1ON THE COVER 1. Secretary of Defense Ash Carter bids farewell to Gen. Curtis M. Scaparrotti, Commander, UNC/CFC/USFK, after attending the Security Consultative Meeting in Seoul, South Korea, November 2, 2015. 2. U.S. and ROK Army Soldiers conduct air assault training, during Exercise FOAL EAGLE, Camp New Mexico Range, South Korea, March 12, 2015. 3. Floating Islands, Banpo Han River Park, Seoul, South Korea. 4. Lance Cpl. Kyle Thatch plays a game with students from St. Pauls Elementary School in Pohang, South Korea. 5. Lance Cpl. Chase Gindin provides security during the KOREAN MARINE EXCHANGE PROGRAM training at Rodriguez Live Fire Complex, South Korea, June 4, 2015. 6. The Hwahongmun gate of Hwaseong Fortress in Suwon, South Korea. 7. Seoul skyline seen from Ansan Park. 8. Performers participate in the ritual ceremony Jongmyojerye at the Jongmyo Shrine in Seoul. 9. Sailors man the rails of the USS Mustin (DDG 89) during the ROK Navys Fleet Pass and Review, on the 70th anniversary of the ROK Navy, October 23, 2015. 10. Seoul Tower, Namsan Park. 11. U.S. Air Force Tech Sgt. Phillip Suchicital marshals an F-16 during Exercise BEVERLY MIDNIGHT, Kunsan Air Base, Kunsan, South Korea, March 6, 2015.U.S. AIR FORCE PHOTO/SENIOR AIRMAN TAYLOR CURRY SUNG-JIN KIM PHOTO/WWW.SLKIMPHOTOS.COM SUNG-JIN KIM PHOTO/WWW.SLKIMPHOTOS.COM U.S. ARMY PHOTO/PFC. SAMANTHA VAN WINKLE U.S. MARINE CORPS PHOTO/CPL. WES J. LUCKO U.S. MARINE CORPS PHOTO/LANCE CPL. ROBERT WILLIAMS JR. U.S. NAVY PHOTO/MC2 CHRISTIAN SENYK USFK PHOTO JEON HAN1 6 7 4 3 5 11 10 9 8 2ar-SASUNG-JIN KIM PHOTO/WWW.SJKIMPHOTOS.COMU.S. ARMY PHOTO/SENIOR MASTER SGT. ADRIAN CADIZ
2U.S. Forces Korea Strategic Digest is a Command publication by the USFK J5 Strategic Communication Division. Editorial content reects the collective efforts of Command elements, is unclassied, and is meant for the widest dissemination. Contents are not necessarily the ofcial views of, or endorsed by, the U.S. Government or Department of Defense. All material is subject to copyright to their respective sources.SENIOR EDITOR Col. Steve Lee, Director Strategic Communication EDITORIAL BOARD Matt Stumpf Phillip Krigbaum Paul Martinez PROJECT MANAGERS Maj. Jason Kim Vincent Min ART DIRECTION/DESIGN Ryan McNally PHOTO EDITOR Lance Nakayamawww.usfk.milContentsSTRATEGIC DIGESTUNITED NATIONS COMMAND COMBINED FORCES COMMAND UNITED STATES FORCES KOREA 2016LEADERSHIPAmbassadors Letter . .............................................................. Pg. 3 Introduction From The Commander . ...................................... Pg. 5 KOREA AND THE REGIONThe Strategic Environment . ..................................................... Pg. 7 South Korea: The History and Future of a Miracle . ................ Pg. 9 Capabilities of the Republic of Korea Armed Forces . ............ Pg. 11 The North Korean Threat . ....................................................... Pg. 13 Americans in Korea: Exploring New Frontiers . ....................... Pg. 15 The ROK-U.S. Alliance: A Proven Partnership ........................ Pg. 17COMMANDCommanders Priorities . .......................................................... Pg. 19 United Nations Command . ...................................................... Pg. 21 Combined Forces Command . ................................................. Pg. 23 United States Forces Korea . .................................................... Pg. 27 Eighth Army . ....................................................................... Pg. 29 Seventh Air Force . .............................................................. Pg. 31 Command Naval Forces Korea . .......................................... Pg. 33 Marine Corps Forces Korea . ............................................... Pg. 35 Special Operations Command Korea . ............................... Pg. 37 Force Relocation . ................................................................ Pg. 39 USFK Communities and Community Relations with our Korean Neighbors . ............................................... Pg. 41COMMAND INFORMATION SHEETTear Out Command Information Sheet . .......... Between Pg. 43 & 44
3t is a great honor to serve as the United States Ambassador to the Republic of Korea. The Alliance between the United States and the Republic of Korea is one of the most important relationships in the region and in the world. Our two nations share a wide range of common values, including democracy, free trade, human rights, and adherence to the rule of law. We have fought side-by-side to defend these beliefs and our way of life. Our ties have never been closer than they are now. Our Alliance is crucial to maintaining stability. Furthermore, this stability enables the other aspects of our relationship to ourish, including a robust trading partner ship, far-reaching cultural exchanges and person-to-per son ties, and extensive study and training programs. We continue to expand our cooperation into new and dynamic areas such as space, cybersecurity, climate change, and global health. Our Alliance has succeeded for over 60 years due to USFKs readiness and commitment to defending the Republic of Korea. Our Service Members stand along side members of the South Korean military, prepared to defend liberty, to promote democracy, and to protect the freedom that both nations value. United, we are prepared for every contingency to deter and defend against all threats. I thank the American Servicemen and Servicewomen serving away from home in order to strengthen our Alliance with the Republic of Korea. Their sacrice of living far from home is the foundation of our relationship. The U.S.-ROK Alliance promotes peace and prosperity on the Korean Peninsula, in the Asia-Pacic region, and around the globe. The American Embassy in Seoul is com mitted to working with USFK to ensure that 2016 will be a productive and successful year for all of us. Sincerely, Ambassador Mark W. LippertU.S. EMBASSY PHOTOILETTER AMBASSADORSU.S. EMBASSY PHOTOAmbassador Mark Lippert visits Osan Air Base with Yun, Byung-se, the Republic of Korea Foreign Minister, and Gen. Scaparrotti, Commander of UNC/CFC/USFK.AMBASSADOR MARK W. LIPPERTUNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF STATE
4U.S. EMBASSY PHOTOU.S. EMBASSY PHOTO U.S. EMBASSY PHOTOU.S. EMBASSY PHOTOAmbassador Lippert throws the rst pitch at a Korean professional baseball game, Doosan vs Lotte, April 18, 2015. Ambassador Lippert visits Gyeongju, South Korea, April 23, 2015. Ambassador Lippert celebrates his son Sejuns 100th Day Party, April 25, 2015. 2015 International Coastal Cleanup Day, Busan, South Korea. U.S. Embassy volunteers and Korean university students come together for a coastal cleanup in Busan, September 19, 2015.
5COMMANDERINTRODUCTIONFROM THE GENERAL CURTIS M. SCAPARROTTIs I begin my third year in the Republic of Korea, I want to thank our Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen, Marines, Civilians, United Nations Command (UNC) Sending State members and their families for serving in our multinational-combined-joint team. I am proud to state that the capabilities and resolve of our forces in the Republic of Korea are as strong as they have ever been, and getting stronger every day. This strength is derived through the enduring support of our nations senior lead ers, the members of our ROK-U.S. Alliance, and the collec tive contributions of the UNC Sending States. This 2016 Strategic Digest highlights the key achievements of our three commands over the past year and how our dynamic team accomplishes its complex mission. Fullling our mission of deterring North Korean aggression and defending the Republic of Korea centers on the readiness and transformation of our combined war ghting capabilities. Over this past year, we have contin ued to advance our interoperable-warghting capabilities in areas such as Intelligence Surveillance Reconnaissance (ISR); Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence (C4I); and ballistic missile defense. We enhanced our force through collective initiatives, such as the newly activated Combined Division the rst of its kind and through our multinational-combined-joint exercises, which enrich the military team that defends the Republic of Korea. Additionally, through the continued rotation of combat-ready U.S. forces to the Korean Peninsula, we have further improved readiness and afrmed the U.S. commit ment to the security of the region. These efforts demonstrate that readiness, maintain ing the Armistice, and deterring aggression remain the commands top military priorities. Provocations such as North Koreas land mine attack last August that griev ously wounded two South Korean Soldiers and its recent fourth nuclear weapons test, continue to defy internation al norms and demonstrate the persistent North Korean threat. North Koreas conventional forces and increased asymmetric capabilities particularly the development of its nuclear weapon and ballistic missile programs remain a threat to the Republic of Korea, the Asia-Pacic region, and potentially the U.S. homeland. To counter this real and present threat, we must always maintain our Fight Tonight readiness level. The focal point of our three commands is the ROK-U.S. Alliance a partnership for which our national leaders remain steadfast in their commitment and support. In October, U.S. President Barack Obama and Republic of Korea President Park, Geun-hye met in Washington, DC, and stated that our Alliance efforts go beyond the Korean Peninsula that it is not only the linchpin of stability in the Asia-Pacic region, but has matured into a global partnership. In November during the Military Committee Meeting (MCM) and Security Consultative Meeting (SCM), AUNITED NATIONS COMMAND COMBINED FORCES COMMAND UNITED STATES FORCES KOREAU.S. ARMY PHOTO
6U.S. AIR FORCE PHOTO/SENIOR MASTER SGT. ADRIAN CADIZROK Minister of National Defense Han Min-koo and U.S. Secretary of Defense Ashton Carter reinforced this partner ship by signing the Conditions-based Operational Control (OPCON) Transition Plan (COTP) in order to ensure a progressive wartime OPCON transition. With these achievements, the Alliance has grown even stronger as the U.S. maintains its robust military presence and continues to commit critical resources to this vital region. Forged during the Korean War and solidied by our shared values for more than 60 years, todays ROK-U.S. Alliance remains ironclad. Its strength, coupled with the determined efforts of the UNC Sending States, underpins stability on the Korean Peninsula and promotes economic prosperity for the region and international community. The U.S. commitment to the Republic of Korea and the region is personied everyday by our Service Members, Civilians, Contractors, and Families serving here. It is an honor to lead them, and I am grateful for their service, sac rice, and commitment, which are collectively represented in the pages of this years Strategic Digest.ABOVE: The 18th Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Gen. Martin E. Dempsey talks with U.S. Ambassador to the Republic of Korea Mark W. Lippert and Commander of UNC/CFC/USFK Gen. Curtis M. Scaparrotti at the Ambassadors residence in Seoul, South Korea, March 26, 2015. LEFT: U.S. Defense Secretary Ash Carter shakes hands with Republic of Korea Soldiers during a visit to the Demilitarized Zone, November 1, 2015.U.S. ARMY PHOTO/SGT RUSSELL YOUMANSNorth Korea is an up close, dangerous, and continuing threat to the security of the Peninsula and the region. But together, we will meet that threat. Together, we will stay ready to ght tonight and we will ensure that the strength of our Alliance remains ironclad and we will continue to stand shoulder to shoulder here in the Republic of Korea. U.S. Secretary of Defense Ash Carter, November 1, 2015 1. Sustain and Strengthen the Alliance. 2. Maintain the Armistice. Be Ready to Fight Tonight to Deter and Defeat Aggression. 3. Transform the Alliance. 4. Sustain the Force and Enhance the UNC/CFC/USFK Team.COMMANDERS PRIORITIES
STRATEGIC DIGEST 2016 7 The Asia-Pacic region is of vital importance to U.S. national inter ests, and is critical to global stability and prosperity. The worlds three largest economic powers are Asian powers the United States, China, and Japan. Three of the worlds most inuential capitals in diplomacy, nance, and culture Beijing, Tokyo, and Seoul sit within 1,308 miles of each other, the distance between New York City and Oklahoma City. This region also contains a high concentration of military power with ve of the worlds six largest militaries. At the center of this complex and dynamic re gional security situation, the Korean Peninsula is Northeast Asias strategic key terrain.REGIONAL UNCERTAINTY Uncertainty and tension in the region stem from factors including complex interdependence (for example, South Koreas reliance on the United States for security and on China for economic growth), a lack of Northeast Asian institutions to prevent conict, lingering historical animosities, and uncertainty about how China will use its increasing national power. This uncertainty is exacerbated by North Koreas continued truculence and the military threat it pres ents to its neighbors and the United States. The interconnected nature of modern societies and economies means that a crisis on the Korean Peninsula, even short of large-scale military conict, can quickly have regional and global impacts. GROWING OPPORTUNITIES Despite the regions complexity and challenges, there are tre mendous opportunities for nations to constructively partner to advance Asian stability and prosperity. The United States, along with its allies and partners, is poised to benet greatly from its continued engagement and presence in the region. Through the continued implementation of the U.S. rebalance to Asia, the Unit ed States is preserving and enhancing a dynamic that has proven indispensable to the regions stability and prosperity. The United States serves as the constant that has enabled the security and prosperity of those who have opted to participate in the interna tional system and embrace international norms. THE U.S. PRESENCE Americas enduring military presence in South Korea is critical in this regard. The U.S. military serves as a foundational and visible element of U.S. leadership and commitment in Asia. In the Republic of Korea, forward-deployed American forces stand together with their South Korean counterparts to demonstrate unwavering resolve in the face of the growing North Korean asymmetric threat. The U.S. military contributes to an overall comprehensive whole-of-government approach that serves American interests, those of U.S. allies and partners, and the broader international community.STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENT CHINA China is continuing on a comprehen sive military modernization program that is prompting concern among many nations in the region. Chinas ties with South Korea are expanding and Chinas long-term intent seems to be to expand its inuence in Asia. Chinas relations with North Korea are stressed, but China continues to support the regime. China values stability in the Korean Peninsula and the prevention of spillover of North Koreas issues into China. RUSSIA Russia has increased its focus on the Asia-Pacic, through its military presence, economic investment, and diplomatic engagement, in a reassertion of its strategic interests. BEIJING ULAN BATOR Hong Kong THE
