and operational level by rapidly integrating unmanned, unattended, and autonomous technology for use in Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) site characterization and exploitation. The integration of these emerging capabilities and technological practices provides an innovative force multiplier that reduces risk and increases situational awareness for Alliance and UNC forces that face complex challenges in the battle space. EXD is the link responsible for harnessing organizational energy in order to form an opportunity space for partners to bring the best technology and capabilities to the Korean Peninsula. EXD is part science advisor, part strategic advisor, but most importantly, EXD is the ROK-U.S. alliances envoy to sustainment communities. EXD will also continue developing unique relationships with defense, interagency, industry, and academic partners who provide critical support to the ROKU.S. Alliance. LEFT: Gen. Brooks reviews the manufacturing oor of POSCO, one of the worlds leading producers of steel, Jun. 28, 2017. Soldiers and a chemical-snifng robot enter the underground training facility at Camp Stanley, May 22, 2017.MARCUS FICHTL, COURTESY OF STARS AND STRIPES SGT. 1ST CLASS SEAN K. HARP
25 26 This Alliance between our nations was forged in the crucible of war and strengthened by the trials of history...I know that the Republic of Korea, which has become a tremendously successful nation, will be a faithful ally of the United States very long into the future.-President of the United States Donald J. TrumpSHEALAH CRAIGHEAD
25 26 The Republic of Korea will strengthen the ROK-U.S. joint defense capability and, at the same time enhance the ROK militarys own defense capability through its military reform.-President of the Republic of Korea Moon Jae-in U.S. President Donald J. Trump meets with ROK President Moon Jae-in in Seoul, Nov. 7, 2017.
27 28 UNITED NATIONS COMMAND Determined to defend South Korean sovereignty fol lowing the North Korean invasion in June 1950, the United Nations Security Council established the United Nations Command (UNC), a unified command comprising UN member nation military forces under U.S. leadership. For the ensuing three years, UNC led multinational ef forts to push North Koreas military out of South Korea and hold the line at what would become the Demili tarized Zone (DMZ). Today, UNC continues to serve as one of three commands responsible for safeguarding the 1953 Armistice and preserving stability and security across the Korean Peninsula. Upon UNCs founding, 16 member nations contributed forces in defense of South Korea. Five additional member nations provided medical assistance, while 32 more nations supported the restoration of peace in various capacities. The Korea created the conditions necessary to implement the Korean Armistice Agreement, which endures to this day. UNC today is composed of the host nation (South Korea), and 17 member nations: the United States, Australia, Belgium, Canada, Colombia, Denmark, France, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, the Philippines, South Africa, Thailand, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. These countries commitment to security and stability in South Korea is made manifest through the ongoing contribution of personnel and resources. Complementing the UNC force contingent on the Peninsula UNC-Rear (UNC-R). UNC-R exercises the UN-Government of Japan Status of Forces Agreement by maintaining a multinational Command that facilitates ship, aircraft, and personnel visits at seven designated UNC strategic installations in Japan: Camp Zama, Yokota Air Base, Yokosuka Naval Base, Sasebo Naval Base, Kadena Air Base, White Beach Naval Facility, and Futenma Marine Corps Air Station. UNC-Rs operationcantly over the past few years, providing additional support to numerous orientation visits by ROK National Assembly the readiness and resolve of both regional partners. UNC is the primary interlocutor with North Korea, should the opportunity arise for dialogue or negotiations. In 2017, UNC sent 46 messages to North Korean representatives at the Joint Security Area (JSA); conversely, the Korean Peoples Army communicated with UNC only four times. In addition, UNC works to enforce the repatriation of remains of soldiers from the other side when they are discovered. Following the USFK PHOTOSGT. 1ST CLASS SEAN K. HARPGen. Brooks meets with UNC Sending States ambassadors during a monthly roundtable, Mar. 16, 2017. Gen. Brooks with 13 former Senior Members of UNCMAC in the JSA, Dec. 12, 2017.
AUTHORITIES / MISSION UN Security Council Resolution 84: UNC assists ROK in its defense FUNCTION Armistice maintenance and investigations Carry out 1953 Armistice Agreement Military-to-military messaging to NK The Home for International Commitments United Nations Command (UNC) U.S. Executive Agent Receive and control forces when provided by 17 Sending States 27 28 1953 Armistice, a subsequent agreement in 1954 tasked the Military Armistice Commission Secretaries with carrying out the arrangements to exchange remains in a peaceful and recovered to this day. While North Korea continues to ratchet up tensions in Northeast Asia, cooperation and consensus among concerned regional partners and the international community have exponentially increased. UNC has responded with ongoing efforts to bolster cooperation and coordination among Sending States. The UNC Commander regularly engages with Sending State ambasAmbassadors Roundtables, which provide open forums for global partners to ask questions, raise concerns, and discuss solutions. The Commander also convenes ad-hoc meetings for Sending State representatives in response to North Korean provocations, promot ing open dialogue and information sharing. Sending States have also moved to lead new initiatives to further international discussion and consensus on the North Korean threat. On January 15, 2018, Canada and the United States co-hosted a meeting of foreign ministers from UNC Sending States, Japan, and other like-minded partners to discuss the ongoing challenge that North Korea presents. In concert with the broader international community, UNC Member States remain committed to the current mission of maintaining the Armistice to preserve stability and prosperity on the Peninsula. In 2017, UNC actively sought to expand participation across Sending States and like-minded partners, prioritizing communication, cooperation, and outreach to the international community. The responsibility to liaise with and integrate international forces and operations into UNC rests with the Multinational Coordination Center, the home for international commitment and primary interlocutor with allies and partners. The Command currently boasts over 30 permanent from non-U.S.-ROK member states. In addition, its liaison has been a vocal advocate for Visiting Forces Agreements between Sending States and South Korea to facilitate the incorporation of forces into UNC as well as ensure protection families who contribute to UNCs mission. UNC has also bolstered its participation in military exercises; in 2016-17, member states contributed an additional 755 service members during prominent defensive exercises on the Peninsula, while non-UNC member state participants from Germany, Singapore, and Japan cooperated in naval maneuvers with UNC and South Korea to bolster the capacity for UNSC Resolution enforcement and display solidarity with the South Korean people. Multilateralism is at the heart of the international order, and the UNC is a strategic force multiplier that supplements and boosts the capabilities of the bilateral ROK-U.S. Alliance. Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen, and Marines are a visible manifestation of international willingness and resolve to support the citizens of the ROK and deter North Korean aggression. Routine UNC engagements harmonize the efforts of the international community and keep national Capitals abreast of developments on the peninsula. Their presence helps maintain the Armistice and provides an organic multinational framework for the reception and integration of additional UN forces to defend South Korea should such operations become necessary. SGT. 1ST CLASS SEAN K. HARP UNCMAC PHOTORIGHT: UNCMAC personnel convey a message to North Korea using a bullhorn at the JSA. LEFT: UNC Repatriation of Remains Ceremony, Yongsan Garrison, Jun. 22, 2017.
