Extension of Australian Commonwealth powers

Material Information

Extension of Australian Commonwealth powers parties, interest groups, and personalities: 1911, 1913, and 1919 referenda ..
Joyner, Conrad Francis, 1931-
Place of Publication:
[Gainesville, Fla.]
University of Florida
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
viii, 358 leaves : ; 28 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Legislative power -- Australia ( lcsh )
Referendum -- Australia ( lcsh )
Political Science thesis Ph. D ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Political Science -- UF ( lcsh )
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Bibliography: leaves 347-356.
General Note:
Manuscript copy.
General Note:
Thesis - University of Florida, 1957.
General Note:

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Resource Identifier:
021507930 ( ALEPH )
13142706 ( OCLC )


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Full Text
Exenio ofAstain omnwat
>22s-atis Iners Grus4n eroaiis
191 1913 and 119 Reerend
4 44By
4 4 4 44 444F FLORID
~ 44 r~ January,~ 1957

an awndmmt of the Cw*tltutiam onablimg hft iw doid with *r BuLUWP Ootob*r 2A 19'19o P* *t oft
tim n*Adw*vb"21"*)

This dissertation is the autgroirth of a Fulbright projwft undertaken idttl* the author was in AustraIJAp &W as Bach he wixhev to eVre" gratitude for the f immaial anistanas given by th* United states Governwnts Throughout his stay in Austnaia he was shma or"ry -conaldoration by the wabors of the United Stat" f1dueation4l FOUMOMOn I A AW*r4liA. Mr# GOOMOY Go ROSSO*rp thO FOUMOICOOB E"Outivt Orriord, extended &M and mderstanding which wor bolpful for an sAjoyable year an both the personal and aoWexis levelaw
M% rossarch and f trot dtaft of the ftasertatim aw co"pUW in "*tr*jJAj boeaum of this the author is graimful for t)*
*oq*mtion of umorcus Australian sehoUrs &M otuderits*. Mro 14
N* Spamp Prafe*"r of Ommmment 4M Public Administration in the U)d, verity of Sydmyj, permitted the author to ww the faeilitUs in the Doparbmub of Owenmnto W. Raw7 Mffyor wporvised the aetwa rio s6arsh am saft mW valviable saggestiAms, coneming the troatu"t of ift tdhjoat sad the Isoation of materialev Nr* Wyer posed quee-o tions vhich aswod tbo eoMUIate to purra Linos -of inqairr VkLdh would not have courrad to a rAaphyto in the study of Au*UalAm politdAm* ? 4X*A"r* Otaitrey Smors, RO 3*'Faftorp and 1,,, ?* Moo* hard$"* of *o AvAtnUAn Utival thiveradty gave of their time in
tft% 4V*i** Datum*

Sir Roer -~Tn on rit moeahsOortgtte
*Ad~~~ -n &O-Prii~t AtOrfr~dj qr~ of th qA+
of ~ ~ th Oarl .1UNMpro n.*~ =Wo i Vrfe
of th tmOtats

help has b"t invluabls q The author was spaod mny ef Vw praeodaa 4WImAilaw d 6 t6 l0r* DIAmatle *ffortwo, Dre Dlawtntlm most UVo*. tant eantributUn w" Uat he revised the diowrtatlAn an Um oeftoSLOW wd *aud Attention to wblvetuna 4*Vt4mlVO VOWM04ftew,
Tb*, fU41 pilAuat is the *uthorfe mn and whatever orrort off"t, and lufteamt, romin a" his#
Xn aelmodedging the sesistmm and One"wagownt of his wift UO &MAU& amfind no adepiate oporlatives, Am Joymr has
b"a bo* Adviser AW #plat, Ske h" b"m t)w firSt to pralimt but she has alft boft the fint to offer emsUvotiv* criticism sad to ouggost"Ahat hard work #M p&Uew* are Wo of the Irreplaoesb3o' ingrodlonts ot, scholaraMpo Iastlyothe author with&* to. thank Yrs* LOUIS* "I"Ir who proof road Vw ORU'ro weftv

IV* T92 wfaw AND W40M CANA=$ OF 1931 91
X14 COIMLMION# 0, 0 10 40 4 0 4t
AU$TULlA,--19)1 341
lXAMLMM"-U% AND 1911 0 6 9 0 0 0 342

17 IM P 1913p AND 1919 RUIRBEL4 WAMTS 344
B=am= slam 357

-= W JB
Table% Pa
I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~ *lato ofUin n rmee oTae
III* ftwo ofFcoie n uw 4 A37
IV*Poplatonof ~trli by Sttep 1n .14
V -9 soodmVt 7
vx.#192 Se~wl~ Vot aM19U ottoadv Veo b
Otts 7
VI itiu4no mamalhPr tit th ll e of 191 an hIeeedutf11 7 4< t Coa ath >4 lew r Ditit tha VoedLao

put* Pap
Your unbrolia.0 strto . 4, , Frontispleas
no, A De4wnUw Study 0 6 fp 0 0 io a 6 & #
In 0', you caamt O&MM 0 46 124
IV* The Fw.mris, Fri"d
V, i 0444" "Ib 23.7
vn woft=ta 049
walmdr4s slag 77
ME* Mmay MoAk"liq 0 o 0 a o a a 2"
14 AwsUIUI* Futas 302,
X14; ftnifiwt Fortou"

This 0 Us of the 1911,p 1911p and 1919 eAemim
of AustrAlism Commomeath pmers Worm" is mftrt&Ma Lu Uo gotoral field or pontima paruos* Suah a oftir as4wssarily Uk-o vol"m a dimmoion of tho totivitiss of mjar socia-aeoneade interoat groups and# thcW*m* this diawalUtion VIU be mainly oowsr)wd vfM the grmp &USrawat U'ammad da the three
Then has besn only am othor m1or andy*io of a
roft2*od" *hich h4a 'b*on orient" tawods mhat mWq be terawd VW "group sora"ho to poUtleal aualy*U,* This is Aam Wildauv*y4s study'af the 1996 exuasUm of 0 vv*&M pmwo retsmadua* profa"s
Twpau"ths4is propw4aftd bwo (an* *dab is asult
jVU4*4 in the aeatent *Ad vatb"4w of thu p4w* "d
in the is tkAt vw "Mot P4"trAU to
#Lpa of interests kiom SA, Poutica vatus MA
both this Proeva".6rva vhlah Sappeapt tbAm "d tm
artans"rilatsag intemats wisma them or*"*#
Ift Or4w to uaftrstam WSXTIng ft*U4*Sj =d tkw Itima mt*o
Isee; Arthur Beatl*r# Tho. ftmo of G*"yppo"
IhAiaaas Pr$=iP3A F"640 1949) WA'Wll'll&m 04
*Polftiva SOU=6 and th* G Proftvss 11 TLO -32!"
LN Ouly# wg 340-*504
WildauvaWt OTho 1926 ReferOndvat ftrtiss# P"Sn"
Psr*oWjtI,"*'* (uoublisbcd **seamb prejeetj, Dep*rtoo mm, 00 Sow Univorsan W),.0 1

To 6arry out his a1z Vilftuvoky, ftvotos the =in baty of hj& papo to an s la'cf VO Ubor group#,# Us OSPIWIA gr"PS,# Pruat7 pvDdUftT'gr*VD# ftaUs' r4htv &Ujtaft*# eenfUet in the Nattaow
*Ust: ".Povutry P"IUSiv Md r0lieiftf viw*o, Aftor asking Uis b"SMdOftA'WU"UV*W &OOnpU to ftie"dm the degroo to iftjA 44eh.of the g"Ve within thoso "tegari" su"Orwd Or Oppond tj*
refor".6av- The divisUm of groups avAs in Vw follwug stney diffgti trmlbat of WIId4Mvfty* b-stause the two studiss ex"in pdUlslesd #"at$ of two diffe"at poKeds, Tboro jkft 4110 V" In VhUft US SiM 4 fA* pftnat *a* differ ftm thom of WUdAave4W# Ths emns of tho wal"ie of Us 15U# 191)* 4md MP nfemtda is #=v*A broad" tWM IM&uv0W#* beoauft U o"*rs
ton yww'p*rI*d &M do&U sith U"o rof*pa-A& InabsM of moo In a SUMVv of 8 %ft '"ar ]*K*4 at" learmatim 40OX"s on f*&r*I*St*tQ Muumes, iftologiola "Unittvo, WA ths rolo or 1"*Wsb# lu'poUtlml fook""oW U AustralUa poUtles* FwtNwwm,* In deal" with a pr4oagod controtwov it blo 'ba IrAioa," sew sf the 2mg *wa tm" in th*os uv&X.w
Theme palMis an not discumad uwfor a psr*te headings,* but ea"idwed alw* with +#bo gro" "a"IA* FUAUy* b""pf *U thfte of UP WOVOW4 40alt IWM tlUfttloftv vhUvb -mould. h*" exuMdod IOM"" "411h Po"ro In *4 fiAloft of tro" a" Comorft#
110SP ther I*" ww"WIVOO to a CONOWstiv* Anslyslew

Aside frox Wilidauvokys th*ro an firw writers vho h*"
demat Y4,th Wor*W& In mw avat detail v Loiee ster Wobb I a book,#
parity Au"gj # Is a dies
sod Po in is mansion of the IM
referondva to Outim the COMMI-st party.,I Hd*OVWI-# Ubb dMI nol. concern hioeelf auth with prOsswe group a14MMieats =4 his *at is more In the natwv of a study in public apintm formation* R# 8* Pa*or,#. ah*ther writer an reforemlop do** not attempt an suaysis of an Individwa roforondmp but rather surveys an of the vsforw ,end& that have been hold up to Vr* Pa*or#o amw is the
boat source for voting results n=bor# and polibiwa origin *f "ferea"O, Tho" vbo &3* nore thft oasw&131 interested in Us Audy itt MW woU bowfit fm reading Parkers *aW,#
It U samtW to givo so* g*ftftl Worwti(m about
We 1*0% in Ordt'r to PIAOS Us 'I=* In3,* w3d 193.9 WenMA in their te4sl, histarle4a Per"tv"O Tb* AANtrcuan OMOUt"Ieft in Osatim IN poeribes the mmmw In wbi*h the Oca4itatIon am be slte"d# (k) a propo"d Iw for Us Altezation ot MW OomU.* tuition be passed by a maj*rIty of **Oh Rouso of Parliaxontj
(b) "t Uss tww "a or non tun tdx months after its P"240
throu& both Hou"s the P"Posed lot is to t* -subsd+W it *a"
im !Bd,.A!2!r Austna
Ubb # Comm in U 8
ths Relboufte I r # W URWOUIr-0;
214 S# Puters, -"he Poople and the Cknstitatimov IP4!MLM in iAstraUA -allou'lu"Unte of Foutiatl Salem* twilva"01
Fa W*'chothvMP 19149)* ppv 2,15-09* fte aloof Wo 8,.UvIng*bdn* FederalivA and ConAitutioral, Chan" (Loadmf Oxrovd universit- Y pftea$ 19563, PP!* 1,10-690 This discussion of amazing the Awrtralian cowAt" tutibn his moh a the material contairad in Paftorv,

$tat* tro the el*"ors qualified to vOo for the *Ieota of **mbors of tw Ibuse 6f RepresezAativool &" (4) If in a =Jority of 0%41*s a majority'*f the Omators voting *Mra" the proposed 2Awp it to proftsAod to the O*"m*r*OwwAI for tb* reigning *utarehOs sonswul
Then h4v* been *t&ty*ow Offonnt matims in Vw redwP4 PoKiaventIor ConsUtutiwAl &Its-ratimp and of tbase t"nty4ly* hit" bo*O subadtted to the tlootarson thirtoon sopanim over thm-4ourthe of the *saadwmts between IPU and 1946 "ve attempt-w ed to inoroase Us Connomssathto UgLsUtlve pwor., Of thsoo only us Pw4rN reftroadm of 1946 dealing vith social s2rwitom w"
tbft*"r*"U# of '%b* exto".1-M of Pa"ris 10"Atit Commm atk PsAiwant U41adift twipoLftlxts of Idw Propowds'AssaWy oubmAtted ba", velatod to seven ufteor$407 troAs- MA earmav*0 RationaliestIAM of Koft"IUS-# wd"
'ii**Uw# roguUtlan at Ibrw& 00 A- Ma"aus, soew NorT:uw 'oftotino 111"orlwalr* h*v# looen nod
fftqmmv yl ift the attw9t U oxtww 600"Welau P"Oras,
Vwk jt* Its re"094$' u", the reft"adn bas not- prev"; to
th* Amu for constitutional Oban" thaVits founder$ W
&mum loon$ Tbp ConOtIMAIM cc
od*j Velboums"Uhanso MWWO-11 & r.,*#, 1910) PP 663"64110'.
Nost of this material b4w bOOa **Uon ttm R.. OTW
'ft Od tb* Conotittition." There to as* sow gwwr*l infonatick an roftrowu it I j Mille'to, j!1,gqI4Ln 06"Marl'
043riad Duak"Orth "d Q*'*'O WA*P IM)s PVI w 133OW360:

enviaw* Of t" twenty-f L" questions put to the 6100tento oray ftar bam be" O*G*p%*4* Two of thisie# Jo D4 No -Xiller Us, sadAs *oft Onegligible machizary maeut*** and dealt with "Attesda
(1906) and -the amsmq*U4 of State debt* (1910)*1 Us
third',,propcoal accepted w" ths I lrameiol "ewmt ef 1998$ vhioh was recardod as an adainistrativo awaswo at the tim of it*, pasxat e*' Tho fourth Proposal to ro"I" Affirmative wour
was the 1946 gowt of p~ to the 0 to ftntinve *ad
vzWv4, 60" serwimso Moft i"oAMt f*r thts, Atmly is the fact that th"t of Us twmt7wfivo quiostlafte Uat Uve b"m put to.
vi.i** ptior to 19U* two of thom#, dealing, with smtorUd, e2setiori* (,1906) ud "ompidon at $Ulm dobts, (In*)* doe"", In -the *ftUwUv** The thixd I to 0 wasn" to replaft
t1w *Addovi *Uum, WW Aefivatod. Unlike Us ft*"an 8U mm whioh', pV*14*d that the P06MI gwmmmat should ropay thio** fmufts, of Ab* Outom "d skiift revomw to tba 5Ut*## Us Mo roftrandua WpuUted a Mt ftenty4lva shiMug per mom poywftt piW ba*A f pWAUtAw U, the OtOao* ThU prepo"I rostived! AL ng'*Wity in th"s States# but wao'vojoetod by a very to
WO 0 000""MAPo 1,33#"The ftfore"m ift Au o mm 8L

Ay 1pu noot p0aplo aptimiotio Awu% us f"albulty
of saUrUgAhe ConOituticnthrovgh the refeftn4va proosco t1w -colmioa$btsed on tl* success of two reforenda ftd tko nuvw 4#01', foat or,* third# W" pr6matur04" In amlrdj* Vw %We* dit**Wd
*,zt4nuion of Cowxmwwath powers reforonda tlw d0doz*Wtloushw* among other things# Jut how dIftlault It hex boon simm IM to <*r thf AUVtr9liU Oft"ItIMLOn thrOUgh "COT"".

14~~~ Is d;iul to aprSW1 tb tugO hhrVl
arokdth 111P193. *d 919exenioMO n4tril 00Ath
pow rfir,4 wthuta kowede o te irten m4 cenur
facorsof W~d a~~tj hitor whch hape n odtoo Autx dmo ay oemo f heefate*Autmin 37r

*A examination tkf the roeorO of trunspoztstiouat my ponod
betwOOR' 1M and IW woold show that ispirlted poachers ud
P41UAAd Pri"Mrs am O'"A pibtureoque. -inuill"At vuuins
w" but a mll leaves In the IuW# whieh wav vretaket and
:jjvO*OX' &W forlomo Wart it peasiblo- to ooWsl tbo prism
vardow: of this pa" age to prodws for our inspoetles a
' tolosa* trahVort" *Wvlets, UmW woald ohm us$, not U&
i1quOryam *ho one*# rabbits but the Lwdanor vW stol*
In, 1783 fne jwttlors begs= to join -the, convivto ths
*OIOIW.,"*,pz*vvnUd from beeoair4 X Priunol "n though the fvm sottlars b"m to ouimumber ths sonvIoUo the pmsown of perai'lAutibutions made it necemsarr -to ozalt tho role of gmnl,* =nt# A16P04or ftady O(wateb4s? that the As"Ovitiou of x4intaiw*
PGwa ':;**tSbli*luwAt *Atnmaw the Uaditlaus of Olwatralt"A:
Us v"hasle on solf*4v1i"oe *ad Wivid"lim that
froutior So*i**r v W abwwk from Austz4ai= T* vatemali,014 beat of the sa.K r edlonlal govsft l WrAs did, not dlSaVpww vi th the eW at tranooottAlAm Depenfewo an goveromat w" fostered tar the vatsm &ad umhmglag faets in tM geogftphio onviftnwnt p partiftlarly tbo sog"Itr of ralaw 10 periodic drou&tp and swh aridity-A So at the very ouM*t there:
3W. K. F*noeok, A"tv*jL* (Landons Fzu*A Bonn# latd*$ 1945),* P 36
ppe )3-47 wd A* 0* L* Sbws Tba ft*!Z 2! (Lan&&I I=r Fzborp Ud#p 1954)p Ppo 44-*WT
3A'ls=aW*r ftwW# in the !MLA (Tormtot
The ftiv"Di+4rl or Tamto 005" MR) a P* .133

were t* futs of nature and of a psaal4eWtUllohmaut vUeh toro*d the *w*ptA=o of g4mmomt as a pouMv*-_fOmO*
OaagmoW and climate a" responsible at least partially,#
for tt* POWWAW "Urft 'whieh. Auotraiem Pastoralism, rollmod, The Wtmvlbg fac*0 In Auxtr4iAfs g4mt4al;r hostile geography md alimtols that the aouUmnt, io voll mdtod for rxiftug shrepo The -first flefts, were introduasd **rly in the niusto*%U century abd we& production and the Ude baNd 00 WWI r4kpidly exparWed:i, Sq"ttors qulA*ly occupied zoat of the ooutineato* The goograph;r WW olUmto fashioned *Micatwv bond on OextAmoi" wW highly ca;dULUM pamimral SUUM* whWe shosp Cr"od *vor
tftoU ranging in the Ainstomth cauturY frm M to 300
mquw* SUOO**131
'Att, tho same tim OkWep grasping W" flourishiog unftr fohe eq"ttgr ftpitalistm,# tb" -was a rVJA growth of part oitiej* Z"n befoj* 1850 U4 tmlt& m" urbon *o=Uy4i Th* ptwts mwe n*+ OU4 the centers of trade aM Mul&Ump but they vers tW corktw* of 1Mm*tryj the *1 reodlzg gramod' of domarasy *A4 #vw&*. %*ally tho vtnters of strong labor movemot# The growth of the squatte" in Agri"Iture WW the ri" a th* &*"rt =Wohmts traders as well as an urbm laboring slow provides the basi# for ow of the perslortont conflicts In Ustraimft hiot*ry* The mpatUre 1rho ropmontod tbo old world 01mm of PrivU40 md
1MRidi*1 P*

prqwrty bocam the target.of both the marohants and Us wo*or*.3Betwun. :L840 and IM US buoinsas Md UmOrOW interest Captured p*Utlaal amtrol fron the squatterop and during the last 4toode of vsi O"tury both Uo soatUrs and the busbwas *ad oommoroW Werosts *ore throatoned by %#* risiM p~ of I*or*
The discovery of Cold Is the 180*s is mwthor factor whiah.shbuld be emsiftivd In the Wwoth of b*U dommoy and the lab6r movmnt* The UworWmee of tolA has boon ovemphasiW In so=, Australian historian within and *oA obsomrs point *0 that th6 m4n strains of Auotr4aisn politics pro-datod the old rush.2 Th'*M OtMins of politi"I Contra"My Whiah p"oded the pU rush wati ths drive for *qmaitarimim bv the ox-oanvi*ts
from labovrol the eonniot between the rural and urban
intoromtej the strong patoxnaliatio nature of the aoloaW govorn-o
nant; andlb* ammesity of oxpudIng Vw bass of the *owwW to Wlude Wustrial as well as pastoral purmitse The politima#
*conomdep and v"Ial eanso"omme whiA* flowed from the s4d ruA served to sbarp" the already existlAg teademiqs*
IR* Mot Hartwellp Me ftsteral Ascomusyp ft Atu#tmaj k#
WW tw.'! Rem* *do Gordon OMMOod, (TrAwt Moo
SM "barMho 1755)p P* 47*
hom of the writer* who hold this p*ition ant Mutw*U,
*The P"toral Asamdmmyp" pp* "I ftw# The $to l.of Au _ralla& Pe )37j,'fiaUOO4k* Australia,, pp* 60-62j mA C* marWAT arasum, DA gobw Au!lr= John DW Cm-O 1949)0 P* 49.

(IOU attraeUd imdoontaj, stimuUted the *D" to diftr-* airy VW 000howo Md htstsww ths P#Aar4utst U" Of POUU44
M one writer *Utess
Utz *Uho" gold tbo Anstralion Colowits., with no troditioaa aoaorv*Uv* alaw and without totablUted Inatitat1wwo, would
hixt :hav* I*ft tb* broad rMA frM BOOMUMilm liberalima
UftU& palitioa democraCy tMards "OUte so* am* thou&
ohey AL&t vall bavo trovened It move slo*V*
FrotesAi6r UW*OQk vbo d6scrUmd this, donoamtWng, px*n" In great detail, stroosov, the atilitari *"at of Auetralia dosoontit growth. and IA*m* the Uat* U "a vast pOlio OUU7441
biwoverr of P)A in the 1850to only &IA*d Us grmth 9f dowerWW: becaMis by thA tUW Us ftIOAUS begas to refloat tW mderlylft uAtty of political swAlwat* The poUtiesl p~ of the O"Att"'W'":brafts wmlor ImsUW63A pressure rrva the oitsss* Thmghstato soolalism or **LUetivimn had not entered the pletuo at this Utoo the '"evorwholming oolanial opinica of 1860 reprodus" VO liboftl -#OAtbWftt Alth V" to Make Mr,# Glodstmo a poftr Z A
Engi=O, 6 *44 FqpuUW govemwnt# rs"ift on manhood Wfvago mW *kht emorat bs6Uotp whieb had been -deveUpIft, ;stwe. 18201 a
etao, i U Ito 4mm dwing the 18%tv. The rli* or pWular gwmramnt Op p* 1400
!gILAI "d pdmiw Od Groometis p
4*%&ughUu# *Colonial 14baftliMO ad* Oftomfoods P.

was aceon"nied by Othe shwmatoriatio libel attaft an privilogod "ous w 4 iraquAlIty ot opportmity*141
By 1860,# the moU oconamda# s"141# md mllglo" grm"
had wpp*IVdw The Wor, $00noNU SftVa wSre the large, ptAeftliSts) the ardwAtt and ovwr busu"va" vho dixoatay or lmuvaur relied onvammom for protitj %M *an ladmatrWiata, wW th* ramsi md wsban. Ub*rU* fw"** About 98 per"nt of the p"%U" tiew won British sabjoetep, sithor born in AwAsilia or the DrUIA lalts 'This. 4009 not *640 *at tw POPRWAM sharod'a 00=04 Out*
lookOn MJOZ 00OWNU WIS P031U461 4%0941406# fOr IMIGOW iA thle VvV'oC Bvitiah*rs w*ro Welsh mtu*rs# Irlak mttowaista am ahatifts,* *" iWIvIft*U*Ua Sestm"* Tb* ftu*b of InOarA eUlmod- tho, bulk of the p"alation 34 its mombereh*# but Mw TrUh Oathelidv# t1though as"r move th" 20 pment of U* populAtiak z"smW a strong smd limited religims alnerityt Tbo Irish Ostbellov wara gomrally I&wors# 4nd we" 11berol insk *Ul
mattaftio, They provided a obarp isoatr"t to tho v*ci&Uy MAberal gr*V U the temperance slevAmt in the AagIlwm aburehm, And
. "rpixm. urowh jai or tbew cvv*a,# raftivula4rN the ruftl MA MMM' labors# were Us ox*c*avUtv w4 th*", adventararm who hmA in Oearob of ge)A,,
The fteiia# *oemamies md p4itUsl dmlvpmnto which have tho far boaa OMmand woft, %h* pftluft to the rapid, dsv*l"mats

that took plow In th* lAttter h9f of MA nUwtoftth osmbury sod that ha" a mwe dlivet bearing on tbe 19nt 191). &W 191P ref*"n"*, 'Tho-SO 66VOlOpMate oft bUt a contIMU016A of tho foress whiph von at work, frm Us bogimdag of tbit Au"r*144w, "IdnUft. Tbm moot ObaftoaUtic."peat otAuft*4AmxI paItt"a histA* r,'.Abd'Abe zo"=m+. WhUh On bo U-"" m"t: *"Uy is the rise ce
A1840 about am Amstmllm in wmry 318 was, a tr*O wdon m*W*r$ by 1855 tbA% ratio had beft redW" to o" in fifty4eurl, and by tho Uto 1870tv traft =tow Md pw&*UvA"
armA I'mm"" W&O Strmg ilk us" UnLOA eirdlev.0 and as a n*At politivs llyw v""lly Oenfusw boywd tbo ftqw of 1ftitUmte union A*tivVWy,# Althoq h $am lobar grmps had entered politics early in the eantvxy*2 Until tbo 187-0to AutrolUm Uado U91*m w*M "101 int*ftAtod in Inawtag that w9loyeft paid the prevailift'Imps,* and in tbo operation of fri*ndly benOlt so4aUsm*
Z"a, thou& labor osebeved politt"I motfAm,* the oxpomstan 4f, =J m4M ths ""rjr, o4onisOlAm of, unk" p"""d thm for
mar futa*.03 Aaovwr imporuat uator to utat
-1410noocks Amlln! P* VA*
tx* No Genm* assumall4am Ot Ubour Movmost wd Us comommal-ths"
(Tho Vhivtrsity of Wiftewou PrO"s 19499* P* 70,*

in the 18704 # Auatftliax unianisato, unlike its Axorlam or ftglia6
*OM%*tv#rI4 Opread to the Mmiew Of Makmad MW sonl-I*U3*d wo*w*#XI larly Austral= =:Laos W been I-Wted to Vw trsfts
iw, 86M 0 me orgsaizatdAm O.Ven4ftd t a qvft** ft*2*, 944010.1 or evm vent b"nd Us bordtre of tbo W$*#: *wd n= U**a poUtisal fom.* Comom policies were adVW, =*Ae: =Iy be implemated tV politivia aotion,2
Tkw orgmi"tioftl ao"mnt vtiah gave t4ft to politi"I aAlAM v"- tht IMrftloaW TnLft Uhion Q&Wreso vho" first meting place It Tbo first Ooftreas vus ivortwt ta"W6 it was
the 6*5Mquon. v*tth* tftft Mions b" OaMAM Ia443N*-,. O"S. Me; tW the poliales *"pW tq tta, %)VC"**'*euId be
IsgioUtim*3 The 3"4WA Tato2ftloaW ftaft
VA-UM Oqe***$,WhIGh V" Mld In Ion d"Id" t* Sqlai" politi"11'r
decision of the OMPOSS to enlww pall'bies Sam in ths make of etriMs by maritime md Pastoral w~o U Mw IMIso These strikes aoinaidsd with a *sarlss of aeuto finartsial crises and a, nmbsr of 3U3duvU*W distwtan"o vhieh broqftt about on
%OUIM,, "N"18"UftO odo Gresn"Ods P* 15110
M 0 0