STRATEGIC DIGEST 2016 8 NORTH KOREA North Korea presents a serious threat to stability with its demon strated willingness to engage in coercion and military aggression. Unfortunately, North Korea contin ues to invest in a range of asym metric capabilities that increase its ability to threaten its neighbors and undermine global security. North Koreas asymmetric capabilities in clude weapons of mass destruction, missile forces, cyber warfare capabil ities, and special operations forces, all of which add to the signicant conventional threat North Korea presents to South Korea, the United States, and the region. SOUTH KOREA South Korea sees the ROK-U.S. Alliance as critical to its security and continues to further develop its formidable military to not only address the North Korean threat, but also make contributions to regional and global securi ty. South Korea is trying to manage positive relations with both the United States and China, and a fundamental part of its strategy is to maintain a strong ROK-U.S. Alliance. JAPAN Japan is moving to take a more active role in its defense and that of its allies and in advancing global security. While many around the region and the world see this as a positive develop ment, some in China, South Korea, and North Korea see this as a matter of signicant concern due to historical animosities. PYONGYANG SEOUL DMZ TOKYO Busan Shenyang Shanghai Vladivostock ILLUSTRATION BY RYAN MCNALLY OTHER NATIONS Other nations, including the United States and key regional partners like Australia, remain committed to contributing to regional stability and the security of allies and partners, to include the development and maintenance of robust military commitments and capabilities. Osaka
9South Korea is a dynamic nation of 51 million people in a region critical to U.S. interests and global stability. Many know South Korea through its world-class industry and its popular culture. Unfortunately, we also hear of South Korea in times of crisis with North Korea. However, looking at just one side of South Korea its economy, culture, or the North Korean threat obscures the rich, powerful, and compelling story of a stalwart American ally that has achieved one of the most amazing national success stories in history. In just over three decades, South Korea rose from the tragedies of colonization and war to achieve an econom ic success story referred to as the Miracle on the Han. Today, South Korea boasts the worlds 13th largest economy, providing its citizens with a prosperous and stable society. ENDURING ALLY: SHARED VALUES AND NEW FRONTIERS This strong success story is built in part on the foundation of the ROK-U.S. Alliance, which has provided the stability required for this rapid ROK growth. The ROK-U.S. Alliance is based on common values and shared interests, not narrowly dened national objectives. Few other alliances in history can make such a claim, and few alliances have been nearly as successful. The two nations have earned and maintained deep support among both peoples. This endur ing partnership is looking forward to New Frontiers as envisioned by our two Presidents. During the presidential summit in Washington, D.C., in October 2015, President Barack Obama and President Park, Geun-hye reafrmed their shared vision for the Alliance. The presidents declared that the two countries have reached new levels of achievement, and that our strong Alliance serves as the linchpin of peace and security on the Korean Peninsula and in the Asia-Pacic region. They proclaimed that the Republic of Korea and the United States are com mitted to advancing their partnership into New Frontiers of Cooperation working together on cyber, space, climate change, and global health to make the world safer, healthier, and more prosperous. Considering the remarkable achieve ments of the ROK-U.S. Alliance over the past 60 years, there is a bright and promising future. FORWARD-LOOKING VISION AND LEADERSHIPSouth Korea has also positioned itself in recent years as a global leader in advancing security, economic, and diplo matic cooperation in Asia and beyond. On the Korean Peninsula, President Parks adminis tration, drawing on the shared security provided by the ROK-U.S. Alliance, has worked to reframe the way that the Republic of Korea approaches North-South unica tion. Through her concept of Trustpolitik, President Park has emphasized the need to build trust and take pragmatic steps toward a peaceful unication. South Korea is taking this approach without compromising on defense, as was demonstrated in the response to North Korean provocations in August 2015, including a land mine ambush that maimed two South Korean Soldiers. Through a principled and measured approach, South Korea brought North Korea into negotiations leading to de-escalation, family reunions, and the resumption of inter-Korean dialogue. In the region, President Park, in close coordination with the United States, is attempting to enhance stability and prosperity by exercising leadership as a middle power. One of her administrations signature initiatives is the Northeast Asia Peace and Cooperation Initiative (NAPCI), a process through which South Korea persistently engages nations around the region to build common understand ing and trust. This initiative has resulted in extensive ROK engagement in bilateral and multilateral meetings in THE HISTORY AND FUTURE OF A MIRACLESOUTH KOREA: Nighscape of Seoul viewed from Namhansan-seong, September 20, 2015.ar-SASUNG-JIN KIM PHOTO/WWW.SJKIMPHOTOS.COM
10 Area: 99,720 sq km (about the size of Indiana). Population: 51 million (about the population of California, Virginia, and Maryland). 1. International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank, and CIA World Factbook 2. World Bank 3. Nippon Keizai Shimbun 4. Statista.com 5. Nippon Keizai Shimbun 6. CNN 7. OpenSignal 8. Airports Council International 9. Guinness World Record 10. Rolex Golf Rankings ROK is 4th globally in business climate.2 ROK has the #1 company for smartphones (Samsung Electronics with 24.5% share) #2 is Apple (14.8%).3 ROK is the worlds #1 producer of atscreen TVs (36% of the world market).4 ROK is the worlds #1 shipbuilder with 4 of top 5 companies (Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering dominating the market).5 GDP (Purchasing Power Parity): $1.784 trillion. ROK has the 13th largest world economy by Gross Domestic Product (GDP).1 ROK has 5 of the top 10 women professional golfers in the world.10 South Koreas national soccer team consistently ranks in top 25% of FIFA world rankings. ROK is one of the worlds most wired countries (82% connected); has worlds fastest internet.6 ROK is the worlds #1 in 4G LTE speed and coverage, and #1 in spending for 5G development.7 Incheon Airport has been the worlds #1 airport for 10 straight years.8 ROK has the worlds largest indoor theme park, Lotte World.9 ROK was the rst Asian country and non-G8 nation to host G20 Summit (Nov 2010).ECONOMY OVERVIEW INDUSTRY SPORTSOURCESCONNECTIVITY TRAVEL AND TOURISM DIPLOMACYwhich it increasingly sets agendas that serve international norms. South Korea is also stepping up its security activ ities in the region, to include participation in exercises, as well as humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. Around the globe, South Korea is partnering with the United States, United Nations, and other governmental and non-governmental organizations to pursue an array of goals that tackle increasingly complex problems. Initiatives span some of the worlds most daunting prob lems, including non-proliferation, counter-proliferation, womens issues, international development, global health security, international health regulations, climate change, cyber security, civil-nuclear cooperation, civil space coop eration, anti-piracy, peacekeeping, and education. The Republic of Korea is leading many positive and proactive initiatives designed to create a better world.REPUBLIC OF KOREA AS A WORLD LEADER ROK SECURITY STRATEGYIn 2014, the Republic of Korea promulgated a national security strategy, A New Era of Hope, taking a holistic approach to providing its people security, stability, and prosperity. The strategy acknowledges the critical role played by the ROK-U.S. Alliance. Peaceful unication is another pillar of the strategy, with the strategy setting forth a framework for substantive preparations for unication, while not losing sight of the necessity of a robust defense posture and development of future-oriented capabilities. The strategy also looks outward in terms of enhancing the ROKs relations with other nations and contributing to what the strategy calls the co-prosperity of humankind.
11CAPABILITIES ARMED FORCESREPUBLIC OF KOREAOF THEThe ROK Armed Forces are capable of deterring ag gression on the Korean Peninsula and carrying out peacebuilding and post-conict reconstruction missions in conict areas around the world. As of September 2015, 1,096 ROK personnel are executing their missions in UN peacekeeping operations, peace operations with multina tional forces, and defense cooperation activities in 13 nations around the world.ROK JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFFROK Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) assist the Minister of National Defense on military command, and carry out joint opera tions by executing operational command over joint units and operational commands. Before its establishment in 1963, the JCS was preceded by the Combined Staff Council (1948), Joint Staff Council (1954), and Combined Staff Bureau (1961), which were established as non-permanent organiza tions within the Ministry of National Defense (MND). The JCS operates under the Chairman and Vice Chairman with four chief directorates and four executive ofces to reinforce the staffs task performance system to build the joint support and integration of the ROK Army, Navy, and Air Force.ROK ARMYThe ROK Army is the core force for deterring and winning a war in defense of the nation. The ROK Army leads opera tions in Armistice and wartime, and continues to strengthen its combat capacity. The ROK Army has 495,000 troops; 5,000 tanks and armored vehicles; and 5,800 eld artillery pieces and multiple-launch rocket systems. The Armys reorganization plan marks a shift towards corps-orient ed operations that will enhance the ROK Armys combat power. It is now acquiring a variety of new assets in order to maximize the efciency of its existing forces while also building its capacity to carry out joint operations with all ROK military services. Moreover, in order to foster a strong Army equipped with the capability and posture of com plete victory, the Army conducts realistic training that is carried out by focusing on training with weapons simula tion equipment, the Battle Command Training Program, and simulator training. Along with these, to maximize the integrated combat capability of battalion and below units, the ROK Army reinforces cooperative training and performs combined training with the U.S. armed forces in chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear high explosive operations, counter-re operations, air assault operations, and count er-terrorism operations.ROK NAVYThe ROK Navy, the rst of the three services to be es tablished, deters aggression, and contributes to global maritime stability through its naval strength. The Navy has 70,000 Sailors, including 29,000 Marines; 160 naval vessels; and 50 helicopters. The ROK Navy continues its development of a three-dimensional force that integrates surface, underwater, and air capabilities to be able to respond to a full range of threats. As part of this effort, the Navy plans to upgrade its submarine otilla to become the Submarine Command and will reduce the number of small surface combatants while reinforcing middleand heavy-class ships to develop a robust blue water maritime task force. The Navy carries out realistic maritime training that takes into account the battleeld environment of the waters around Korea. For cooperative and joint training, the ground, naval, and air forces participate to exercise integrated combat power, and such training can be divided into component training and maritime training. Among the various training missions, cruise training continues for ROK Army 12th Infantry Divisions Eagle Regiment Soldiers equipped with MILES gear cross a frozen stream as part of rear inltration training, February 2015.ROK ARMED FORCES PHOTO/CHO SUNG SOO