29 30 COMBINED FORCES COMMAND The ready and capable Republic of Korea-United States (ROK-U.S.) Combined Forces Command (CFC) stands at the crux of the Commands tripartite structure and en shrines the shared ROK and U.S. commitment to the de fense of South Korea. As persistent North Korean provo cations continue to ratchet up tensions on the Peninsula and threaten regional and global stability, CFC remains not only a stalwart deterrent to the North Korean threat, but an enduring testament to the unwavering alliance and dedicated partnership between the United States and South Korea. Activated on November 7, 1978 under the command of the Korean Peninsula, functioning as an integrated, combined Alliance force that employs and synchronizes ROK and U.S. military force contributions. Given the ironclad nature of the ROK-U.S. partnership, CFC derives its strategic direction and operational guidance from both nations executive authorities. This unique command structure, which has no equivalent in the world, allows the Command to collaborate daily on meeting external threats to South Korea through consistently transmitted joint strategic guidance from both capitals. CFC derives its structure, priorities, and organization from bilateral agreements coordinated through the annual Military Committee Meeting (MCM), conducted between the U.S. and ROK Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Security Consultative Meeting (SCM), which takes place between the ROK MinisDefense. These Alliance-centric consultative processes allow the United States and South Korea to provide CFC with critical combined guidance that leverages CFC capabilities and establishes the Command as the bulwark for regional stability in line with both U.S. and ROK Government interests. A U.S. Air Force B-1B Lancer is anked by two ROK Air Force F-15K Slam Eagles during a ight in response to a North Korean missile launch, Aug. 31, 2017. U.S. Airmen pose in front of an F-35A Lighting II for a group photo with members of the ROK Air Force at Kunsan AB, Nov. 28, 2017. SENIOR AIRMAN COLBY L. HARDIN STAFF SGT. ALEX FOX ECHOLS III
AUTHORITIES / MISSION Defend the Republic of Korea FUNCTION Wartime Operational Control over U.S. -ROK forces Deter external provocation and prepare for potential instability Conduct exercises to validate readiness The Heart of the Alliance Combined Forces Command (CFC) Bilateral ROK U.S. 29 30 An increase in naval, aerial, and special operations exercises highlights the strength and readiness of the combined force and demonstrates the military might that stands ready to defend against all adversaries. On top of a robust training cycle, CFC also conducts two annual Command Post Exercises, ULCHI FREEDOM GUARDIAN and KEY RESOLVE, which are among the two largest exercises of its kind in the world. These exercises demonstrate that CFC is trained and ready to FIGHT TONIGHT if deterrence should fail and are a concrete manifestation of the Alliances mutual unwavering commitment to South Korea, its citizens, and its sovereignty and security. CFC is also at the heart of FOAL EAGLE, a combined and joint air, exercise conducted by U.S. Forces Korea (USFK) and CFC. Designed in the spirit of the U.S.-South Korean Mutual Defense Treaty of 1953, FOAL EAGLE places increased emphasis on the combined components, providing a critical opportunity for combined exercises that increase readiness to defend South Korea, to protect the region, and to maintain stability on the Korean Peninsula. FOAL EAGLE 2017 incorporated an additional 3,600 U.S. Service Members who joined their USFK and CFC counterparts for eight weeks of training in April 2017. While CFC is currently led by a U.S. Four Star Commander, transfer of authority from the United States to South Korea. This transition will place Operational Control (OPCON) of ROK and U.S. forces on the Peninsula under the command of a ROK Four Star Commander during a contingency, who will continue to partner with UNC, the ROK Joint Chiefs of Staff and its subordinate military commands, and USFK. In a September 2017 address, ROK President Moon Jae-in declared his administrations intent to pursue OPCON transfer before his National Defenses efforts to craft a phased roadmap to carry this to fruition. As South Korea and the United States continue to modernize and strengthen their capabilities, so, too, will the Command structure and orientation of CFC evolve to accommodate a changing strategic environment. In the months and years to come, CFC will adapt as the Command proceeds with its planned relocation, a restationing effort that will see U.S. Forces Korea move its headquarters to Pyeongtaek while CFC will remain in Seoul. Despite the physical separation, this Command transformation will enhance CFCs posture and readiness to respond to any provocation. CFC will remain wholly combined from the tactical level all the way up to the CFC headquarters, supported both by critical co-location at Commander, Naval Forces Korea headquarters in Busan and ongoing combined training part nerships with the ROK Marine Corps and ROK Air Force. As Eighth Army settles into its new home at Camp Humphreys, integration with the GCC will continue to strengthen the ties between the two Army elements. The Commands forward-looking vision may involve change in the present, but that which endures at the heart of the Command is CFCs absolute unity of purpose and joint commitment to stability, security, and prosperity in Northeast Asia. As the CFC motto states, KATCHI KAPSHIDA! (We go together!). U.S. Army Soldiers and ROK Air Force Airmen participate in a team building event at U.S. Army Garrison Humphreys, Nov. 17, 2017. A U.S. Air Force cyber technician shares knowledge with two ROK Airmen during exercise TURBO DISTRIBUTION 17-3 at Pohang AB, Apr. 7, 2017.KIM JAEWOONG AND LEE JIMIN TECH. SGT. GUSTAVO GONZALEZ
31 32 THE COMMANDUSFK is a subordinate-unified command under U.S. Pacific Command (USPACOM) and represents USPACOM in a liaison role with its ROK Joint Chiefs of Staff coun terpart. It is the senior U.S. military command for U.S. Forces on the Korean Peninsula. The Command supports the ROK-U.S. Mutual Defense Treaty of 1953 through the employment of agile forces and strategic deterrence that facilitates joint ROK-U.S. cooperation to deter an armed attack, and, if necessary, to defeat aggression against the ROK. As one of the Commands three pillars, USFK stands ready to operate in synchronization with Combined Forces Command (CFC) and United Nations Command (UNC) during both armistice and times of crisis. In the event of hostilities on the Peninsula, USFK is prepared to undertake the Reception, Staging, Onward movement, and Integration (RSOI) for U.S. and multinational UNC augmentation forces. USFK also plays a supporting operational role with a focus on Non-combatant Evacuation Operations (NEO) for American citizens and designated third country nationals. The Service Members of USFK have remained committed to their ROK and UNC Sending State allies for more than six decades. Together, these forces have cooperated to maintain the Armistice that has permitted South Korea to grow into a prosperous and stable democratic nation. With over 30,000 Service Members stationed across the Peninsula, U.S. Forces act as a vital security guarantor that helps ensure that the more than 51 million Koreans and over 200,000 Americans living and working throughout South Korea are protected from real and present North Korean threats. In the face of an evolving North Korean threat, USFK maintains readiness by ensuring the absolute best training UNITED STATES FORCES KOREA U.S. Marines exit out the back of a Korean Amphibious Assault Vehicle with ROK Marines during KMEP 17-14, Aug. 9, 2017. An MQ-1C unmanned aerial system, also known as Gray Eagle.CPL. AARON S. PATTERSON STAFF SGT. ISOLDA REYES