01 e
labor$ entry into polities at this tim was not awa*d by, Us f Iman"
*W er$Awov rather It wax dvA to the organi"t1wal awoess vhIsh labor 006ndo Labor W boon foUvring 4 highly pnguatto
*ours*#, and eaterift palities wwmd %* bo ths most pr"tiesd vW to gain its abjeativ***
Issbor's pragmatit approach also otw*d =ions# -althoWth
ini'luenced by o"Wist and other r*dioal tMories of the nimteenth century.0 to tachow doetrinairo solutions for oconoxie md p*Utittl
questionivo. The works of Hvi2ry Goorge# Eftamd B*UmW* Sidney Wtftp and others war# famillAr to the working olavsow* Consoquent2yo U*
main, contribution of xmialist Uftlogr wao that it provided )Abor with *a vKmvletlon that, UsIr -tx*ft wden stru"Its wo" JwAifiad and provided the stI:=AIuswhi*h wrpd them an tcwsrft pvsparing for poutiwa Aotitm AaAftlia" ftim this beginning h"
&o*p4wd tb6 talks as a pooitl" forosi 'abd the fteialio program c" d for policies whUh only reinforced this basio asewsol",*
11,0 ro Fitshardups "no 40SIOM041ths 190149390 Ago"!&
*do (SeAml#ys VAIvervity of CaliferAU Pftwo'
p* 65* The utliowwass, of the industrial discord of the 18"to and tbo g"wift p4liUml p~ of labor wort responsible for AAftratl4a, Courts wW'W*pe Boazda boing **Wl$jftd by tM solonial ge"ments* 0" Chaptat IX for a disowmion a the asnMetat which reavlUd frm tW duAl avbltration eyoUs vhieh dwm1ppod after federsAiano
200UMP "Nationalisms" odo Gr"woods Pw 160f,

OM of the. =at important 610MOUto of trade Unuft Ovoth W" tho VUO of Xural Workore W31Mts, SaftuaO the 660100 of US vp~1v p*Utibal pow md Va rim of Us cUo tftdIng &0 vih the O"OvPwIng domae"tie turn *f P*U.o dIA nat, jv*at. in tb* eaftift of Us OWAtero
*46noul-a Veoev# rwval vo *or# Ud by 0 Op*tW* orgoal"d for
The omWamtlvo, ftUure of colmAsl govermoMw to sabd%*
tbsUW te ishe v14U of the uJority holpe to *VI*U ibo 0*40 6f, bovilAwssont and tn0rUOu.*tioh von$ in* tho
spenft,:** vss among tho firat to rotogniso tho gri*vwmes of tb*
resulted free this fcUm* to VAWS* Us land to U* '1411 of. that'Wority organisod the fit" ruml wims in IM #
AjVboug h'tb* "eific grUvaces of nVa wofte" allUd h1a e""$
the mass*$ rural Mims grow out 'Of. the feetors which we"
rosponsWo for the tooslormitod vmion growth Uat begs= In the IB404 80 the sq"litarUn seatimut and %ba optimistic AuvtralUa
*Aional santimate Symee v" pro*ehUg the Omm velSgIms of unlat w im vh1oh-'Asuited the *"A of *mWAzt =a vho had xam y seams- te "ttlo vith AMP26yers Vho ret""d thou Facush eon"Otims #M Praclo. tiaon, # a v4y of life that 414 wA **eard with Vw *qWItadplas
Iveaughton* Wtu ftsterma AMW*WRWi" id, OAMMOOd'r P,4 10* For Spowwtsown story ows W., 0 SPOMW # ku"raliaf
ThU j.* ot.jZ 11L Ig tb,* Uft %%at

The V-e*U of rwal and industrI4 unions meant that labor would he" 'a strmg voios in oalonW PoUtiess *M within tat yoavs
after tho decision of tbo oovwvth latemoloaW Txv% Union GoVremsf to enter poutus* Labor h" beeous the *Wmnow of pomrft In oolmdg jegj&3AVjrosA, Tbo 14bor paly pmmoved In "lonial parlIONOMS tbo S0114wity whiah vas chamteristic of unl4ns in industrW di"too" Labor *OUA*xIr in p4rUamnt was miAtainod by the Labor vamas vhieh enabled labor to speak with one volat on UgW&Uve sattor#0
The #4M&rMq ot *&IAmlal lAbor portlos was in shop ooxi,* trask 11" the Uak of ooh*614% mong non4obor gro"v# There fte no *IOUU#At na*- puty uft-M tbs 14,bowa pu*y tot 1noi "IW44;partloo vore duftmed and kbmUtWmOP$A# f0twe Smum proxu"Oil A*KvykaU ratbar ttan dominmb, $40" with the oxmVtion OrI.VW'tjbour plimty.101 The persamd wW difftse nata* of
botma 18?0 *ad 1900p distinguish** this period
amar*aut line* of politlas ftich ontft" aftortho
tb*. soot par% -colani4a parliamats vw* inyd"A In
G.o" p* 46

10" rows Awt 603-onial, Ugislatures Vol* "ora" on
b---AWital7by the ProvWon of social capital in the
f*M Thibrayik OWts sad e*h94s's the divUlbu*16"
4C tW;o. throughout each colony offs"d plenty of oppwtuxMiss
for haroo t"Wilft WA Iq9-CGlUA9*jas i0oa10, ot load tijuvre vat also impartanto and Uo" we" *oatinwA attempts, tbA The, squatters 3*81sted all Offirtt
to out V*irhoIdJmgx up into smaller section** Altbough the squaturs managed to WithstaM the pressure from the cities in matte ra ot policy* the rural ft,"s in Unat*r*d by the
dams tor: O*attation of secondary UW=ft7*
Uvid a Victorian tumpaper publisher in ths 18601s
%hat Australia, would never be frot from 46pen"Ree she *Smained a Praft"r or rw Vhich Oukor Comtries *aft ry inU flnisW goods
kustraU A, V", "100'rAble so lo" as ohs remained a priuM7 produftrj,
'00 owas%7fs standard of living mtod on proaariow *orld
prlos# *'Waatod Protection for seoorAAry Industries so that As6raU*IIif"O*dmft-s would ovenWally be able to 60MOU on 04GAI
W"UUI ewmtAoxe AustiW-Un pretw4ioniste
*on 200 ,;U '*air emso by wVLimg that a pftisotionists- polior
Aosdr-wagas prateetimaWdrat, moatod labw,3
14LfA*# P* 38*,
JIM I A,# PP* 38-39*

ju the fiftt. pars after Oo CommovealU w" formW prAe*tioa for indu*Uy wat joined with e*rtalv v0sitiO Ugivla-tieft to W 1&vr# and this Vr"ram was 14mllod "New FrotsetUn*01 f1wovers, prot#OtUft b*mm afttthemm to the m on the land, If the Wvoftt#x ot proo U-0tiM **ro maesm$W it vo4d mesa that tho p"tomliat vaoU h&VO tety4r, his equ4mnt at high pries# frm tbt proUeted Austr&U4a: industritt$ and fax% labor vm1d be wro ovensive bocuum of prassuft'from wft*s in UAustry* Alsoo, -agricultural products sold in a Wou', mrket *dght lome ibeir barre it Austnli& stepped importut mAuf4vtWWd good** Op"tootlon tbus bees" on is"* In
its 6*4 rjg t* md an exuwbatim in the smtinwa "ming fl&t ear.-Of
00 foot whivh seem to omrge fxva this goneml diadavoLon at Au*tOsi*h donbury Auslimlia p*UUO* it# tUt by V* 1.8"4.o Austftli* V#A# $A a zMAtim **I* father ;osibive **Uca by tW ,state ft m"v"t7* Jo"ph Coha**xMA sAU ot IngUnd dwIM tull
'fhs. V4jt14U Of UO fttUft Wjtj*S# #Ad UO P"*U4.
.is stiU how to ftftre the gmtovt )"Pine" I Of tho gy"imat
AU*#r and. #""Jan3r of ttogo. *ho% An pft L U40"tum
on&vsfem m*m to have loft very mob vbero they befaftJ
XSse Ohaptor U for a dis"osim of "Now Prolostion *0

The xiap4Abor wW Ulmw gre"s SA the e4wW govorwouts recog. nImW thissiAwAtimp W It'vas tba Auetralita CommonowaM irbiah, w" y*t to be *wUbUWw4 that provided UA Uid in Uo "sooUl politt*O of the twentieth century*
It. rmIns now to r*viow the sUpe Which led to fedofttion. And to. PoAzt out the Provisims of the Constitution vbIAM forwd ,4h# basik:for the referenda prqp*waa* The Individwa ooloniou whieb hM ,*ried on Au*tmII4xCo"r4wrA for alftst hW a "A00turys Molly doeid*d to ftdamto in 19Wa
UWAAion w" to bep bat not until tbo Colonies, h4d *Veri*wod t&ttqr y"M 0 OW-goven=mAks "Ut lUhtd their palitU4 wd,
tastitutUms, OW gaUw4 expetUaw in their fu=tU*AI"j,;M4 do"Inod "ono"a entities vhl both camp*W
vlth'-rsAd compleaftiod a* ano'kh*rl hsA bom 114ted mom aloooly
by Axa*4 tMaport wd iatenelo&W trmlop =4 divided by w1d intorooloLw OOMPOUtIOU04
con"doatlo' sgitattw for moderation WA bogus in the 18801 a and "o dr-ift madbad its mmith in Mw 18q0t$"2 Although there vais a I#Akof direct and Imsdiats oxterwa presswrop the" wer* soveml strange ixtornal #m4 *xtorwa roasms whieh samtributed to the f*&r,., 0IM "4. P*rh*pg the M"t iMpOrt"t Y*&$= ftr ffftratIAM V" US loft of itte"Uto wAU*rdtr In treft and -cu4ow matter$* TA an ors of laftetrlal and conwraial devolopmn% us PrOVIROI&I trAft regulations of tho varlme colonist ho"red tho nation&I seadamio
91W*# ppa 14546#

dov$2.6paut of Austrsaia*l A*Wd to Me ceaftwion and straits In ixtormU" traft whiah mindtod frm izdiylAa*l xWe r0guUU014
thom wors tvm oxterma oaaam vhiO alftd tkw godergUmiAss,
Thoom, wo" the doulre for am "I" in luperUl mW"ro inoUsA of six'O And,*o nmw for 6 =irerm werao votes, rib4ly, tm" wera.thm* wbo "re motlvaW by owtiment wW Iftalim and who advae" formation b*eaue tMy felt that the soutlawAts p*tea.-w lkial covldorAy be rtalised lzA4tiwihoWio %Vr**Owd
000 "glont of,
svpart 4,40g*rauda wosu* tb*Y r*4W tbs 'O"Voutlen of ah "P
100*4440i ",Or chirkso coalust This gre" *ITW4 UA ig the 4x Sts *& were =iW* strUt and, pr"Iblti" poLUy of
A44sA.4nJUSIM O"Id be Horo"ri there "ro *tMr
Ahs l*b4w aov*suA *be to* *a sufavorsbU vi*w of
fa4a"imvW #am "an r*joet*d it. Thon v"ms mm in tbo I~ UWVWA"t# -3430 1# No *AghOOo who fought the proyWan that gwm tbo aw 3 stato.0 04ma ropmorautift in VO aftalmi, I& lu othibra$ lik*
W, A* Holvanj feamd Ovommoalth ab*e*VVmft of BUto fawticati* But both *40" *ad lo2=m ultod In ishe battas to 4smoaratiso ftondon)* MW 24p 1913s,,P* 9s,

tM Constit-4tion.1 The boat sugary of the reasons why labor was reluctant tqateopt federation is given by Re So Porker who points
cat that
coianl4aloar parties wasted as litt2s power an posoibl*
given to a fadorma parliament which they felt they would never
oVtom.0 and which they thonot wm24 be ha=ftvft bjy a $east*
domizated by the "pelitioally backward rural Oates#**
The anti4oderation sontixent of som 10or groups mm shared by uny, conservatives who felt that the rise of fedorsa pewor mouU render the State* lVotont4 This aontimmt now jusU fled if one eonsWers the v;astnose of the AustraLiAn continent (43ilost Urge, as the Unitod $Utos in wma)j, the smaUmes of the P"ulation (botma three and fmw million as of 1900)p and the rowAvas", of the ambers of papdation from me anotMr (500 mUos "p4"to I*Aoume and Sydmyp mW Perth and Oydney am 3#500 maox aparoo ktormoverp the States were al"ady providing their eltisms with railwWsp rovAs# porta# and "hoolop and It was fes"d that Statox would love control o"r these functions,* State govormosto
*or* eritioLu4p but tbay wore at lesA familiar institutimm, In tba 2argerhatos.. partiamlarly Now BouthWales and Victoria-# thom
lFor Uborts historical &ttitods an sawrtitatiama chug* soot T,* F. Cri"s La_ anEsdoreil Xmbourto2jZ (Londont Laugmuip Groon find 06.# 1955) # j*- 230-o5g* W No ftghoO Positim an fodorttim is given b7 L*'F. Fitshardis" in 9W.- X* Hugbox in Now Bouth 101405 ftlitj"$ 1890-19Wv'N J&Ama:l and Prpq a of Us R041
210OUtYx ATY"Y51)s 10 0- H,01"Ays 10 CIVOM 2A H* V X Ah Ubour 14! m US Ltory I W
!214M ng tho 10our Me*4-mons kasymsyt AAgUO Md Kob*rUfto I
2parkars *The People and the ommututionsm p. 136*

w4ft ma foaamd tht, possUla aoatoOmmy! of another St*W
Dampilw, these abs"Ums the Owstitutim mw ao"pd in 18" byt majority of 7#000 Vwt***l
V w, w4er probl6w whith actOMAd the desire f or ths
astablistoWnt of a f*46ral oftrnmat w6re rVf%*~ in tbeponirs MAt Vore glmm to tb* "tio"I govwmntt 3*abim 5M of the 4ahAjtUtj*A'WhIA% 11AIL WW PWOV Of tbS 06OWU044th P*rli*WMt
tho naisU ga"nowA contr4.avor ow0was mW walsep datuos# Oxborna immixtautas* me Obst 'AM, 40l"xV*Vb** In *that
W f*W'YW#'*f 'fG*A4*i*t -fftr at theM ar"S* trade and
bA"trw'mltt*ft* and VSLIW" *Vft U give: A*,l.ta *witas, W*WA=ow U ttw bagimift Vw *W*sw wwdUW tbo Cau"ItutUft md SWI*W taterprotoLva eonfiwd
Oawwft 4u powrtie tw Intorstais aveats of t1l4w wo "Own*, OoMftll &W "d)'"*
pb"*-'' 6f "ttvilti" LOSO th" t4m Y**" t1ter f*401"i"
U* Owdj bog" to fftl tM Oft"U of this, r4OA division of
,arroopmot of StOt awd Cammumeatk V*Vwo 10 ft
tbm 19m, -Aw '-Wdsw tbmw, thr" nfer*Mt
& in: It ii nikia In tbo mi* OkAor-so
sea=* *ftUQ"U"Ol*-*d4 pp* 3'" *

draw out the tun lival"tie" of "is awatitutioul arran""

The Proe"Ing Oh"ur est"U"s vo "Ural fftw,"*
for a dUWawxLon of tho InIjO 1913, and IM rtfs"n"s *4 a zon detalud'iWoutomt of me first dsoaft of Cawwwwau Poutioid, histar jM needed to funy mWerstand the Importano* of Ihs "fero on"* 'the PAIties of this period havo b"a oevered Jx beeks and
*"v"h6. Utt tbare eme oaftin aspeetv of Us, #&*#A* Us* be" not bisou Omphgslisd and there &vs other kumn factors thich need m-onpha4e* This *MpUr inelv&* a discussion of the f oUowUW polutst zinisterUl oh&Ws at the Oomwwoalsh wA State levolal main Ismos of the period ewtimwd grwth of industrW and poutw i0ma IW)orta strangthl nowwlsbo de"lopmantj and reasons for the PrWO40 to exuadco=wWwath powers
*us ths rederstUn Vag *Outailw them Were t4tter
but samtIms not too vlosr-ft* OloatUo battles f or Mw 01 1 IN"ath
PaUxuftt-*, The ftrot fodw"a ministry led by at* Xd*Vad B&AMS
ituevud to solve %be "ry Ivartowtaxift Ufte am "Oured at Protseticaut rateA nis First ftrumont was *is*
1neu Ilwars of tb* AustnUm Canowm4thO Uso*or* i9wo 305-U.

rasponsiblo f or tho adVtIm of tb* "bits Austmlim* policy whith intsmWd to ressi" AuAralia for Us white mm* But
Sir UmaW' Dailton soan pra"d to be a rather Imffeatua Isodar In gaMUg :tbo nw Oo=wmm4th,* and hit do*UV U be tranOorred to
the ft&'O trt colmiftd. with Us g*ural ol"tio" of 1903*
TW'JM, slastUm sw Ubar Lmnwmo, Its mpyss*vtatien Lo ths HautWtrml fIftm to tvanty-fivoo: At a ro4altp, Ow Moos* of ftPrei4molv&O, was aw soft upof thm Paru*4 of' 4a"t *qN&I ffWMM9Ws JAbO twimtr4l"t DoOkU tmntY*0*"ft*'&Qd ASIA **"Yla"Iftim gam*mNat or somthftg akft Im it i"Mrkw &Uvo* .'-So=Ur Higgep Ubors owxxW the ka-yucto of hioporty0s p4j*,=4 Wiewtod tbo paU %M FarlimmrA vmad fonow vwm b* sMAi
Mo fW ouml"* In a xUority# We h4v* 4t eortsda preposmo*
W*-vWsO ths tw,6 6ft4t Patus hs" W* &MCIAUS to do ths
best VO mmo, 01,#* Uip ft6h Wons to we ballove;wM be for
th* boWit of %ho "I*$ *ad vs wM support you '"'long
ym try to do som*iag for tho poog* of the Coamome4th*02 Beowm**f A-If ftd booklet 0, vueml s**UI autaook the lAbar PSAY, gav* his its sappwt in rotua for om$aU *oam"ienow Tk*ro V"
a ovostm point soommat-botmm D"kin sod the TA6*r ommo whj*h, tua*&d Deakints pr*4" to'Ubor VAt he ftald sook anti,* jj*#t IftioUtion:and wo4d att*Vt fto Ossum Wx oavAUU" of
;*Won amsmsad# OfttlwW Do"Upamilt &M go*W Upor. i"A"Um AUWtI*I!!I A44 tej U"I fiimt.

labor for AU M949*4 Lb *"rr tars *f industrUl enUrplax (and) to avows Iheir interesU =kd well baing Without dUtbwtion 6f
*)A** 0 "Ow O"tasoul
04, 84y"tosm point tsm"Mt fatthropy'birt hU VOrr $0A'bnvAt aboUt- h.U dowacU.* UbOrAiUMU jecaUti" vkit% copowd'& of VO
*0 W4S'MXPM#ftjO for ths fall of thafin* D"kft
*Wf"rW ftn" L Of f *U$%,*d, br'L
U"rftg#, Jo 0* 110hamp Zabors to* Off. J." f or am IV" f OJIM"" br ftid Who, st*F" 2* as Usa at VOW4
IANW MWI K&"MIArj 190-4, ftrIAg 1905 "d upto
Diftst Op"fitIAM *lot*" 1 1.11160 My4,. 1' And -Comer OpposlUm (PratostUmUtx) oights"W) The Y.tbr", Wain fr"";p
and V* iki r: portrp a",** slot bawftft UPS"" U* *Upa4p
'Z*W V*MdVAdL ")Atj,"jy- IIIUM 'eft
"d RTO% Itoo" of Us Aw*v4i"

the torUT*, Deakin urged a pevitiv* go""mnt in sooW #ad OconamioliMlArs vhij* labor adroo&tod the semi-wg""lixt 6wlm*, R014 &&s*d with OOM of D*SkIAIO policy# but WaS op"ad to lombort a
Hoov*rx the roxx4, t of this r&Wwr aaafuMd *wV&40 vU qat# -',OOW and QW State of the partite W" Labor mM tha P41dite app"ItIAm iomn*o*U** The
Comet, Oppoitim of the pme"diag PwIlawas v", *s*bdl4" into d:W of, U*Ahno maiA empo bomm" proteoti*m W omased to 00 %be
Thus, the Dookin44bor iiiiamm w" given eisatena
-A-VOU P"WA40 thr",y*4" in oal"# 1"54*,* his OUM
ibo' I fo=Utims of a, mm OcWWW.09 ZOokins s, OohWbOloft was tftly
natlom4UW om wA in Ib* with a4vmsod mooUaamA eammis
thjWdAg tba p"*Jod*, Pirst# b" oppoz$ of proUttlAm for mm-o
tactwers *ax, balanced by "*w Pmt**Ucn,** Ioe#* gmtUg of AL favotblo taUf tv thave =matsiatawre vho P&W a fair and r*aom*U vapv ThU pmgnm d 'New ProtaosionO v" am of the mda mtsms
for W*r** ouppert 'of the Voaklumlaistrym, 3**oa4* Dwakin vented to 411AInate CU69 WOW&" thrOUSh On &*UVAiM W$06011* IhW*08$ JA
*1 4, moo
"Utioul DOV*I*P"mt**, P* Thom it an
qtmn 41,10ow A-c IV Deakin* s polimy in Walter Voodoo#
WW 0h j Uvhib*3A 00"tablo