1290 to 120 days by dividing the world into four area-based navigation routes, alternating each route every year to cover over 12 nations, so that the ROK Navy can broaden its military cooperation.ROK AIR FORCE As the force protecting South Koreas skies, the ROK Air Force is defending the Republic of Korea, strengthening its aerospace capabilities, and contributing to international stability. The ROK Air Force has 65,000 airmen and 700 aircraft. The ROK Air Force plans to build next generation capabilities to enhance deterrence. Moreover, through its reorganization plan, the ROK Air Force will develop its ability to conduct effects-based offensive air and space op erations and maximize its contributions to joint operations. In line with this effort, the Air Force works to achieve air superiority by acquiring the next-generation ghter (F-X) for which the F-35A ghter jets were selected in 2014, and the development of next-generation Korean ghter (KF-X), a ROK advanced ghter jet by mid-2020. The Air Force strengthens realistic training to train elite warriors centered on combat missions. Major training includes defen sive counter-air training, offensive counter-air training, air interdiction training, and close air support training. The Air Force performs a combined large-scale air training exercise domestically and also participates in the RED FLAG exercise in the United States and the PITCH BLACK exercise in Australia, which are multilateral and combined tactical training exercises to secure air superiority by oper ating offensive air power in enemy territory.ROK MARINE CORPSThe ROK Marine Corps, as a multipurpose rapid response force, carries out missions to enable friendly forces to seize objectives by conducting amphibious operations in the enemys rear area. The Marine Corps executes three major missions. The Marine Corps HQ executes wartime amphibious operations as its main mission, the Northwest Islands Defense Command carries out peacetime security and defense missions in and around the Northwest Islands, and the newly established Jeju-based 9th Marine Corps Brigade ensures the safety of Koreas southern island area. To be able to fulll its mission in diverse operational environments, the Marine Corps participates in overseas combined training such as the COBRA GOLD and RIMPAC exercises. In the near future, the Marine Corps will be developed into a marine-air-ground task force capable of conducting various types of missions, such as the defense of strategic islands and multi-dimensional highspeed amphibious operations.RESERVE FORCESSouth Korea counts 2,970,000 reservists, organized into local reserve units in town, township, neighborhood, and workplace reserve units. ROK MND manages reservists to enable a nation-wide defense in the event of conict, with a focus on maintaining the appropriate number of reservists and differentiating training and management methods for reservists according to the number of years since their active service. Several improvements are under way. Old personal rearms and crew-served weapons owned by homeland defense reservists will be replaced with new models by 2017. By 2020, communications equipment will be improved with new models to make it possible to execute integrated civilian-government-military-police operations, enhancing homeland defense capabilities of the homeland defense reserve forces. ROK Marine Corps Command 2015 SSANG YONG Exercise, March 2015.ROK ARMED FORCES PHOTO/CHO YONG HAK Medical personnel from the ROKs Dong-Myung Unit in Lebanon provides a medical checkup of a Lebanese child, May 22, 2015.ROK ARMED FORCES PHOTO/DONG-MYUNG UNIT PAO
13or the foreseeable future, North Korea will remain an isolated and unpredictable state willing to use vio lence to advance its interests, gain recognition as a nuclear power, and secure the regimes continuation. The ROKU.S. Alliance remains concerned about the potential for a localized, violent act against South Korea, which could start a cycle of response and counter-response, possibly leading to an unintended escalation to a wider conict. The U.S. Alliance with South Korea continues to be the critical linchpin to deter North Korean aggression and maintain stability. Through provocations in 2015, North Korea has demon strated why it continues to be a signicant threat to the security and prosperity of the Republic of Korea, as well as stability in the region. Despite sanctions from the United Nations, North Korea continues its nuclear weapons tech nology development and proliferation, alongside its longrange ballistic missile programs and cyberspace attacks. Additionally, North Korea has demonstrated a willingness to use kinetic force to seek international legitimacy or to demand aid while continuing to deny its citizens the most basic human rights. Recognizing its own shortcomings and inability to re-unify the Korean Peninsula with its large, but aging, conventional military, North Korea has refocused its attention on evolving its asymmetric capa bilities. North Korea could use its asymmetric arsenal to provoke or attack South Korea, with regional and global consequences. Therefore, the Commands readiness and Fight Tonight mindset are paramount for deterrence and the continual defense of South Korea.NORTH KOREAS INTERNAL SITUATIONA critical characteristic of North Koreas totalitarian dic tatorship is Kim Jong Uns position as the unchallenged, singular leader of the country. As the Chairman of the Korean Workers Party, the Supreme Commander of the North Korea Peoples Army (KPA), and the leader of the National Defense Commission, Kim exercises absolute control over state and military decision-making. An ex tensive and capable internal security apparatus addresses any perceived challenges to his rule, and replacement of top military leaders with those closer to his age solidies his authority for the near future. Nevertheless, the regime is challenged by long-term struggles with the inefciencies of a command economy and the populations increasing exposure to external information threats the regime must constantly address.NORTH KOREAS STRATEGYWhile the unrealistic goal of unifying the Korean Peninsula remains a domestic rallying cry and a source of regime legitimacy, Pyongyangs primary goal is the surviv al of the ruling Kim family regime. This is made clear by Kim Jong Uns focus on internal security, development of a nuclear deterrent, and the coercive conduct of its interna tional relations aimed primarily at countering the external threat of regime change and compelling the international community to acknowledge North Korea as a nuclear power. North Koreas coercion, however, has left it diplomatical ly and economically isolated. North Korea recognizes the strength of the ROK-U.S. Alliance and regards the Alliance as its greatest threat. As a result, it seeks to fracture the Alliance in order to deal with the United States and South Korea separately on its own terms, as it perceives that such a fracture may allow the North to one day have a greater chance of success in reunifying the Peninsula under condi tions more favorable to the Kim regime. THE NORTH KOREANTHREATKCNA PHOTOF
14NORTH KOREAS MILITARY FOCUSSince assuming control four years ago, Kim Jong Un has tak en a number of confrontational steps. The regime launched a space launch vehicle in December 2012 and conducted its fourth nuclear test in January 2016 both violated United Nations Security Council Resolutions 1718 (2006), 1874 (2009), 2087 (2013), and 2094 (2013). In 2015, North Korea con tinued to develop its ballistic missile program, conducting a multitude of tests of its KN09 developmental multiple rocket launch system, as well as no-notice Scud and No Dong missile tests from a variety of locations throughout North Korea. Upgrades to the west coast Taepodong interconti nental ballistic missile (ICBM) launch facility and develop ment of a submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) and vessel continued throughout the year. To date, North Korea has conducted four nuclear tests in 2006, 2009, 2013, and 2016. It continues to prepare its test fa cility and could conduct another test at any time. In recent years, North Korea has continued to develop its asymmetric capabilities such as several hundred ballistic missiles, a size able long range artillery force, one of the largest chemical weapons stockpiles in the world, a biological weapons re search program, the worlds largest special operations force, and an active cyber warfare capability. These forces can be employed in concert or individually with minimal warning and could cause great damage to South Korea. The March 2013 cyberspace attacks on South Koreas banks and television broadcasting stations are believed to have been conducted by North Koreans operating from China, and the November 2014 cyberattack on Sony Pictures is also attributed to North Korea. South Koreas Northwest Islands, where shing vessels from North and South Korea operate, are closely monitored by both countries navies, because it remains a potential hotspot between the two countries. Tensions have ared between the two countries in this area, resulting in casual ties on both sides most signicantly North Koreas sinking of South Koreas Cheonan naval ship, and the Norths shelling of military and civilian targets on South Koreas Yeonpyeong Do (or YP-Do, Do in Korean means Island), in March and November 2010, respectively. Of late, North Korea has renewed an aggressive posture in the Northwest Islands with their naval vessels and coastal artillery, and has begun construction for future emplacement of troops and weapons on Kal Do, an island less than three miles from Yeonpyeong Do. The KPA is the fourth-largest military in the world. About three-quarters of its ground forces and half of its air and naval assets are within 60 miles of the demilitarized zone (DMZ), posing a direct and signicant threat to South Korea and the region. Seoul sees no choice but to counter this threat with a large conventional military of its own, thus creating an atmosphere with the potential for a con frontation to spin out of control. The KPA retains the capability to inict serious dam age on South Korea and to support the regimes coercive attempts to manipulate its neighbors through both threats and acts of violence. However, the KPA likely understands it is not capable of defeating the ROK-U.S. Alliance and reunifying the Korean Peninsula by force, despite its propa ganda to the contrary.STRATEGIC MESSAGINGNorth Koreas missile launches and nuclear tests serve a dual purpose: further research and development of each program as well as messaging internal and external audi ences, on the power of the regime and state. These events can occur with little or no warning.Kim Jong UnKCNA PHOTOKCNA PHOTORIGHT: Civil servants work at a farm in Mangyongdae, North Korea. FACING PAGE: A missile training exercise at North Koreas No. 851 Unit.
15Each day Seoul residents awake to a skyline different from the day before. The Republic of Korea is a nation in constant transformation and modernization. For the nearly 200,000 U.S. citizens residing in South Korea, this constant evolution isnt some abstraction, merely observed from afar. Theyre part of it. Todays expats may well be living a golden age of ROKU.S. relations. In 2015, a Pew Research Center Poll found 84% of South Koreans view the United States favorably. Americans are positive too the Chicago Council on Global Affairs has found in successive polls in 2014 and 2015 the highest levels of American support for the ROK-U.S. Alliance since they started polling in the 1970s. This strong showing indicates that common values are intersecting with shared hopes to foster a unique partnership across the Pacic and globally. In this era, ve groups of Americans are working hand-in-hand today with Koreans to build a better future for both countries.THE INVESTORSAmerican businesses in South Korea are investing in shared prosperity. 3M Korea uses U.S. technology to man ufacture cutting-edge lms and chemicals in Korea that are crucial to Samsung, LG, and other Korean customers building world-class at-panel displays and other high-tech products for export. Joint projects between tech compa nies fuel innovation; for example, Google Android serves as a top platform on Samsung smartphones. Seventy-ve percent of South Korea's aircraft, parts, and component imports are from the United States, and enter duty-free under the Korea-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA). Overall, U.S. investment in the Republic of Korea is up 25% since KORUS FTA was implemented in 2012. THE EXPERIMENTERSKorean-American chefs, artisans, and performers are experimenting in South Korea with new innovations in global culture. In May 2015, Secretary of State John F. Kerry visited Vatos Urban Tacos in Seouls Itaewon neighborhood, where three Korean-American chefs from California and Texas are mastering a unique brand of Korean-Mexican fusion cuisine. This spirit of creativity keeps the Alliance looking forward into New Frontiers as described by our two Presidents during their recent summit in October 2015. These are new areas of part nerships such as cyber, space, climate change, and global health.THE DIPLOMATSAmbassador Mark Lippert and the Embassy team work each day with the ROK Government to advance security and prosperity globally along the way, expanding Koreas global diplomatic impact. On security issues, South Korea has contributed to the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan, provided ships to combat piracy in Somalia, and joined the international coalition to combat Americans in Korea:U.S. EMBASSY PERSPECTIVEEXPLORING NEW FRONTIERSU.S. Secretary of State John Kerry takes a "sele" with Sid Kim, Juweon Jonathan Kim, and Kenny Park, co-owners of Vatos Urban Tacos in the Itaewon section of Seoul, South Korea, as he arrives for lunch at a restaurant started by the Korean-Americans with a Kickstarter funding for overseas projects, Seoul, South Korea, May 18, 2015.STATE DEPARTMENT PHOTO
16ISIL. The two countries work together to prevent nuclear weapons proliferation and to promote nuclear safety and security. The countries development agencies provide healthcare and energy assistance to communities in Africa and Southeast Asia, and ROK President Park, Geun-hye recently committed $200 million to empower women and girls in developing countries.THE EDUCATORSAmerican teachers are educating tomorrows Korean leaders in English and more, while they are also learning about Korea. English is a global means of communication, and the Wall Street Journal reported that English-hungry South Koreans receive on average 20,000 hours of training in English from kindergarten to university. Over 15,000 U.S. citizen English teachers serve this need each year in Koreas schools and educational institutions.THE DEFENDERSAbout 28,500 American Service Members are defending democracy at Freedoms Frontier in South Korea. The United States is enhancing the combined ROK-U.S. defense posture on the Korean Peninsula by putting its best people here and bringing the most advanced military capability and equipment to the region. Together, U.S. and ROK lead ers are enhancing our capacity to implement our strategy together updating plans, doctrine, and exercises. The U.S.-ROK partnership, though, isnt one-way, and it isnt conned to South Korea or Asia. It is mutual and global. Half a world away, South Korean business leaders in the United States are expanding prosperity in American cities. K-Pop singers and actors perform for American audiences, sparking new, uniquely Korean branches of a global music culture. And, KoreanAmericans serve the American public as teachers, dip lomats, soldiers, and more. Daily ights into the worlds best airport* (Incheon Airport) offer quick connections for the approximately 200,000 unofcial American am bassadors who live in Korea, and the almost 600,000 who visit each year. In all walks of life, through hard work, creativity, and shared vision, they each play their critical part in Koreas daily transformation and the AmericanKorean ties that bring us closer together each year.*Source: Airports Council InternationalPHOTO BY KAI HENDRYU.S. ARMY PHOTO/SGT. CHOI, HO-GYUUNC/CFC/USFK Command Sergeant Major John Troxell conducts a patrol near the Demilitarized Zone with ROK Infantry Soldiers. In December 2015, he became the Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff. An English teacher with Korean students.