AUTHORITIES / MISSION Support United Nations Command and Combined Forces Command FUNCTION Support U.S. -ROK Mutual Defense Treaty (1953) Train and control U.S. forces in Korea Train and support U.S. Service Members in Korea Living Proof of U.S. Commitment to Korea United States Forces Korea (USFK) Unilateral U.S. 31 32 for its Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen, Marines, and Coast Guardsmen, providing strong and capable forces that allow national leaders the full breadth of options in addressing regional tension. In 2017, USFK continued activities to enhance its readiness and deep commitment to the stability of the Korean In a show of close cooperation between U.S. and ROK military forces, the Command conducted combined U.S. Army Tactical Missile System (ATACMS) and the ROK Hyunmoo Missile II in reaction to North Korean ballistic missile launches. Further demonstrating U.S. preparedness and commitment to defend the ROK, the Command also continued to support the deployment of U.S. strategic assets to the Peninsula. In October and November, the Command conducted sequenced bilateral missions with ing U.S. B-1 bombers; similarly, over 200 military aircraft participated in aerial exercise VIGILANT ACE, including U.S. for joint air drills. 2017 saw the deployment of the Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) system on the Korean Peninsula, which provides a globally-transportable, rapidly-deployable capability to intercept ballistic missiles inside or outside the atmosenhances the Commands existing theater ballistic missile defense capabilities to counter North Koreas continued development of ballistic missile technology in contravention of numerous United Nations Security Council resolutions. Importantly, USFK brings to the Peninsula the breadth and depth of the broader U.S. military capabilities. With reachback support to USPACOM, the other Theater Combatant Commands, the U.S. Joint Staff, and other U.S. agencies as auto CFC and boosts the Commands ability to rapidly project additional forces to the Peninsula in the event of provocation. In its capacity as a senior military headquarters, USFK also partners with the U.S. Embassy in Seoul to liaise with the ROK Government and represent U.S. interests. Routine port calls by U.S. Naval vessels are a regular oc currence for the command. In 2017, the USS Mississippi, USS Michigan, USS Ohio, USS Cheyenne, USS Carl Vinson, USS North Carolina submarines, and USS Ronald Reagan Carrier Strike Group each made routine port visits. While these visits afford the crew time to conduct maintenance, receive resupply, and take a break, they also afford USFK the opportunity to highlight the capabilities the Command would be able to receive in times of crisis.THE FUTURE OF USFKIn 2017, USFK also continued its major re-alignment of forces that will ultimately move the preponderance of its formations to two enduring hubs south of Seoul. In July, Eighth Army completed its successful relocation from Yongsan to Pyeongtaek, beginning a historic new chapter in the ROK. USFK will follow, relocating its headquarters to Camp Humphreys, in 2018. USFKs enduring presence on the Korean Peninsula is a testament to the United States steadfast commitment to the preservation of stability and prosperity in South Korea and in the region. United in purpose and bound by shared values, USFK is actively engaged in preserving the deterrence that allows peace to 67 years, USFK remains vigilant in seek ing the permanent peace we have not yet achieved. A U.S. Air Force F-35A Lightning II conducts a training ight with F-16 Fighting Falcons during exercise VIGILANT ACE 18, Dec. 1, 2017. Commander, U.S. Pacic Command Adm. Harry Harris, U.S. Strategic Command Commander Gen. John Hyten, and Gen. Brooks visit the THAAD site, Aug. 22, 2017.TECH. SGT. JOSH ROSALESSTAFF SGT. JENNIFER CHANCE
33 34 EIGHTH ARMYLt. Gen. Michael A. Bills, Commander Eighth United States Army is the ground component of U.S. Forces Korea, subordinate to U.S. Army Pacific (USARPAC) and U.S. Pacific Command (PACOM). Working alongside its Republic of Korea (ROK) Army counterparts, Eighth Army Soldiers are Americas Boots on the Ground in Asia, com mitted to developing combined defensive and joint warfighting capabilities in order to deter North Korean aggression and defend the Korean Peninsula. COMBINED, TRANSFORMED, AND READY TO FIGHT TONIGHT READINESSA foundational component of Eighth Army readiness is the integration of rotational units from the continental United States. These rotations, including an Armored Brigade Combat Team (ABCT), a Multiple Launch Rocket System artillery battalion, and an AH-64 Apache helicopter equipped Heavy Attack Reconnaissance Squadron, ensure trained and ready forces for the Ground Component Commander while enhancing the global responsiveness of the U.S. Army. As an example of Eighth Armys ability to conduct Reception, Staging, Onward Movement, and Integration (RSOI), no-notice deployments of CONUS-based units, including portions of the 18th Field Artillery Brigade, were also conducted throughout the year. The unit rapidly deployed to the range precision munitions. command during the combined ROK-U.S. exercises, KEY RESOLVE and ULCHI FREEDOM GUARDIAN, in March 2017 and August 2017, respectively. In addition, Eighth Army executed the largest WARFIGHTER exercise conducted in South Korea in November 2017. This command post exercise trained 2nd Infantry Division ROK-U.S. Combined Division (2ID RUCD), ROK 17th Infantry Division, 19th ESC, and I Corps, resulting in high performing staff and increased interoperability between the U.S. and ROK Armies. Collective and combined training events, such as WARRIOR STRIKE for the ABCT and WARRIOR THUNDER for the 210th Field Artillery Brigade, are fully integrated with our Combat Aviation Brigade and maintain expertise, strengthen the Alliance, and ensure readiness. Eighth Army assumes primary responsibility for Noncombatant Evacuation Operations (NEO) during crisis and wartime. During this years two NEO Exercises, FOCUSED PASSAGE and COURAGEOUS CHANNEL, Eighth Army evacuated dependents, U.S. citizens, and even pets from the Korean Peninsula using air and sea assets. PACOM units. SGT. PATRICK EAKIN Soldiers prepare to clear a building during WARRIOR STRIKE VII, Sep. 20, 2017.
33 34 STRENGTHENING THE ALLIANCEThe combined force is a powerful combat multiplier. As Eighth Army moves forward, the unit builds on the successful 2ID RUCD model, integrating with the ROK Ground Component Command to build combined staffs and become the Combined Ground Component Command. As part of the continuing effort to enhance interoperability, Eighth Army hosted the Combined Forces Command and Ground Component Command Command, Control, Communication, Computer, and Intelligence (C4I) summits in October 2017. As annual events, these summits strengthen the Alliance and bolster interoperability between Eighth Army forces and the ROK Army. Eighth Army, Third ROK Army, and First ROK Army continue to hold bi-annual combined tactical discussions, and Procedures for our combined mission of Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction Elimination. Thanks to joint efforts over the course of 2016 and 2017, Eighth Army successfully deployed the Terminal High Altitude Air Defense (THAAD) battery to increase our ballistic missile defenses, and added an engineer battalion to the formation, also enhancing our force protection capabilities. THE YEAR AHEAD In 2017, Eighth Army completed its move to Camp Humphreys in Pyeongtaek, one of the largest and most modern U.S. overseas installations. Moves completed in 2017 include the Eighth Army Headquarters, 65th Medical Brigade, and the 501st Military Intelligence Brigade Headquarters. In 2018, 2nd ID headquarters, the Eighth Augmentee to the U.S. Army (KATUSA) Academy, and the Eighth Army Chemical, Biological Radiological and Nuclear Defense School will move to Camp Humphreys and host courses, such as the Joint CWMD Planners Course in January 2018; Joint Effects Model/Joint Warning and Reporting Network (JEM/JWARN) in February 2018; and the Sensitive Site Exploitation Course in July 2018. Unmanned Aerial System and the activation of an additional permanently assigned MLRS battalion bring additional capabilities. Leader development programs will ensure that competent leaders with unquestionable character lead Eighth Army formations. By continuing to seek ness and stands ready for any threat. Partnered with the modern, lethal, and highly trained ROK Army, Eighth Army is a proven deterrent to North Korean aggression. SGT. PATRICK EAKIN SGT. PATRICK EAKINSGT. PATRICK EAKINLEFT: An M1A2 Abrams tank res during Gunnery Qualication Table VI at Rodriguez Live Fire Complex, Nov. 28, 2017. ABOVE (RIGHT): A UH-60 Black Hawk ascends after dropping off Soldiers at Rodriguez Live Fire Complex, Sep. 28, 2017. U.S. Soldiers launch rockets from an M142 High Mobility Artillery Rocket System, Sep. 21, 2017.