Ost&lishiug the 04maMOSIth Aftitration CoW-b sytboligies this portion of his 804i4a and $00hoMia philosophy. Thirds Deakin advautod social sorvicos to the #VW# ueedyp and iIII this polUT VAN reflected in legWatitm sponsored by his ministry* Fluany# Deakin favored #Woquats Wen" preparations vA s"aWly an AustralW Xavy'* Gordon Groomood in commenting on this tbIrd Deakin gworment hos **ids
Broad and d"ps tbapattern sot by DookIn contimwe dis*.
64ruAle in the Au*tr&Um W&Y *f lift# An IAt4U#OtuAI who"
thought vu genuUte Snjms a Ma of a 01fud tongu0j,
oloquont wt capable of dirost "aht a mitionalist responsive
to.'.tb* I" Views Ondoftd With POU*Iftl SaKaOity and a dipo
Imat*a, fixosse In wCatiatlenjo booking em"s as %be out,*
ftuubmg Palitisol Personality of tbo first Pwied of Us
Commovalth. Most of his oantemowales b3r Ompowisen #"x
WWWi maj the sUtaft of George ReW ra%*Ir rise* abm
that of the guud politivianj Watow APPWS ismost and
wam"ptional; Fisher as eapable,# toxmisoo aad, vlwUy sizom# but someW uninspUN64v HUM## &IMW* WI-tb his dead2y venm,
in debatoo his infinite, reasons and fix"'dessraloation =4
his,,"aU se"itivity to natl=mlist unt:W" vies w th
Deakin# despite the evident dW*rw4*v betw"u Vwaw"
The Deakin *nd labor party coalition tallapsed orwe. ad for all at the end of IM Doakin had btoow usd*ss to a lwge segunt, of the Labor party *ho wore iapatiout In their desire for rapid Smia and somooU *hangs#' Andrew Tish*r# Uber# vho ropue", n6ulh $A PrIlki, Xlalster* vas those over the real puly lauderp W* M# Hu&os* Fisher was & ware ro"table and loss vio1mb admau at the Zabor "wo than Hvgbea+ fish*r#o first ministry produW Uttle lagislaUou and survived lose thm a year,, it vas
liNSOMOOds "National DMIOpowtp" pp* 21! "+

repUOd by US fusion Go"rumatif a WAM of no*-Uber ftatiftov h@SA*dIIW Dookiat Deakill chatute'ri"d the fusion in. a Utter to his OftbW#
Bo)%Wm idt tho 1whob of mr appownte simm rederOJAmp
loft us bomso I van allied Irith Labour md the
of W paxty fttU I ba" boon Oookiag to
w=kdb w# fIghting in do"aAr and pUmdmg for others X kavv
b*O'omO moft than *"r Vw pi"I of the vbalt p6litlal
ati4p#,tho VrUw sou#M for* aW now the unquosticowd joaftr '01*jeos aid foos# the latter mwo thm Pm to ow of tbo
1 *4bsring an our side of tbo Hm"O
Thou& govemost has, been oallod "too artifUd4 and
too pOU000ary, IN2 Orewmeod h*s p6intod *%t that It hm
d*gr"')#11vwxOSww and WW
,love etallfty of parliameatary g*v*rmwn* by ro-**#-wonoAng twolmw4y xrwtoa# claritiod 0o p*Utiskl slimatiol$'
an tauntg6vt Polities! divial" bond ea*ntJAUY
OAIVW OUSh or, IntorOst Within tm MotmIlan poiu"I surat*
No d ovbtp this mWaisal by OmomeW to wuqy *ccurato
ww* The'union of nm-3jbor forays# tb&igh It tonected a v*rWv, of political opinion undor one roof,* fraud the opposition to the tobor poxty mtil 19166 Tho origbml Fusion vme the result of wifto spmm wAtmet of socialist labor, This distrust of Labor- beewo wx*o profound as the TAbor program unfolftd, Tho long rm" s4mi-, fioanco of tM CUUneo of s"mingly oppowd polittwl groups w"
0- 0 04
in *w0cho PRO
4"Ton Tears of tho AuOrkllan COMMOMOalthO 3Ut '"National DOV01OPMAtow Pw M*

somewhat lost In thoir ignominious deposit of 1910,, which em bo tr*o*d to the fAWt that *the political, omdUss of eight yw s were tot to be magloally eonjwed int* ftiondsUp.*l That Isp tho non-labor foms laakod arganiowtim mid the obil-ity to work *a a paitital 't$SA* The 1910 ftq*$41 V&S bitter sM audionfts We"
*spseiaD v hostile to Deakino He had bton, ftl2*d Vnda*" in tto JJOWW formr auWarteral, sudi, a*eordlng to Mo4o"s "his &pp#&MM# on tho Aag*, vms afm Us siVva ter a %=at of ex"rations and Y01,18 of. "Judasof at two or thres postings in Wlboam he was &b$OIUUIY mused twearinC02 In 15%,Dj, thont the 1Abor party
emerged victorious in tho federal spherow The majority of ths ftrty* Aohh" ten )v*n provtouisly gi"m no support or &A best rtlaotmtoupport to the imuse of teftratUawas, now to b"oft the staww1wat propomiat of the "tiewa gami"onics
As JAU"U4 in this briof mmary of early Gommom*41th political hietoryp the first Un yv&ra of the Comomealth Savern" ownt wore extromoly fruitful ones for the s&anesment of labor and Progrossi" ide4lo* It shou3A be noted that Alfred Deakin's *onoopt of natiowaism beeam firmly entrenched in the eamtryo, To be on%,,: Doakin as Va spokesman for proVossive thinking agre" ,wi+oh amv h. a,.%ba labor ph11*wphjy* but he was mn than a rore
nen Years of the Australian Oomowteslth," 311w"hj Doakinp p 283

belpsaim of Ubor# $a* eoutsM, th*b his wag tW bro"a sqAtImat of AnsUlait at tU% UM4, With*O iMmbt DookIA poassa*sd a OMU# for Isaftrahip vA an *bility, to 00"Ov th* *nW. Australian IdeaO. IMt at, OW. SO* tU*, like &U O"soomf ul political I*od*",* he
And ft*ft to follow public opinicao:
Another iV*rtant of thio AU#a& *me the S*jtjbjda
of tm. loodu*A tariff Probleaso The est"nomm of tariff rateo W",,so isow em vhiab amemiat **uld be reaebed quickly,. 'Oftee. IWWLff 'Tate$ V*rO Set the viUa A" iWsr 41fforemos
arA grompos Us moeUl- ad indUStriAl Uamss
**m**tW:vi4h the *Xm Pftteationsm *941d b* s"s *we elwwlyw
bVertant &*pefts of ths 3.900, IMO period a* U* groft -of" P011,*fte WW iftftatftal Ub*r Sr4 %b& I&OIOgJC&l dm"jLqMZ&"6f I&& J^bOr Party" In the pros"ding sbaptor the f&*tW$ VbJeh g&VOL rim to a Whtw pavtr we" fto of
the mumt-impoftant fattat te be not" AboUtL tt* grewtb of labor is thst, wily twenty ywars sftor V* Sovouth Ihter-4olmW Tr&4m Unim Cotforofts deoidod that labor abound entw painless, the dixeation Of L the CamomesIth government v" entrusted to &,YAbor sartv* 'This rmarkable, rise to power vas brouOt about not by a Politi"a party e"turlng tbo tra* =ion so"amts but by tAm tft& univ s mbilisift Usir eftofts vA potential for paUti0ja
politima p&rU*es the Labor p&rty of Agotr&IU, is an Oindixost

party#011 This typ* of strutwo A alVwugh insuring stable, m*or*. shipg ww be Ww eause of cUshea bwtweom the industrials, politiosl# and pallawntary wings of the party,* A z*viow of the Labor p4,,IW orgmalution is exanti*2 In ador to pre*vnt a olouer wulerst*Wlag of this "Wi:vet structure" wW the possible, intra-party eadliots it can to.Aer*
Following the decision of the Trswk Union Gmfertnoej, ?Abor psrt y brawhos wore arganiW in each-elacteral district, The bvadot *W* au:Uorised by ths Trade Union Owformencej bu+# in aot"I putitw they were the areatimm of the Tr*dos wA Labor Countilow in, the Uwger astravolitan are"A2 Theme Counolls go-Por.. di"tad'iho. trade union activity in a parblauUr &"a* They woo wwatativ* bodies whom* deciviosm could not be onforeod # but whose prestige- was gft*t Woman of the miquo position whieh they evaVied in the industrial labor movesento 1*0*0 they are the only meeting pjAo* of top union affioWs# In tMs period# hmmver# the Counails were not fu2ly zvproventativop and,# according to V* 0. Childs# seldom more V= half of the unions In a State wort
3*aurico Duvorgerp Pglitioal Thelr'Farx ar4
rmot a in tha Modem 51tate tLowont 110thuleft and U*# p f,, 7
IThis disoussicm of indmtrIAa and poUtical labortfs
organization is t*ved large an the material int VIO G. GhIlAo$
LAbour Go"ras (LwAms The labour Publishift C"# Ltdw;o 1921)* and Crisp# Thq kustgalgin K!ftL4 !aM2

affilittedo Table 1p although not distinguUhIng vat=# and
Number of T"Ats aW ApIwozImste number of Vnims lAbor Co=aLlo azW Branches anllWed
S*w South **1** 151
South- AA40611A 73
Westorg: 'tustralls 11 230
25 94
ft*b).* I is bak*n Ines Comenm4th of Austmliap Offul
po 1017.
brw"hesp gives Poo W*a of the oxtont of the nwwrioAl affiliation to TMAes and labor Cowwils doliiW 19U* (As Tabla 2 shows thm wore 5!C Unions in 19n*) The Coumlls vwre Urgely urban bodiosp Wt thin, v" not suoh a drawbm* since =*t of the A*WA*ry was in tbo larger alties* At Ue saxw tim the vural v**srs was Wfolu"
in the Awal Wofters Unionp and the Amatftlian go*ers Uxxl4n wh1oh orpniwd tbo ruz*1 political braaahoo*l
It* ?"I Fitshardings recounts the unUm erg4*izing teUyitlop of W* V*1 Hugbes for the huotralUn Worker* ftims See Mahardirg*A

The branOes were open -to all who were oittm ysa" of ft* &M willing to pty tm shillifts a year* In actual ~UW tftdw wdm mA*" h*d a monopoly of majoberohip in newly every branoho The branebes *hoso the loaal candidates and oleatod do)*.* gat&$ to the State P*IWW Ubor Leaps 0 a annual oonto retto The SUU amfertnee in tum draw up a platf era on the basis of roscautime submitted by ths bruobes* The SUts eWoMto also UVoeod a. p2efte on the pArliamentary r*preinut4tivos to accept the parliowntary caucus' decision on an vottors conoorning the platform I.he mirAgemorA of part3r tundso organixatiozw2 work# axid rima 10"roval of candUates was In the hwWs of +,be Central Axseutiv* of the State 000foranoo.
The Mtria xabor party wts waA*r the direction of an inteir.*tate confersmo vhieh *moistsd of thiftyo-six 40,ocates "20"ed''by the ftat* conferences andvhift wat at Is&*% ov*ry three 7""* The Intor.-stato conference drw up the foaral p2Mform and dealt with subjeate Uat cam wxlor the oaq* of tb* Cavwme4ath Parli=ont# Like the State coaferane**# the Interst^te orgulWion requested a Pledgv of adberance U the eaness decisions of the Comorsoalth parliamentariams on xattwws affoating the fodoral platform. The p2*dp adopt" by the Ccowmealth Folitioid. Labor Confemee of 190 w" folUwsi
I bo"by, pUdo qnwU not to OWNN'tho candUAtt 0416"od
by ths naogult*d Vaitical labor orMtoatim* andO If
*eIe&b*d# to do my utmost to wwry out Me prUtiples sabodisd

in tbo tustrallan lAbor ftrty' s nattomp aW cc all mutations Oftoting the Platfora to veto as a majority, at %M ?&Aia"no
tary Pu*y mW deabde A a duly oonstUabod o"ous w$Ik"9W;L Tbore "a discussion at the 1908 Gwforeftft of making this pledg# unif0ft-throu&out Us Cawwam4th# ue*s bw an state vanismot" ##avJ*A# to Uo fodeml pla$4p #M8 hou" 0 the f*doml oaft"# the OWsromm-posAved to, meeawW suoh a uWam pledge to the r&A tMimmUl, oonforemmp The principal dbjeotiea r4"d to such 4k pledge wo %Mt it *LSM interfere with Me already existing
ftate parties*2
',,Befaft IndUating the growth *f political labor a swmW of indu&OW labor a ot rongth wM be a*&* The mpidity with which IndustrW unionina grow during Us first ton yoarv of the OOMOMO&i h im reflected in Table I whiah IMIcatoe that miens iaomaod'froa 198 to 572 while m**arvMp more then tripled frox an sotboated 97#174 in 1901 to an eatimted 3a,#732 in 1911. ThU is ma aig* *ipUftoa" when the rtu*sr of toctorito abd number &sploy"* in Table 3,# art oaqAmd with union maWwrohip. Table 3 g"s ionV UA%%strlal wcrkerv while Table 2 intluAve an labor union voinber"p* Rowv"r# when tht ravel union ma*orahip of 50*000 is toWdered and all~ee is *ad* for aon4aztory %dA*
it indioatex that ths" w4 a high por"ata" of union
*part 6t the rmrth (I&U, IM
OOM"0104 !ait
ftblAwp pp 4042* Xwh of this arpnUOUnal ft"40*0." with SIIOTIiriatims continues to o4st in the Lobar party.

MWR AND unwrowP or UNIM,
lg()It 19%p 19118' jrA# AND.1919a
1901 1906 1911 0.
TOW A"bot of
ftiou*".4 198 3w 573 ?U 771
Numbo*:',4,4 6ior* Vith 953
339 712 M
lfsilbopA4 'a th*oo 6$o2l$ 147*049 344#999 523#2n 627#685
97#174 175*529 A4*73*
m o i vi 1- 1 40
t is twm from COMWNft*lth Of AUWtr&11A.0
ps "5*
TA= 3
NUMR Cr rhoTOR323 An mm
WWM' 1907p, .1909* 19114
1907 1909 Ini
Numbor,*Vl4y*d 248x$59 2M*66'1 311P772
ATab3.o 3 is tokon frvas CommomaM of UotnUa*
Ysarb 1919* PP* 5274-30#9

mabers &*ng the 311#772 faetery woricors, Anothor striking faas
1. p
eenaaftiug, union membership was that of th*, 431#294 =Ian movers in lMs, 297,*771 Me" =*Or$ of Intor-state or r"OraUd =Ian*# but thit 'tboes Odmofte4th w$Ao uniwo nmb"" mIr ""v4 -Wo of tba',tO 4,',6214 ?urWwmv*,* ton of the M"ftty*400 Int*r#4A"0 Mio" UIAM wab*ra or vftr one4ourth of the t*W unlan
mmberSUp in 13,919,s Ths faot that Um onions aont&ln" $064
high of tb* UW Vaim M**rWOp oft W Oxpl&l"d
tho activ"us a the runa *arkerst -unions, ow also 6r *hs water**
side b*aftd by 1,0 Xi; Hugh*wof
"I" only wers labor x f art=#* rtsUg on tb* industrial fWAs, VO', t* Wdre likewise swus an 'tho POIM"I f Mftt a; The Lobar potato ropreamtativos inanwwd frm Welv* in the Firet Parlimmt to forty*Awo in the Fourth Parliawmts In the
0 "proventation in Ue UgUlative LosambUes rmw
frm 109 makers of a total 203 in 1905 to 149 members of a UW 193 in 19P11.3 Honv*rO the ine"tee of Labor *"b*" In the State
10amoxwealth of Aushralus 9EIUi!i y6!32!!4*P 1913* P- IMI*
24poudft -I -gIvW* -a trwakdmM' of union wWwrehip by ttaAws tor JW# %, TA'connootim with Us VAUrvU% L# F*
Fitxhardinp "latio tho Awhivitiao of W M* Hughes as the 4rivUg toref a tho OVW$Ai"tI*RV K%0*6 IW" #aA* us Providont of VIS
WAWA$& Wo*,arf a lodorasim f ar',o"r twenlw yo*re and was the orsoniw OUtht"Treller'Oraymm and Orstors' Union* FUsbwmKnj* oomonts that# "In, his vV he lmtly strong1J)Owd not Wdr tho lAbor x*vwwwt# bO his oft position in itp giving hisnIf an &In*" uniq", jitstao OX am "uLly at hms in both polftiwa and WusU14 wings of the partr40 was No Rughospo 162,
Ix 11 giv*s a 4OW3,04 pietwe of the Labor party4s, strength in WCOMOMNSIth am ftats 24gislaufts,

aseemblise was not matched by a eompaxblo rl" in the lagialotive Counailso In 3,905 there were eleven 14bor mmbwe of a total of 203 In State Comeilej, and by 1,911 this number had inftowaood to sixteen out e a total of, 198. Thie latter laot ean be attributed to thopr"oiq qu"Lastion* tqpowd on the veto for the upper hm"s whioh eft6otivoly lialiwd the =***rob# a %M upper houaw to the proportUd ^nd Conservatt" elements of the Comw0y.1
UdustrW *ad PoUt-aal labor is auwoh w" so gmat and groift at such a rate Vat evon tho St4e corworvative upper haums W wowquiosiw to the Use radima so*W and *aonomia
by labor Gordm Gzwomood in diaeussing the Au""11M OAtIO& tMarda, amsila O"Age in theme yeav @bearwe# that
hist6r1q, and onvIrenmentol fome combined to proft" at an aa rlr stage a demand for the protivice of facilities through
Aajj *#tim,, Aftmaing b*3A2y whera private initiative fowW
It ur4awfitablo to treadj, aoUaial gwmrnments with berrond ftt L the cry was oqwMy iftsistorit f or reved ial pubUo attAto
to ratify social anowlisol bon"# the Operiments. in unUoko, ing the lands, ths attwwts to'regulate the Wu*brW *YxWg*
mad towards, the tam af the amtury the introdaftion of old
age psnsion* in Victoria and Now South Wales, 0 Practieta
r4thor than dcaUinairs in motivations, so coutagims a habits
#"voiallr when reinfor"d by the sootalist pleMings, boomm
a settled part of the Austmlift autlook*2
for a dimm"ida of me upper hou"s in the "au$ me, KM*rp A na 0awrwents, p. 35 and pp. 82*85 and Geoffrey
30ftr# AUstV*IUM 00"MMAS TOWq (4th ed, rev-1 Malbouress Iblbourns University Presvp 1954)s pp. 18-29*
garewwood, ftKatimal Developwatp" po 209.

Vban pImWd In its prupor'fraWwaft 90"Mmut i0tOr"IMOR On b0hat OS 34&Or WOODS WiftraumW16 at thlovarly datsip L"Oot early in term of other OVitaUstia 6ountrUs- POVIWOS tb* b*4 vW mwit, striking bWI*OiWI of 14ber PWOr VaS the d6gr" to
WhUft,,tb # StaUs, and the COMWOM#eU bad intredmwd means for inwiring the worker "fair and r"Ooroble" *&go#*, The OftftWoalth ParliiamOt had passed the Artdtr;&%Im Aet of 1904 vhigh *xWbI a commustalU Arbitration GovA with P~ to make aad onfor"
in the wmn*o of inter4ato industrial disputes* Th* M440 also provided for the UoUitatift of 00mmation.0 fur"rame of wpaUtAlm, of *apl" w *ad *zplvyws# and the
"foreftei of, Uneav0d State divatse to the camomftalth GourtA The StaU*# on the other hands esUblished Wages Boards to hmadle intrustsUAL"utes, Most of Us State acts vere passed ar"M 19W pravid*dfor a osparato w4ps board for each trade
vhose m*ore were -chosen by ths omplqers mW *Vloy"s -Involved in the tr#As* DeaisUms *or* soforesOle br the coo-ts or som otber agem y at tho g*v*=mnt*2 SWe Vm Wages &*r4sp with th* OxOptUM of V14tOrIAS, And tht F#d0r4a JAtitorAtion Court# did not r*eopUW.WtvUhmIs but only organizations as capable# of speaking for a majority of those in the, traft# tho **to sti=Wsod and made IWafttive the creation of aVloyer muA employer organtzatim**'Ibid*s P- 213,
i 1 11r '
28" App"ix IU for a syropisis of the zom ImportaiA aspmat$ of UG Wagoo 116ar",

A fina 4bsermUm on the aftitroUen sywWz Is that the unims 040pted V* praftias of goift rm wo mAtbority to the otho In ordor to got staimm vage aw9rdas TheaftiWatias badUs wen boUg tftAodp the Provident at the Commmolth Ar"tpotto CouA oboarvadp as "amVOUg "***I
It in i"artant to rsaord the 4wmIqpmmt of offieW
Ubor pafty idecaoa as seim in Us pranomemmts of tba, Cmwr*v*aith P4itiaal lAbor Conftrewma hold before 2911,* 3.9WO 1905,, wtd 1906* In: OpptlAg a pl*U*mA, tbA labor porty ua*4 ttow division# or Is"Is for the wbatemanVof Its prinolpUs,# lbo
tb* Parby wam ita 4,61m6e, &top *rA- the 1"xkh tho- Lalxw ftolojootiveu, 0*11
(a) vultivatolm at &a AuOWWUa seattuanti# based upon:
tho wauteaw" of MdAl PlArityO and the d$YOIqp=mI In
Austra", of an. 0aightou" 04, m*If*4ftuwt, 460nmity')
(w Tioswevift or tim idi romats at usir uwusu7 to oil
We -4Q!UOti" GWftoWohip of &6AapOjj-*Wp gMd
rbdVA*r$ by thO
Ahe swUnsUo of Us iAdaOrl and toon"Aa fumAimg
of the State MA Malsipautyin tb*:#abp*tiv*,p" thaus, a mmi~Uliat and was pr*4&i=do
T he other toro locals, of Us pUtfoft we" the 'Rgsnox4a platfaw mad tho *fighting pUtforav The formr vas chiefly a Vol* VII of The
2WWAI Fwport, of th Pont

p"pag*Ma 40vieso md thoro wtv little, divaVoement ever IU oenten The adaptUa of a "fi0tin Platforaw was the most difficult booguo Ot
%ba Idealogiftl battle" vUeh *x* plow bot"im *e varies foatimo of the Odn$*Vww** In ftooTp thiepaft oC the platfo= w" U be a atatemeft of the practical proposals for vhish public oplaim vas
This Se4sad ConfemnAw In 1902j PwwW a natimmllsatim, of omopoli" roselatim whiob me* ineorparatod In tho. "genomliv and ffft&tine platforass The 19M "genessl p3Atf*W,4j*G Oestained a pU*-edling for unifam ivAustrW jegisUtlon*2 U 19% tM cmeereww' muined the notimmaintion of 4640POU", Plaas ."d &ISO pX4G*d th* UnItOM WdOtrla 24JUUU04 Pl4ftk U UO *fUhUZg plattom#103 (It w" not unuam4l to find planks of PVAt iwrtona* in both the atemna" 4md wtiotine P)Atfome*) The FourthCvamw foremen *40 a mob son spirited ow Um the** in 190 and 1q()5t
aad dinagmeantover Stat"Wwal 7014U6*400 fttumai"tum
j^t%*tVy# and ufttr4*1a*#
Uno Labour umm4t jA tustnaiw The RemdT!41 XX '660'
gortioua Ot theo'3000w, (22!)- gem 1441M LAW!9
)Wioma gzLvor the
-Lb 4' 1201, c9m2=!;Sb.. &11 t

While the *Con" questims Won Atill Wag divemsood 11, A# Holow voiftd a desin to oltrU r the relationship of the Stato mid Federal parties, Lator in tM Gcaeranee & member in tympathr with mra, Holman's Views movsdf
ThO I;be Conference Offirms the dosivrabUity of haramy in
the oporatUms of the PWOrtl and YoVe"ive Statar labor
parIOUS Amd famrs the hoUlng of acearsymes to "flag tbo IWO of their rospecUva fI#3As of o0ion,* 4nd to amo to
a 400son P410Y in regard to swh wwwwans as lmd mottlomat,''
Holmn was the main propavent of this &%WxImfttp xad spoke A jongtb
ca its vorits o, His mjor reasm f or supporting the psriodU sort,* formtWO botwoon $14a and Federma IsmAers was that they would
*UMiVA*O VW XIsivtft7Mt4tUWs of the State and Federal V1&Vqr"* Thiso he Argods would provots mWerstan4lft in the labor Ow"mut ommming the Stalm *ad ftftrsl spheres of activity Urt Hj"h4W#4 the O"famee Sedrotary# smumimad x%;W of tbo 6tg4V*tjWStO tb# motl4a, when he said thet the motion *U*ed like unrping the pwars of tht prsiont Conformoop and vould surely 3,ead to diammtJon.4 Ths motidA was dof valodl vnfertunaUlyp tbo vot* v" not r"Ord,4,
Holmm tipred prominently in anotbar we of tho disputes, of the Conference* Senator Dolanis moved that the CvAftzOftq rvquest the Comomoalth to notiam"6 ths Iran 1xieustry, nolaw anmrodImator D*UU%I* by saying that the NW 64Mth W&UG Labor

1 44
party was 41""Y Ottaoing to do this# a" that It Vag UMMMOOSW71 tb*r*foAV:j for 06 r*&r*l LOOr pattj to *4*ert 004h a *040"WO Xomthfuzt* tho motion was tarisdo but it Vag not InoluMd IA VIS stightuq Astraft*4 The W*imaisauoft PIW* or the 91notuW putfqx4V hov*vorp VI" changed to readt "ft*iamIUwtUm ot 1600POU404,44f neassfarys 4"WhWA of th# c4astlution to provift for ti*: OfttN2 This plaft was iup6rft% bossave it was the inclination# in an official Party swross that amndmnt of the Constitution would be utillsod to aohlAm the Party's ai" *
AititmAiw w" a third point that arv4ed disW"*6nI at tho 190CWoren4wo Owe Ogain Holaz wipparted a minority YLOW iftt* and wwd the o6o"ien for his mast arftat dofesse ot States rights*, So"tor Givens, mov*d that ths plank OUnIfem LiduAr al Ugiolatianj amndmat of the Owatitutim prwvJA#
for s" 2R40h was a part of ths tgsbora PIWOM# of 1"17be included In the fj&tIng gatrars."3 Holmon in "aking against
tbo action WA that ho know bo wait *going like a laxb to tho lafLuosoroix He arowd that ths MAi0ft moant the dostraotion Of Stato'I'abor, Portia* and tho armatwa control by the GOWWWftolth
Op Po 9*

Of Sn thm tmurtia" of 90"Moent 000 Nzat rem0erp he awtimlod#
tMA the wookfting or Ostruotion of iiho. Stato poAlas wou2d be t4d for the reftral. party well I
ThO ftate LOW PUUOS should haray be Io*#d upm as iawA4t.
to", fdrwn a" id"s in the f4d6ral Porliammt.. If the ftat*
P*rtu* vere to be or
.Tiy mroories r the norsa tber aight.
JuNt. voln give vp
The pU*,V, howovorp was imluded in the 4vtjghtjr4g p.IeWom* #log W114 A OIw*'e*.UUS f or Me InpUmAUtion of Mw ProUationtat
2908 planks in the ";ft&tUg platfeW *high patgb" The ProUctimpO ArbitratUnt and induArW astimrs became the
bamwt* 't 14, Rush**$ Ign r*f*rmw*mprqpwm1*# The diommajoh
on 06" other planks# particularly the am
dO&Iii*4Uh'TJnAf*rx TmdastrUl indUmUd the minwO7
vim* hold by t* A# Helmm o
Io a jwool;ate ftIly the pat plapd by Hughes in Ubor PaIltus maro ne"a to bo Imown about his lifto Unfortu"taflys only f mpsubarr piotes of the Hughos story an gv*ijmbj#,3 But th"0 J#: A44"to Wormtim to revoa Rub" oan*ft* of OUts.
r#40ftI r0latiO00# Frank Braftep Ik9hOS# joamaistis bioephers seaUmft Vw* "it DaWda vat tkw father of ft&rstim* mughso vas its moA A**Oamt, *Vommt thrwAgbout the y"ro.04 Sarly in his
%!e*'* P'i 100,
P* 4ID#
V* Pitsh&"Inp is preparing a biography*
4"m:& Brome, Th*Z caned us B.LLIJ (Sy4mWs Peter Buxton# 1946)'1 D'O 48,*, (The boot so""s of zavrua are the edvtemxws AW41.