17A key strength of the ROK-U.S. Alliance is its proven adaptability, and a signicant and sometimes tur bulent 2015 provided an opportunity for the Alliance to showcase its strength and depth. Few alliances in history have proven as effective and enduring as that of the ROK-U.S. partnership. Since its inception, the Alliance has been tested often, and has just as often come together to overcome adversity. Even the trying challenges and threats of 2015 were successfully navigated. In August, tensions rose to their highest levels in years after two ROK Soldiers conducting routine patrol operations were severely injured by recently emplaced North Korean land mines on the southern edge of the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ). In response to this provocation, South Korea acti vated loudspeakers along the DMZ to broadcast messag es that highlighted the differences between the two sides. These messages included a mix of defector testimonies, illustrations of South Koreas economic prosperity, and even K-Pop (Korean pop music), which angered North Korea. The North Korean response was to put its forces on the highest state of military readiness. Eventually, the two sides met at the truce village of Panmunjom in the DMZ and reached a compromise after North Korea agreed that the injuries were regrettable. The Alliance successfully resolved this crisis and emerged stronger from it. Following the August Crisis, the Alliance held its annual Security Consultative Meeting in Seoul, where the U.S. Secretary of Defense and the ROK Minister of National Defense reafrmed the commitment of the U.S. and ROK Presidents to continue to build a comprehensive strategic Alliance of bilateral, regional, and global scope based on common values and mutual trust. They also re afrmed that the scope and level of Alliance cooperation should continue to broaden and deepen by strengthening the combined defense posture in the Republic of Korea and enhancing cooperation for regional and global secu rity in the 21st century. Additionally, the Alliance signed the Conditions-based Operational Control (OPCON) Transition Plan (COT-P). This document will guide the Alliance toward South Koreas assumption of wartime operational control of its forces. THE ROK-U.S. ALLIANCE :A PROVEN PARTNERSHIP REPUBLIC OF KOREA GOVERNMENT PHOTO
18The United States and the Republic of Korea have continued to join in common causes beyond the Korean Peninsula. South Korea is among Americas most steadfast allies, having deployed forces to ght in the Vietnam War, the Gulf War, Afghanistan, and Iraq. In recent years, the Alliance has cooperated on a wide array of global security challenges of mutual interest, including peacekeeping activities, stabilization and reconstruction efforts, humanitarian assistance, and disaster relief. South Korea continues its endeavor of promoting stability in the international community with counter-piracy efforts in the Gulf of Aden, UN peace-keeping missions in Lebanon and South Sudan, and Korea Disaster Relief Team activities combating Ebola in Sierra Leone. In total, there are over 1,096 South Koreans serving overseas in 13 nations.U.S.-ROK COOPERATION BEYOND THE KOREAN PENINSULAThe modern ROK-U.S. partnership continues to extend well beyond defense to encompass diplomatic, economic, cultural, and educational components. The nations support one another diplomatically on a range of issues around the globe. The bilateral trade relationship is one of the most vi brant in the world. With the implementation of the KoreaU.S. Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA) in 2012, free trade has provided tangible benets to both economies with increases in goods, services, and investments. With respect to culture and education, we enrich one another with deep relationships between the people of our two nations. The Alliance has emerged from 2015 stronger than it has ever been and stands ready to Fight Tonight if required. This strength is echoed through both U.S. and ROK public support for the Alliance, which remains at a high point. The accomplishments of the Alliance over the past 65 years have formed a strong foundation that enables the two nations current success. This foundation enables the ROK-U.S. Alliance to remain poised to defend the Republic of Korea and maintain security and prosper ity in Northeast Asia.FACING PAGE: Presidents Park and Obama converse during a summit between the United States and the Republic of Korea in Washington, D.C., October 16, 2015. RIGHT: Foreign Agricultural Service Associate Administrator Janet Nuzum shakes hands with Koreas Minister for Food, Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries Chang, Tae-Pyong.HYUNDAI MOTOR MANUFACTURING ALABAMA LLC U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HYUNDAI MOTOR MANUFACTURING ALABAMA LLC Hyundai Motor Manufacturing Alabama (commonly called HMMA) is an automobile factory in Montgomery, Alabama. The success of the HMMA plant and the availability of local suppliers led Hyundai to invest over $1 billion in a new Kia Motors plant in West Point, Georgia. Hyundai Sonata in paint booth.
19COMMANDERS FOUR PRIORITIESThe UNC/CFC/USFK Commanders priorities focus the concerted efforts of the multinational, combined, and joint personnel on efforts that best strengthen the defense of the Republic of Korea and advance stability and prosperity in the Asia-Pacic region. 2 1 MAINTAIN THE ARMISTICE. BE READY TO FIGHT TONIGHT TO DETER AND DEFEAT AGGRESSION SUSTAIN AND STRENGTHEN THE ALLIANCE
20 3 4 TRANSFORM THE ALLIANCE SUSTAIN THE FORCE AND ENHANCE THE UNC/CFC/USFK TEAM Gen. Scaparrotti conducts battleeld circulation visit to ROK 6th Division with Maj. Gen. Lee, Guk-jae, Commander, ROK 6th Division, Cheolwon, South Korea, May 14, 2015. U.S. ARMY PHOTO/SGT RUSSELL YOUMANS
21he United Nations Command (UNC) carries on the legacy of the men and women of 21 countries who came to the aid of the Republic of Korea after UNC was established on July 8, 1950. The Commands mis sion has evolved from ghting aggression to maintaining the Armistice Agreement but today, UNC forces remain determined to preserve stability and defend the Republic of Korea. Recent North Korean provocations remind the world of the necessity of the UNC and its importance in maintaining the Armistice and providing international support to South Korea. This shared commitment rests on a long history of international partnership. In 1950, the United Nations Security Council passed a series of resolutions in response to the North Korean invasion of South Korea, all of which remain in effect today. UN Security Council Resolution 84 requested the United States to establish a unied command and appoint a commander to lead UN forces to repel the North Korean attack and restore peace and security. Within days of General of the Army Douglas MacArthur being appointed as the Commander, South Korean President Syngman Rhee placed ROK forces under the control of the UNC. The UNC fought North Korea and later the Chinese Peoples Volunteers in a three-year war to maintain the freedom and independence of the South Korean people. The Armistice Agreement signed by military leaders in July 1953 was intended to serve as a temporary ceasere to allow for a diplomatic peace. However, the 1954 Geneva Peace Talks stalled, and then collapsed. As a result, no formal peace treaty was signed, and the war is technically still in effect under the Armistice Agreement. Today, in addition to enforcing the terms of the Armistice Agreement for all friendly forces south of the Military Demarcation Line, UNC stands as a visible and multinational deterrent to North Korean aggression. It also provides a standing multinational framework for the reception and integration of UN forces into military operations should such operations become necessary to defend South Korea. UNC members participate in mul tilateral military exercises in South Korean territory as well as throughout the region. In addition to activities in Korea, the UNC also maintains important logistical infrastructure at seven key UN-designated bases in Japan. There are 17 United Nations Command Sending States in Korea to help maintain stability and securi ty including South Korea, there are 18 UNC Member States. UNC Member State ofcers are currently serving in the UNC Military Armistice Commission (UNCMAC) Secretariat at Yongsan, Panmunjom, and the Western Transportation Corridor that links North and South Korea. Recently, UNC welcomed a foreign exchange ag ofcer and eld grade ofcers on the UNC staff who work on behalf of their governments and the United States Government to support UNC operations. Monthly UNC activities engage all UNC Sending State participants, including the UNC Staff Working Group, the UNC Strategic Communications Working Group, the UNC Strategic Shaping Group, the UNC Ambassadors Roundtable, and the UNCMAC Advisory Group. UNC Sending States also participate in regular multinational logistics conferences, senior level table top exercises, multinational special operations conferences, and various military specialty symposiums. UNITED NATIONS COMMANDT
22As the rst Australian Foreign Exchange Ofcer to USFK, I found it took my ROK and U.S. colleagues a while to get used to seeing a different uniform in the Headquarters and also getting used to hearing English (and some Korean) with an Australian accent. But the welcome was warm and in no time I was integrated into the combined team. What has impressed me the most has been the strength of the ROK-U.S. Alliance and the level of teamwork and cooperation I have witnessed. As we revitalize UNC and continue to strengthen the Command as a multinational force, I believe that Korea, the ROK-U.S. Alliance, the region, and the international community will all benet from our work here to ensure stability in this part of the world. The UNC Honor Guard, Knight Field, U.S. Army Garrison-Yongsan, Seoul, South Korea, October 21, 2013. Gen. Lee, Soon-jin, Commander of the ROK Army 2nd Operational Command, greets the Deputy Director of the Multi-National Coordination Center during Exercise KEY RESOLVE, March 11, 2015. In October 2015, Gen. Lee became ROK Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Lt. Gen. Terrence OShaughnessy, Deputy Commander, UNC and USFK, commemorates the 62nd Anniversary of the Korean War Armistice Agreement at Panmunjom, South Korea, on July 27, 2015. U.S. ARMY PHOTO/SGT BRIAN GIBBONS U.S. ARMY PHOTO U.S. ARMY PHOTO/SGT RUSSELL YOUMANSUSFK PHOTOAUSTRALIAN AIR COMMODOREMcCORMACKAir Commodore McCormack and Lt. Col. Peter Kouri discuss UNC revitalization, Seoul, South Korea, December 22, 2015.
23he Combined Forces Commands motto Katchi Kapshida or We Go Together is more than a rhetorical assurance that American and Korean Service Members go together toward their common mission. It is a statement of purpose for the combined U.S.-ROK entity that carries out the Alliances military responsibilities on a day-to-day basis the Combined Forces Command (CFC). The security of the United States and the Republic of Korea continue to benet from one of modern historys most successful and long standing active alliances. Since the signing of the Armistice Agreement in 1953, both nations have remained steadfast in their commitment to the defense of South Korea through unied bilateral cooperation and a common vision of stability, security, and prosperity within the region. This commitment was forged during the Korean War, solidied in the 1953 ROKU.S. Mutual Defense Treaty, and has been consistently re inforced through the annual capstone consultative defense meetings, the Military Committee Meeting and Security Consultative Meeting. An inconspicuous plaque in front of the CFC head quarters commemorates a momentous event in ROK-U.S. history. On November 7, 1978, the ROK-U.S. Combined Forces Command was established on the Yongsan Army Garrisons parade eld as the bilateral warghting com mand. Before that date, the United Nations Command (UNC) was the sole organization responsible for both the enforcement of the 1953 Armistice Agreement and the defense of South Korea. With the establishment of CFC, UNC was committed to the maintenance of the Armistice Agreement as an international coalition, while CFC-led deterrence and preparations for the defense of South Korea. The U.S.-ROK relationship has evolved over the years to adjust to changes that have occurred within each nation. The establishment of CFC reected the continuing matu ration of the U.S.-ROK relationship, and recognized South Koreas emerging economic growth and expanding de fensive capabilities. CFC has continued to evolve over the decades. The members of the 24th Security Consultative Meeting in October 1992 agreed to support a plan to transfer peacetime operational control (OPCON) to South Korea and, in December 1994, ROK forces in Armistice were formally placed under the operational control of the ROK Joint Chiefs of Staff. The next signicant change in the Alliance will be the transfer of wartime OPCON to South Korea, which has long been a goal of both countries. Completion of this transfer will also bring South Korea one step closer to the goal of ROK-led defense of its nation. CFC operates under a unique consultative system that ensures that its Commander executes his duties under direction and guidance from senior military and political leadership of both nations. The CFC Commander, General Curtis M. Scaparrotti, receives instructions from the bilateral Military Committee led by the Chairmen of both the U.S. and ROK Joint Chiefs of Staff, as well as from the Security Consultative Meeting led by the U.S. Secretary of Defense and the ROK Minister of National Defense. This system ensures that the U.S. and ROK work from a com mon understanding of and vision for the security environ ment in chartering defense plans. It also provides a critical node enabling the leadership of both nations to work together to develop solutions on critical defense issues. CFC continues to adjust to challenges and adapt to existing and emerging threats. CFC has recently im plemented several key initiatives to improve its bilateral COMBINED FORCES COMMANDT
24Combined Forces Command (CFC) provides an opportunity for ROK and U.S. forces to work together on a daily basis, fully inte grated within every staff division across the combined command. ROK-U.S. forces shape policies, plans, and continuously assess the readiness of the combined force to defend against aggression. Additionally, each member of CFC who works alongside their counterpart benets from a unique experience; not only are both working together to shape a stable security environ ment while ensuring the ROK-U.S. bilateral force is prepared to Fight Tonight, each member also shares a unique cultural im mersion experience that further strengthens the ROK-U.S. common values that form the foundation of our Alliance.capabilities to deter threats. In 2015, CFC rened its concept for tailored deterrence of North Korea. It worked to improve Alliance counter-missile capa bilities against a growing threat and developed new operational plans and concepts to keep up with the evolving North Korean threat. Through these pathways, CFC leaders, both Korean and American, will continue to enhance the Commands bilateral capabilities to deter threats and increase and maintain the highest readiness capabil ities to Fight Tonight. The combined air show of force that the Alliance conducted in response to North Koreas nuclear test in January 2016 demonstrated the strength of the ROK-U.S. Alliance and the resolve of both nations to maintain stability and security on the Korean Peninsula.CFC PERSPECTIVEU.S. ARMY PHOTO/SGT RUSSELL YOUMANSA U.S. Air Force B-52 Stratofortress from Andersen Air Force Base, Guam, joined by two ROKAF F-15K Slam Eagles and two U.S. Air Force F-16 Fighting Falcons, conducts a low-level ight in the vicinity of Osan Air Base, Osan, South Korea, January 10, 2016. Republic of Korea Minister of National Defense Han, Min-koo visits CP TANGO, Seoul, South Korea, August 26, 2015.U.S. AIR FORCE PHOTO/STAFF SGT. BENJAMIN SUTTON U.S ARMY PHOTO/ SPC. STEVEN HITCHCOCKA Korean Augmentation To the U.S. Army (KATUSA) Soldier (left) conduct battle drill movements with U.S. Army Soldiers, assigned to 1st Battalion, 27th Infantry Regiment, 2nd Stryker Brigade Combat Team, 25th Infantry Division, on Warrior Base, Georgia Range, South Korea, March 11, 2015.