35 36 Seventh Air Force is a Numbered Air Force of the U.S. Pacific Air Forces, the air component com mand of U.S. Pacific Command. During crisis and wartime, Seventh Air Force serves as the air compo nent of United States Forces Korea. 2017 was a tumultuous year for inter-Korean relations, marked by an uptick in North Korean provocations and an increase in bellicose rhetoric. In the face of rising regional tensions, the U.S. and Republic of Korea (ROK) Air Forces are fully commit ted to providing the most lethal air capability to the Alliance, stressing interoperability as the key to the success of its mission. Seventh Air Force, the U.S. Air Force (USAF) component on the Korean Penin sula, continues to demonstrate unshakeable resolve and ironclad commitment to its mission, pursuing selected strategic deterrence options and realistic combat training to safeguard the Armistice and bol ster the ROK-U.S. Alliance. READINESSSeventh Air Force is ready to Fight Tonight, and continuous training is at the heart of joint efforts to ensure readiness. In 2017, Seventh Air Force conducted numerous combined exercises designed to enhance interoperability between ROK and U.S. forces and these exercises, MAX THUNDER, saw the participation of 131 aircraft, 1,200 U.S. personnel, and 640 ROK Service the Korean Peninsula. During MAX THUNDER, U.S. and ROK Airmen had the unparalleled opportunity to plan, SEVENTH AIR FORCEbrief, execute, and debrief side-by-side, further honing airpower integration and boosting bilateral cooperation between the USAF and ROK Air Force (ROKAF). ing exercise among USAF, ROKAF, and the Japanese Air Self-Defense Force. This exercise successfully tested the ability to conduct combined air operations at any time and place to ensure readiness. In addition, squadrons from both the Seventh Air Force 8th and 51st Fighter Wings deployed to RED FLAG ALASKA, exercising joint offensive counter-air, interdiction, close air support, and large force employment. Seventh Air Force also participated in the Maritime Counter Special Operations Force Exercise with the ROK Air Force and the U.S. and ROK Navies. In an exercise that rivaled the U.S. Air Forces premier air-to-air training exercise RED FLAG in Nevada, Seventh Air Force and the ROKAF conducted their third VIGILANT ACE exercise. This year, VIGILANT ACE expanded from the U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine Corps. With 230 participating aircraft, this large-scale exercise showcased Alliance air capabilities and demonstrated the lethal and dominant combat effectiveness of both nations. In contrast to previous iterations that employed a predetermined set of capabilities as a ready-made combat air package, the new Set the Force Air Tasking Order option. The successful execution of the ATO in 2017 ex ercises highlighted the speed and accuracy with which the Alliance can shape the air domain.Lt. Gen. Thomas W. Bergeson, COMMANDER LANCE CPL. CARLOS JIMENEZA ROK F-16 Fighting Falcon takes off during exercise MAX THUNDER 17 at Kunsan AB, Apr. 26, 2017.
35 36 Seventh Air Force has a long and storied history on the Korean Peninsula, and in 2017, it honored that legacy with the celebration of three anniversaries. Two of its squadrons the 35th Fighter Squadron, known as the Pantons at Kunsan Air Base (pictured), and the 36th Fighter Squad ron, known as The Fabulous Flying Fiends at Osan Air Base celebrated and Vietnam. Through the years, they F-4 Phantom; today, they continue Falcon. In addition to having two of USAFs oldest squadrons, Seventh Air Force honored its venerated legacy as the oldest numbered air force in the ser vice with its 77th anniversary. Founded as the Hawaiian Air Force on Novem ber 1, 1940, it was quickly forced into action when hostile Japanese forces enth Air Force was reactivated at Osan Air Base in the 1980s with the explicit mission of enforcing the Armistice and deterring North Korean aggression, a mission it continues to this day. THE FUTURESeventh Air Force played host to a special press conference with the and U.S. Strategic Command in August 2017. In this unprecedented United States to the Alliance and the continued joint-combined exercises as a deterrent to North Korean aggression. Seventh Air Force picks up that mantel and will continue that commitment into 2018 with an increased focus on air asset integration and interoperability. Building a creases the knowledge and expertise of both the U.S. and ROK combat To do this, Seventh Air Force and the ROKAF will continue to integrate a variety of airframes, military services and allied nations into exercise scenarios and to practice combat operations against a realistic air and ground threat array. Exercises will incorporate all spectrums of warfare to include command and control, real-time intelligence, analysis and exploitation, and electronic warfare. These scenarios provide pilots with real-time war scenarios and helps their ground crews test their readiness capabilities. Our military professionals will practice realistic combat training in a contested, degraded, and operationally limited ensuccessful execution of the ATO in 2017 exercises highlighted the speed and accuracy with which the Alliance can shape the air domain. Seventh Air Force will continue to highlight the long-standing part nership, dedication and enduring friendship between the United States and the Republic of Korea. All exercises and readiness events are designed to ensure peace and security on the Korean Peninsula and Force and the ROKAF continue to stand shoulder-to-shoulder on the frontier of freedom, united in purpose and ready to defend stability and security on the Korean Peninsula. Armed with a commitment to continuous training and air domain dominance, this unparalleled airpower team will keep the Alliance strong and the Peninsula safe for decades to come. STAFF SGT. VICTORIA H. TAYLOR USAF PHOTOS (TOP AND BOTTOM)RIGHT: A U.S. Air Force heavy gunner guards his post during exercise BEVERLY PACK 18-1 at Kunsan AB, Oct. 11, 2017.