Paitima, O"Is HUPOS for"d UO.Iboldof tbAt the commm"94kith SOV"J*"t *$0 bAk"'tWASUPOriOr 3AZjRI&*tV$O 10COaS =4 OftiftJ00 trati" pomoa Thou& he Us othon been vaned an oxpodlmmt prtmipUso Vion am bo litt1*1 doubt thalb his Aho sqwriorttr, of the 0 Vh1eh .2180 Uad
his to. a.- mbrictio natloWim, mr chanvd# Natiowaisk v*s an in%*Cr4:p$irt,.*f his personal politiftl phil"optV and a to"At f rom *hidl he did not retreat* In4odjq Hughes# belief in the Comumw"10, ot Austr&U& brought him into bitter mW wricus al.asboo Uos friend than N Holman an the 19n referand" with the mAtjoritr of his o= party an the q"atim
of ao j" Jvo during WarU War I* mW wU& Woodrew Wilson at the Poace QOftfo"Aal o"r the self-dstornlAatim of nations# FimI3yx a* tbo to, Sevexty-nift in the twiugb'b of his car"r', "Baw out hli*lf. lapse from the UAited AusU,42U party in order to support thei 1944 0 zt*#,4don of powers raftrwWmm which his Party bad b**n This disoortatim io toxtoormed only vith Sughett "tior,41"::U'49 far it Innusne,64 Vw roforwWa of 1911,* 1913
and I 'In ar4or to mppreeiots the depth of his a"imollm :it
is Onu twooseary to revim wfhe Us* for Imberp" a series of artiolts
cm*Ibtt" U The SZ MR!qZTqj!j23gt during a period of four, roars. bogiftiftg JA 1907.
in a short but mUer good anslysIs of
*Tb* Omw for Labor,#* has said Vat tbeoe articles oonstftuW th*
best soluro, of Hughes' 4iti"I thihkUwo A4cording to YiVshard"O

04". for 'Labor" IS V40 0417 reminift Ox"bit *r it 10isvely diS*WWIAA, Of-ba4t issue by Itt**0 41 In' the first, artiou of October 7#190# *aghos o1sairly indioaktod the lies Ust, the **Um would !w*s
rx"Ols Oawm* tkoai it is Proposed Iho I *ACU *XPIAIR, tho
041PIStrwa or ths Labbr Partro OW its Attitude ca
*Urr6ft "ff$tjOfta* I ftoll "t forth,* Voqa*ift &VA'ftffW OW
on POXAUM me for No vost*r of tM4 P*rty say, d4vt
It waa n6V until two amtbe later that S40ws, defbwd sooislisso
U.1s twitber soft "r Uas tbw Us mbstitation of "t*rsa exotiona 1".ie Wmititated for naturall* In ths wwgia-,7 oeoofttion for the pr*sont aaspetitiv* syvtomp inthe Gduatr"a
"bo"s Inder socialism the State w=1d oft and amtrol %W
,mamas -of prodaOibn distributimp and wwhangs* Priv*U
-Pro",ftyla &U ot;;r form of wealWwcald r6asin
In"Ives, min otonamia *huge 1xit wA ZWNjes"UrLir is.=rtthn the margin ik.p4itical or sovial 0160
Urlriin the artialos Hughos evotanted that the OV of
vas fast passing and th*t proftct.Um vao a matter floso*Uty. He also- Indleated tbat he was wA opposed to monopoly per ae but only to private aompay#4 Among Hugh"I
nAwapapsr cuttings there is an %adated mcnararAis -an ths "Sw Prott"i0a.0 and in it he rolUrOod his belist that Proftetioa
'It. F*.*1tzhoxd1Ag*O *W# X* Hughes w*A Ifts Caso for Laborp#*
Telegqph# 00mber T'O 19W# p* 134 Theme quotatims Trom Wr5 cast, For lebw are taken from Rogboxf p*esouKI
jWAOS' P***Mb*r.21jv IMP ro 10,0
4Xbi4 P Octob*r go 1907.* po 5A#

was it f =Uoft Ot M*Qietys
J*gtsutim Is at, an Ovents- a "OOPItion of the PrIAO"'
that pre4uetim is soc:Ua fumItUmt wd that *lVwu& SaOi0ty
ParrOje Priv"O Ont"VK40 it, do" 6*1' only upon, I tbo 4distinot
v0derotatmOog Wmk its wv1f*r* to erly oomser"d o tho
01b,1114j"4 1 1, t -woim tho
r 2Ast word, but ono"4e far wo "n s**
Hughes ftq- her "wguod- U*% 00mbl"S *or* Preparing "ths i W for 90V lou, wyetow4isation of pftdwtim by ftcioty for the benefit
of AW Uft* "mm when they roadod ths pro"r should be
the, bsgimU% of 190 Rugbesp tbeftferop- urged his foU40*rs t* beeom militant in Mw &Jve, for, natiorwUs&tUn. wd by 1" ho''10" arguing, that. ea"Mim vw ozovdIngly wasWul and t"t mom mpolits *ombia" were offociont mosgs *t or,64h2o% *4L
topie vtit& tr"Ud frevontly VUS *xftU*o
USMA 1h. 11iiih: icle devoUdU a coupxr1mom of the Wa"s Bomrds and the Fft a Axbitwatitm Court Aag"v 1n&%&%*d hie wess"ed ;wofenme f tw the latter b"Yo He aftitt" that ftards seemd obtaper as34 qtM**r# but in listing fivo 4i"dvwtapa at tbo Boarft he evim 6mlisbod this imitisa conosssicm-*; Hugbos li*Ud the five
1907,*,,P*, 6*
3umi" -N*Vowmr 12* 1"?# P* 170
rob"w7 It 1"So p. 6 and April 3* 1909.j p. 6.

Mjaava&nta oft he 'Wage Boards ss
A* 945 w"aoly ea annot ettle 44epuaet b* Oov acadittem n o 91a stage addha
44No et deaiat with ates and othe inA t4
4 4o
4 oka aae at4aahteathitts ng
by th e ag givwa as geed a treatment as they raettev In elaborating the merts~ ot the federa Mfttratten Seart Keghe ,&aid tht the Court eonsldes Ue wae afth 5 omudty ad that it reached Indubsta agreement or satisatory altemattwve Pinallyp.he stated %bat there sheald not be a embina4Aen ot astfte temj sonUtations ad Wag ftaing io Mhe Wage Boare bonse the Bosa wae presseeain to aek,
oan* of anat favorite taet# was Staters risksaw In Ssziaw9 bpe a mse how a an actiag in the capaiy Or a ea n of te deaeweath seatsd contemplate desibeates doing
himselt an Ingary as a afitee at a Statew His shepak Attak on 8tted rights and hie mst extram= epova of natioalism we"e prevok#d ,~ A. Hass In ft durn Otobber &ad Noener or
1989 te pubfoveroy bswen Hughes *Mne satea was smd patte byr it seria SO attathe Io th 8# rSMEhet The
Ameldate rastten us tte washangr wa that Holan Inate badge$ "speh to the Assembly of'lo Beaoth Wales -bitterly attaced the Comoewealth government during the eears of 4L disonaion to the
labidoa, March 7# 1908j, pv 7*
21bidws September 18s 1909# p* 6o

Lvoing of the Draddm GlAu". (ThmBraMen Clause prwrid*d Oat throo4quarkers of the Foderal oustme rvmnuo vould be returr4d to the Statoo for'tea years after the adeptiem of the GawtI*0Ua*) Holmanaheftatorised the Federal Parlismat as h*vii* d1pity without p~ and the State ParlUmat ha" pow without
diguity4_ Tbo ComAmealth ParUawati he r""VA4# w" not national be4aums it did, a" havw national poworsp and in ons of his x*O definite, StMom right siatwwwo H*7jm "Id i
I have, alvays be4mda"IT "Laust and at I Uie day# after
Um yws$ 1 do not see mW function worU spoakLft of earriad
,out W tht Isderal ParUament that'emld not haw bmm p*rf6rmd
by a wre smAom mad allitary unlan wwmV4 the ftaus
After tan 7#&r0 of wdstsuaw Us balk of the Federal Parliamentoo
wat hAe been found to be Mile and baTn with the single
of the Aftitrat4m A4
Baum Aaw ina"t" vwt "Oft$ tho NOW $64h *4*0 ft*vA&r'#
ap"d vith him*
Tho Hunter labor Council# one of Ahe mars p*wsrful labor souneils,# pretested again" tM attiteAs of Vw Sw Smth W4#s Labor p9rI IAS"%IWiAM- *, Rothes, oft 6f tM swab#rv of the Oomea# WA that it was regrettable that labor had, plat" man in the Stato parliament- *b* W"a Ompwmd to tbrow, ston" at miambe" of- the fleftftl House* p4oht Indieaud Uat: h* Ismomid waisiewtion of to"ratumts and wamd -that it wmId U*t be le" wA& eaft =M*MUm IroOM tato plwo* The GowwU passed Vw rolowlng resoutum
12a*x, October M, 1909r P+ 7,

That this COUMAI Protests *641SA tm Uttoram" or Ibmars, *06nni, *IWn# Daftyo =4 Others of tbo StMe labor pa"y
VIU V*SWO to tha qusstim of SwOUAtions wA that the del*.
gates to +A* FoUtUal Labor lopes Coforence of Now Son*
Walts be Uwtn*W to Vhold ths ifta of vmifj"tjOa,,I
Tho TqI*jM!e in an editorUa on tho Hu*tqr Zabor,
Council resolution said that it cmId hardly be owwom.Ud tMt largo bodyof Isbareites were strmgly qVoftd to tM rod"-*I pria., ciple and ve", Oledgod -to a substitution of unift"tim for foftr. at ion *2.
Moft indiesitivo of Ubort* mmUmont sa4 wAw* impor mt than ths..Hantog ZAAwr Ompellis #Wuftd was HugMss re"so to Hob"nff budgiot's"O".0 Rush" charpd tw "** Helmn is'an r4hts ahm"idd, with him the $tat* is mry thing# ON coma*"alth aothing**3 Hugbos deemed the readers ftrUawnt an& he arpsd that it had pow and dipity and was a natioftl body# 'To Substantiate this latter VoInIk he r"ounted ths vwk of 'Porlimmat *W "soiftoally amtioned natioma defonso Hugbos stated somo of the pe"Irs grwA*d to tho Ocamomealth Par'litunt w0tr Seatim 51 of the Constitutim in Support of th* eowwmtim that U Possessed pc~04
IIbIA*$ Octobor 36j, 1909,t pi,
21bidoj, p.. 6.
3kjd#, Owtober 30., 1909,* P, 11*

MO*A mat qul*k to r"IY6 In 4 10a0hy* vordodo
*M aloo4y, *o4towd-letter to the Witor of tho "If Es ho OtUmpt" to ref0te ftewat OUU that ths roderal 'p4ruaftat VAS no" imovkW tant, IAd van, ptwevtvl than StaU Parliawfts HO ro-esovds"
his eoftviotion-lUxt; tW ftat*, P"llownt was the logical p1w* for the lodging, and oeonesde powers of govormoot,*
OThOIJUM for Labor* pro"v**mOt be tho
-for oatiomaisms, Tho tronehant swardwhich h** for marq
months, UAnsfized *"h vook the Prostuent tn#*Uw of our o4w*
is zuddet4r -tUUW &"last as Wbo it x7 IWOUnce'imaglood th4
vb*t4";r Oft I V" I W": 0 3448t a labor im through wW
:Mm=gh&u" W Ubor prinv4a" M"n't got the W"
*."broad .,If Ubo-wn ba" AU got to In
"A*%Uft4I*P how Is it thO up to mW nothing h&* boon OvW,
-AbIs is Sa *"ior U, -doetri" not COUMUOA*0 to
MW vMIWP WW 0440 Mr* Regbas 41SOMSO it new? It Pat
UWto whort "a it AdOPW, Wb#A vas is Ondor"d? ROIM, St~'Ott be h" attevud to renowt %I* ww Prusiput,
*a sad' Abuj# 01 4*OIJjw U b*U*v*, tW Z
f4wa of nationaUsm.* Avan sftarthbuAt to his
*nUv*,'v4*WW HoUsn "Id tWd he iftuU n*t b4Uvo in mUm.
Olwa O nel,: mis MOYOXWnt autbaritauvwly ton to va"Ag
4qIwA*s n1wosixt spav*4 Hugh*# to some powerful but
"O.Uvrosed pros*# *agbss vftl**W mth of Ho2mmts aftmant"'v Ut 004ment practloo in debate,* sad *w satisfied to repeat UU a11#14ibi points,, ftgboo dof*nA*d his definition of wn4jonajj m#* Ow,

VW *VlAIM4 It' to HOINMA I%,* WAY, tut deamstr*t*4 tb* OWO*ft for whiah be W" #00owly Tk*t*4* XWO *IgW iwwt tb.m Ragme,
patronising aUftaft tmards flabou w" the mnmr in whi4h ho
*41,90mb a men to lohoi the pbtlosorby or Wt a
eldId's ti ** and tM torturous undertaking of SchopoWkxur a rog"wki ii ior las Wf..hmr, ofeets not toubduvtand
VhAt, #Nationalism" man$* 1 wIU ton hia* "Nationalift* ls,,&' stag's In the evolution *t WQ*W# NAMAntusm Is to
w"t.provinsialism ia to psrochWisa* Natlam.giss, is the:pam zlvm to Opia"j, Sentimuts Ard Wit%,
nations, 6f,, a popplo as a *h6j# opposed to any asro sectim Thus bur*% ftess had moslod *M" he ot*W on
The'Utt words- In tM Ke l is who dhatwoatar*,
!Uwd' RughOW, YAtiwitliva," OxWotlfta-Alm lt lit doubtful that =sny retd iMb, 5,OOW Ytrds of fine newsprint whith aompemW
Rolmon't.s. sns mrs and it tho public didrwW ito thoy would have been disappoInted at Sclamlo lowk of firs sod guorboo In sameness, tho article was & lanpr but xwo involved stato*mt of HoloAn's origin. nal agumuts# iod a large portion vmw devAed to the br*ddon CUYA** Hawn saso rsverUd to saransa4lum he odd that Ru&ea was rigM
*bout "Uomlipn "so long as thmm opialmojo s4mtU*rA#,* mdavplr** atims are eouflued to a 4mary list ofnprofitzbU subjoifts whish the, Yedoral Fs4iaw" Me pwor to 2*gixUt**I*I
*p November 6# 190p p* 11, cp Nov***r Us 1909p P, 3*

Tho whole of the amfliet WO boon alreds, but nothing was ftttI*d* In just a yvsr*s Use the qusation *am up again# but at that Ulm it Vag more thmp as No Va kfttt ova* ties Oomftoted an a high ISVOI whith affm dod Holmm r*lsx*Um*"l Rathero,*bo dUagremont between the Labor pa2tyls two m*A impsro, tan% f lgaroq, was to' abak* the Labor organization at Its f*umftUmw4
In the losing months of 1909,# when the Ubor paoty was
preparing for the Aprilp IM elootions hUh pafty offielals other than Hughes won making kneim their prefevonce for Guawmealth control Inmatters of industry# Uvft and ommoreop and arbitration, Andrew 11i"r# In a statomAt on the *o&I strike at Vvw#&at:L*p whi0h the Statsgo"rmont had boon mable to mettlo% indiAmted a OaLre, for the sattoolon of the Ari4tratiam Courtle 4urlsdietiva* No oompwod the oa4 strike with tho shoarorm dispute ft" ""a earlier and ro*told hm the UtUr had bMa hwWlod maemsatully by Um Adeftl Court*2 This attitude w4a not sarprislft* Th* favor-* ablip $udgomnts of Justice Higgins and the gfterous awasVe of tb* Court mAs theCom*Wealth pa"r o"n more desirable to Lobw*
There were grmVe within the movement besides Volmn mW the Now South Walms Party vho were omfumed and apmt at ths Camom#*4th Labor Partys changed attit-ado an G*mamoalthoState,
IN4 V, Evatts A!!Lral m 4ft e 14"Ors 4!, 'No Ax
holmn and TILs Labour ma"mais pyaoyx Ugue aw mobertiono
Nonabor 19# 1909* p* 8*

rexatlms* Tho streagoet ro"Mamt "m frm then SUts parUaWastarlAftWVto objOetod to being p4itivally Mm4mboxvi In %Ujnt*v**t# or The, superiority toolb* of Mw
mw ssbOttod by br. Uabonj, lobor. x* ww"d to mA6 aute -.14ginutu"044 *04b4oranaull.
bedl*#*4 Tho" we" Otbers A0 dbi**W -to ths ext"olom of aowaomft4#;*vw*m beemamthor ftltth*b *6014liet be better AdftmOd Wow& State actuno,
This *Ush a"r Ooawnw*&Itbw6t*t* rolatin" reflect"
not *"r No4aUst ob4o"Lv",or the &*Wanjv'
I'Itb 1;11111"r, -tobelar and partioirio
p"t I& tmw p*rtv orgasimatim, b*s t*Ulagmst Vw eantradio*
Tbs: f4loving #wV& mWvl"mos were gmdually aftrattod
to U4,000, of $Abour*0* sentimental bows only demmmats and
vAtunalutillw 000nomde U44"Stj tm smu Awwas
md s*ttj*r## the pro,"Oore *M mall minlog proprUtorop mad
*M waidl shopkw""I by ties of mU-Intersetp the Soma
-Gath*Uo Church sM pork" certain basAiwas iutorostoo-notsb2y
.tho IjApor trmo,3
An*thor obwr#tvr orriv" at a ditfomit b"*Woft of grmps Md amandm* Uat Us Labok pvrty *vAbraces 1*4*rUalets and ont1w
0(mmiat and IndivU"liatito StatmURLghts -men
vO"mbwr,2$0 1909* po 8*
lihUd* p p 74*

and ValfifttiONIA44*1 This COMAUtOW SUO n*U$ thA ths 10difftraMes bstftoft the WO WW2 Of the F#d*ftl OWSitiOu Of.-thO tUberalf partlos is probably wah loss $him b0mm tM extreme or Ubbtw 0 Lo C* Webb and Lo F* Crisp# two "do= Irri"" an
AwAxaUftp*10licep vo uOrs"Od wm tbo isonfoderato *"set of tto Ubor parjW wW other Auatrallas parties* Webb U*t *both
in Cc=wwwalth slootions and reforeafts the parties fuzwtion not as national arganizationas but as loosely knit, fodex*tioas of State Crimpt vhoos occolusions a" United to
Labor parby ononisationj &,Ivoo a alms to stUl &wther mI& of UAV eWMOtiftS Or9AUU&U*Wa Md V'1Mp UrAOMUO in the P*Ay* He ONJw k
Yet# it thw sonstitutiama mots** is "Watokod it, v&U be foued that.Auxtroli= labour is in f4et not em but sem
pwjA#*Ah$ "&to 1waftome &W Us F"Oral pa"y
,Eomh State Braneh has a Wumliwter wid per 411 its Oft*
X&ck has 4, emstitatim gemnift Its ftatoowl4o and lose *rXM'jSMtjOft in * frM thWaof
the Othor -Stato ftv*bvs# lw* Is proompUd to vor7 largo
With atets, ad 10"IL ge"Mm"t 010"i"s and 84*1414k.
t"kjLve p"Onamets In regard to an of vti& it it autahommv,*4
I-mTen Years X the Australian Comomealth." 317.
heicester Wobbp- *rho AaAralian P&Ay Systems,# The L*...t
pouti"I !! 4 kde$ ed, Atstmlim, Institute of FOUSUml 41010aft (Syd"Y1 Angus Aw Robart*=* IM)* P# 113,
4criopo, The Aastnal=. Poftral Lebow P*

This ImongtouO alltum was algWismt b4*&wW :Lt jrAjogtid th4t VWO WWM qA: to be intrao"Ay dWer"ses Oa *W gim igg"'t SUOh *6 OXMM*iV* 6f Co=WM**Ith ptM"*
OX&4*w* rOf Ombrad"tOv7 *101MAte In the Ubor pafty had StAU othor, iWlisaims Child* h" mumd, up so" at tb*
rosalts whAA h" doomed in attswung to naomiU the divwgant
a2emmts 4--tho Pefty, He mdd that it hsA
i"*i*Ablr a"at Oong UgM-,"" VWA'Ing for +,he peUtUiaft wkd "has filUd the Labolar natform with in6onsixtowi&s., To
AV Ad -offendiAg Us little capitallvU and Uv ftthAtesv
Sna'A"ism ha boss nwh vatored doom in the tabour Obj"tj"
To rOUU the 04pork at the nUansIUA*'tb* -4bonr Party has gone, in for a i0ourse of "AtImental Mg flai"Ing a 0
It b" alUwad, th* striAly tomonle motive 2ying behim.tho
ths, Labor party ino aot the oay party composed of eantra.diatorr 0*0-* In 1920 Wd IOU VIO RM4Abor parties wo" a"*zVtj#*
ift Salo on am# the"rWOM "mring Orgea"tu"I POWIft
pains* Ih Du"rgerf elAxelf Azation schwa nork4abor p&rtiss adi"Ot putISSO Bad the In$ of suah Odlivot partUo" *= be goes in the, r4b*labar papties of Anstrauag 14*$ Is* of peragomt namboxvhIp xftd organinUvaj, sporafts, aoivity ud Interest tn p4itiesftowdxly at tUctimep arA desinatUn of P41tisal aoivilw by parV woft" and parliawMmry ropftsentativooof Tim 'gook"U bW vartits in the, ComaommIth SU" ftrU*ft*tv we" a sorssis of
khUgW* gew E!LmLr # P*
ppo 13-IT,

Political *Uiomaes larg4ly bwod 04 eved1tww* To be adfto aon o Ubar parti" 4*LOUd in the WWUUS OUttko Imt tber 96"raW
darstout:wwoo, v-hon *a2Ud ", br %be: Varliamtarimis t* Ot out tbo, yots Altorthe disastroua, slootim defeat of tho ftvioft 'grWAP An tup# *Or* tak" im wb* Mout 'S',vornawmt ro"na
-Libeftl p4l*710' A pWV4 eXpISMAUM Of 'Why non-I*W POMW wore so, Ww InretesnUing'the no" fw arganmtIon w" Uat, they vo"'tho dominant, politUalfom In the ftataq sat had bmm at leaO on a par vith tobw in the, 1*6*r&l Commwath PulUment prior %*:tba fourth Parlimont.
Owspite the loose aVaaivatimaI nature of non-Ubor V*Va# Us" w" ev=7 svi&mes that vaUua WividuaU ww* owrryiug on a vigorous *ntt-labo #Awotip through PampKets, aW spesche**. Two of the proUgoiats- of &OU"OoclaUsa and SUimm' rigbta vore SM" 6xith And Po UAW* 027M, Tb*#A Vft MM b&VQ boon abdeon wwwo 6r lose typi"I spokesmu for the naa4abar #14o# Brue Ordth mw the non estnue of the twd,# wA SmIth,* walk* W4M* dId rwt mr" in or *Wort the winixtrUs that wan "vVxtbaU* to UbOr* GIMP on the oth*:t*. boad,* vas Attermy ftaer4 in the thtft Deakin Covernmanto Bruco SaM in a Po"PhUt's, Antioa laust Ub
!W2116 m "ift
frozattafting Deakin wtd **cialim proposed a plWoft* The fifth and sixth Poin" of Smithts PIWOM'h" the fonowing to say with

rog"d t* Sutq4oderai rsialsidnes,
Tho widows of aU prqwm4a U offott bongos in Us
ConAMWI-im by &tt*VtUV to, a1W %ba f ouwfttiw af-tho'.h4eml P&34"rsh*P#' Md thus Vw"t4mlng Us n14tivs, rights 0: *be StAtes wd the I"
thoft viols in whish Vw used for ewstitutian4 obsup
b" &%M* boon widely to It and desired by t1w pooge of tbo
6+'fbo sUaly wW ofttlaums mativatim of **r* harscoia%*
roUtims be*meu the Staten md the Cowwwoethp aW tho avaiddA60 of all UgISISUOU that ut ca"Arily Inurfa"Al Aato$ ft&%#*
Olymt v principal pamphlet of this perUdo
we* a less extreme #UUmat of BtaUrt r4thtx*
Thiso of, amrse j, was to be expestod Glynn had served
Attoxrtoy Aoftev*l wW[or Deakin 4ad W reeWized sms of the inado w
Austra.Usa fodeftl *vUm* Mmotheless# Glym
r#A&U& the trsditlenal avuents for fodamUsm and Wlo*tod
that hwft-Ozot a unifleatimisto Re Varwat
,W# mat rsm*tr that we ov a iswtizmt under a federal system
That mom* thA %her* are diver" coadniowp Uat wo a" not
homionsous# tb*t eanditl4mo of proftatU% *ud the Oost of -livijw wo Aot sindliar in all OUteso-a feet iNA is rocogabiod In the federal system$ umftr whiab industrUl p~m stin t*udn with the ftst## 14rd Aatm said* *In vUw of in*MWIng dewdr"I# a reotritUd f#d#r&U= is We ouIr P"Able thaft upon em"nmw
add eantrolisatial**2
After this IntraduUry history of the =n Imporbaut
asps*to of Avwtnaimide4agio *I* esesomUs md poUtical dovel"wrA
'woo &dth#
2 p* VW4 My=,* Fedeni tMrvs sad T!!.doZLM (AdoWdes W# Thom" wid CO*# 10170P' P M

during the f U-st ds"d# at Coxamnsath throt task* r"IsIn $
a revuw of Ue ge"na poUtUal situsUon in Us ftat" srA %bo Camit'!0*00h, prior to Us, 19UretorwWW4 (b) a rsviw ot the gwwral. sitoAtImp and (a) a staUment of the
reascovtor tW Un rtfortadva.
jx 1911: the Labor Party ewWoUad two ftaU lower tmmsss and tbo 00*1mosalth Psaftswato The ?a"*, 4ajo,"d a forty,406 to thlr ft$owity in "W C th am" Ik"d fv ,
VIO thIAY*"x!5*MA# soxts* It also had a' tofty-six to thirtrafti1w
maj arity, In tho Kw OavU ftl*s A"emblv and a twontyodWo to tw*WW UAd iv'ths Smth AueWmIUm A#m*3,r,'J The 19M 03*0tim In WeAern Auwkrtlia W inovasod Jaboe it reprow"Utl4a. in the Assembly from s#wnteeu,-.,tO t*"tY**wO 04 -of &' t*W of tjft)r* Tho PtrtU
X#r4I,,t6sOrswd UA thsnowt xiffWie4vt fact in Laborks gal% WAS that GrogsWy Aong Mo Lo, Ond a popular non-Ubw
menbot mat; def"tod*2
UO 'TAOMUM 4100tims of *Y' 2* 19090 gavo 1"Or t"J" seats: 1A house of thirty %bMWO %M P*Ay Md bad an2y
movers in the PrOvIo" Assembly of thirty4i"o 3h this Tavamian 9O"* ,#u4vwft the fi&9*4Ufte s7vttu of Proportiowa reproooll!ftlol
Ot the first tift In the ft0ol, and "cording to
Ifor,-an acowAsit of the lew'Deutli Waji# elsetims ow I Ifti do, October *0'%* 30# MO. For Awth Auet2iM 94"Rarp, AprJI VnIr*
aL#&r4d September 16o 19"s P* 10,

Lb142till *tMA P"Por"O"I r""nU*Uu had boon mspomdbls for, sms of lalmwts Invem** The Wrm 4a*o lsdia*wd approv*1 of thu Olowm m =Aw W4 said uat
thoft&t tbAtthere weft **wp&MMwly few laonal b4W on %b* aver*p less tbAwt ans por-esrA,# shwo th* 400tass ad* and Von able to smerleise
In the TUtalm slo*tIons of Deoember 2P* 190* Ubarfs r"" mmtatlAn lAcroand f ran firtm to tantywom in a Uver
hauss''Or "Ay4lvs, Ap*A from Labor's inmasow Vw vllotgwl"
vemits, wwo r#Usr oenftsift# and there woro eentradictery osti,* Mato# of Us stvaugU and divisim of partlos in tho AsnoWyat But this M""ftt 00af"iOn did not pre"nt lknlays, an luds"Mont
rrm faralmg a minisur based an tM vAppot of
had W a rather disturW polltlc4l situatl4s
*Ad prior to ths's2setion of Octaboro 1909* tbm W bum thr" Omni; sl*duons In two years.- The owr#U r"ult had been a
-Ild"it4o.ot Labor'* strength f"m thirby%-fivis in an A"embly at s$v*nty4,tv* in 3.905 to in an Asselwy of ftvvmty,4*0,
Us O"o-oar,; 1"0 "wUw rUftry is" it tribute tO US lkwr4Abcr
Isader KWAr6oO Aloe' the Qua*waavd slootiww "sUred tas
*!M,* fty 6* 19"f P* 44
hh* DocoAmr 30A -19Wg 5
Ootobor 1900 P* 90,