STRATEGIC DIGEST 2016 25From left to right: U.S. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Gen. Joseph F. Dunford Jr. salutes alongside U.S. Secretary of Defense Ash Carter, ROK Minister of Defense Han, Min-koo, and ROK Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Gen. Lee, Sun-jin, during an honor guard ceremony at the ROK Joint Chiefs of Staff headquarters in Seoul, South Korea, November 2, 2015.
STRATEGIC DIGEST 2016 26U.S. NAVY PHOTO/PETTY OFFICER 2ND CLASS DOMINIQUE A. PINEIRO
27 UNITED STATES FORCES KOREACOMMAND MISSIONThe mission of United States Forces Korea (USFK) is to provide trained and ready forces to the United Nations Command (UNC) and the ROK-U.S. Combined Forces Command (CFC) for the defense of the Republic of Korea.ROLE OF USFKUSFK supports the ROK-U.S. Mutual Defense Treaty of 1953 by providing a U.S. presence in Korea to enable the two countries to act together to deter armed attack and, if needed, to defeat aggression against the Alliance. USFK trains Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen, and Marines on the Korean Peninsula to ensure they are ready to Fight Tonight. The Command also provides forces to UNC for a myriad of Armistice maintenance functions. As a sub-unied command of U.S. Pacic Command (PACOM), USFK is an integral part of the deep U.S. commitment and presence in the Asia-Pacic region one of the most important regions for U.S. vital interests. Over the past year, USFK has worked aggressively to strengthen the readiness of the forces it provides to the Combined Forces Command and the United Nations Command. Focus areas included improving interoperabil ity between ROK and U.S. systems; upgrading Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (C4I) infra structure; preparing to relocate thousands of U.S. personnel to bases south of Seoul; and setting conditions to transfer wartime operational control of ROK-U.S. forces to the leadership of the Republic of Korea. To improve readi ness, USFK also supported its on-Peninsula forces with fully trained and manned rotational combat units. Finally, USFK worked diligently with the South Korean military to establish and activate a ROK-U.S. Combined Division. The net effect of these changes was to bolster the defense of South Korea and to strengthen the bonds between the Republic of Korea and the United States.COMMANDS IMPORTANCEThe Service Members of United States Forces Korea have stood side-by-side with their ROK and UNC Sending State partners for more than 60 years. Together, these forces maintained the Armistice that set the conditions for sta bility and prosperity in South Korea. Their contributions have helped the Republic of Korea grow into a prosperous, peaceful, and democratic nation. The continued presence of U.S. forces helps ensure the people of South Korea, including more than 51 million Koreans and nearly 200,000 Americans living and working in Korea, are protected from real and present threats from North Korea, to include long range artillery, ballistic missiles, nuclear weapons, special operations forces, and cyber-attacks.Rangers from 2nd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment conduct Full Mission Prole (FMP) Training in South Korea, March 26, 2015.U.S. ARMY PHOTO PHOTO/SPC CODIE MENDENHALL
28U.S. NAVY PHOTO/MC2 DANIEL M. YOUNG U.S. MARINE PHOTO/LANCE CPL. ROBERT WILLIAMS JR.United States Forces Korea is a sub-unied command of U.S. Pacic Command and a force provider for Combined Forces Command with an Armistice manning of 28,500 Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen, and Marines. There are four service components and one functional command located in the Republic of Korea.COMMAND COMPONENTSEIGHTH U.S. ARMY Commander: LTG Vandal Headquarters: Yongsan, South Korea Authorized approximately 20,000 SoldiersSEVENTH AIR FORCE Commander: Lt Gen OShaughnessy Headquarters: Osan, South Korea Authorized approximately 8,000 AirmenU.S. NAVAL FORCES KOREA Commander: RDML Byrne Headquarters: Busan, South Korea Authorized approximately 300 SailorsU.S. MARINE CORPS FORCES KOREA Commander: MajGen Hedelund Headquarters: Yongsan, South Korea Authorized approximately 100 Marines U.S. Army Soldiers conduct air assault sling load training on Warrior Base, New Mexico Range, South Korea, during Exercise FOAL EAGLE, March 18, 2015. A U.S. Air Force F-16 Fighting Falcon from the 35th Fighter Squadron at Kunsan Air Base, Kunsan, South Korea, refuels from a U.S. Air Force KC-135 Stratotanker, August 19, 2015. The USS Fort Worth (LCS 3) transits to conduct Exercise FOAL EAGLE, March 11, 2015. Marines prepare for training at the Story Live Fire Range Complex, Paju, South Korea, during KOREAN MARINE EXCHANGE PROGRAM 15-19, June 2, 2015.U.S. ARMY PHOTO/SPC. STEVEN HITCHCOCK U.S. NAVY PHOTO/MC2 DANIEL M. YOUNG U.S. MARINE PHOTO/LANCE CPL. ROBERT WILLIAMS JR. U.S. AIR FORCE PHOTO/STAFF SGT. MAESON L. ELLEMANSPECIAL OPERATIONS COMMAND KOREA Commander: BG Deedrick Headquarters: Yongsan, South Korea Authorized approximately 100 Service Members A functional component command tasked to plan and conduct special operations on the Korean Peninsula
29USFK COMPONENTSENDURING ALLIANCEEighth Army has a long history of working with the ROK Army to help build their capacity and capabilities, beginning with the Korea Military Advisory Group during the Korean War. As the South Korean military evolved into a modern, highly trained defense force, the U.S. focus has shifted from security force assistance to the goal of inte grating our combined warghting capabilities. In 2015, Eighth Army took a positive step toward integra tion with the establishment of the rst-ever ROK-U.S. Com bined Division, comprised of elements from both the U.S. 2nd Infantry Division and the Third ROK Army. The 2nd Infantry Division serves as the core of the Combined Divi sion, with a functioning integrated staff under Armistice conditions that becomes fully integrated in wartime. Also, a ROK Army mechanized brigade will habitually train with the newly formed Combined Divisions subordinate units to develop shared capabilities. The 2nd Combined Infantry Division displayed en hanced interoperability in October 2015 as the combined staff completed its rst major training together during the biennial, computer-based, Warghter mission con trol exercise. In the coming year, Eighth Army will continue to im plement transformational initiatives to strengthen interop erability within Combined Forces Command. One such initiative will establish a Combined Ground Component Command with a headquarters in Yongin, South Korea. SHAPING THE OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT FOR A MORE PREDICTABLE FUTUREEIGHTH ARMYU.S. ARMY PHOTO/PFC. SAMANTHA VAN WINKLEEighth Army and its South Korean partners have stood together as a critical deterrent to the unpredictable, lethal threat posed by North Korea for more than six decades. During that time, readiness through tough, realistic training has remained the core element of our combined defense posture.
30USFK COMPONENTSOnce established, the Combined Ground Component Com mand will improve the bilateral structure of the primary ground component command of the Alliance and enhance training, planning, ground force synchronization, and operations between ROK and U.S. forces.SUSTAINABLE READINESS THROUGH ROTATIONSThe U.S. Army is introducing several new programs across the force as it moves toward a vision of being regionally engaged to sustain combat readiness in a time of reduced resources. One such program, the Regionally Aligned Forc es (RAF) initiative, rotates forces into strategic locations to operationalize the strategic land power concept and fulll the Armys vision of becoming globally responsive. Eighth Army welcomed the rst brigade-sized unit to deploy to Korea under RAF in June 2015 when the 2nd Armored Brigade Combat Team (BCT), 1st Cavalry Divi sion arrived from Fort Hood, Texas. The 2nd BCT quickly demonstrated the culturally attuned, scalable, mission-pre pared capabilities that can be expected under RAF. Within just two months after the unit arrived, they were able to integrate with the ROK Army to conduct a combined, joint exercise at Nightmare Range in Pocheon, South Korea. The seamless integration of rotating units with local U.S. and ROK components serves as a force multiplier for the Alliance, supports the Armys long-term strategic objec tives, and provides tailored exibility for the future force structure in South Korea.PREPARING FOR THE FUTUREThis is an exciting time to serve in Eighth Army as it pre pares for the most profound changes to the Alliance since the Korean War. On-going theater transformation initia tives will further modify the force structure by consoli dating U.S. forces at two primary hubs: U.S. Army Garri son-Humphreys and U.S. Army Garrison-Daegu. This re-stationing effort will create a less intrusive geo graphic presence, while positioning U.S. forces to gain bet ter efciencies by reducing the number of camps in South Korea all to enhance readiness. Once transformation is complete, Eighth Army will be better postured to support the Alliance with efcient, sustainable support to carry on our enduring mission of local, regional, and global scope for well into the future.CONCLUSION As Eighth Army continues to evolve to defend against an emerging, asymmetric North Korean threat, setting the stage for the future is vital. By continuing to seek out new ways to increase combined and integrated warghting capabilities, Eighth Army will be able to consolidate gains among functional combatant commands, achieve sustainable security outcomes in support of the Alliance, and be in a better position to shape outcomes and provide a level of predictability in this increasingly unpredictable and com plex operating environment.Neither a wise nor a brave man lies down on the tracks of history to wait for the train of the future to run over him.Dwight D. Eisenhower, Former General of the Army and 34th President of the United StatesFACING: U.S. Army Soldiers from 2nd Battalion, 11th Field Artillery Regiment, 2nd Stryker Brigade Combat Team, conduct a live re exercise with an M777 Howitzer with ROK Soldiers, March 15, 2015. ABOVE: U.S. Army divers conduct diving operations to clear sea channels during the build-up to exercise COMBINED JOINT LOGISTICS OVER-THESHORE (CJLOTS) 2015, at Anmyeon Beach, South Korea, June 27, 2015. An M1A2 Abrams tank with Company D, 2nd Battalion, 9th Infantry (Mechanized), drives down the road during a force-on-force exercise at Twin Bridges Training Area, Paju, South Korea, March 11, 2015.U.S. NAVY PHOTO/MC1 KORI MELVIN U.S. ARMY PHOTO/SGT. SAMUEL NORTHRUP
31USFK COMPONENTSSEVENTH AIR FORCEAs tensions between South Korea and North Korea increased in August, the Korea Airpower Team was ready to deter aggression, maintain the Armistice, and defeat any attack against the Alliance. Readiness is, without question, the critical ingredi ent to maintaining a credible deterrent on the Korean Peninsula. The Korea Airpower Team focused its efforts in 2015 on ensuring crews, aircraft, and all Airmen have the training, readiness posture, and procedures in place to Fight Tonight. The Korea Airpower Team took signicant steps for ward in maintaining combat readiness this year through more focused, realistic exercises. The ROK Air Force (ROKAF) and Seventh Air Force participate in more than 30 bilateral exercises every year, covering a wide variety of mission sets including tactical-level base defense, combat search and rescue, and combat sortie generation. Airmen hone strategic to operational command and control compe tencies through Exercises ULCHI FREEDOM GUARDIAN and KEY RESOLVE. Traditionally, exercises for the Korea Airpower Team have separated the tactical and strategic levels of operation. This year, the inaugural Exercise VIGILANT ACE provided the missing training piece as we shifted our focus to testing our ability to generate com bat airpower while validating and exercising real-world planning factors, as well as developing and strengthening operational-to-tactical linkages. VIGILANT ACE spanned eight bases in Korea and included U.S. ying units based in Japan, Guam, and the United States. More than 21,000 U.S. and ROK Service Members participated, to include U.S. Airmen, Soldiers, Sailors, Marines, and Air National Guardsmen. Approximately 230 USAF and ROKAF aircraft partici pated from the Peninsula, and approximately 50 aircraft and 1,000 Service Members deployed to the South Korea to generate combat airpower from contingency locations. Overall, more than 2,200 combat sorties were generated, providing realistic training and helping validate the Korea Airpower Teams ability to y and sustain the preplanned air tasking order in simulated combat conditions with little or no warning. Exercise VIGILANT ACE also strengthened the ROKU.S. Alliance. It increased our interoperability and our presence as a combined airpower team that can deter U.S. AIR FORCE PHOTO/STAFF SGT. NICK WILSON