37 38 U.S. Marine Corps Forces, Korea (MARFORK) is the U.S. Marine Corps Service Component assigned to United States Forces Korea (USFK). A small headquarters during Armistice, comprising fewer than 100 person nel, it concentrates primarily on maintaining a high state of prepar edness for contingency operations. The annual USFK exercises ULCHI FREEDOM GUARDIAN, KEY RESOLVE, and FOAL EAGLE are the main venues for MARFORK staff training. Addition ally, MARFORK coordi nates support for U.S. Marine Corps units that come primarily from the III Marine Expeditionary Force (III MEF) located in Okinawa, Japan, to conduct year-round Korea Marine Exercise Program (KMEP) events. While a small component of Marines is stationed at Yongsan Garrison, most Marines are stationed at Camp Mujuk. Located in Pohang, Camp Mujuk is the only U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) installation in South Korea and provides expeditionary support for U.S. Marines operating and training in Korea. Although Camp Mujuk is under the operational control of Marine Corps Instalensure service policies are aligned with joint policies. MARFORK maintains a close relationship with the Republic of Korea Marine Corps (ROKMC) and helps ensure that combined planning and training events are ferent staff functional areas as well as formal staff talks both on and off the Korean Peninsula. MARFORK seeks to aid ROKMC development and enhancement by providing instruction and coordinating training for areas under development, such as aviation and tactical air control. This Marine-to-Marine interac tion carries down to the individual training unit level on both a formal and informal basis as partnered training units learn to work and live together to form a more effective combined Marine force. In 2017, the U.S. Marines conducted 28 combined KMEP events ranging from platoon to battalion-level training with over 9,500 U.S. Marines participating. The forces for KMEPs came from U.S. Marine units belonging to III MEF, the ROKMC First and Second Marine Divisions, and the Northwest Islands Defense Command. MARFORK serves to coordinate the training of those forces in a combined manner. These exercises, which are conducted throughout Korea in locations including Pohang, Paengnyeong Island, Gimpo, Pyeongchang, and MARINE CORPS FORCES KOREAMaj. Gen. Patrick Hermesmann, commander A U.S. and ROK Marine traverse through the single rope bridge obstacle during KMEP 17-14, North West Islands, Aug. 9, 2017.STAFF SGT. VICTORIA H. TAYLOR
37 38 the Story and Rodriguez Range Complexes, cover the full range of military operations the U.S. and ROK Marine Corps could be expected to perform during contingency. Additionally, the U.S. and ROKMC conducted a combined amphibious demonstration in conjunction with the 2017 the strength of bond between USMC and ROKMC. A rigorous cooperative training regime for the forthcoming year is already in place and MARFORK looks forward to functions as the Marine Corps pursues deeper interoperMARFORK ensures that USFK remains ready to integrate forward-based USMC forces that are critical in the early hours and days of a crisis. As the United Nations Command (UNC) Marine Component, it also advocates for other allied forces to participate in exercises and serves as the integrator of these forces to support the Combined Marine Component Command (CMCC) during crisis. This includes not just Marine forces, but other allied service aviation and ground units designated to be employed in support of the CMCC as well. In 2017, force collaboration during major exercises, re-organiz ing procedures within wartime headquarters in order to facilitate greater collaboration with UNC Sending State forces. MARFORK will continue to provide continuous integration in the year ahead. As the proponent for all Marine activities in South Korea, MARFORK is able to access ROK-provided funding for construction projects that support defense and training. 2017 saw construction begin on two new 800-person barracks. These projects demonstrate the USMCs commitment to readiness in Korea and will greatly enhance the capability to support training units. MARFORK will continue to develop facilities and infrastructure throughout the coming year alongside alliance partner activities at locations regularly utilized by combined training units, providing substance to the Marine Corps components material commitment to partnership. In 2017, MARFORK and ROKMC completed development of a Memorandum of Understanding that out lines the way forward for the Future Combined Marine Component Command, as well as discussions regarding a robust Combined Marine Development Program. These efforts led to the strengthening of ties between the United States and South Korea by providing a focal point for engagement on common service related objec tangible commitment to bilateral engagement and partner capability development. As the service proponent, MARFORK looks forward to carrying out the Commandant of the Marine Corps guidance on prioritization of the ROK-US Marine Corps partnership. MARFORK and ROKMC will continue their efforts at the headquarters level to ensure bilateral unity of purpose in mission and strategic outlook for the future as they cooperatively engage in capability development across the range of military operations in each of their respective scopes. in the world, and MARFORK guarantees that this vital the Korean Peninsula. Although a small staff when compared to other U.S services in South Korea, MARFORK assumes a large responsibility during both routine and contingency operations. The close relationship with the ROKMC maintained through the KMEP ensures the two forces, each powerful on its own, can combine at a moments notice to give the Commander a lethal amphibious capability. U.S. Marines communicate while taking simulated re during KMEP 17-14, North West Islands, Aug. 11, 2017. BELOW: A USMC Korean linguist shows the functions of the Wolfhound system to ROK Marines during a demonstration at Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Oct. 13, 2017.CPL. AARON S. PATTERSON LANCE CPL. ISABELO TABANGUIL
39 40 COMMANDER, NAVAL FORCES KOREARear Adm. Michael E. Boyle, COMMANDERCommander, U.S. Naval Forces Korea (CNFK) is a major shore command of the United States Navys Seventh Fleet, a numbered fleet under United States Pacific Fleet that provides Naval forces to U.S. Pacific Command (PACOM). CNFK has been a strong and committed partner to the Repub lic of Korea Navy (ROKN) and has had a vital role in maintaining the Armistice. As U.S. Seventh Fleets representative on the Korean Peninsula, CNFK has a long history of enhancing interoperability between U.S. and ROK navies and improving the readiness of naval forces in theater. South Korea is home to roughly 450 U.S. Navy personnel serving in various capacities, nearly a quarter of whom comprise the CNFK staff. CNFK serves as the U.S. Navys lead maritime component under United States Forces Korea (USFK) and as the Combined Forces Commands (CFC) Deputy Naval Component Commander under the Republic of Korea (ROK) Fleet during armistice. CNFK interfaces between U.S. naval forces operating in theater, advancing cooperative efforts with the ROKN to increase the naval components combined lethality at sea and ashore. CNFK also functions as the United Nations Command (UNC) Naval Component Commander, advocating for and facilitating the participation of multinational navies in operations and exercises in the waters surrounding the Korean Peninsula. Additionally, CNFK is the regional commander for the U.S. Navy in South Korea and provides expertise on naval matters to U.S. military commanders operating in and around the Korean Peninsula to include the UNC/CFC/USFK Commander. If called upon, the U.S. Navy brings considerable by-side to elevate the readiness of the combined force through roughly 20 bilateral and multilateral exercises The USS Ronald Reagan, USS Theodore Roosevelt, and USS Nimitz Strike Groups conduct operations with two B-1B Lancers and ROKAF ghters in international waters as part of a three-carrier strike force exercise, Nov. 12, 2017. The Arleigh Burkeclass guided-missile destroyer USS Stethen transits waters east of the Korean Peninsula during exercise FOAL EAGLE, Mar. 22, 2017.MASS COMMUNICATIONS SPECIALIST 3RD CLASS ANTHONY RIVERA MASS COMMUNICATIONS SPECIALIST 3RD CLASS KURTIS A. HATCHER