4wo parV, Wvftm. majority raU a cUmvcut division ;wAis
bwkwom Ubeftlift and Soci&Usu, #l ThIS aAVWMt Of TKafti"l fooim* Urbo Aklwo, party Water4 Zabor md nemolmbor# appeov to have taken pUes In most States as a immat of, ftMm 01*0"gag hold bet*m 1"0 IL910* In p6ftimaar Us xoUA *Vpcrt given to nau4abor UM*ro in Now Soutb lt4*s (Waft)i vlit (MOVW4 Qeftftslmd Mobou imd D*Wun) and Tasftni& (Sir Uri &"Flo) VON *an of th* -Inamasing non-bibor urdio, This *wtwlWw unit'r whish,*Wol' for *we affective Politima 002but. In an "a of rising, Labor V*pV*OOOAUoft* can be trmmd 0 104st In part to laborto grwth*' ,!U toOVervativolobaft !!rv= -Odd tha* the unifi"tical of tho- no*"W faOtims AM OlUdnattion of a MArd pwty imtnj&*O &U the T&"n ift PiAs of tebor*2 4A ma"to, 0" tho
fthat tho ft*mi*r wal no loupr haft to pUy party Vainst paftyovd Tu to it, 9"attr or Umer *Amt coad be uld of the no*"% tw govormmte in tho Wwr StOse,
mo f*Aturt of tha AuAmUm situAtion of )III tbA
""4 bo o"rlo**d Is th* swasi*1 P""ritys a hwt wom4ed ov" by Vw' staunsh pno-labarli* writer V 0# Childo.4 CMIAU
m r* Oetobor 5s IM# p* 4*
H&art, lbrou *7 60 IMO P* 4*
awmssl ea of tho Owth of 40onamu pfti"'ur
during +Am firat ton yew# of the Vowmamoalth mot Ao 0. L. Muw# or Ammtt& Oro" 04 "m INOW Tork i

*nu*d that tbo growth of monVolUs frva MI to MI vms an fox mr* of the AustraLiAn "on4oWl asnetholo"# he osidt it seems t4t the Prompaltsy of the Paud W" fairly gob"*337
diM"4,* That Is ossoatod bir t4w Savives bm* boloafts
69A b.V Vw, taot that rvalvap s j, desplU sb&rp f1wtuatims,#
reft im t1li 'Whole
The "attatus, ompert thlo *OrWl"lW* in a SpbeiAl stary* *A Decade of Progro"p" lUOmd the fol2mwlag
Produotim., 19M--112027),*000 Pouaft
M -47650WO peunAf
O"ir"As Tgmd* 19M--w 97#696,#= pounds
19IIA-133i.953,000 ppmWid
S"U0 4"Mits 19M-w 2$AW*000 powds 49*wo#(= Pamdo
480dbos this, "noral,'P"verity to "Inmem" pro4u*tUa- &jd#,4 by high pri"m ;rer prtmy *V*"v#oP3 ThU Wmawy W-le4im of Austr"Is eomamia p"Mm In 1921 eamm. PUtes V* gamral sooidp, *vrimomls# ^rA political picture of Vie amUnant prior to the 19U reforen&m*
,Altbouo this bistorioal swmW Ma not qoviftvally awkiomd. the IsoadlAte reajem vkW 1OU v" chosen so the yeor to try loo md*nd coxm mealth povorso am* of the rooftne home bm ioplW* UaftWA-,. edlyq tbo mmmox of t" mf*r#nU prior to 1910 was not overlo*ed
104140, saw, Lew xxix.
,he !LV!Ho AOU 17j, 1911# po S*
30"Sm"Od'o Develapatatto P* 2m.

planki of th 1905 Labor hlng plafom" ele1.sw d~to ta th ab~a 'oadWicesdCmofat pw rs No nyW th Lbr aryingeealagemet nexenig onoeathbras bu oU th, h drvin foo nnirILbrplts a
a wil- dafodsupoter o inan Commo Nwblt tIn11
laorvdeiiv ~otonvitryhd nbldth at tofr
Minisry Inwhia Hughe seve as AttonyOnra m oigP
xialstel4 whL Andrwihe vit at the Imeal Conernc during
most~ ~~~4 OftO4 h i~ atO 91 nG*A U"SO w
Prv'Urfrna muin fV xeso fCwoolhpe plan in hepUw laas~ W.w 4 ftis %w of uca oxa*
s~n# ad heLebr littin vetry f 910wee sffe410rwO
*t 91 w h lgol i osumtpopsl frteexeso

fixing devices "orating within the, 0oxnazwoulth* In & detailed sUdy, of the tftVt wrement s R, L. WIWOOM pointed out that 1A 1914 there existod in Austreia -a mwar =*Volvs tabacoa trast# steametipfoomtions, and ftalliarUs association AitAou& his Wridemw was *OWNMat Isom Courinding'P wmiuson also xbtwvtod to show thst there was VrUs fixing in the timbers brisk broad# wid noor uftotriesvl Thirds, bto&use of the seemingly persenent nan4*bor majorities in the legUUtive counalls the State laglsla-* turto toidd never have boon funX rsapweivo to labor demands oven vton,14aia hM ewVI*U control of the lm*r hou"s, Alfrod Deakin sam" 'Up., 3*bots f ruxtratltm with State Uglalaturts by -sayift, vat Otba bak of their speewwx ffAbcT76mvisted of charges of
*o*14wbUne of dWW an Us, paft of me or nor* ft4oup vith the d*wnd that, this BM should be poised;# bouse it efforts a rensdy*02 14boro, howvmr# knew that r*modies So4d be fortha6" ffta parliament in whieh they W a majority in both houses-a
Finally., in addition to being blocked in the StAo* Labor oefored from the action of the HI& Coaft vhich had rojo~
Camonwealth logieUtice favorsWO to the 14bor V&Ay,, Laborto program was doalt a serious blow, vhen the HUh Cmx$ revio"d D"kinve "kw Protoetimft legislation wd foaud it Invalid bee""
41. L. Wilkinson, Tt* Tract !LiMXnt In AustralU (37daer Critah3sr Pirker PtY* U4** 193.4)2000"nMaith Of Australia* Doutos'o LVU
(2.910)o 5396*

the ftaijo Tariff Aot *a* being ujwd for the oonVel of indw*ry wd not for taZation.1 Art aUW." Oxton*iou of the Arbitration Atat by the ArbUfttion Oewt tbra*h the a;VU*&%icft of a woomm rule" w0bin an'inftotry it vhale ragardliss of Outs low was daOU2*4 Uneovistitutlema an the gromids that a Federal vages swaft vhich was inconsistent vith a St*te sward mw iav* UdA
CoWWWWAIth eantrol of intftmatate mon"olles and aoubimo in restftint of tr*& pravUWd under US IndustrIss Prommation Act of 190 wm also hold to be inv&W* The Nigh Court extended tht rod*r*l prinelple wA ru3sd that it W" IthAR Intentim Of the Constitittim to remom Uses waters oxalusively to the $tau*4 The Couft OW Out no Oxceptim to the romorvod powtrs of States could be granted was*# qpooifisany, amUdmd in tbo Oonetitutiw ) In another oam tho Seawmn#* Ow"mootl4a Aot *hUh,# ammg thlngi# amered paramm w4fted In the aa4sW UvAs of a single State viw bold to be anamatit0ional on the growWs that omtral of iatra*vtate trade fell aole2y uWor ftat* jurisdUUMA Gordon Oroemood in divenssing these dealsims states th4
the Labor party# in partitUlAirp VISW*d then dWsIWO with
Uw"y,, *ot mly had legislation vbUh it most ahorimlM besu
3The King v*Darger 6 C,, Lo R# 41,*
RAUstr*a1an Boat roployeas roftrationvio "MW n C# to R*, 3U*
huddart Porker Y. Moorat" 8 Co L* R* 330,*
4s* Bv WIbI& vo WIIs= 21 C* L* R# 89#

r*nftftd AS-11 and void* but Us CaftotbutiM Otemd to stood
" &n imp"Imat to the Aafilbant of the pwty's programmi, It vms not surprising* U#rtforap that tho pany should "00140 so nonstiWierml saw4wnte dosigmd to romo" the barriers
in its Pallh.4,
Uum le"t seven reason for lAborto inUow
duetim of U*!-Weviaftm "emale in PWU&wm%,v (A) The alterations
, aFtszr% segmvit of the o"ialist-labw ideal*'" tumso formed an., iT
Povat" this 1"S &*Ubmo platform) (b) W* V, Hughes v" 4 strmg
advoomw of 9Ae"im of Comwmalth pwml (a) Labor's obj#"iv" bad be" frwAralmd by ocaservOlve logioUtivs &membUmij (4) there w" *vidorm of an incipient trust growth (9) the High.Courb had inv&UdsUd mach *f the legioUtIon aimd at aebievirig tbo jAba"migUat goalel (f) Me WmW parV was di*MU&CUd vith Suto Wages, Soodal (g) in 1910 the Labor party nowrod a parliameno. tary =00rity vh1ah *mblod it to f*UM the noftssu7 constitutional proviAahs WiU "g*rd to heldIng a refererduno
IM.G0M*"# "National Deval"ntom pe 2 4.

TfW CamweaffindW 40stimo Wom h41d in Mxr44 InOt
teamed JA 4uly,#, 1910# *M at that MM Us G*VOVWT*
tho Utor party4a p"V*x toltf Obstao -on tho
PV"O"U loot" in.owt~# IM, abd the "for"dw
takon and &f""d, oft April 26,0 19u, Two,# ils a uttu awt thm a tUw drastic asama*# f*r e6utifttlama cMage had
bm V*WW Vs#m4y MmUftods "MW 12 Ugi"IVO biUft
in ordit, U %%ko UU *amp%* am* =u*r**s=hkU the
W* *haw in fau- at Us$ pasv sectim 51
of the ftmttuum vk1ah SAWAN*Xtes tw Pmers of Palla"Ats b&SUW x"W ftrUsmat *W11s ON"t tO this Omatitatiou'O hm P~ t6 Raw I" for 00 PON*$ Oxd*rP ad go" sworamt of the camomosath Wilk roo"t tol-0 In the fixot BM# *CcmstitaVAm Alter"lan (zativaouve Pomrs)o tho vortuig of thr" par&~* of ftatim 51 m4a 4haWd md em parsp"h v" *dW* The par*.* gr4kpk ahmpa'. sod the p"e"d 4 wttm an suft below

(1) TrOe and Comore* with other countries *u4 the
Statosi by emitting tbo words ftith other *ountrUs
A" OA039 the Stat"*19
Foo p #*M*mi6nSj wd traft* or
sUMS fo"d within the U"ts of the Commom*sIths
OY Odttug tM Ontir* par&~ And In"Alug in, lift
ta) the reavlatlm'v W& OM*01
(b) "C".pWations to"" =Vur the law of a ftau (ex.*
oopt any aorpontlAm f6n*d sol*ly for religiou$ charltsb2s,# vci*vbUlA# or artiotte purpowo,# am *4 torte *401sitiian or gain br the eovWatUn
or Us woubare)s Inaudift their d1*940jeft,# rop*.
(a), Forelp caporsUans AmIuding thoir regulations
(=bw) 00"M&" "d Arbitfttim for *be provenum &rA
of infttttial di"WWO "U"Ift beyond V* IWU of my am SWos by omitting ths vvlra and Ina"ting in 2"u the"Off
The wages *W loanditims'at J"mr and *x0laya"t
In =W Uv4*# iu*avtty# or o&Ulagj and
(b) Ths prv"*Uon and SOttleaWt of industrial dispaUs
ia mUtion to ouplquout an or abmt ralbWs th4 of OW
SOOWL" *",t* be turthor oltered by adding aA tho ond thoreor
th* foUaWlng p~*Vb# coubInatims and =MVOUOO in relatim
to tbo productions smuteatuv# or ou"3,y of goWs or serviww#l
Alterativa (NO10POUS010*
tb* O"Um to be Wo* ottsr ftetics 51j, read f*UOwjij
Wbon each Ron" of the ftrli*wvtj in tho *am se"Ump -how
t7 rovolutUn deelmd thA the Wustry or buimos of
ITb* A t of LM U u
Wipont of 9.

tM AmWoot'af x=cp*lv$ th# PoKiftont OwU have pwor
to make 3400 tt* O"771aff on ths laftOU7 or tuslt*" tDr or undor tho tontrel of ths Cowum#4th &M mnublft for that
pupo" on JW4,tonw #v prepaty VA64 In edn"OUGO wish tk*
?be Oseto" wo" tan*d upon to mko two Ohet"s in vhiah
th*v* *ire inv*lv*d tivo "ifis quostiowr4 Mrs Cat%*# 14ber
No N't Ro viplsihod tboao roq" SU VOU, 48 Arq"s *bon be N&JA
First-s vc, s* fi* pio*r to wips oO thow Midtatlow wbigh at wxt#4 *p"w in tW CoutiUtim In regad to tvvAv "d
'e*OawAS** -IMt p~ is useossory to brim# Qw G nssittUn with %M pw*rs & for in re2AUS to
*#vviw4iM#j voilancr* lei 0* tor, 4M. tatontion of
iUMAW, tO O"MO US tO U40064ilO Or r*g*Ut* aw
"Art, Ojw" or wavu* I wrarA#'Vs 4* for POM to
04OW" Ow"fttu"j "d Ifs*Vwrs l6r, M* lip~
jftiw'-lj*.# 0 4"4mA to lxwUft fo"Ap *#*waUeu*# 1"IbI&I'll, 4owtvOL ticw)r# A* for an imbisfttiou poor,* V"
Uft lot vw its praotiviur Mit~ i
*huh 'wiu give us the riibt to d"a vith V^t"" of
without toar ot ow p*&r bvir4',MdtU*d
not' by the julksMIOA at a $"OlO*fttt"
Ths"'Po ox-a as *VlAimd so OUtKy by Cattog an In sonwe
tbo *z*S.f& WhUM Ubor 4Lttomptod to got slso ona "praV4 in
wpstW7 de,"es rwMal that usto wo" two forma
Otto" PrUr tO InO tUt 4044 With tht ft""tO
referovAckao Fl"ts tho" v" a wtisn by
"two sowx% POWOR AA 1"* Ifti" wall" tor tho 4w6favift 09
Lr I

*oft ow 60VA04 so* at loot"* u vw 141"Mos. ot vo peopue"Ol
U*W Wo *Us lAbor M* 16 go$ UW"1*4 Ood
som to a "to Md V" at"%" varv to ww*nwst
The Oopwaoxwftmw#l, ft bis low veto to fteluWas
tin wm to owwwww "nooftu tor mw Aftwoms
ot mo o"AlUA140 roir wo pwpow, of ""ift tbo ?sow"
padimm" to 1149LSUUI oftoou"Ir wift on
tMouip Ak.&WWIM "U460# SrA --- 103A46AM to
Wft# mft4wtwtft# tW PnWOU4o4 -A" Moto*# ad
rAmft*Km* It is Mw bAsmUm of 0 Atvisom U *a P*eUmpo no% to pw Vow "saw** tw **Sol*% to oftwuu for vair
to U* 02""" ath 4 WW*.W mwwmm 064T I but "Wi Avg" botmo odomm*W t"t OU pongpofb *so i1famoraboolve
""W to U" 00 4ft"
voirbrl* of WkAft*wU*u4*h ftoMato orUlalft ad *4
umstia" tr Itu fftow WNW I Fop aw md vorums labo m*m
ta ot
ozi%%Wm MOW
P. 89.

appawnt M"r*4* remikon vau that be
mas ftthiW'"rlftd to find the gontl"M Ifto tbo leader of tbo Opposilim holdlM tip his U&VAS IA boar horr*
wh" a propo4tlan is x4ft U" %bo Coattilktl4ft ShWU be
mwonAedf O"Idering that he hiw*U has plawd variouo prop"Wcas 1-4C th4 kind befae the Hcww,%)
DoOlu iveoived Indiroat critielm from a member of hU
own Oppmd-ti6p. OW4,0 mro W* 3, jobnoms, U* R* RO Ao "id the
nomlle ivfsmx** to the rofovwdm roxinded him of am of tho" 2""ximesque po"raphs whith had atom pus" wdAn of the H6"*** 'Batetw1oro Labor M. a# R## "Oludod ]or* johnow
th" hol M* a NM*or ot Vw Deakin toft sad shmM no$ Oflog
his *00,0A
A* -, iwfturwp LI!! ft!!U !g!j!% !!!!:!Id sald thals Ila Z*" mucalms futuxlo# Ot *0 Fisher's pregmw The SftiOsd that OGGSUtUUOVAl rvVftian x140 be sc"W
at #ool:AJA*$, bus'roximbd its readers tbAt Us Coustitution v*A
rUpsA, splust tOma exesaftwO3 Weets lobw Me
R** in *ftsow +00 %to OMMIdto Oriti4ift and that of others midthat the O OAOVUOU V" not seemed andi lobavlorap it *mld not Oewod in tbo wv of libsrty ant propess,*4
P* 270's
Lorm U.. July 5$ 19U)t p 7#
(I=)# 104

Axababoa of this V" vore OUVW on until 00%ber of 1910 VWM Us -PWUMWVbWY d*bAU 04 tbo SaID bftmo By Vdm: "t* tbo main 4cats4ants in ths AMOS,# *Agftn and D"kft,, Wd had tb*.tO "O*Al "SwOutf.: In disemasift tht PanjawwWwy
VFOU to MIUM that thav "wrAVVOr OW V*&ftft to Oftld be ftleated or avm alt**W,6. LOW had an ut*eatab2o =%jority un6w the strict #mtftl of JM ledg*1 ftvVA%%aj.Wo, X* ftChas vw a palismsotgry stratftIA par he IU a youog and -T4mTmU um vbeoo pou"Ga
attar *0-,VW4* Dsokin#- on U*,bQ4*r harA,, V" too, md
Wr 4* JAY, ft*6 tho "*Id a his *#ti*e pautiva ammm,
Tho :work of his 29054M xizistry ="r b"m
'*Ilw of tb* noa4aber ma wh" ho new wo: vhilo a
a first stop br =kV pw*rW U*arjjwS4 Dlal" VU. V*VY'*M#W*,t" at thO beginning at the sosslaa* we said th" tb6z Of tb* q*OOWmft'ftsX*9lyAem thm he, emdid
bV4Oj';..4VW** it IzVelvl" AWU MVO than esaking wA s4vjWAg*,' of *&da$Ara*jOA bo wamoised big pr by *qls** pabUe "mr is ~ j, =d Ow soewr it *Mm tbo
U*UVlAW'*,4 Ifetwithataftag this MgMyVeaWxtstU &ttjtu&
i" UtUftt* of tho SOOSImp Deakints. health hW and jw oandooW
tMP0K$**WWWr b*ttlo *Uh saw of hU foamar pot** U# prIa.,
41pa 4441* -for repaving us 'that the Oppe4ti= w Oantinvad to

f Ight:*
The gz*A polat is that as it party kept tb* flog flying#
P"Outod'a good fmw to Us feet 00MO&Ud Mr differou"s'.
am -""Ptbt us suvAuftp "" ablos, dwift to tMir wookessw In dsbxt iag. pwor wW the f*Uy of sow of their Px w*aSs U
mistain o diplgi*d attitsdo of rosixtanoop aehiivii* swal
vaeoMmwolt *ad gwwrally giving tM iftaof bolft far swo
oVostivt %ban ve were or Indood amM bw* Of comes altocwth6r
We have do" nothingrcOth mutiming in the w*V of amputimc
Va Oovor4wnt asasa-mal th&t "s mt of the quoatimwk
In We Obort ap'pftima Do*kin suzukriod the non,*-Ubor qplniou am-* ftrauw tto wo* of tko FU*t S*o*Ua of the Youth ParlUment-w &=eptiaft' bsp bo talmn to his viw that the Labor party w" not too sffooti e iidobat** To bo ams,* Awt of the Ubor argwoutep
tbo "forowun PMPOWAS Vw" ropotitl=v of Hgbs.ofj W" rtaoViiud to om of ths tbm ae four V"*start" tbo dobato an the *mwod rmiding of. Vw two M 14i. (Tho'olauov were aotwaly road and fotod an mw 0 4 tUwt %t'frea Vw outoot of the dobsUs tho Sposkor pormittsd COMOat *n OW We Of the 103AUMS U BIU Oft$ &W 4140 41@W*d
soment on BM T"o) The Acting ftim Xiuistor began by resallift tho f"t Ust the people had boon askod to amend Us GunAitvekim oa two ommosivs oomwims and that they Md dom sow Be &UoOd Oat this va-B proof of tho own of mmdant snd tMt ibis hM bomm the prima cmaider&tlea of the fromrs wbon they inserted the rofetvasdm prw*os into, the Con*Wmti*n* Next$ Hugboa z*"" his "M"t

of foderalim and argued that it dIA not mQm mr ftfforenft if the ftntral Go"rmoat bO fitV pwars W Us St*Ws fAVW at vh*tbor tbo St*k":,b*d*4AY *ad the dantstl Gmnmm* tw*Mw* lo wM that vhat, is
that within the s" of IU-pmm" *%Wbodr shOl
to im"Pso*m% of tM otbPro so that nothing dimia br Vo *Patna
Oovalftmmt "I i"Mx. tw Atthwilw rot me ftauo* 0, md
nothUW dme or to be 40M by ifte ftA*x *an iWaIr UP No"X-olpty'of tbo X&Uoma Gmtmmoat* This to ths me os*mtW
future of redoratitall ~0 df which voution has bom aft #m mA essent j FsdoratlAme may *ad do *AA withmk Purmaft A.his Ibm of roaftaing flugheat mIA tbat the asomeo of Vw
that they wodd 11J." MW VAU"*1 Gomm"t SOV26" pow ln su ONt *ph*"') thu0jo Oaaatw 1"t to loguuto Offootivoly
AU,.th* "turs Oftuarated in UOU" q of the cmautaki=j
%h*VO4U* tbo mot saft,%W featu" of f**nU*mwould b* fuVW*d*, At thU point ho also stated that thesm ahmps did not Invol" quostim of uulfU"ian vv* todW&Ummi,
HugMe armed that A" alUntle" wors simad at tM
v*114*ift of the eamumlty* V*xwvsr, he *mtealwd ftat %M7 was U&Wdamet*4 01*0 the four xid*$ of motangelor blo*,** and
booaOs Vt Uix. they W b"n ombmitUA a vnito M tk* voll4aing
of tkw Sommmity Amd the iuur*e of 'the aluftsims wom
polnU *hioh led up to ths real reafta for tM ObAnpop i*@** an aftsmoant vC AustmUm natimallmo Rogbas "Id tb4t It P&rU&ms4
10amommmaU of Auetmlitv, MU
(29104 4"-*

*iaed at bet%,,*- 914wied Shi" OMMOU
utto*uw 04' r6*4tterliv Put$ OjaftlAims 008"njag Astlowa oft nd9 Md (WA AO'4k" tba Conatioo,
tuition -40ws VM with *we tbM Supu P~'O but -I ubs It
Iftb OW 46OU*0 IS* it quit* an~ Q^otitas J* 40SUV to eve, looosuv# ftd oftutswatt" astwn tr th* OAVMWWI 401
VU*Woo Ipt "oplo tb* Comaw"Mok
AfUrAug *s 3ALd this baokgrakwd ba 4tse"wd o"h, poftr j0d tho speWft "KOM* for ItO inauslan# No mlMaiuod that tbe Trads'sind Comem 01*ww of the Aw*=11im ConOdtution "a the renIt ot,& slavish imitation of the United StaUx Causftutimw This hw, argood, W bmm plausiblee for tho ComowealUta, IwUMV to 404".w0shAntrastaft conwwi furthenomp it had had tbw attozb* Asut aroot -cfprobiuWS ths 49awwftalth from dealing Soisfactorur tba process rw Utareao"
V*or Oi6r, *omWft ftgbos' 40
a SVP" U81% 00mor" Vitau'v S"O"M $he- "Ift" Of all tho X*0"s of the $080=ftro 4nd ths"fomp theso fteaeutftlw tb*
vwA if ths utwua G"*=wx& did av% ba" p~ *"r Us *Won voUg frm Vdoh' all wA" Wt*M &ILuk or dU#" tbon it VO moW"d t6 iV*Wft* and tb# welfare of tba uatSAm w" ixpwrU"w
Ito: Owtrol and au at luft0kry *as ths wdor
1"0' 0 *A* ft"ips "d 40 Abe Sajor patio at-Roamw
"'OluohAvy ""Oh* $*v*ra ""o" sm be *M*wW for tba

iVottamo of QA# immoe ftrstp It appoarod that Vw proposes dwaing *iU Wtstrr weat to thovery boArt ict Us so"aliA md MtJM4 s% owUpo"roys soundp thie imo ves a relatively simple or* 404'p" "0 apposmso at b*lxg 4MM"dWMt faaal p6lat in attowtug to pu 410644wal S"Opwt-0 Third'v at Wo I$as thon was general &OMwayAt that sheathing Obood t* 40.0 abmt jm**p*Uow# ands therefore* the tosa* badA dog"a of "sl to *at looterss# or that is# Uber thought it
%a,- 4vguiag for the map"Use p~ S*es rewaled the
*A"rft &OUIva of the High OcuA# psALa4xdyVw Ruddwt ftrker 0420. Us sUo eited pertinent natims from a
rue Pmoor"tion Aett ftddarb Parker and Go*
prop* Dbd irt, Oovtr*n*r of Oustom,#*, which bM boon prm*nd by Oft Of D"kints AASSMA" 065102010 P* VCH* GIpA# in Aug"t of
The 01&th polat in Us ssw"M= p4ated out UM it *a* diffiotat to deal with induatrr U uaitam xmmr* The ainth
On tw other h"'.% If ths'ParUmiant of Me Oexasmsalth passomd
p~ to %ftLvUWIU rospo," a 00*ftatims or Oulopolle*-in INOW] I VIVA Int at traftp SUU is voll gig InUr4tato and orborwa,# the, Is* au4 Vw sfttalttr"Im ftuM b# mUwx thm*paft the
fts ;ro""ift-0 ifto"" of sovenao woulff saftift)
&W Us S*4*wIA of the allt nAj, a at'
proosat# only to UkerOtato operaAlms of Us defandia
IWdop pt 4706,