32USFK COMPONENTSaggression in the region. The ROK Air Force ew sus tained 24-hour simulated combat operations, which is a tremendous logistical feat that marks another milestone as they continue to advance into one of the most techno logically capable air forces in the world. Many planning assumptions were tested during VIGILANT ACE, and sub sequent iterations will make us a more capable, responsive Korea Airpower Team. Within the Korea Airpower Team, intelligence, surveil lance, and reconnaissance (ISR) professionals maintain readiness and provide senior leaders with timely infor mation to create decision space and maneuver space over potential adversaries. Seventh Air Force, as the supported command for airborne ISR on Peninsula, maintains a con stant state of readiness. The air component drives a global ISR enterprise capability against the North Korean mili tary, and this constant readiness requires a combination of robust ISR capabilities and capacities, as well as an agile tasking process ready for collection, processing, exploita tion, and dissemination at all times. In 2015, the Korea Airpower Team initiated the design for a new Korea Air Operations Center (KAOC) and Korean Combat Operations Intelligence Center, which will support current and future ISR technologies. Todays KAOC was built in 1983, and has served our command and control and intelligence-gathering community well over the decades. However, technological advances in the 21st century are outpacing the KAOCs capacity. The new operations center is designed to further inte grate ROK and U.S. ISR capabilities, thus achieving a level of interoperability unsurpassed in any other coalition alliance. The new facility will enable capabilities that are not in use today. The ROKAF plans to integrate a new high-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle capability with the USAFs standing eet of U-2s, allowing us to overlap the advantages of both platforms to further enhance an already superb intel-gathering program and feed directly into the global ISR enterprise. With evolving threats in Northeast Asia, interoperable ISR between the U.S. and our ROK counterparts is more critical to airpower than ever before. The synergistic effects achieved through sharing our ISR capabilities allow us to nd, x, track, and target signicantly better than we would separately. The new KAOC will allow us to contin ue seeking innovative ways to improve our combat effec tiveness through ISR capabilities. Readiness is critical for the Korea Airpower Team as a whole, but to maintain a credible deterrent force, readiness must be maintained at the individual level as well. Korea is a very demanding place to serve, and each Airman needs to perform at his/her very best for the unit to succeed. To that end, Seventh Air Force is completely dedicated to maintaining a healthy work environment that promotes peak mental, physical, and emotional tness for every Airman. Seventh Air Force is committed to eliminating sexual harassment, sexual assault, bullying, and any other workplace factor that can divide the focus of Airmen, Civilians, and their Dependents. The ROK-U.S. Alliance has produced the most potent bi lateral airpower team in history. Working together, we are constantly improving our readiness, interoperability, and combat capabilities to maintain a strong deterrent presence in the skies over Korea. Together, we will continue to do our part to preserve stability in Northeast Asia.FACING: An F-16 Fighting Falcon takes off at Jungwon Air Base during Exercise BUDDY WING 15-6 to enhance U.S. and ROKAF air combat capability, July 8, 2015. Members of the U.S. and ROK militaries man the operations oor in the Hardened Theater Air Control Center during the rst day of Exercise ULCHI FREEDOM GUARDIAN, Osan, South Korea, August 16, 2015.U.S. AIR FORCE PHOTO/AIRMAN 1ST CLASS JOHN LINZMEIERRIGHT: Senior Airman Allen Avery III loads 20-mm rounds into AN F-16 during the VIGILANT ACE 16 exercise on Osan Air Base, Osan, South Korea, November 2, 2015. U.S. AIR FORCE PHOTO/SENIOR AIRMAN KRISTIN HIGH
33USFK COMPONENTSCOMMANDER U.S. NAVAL FORCES KOREACommander, U.S. Naval Forces, Korea (CNFK) is the U.S. Navys representative in the Republic of Korea and pro vides leadership and expertise in naval matters that sup port the UNC/CFC/USFK Commanders mission. CNFK works closely with the ROK Navy to improve institutional and operational effectiveness and to strengthen collective security efforts in the Korean Theater. Both Navies coordi nate multilateral participation in several combined exercis es and events each year designed to sustain and strengthen the Alliance, maintain the Armistice, and transform and sustain the force. Throughout the year, the U.S. and ROK Navies work together in more than 20 bilateral and multilateral ex ercises including the command post exercises ULCHI FREEDOM GUARDIAN (UFG) and KEY RESOLVE (KR). Along with UFG and KR, CNFK also participates in the eld training exercise FOAL EAGLE, enabling both U.S. and ROK Navies to exercise the full spectrum of maritime operations from anti-submarine warfare, joint tactics and maneuvering, salvage operations, mine warfare, and har bor recovery operations. To improve interoperability among combined forces and maintain the Armistice by being ready to Fight Tonight, the U.S. and ROK Navies join their Marine Corps coun terparts to conduct Exercise SSANG YONG (which means Twin Dragons in Korean). The exercise demonstrates the combined Naval and Marine forces ability to rapidly exe cute a full range of military operations and contingencies in the Republic of Korea. The Bilateral Anti-Submarine Warfare Cooperation Committee, co-chaired by the com manders of the ROK Fleet and U.S. 7th Fleet, was estab lished in 2014 to synchronize the numerous efforts of both Navies spanning three domains (surface, subsurface, and aviation) to improve capability in this crucial warfare area. U.S. NAVY PHOTO /MC3 CHRIS CAVAGNARO
34USFK COMPONENTSU.S. Navy presence in the Republic of Korea helps maintain the Armistice. U.S. Naval Forces help encourage dialogue, promote growth, and ensure the free ow of trade. Routine ship visits, including the only forward-deployed U.S. aircraft carrier USS Ronald Reagan (CVN 76), help foster relationships through theater security cooperation engagements and community outreach events. The U.S. and ROK Navies join together to help revitalize the United Nations Command (UNC) through an annual combined Mine Warfare (MIW) event aimed at improving prociency and enhanc ing capabilities across the full spectrum of maritime MIW operations. CNFK hosts the annual UNC Naval Component Commander Mine Countermeasures Symposium, and ROK Navy Flotilla 5 hosts the multi national MIW exercise CLEAR HORIZON. In an ongoing effort to both transform the Alliance and sustain the force, CNFK relocated the majority of headquarters staff from the U.S. Army GarrisonYongsan in Seoul to the ROK Navy base in Busan to work shoulder-to-shoulder with the ROK Navy on a daily basis. This is the only U.S. headquarters located on a ROK base. CNFK is still preparing to relocate a portion of the staff to U.S. Army GarrisonHumphreys near Pyeongtaek in the following years. The headquarters move and ongoing relocation initiative facilitate transitioning of wartime operation al control for contingencies on the Korean Peninsula and the end-state will ensure CNFK is better po sitioned to support the ROK Navy in maintaining stability in the region.FACING: The Military Sealift Command dry cargo and ammunition ship USNS Matthew Perry (T-AKE 9) prepares to pull alongside the Nimitzclass aircraft carrier USS George Washington (CVN 73) during a replenishment-at-sea. RIGHT: Lt. Nicholas Gall, a shooter aboard the Nimitz-class aircraft carrier USS George Washington (CVN 73), launches an F/A-18F Super Hornet from the Diamondbacks of Strike Fighter Squadron (VFA) 102 from the ships ight deck, August 7, 2015. 1. Sailors heave a mooring line as the Arleigh Burkeclass guided-missile destroyer USS Fitzgerald (DDG 62) arrives in Busan, South Korea, May 1, 2015. 2. Senior Chief Fire Controlman Clayton Smith stands watch aboard the Arleigh Burke-class guided-missile destroyer USS Mustin (DDG 89) during bilateral training with the ROK Navy, October 27, 2015.U.S. NAVY PHOTO/MASS COMMUNICATION SPECIALIST CLEMENTE A. LYNCHU.S. NAVY PHOTO/MASS COMMUNICATION SPECIALIST PATRICK DIONNE(U.S. NAVY PHOTO/MC2 CHRISTIAN SENYK1 2
35Marine Forces Korea (MARFORK) is the Marine service component headquarters assigned to United States Forces Korea to advise the USFK Commander on the employment of Marines and amphibious forces on the Korean Peninsula. As the Command representative of the U.S. Marine Corps, MARFORK upholds the USFK Commanders priorities by maintaining a close relation ship with the ROK Marine Corps, aiding in the coordi nation and planning of U.S. Marine units training on the Korean Peninsula, advocating for friendly nations to prepare their amphibious forces to operate if neces sary on the Peninsula, and developing bonds with the Korean people. MARFORK understands the necessity of maintaining a strong partnership with our brothers and sisters in the ROK Marine Corps and that is evident in our very close relationships. Communications between MARFORK and ROK Marine Headquarters occurs daily to discuss planning, combined training, and integration. ROK Marines continue to improve and enhance their Corps, from developing new training facilities to integrating an avia tion element into their overall structure and MARFORK is proud to assist as true Alliance partners. Furthermore, general ofcers from both services convene on a sched uled and recurring basis to ensure their operational goals are synchronized. One of MARFORKs priorities during its day-to-day operations is how to support U.S. Marine units train ing in South Korea. This is accomplished through the Korean Marine Exercise Program (KMEP), a year-round program that, in accordance with the UNC/CFC/USFK Commanders priorities, maximizes training for both U.S. and ROK Marines in a combined environment. In 2015, MARFORK, in conjunction with the III Marine Expeditionary Force from Okinawa, Japan, coordinated and executed 19 KMEP training events, which ranged from platoon to battalion-level training and covered the full spectrum of military operations. These events took place in various locations throughout South Korea, enhancing U.S. Marines familiarization of the Korean USFK COMPONENTSMARINE FORCES KOREAU.S. MARINE CORPS PHOTO/PFC. CEDRIC R. HALLER II