39 40 annually. The premier maritime exercise, the Maritime Counter Special Operations Exercise (MCSOFEX), is focused on countering special operations forces that large-scale joint and combined event includes ROK Army attack helicopters, ROK Air Force aircraft and close air support as well as units from the U.S. Eighth Army and U.S. Seventh Air Force. CNFK and Commander, ROK Fleet (CRF) also closely cooperate in a number of other critical mission areas to achieve maritime superiority in the Korean theater, including anti-submarine warfare, mine countermeasures, and ballistic missile defense. Improving shipboard cyber defense is a new area of bilateral cooperation and CNFK is leveraging U.S. Navy cyber professionals to help the ROKN improve their capabilities in this increasingly naval force has also had many successes in multilat eral events throughout 2017, participating in exercises involving the Royal Canadian, Australian, and New Zealand navies, as well as in multilateral forums, such as the annual Multinational Mine Warfare Symposium and Exercise. CNFK has increasingly played an important role in drawing naval units operating in theater to the Korean Peninsula. Strategic assets of the U.S. Navy, such as aircraft carriers and guided-missile, and fast attack submarines, routinely make port calls to CNFK Headquarters, while other aircraft and ships routinely visit prominent ports like Pyeongtaek and, increasingly, Jeju Island. In response to North Korean missile tests in May 2017, the USS Carl Vinson Strike Group completed an historic 32-day operation off the coast of Korea. In October 2017, the USS Ronald Reagan, USS Theodore Roosevelt, USS Nimitz, along with a number of U.S. and ROK Navy AEGIS cruisers, destroyers, and other escorts, executed ten years. cent restationing effort. In February 2016, CNFK undertook a massive relocation, co-locating their headquarters on the ROK Fleet base in Busan. This move made CNFK the only component headquarters located on a ROK military base. Since the relocation, CNFK and CRF have led the charge for CFC component integration and have dramatically increased cooperation, interoperabilCNFK being recognized with the ROK Presidential Unit receive this prestigious honor since the Korean War. The city of Busan has welcomed CNFK Sailors and their families with open arms and has since become ticularly among younger service members who seek region. The partnership between the U.S. and ROK navies has never been closer and our shared bonds have ing lethality of our navies on the sea and from the sea reached an all-time high in 2017. Prospects for 2018 look even more promising, with several major exercises and events planned, including the ROKNs International Fleet Review in October 2018. The maritime component for UNC/CFC/USFK is strong and getting stronger. KATCHI HANG-HAE HAPSHIDA! WE SAIL TOGETHER! RIGHT: Sailors assigned to the Avenger-class mine countermeasures ship USS Chief, stand watch in the Combat Information Center during Multinational Mine Warfare Exercise, Oct. 15, 2017. ABOVE: A member of the ROK Navys Underwater Construction Team practices underwater cutting techniques with Sailors during exercise FOAL EAGLE at the ROK Naval Education and Training Command in Jinhae, Mar. 31, 2017.MASS COMMUNICATIONS SPECIALIST 2ND CLASS JORDAN CROUCH CHIEF MASS COMMUNICATIONS SPECIALIST BRETT COTE
41 42 Special Operations Command Korea (SOCKOR) is a sub-unified command of United States Pacific Command (USPACOM) under the Operational Con trol of United States Forces Korea (USFK). SOCKOR provides the USFK Commander with a Joint Spe cial Operations Headquarters that plans, supports, and controls U.S. Special Operations Forces (SOF) in order to build interoperability with Republic of Korea (ROK) SOF, respond to crises short of war, and, should the Armistice fail, defeat North Korean aggression. SOCKOR is an operationally focused headquarters responsible for planning and conducting special operations in support of USFK. In this capacity, SOCKOR operates in three key areas: mission command of SOF rotational forces; training and interoperability engagements with ROK SOF allies via numerous Korea-based exercises; and planning for hostilities in times of crisis. Since its inception, SOCKOR has been the only Theater Special Operations Command in which U.S. and host nation SOF are institutionally organized for combined operations. SOCKOR, ROK Army Special Warfare Command (SWC), and ROK Naval Special Warfare Flotilla (NSWF) regularly train in their combined roles, while SOCKORs Special Forces Detachment 39 (DET-39), established in 1958, works as the full-time liaison between U.S. and ROK SOF. SOCKOR is stationed in a complex combined operat partners, SOCKOR is prepared to execute the full spec trum of special operations to maintain stability on the Korean Peninsula. SOCKOR coordinates with ROK SWC, ROK NSWF, ROK Air Force, and SOF from United Nations Command (UNC) Sending States to develop plans in support of the UNC/Combined Forces Command (CFC)/ USFK Commander. In the event of hostilities, SOCKOR will partner with ROK and UNC Sending States SOF to form Combined Special Operations Component Comoperations component. SOCKOR is committed to increasing interoperability Brig. Gen. Tony D. Bauernfeind, COMMANDER SPECIAL OPERATIONS COMMAND KOREA Green Berets provide security with their ROK counterparts as part of a Combined Joint Special Operations Task Force Dragon during exercise KEY RESOLVE, Mar. 15, 2017.SGT. CODIE MENDENHALL
41 42 As the Command continues to evolve, SOCKOR will maintain laser Enhancing U.S. and ROK SOF training, interoperability and planning to ensure the Alliance is at its highest state of readiness; Increasing opportunities for multi-national partners to train, plan and increase their interoperability with US-ROK SOF; Synchronizing U.S. SOF to ensure Unity interoperability with Conventional Force partners; Ensuring readiness for a seamless transition to crisis posture should deterrence fail; and Completing Transformation and Relocation planning to potentially co-locate the command with our ROK partners SOCKOR remains committed to its vital roles of main taining the Armistice and strengthening the Alliance to ensure stability on the Korean Peninsula. However, if called upon to Fight Tonight, SOCKOR stands ready to leverage their crisis response capability or employ unique combined ROK-U.S. SOF capabilities to provide both U.S. and ROK senior leaders with strategic options to deter or defeat North Korean asymmetric threats. with its ROK SOF partners and ensuring the Alliance is strengthened in all regards. This enduring relationship spans over 67 years and is a vital component of the ROK-US Alliance. This commitment has been made manifest in numerous ways, notably through the dethroughout the year. To date, a wide range of U.S. SOF have trained in Korea, to include elements from U.S. Army Special Operations Command (USASOC), Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC), Marine Special Operations Command (MARSOC), and Naval Special Warfare Command (NSWC). SOCKORs Joint Special Operations Liaison Element (JSOLE) also bolsters interoperability and increases readiness. Located at Osan Air Base, the JSOLE coordinates with the U.S. 7th Air Force and ROK Air Force Operations Command to ensure Air Component and Special Operations Component activities are supported and synchronized. ABOVE: A SOF operator attached to SOCKOR prepares for landing during the Military Free Fall training event in South Korea, Feb. 25, 2017.BELOW: ROK Special Operations troops conduct winter tactical training, Feb. 2016.SOCKOR PHOTO CPL. CHEON DONGHYEOK ROK ARMED FORCES PHOTOBELOW: ROK and U.S. paratroopers prepare to land during ROK-U.S. combined air operations at Kunsan AB during exercise FOAL EAGLE, Mar. 31, 2017.