", h
Ba&** lu sWIft this soft tho &11,too obvious point thab OW Mlw mad jortod rrUnd prooise2y Mdorstood the diffiftItyp
IthU eoll"was dA M4*01
W* motor bw sob HAmhas disMod Private awavolUs whiob tl*ds Wbe saM* tht "PViGO Of' eM18 ftVi&k** OV4W# tobaoft* vbq* # f1buro b(rI4k** U*Wo *ill# "At$* and jwa4ft b* did not eontorA Uat sonwpoUos *oft #vU# Be vatAsined that pries fixing -by a tow was a natural at"* ta 00 ovdution ot p""d vo fmatl4n to bo taksu ovor bv sooletyp la short
hu Orwistm o the mum it vas In "The Case for Labor*"
amqwLUe rale people UwtwW of the Is rtd1mg tbo
Trriag: to deflas 4 sca"62y Hughes WA tbAt p altbou&
ho "ujd'vAd* It in pmIse Utwp fte know me vbon we a" it#"
In fairtwom to Hughes,# *%on Vwu& his vvUU* 3PIAI*uW this st4sv,*, Wmto it "n b# 10"m that bw hod a falr2y go" Idea a mm"dUeej tvwftso, nd oautUmse No said Oat it vu th* fixing of press by
it among Us as*ws of a "aratUa or =mg mi"ro of 44 LVA146WY thkt Us 14ber party vwAsd to ftaWNA &" to "%Lazo*
If rw6wss*ryq WhIU he wo disawadag UU subj*4 MuChos replied Ao am of Me sent frequoM arittwiaw of lbs proposwass aam2r* that Ah* pows, wouM bs $bUgsd* -Ho mmrod this orItUift by that ftrliawmt was copsibl* of sbwMag wW of the

pwors that it pomends but that an uoramUd exercise of =W logWAft" posvsr fts iKWV$ liable to the ohs* of the Opeogo behind the P441OX"Us
In vappoft at the uUtratUm -4mm Hwghos argued tbmt Us Fodoml A*OfttUm Court W been emrsly 1Wtad by dostaLme of the H149h COUrts, MW thsroform# the Aftitr&Wn Court W b"n haqwftd 1A bringing about a "Wr *Ad vW for the entbo
Ubcrttg foraeot the OammommalWo In rapport of this scatentW be eited.,, the majority ropork of the Umster Ommission vhieh had satwlqU4 that a sy*t*a of federal &*itration *" the m"t 619U*U# XA eoa unetian with this arg4mmt for tto eA#nxim et
the Foderal Axtdtfttion Cowt Ru&ss advocatedd a 10*U mad aimmosive commew*410 logioUtivs propmax In *11 fields* He WA that mch a US14AUve progm ew4A mAr, bo mt With the Aid of
the aonotituticintl alterations*
Tho reply to Ruoss v" =do by Deakin,# and Dsaadn Is ""OhA Like Hughso"# r"OLY" the 10"" part Of am "Yte sitting to dolivoryo In his reply D"kia ""Wmd to be amAything bnt tbo slak sM Uwap4lo mn %Ut he bad PUwmd biwalf Avt the OPM40g 0 Me somam* His "eshos in tko Nov" an the t1torw 441afts AW *Wuwqmmt effwts in the *&Wpaiga dmastraud tv"'k
*ptituft for palsmiss and 4mkim to a vaums
Xn the first partUm of his q**Sh Deakin dealt with the 41y= momwondum from vhioh Rugh*x had quoted and in so doing

rove" his ovu position, an federalisx* He quoted at length from the samorwAm zto refute Hvhos# inforemn that 017nn or the Deskin 0overm"t WOUld h&V* SUPPOrt0d l0gifllAti= Wail to that eontaiwd in the IM ptopaulso Deakin quot*6.dn pwb- trom the Glynn vembo
Vft most not forget that. oentraliz*tioh dose not *1*W*
insure the porfoot working of the Dsaoaatia prlneiploj that
diftetnoss and proximity stlzWAte sUctoral Interests aM
stvengtban administrative control; aW that uniform regulation
of &U Afftirs of a amticent may be inezpodient 1, If not
Dookift wt Mdy obj**Ud to ftghost interp stationn of the Qlpn sewwwamp but he took omoption to &**at definition of weralisaks D"kin aM thA federalism dopwdet open the bolwmis *M reelprocal adjustownt ot the Povors of both National md Stat* go"maents *W the, aireumstorme of tbe, Australian oeonaW* In Deakin's opinion the rofe"ndum proposals wo44 have up"t the balamm and would have been a oneoqdded adjustment to warmnt eanditimso
Next,# Deakin discussed what he devned to be the roe quts.Uw of the dobato-whotbor immediate ande should be sought tbrough a Great alteration of the nal ional mohinery," It was a aritisal quostim because any ohango of this nature vouU persist long &fUr the imadiaiie and particular end had been accomplUb",j Deakin favored using the federal "Un in ordor to ashleve politleal oMo# but jufted by what he coned the highest standard of fiedsmUsib-tbo *oqaote dsv*1qpm*vb of local mits-4he 1911 alteratleas ton

ghor%-Of the$* L standards* In other wor"s PoUin obj*Aed beeaues tM dm"#o ftv" to tba. Opposite, dir"tim frox that stiah f0dar. alim as a systan shoa2A hes4i.
JU.'Uaftr of tha Oppoattim iwoused'Soose of not bolng
fair vlith ftrUammt ba"use he did not reveal that tbe, pGoars, VM14 bA" to bo takon fro& tho ftat**# Deakin Up" that this VU ft baosuft tb* wry nature of fe&raUsa was a division of powrop &W aq &ddW=A* Comomsalth power =at be xWo at the expense *f State "Ir4wnt#* -At this point in his "ch thero wore interjootio" of 00tates' Rights*" D#41a sawered. by saying that this tty 4W -not offond bUo and to sUonee his critics he used the mao. smift that gughos W foumd so convissiag in his awout for sztetAod Connowtalth power*,# That is# Deakin argued that &U ma vmre eitizoo of UAIvid"I Statse &PA the Gomomeathp andp therstafts as U=wwwath aitimus they had aething to dread vton tbo 3%*Us in vhieh they ware eitisens devolVed tasMgh dogma* -Ron"# DoakIA argiwd* thestolterations 'were "posiod to the hi&sst standards of ftdaraiiw4 Aud bo maid tbAt if hU a"Man inw w3tatost RUhW It v" at iio vahem to him &In" All ma vers doe oitizans who should bo *agaged in fo4oring lo"I davolqpwnts for Whan Us Comeaw V001th beasio 41-Vowsrftl there would be im evon waros oww*qwwoo-ow tb* aurtailmat of individwd frWdoxv On this point the Oppositun

Ovw w0l, not be obli to buy P#WVWorbh of 1431osp to drivt
a vAkil U'A boat# to nM&r a sbosp# to om gniup to piak
tnat$. or. U O"ry hod* in 07 Pvt Of thio cantlAent vithola%
602ang =Oor tho operatUn of tho Co==Wwath Iwo.%
Alth*4& W* might h4v# bmw sn emg&*rationp It was soasutng ViAoh V601A s a protagemist of imftvidu4 froodan fearodt
DoakU objoatod to the alt*r4tions on an*W*r ground,, i*o## ths.v war* momly, 4t**Wts to turthtr ths tims of tho labar party* He to iooftne, WUVh 1wre wtivated by pWy gftl*p
r*th*r be objO" to Uoo* aseau"s, bec"m May dW nA InV01VO ar4*4ing'ao", than Party time No fat that this V" a PUMA of
=P*40" policy Woo"ing to Whioh Lobar# with like Worityp would ovMt iiopoucr "garaess 6f whstbar A i0onfo?"d the
ago" Ot# jrMA D"Ada "12ads Nth# f"tz u *v fi" tbex ft anomr to that he opposed 4U ax"dwat,# ftWdn *&14#.
11, 4^-atiiig not wXy thas th* p"Ie would smad "tir Gojt xeftes"7p tat thoy should amud it exactly ftors 110,ust aosd*# utd it no*" SA,# "d that Ibbay, thould
rso sa&wvour to mroift the gift of prapbor so to Ojetero*
aim it" gemfttioas to ftap xUbt roquire4l
ftakin was 0 $I&eting to *hot h# awaids"d a mat P&Vtisax p4iW,
with the individual proposolai, DookIn 4ofended tho Tr44e'W,,-Obqww" parAgr4ph of Sotstim on the groundip that Uk
w" vi4or thon avy otbor pwar in the UstmUm He
acats*ftd, that the UniW Statom w9rdin wim Mopted aftor 4L caftrIva
N 1. 0'.
"ALA*# P# 4825,

Study of UnMWO StAt" *GUOItthlama fteisiefts* DeakJAI-9 objection to Us tmoftr of 04 sibibr"ion pWWO to Us C4MMV441th *oUbw
*U*d vrith blis supUsis m lasa ft"Iepawt* He re"AmW the In* dwWal arlimation with r*Wset to vV* doteminatien Ond OOwI*%d that Uomm: ot tho differing VrO)Um sW tbo varittr of laftetAa
U& iftre wath bettor suited to desa vith ths &*i-,
tratigm, *ad omoilistica probImm that arm* frm laftstrits qpmt-l Ing #=ImIv*jy mitbU their bwdermi
0"ojtttlaft tio Camammmath sm*4 of inftotrios Was wA*d on L***o differug COMMUMS in the states
1w*ft. Aso'aftuad that the oo*U wwAA be highp md Uat buftas at the wost Mnd wouU modt frm the exbomive "guUtive wimsh-o lr*ry- ValvvIo u-14 be *m*"2i#h*d* In ishis sMw he offered a rAbsti. t"s bola# Oftui"d in the 01YAn Ak U ssuailish 4m
ThUrstaU damiooft ComWUM44a-"s device VhI*h ths 04motituUou provided f6r but *L*h had not been utiliwA* That bedrp bm onvioOd Upiorotdd be vm2y smeh like Vw UniUd BUUs CommissfAm4,
Sudft a b*4 in VW'%tUd SUM* of AmAu today it at ospl,**
Uj jwportanool &W* undsir o*r'CmstIt+AUAm* to *"tr3* of b*Ug "0 atta "m offtetiveo Az ImUr-Stato CondoglAm would, djaghargiW. to" admWotraUve dutiosj,* and vW x4OA
be UrW4 JVAUW ftti#s in Sal tattoo" of praotitil bow*m# Tho Comd"Un bsU*'provIftd for in I *dvai6a ty t, ComAlWo.
tSAm* wo ha" mkft mo" th4m buo atte*t to brIA9 It irft
wdstonft;p Wt our *ffwtx ha" not be", aromed *ith 811 41
Id,* pi 4ft9w

Wier in the" debates I(r* Joseph Oaok$ UbeMI'Vs H* Roo MMd an ammdmont in, the fora- 0 s, substitutim to US swivoUss *I&*** of MU Om to establish an Inter-Mat* Comdosick, But this
**tU*# IUm other offorto of this klud# was unsuo4mssful md v" defeated thirty-eine to twentyCIVOO, Xt should b* stat*4 that althouLt thero we" otbar atteVto to amwA the propowds non-Ubor mv*ormp this menftmt was ths main alternative suggeow tion of the OPPO"tuU&
one of the most frequent domm4s, of the Oppositim was that the four alawma of BUI One should be embodUd In four appanto biU** DaakiA adadtted that the propositions ve" *IU" but indaws poMent of each otbor* He eastwAded th4t *a" prop"4 involved
a mw grant of povorp mid that Vw grmping together of suft pro** posaladid not permit 4isorialuatim on tho part of U* olectom, Sir Robert Be" and Ur Jokm Qui*.* two of the looftag sWasts of Vw AastftlUn C*uvtitwUoa,# aleavritici"d this ampoet of the rararer4m. flu*127j, Sir Jobn Tomet moves
That* ", the in4usim in a sia4o wasaw of more then am
oubstantIvs amrAmnt of the Cftstftutim is =JvA "d mA**amatio to it 6WIVOO ths sUbtaft of an OPPWtvAitr of the
c"SAMS of a free and indspondeat eventt up" tbe several
qnoCima raised gra ly aff*o ing Ut tutume of AuotmllA# it be am iusWustion to the'Gandttee to dIvUe the BMAnto tovo
bII3A# oo as to allew oach of the propio"d alter"imo U b*
*Ithas a sevamto mwmro-*9
i wmq"# P* 50)80

no WOVdIA9 of WO ft4Um Insored It# d~& ft6wo it U daWAM %W Pr"Oftle ta"thor bad my Unsomean the VOW#, mob "a 3ado of this faet In the dotbates and In the ewvalv
Individwa oversees by m*ors ~ thw Hughes And
Dookiaware such 4hortor and we" ganemlly *oaf Uwd to an *UbarOVUM tho 4nuamto advwmod by these two mns Ono; of tbo
favorite jopUwdiswdx"d by Labor xa*srs was the emUadleUry stmA of them vfte sqq~ NN*w Frot"tica* and at the amw tin q""d US satorstimo* Wo *ttbWO# TAbor WO No I*,# x&JA th&t he had baocod,' Ovskin for We y4"WO and that it *" ftski* iho had first **sd-'-hj*'tG sqpoft I*"ation oath a* fto botere tb*'XvA"wI )tr* Wiso's Z400,K0 Rx Rss VIA *"n MOSW ek"ing "m UtVISMIS
Th* potdtlAw and the "*he$ a the hmOrWA* mdnr for
S41mY-4:,L%&kIgCiv* as way, &f0sUft of Us 494"Ot regmt tho S *a- *he Us 2*d the "tiomal towso In U43*1 wiIA an his:a"O"Imso and atUr all his otfortas should am# JA that 'Utt4W dGP of kis p4ltiftl owmero, be f"ing e"ry
tim be, spooks# Ue op"Ut of the panO,
if sath actt4fts, as theme had smAy efftet on Deakin* the" is no
61yan's momrmdanvoia tood br betk gifts* Another
*hU* f Igund In Vw dobwW* fts om w the workiW

of Auvtr&U4m todoralism mrittim by Rabort Gamanp 8"n" to uttlotoft'aftox *ho WAS me"Wr 04"rja UWor 0"41r;m at VW reqptat -of, tWOmmmar of Traarml* fthos qwted- a ooOlm of t4we Tnnsyil *6morudm WhIah Warred to tho Tri4e mW Comter" poor of'Aho, I Constitution The memorat4m advised#
:The "eaifia pore" shoiLU be d&fined in words as Canorma
to poWbIsj arWingi, ax far pa"Ible,# aU. conditions,# OxftpisioWx AWIIaiUUC",o S*9*x'Tr9A0 sad COMM with
othor aountri*a and amng theftateso, The UmdUtiom to
VA#r4Uts and external oomerm biosets the subj"t of trado audcomores# &W makes a hard &W fast divisim of prisdUp* Ilvim otvhieh it Is WtImat to *fttxU** tbebovadarUs OW *64A dmo not oorrespoM with &W natural diAimAUn Ix ths
eowuov. Ot busixoss* It w4AId be mms satistatt#ry It po"IbU*
to t4mpOer over Uv& sadeamem gawnilywL
This an, of. t)* Guran momrsad-am W" an as"U mmm an Roghes" P&A* ;t did not ba" the desired ottact of spUtting the Opposi. tions VO no am-labor member attempted to Otplain tho Inoonsistent stwW *Ueh tb*yo at *4 lowit Groom4 W takon on the Traft &M
Labdr alln vote md to =favorable -fteislaso of the High Cowt the moJer masm for seeking th* obmWs* Sesator Pmv
40mmatift on the GoymoroAmralle spwho abused that the CawA Was the IOLA "fuge of ft"UM07 forte#* He stAed that bo did avt belim in ortatlag idols and worshipping thwa as som had do= vith 40a HI& C*urt mdo Woo the High Owart was in the pt* of sh"Op 'it "WooU havv to b* =difW or awspit out of #A#Umc**2
P4, 5n3XkMomsajth of Austmlia,* La LT (1910)PI

Mro, Pextor Wwwy# labor 9. Ht R** mestod Senater hots ahmps agMust tM Coat &W @Aid We was ro"m emagh for him to w4ocrt
Otrost. question fn* Kr* J**Vb C** &*kUg hIm to, =k* a emw f or
Ing"asod I gmt of powtv *&Us *X otrw*2v. *AYU* or b~.* Me frIsM. to, r#M Us, d"Isic" of the High Cowt dwbW Us I"t sIx svarsOl ftt=%Uy* there vere aU* tho" vho, an to the
ad*=" of v" court* The bln m Savo a mom or 2mm
*plss oass for, =lutswws of ths Caut,* The !!gad "p*d Ust it W", tbw sc qft'vblsb kqt *#* Parlia"at In bovado md We,* gunodod individW fxoodm from ths ftwus ra* to vibU& l4bor vmw to O*J"t the cawwwwatb*3
Thoft, mw way we saWber who MA zot Veto a xtftl&i)
*Yos# or Dw# on each cUase wA an Mw sepaftiw Slnttv sad thU was I# R* Irvift vho'xwppwtod the tltomtim w0h regard to Uudo #md*=Wrd*41 90 arvwd that Ocuser" Was an Onpais wwo and aw
*ttovt to deal With w organ" vb&U in tft portis WMU evestusmv up"vo ". IrAffwAvm4 be" it h" pftvod to Uw" UulUd SUtes,*04
loomomesath of AusUIU, Malilm wt P.Ot"" LVXI
3T#*'a dnq #MLAg &r4d Auguot 8$ 19101, pa 6.
&*bat* I.Vli

Tbo Arbitratim Clause was amomar **An md ws H, Irvino
*&S. OAO of itf ftut Violent critics and candmod It as a political Ow"iftayiv 'Rio reaeming was that the labor party had middadg 4ftet the ftbato vin Aho fteond iW*axgj Us potlim of Um alauss vhjoh, ga" lbo, ComadMealth amtrol wor, milwW o"I"s* The origlasa word* V" to, Aher Section 51 b7 adtting pwftv"b Smy and InoWtUg In Um fte"of the ftstst "bxhwt.dAI mtUrs imUdIft siWaoymoft. aid thm wape and emditianz of eMloymant and also intIvAing Vw or"ontim wd settlement of WwAAal djapowsi"i xrru*.Okid tmt be mpnlod the Inelusim of mamy mmato
ma Alto" to UW mmy'f rm Ua Stwboo the control of their
, rmto ths dire"'atboom of a pea#1*4 *amopiromy b0woon
tho 3.00#m -or mom *W10Y*41 -of the Staw, R*Ibw DerkAmAte
wid those who wt now woupitm the Treanry ftach mW thstr
to wo tbu redstal Parliament *a a XOMS of, $Mo.
plaitlimg, %M State TivamdUmp aW to seem* for theso popon *A'047 havo'not been Ohle to obUin through the amtherisod Stalo tribansao# -beams* Mmy h4" =0 domands to vhloh they
4" not-OMAtIodog
Irvim's obargs was **hood by Abors vfto lmpU#d that the Feder*1 arganis0ion of tb* Raibmy empUyeox had be" earrUd out with this In mind* JAb*r ignored Uis O"mM* md non-44bor W. not mks mah us# of it, Ven..Ubor 4roWod the amapiracy ory beowas ,ihoywen afv*;W of offending the railway e"loyses mho roprosented POUMW votes or because tboy roalix6d that thm was little validity 1A iAO Ohm" Howeverp .+,,be ehaft* in the arbitmUom

*Una did h0e sA influeno an State 14tor parl Pmrtiv4AnY 06" in NOw South W4*9* (The gommal attitvAo of Istato to 0WOtOr Vv)
Pdmjr. "to **ctrel and satiamaixe =nV*IU#i vas vqporW by labor bsowmw in tho UnIW Stotos industrial groxU bad pro" dated an un"wa diffusion of mealth* md,# thus* paverty, hm roodW* This pomrtyp they mAnUineds mw duo to a Uck of go"ramat oioatr4* In oWer to prevent this in Austr",O Labor wmted to cantftl and rvglate andj, If neftesaryp uAienallmie busine"* Mon4abor mamborm alued tkat zonop4lies mnd*d to bo
*cnVoLodp, but they f *It it va-s up to ths SUto a to do Ito, Nom-labo 414:zot admit Va need to nattomausp in footp they cont#wed UA Publie m4opolies N*" bad as private amopolUs*
Otbar points men mmxid*r*4 In the debatsa of the ffousp# Ibm:t a lis*Ug of the* here would be of littl* um *, Thor* vas no d4twto In the Senate bee"m no*40w asubs" refused to dismW Vw propomao cm U* gromds that Vor em2d do nothift to stop tboir pomp, It alft beam repeaMng t1wk *h* "tift in the Now* was strieU r *)Amg party lims mM the amooptim of W* H* Uvbw wbe v*W vith Labor an the sotaM rWIft of %M tna &A Pi mimm oroe elxww of Din Oto Momewers no Omm"s in the Bin* wers effected by the non-olabor aSAUx and the only change Vas Lobor's
*jmUAa of the Arbitration 018*ft*

Tbe, dobOUS of the Hoult fumiSh no 404"W for startl4me ooncludmat For tb* most ps&t Usy woro uwVaetamUr wW unlAftv* esUagg bitt ithla does not mw&A VAA tbey vwt m4xVarUaVw- Tho 1921 paUemontavy debstos vorm Us tirat *%"a iA 6 series of strwIss vhlak immterod upon oxtendiug Oommomoalth pow#* As qw*ths vr#vJA*d a beAs f*r Vo negative md -affirmft", argummmU of 1933-liv 105p. md 1919* Fin&,Uy# -they established the iumdUto fnuwroft f6r the 19n OUPSIP4,

April 26* 19n# v" the date setfar the first sztwtsim
of Co=wmft4th pmere Wermdw4 The long c=pLign *iah proooftd it, was offjoU43,y op4md by the Priv* Ulni4orfs (he had Just n. turmd froz Us 1wrial Cmftrewn) "ch to an astimtod 40*0W POOPIS In valwave on March I# ItN" a "Ch of gwwnaities was most of risborfe mforandus eupeAgn speodbas* Pistor took the position thA jibe an*admants war* of no great eowwquwm but von only ds4gWd,,ta ropAir tho f&4t# that W been wA9 in framing tba WACUWa ConatitutiW&.1 This Was an SittoWt to abW Us a18-givings of th6iw vbe feand the possible amipotenow of the Cawono* VOalth It ths, V~9 Won XMUds We"vers, the 0100 O=paign vu not Iod bV ViOor who had beenAbsout *on Vo "ancls wo"
dJftU#W'jAL:,*b$ UOUMO %O*Wft of 4bb* ftaU of IftWd VU h& ].Oft In tho %$M.* of the sa"a4m to rspiveoft Us Oamom*4th at ths
"W* Hughos was the roooplad leaftr of tb* iffirwbivs Ad* aud the reforerfta campaign vas tho kind: of battle, in whish
'Tho 44MZ Nonjag. Lr4A# March 1,9 19n P v 16

Full Text




''M:r. Hughes wi.ll, it is -Understood., ~sk the countryto sanct.ion an nJlil.&ndn).enti of the Const i tution :enabling him to deal with pro! tee ring u 9.Tn,e Bulletin, Oetobe r 2; 1919, P 1. ( W M Hughes at one d t ti{>Jfl ) time n ea Ulllb:rel.uu;1


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS this dissertation is the outgrmrth of a Fulbright project undertaken wh'.le the author was in Australia, and as such he wishes to express gratitude for the fin~eial a-ssistance given by the United States Govemment Throughout his stay in Australia he was shoWn every oon.s:Lderation by ~he ttl8mbers at the U nited Sta,te s EdW:ational Foundation in Australia Mt, Geoffrey a. Rossiter the Foundation s Executi."10 O.ffie;r, extended aid and understanding which were helpful for an enjoyable y&ar on both the personal and academic levels. The reseal"(?h and first d:ra.f't of the dissertation were co.mpletEld in Au stralia, because ef this the author is grateful fo?:' the assist~ce and eoopera:bion of num;arous Australian scholars and students. Mr R N Spann, Professor o Government and Public .Administration in the Uni versity of Sydney permitted the autho:v to use the facilit.ies 1n the Department of Oeverrunent Mr Henry 48.yer supervised the actual re .. search and made many valuable suggestions eonceming the treatment of the subject and the location of materials... Mr Mayer posed ques tions which caused ~he candidate to pursue lines of inquiry which would not have occurred to a neophyte in the study of Australian politics~ Professors Qeoff'ray SaweI'.., Ti s. Parker, and L. F. Fitz_ hardinge of the Australian Ma.tional University gave of their time in order to help on specJtie mattsrs. 11


Sir Robert OaITan., one of the Commonwealth's "founding fa.there" and an active participant in the referenda, imparted some of the spirit of the Commomrea;lth period and shared many of his experiences and insights. Ae the alert dean of Austra lia n etudents or :federalism, Sir Robert combines those rare qualities of the devotion of a scholar,. the idealism that first prompte d him to take a lead in the fight for federation, and the insights of an active participant in the politi-es of the Camraonweal th. Each member of the candidate ts Ph D '" Supervisory Cammi ttee at the University of Florida has been helpful and cooperative in connection wi. th the candidate's graduate study and the dissertation The author has benefited from hits association with the membe rs of the Commi.tte ., and he thanks each of th-em for his innwnarable requests and faults with a maximum of fort>earanee The Chairman of the Committee, Dr WUliam o Carleton, directed the graduate work in politi cal pattieSJ the authors knowl.edge or politics has been in creased by Dr Oarletons provocative observati<:>ns on both American. and world po11ti cs. In the course of the candidatets graduate we~ he has encountered various "points of departure," and in these matters he has received advice, encouragement, and recommendations from Dr Manning J Dauer 1 Head of the Department of Poli t1cal Scien ce. Thanks are dua to Drs E rnest Bartl.ey lllirun Havard, and lph H Blodgeiit who haw helped in more ways than they probably realize. Dl' 1\lft'ed Diamant agreed to serve as a member and eo-ehair man o the Supervisory Comittee during the 1 home stretch,'' and his. iii


help has been invaluable" The author was epared many of the pro cedural ditfi.eul s du.e to Dr Duimant 's efforts Dr,. Diamant' s most impor .. tant contribution was that he reviewed the dissertation on two ooca Sions artd oa).led attention to structural and substantive weatcnesse s-. The fina.l product is the author e own and whatever errors of fact and judgement :remain are his. In acknowledging the assistance and encouragement of his lfife the author oan find no adequate superlatives. Arm Joyner ha~ be-en both adviser and typist,. She has been the first to praise, but she has al$Q be en the first to off'er co-ns:t:ruotive eriticil&lll and to sug gest that. baro work and patience are two o the in-eplaceable ingredients of scholarship~ Lastly,tbe author wishes to thank Mrs. Louise Joyner Y