36Peninsula while simultaneously developing the kind of faith and trust between our forces that can only be estab lished through rigorous and realistic training. Should the need arise for other nations to send forces to South Korea, MARFORK stands ready to ad vise the UNC Commander on the integration of these nations amphibious units in the critical early hours and days of a crisis. As the UNC Marine Component, MARFORK advocates for other allied forces to par ticipate in exercises as well as serves as the integrator of these forces for UNC during a time of crisis into the Combined Marine Component Command. This includes not just Marine forces but also other allied service units, aviation and ground, designated to be employed with that command. MARFORK not only brings the Marine Corps esprit de corps and amphibious technical expertise to the Korean Peninsula, but also its traditions and commit ment to social responsibility. One of the main ways it does this is through its annual Toys for Tots program, an initiative started by the U.S. Marine Corps Reserve over 65 years ago. In December 2015, the Marines of MARFORK collected over 1,300 toys that were sub sequently delivered to community centers, childrens hospitals, and orphanages across the Korean Peninsula. Through Toys for Tots and other community efforts, MARFORK continues to strengthen the bonds between Service Members and our Korean neighbors. Although a small presence when compared with other service components on the Korean Peninsula, MARFORK nevertheless assumes a large responsibility during both Armistice and contingency operations. Whether it is building goodwill with the Korean people to sustain the Alliance or vigorously training with the ROK Marines through the Korean Marine Exercise Program, the Marines of MARFORK work profession ally to facilitate a combined amphibious ghting force able to respond to any challenge it may face and support the priorities of the UNC/CFC/USFK Commander to Fight Tonight.USFK COMPONENTS 31st Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU) participates in the KOREAN MARINE EXCHANGE PROGRAM in the waters to the east of the Korean Peninsula, March 29, 2015.U.S. NAVY PHOTO/MC3 SCOTT BARNESRIGHT: U.S. and ROK Marines train on explosive ordnance detection methods at Camp Mujuk, South Korea, during KOREAN MARINE EXCHANGE PROGRAM 15-9, June 8, 2015. FACING: U.S. Marine 1st Lt. Taylor L. Paul, center, points out an enemy position during the KOREAN MARINE EXCHANGE PROGRAM at the Cham Sae Mi CloseQuarters Battle Training Facility in Pohang, South Korea, February 10, 2015.U.S. MARINE CORPS PHOTO/CPL. JOEY S. HOLEMAN, JR.ABOVE: A U.S. Marine with 1st Platoon, Fox Company, posts security during a patrol during the MILITARY OPERATIONS IN URBAN TERRAIN (MOUT) and patrolling portion of KOREAN MARINE EXCHANGE PROGRAM 15-8 in Pohang, South Korea, as a part of PENINSULA EXPRESS 15, July 2015.U.S. MARINE CORPS PHOTO/SGT. JUSTIN A. BOPP
37Special Operations Command Korea (SOCKOR) is a sub-uni ed command of Pacic Command (PACOM), under the operational control of United States Forces Korea. As the Theater Special Operations Command, SOCKOR provides the USFK Commander a Joint Special Operations crisis response capability to deter or defeat North Korean asymmetric capa bilities and maintain the Alliance. SOCKOR is an operationally focused headquarters, re sponsible for planning and conducting special operations. SOCKOR is the only Theater Special Operations Command stationed and training in a complex operating environment in which we may be called upon to ght with little to no warning. Nested with U.S. Special Operations Command (USSOCOM), it maintains reach-back capability to U.S. interagency and intergovernmental partnerships. SOCKOR, integrated with its ROK partners, is prepared to execute the full spectrum of special operations to support warghting capabilities and maintain stability in Northeast Asia. During Armistice, crisis, and war, SOCKOR provides Special Operations Forces (SOF) to counter and defeat emerging North Korean threats, develops supporting plans, and coordinates with the Republic of Korea (ROK) Special Warfare Command, ROK Navy Special Warfare Flotilla, ROK Air Force 255 Special Operations Squadron, and United Nations Command (UNC) Sending States SOF in support of the UNC/CFC/USFK Commander. In the event of hostilities, SOCKOR will task-organize as a Special Operations Joint Task Force, aligning U.S. and UNC Special Operations Forces into functional task forces. The SOCKOR Commander also serves as the Deputy Commander of the ROK-U.S. Combined Unconventional Warfare Task Force (CUWTF), one of the six warghting components of the Combined Forces Command. The transformation to an operationally focused headquar ters enabled SOCKOR to affect a paradigm shift in three key areas mission command of rotational SOF forces, training tempo, and ROK partner engagements. This shift was vital to ensuring that SOCKOR provides USFK with unique capabili ties and strategic special warfare options. The investment by USSOCOM and the strength of its partnership with Special Operations Command Pacic (SOCPAC), coupled with its innovative and committed ROK and UNC special operations partners are advancing multinational special operations interoperability and warghting capabilities. The U.S. SOF Posture Plan greatly increased rotational Special Operations Forces into Korea from all USSOCOM components. During the FOAL EAGLE exercise in 2015, over 900 U.S. Special Operations Forces trained on the Korean Peninsula includ ing the 75th Ranger Regiment, 1st and 19th Special Forces USFK COMPONENTSSPECIAL OPERATIONS COMMAND KOREAU.S. MARINE SPECIAL OPERATIONS (MARSOC) PHOTO
38Groups, USAF 353rd Special Operations Group, and Navy Special Warfare Group 1. The tempo and complexity of special operations training also increased during 2015 with U.S. and ROK forces conducting 10 diverse and challenging Joint Combined Exchange Training exercises. The combined full mission prole training events exceeded previous years in num ber, diversity, and the integration of special and conventional forces and platforms. In 2015, UNC Sending State partners participated in FOAL EAGLE and the two annual command post exercises, KEY RESOLVE and ULCHI FREEDOM GUARDIAN, on the UNC Special Operations Command (UNCSOC) and CUWTF staffs. UNC SOF partnerships are critical to SOCKOR for their combat-proven experience and specialized expertise. Additionally, their presence further strengthens the ROK-UNC SOF partnership while their con tributions develop and shape strategic options for countering asymmetric threats to the Alliance. In 2016, U.S., ROK, and UNC SOF partners will enhance combined special operations adaptability, interoperability, and exibility. Due in part to the forward vision of ROK special oper ations leadership, SOCKOR partner engagements are no longer the periodic engagements of the past, but are instead sustained, targeted partner engagements. This new ap proach demonstrates a resolve by ROK and U.S. leaders to advance combined special operations capabilities. Building sustained relationships of this nature fosters both enduring relationships between combined forces and enables institu tional leader development. Developing the next generation of combined Special Operations Forces under this concept is imperative to respond to emerging asymmetric threats to the region. The strong relationship between SOCPAC and SOCKOR is evident in operationally focused achievements over the last year. Command Arrangement Agreements, collaborative planning, and expanded training opportunities, particularly for U.S. and Combined Maritime Special Operations Forces, have markedly improved U.S. and combined SOF readiness. Both Commands are better postured to deter, counter, or defeat the complexity of challenges and threats in the Pacic and on the Korean Peninsula. SOCKOR is committed to its ROK partners. This endur ing relationship spans more than 60 years and is paramount to both sides ability to support the Alliance. Both staffs work together daily and U.S. Army, Navy, Marine, and Air Force SOF elements liaise and train regularly with ROK SOF units. Special Forces Detachment-39 and active and reserve Special Forces Groups partner with the ROK Special Warfare Command brigades. U.S. Air Force Special Operations maintain monthly training with both the ROK Air Force 255th Squadron and ROK Special Forces. The Joint Special Operations Liaison Element coordinates with the U.S. Seventh Air Force and ROK Air Force Operations Command to ensure both Special Operations Forces and conventional air platforms are available. A rotational U.S. Navy SEAL liaison element is co-located with the ROK Naval Special Warfare Flotilla and two combined compre hensive training events in 2015 were the rst of their kind to occur in Korean waters. SOCKOR secured new authorities and agreements, en hanced U.S. SOF force posture and mission command on the Peninsula, and redened its ROK partner engagements. The presence of rotational Special Operations Forces underpins the Alliances ability to maintain the combined crisis re sponse capability and ensures sustained engagements with ROK ground, maritime, and aviation partners. The ability to leverage a crisis response capability with operational Special Operations Forces or employ unique combined special operations capabilities provides U.S. military and national leaders with strategic options to deter or defeat North Korean asymmetric threats.USFK COMPONENTS ROK Army Special Warfare Forces conduct cold weather training, January 8, 2015.ROK MILITARY PHOTO/KIM NAM YONGFACING: Elements from U.S. Marine Special Operations and Navy SEALs conduct a Low Level Static Line (LLSL) water jump in the waters off South Korea. ABOVE: An M-240 machine gun team from 1st Special Forces Group (Airborne) sets up a suppressive base of re during urban warfare training, Exercise FOAL EAGLE, March 2015.SOCKOR PHOTO
39fter years of close coordination and hard work be tween the United States and the Republic of Korea, the program to move the majority of U.S. forces from Seoul and north of Seoul, to areas in the southern half of South Korea is nearing completion. Referred to as the United States Forces Korea Relocation Program, it consists of two ROK-U.S. bilaterally agreed upon plans: the Yongsan Relocation Plan and the Land Partnership Plan. Overall, the relocation program enhances ROK-U.S. Alliance readi ness for stability on the Korean Peninsula. This program consolidates U.S. forces into two endur ing hubs: a Central Hub around the cities of Osan and Pyeongtaek, and a Southern Hub around the city of Daegu. Stationing the majority of U.S. forces into these two hubs improves operational readiness and efciencies. In addi tion, it enhances the quality of life for our personnel with the construction of new and modern ofces, operational and support facilities, and housing. The result is some of the newest and most modern facilities that the U.S. military has around the world. The $10.7 billion relocation program is a tremendous commitment and undertaking for the Alliance. Since 2006, thousands of trucks have placed over 14 million cubic yards of dirt to raise the former rice paddies above the ood plain. The Humphreys Garrison has tripled in size to nearly 3,500 acres. Currently, at the peak of construction, workers are constructing 655 new buildings and remodeling or demolishing 340 existing buildings to accommodate the increase in population from approximately 12,000 to more than 36,000 Service Members, Families, Civilian employees, Contractors, and Korean Augmentees to the U.S. Army (KATUSAs). At the end of 2015, approximately 65% of the program was done. Key facilities completed to date include an elemen tary school, a high school, family housing high rises, a child development center, waste water treatment plant, an aireld operations building, an area distribution node, a medical brigade headquarters, a barracks project, and two dining facilities. This year, the Garrison expects to complete a Televideo center, railhead, dental clinic, vehicle maintenance facilities, additional barracks, a communi cation center, new headquarters for the Eighth Army and USFK, a PX and commissary, chapel, post ofce, library, training facilities, and an additional child development center. With few exceptions, the majority of new construction at Humphreys will be complete by the end of 2016, and the majority of unit relocations will occur from 2016 through 2018. Although the majority of the program is focused on U.S. Army Garrison-Humphreys, 64 additional projects RELOCATION ABOVE: Future home of Eighth Army and USFK HQ with Family Housing in the background, aerial tour of U.S. Army Garrison Humphreys, Pyeongtaek, South Korea, August 27, 2015.U.S. ARMY PHOTOS/CLINT STONE A
40Family housing, aerial tour of U.S. Army Garrison Humphreys, Pyeongtaek, South Korea, August 27, 2015. Newly built barracks with motor pools in the background, aerial tour of U.S. Army Garrison Humphreys, Pyeongtaek, South Korea, August 27, 2015.throughout Korea were resourced between 2007 and 2015. Highlights include: a runway replace ment at Osan Air Base, a consolidated communications facility in Chinhae, a new CNFK (Commander Naval Forces Korea) Headquarters on the ROK Navy compound in Busan, a consolidated Battalion Headquarters and one Unaccompanied Enlisted Personnel Housing (UEPH) at Daegu, and Hardened Aircraft Shelters at Kunsan Air Base. The relocation program is well on its way to realiz ing its goal of modernizing the warghting Command in Korea, a key milestone in the Commands efforts to implement a vital element of the enduring commitment between the United States and the Republic of Korea.Morning Calm Conference Center, U.S. Army Garrison Humphreys, Pyeongtaek, South Korea, March 31, 2015.