43 44 FORCE RELOCATION The restationing of U.S. Forces in Korea, execut ed under the Yongsan Relocation Plan (YRP) and the Land Partnership Plan (LPP), comprises one of the Department of Defenses largest relocation projects and speaks to the strength and enduring nature of the historic alliance between the United States and South Korea. Referred to as the United States Forces Korea (USFK) Relocation Program, this multi-billion dollar endeavor consolidates U.S. forces from the Greater Seoul Metropolitan Area (GSMA) and north of Seoul into two enduring hubs: a Central Hub around the cities of Osan and Pyeongtaek, and a Southern Hub around the city of Daegu. The YRP and the LPP build upon years of cooperation and good faith between the United States and South Korea, both of which remain wholly committed to the successful completion of USFKs relocation. South Koreas dedication has been made manifest through has provided 92 percent of the total $10.7 billion cost, a credible indication of the weight that South Korea attaches to this monumental project. For its part, the United States has in recent years delivered on numerous promises to complete construction on key facilities While there are considerable relocation efforts in both of these geographical areas, the focus in terms of construction and number of personnel moving is Camp Humphreys, located 50 miles south of Seoul near the city of Pyeongtaek. From 2006 to 2012, thousands of KEY FACILITIES COMPLETED TO DATE INCLUDE: Main Post Exchange (PX) with food court Troop Medical Clinic Two Dental Clinics Veterinary Clinic Two Elementary Schools Middle School High School Family Housing High Rises and Duplexes Senior Leaders Quarters Chapel Child Development Center Waste Water Treatment Plant Area Distribution Node Tele-Video Center Railhead Access Control Point Multiple Vehicle Maintenance Facilities Main Post Club Two Dining Facilities LEFT: Customers wait to enter the new exchange at USAG Humphreys, Nov. 20, 2017.KIM JAEWOONG AND LEE JIMINABOVE: Customers enjoy the new Warrior Zone recreation facility at USAG Humphreys, Feb. 16 2017.NOH SA BIN AND LEE JEONG HEE
43 44 trucks placed over 14 million cubic yards of dirt, tripling Camp Humphreys to nearly 3,500 acres in preparation for the construction of 655 new facilities. These facilities, along with the demolition or remodeling of 340 existing facilities, will accommodate the increase in population from approximately 12,000 to more than 36,000 Service Members, families, civilian employees, contractors, and Korean Augmentees to the U.S. Army (KATUSAs). Overall, the installation is designed so that most support services are within easy walking distance of the headquarters and barracks. The modern downtown city center encompasses base amenities and is conveniently located next to family housing and schools to the south, while barracks and vehicle maintenance facilities are found to the north. The result is one of the most contemporary U.S. military installations in the world. In addition to the relocation of Installation ManageEighth Army Headquarters completed its move to Camp Humphreys in 2017, bringing with it a substantial number of Service Members. As one of the key components of the U.S. military presence in Korea, the establishment of Eighth Army Headquarters at Camp Humphreys repre2018 will be an ambitious year for transformation and relocation. The 2nd Combined Infantry Division Headquarters, new Commissary, One-Stop in and out profacilities, small arms ranges, drivers training course, access control points, band training facility, and multiple support facilities for troops and dependents are scheduled for completion. In addition, USFK, UNC, Marine Forces Korea, 65th Medical Brigade, 1st Signal Brigade, Far East District Engineers, Korean Service Corps, 19th Human Resources Company, Area I & II Civilian Personnel Advisory Centers, 501st Military Intelligence Brigade, and 411th Contract Support Battalion are slated to relocate before the end of the year. Through the consolidation of U.S. forces and positioning troops closer to air and sea installations in the south, the relocation program greatly enhances ROKU.S. Alliance readiness, supports credible deterrence and stability both on the Korean Peninsula and in Northeast Asia, and improves USFKs capacity to respond to future defense initiatives. If one were to transplant the expanded Camp Humphreys to Washington, D.C., it would cover a wide swath of land encompassing the White House, Arlington Cemetery, the U.S. Capitol Building, and Nationals Park. JIM MCGEE LEFT: An aerial view of the development at USAG Humphreys, Sep. 13, 2017. Children enjoy a new playground outside the new Jennifer M. Moreno School Age Center at USAG Humphreys, Apr. 27, 2017. STEFANIA PADALINO AND BRYAN WILLIAMS USAG HUMPHREYS
45 46 The relationship between South Korea and the United States is unique, enduring, and without parallel. For decades, the U.S. commitment to the defense of South Korea and its people has served not only as a vital deter rent to North Korean aggression, but also as a founda tion upon which a comprehensive partnership that far exceeds military cooperation rests. As the ROK-U.S Alliance has expanded, so, too, have opportunities for Service Members to fully integrate themselves into the Korean communities in which they serve. The community relations program at United States Forces Korea (USFK) facilitates relationship-building and organizes joint service projects between Koreans and the U.S. Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen, and Marines that live and work among them. These relationships are supportive of our ROKU.S. Alliance. Command community relations programs number in the thousands every year and encompass a wide range of activities, such as Service Members delivering home heating fuel to neighbors in need. These programs not only introduce U.S. Service Members to their surrounding communities, but also allow Service Members to experience and gain an appreciation for their host nations country and culture. Each year, USFK gives back to their communities through thousands of hours of teaching English to Korean students at local schools and orphanages. These programs provide disadvantaged children a leg up in South Koreas highly competitive education system. Given that English has become an important global language, the opportunity for these students to learn from and interact with native speakers provides them a critical boost that will serve them throughout their academic and professional lives. These lessons also allow Service Members to develop enduring relationships with schools right outside their installations, helping to bring the two together and reinforce mutual camaraderie and support. Some of the most popular community relations events in Korea include the annual Ground Forces Festival and the Seoul International Aerospace and Defense Exhibition (ADEX) Air Show. These large exhibitions allow millions COMMUNITY RELATIONS ROK and U.S. Marines help local rice farmers in Pohang harvest crops from elds damaged by Typhoon Lan, Oct. 27, 2017. A U.S. Navy Sailor answers questions from students from Jinhae Girls High School in Changwon, Oct. 24, 2017.SGT. TIFFANY EDWARDS MASS COMMUNICATIONS SPECIALIST 1ST CLASS TIMOTHY M. BLACK
45 46 U.S. Alliance equipment that protects South Korea each and every day. The Ground Forces Festival, held annually in early October, takes place in the city of Gyeryong, and commemorates the day in 1950 when ROK forces pushed the invading North Korean Army back past the 38th Parallel which had divided the Peninsula since the end of World War II. Dozens of combat vehicles along with South Koreas military history and current technology are on display. On the heels of the Ground Forces Festival, the ADEX Air Show takes place on the outskirts of Seoul. Both ROK and U.S. aircraft are on display Alliance air capability. These events provide opportunities for U.S. Service Members to interact with and educate Korean civilians who do not live in the vicinity of USFK bases and stations, and are an important part of communication efforts each year. USFK also collaborates with Korean government agencies to provide culture orientation programs for U.S. Service Members. Planned and paid for by the ROK Ministry of National Defense and the Department of Agriculture, these two to three day tours take Service Members off the beaten all over South Korea. Programs include a Taekwondo camp as well as trips to Jeolla Province and Jeju Island, where Service Members have the opportunity to engage in traditional ac visiting Buddhist temples. When Service Members are able to experience the heart and soul of Korea, it enhances their capacity to understand the culture and people with whom they live and serve. USFKs robust community relations program strengthens the Alliance, helping to build the relationships that allow for close cooperation between South Korea and the United States. Maintaining these relationships is a priority at every level of the Command and is an important contributing fac tor to the positive opinion a large majority of Koreans have for USFK and its Service Members. It is these relationships that will help the Command as the Alliance moves forward into a new era. USFK COMMUNITY PROJECTSUSFK has worked to build vibrant community programs that sustain strong partnerships with South Korea and enrich the lives of Service Members, Civilian employees, and families stationed throughout the Peninsula. The Good Neighbor Program (GNP), established in 2002, works to bridge cultural barriers and promote trust, mutual understanding, and friendship between U.S. Service Members and the South Korean communities in which they live and work. GNP facilitates constructive personal interactions through volunteer activities, community service, and cultural events. Another exciting initiative is TogetHER, a mentorship program dedicated to empowering women to grow personally and professionally through ongoing dialogue with peers and leaders. TogetHER regularly supports meetings and brown-bag lunches, providing women and men with a forum to interact with prominent leaders, share insights, and engage each other on common, yet difficult issues from the female perspective. RIGHT: A U.S. Air Force F-22 Raptor Demonstration Team pilot shakes the hand of an enthusiastic fan after his performance at the 2017 Seoul International Aerospace and Defense Exhibition 2017, Oct. 20, 2017. LEFT: U.S. Army and KATUSA Soldiers deliver charcoal briquettes to less fortunate families in Dongducheon, Nov. 30, 2017.STAFF SGT. ALEX FOX ECHOLS III SGT. MICHELLE U. BLESAMUSFK PHOTOTogetHER, a mentorship group that invites all Soldiers and civilians to meet others and discuss issues viewed through the female perspective, welcomed Lt. Gen. Nadja Y. West, Sep. 21. West is the 44th U.S. Army Surgeon General and the rst African-American female Army Surgeon General. More than 500 people, including Gen. Brooks, gathered to listen to her speak on leadership.