Pag e 1\CKt~OWIB!lGBMENTS 11, ,. ., .. ii .. vi i l.IST $F lLLUST RATIONS -: ., ., ,. ., ., viii . ,. .. ,. ... C HAPTER I MAIN CUP.RENTS IN AUSTRALIAN POLIT !CS l 788 .... 1900 :t I. EKIJ:W$ION OF co~w PONERS BECOME S AN IS $Ult III l9l0 PAJiUA?SiTAAt rn.m.ATES .. l 7 2 5 6 8 9 1 V HOLMAN VERSUS RUOHES -. ,. ,. 139 VI THt FIRST NO V:l:OTertY ,. ,, 169 VIL THE sE-G-Orm ,N QU VIOTORt .. ,. 190 VIII ~ POl,,l?IOAJ;. T AMOlllH~IS P' i. ,., .,. ., 230 Ll 1 9 1 9 PARLIAMENTARY DEJ3.AT1f,$. ... .t r w + 2 .5 1 l THE THIRD "NO VICTQ.~ ; 26 0 JCI OOICLUSIONS ,. ., t ., .. 309 A PPENDIT&S I,. NUMBER OF' mu:ows AND UNION ~1400HIJ> BY TRADE IN .JI.UST RA.L IA..,.l 9 ll .. ,. II. LASOR HEPRll'a~ATION IN COMMONWEALTH AND S'.tAT E PAR,. lJ:AMENI' S-190$ AND 1 9 11 V 3 4 2


Page II I "' T IUBUNA1.S FOR REtRJ!ATIONS Of WAGES IN T !ADEJS -1111 ,, .343 1.V 1 9 11 1913 A N D 1919 ~FER!M)A; E81UI, TS )!~ BIBL I OORAPH! BIOGW\.PHICAL .SKE TC H vi II 4i 347 351


tIST OF TAB~$ Table :r Aff11$.at1on of Unions and B ranches to Trades and tabor Councils 1911 ., II~ Number and mbership of Unions, 19011 1906., 1911, 1914, and 1919 ., nI Number of Factories and N umber Employed: 1907, 1909, Page 34 )7 1911 37 IV Population of Australia by States, 1911 146 V 19U Re.f erendum Vote ill ill ., 170 VI 1910 Senatorial Vote and 1911 Referendum Vote by States l 72 VII Distribution of Commonwealth Parliamentary Electorates at the Election of 1910 and the Referendum of 1911174 VIII Go1llitlonwealth Parliamentary Districts that Voted Labor in 1910 and "Non in 1911 _.. ...... .. ., 176 IX. A Comparison of the W estern Australian 1910 Commonwealth Vote and the 1911 Referendum Vote .. 18) x. 19i3 Senatorial Vote and 1913 Referendum Vote by States .. 225 XI Distribution of Commonwealth ParliamentaryElectoral Districts at the Election of l9l3 228 XII D istricts that Voted Labor and "No" in 1913 228 XIII Party Representation in the Legislative Assemblies, 1919 240 XIV 1919 Senatorial and Referendum Vote by Sta.tee 304 XV Distribution 0 Commonwealth Parliamentary Elect~al Districts and the Election and Referendum of 1919 305 vii


LIST OF ll.J.,USTRATIONS P late Page I 1 t end Your Umbre lla, Sir\" ,, Front ispiece II Deakonian Study 117 I II You Cannot Govern .. ,. 124 IV. The Farme rs' Fri end 129 v. Politi cal Burg lars ti 16.3 VI. Ca.ucus Olub 217 VII. Referenda G as 219 VIII, Nobody 's D og ., 277 rx::9 N..erely U orikeying 279 x. Australia 's Future .. )Ol XI Magnifi cent F ortitude ......... 306 viii


This examination of the 1911, 191.3, and 19l9 e-xtention o.f AU$tral.ian Commomealth p01Jers n;ferenda is undertaken in tht, general field of. political parties; Such a study ne.cesearily tn ... volves a: d-iSdueeion of the activities of major socio-economic :tn tere$t groups, and,. therefore; this di$sertation will be mainly concerned ~ith the group alignment as it occur;mdon the tlu'-ee refe:rentta. 1 There has been only one other major analysi,s 0 a referendum which has been oriented towards 'lfhat may be termed the "group app;roa()h" to political anal.yeis This i& Aaron Wild$uvsJ:~ s study of the 1?26 eletension e .g l.nteresta Within these grou:pe 1 in o~r to unders-tand :warring fa-ct.ions, and the final out Corntl f 1 $~et Arthur Bentley,. The Process Qf Oov._emmeflt (lllooming:t orh Indiana1 l>r:Ln~ip:ia Pnes.., 1~9) ancl Wuii'.am. o Carleton, "Political Science and the Group Process 8 Th, South ~~~antiQ 1 9:ua~rtl LIV ( July, ;1.955) 340 -. 2Aaron Vlildauvsky tlfhe 1926 Rete~ndum a Par-ti$ s, Pressure G~oups., and Personalities n (unpublished research projeet, Depart m.ent or Oowrnl'll8nt, SydneyUniversity, 1955) ~ 1


To ea.rey out his aim W Udauvslcy' devotes the main body ct his paper to an anaifsis -<> the lal>o r g:,oups, the capitalist groups, primary p:roducer g roups States' rights attitud&s,: conflict in the Nation ... alist and: eroun-try parties,. and i-aligi()US vifnte,, Arter ~ing this bnakdowrt., : W lldauvsky atteq,,ts to determine the degree to Wh ich (iach of the g roups within these cate g ories euppor'bed or opposed t,he n,.te~tidwn. The divi11on of groups made in the f ollnin g strudy ;., ; differ~ !rom that of W ildauveky, because the two studies examine polit,ica.1 events of two dif:fennt periode There are also other ways tn whieh the aims of the present wo:rk dlte r from those or W ildauvsky. The scope of the analysis of tht 1911 1 1913, and 1919 referenda ;ts somewhat broader than W ildaavskye b e(ta1:11Je it covtn-s a ten year p eriod and deal s with 'bhree re-f'ttrenda inswad of on&. In a: survey of a ten year period mbt$ intoima.t-ion emerges on federal-et~te r$la-tione. ideological c ontlicts; and the role of leade'r$hip in political controversy in Australian politics* Furbhermot-e, in dealing with a prelei'l. g ed controversy it ie posoi bl& to indicate solDe of the term. 1i'Nnde 1n theee a:Nas. These po:1.nta are not 4isousS411d unde:r sepal'tlte headings, but are considered aiong rlth the group analys1"8, Finally; becaua,e all three of the. zeferenda dealt "lttth altei-ati()ns whi-oh 1rould have ex'liended Conrnonwealth powers in the fitld-e ot trade ud commerce, in;duatrial regulation, arbitration, and nationalizat~on of mon

Aside from Wildauvsky there are few write rs who have dealt nth retere.nda in any great detail, Leicester Webb 's book, Oonununistn nnd Democrc:y: ip iA.uttralia., is a discua$ion of the 19Sl I 3 refel"on(lum to outlaw the Communist party .. l Ho1J.eve r, webb does not oonoem himsel.t much with pressure group alignment, and his work is more 'in th& natu.N of a $tudy in public opinion f ormat1on. R ._ S. Parker, a'ndtharwritel" on refennda, does not attempt an analys1$ of an individual referendum, but rather surveys all of the referenda tha~ hijve been held up to 1951. 2 Jlr* Part(er s ssay is the best s.ouroe for voting restllts., nwnber, $'id political origin of refe:renda-. Those who &ire more than caeually interested: :in the study ii.t band wow.d benefit from x-eading PaXker s es$ay. It is essential t-o give some general information abou;t referenda in order to place the 1911 1913, and 1919 referenda in their total hietorieaJ. pel"1Jp9Cti"'l'he Australian c enetitution in Section 128 prescribes the manner in which th Oonstitu'hion e~ be altereth (a) a p~oposed law fc,r the alteratien or the Censt1 .... tution must be pas sed by a -.jority ot each House of J>a.rl~ntt (b) not less than two or more 'than su months after its passagtt through bQth Moue es the proposed la,r is t.o be submitted in each 41.eicester Webb Oouununism and Pem~cra cy 1n A~stralia t surv

State to tha electors q;ualitied to vet& tor t~ election of merlberis of the Ho~-se of liepntsen ta'tive sJ and ( cl 1t in 4 jor1ty of St4'betll a majority of the elector-a \TOting approw the propc;>sed law, it ia Fesanted to the Govemo~neral tor th~ niignin g ~nareh'$consent .l .' T M $TG have been different motiQns in the Federal Parliam$nt to r Contititutional ~ltera'bion, and of the se tenty.ti-ve haw been 4:lubm;itted to the ele6tors oo thirteen sepa.'"1t8 Gceasions.2/_ over th~ .... 1,'ourth& or the emen&nents between 191:t and 1946 have attempt. ed to increase the Commonwealth~ legislative pcnre r. 0 these: only the p avrl;ta-s :referendum of 194-6 dealing v,ith sirvieee was adopted Approximatfly thr-ee .... fourths of the extension -o.f powus motiorts .; i~ the Comomrealth ParJ.i&nent incJ.uding twQ'.'""-th:i,rds or the 'j t t proposal,]i;y eubmitted uve ~la:t;ed to seven particular pOW'ere : j ..... form q; regulation of trust monopolies, ,ocial set- il f "\ . ..... .. f :: l t vic esi tm;d inal'k!eting Histori,cal ly, then. irefe:renda ha-v& been uef)d I', I frequentlythe attempt to extend Oommomrealth poWeJ"s U-ct~ite its repee:bed u the r.eferendant ha$ not proved to be thf;J e;ujy meane or constitutional enange th(lt its foundera bad _J!' ,. Harrison l!oore 'J;he Oori$ti.tution of t~e Gommonwe~;!ih of Australia ( 2d ed.; Melbourne t e&rrles Siiweii & C~h,. 1910), pp ~J-<>4 I 2 b$t of this ~terial l:las been : tak$n i'rom -R S ~ P'arker; nTbe People and the C.onetitutiori There is also some general Worma'bioil on referenda in: J .. D~ B Miller,A ustr~ian Gove nunent and Polities ( London t dersld DuckWo:rth, and Co., tta ., :~,, PP. ~jg.


5 envisaged or the twentyf'ive questions pttt to the electo;rat e only four have been aoeept ed. Two of theee, as J D B. Millet' has said~ were "negligible machinery measurestt and dealt With elections (1906) and the assumption of Sita1)e debts (1910).l The third proposal aoeeptod was tbe financial agx-eement of 1928', whieh was regarded a.s an adminis-trative measure at the time of ite passag e The fourth prQposal to rec&ive an affiftlative majority tras the 1946 g rant of power to 'bhe OomnwmYealth to continue and extend social service-a More important for this st\idy is the fact that three of the twent;r;i.five questions that have ~en put to electors "'8:te prior to I-911 Two of those, daling with senatorial elections ( l906) and a:s&Wll)i>tion Gf State debts ( l910); were decided 1n the af.firmative The third one.a m&'a&Ul'e to replace the Bre.ddorl' clause, was defeated Unlike tahe Brad.don dlauae whieh prorided that the Federal gowm.mant should ;repay th:ree fourthS of the customs and e-xcim, re.venue to the sta-,.es,. the second 1910 referendwn stipulated a flat twenty...fiff shillig par annum payment per head of poplill.a.tion to the Stat-es, This proposal received a majority in three States, but was :rejected bya very naITow total vote, 670,838 to 645t.514. 2 2These three pn\-1911 referenda ax discussed inc W. n. Moore and. E Saott '; "The Nerandum in Australia, 11 T~e Qu~rt&rk Reviell, CCX!V; (April, 19ll) :, 529,..30


6 ay l9ll most pe op,l.e wr.c, cp'tbni$'b1o about the f e : a stb1lity or al:t:.EJ~g the Consti.tatien through tbe r~~ndQ1ll p~oc $s But the opt1niism ,based on the sueces~ <:>f tw'o I'ef~:renda and tbe na.t"r~ de-. I feat ot tj, third., w:aa premature 1 :tn analys,ing the th.ree def eat'Sd e xtens:iQn o, Oommon'ltaa:Lth pow:ers :t-eferenda 'bhe disse,ttatim1 'hows, QlllOJ'lg pti~e.r things, .. just how diff.ielllt iti has been since J.91.l to aJ.:b~r 'th~ ~ilatt""alian Ot:>n&t 1tutton th-tough reffi~ n&i.. I. 1 Itiid -'!.,/ ~ 1 \ I l. l ., :


CHAPTER I MA.Ill CURRE N TS IN AUST!u\LIAN FOLll'lCS,1788-1900 111 is diftieult to app.recj,ate the strugglea Which revolved. arourtd the l9ll, 1913, and 1919 extension of Australian Oomnomrealth powers refeiitmda without a knowledge of the ninet,eath centuz:,y i'aetors land, climate, and hiEJtory which shaped and eond1t1one d Australian democracy. Because of these f acto)l's Australian experinees differ from those of other democratic states to such extent th~t Australian dewlopment has been unique.. This does not mean that occurrancee in England or the United States did not influence Australian development, or that Australia did not ad-0pt measures similar to those adopted in Engl.and ott the United States, but that a peculiaJ> set of .facts was responsible for Australian democracy. l,t oreo'VE!r, the route which Austt-alians f -0llow-ed was not charted by European or American theorists, but was the :result of certain factors which appeared within the forty years after the first convio ts were transported to Sydney Cove in 1788. Transportation left an indelible mark on the continent. Fr-()lll 1788 to the nd..n;Lnetenth century when transportai.ion was halted A.ustra1ia received a ete.ady stream 0 England 's criminal population, Pro.fes aor Hancock i-elates that 7


8 an eY..a.mination of the re-0ords ef transportation at any p$riod betweera 1790 and. 1840 would show that spirited poachers and poli~ioal prisoners and even pict~sque intellige~t villain.$ were b12:t a small leaven 1n the lump 1 1'ihich was wretched and lstlQ~s and forlorn. Were it: pos s:tb1e to comp61 the prison wardens of this past age to pr oduce for our inspection a '.t:.tyPio al" transported convict., they would show us., not the c:9unt~n who snared rabbi ts bt1t the 1.:ondoner 'Who stole $J>oons,l I;.11783 tree se-ttl~rs began to join tht:1 C9llvicts so th-e colony -yta$' prevented .from becoming a prison .2 E ven though th& free settle:f.s began to outnumber the ~onviets, the pre&ence of penal instit,utions made it naoes::ra.rz, to e~lt the role of govem .. ment. Ale~andar Brady oontende that the ne-eessities of maintain a p ~na.;t : establishment entrenched tho traditions or "c~ntral1zed paternal:1,.$n. .,3 TheetllPha.eis on self,..relianca and individualism that characte r1z ed American frontier society was absent from Australian settlem~rtt., The paternali~tio bent or the early colonial gQvetn ... melilts did not disappear w1 th the end of til'aniportatio.n. Dependence on g overnment was fostered by the .,~tern and un-changing facts in the geographic environment., parti.oula:rly the aoarc:ity of rain-fall, periodic dro ug ht, aid mueh aridity.n4 So at thf;1 w.eyou-t;set there Jw, K ~co-ek, Austral ini (tondon: E rnest Bann Ltd., 1945) p .34. i 2 Ib1~ .. PP 33-47 and A,. o L. $haw ., T~e Story of J\ustra;ua (Londona 1'aber and F aber, Ltd. 195h), pp-.. im::g:O,. 3Alexander B rady., P~oraoiin the Domini9n~ (Toronto,; The University of Toront-o Press,' !9 2), P 13j. 4Ib1d


9 were tllEv tacts of nature and of a. psna.1 establishment which oreed the acesptemce : of g ove rruaaut as a posi f o:roo Geography and -climate are rosponsibl.e at least part.ially tor the particular course which .Au~tralitm p.a$toralism followed 1.: ,' The one saving factor in Austl'al:ta t s genare.113' hostile geography and climate if that the continent is wall suited for rai11ing sheep The first locks we re introdueed early in the nineteenth centurya.nd wool production and the trade based on wool rapidly expnnded Squatters qt1ickl.y' occupied most 0 the ecm.tinent The geotrraphy and climate fashioned arg:i.cultUl'e based on 1a&xtensive and highly oapitaliZed past.oral stations tthel'e sheep grated owr traots o.f lmtd ranging in the nineteenth c.en'bury fNm 200 to 300 square milas.-111 4t the $3Jll8 time sheep grazing was flourishing undttr the squatte r capitalists,. tha:re we.~ a. rapid grdVlth or port eities Even before 1650 Australia was an urban eountr-J Th~ ports ware not only the centers or trade and population but they ,vere tb.e oente-rs of industry, the irwe-eding ground 1 l of democracy ~d even ... tually the centers of a nrong labor movemmat .. The growth of the squatters in agriculture and the rise of' the seaport merchants an~ traders as well as an urban laboring class providt!Js the basis for one of the perl'Jistent coniets in Aue-itr3l.1ab history The squattere vtho represented the ol.d werld .of privilege and l!Qid, 1 P 1J6 _,...._ ', ; '.


10 propel'ty became the target. of both th& marchante and the wt;irk~rs. 1 '' Be-een 1e40 and 1860 the business and comtll$-roial interest oaptured political control from the equatters, and during the last decade ot th~ ~en~ury both the eg_uattere arm the b\ls1ne as and commerc1 interests l'fM'8 threatened by t l!e ~ising powe-r ot labot 1:he discovery of gold in the 18$'0t e is another fa.ctol" which shou14 be c onsidered in the groWth 0 both democracy and the labor mcrtJGment. The imporlanoe or gold has been overemphasited :tn som.e Av.stralia.n historical writing and most ebsetvers point 4,ut that the main strains of Au8tralian polities pre...(lated the gold rush; 2 These st~ins of political controversywhieh preceded tb~ gold rush were, the drive for equalitarianiSl,ll by th& ex...oonvicts and .free lahQrars; the conflict between the rural and uroan interests; the strong patemaJ.istio na.turt of the colon~al govem"" ment; and the necessity o expanding the base o the economy to include :tnciustr-ial as well ae pas-to:ral. purstd.ts. The politicalj eeonomie., and social oonetquences which fl.owed from the gfild rush served to sh,u,peri the already existing tendenci lR ~ Hartwell, "The :Pastoral Ascendency, J\us~ralia, '1\ Soci~ and Polit ieal R sto eel ~ Gordon O reemrood (Sydn&yt Angus and obe son, 9 2 of the writers who hold this l)t\flition are t Ha:rtwtill, "The Pa~to:r-3. Ascendenoy,tt PP 46wlt8; Shalr, The Story o'f A.ustl'l4l.\!, P 1)7; I:faneoek, Austra.lf4, PP 60-62; and C Hartleytirattian,. ,!ntrod~cihg Austral:G;i (lew Yorke John Day CQ 1942) p .. 49


l.l Gold attract$d iJtmligrants, stimulated the move to di-ver sify the eo-0nolt\Y', and hastenEld the pastors.lists loss or -political power ~l But as one ,rriter stateec Even Without gold, the Australi&n Colcmies., Wit,h no tradiUonal e~se:wa.tive olass and without established institutions, would h4rdl1 have left t~ 'broad road fn>tn Benthamite liberalism. through political democracy towards nstate sociaJ.ismtt though they ,n:Lght well have t:rafflled :i.t mo:re slowly ,; 2 Profe,ssor Hancock w110 describe_d dt-.,crati"Zing proeess in geat detail stresses the utilitarian aspect of Austiralum deJ110cratie gronh and likens the State to a va$t pabli.c utillt7~n) Discovenof gold in the l85C>' e only aided the gromh cf dem ocra()y because by that time the colonies 'began t<> reflect the unity of politi cal sentiment. Thepolitical power of the squatters was broken un&Jr irreststable pressure frMn the cities Though state secialiem oT oollectivism bad nat entered the piotuw at th.isdt1t~, the u~ven,helming oolonial <>pinion of 1860 ?'$produe$d the lib$ral sentiment llhioh ns to make Mr Gladstone a pc,war [ in Eng1M.d7 _.u4 PopUla:r govenun.ent, r-esting on manhood suffrage .... and the secret bali()t, which had been developing since -the 1820 s calllS into it.$ own during the 18,$0-t s,. The rise of popular govenunent lBl'ady, Demo

12 was ao,oompanied by "tbe eh~acteristie liberal attac:k <>n privil-egtd status and inequality of Qppertunity ul )3y 1860, the main eoonomio ; soeie.l, and relig:Lou-e groups had appe.are(l The major eoonom'i.o gl"'oups were the larg pastoraliJt.sJ the mel"chants and other bueineettman mo dire.etly or indirectly relied on ooimne~ce tor protit; the small iru:luetrialists and the rural and uiroan labol"ing f'orcas. Abaut 98. pel"O$l'lt of the popula .. tion were British subjects, ei\her bom in Australia Ot' the British Isles This. does not m~an that the population shared a eoDllllOn l"esent~d a strong and uhi'bed reltgious minority. 'I'be IJ'tsh Catholics were generally laborers, and 'We Jiie l1b'$"Nl in eocial t!Ul'tters They p~ovided a sharp contrast to tb,e socially illiberal. group and t'~ th& temperance element in the Anglican ehurch And: ~ntem1.xed through all of these groups, particularly, the rural and urban i'aborers,. were t-be e,x-convi~ts amd those adventure:re who }yld coma in search of g()lci The soeu.1 ,. -eeenomie and po11tical developllle ; nts whieh have th-u.a far Jooen diseusse~ were the pl'8lude t-0 the rapid ewlopll'l8nts


13 that took place in the latter hal.f' of the ninet$enth oent.ury a;nd that haw a m ore dil'lect bear-.Lng on the l9ll 1913, and 1919 referenda~ Those developments are but a continuation of tha fo1"Ces which were at wol'k from the beginning of the Aust.J'alian colonies ~ The moet oh,aracteristio aspect of Aust~an politi-oal history ahd the movement whieh can be traced most eas ily is the r.tse of' labor !ti 1840 about one 4uetralian in e~$X'y 318 was a. trade unioa meD'.lberJ by 1855 tl.tlat ratio had been reduced to one in :tifty ... fomr; a.nd by the late 1870 1 $ t t'ade w1io-ns bae panetrated almost awry occupation. i British in:.f1uen,ee wa& strong in trade union circles,, and as a ~sult. polit-ics was generally oonsicle-red beyond the scope or legitimate union activity, al though some lal!>or group:$ b.a.d entered polttice early in the o-entury 2 Until the 187()t e Australian trade umions were 1I1&inly interested 1n insuring that employet-e paid the preve.iling wages, &Xld in the operation of rie.ndly benefit eoeiaties. Even though labor schewed political act!on; the &3tpansion. of unions GUid the uvery organization of. unions pr.-pusd them for politic$ in the near futuJ,"e .. 11 .3 Another iri:iportant factor i-$ that l11e-..neock, Agstralta; P 166 2R. N. Oo1lan; 0 Na.t:iona.1ism, the tabour ovement and th C"mmonwealth~tt A~stralkia J Soc~l ,Pq~itioal Hiet-0, ed. G~l)nwood_. p 154 JA. Campbell Garnett., Freedom andplannt!m in Auetral1(The University of W1sootasin Press, 1). P yd ..


in the 1670s Australian unioni~m, unlike its .A.m$riean or English counterpart, spread to the iitasse$ ot unskilled and semi-skilled workers.l Sarly Australian unions had been limited to the trad$s and a looality, therefore, their influence was not great, but 14 as soon as the organization oxpan-ded to cotte~ a whole Colony or ev.en went beyond the borders of the Colony, and firm links were v10lded between unions covering dife:rent trades,. unionism. began to have a political .force11 Comm.on policies were adopted tha:lt coUld only be implemented by political a ction-.2 The or g -anizational movement Which gave ritSe to political action was the Interoolonia.1 T1ade U nion Oong~as Whose first meeting took place 1h 1879. The first Congress was important teoau ~ 0 it wa s predicated on the as.~um_ption that th-e trarl& unions had COllt!lotl inter._ ests, ana that the polie-ie~ adopted by the Congr~u.,s could. be made effective through legislation. 3 The Seventh Inta:roolonial Trade Union Congress Which 1Jas held in 1891 deoided too~anim-e politically on a nati~nal sealeh 'The decision of theCongress to ent-er politics oame in the wake of atrikeo by maritime and pasteral workers in the 1890s,, These strikes coincided with a series of acute financial crises and a number of industr-ial disturbances vmieh brought about an 3;zbt;d'41 hibid~, P 161. ;,


l.5 unpreced n~od bitterness in employer-,.em.pleyee relatiem, 1 ,l However, labor s entry int.o politics at this time n nQt caused by the f;i.n&i ... cial crises, rather it was du.e to the organi~ational success which labol" had aored Labor had been following a highly pragmatic eours, and entering politics seemed to be the most practical way to gain its objectives Labor s pragmatic a p proach also caused unions.,. although innuenoed b y socialist am other radioal theories oif the nine te nth century, to eschew doetrinaire aolutiona fer toon()mic and politieal questiomh The lfO:rke ot Henry George; Ecbranl Be llamy-., Sidney Webb, and others W'ere familiar to the working classes Conee-quently the main contt":1.bution of socialist ideology was that it provided labor With "a conv.iction that theil' trade union struggles were justified an