41ANDUSFK COMMUNITIES COMMUNITY RELATIONSWITH OURKOREAN NEIGHBORSUSFK COMMUNITIESUSFK Communities sustain strong partnerships with our South Korean hosts through thriving and energetic families and communities on all of our installations across the Korean Peninsula. Numerous base and community organizations and recreational activities sustain the Commands families and military force. Whether it is youth sports, clubs, church groups, or any of myriad recreational activities available to Service Members, Civilian em ployees, and Families, or unique cultural experiences with our Korean partners, service in South Korea represents some of the best opportunities in the Department of Defense. Residents of Seoul show their support to the International Peace Marathon Festival in Seoul, South Korea.EIGHTH ARMY PHOTO/PFC. DONGKWON SUH
42From Jinhae in the south to Dongducheon near the DMZ, our strong military and civilian USFK communities engage every day with their vibrant Korean neighbors. This is a two-way exchange, as many Korean groups work to deepen the links between USFK and Korean society. Friendship associations like Korean American Friendship Association and People to People, Korea demon strate a commitment to maintaining strong bonds, while most South Korean people support the Alliance (84% of South Koreans see the United States favorably, according to a recent poll). Inside USFKs bases, community-building not only supports Service Members, but also extends to their families. Students have access to world-class education Seoul American Middle School and the Chinhae CT Joy Elementary School are National Blue Ribbon Schools of Excellence. Over 40% of the senior classes at Seoul American High School and Humphreys High School earned a 3 or higher on one or more Advanced Placement tests, double the national average. New schools opened in 2013 at Camp Humphreys and two more will open in 2016. Two schools in Daegu and one at Osan are also scheduled to be modernized. Sports, recreation, and leisure are also a major component of life in USFK communities. There are golf courses and driving ranges in Camp Red Cloud, Camp Casey, Camp Walker, Sungnam, Yongsan, Osan, and Pyeongtaek. There are ten bowling centers on bases across the Peninsula. Sports programs support ag football, soccer, softball, Tae Kwon Do, skiing, track and eld, and more. Also, there are 15 recreation centers that offer pool tables, table games, and audiovisual entertainment. USFK communities have a robust support network for families. Family Readiness Groups, a network of fami ly members, volunteers, and Service Members provide mutual support and assistance. The Family Employment Readiness Program assists family members in acquiring professional skills such as networking and resume writing. The Financial Readiness Program assists Service Members and their family members with their nancial affairs. Child, Youth, and School Services provide quality child and youth development options for families. The Commands Better Opportunities for Single Soldiers (BOSS) program identies well-being issues and concerns by recommending improvements through the chain of command. BOSS encourages and assists single Service Members in identifying and planning recreational and lei sure activities, as well as community service opportunities.U.S. ARMY PHOTO U.S. ARMY PHOTOTOP: Independence Day Celebration, USAG Red Cloud, Uijeongbu, South Korea, July 4, 2015. BOTTOM: International Marathon, Daegu, South Korea, April 6, 2015. U.S.A. Football Camp at U.S. Army Garrison Humphreys, Pyeongtaek, South Korea, May 3, 2015.U.S. ARMY PHOTO/TERESE TOENNIES
43Near the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), the United Nations Security Battalion-Joint Security Area runs a robust Good Neighbor Program sponsoring the ele mentary school in the village of Taesong Dong, located within the DMZ and less than one mile from North Korea. This unique relationship, built over the past 60 years, continues to thrive as our Soldiers work hand-in-hand with the school and faculty to support activities for the students. Soldiers of the battalion regularly engage with the students through sporting events, English classes, and various holiday events. Students from the Seoul area get a chance to visit the DMZ as part of the Student Security Education Program conducted on U.S. Army Garrison-Yongsan. The students arrive on base each Saturday morning for a lesson on the Korean War, the current security situation, and an explanation of the roles of the United Nations Command, Combined Forces Command, and U.S. Forces Korea. Afterward, they are taken to the DMZ observatory and an old North Korean invasion tunnel before getting a rsthand look at North Korea at the Joint Security Area in Panmunjom. One student remarked she knew that the U.S. military was in Korea but did not know why until she participated in this program. At Osan Air Base, south of Seoul, Seventh Air Force Airmen are given the unique opportunity of participating in the Korean language and cultural orientation program known as the Korea Indoctrination Program (KIP). The nearby City of Pyeongtaek and Pyeongtaek University co-host this two-day training in which Airmen learn about the Korean language, music, etiquette, and culture. They also visit the DMZ, attend Korean cooking classes, and tour key areas of interest in Seoul. More than 1,000 Airmen participate in this program annually. Additionally, Airmen and local citizens come together for the annual KoreanAmerican Friendship Festival hosted by the Songtan Chamber of Commerce where Airmen are introduced to different Korean foods and provided an opportunity to view Korean cultural performances. University students will be the future leaders of South Korea and their perceptions of the U.S. military in Korea can be shaped by early contacts with our Service Members. The U.S. Army Garrisons at both Humphreys and Daegu have established intern programs in cooperation with near by universities. Between the two garrisons, they are able to accommodate about 150 students per year from 11 universi ties working in various garrison ofces, military units, and Department of Defense Education Activity schools. Each Our community relations efforts further strengthen the ROK-U.S. Alliance through a variety of programs de signed to increase positive engagement between the people of U.S. Forces Korea (USFK) and the Korean people. These programs help cultivate personal interactions and create a more positive image of the United States and the American military as we meet Koreans across the Peninsula.COMMUNITY RELATIONS Navy Petty Ofcer 2nd Class Isabel P. Ralston, a boatswains mate, performs the hula hoop with Chong, Sun-Young at the Miewon Orphanage, August 22, 2015.U.S. NAVY PHOTO/GRADY T. FONTANA CONTINUED AFTER TEAR OUT COMMAND INFORMATION SHEET Commander, Headquarters and Headquarters Company, USAG Yongsan, Cpt. Kim and Soldiers dig a hole before planting a tree, April 8, 2015.U.S. ARMY PHOTO/SGT. MOON HYUNGJU
UNITED NATIONS COMMAND COMBINED FORCES COMMAND UNITED STATES FORCES KOREA COMMANDER GENERAL CURTIS M. SCAPARROTTI To defend the Republic of Korea against external aggression and maintain stability in Northeast Asia Combined Forces Commands readiness is essential to deter aggression and preserve stabilityMission 1. Sustain and Strengthen the Alliance 2. Maintain the Armistice. Be Ready to Fight Tonight to Deter and Defeat Aggression 3. Transform the Alliance 4. Sustain the Force and Enhance the UNC/CFC/USFK TeamPrioritiesWWW.USFK.MIL 2016 NORTHEAST ASIA Fastest growing region in the global economy About 20% of the worlds economic output Four of the worlds six largest militaries 25% of all U.S. tradeREPUBLIC OF KOREAThe Republic of Korea is a modern democracy with 3,000 years of distinct national identity. It is the worlds 13th largest economy and a global leader in technology, including automobiles, cellphones, ships, and computers. Its military, the sixth largest in the world, is a highly trained and professional force that is ready to defend its nation. Since South Korea joined the United Nations in 1991, it has deployed over 40,000 troops throughout the world in peacekeeping and assistance missions. In 2015, the ROK military deployed over 1,000 personnel to 13 countries, including an Ebola relief team to West Africa. The North Korean military, the fourth largest in the world, is 70% forward deployed, can attack with little-to-no notice, and remains highly lethal. North Korea continues to focus on asymmetric capabilities with development and deployments of new ballistic missile systems, nuclear tests, cyber threats, and increased emphasis on specialized light infantry and special operations forces. Despite North Korean aggression, the ROK-U.S. Mutual Defense Treaty enables the Alliance to deter war.Strategic Environment TEAR ALONG PERFORATION TEAR ALONG PERFORATION TEAR ALONG PERFORATION
(MULTINATIONAL COMMAND) MISSION Carry out terms of 27 July 1953 Armistice Agreement Assist the Republic of Korea in its defense Execute functions as directed by U.S. through the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff FUNCTIONS Armistice maintenance and investigations Receive and control forces when provided by 18 Member States Multinational HQ UNC (Rear) enables support from seven bases in Japan Enforce Armistice Rules of Engagement (COMBINED ROK-U.S. COMMAND) MISSION Defend the Republic of Korea Deter external provocation Maintain stability on Korean Peninsula FUNCTIONS Wartime Operational Control of ROK-U.S. Forces Support UNC in response to NK Armistice violations Conduct exercises to validate readiness Comply with Armistice Agreement (U.S. JOINT SUB-UNIFIED COMMAND) MISSION Support UNC and CFC Control of U.S. forces, as directed by U.S. PACOM FUNCTIONS Support ROK-U.S. Mutual Defense Treaty of 1953 Train U.S. Forces in the Republic of Korea Provide quality of life that supports readiness2009 JOINT VISION FOR THE ALLIANCE OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA The U.S.-ROK Alliance ensures a peaceful, secure, and prosperous future for the Korean Peninsula, the region, and the world The countries will maintain a robust defensive posture, backed by Alliance capabilities that support both nations security interests2013 JOINT DECLARATION TO COMMEMORATE THE ALLIANCES 60TH ANNIVERSARY The countries continue to strengthen and adapt the Alliance to serve as a linchpin of peace and stability in the Asia-Pacic and to meet the security challenges of the 21st century The United States remains rmly committed to the defense of the Republic of Korea, including through extended deterrence and the full range of U.S. military capabilitiesCommands An Enduring and Adaptive Alliance2015 U.S.-ROK ALLIANCE JOINT STATEMENT AND JOINT FACT SHEET The countries noted they are working together to manage a range of complex issues on the Peninsula, in the region, and around the world The governments advanced their partnership into New Frontiers of Cooperation issues of increasing importance in the 21st century such as cyber, space, climate change, and global health The U.S. and ROK continue to modernize the Alliance by ensuring it elds the best combined capabilities; collaborates on innovative, combined, and effective operational plans; and trains and equips our personnel to the highest levels of combined readiness The Alliance remains committed to countering the threat to peace and security posed by North Koreas nuclear and ballistic missile programs as well as other provocations The two countries oppose any actions by North Korea that raise ten sions or violate UN Security Council resolutionsOrganizationEIGHTH U.S. ARMY Commander: LTG Vandal Headquarters: Yongsan, South Korea Authorized approximately 20,000 SoldiersSEVENTH AIR FORCE Commander: Lt Gen OShaughnessy Headquarters: Osan, South Korea Authorized approximately 8,000 AirmenU.S. NAVAL FORCES KOREA Commander: RDML Byrne Headquarters: Busan, South Korea Authorized approximately 300 SailorsU.S. MARINE CORPS FORCES KOREA Commander: MajGen Hedelund Headquarters: Yongsan, South Korea Authorized approximately 100 MarinesSPECIAL OPERATIONS COMMAND KOREA Commander: BG Deedrick Headquarters: Yongsan, South Korea Authorized approximately 100 Service Members A functional component command tasked to plan and conduct special operations on the Korean Peninsula United States Forces Korea is a sub-unied command of U.S. Pacic Command and a force provider for Combined Forces Command with an Armistice manning of 28,500 Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen, and Marines. There are four service components and one functional command located in the Republic of Korea.UNITED NATIONS COMMAND (UNC) COMBINED FORCES COMMAND (CFC) UNITED STATES FORCES KOREA (USFK)TEAR ALONG PERFORATION TEAR ALONG PERFORATION TEAR ALONG PERFORATION
44internship lasts for a semester during which the students work full-time in exchange for full academic credit from their school. Many interns have reported learning about the U.S. Army, American culture, and about the American work environment. They also improved their skills in listening, reading, writing, and speaking English. The students gain an appreciation for American culture and a true insight into how the U.S. Army supports the ROK-U.S. Alliance in their day-to-day missions and thus the seeds of friendship are planted in the next generation of South Korean leaders. The program educates them on why the ROK-U.S. Alliance is essential for stability on the Korean Peninsula, East Asia, and the world. Camp Mujuk, a small Marine Corps installation near Pohang on the southeast coast, is the only U.S. Marine installation in the Republic of Korea. The Marines have a strong connection with the cities of Pohang and Ocheon where they work and live. The Marines and Sailors assigned to Camp Mujuk support city activities and also benet from the cities generosity in helping them attend local events and understanding the culture. Camp Mujuk has continuing relationships with two local schools and two childrens centers where Marines and Sailors help teach English and engage in cultural exchange and sports activities with the students. As a testimony to the high level of cooperation and friendship over the years, both the City of Pohang and Camp Mujuk have been recog nized as USFK Good Neighbor Award recipients. The Commander, Fleet Activities Chinhae (CFAC) Project Good Neighbor program dynamically provides the structure and opportunities for Sailors to promote and foster mutually benecial relationships with our Korean neighbors on the southern coast. For many decades, CFAC Sailors have partnered with several orphanages including the Jinhae Hope Home, Masan AeYukWon Orphanage, Goseung AeYukWon Orphanage, and the Busan Sung Ae Won Orphanage. CFAC Sailors also have a special relationship with the Aikwangwon Home, a fa cility for handicapped children and adults. Additionally, CFAC Sailors are invested in teaching English to Korean students at the Jinhae Middle School (Jinhae can also be spelled Chinhae). Through our outreach activities and the Good Neighbor Program, we have made tens of thousands of new friends and colleagues who better understand American culture and the importance of the ROK-U.S. Alliance. These posi tive and meaningful engagements with Korean communi ties and future leaders of Korea have proven effective and provide our Service Members with a more enriching and rewarding tour of duty in the Republic of Korea.LEFT: Sgt. Steven L. Christian and Youn, Ki Jung smile inside a Pohang Hospital room during a scheduled visit March 23. On March 14, Christian and a group of Marines came upon Youns wrecked vehicle and saved his life. Christian was the rst responder and provided Youn with rst aid. Christian, a Brooklyn native, is an imagery analyst with 3rd Intelligence Battalion, III Marine Expeditionary Force Headquarters Group, III MEF. Youn, Ki Jung is a local farmer. ABOVE: Cheonan High School students and Airmen from Osan Air Base in Cheonan, South Korea, July 10, 2015.U.S. MARINE CORPS PHOTO/CPL. MATT S. MYERSU.S. AIR FORCE PHOTO/SENIOR AIRMAN KRISTIN HIGH