47 48 WE GO TOGETHER!The ROK-U.S. Alliance is no stranger to change. From the Miracle on the Han to the end of the Cold War has been an enduring constant that has shaped regional developments. As Seoul and Washington look to the future, the Alliance must evolve again in a new era. A new generation of Korean citizens is rising, and polling shows they have pragmatic expectations for the Alliance. Meanwhile, a robust debate in Washington and Seoul on North Korea policy offers a variety of ideas for the future. The Allion its ability to adapt to these changing geopolitics, the new generations changing ideas, and growing global engagement on the Korean Peninsula all while it attends to an increasingly asymmetric North Korean threat. A MULTINATIONAL COALITIONThe Alliance increasingly relies on a strong network of Sending States and international partners to bolster readiness. Twenty-one countries contributed troops and humanitarian aid to the United Nations forces during the Korean War; 3,959 sons and daughters of these nations lost their lives in Korea. This effort survives today in the form of 16 Sending States that, along with the United States, comprise the United Nations Command (UNC). North Koreas belligerence continues to demand ships not only with these 16 Sending States, but with any and all international partners that wish to cooperate for peace and security on the Korean Peninsula. It is incumbent on the Alliance to ensure that avenues for multilateral participation and international support are aggressively pursued. This year, USFK increased its efforts to further strengthen engagement with the UNC in its day-to-day operations, but there is much more to be done. The UNC has been and remains an important vehicle through which to continue building international support for the Alliance. This international coalition not only offers the Alliance a channel through which multilateral engagement in support of the ROK is coordinated, but also provides forces on the ground with a breadth and depth of capabilities that only a Command buttressed by multiple militaries can provide. Sending States can step in to add crucial support to our air, land, and sea operations if and when the Alliance requires hand how critical the UNC has been in operations along the Demilitarized Zone and can envision innumerable circumstances in which multilateral involvement will be a boon for readiness. In 2017, the Command welcomed Sending States enthusiasm for participating in its joint military exercises and looks forward discussing enhanced participation and incorporation. Multilateral input and support will help begin a long-term conversation on how to bring THE ALLIANCE LOOKS TO THE FUTURE STAFF SGT. KEN SCAR The South Korean and American ags y next to each other at Yongin, Aug. 23, 2016.
47 48 additional international partners into the fold and work with regional and global stakeholders that are invested in bringing peace to the Korean Peninsula. As more countries recognize that the future of Korea lies with our allies in Seoul instead of with the regime in Pyongyang, this multinational coalition has the potential to expand even further.In South Korea, generational differences are an important societal indicator of political and cultural trends. While older generations have traditionally been rooted to ideology, the up-and-coming generation of young Koreans leans toward an issues-based perspective on political matters, including national security, North Korea, and the ROK-U.S. Alliance. Their values and interests tend to align with those of the United States, and their positions are less contingent on party lines and historical animus than they are on policy substance and diplomatic style. This presents the Alliance with an important opportunity to reach out and engage these exploring avenues of cooperation that will reshape the bilateral relationship in the decades to come. A young, receptive Korean audience could promote pragmatic and international security cooperation. The ROK-U.S. partnership has always prioritized the people-to-people ties that bind the two nations together. Todays increasingly interconnected world makes it easier than ever for the Command to share its message and bring the next generation into a fruitful and transformative dialogue.A GLOBAL ALLIANCEAs the Alliance looks to the future, it is tasked with laying the groundwork for a long-term vision of ROK-U.S. cooperation that transcends the current North-South ment in ensuring that its presence in Korea endures, most concretely through a force relocation plan that will see the establishment of two central hubs around Pyeongtaek and Daegu. However, the U.S. commitment to its ROK allies and other allies in Asia is not merely a function of Pyongyangs belligerence. Our Alliance underscores the growing diplomatic, economic, and people-to-people ties that our partners in Washington have strived to cultivate. The two nations have derived great in the region and stand to continue reaping the rewards of joint cooperation for decades to come. For years, leaders in the United States and South Korea have understood that their ironclad Alliance is as comprehensive as it is robust. The Alliance contributes not only to peninsular security, but also to global peacekeeping efforts, economic prosperity, civic cooperation, academic exchange, and environmental protection. Indeed, the stability and peace that this defensive part nership provides enables us to pursue cooperation on a host of other hot-button international issues. In recent years, South Korea has been an invaluable partner in pursuing constructive cooperation with China, carrying out counterterrorism and counterpiracy operations, work ing to alleviate climate change, and advancing the Global Health Security Agenda. The Alliance has borne witness to incredible change throughout the years. It has never been more important for the U.S. and South Korea to explore opportunities to increase the scope, breadth, and strength of the ROK-U.S. Alliance. Maintaining the existing channels of military cooperation and collabo ration will ensure that the United States and South Korea remain prepared to global threat that may emerge. Through collaboration with international partners ance can remain a stalwart guardian of peace, stability and security. MASS COMMUNICATIONS SPEICALIST 2ND CLASS ROBIN W. PEAKLeft to right, Gen. Brooks, U.S. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Gen. Joseph F. Dunford Jr., Japan Self-Defense Force Chief of Staff Adm. Katsutoshi Kawano, ROK Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Gen. Jeong Kyeong-doo, USPACOM Commander Adm. Harry Harris, and Commander U.S. Forces Japan Lt. Gen. Jerry P. Martinez gather for multilateral meeting at USPACOM headquarters, Oct. 29, 2017.