16 Qne of the most important elements of tnuie union growth was the rtse of rural orkers unions,. Be~ause tbt:J deoline or the 8(luatt ~r. 1 s p olitical power anti t.hij rise of tbllf city trading and bu.stnqss i.ntere-sts, with the accompanying democratic tu.~ ct p-011 ,, .l' ,:, tical tns:bitutiont, did not reeult in the curbing of th& squatters I eoono$ : p oie:r, rural 10rkers, led by 0.Spence, ot-ganitd tor political .. action, .'. The CC>mp$rative .t'at1ure of oelonial governments to SU'bd\1$ the !tS.l'_l d to the wia;l, of the majority helps to e:xplain th& sensa ot bewilderment and fl"ustration which we-ntintf) the mak:e;;._up i o!' an aggressive labour move111ent,l I~,' I r / Spence whd was among tiu. first to reco g niee the grievances of the worke!"e 'W'h i ch i"eaulted tram this .t'a:Uure to subdue tbe land to the -will o t: the majority 0rganieed the first rural unions in 1886, Althou g h ti?-~ specific grivanoes of rural workers aided hie caute, the SUCOEi$6 o.f rural unions grew ou1, of th~ tactot& which Wel'e responsible tor the accelerated union gl"owtb that began in the '. ,. n_,,, ',\ .. ... \. ~.. ;! 1640s, i ... e., the equalitarian sentiment and the optimistic A u trnral:ian national sentiment. Spen.oe was preaching t~e 0 net1 r&ligionn of ~ion ism which ueuited the mo-od of c0nfident men 1mo had many score& to aettle with empl.oye:rs who reteined their English connections and prac tices a way of life that did not aecord with iihe equali'bail'1an idea1.u 2 l M cNaughton, llThe Pa$toral Ascenclency, 11 ed. Greemrood, P 1i2,.. For Spenoe s own &t ol'y eee: W. O. Spence; Aust ral~"s Aw~e-nintU Thirt,y Years in the i Lit$ Ot an A u st~ian Agtiitor (Byaiiey 'l'be Worker Frese; ~!l),. 2ctollan, "llational:i:s-m,'t ed. Greenwood, P 157 r:' {


17 The g rowth of rural and indus-trial unions meant that labor wo u ld have a stron g voica in colonial politiess and within ten years after the decision of the fJ8~~h Intercolonial Trade t111.i0n Congress to &nte-r polities Labor had be oome tl,le *ibalancG' of powerl in colonial legisl11tlll"'e$ ,. The Labor pal'ty pres-erved 1n eolonial parl~nts the I solida.t-iity whioh wa s characteristic of unions in industi:--ial diepute-e. LaboJ' e~}i.dtaity in parli~t was mainta~ed by the Labor cauccu.e which en~bl.ed labor to Speak with one vo:t-ce on legislative matter$ .. The solldart ty of eoioaial Labor parties was in sharp con trast -.itll, thfJ laek of Qehe sion amon g non,.,,.labo:r group s There wae no signiticant non .. labor party until the Libera,l puty of 1910 ; "pol;itical p arties wex-e d:Lf'fused 4:nd kaleidoscopic formett around promin~nt incli~~duals ra~her than dominan!t. ideas w1th the exeep tion or the Labour party 1 The personal and diffuse nature of colonla.1 p olitics between 1870 and 1900~ distinguishes this per 1.gc1 t:rom ra.t'' clear-eut linst;J ot politics which e1n8i"ged after the Oomtnonw~lthwa& !ormed For tbe moat part colonial parl.ian$nta were involved in diapoaing of '! ,. :' 'I I ,,


18 l0an t'unda fmost colonial legislatures were operating on borrowed eapitallb1 the provision of social capital in the form et .' roads~ : railways, porte and sohoole1 the distribution or theSl;I throughout eaoh oolony offered plenty of opportunities for hof$e trading and logrolling ~ ,, The issue <>.-E la:nd tenure waB also important, and there were continued attempts to curb the squatters The squatters resisted al. 1 efforts to out their ho~dinge up into smaller sections. Altheugh the squatters ~ed to thstand the pressure from the citiee in mattei-8 0 land policy, the rural areas were threatened by the demand for protection of ; secondary industry-., David 5yme, a Victorian newspaper publisher,, in the 1860' .s began t o, '._ pr.o~ound the < view that Australia would never be free from dependence upon o-ldeteoontties, while sho remained a producer of raw materials which other countries o onvenid into finished goods to be returned to AU$tr&lia as imports .. Austnilia wa~ Vlllnerable so long as she remained a primary produeer, and the c ount1'y' s standard of living rested on p~eearious world prices. Syme 1"allted protection ror secondJWy industries so that Austra; '' produc,rs would ewntually be able to compete on equal terms with othet industrial countries., Australian prote-ctionists won labor to their ~use by arguing that a. protectioni1tts policy :meant sure and steady .. wages ad proteotion against sn:a.ted labor 4! 3 __ _,......., __ 1 lhi.d~ i p~ J7 ..,.,_. 2 ~id 38. 3n,14_, PPir 38


19 In the first years afterth& CommomreaJ:bh was formed proteotien for industey was joined with certain specific, legislation to aid labor and this program was labelled 0 New Proteotion."'l HOlfG'-ver., protection became anathema to the man on the land If the advocates of pro-. teotion were successful it would nll!Jan. that the pastoralist would have to buy hi(:3 equ.ipme nt at high prices from the protected Australian industries and fa.rm labor would be more elq)ens1ve because of pressure from wages in iru:luetry Aleo., agr;i.cultural produ.cts sold in a worici market might lose t-heir buyer& if Australia stopped importing ~ufactured goods. "Protection thus became~ issue in its own : tight:; and an ~erbation in th~ continual running fight betwee~ ~~unt:cyand c1ty u2 One fact whieh see111s to emerge trom this general discussi.Ql't ot nineteeil~h century Australian polities is itshat by the 1890 s Austral!i.a s in a situatio~ where furt-hel!" po&itiva a().tion by the State was n.ecetss~ Jo$eph Chamberlain 841d 0 England during thie period, The polities o the future ai-e &ooial politics, and the problem is st.111 hoW to se-oure the greatest hapr,inete of the greates-t, nwnb:Eilt' and espee:tall;r of those whom all previous legislation and. reform seem to haw loft very mueh where they were befonit .3 lSee Chapter II or a discussion ot "New Protection." 2 Ib;i..d,


The nen...,libGr and labor groups 1n the eolonia.1 governments recog nized this situation, but it was the Australian Commonwealth which wa-e yet to be eatablished that provided the le-ad in the tteocial polities" of the twentieth century 20 '. :tt remaine nQlf to rtview the steps Which led to federation and to po;tn:t out the provisions of the Oonatit-ution wbioh formed th& basis for the referenda proposals. 'llle individual colonies which rutd carried on Auet.r.alian .. g ove~nt .. for almost half' a cen.,. tu.ry-, fina:~l;y deoided to federate in 1900: 'l'tut nation was tc, be, but not until the Oolond:e~ hfld eJ!!Perienced fitt.y yean 0 self-government., establish~ their polit.ic al a.rid jur'idioa.l institutions and gained experience 1n the ir function~ ingj had devcaloped as economic eritities whiell both competed '\'fith and conplelll&nted ene anotbe:r; had been linked more closely by inland transport. and intercolonial trade, and divided by conf11cting interests and intsrcol11Jnial oompetition l OoneiderabJ.e ag itation for tedeJ-ation had begun in the 1880 1 s an.d the drive reached its zenith in the l890tsl Although the-re was a lack o direct and immediate external pre ssure; there ere sevenl strong internal anc:i exte:roal reasons W'hioh contributed to the feder ation urge Perhaps the, mot!I\ important reason tor fede!ll'ati on W&$ the lack o :interstate unit'omty in trade and cu$toms tnatters. l:n 1'n era qf industrial and eommerctal d.eve'lopment the provincial trade regulation$ of the various colonies hampered the n41,tioaaJ. ecooomic ltatd P 161 i2lb1d pp 145-46


devel~ment of Aust-ralia. 1 Added t.<> the confusion and strire 1n inters~~te trade whioh re$ulted from individual state regulati~n, there \fere two external oauef:ts w'hieh aided the eder2';t.ionista. 'l'heee wecre the desire or one voio, in Imperial matters ine.tead of six, Ml~ the need for a unifc:,nn defense system. Fiaally, there were those wbo were m ot:ivat,ed by sentiment and and who advocated fedt!lration because they felt that the continentts poten""' 'bial eoul~ only bo ialiil&d in ~ationhood. !I.any g roups, h<>W&Wr; e spe:eiall-y colon:l,al lab~, approa.Ched federation ;,ith mixed emotioru;p One segment ot Austn.l14n lab~ supporl~d f' ederation beca"se they teat'$d tblt oompeti tion .of :Cheap lwlaka labor and of Chine se coolies. '!'his group argued th:e.t if I \ the s-u Sta.1,es were united, a strict and prohibitive palioy or Atiart exe1u i!J1on could be praotic~11 However; there wrt other se-ctione 1 the lor movement who took an unfavorable view f>f federation soJll& een :re jeated it. Theni were eoms in the labor movemfmht like w. tl. Hughes, who fought the provision that gave the em.all States equal t'flpn:isentati,0n in. the Senate, while other, likt' W., A. Holman, feaed Commonwealth absorption of State .fun.ct.ions : But both H ughes and Holman united 1n the battle to democratize lThe Times (London), y 24, 191.l, P 9 'f. J ; :, o I


the Constitution 1 1'.rhe best summary of the reasons why labor was reluctant tq accept federation is given by R s Parker who points out that C<:>lonial labor parties wanted as little power as possible given to a federal parliament which they felt they would never capture, and which they thought would be hamstrung by a senate dominated by the "politically backward rural state s n2 The anti-federation sentiment of some labor groups was shared by manyconservatives who felt that the rise of federal power would rendetthe States impotent This sentiment seems justi ... i'ied if one considers the vastness of the Ans-t:ralian continent (almost ~s large as the United States in area), the smallness ot the population (between three and four million a$ ot 1900)., and the remoteness of the centers of population from one another ($00 miles separate M elbourne and Sydney, and Perth and Sydney are3,500 miles apart) M oreover ., the Stats were already provid:lng their citizen$ with railways, rt?>ads, ports., and schools, and it was fared that States would lose control over these functions State governments were criticized, but they were at familiar institutions+ In the larger States., particularly New South W alee and Victoria, there l F or labor's historical attitude on constitutional change seez L. F. CriSp, The Australian FedeI'al Labour Parti (London: Longmans, Green and 'eo f95'.S), PP ~jo--58 W M. Hughes position on federation is given bf r... F -. Fitzhardin g e in w .. M Hughes :in New South Wales P olitics ., 1890,..1900., Journal and Proceed.if:'s of the Ro{tl Aus.. tralian H~storieal Sooie-tr, Xftvf! (i.951)., lli5-6 .. Holman 1 a a ftuiJe !s given in H v. Evatt,. Australi~ Labour IA9ad~r the Storz of Vl A Holman and the Labour :M ovemen;t (Sydl'iiyt liigus and Robertson, :1946,, PP 97-iOl 2parker.,. 'f'l'he People and the Constitution.,." P 1.36


were many who fGared the pcasibl~ ascendency of another State Despite these objections the Constitution was aecepted 1n 1899 by a majority of 7,000 vot&$.l : 'i'h& major problems which motiwted the desire, for the j j establishment of a federal govertull6nt W$re 1eflected in the powers 2.3 that were giwn to the natiOHal gownunen:lh Section ,a. of the Constitution VlhiOh lista the powe-rs of the C~nm,-al th Parliatt1ent gave the national gowrnment control over customs and elteise,. defense; f3~erna.1 a,,f.f'airs ~tions, and post and telegraphs.In othe ,, ithfn a few of fsderati:on t'our ot these areas., t~ade and aomme.rce ,' arbitra:tion:1 industrial matters and hilfty$ were rl$e ho serious problems Jn the be-ginning the expressed wording :, of t~ Oonetit.uii'on and: judicial interps-eta1'ion eonfine d tommo~aith powerS' to the interstate aspect s of t~ and cotmnerc$ -. ~itra.tion, industrial regulation and eontrol, and ~ailways, whilEJ th'e States retained ex.elusive eontr ol over the intrat?t.ate phase-a of these act1vi 'bias teas than ten :,e'tirs after tederation th-e couritfy ~egan to .fe el the effects of this rigifi 0ct -Stat~ and Commonwealth powe-Ts in tbeee f' eur ar.aas Efforts to r modify thi5 arrangement of Stat$ anrl C01llnl0l1Wealth powers led to the 1911., 1913, and 1919 rea:reni;ia. Befo~ the se 't~a referenda can be dtso~ssed in detail~ it is necessary in t~ next chapter to


draw out the !ull impliee.tiona of this ccnstituti.onal a.J"t>ang~ lllent.,


CHAPl'ER. II 'fhe preceding -.ha.ptei' e,tablisht s t~ general .tramaw:c,l'k tot a ditcussion of the 1911, 1913, and 1919 ref et'&nda; l;)u.t a more detaUedt-reatment of the first decade of Conunonwealtb politic:al history ii! needed to fully understand the importance af the Mter enda. 1'ha politics or this period have be-en covered in book$ and monographs,. but there are -certain aspeeiis 0 the decade that have not b-een emphasized and t.her-e are other kndWn raot&rs 1th1-eh need n mph-tu;1is. Thie chapter includes a diseussion of the following pointst ministerial changes at the Oommomte.alth and State levels; main issues of the period; continul:ld growth of industrial and .... ical labor-s strengthJ non-labor developmentJ ard reasons for the proposals to extend Commonweal th p""'6rs ,, Once 'bhe federation was established thJre bitter bat some"td.rnes not teo cl, ar-cut election battles f~ the Commonwealth Pai-liament The first federal ministt-;y led by Sir Edmund Barton, 1901-190.) 1ttempted to solve the vevy import:ant taritf iseue and secured a pr-otectionist rate.l This F-irst Parliament wae also l 1 'Ten Years of the Aus~ral.ian Commonwealt'h:1" The SurteS, R$view, CCXV (October, 19ll.), 305 2.$


responsible for the adoption of the tt\Yhite Australian" po-liey which i'las intended to resene Auet:ralia .for the white man :But Sir Edmund Barton soon prowd to bea rather :Lnetf e c'bual leader in l guiding the new Oommonwe,, and hie desire to be transferred to the High eo urt coincided with the gennl eleet1on-s of 19'0) .1 26 The 1903 eleb~ton saw labor ino~~se its representation 1a the House from fifteen to twen\y--f'ive. As a result, the House ot Represent~tive was now made up of three parties or almost strength., Labal" twenty-five, Deakin twenty.-~ven, and Reid twenty. four. ThU made cbalitien govemmant. or sollilth:ing akil'l to it imper aM .. Vlh Senator Higgs, tabor, sounded the keynote o-f his party s policy and indicated the path the Parliament .,,ould follow When he saidi : Yl e find our-selvs in a minority.. Vie have a certain progitamnl$ W e say, to the two great parties here-"We an anxiaus t.o do the best we ean. Give a$ e uch ref'onn.a aa we believe wil.l be for the benefit of the people, and we 1Yill suppon you so long as you try to do sc,mething or the people of the Qoinmonw ealth. 0 2 Because of Alf'nd Deakin I a gent ral soeial 011tlol:>k the Labor party gave him its eupport 1n return f Ol' eertai.n ooncessions.. Th&l'e was a seventeen point agreement between De:akln and the Labor cau cus which tncl.uded Deakin rs promise to Labor that he 1'8Uld eeek anti t1rust legislation and would attempt 11 to secm-e f'air eonditions ot loorion Greenwood, "National Development and Sooial Exper imentation,'' Auetral.ia; a Sooial and Politio al,, ed. Gl"$enwood1 P 212 .. 2Ibid., P 21.3.


27 labor for all engaged in evvry form o industrial enterprise, (and) to advan~ theitintereste and well being 'Without distinction. of class or soc;ia.1 &ta1) 1 Deakin sought to imple.mrmt the eevent~en point agreemQnt taitl~Ul.lf but his very zeal 'brought about h:ts downfall. A Labor.:..neid:i..te coalition which opposed a pai-ticula-r section of the Arbitrat.iori '.A:et was responsible .or the ftil.l of the i"irst Deakin Gow~nt 2 This ministerial collap-ee of 1904 was followed by a ye~ ~( political. maneuvering, J. o. W atson, Labor, took office ;_ ) ... or f o~~ : ritnntm and was r ollowed by Reid who stayed le$S than a y-eo., In Julti !190_5 1 the circle was .completed and Deakin tonned his Geco-nd t' m!Lntstey which lasted until November, 1908.i During 1905 and Up to the eleeti-Qh of 1906 -the strength of the various :ta~tions was a$ .. f ol101lt ~n Deakin nineteens id Dit'etrt. Oppo~ition eighteen, tabo:r twenty-~1~J artd Coxner Opposition. (P:rot.ectionists) eighteen.3 The 1906 ~ l,eotion was oonteated by thre main gt'oups, Deald.n 1 Reid, and theLabor party, and a11t might ruwe betn expected the oa.npa.ip '' argQJMnt-$ ~re eomewhat confusing, Deakin adv~a'bed a ..high-ePtaritl ,, to,h Reid objected, while Labor remained relatively silent on lw~ G., Spence, Au.etralia's Aw~en~, PP 390.-92 ~ ,l ., 2or-eenwood., "National De'l/1'rlopment,n PP* 214-1, ': ',. '. ) ~: 3Ibt~., and wr~n Years of the Australian Oomnwnwealth,u 30$--311


the tariff. Deakin urged a positive gov :mment in social and economic ~tters while Labor advocated the semi...aocd.a.11st cause" Reid a g reed with some of D akin'e policy but was opposed to tabors socialism. H owever, the result of thie rather confused oanpaign was quite clear and the etate of the parties was Deakin eighteen, Labor 'twenty.-sewn and the: Red.dite opp<,sition twenty-nine The Corn&r Op poait-ion of the pte ceedi.flg Parliament was assi:tnilatifd into one of the three groups because proteotiom bad ceased to be tbe dominant issue Thus the Deakin ... tabot' alliance was given electoral approval 1 D u.ring Peakin* s three years in office 1905...08 be tlaid the foundations of a new society "~ Deald.:n s contribution was tru'.cy' a nationalistic one and in line with ad'ffanced social and ec.onomic thinkin g of the p eriod First, his support of protection for manu ... fact.urers was balanced by New Protection '' 1 e grantin g of a favorable tariff to those manuf'aeturers who paid a fair and reasonable wage This pro g ram of 0 New Prot.ection 11 was one of tbe ~sons tor Labor s support of th Deakin ministry 8E!Qond, Deakin WQnted to elimin a te class wai'fare thro u gh an arbitration system. Success in 1,ftl'en Years of the Australian Commonwealth,'' 30.5.,.311 2 arei,nwood, tHational De:velopme.ntl' :p.21;.. There is an excellent chapter su!llrJling lip Deakin' s policy in Vlalter l. "urdoch, Alt'red Def:11n a Sk,\ch (Sydney ; Archibald Constable Co ., 192.3), PP 226-j


29 establishing the Oonunonwealth ArbitJl-ation Court symbolizes this pf)).?'tion. of his social and eoonomic philosaphy. Third, Deakin advocated social services to the aged, needy, and ill J this policy was refl$oted in legislation sponsored by his ministry-.Finally., Deak in .favored adequate de.tense pret,a.rat:t.ons and especially an Australian llavy Gordon Greenwood in commenting on this tbil"d Deakin government has eaidt Bl"oad and deep., the pattern set by Deakin continues dis oernible in the Australian way of life. An intellectual whoee th~ught was genuine hwnanita:-ianism, a man o a gifted 1) ongue, eloquent. yet eapable of direct $peech, a nationali st :responsive to the large rlew, end<'Wed with political and a dip lc>matio f'intsse in negotiation, Deakin emerges as the out ... st!lnding politieal pe:r,onali""yof the first period or the Most of hi$ ~ontemporaries by comparison seem smalle~ men.; the $tatur-& Qf George Re1d rarely rises above that of the gifted po111;1 eian; Watson aippears as earnes1' and uneol:3ptic;>.nal.J Fisher as capable; t~aacious and wholly sincae ; but somewhat ,ininepU'ed. Hughes, alone, with his d~adly venom in debate, hi$ infinite resou.l'Oe and fixed de termination and ~ute sensitivity to na.tionalie:t. sent:tment vies with Deakin, despite the evident di!'ferenees between them.l The De akin ;and Labor pany coalition collapsod once and ter all at the end ot 190th. Deakin had beoorns useless 'ta a large segment of the Labor partywho ere impatient in their desi:n f<:iP rapid sooial and ec:onomicehange. Andrew FiSher; Labor, who replaeed Dea.kin as Pti,Jne' inieteif'., as chosen oVt;tr the real partly leader, W lh Hughes. P'isher waeJ a more respe~table and less vi.olent advocate of the Labor cause, Hughes F1$her e fil'st flWlistry produced littla legislation and $Ul"Vived less than a Ylt~ It wa;, loreenwood, ._.National :Development," PP 21$ ... 16,.


J:"8pla..ced by the Fusion Government, a union. ot nonlabo:r aetiont., headed by .Deakin. Deakin .ehat-aeterited the :Fusion in a le-tteito his sister. Behind ms sit, the whole of ttq opponent~ since Federation ., tho54il who left me becaust, I was a:tlied with Labour and the r~pj~n.a?-\ of my party While I have been ~eeking to withdraw, .fighting in planning for others, I have bee~ ~e th~ ev~r ~he pivc,t, of the bole political situ aiiion; ~e priie sough~ for, and now the un4u1stioned 1ead$r Q~ fnr,ends ati4 foe$,, the la'\'ber mor e than :three to one of the m~t+~r gatb&ring on our side of tt\e House .I \ 'r I 'l!bough, th& F.usion govemment bas betm oa3,led 19 too artif:Loia;l. and too purel"t, pa,.rlirunentary tt2 Greenwood haa pointE:3d Qut tbat it had r ''t.,.' : f' a degree o~ : tt;~.ence and~ augmen'hed the at.ability of pa:ali"81nental"y gevernmen'1 b;y re s-. tab li;$h:i,.ng a system.; ela:ritied the political ei\uat:ton, and oreated an intelligent divis-ion ba~d essentially on the '1llash ot intemst "ithin the Australian p~l1tioal st new tll!'G No doubt, this appraisal by Greemvood ie a nearly accurate one.,. The union of non-ltbor forces, though 1t collected a varie ty of polittoal opinion under one roof, .formed the oppos'i.tion to the Labor parliy until 1916. 'The original Fuaion was the ttesult of rld$ spread mistrust of soeialist labor. Thia dist:ru$t of Labor became m1>r e profound as t-be Labor program unfolded.. Tu long range signi ... ficance of the alliance or seemingly oppoSGd politioal groups Wa$ uot~d a furdoch,. Dftald.n, p-, 281 .. 2 wren Years of the Au$tralian Commonwealthj,. ,-11.,,. 'creenw-ood, itNational D e-velopmE>nt, P 22h.


somewhat lo$t in their ignominioas def eat of 1910, which can be traced to the fact that ttthe political enmities of years were not tc> be magically conjUTed into .friendship." 1 That is, the non-labor :f oroes lacked organisation and the ability to 11ork as a political ;t~am, The 1910 eampaign was bitter a..nd audienees were especially, hostile to Deakin. e llad be&n ealled "Judas" in the Jl House by former support.era, and,. according to M urdoeh, "his appearanc~ on the stage. was often the signal for a tumult of execrations and yells of rJudae, t at two or three meetings in lboume he was absolutely refused a hearing11"2 In 1910,thea, the taborparty emerged vio~orious in the tedeTal sphere Tbe majo)'ity of the Party wtiioh had ten years previously given no support o-r at best. reluctant support to the cause of .federation wae now to become the staunchest pr oponent of the national go venunent~ As indicated in this brief SllJJ'BI1JU'y of early Oommomrealth political histor,, 1 the first ten years of the Cormnon.wealth govern ment were extremely fruitful. ones for the advancement of labor and prog:mssive ideals. It should b not.ed that AlfJ!'ed Deakin 1 s eon oept of nationalism became firmly entremehed in the country.. To be sure ;f Deakin as the spokesman tor progressive thinking agl'eed with much of' the labor philosophy, but he was more than a mere lTen Years of the Australian CommonwQ~th," )11, 2 1.t urdooh, Deakin p, 283


32 helpmate of labor Some contend that his was the broader sentiment or Australia at that time._ Without doubt Deakin possessed a genius for leadership and an ability to express the "new" Australian ideals, but at the same titne', like all successful political leaders., he knew when and where to follow public opinion Another important aspect of this decade as the solution of the immediate tariff probleJtlS. The establishment r,f ta.ti.ff rates ~n issue on -Which agreement could be Nached quickly. Once tariff ra~es were set the vital and important differenc~s betwe$n parties and groups, the social and industrial issues connectsdwith the "New Protection, could be seen more clearly_ other important aspects or the 1900-1910 period are th~ growth of political and industrial labor and the ideological development of the Labor party In the preceeding chapter the actors which gave rise to a Labor party were discussed. One of the most im,Portant f'act:r to be noted about the growth of labor is th4t only twenty ye-ars after tbe Sev&nth Inte:r..Colonial Trade Union CJonf-erence decided that labo:r ehould enter politics, the direction of the Commonwealth government was entrasted to a Labor party.. This rise to p01rar was brought about not by a. political party capturing the trade union movement, but by the trade unions mobili~ing their eorb~ and potential for political action 'l'neref o?ie, fo11oWing ~tc'9 Duverger' e elassifioation of political parties the Labor party ot ~J!Jtralia is an 11 indirect


33 party .nl. This type of structure, al thou g h insuring stab le member ship, can be the cause of clashes between the industrial., political,. and parliamentary wings of the pa:rty .. A review of the Labor part.y organization is essential in order to present a clearer u.nde~standing of this ~indirect structure" and the conflicts it can foster,. Following the deoision o: the Trade Union Conf cu-ence,. Labor party branohes were o~ganieed in each electoral district. I 'l'he br~ch$s were a.uthorie$d by -the Trade Union Oonference, but in actual ptl;ltttice they were the or-ea.ti.ons of the Trades e.nd Labor Councils in the larger metropolitan areas 2 These Councils co-or-. dinated the trade union activity in a particular are.a They were o onsultative bodiee whose decisions could not be enfoned, but whose prestige was fF&at because of the unique position which the-y occupied in the industrial labor movement, i ~ e., they u- the only meeting plaC'ia of top union of!ic-ials In this period, however, the Councils were not fully representati'V$', and, according to V G Ohilde, seldom mor-e than half of the unions in a State were lua.urice Duve rger,, Political Parties~ Their Form and Function in the Modern State (Lond1on1 Methuem ana "O tte ., 1955), P 7 iThis discussiM of industrial and political labors organization is based largely on the material ini V G Childe, How Labour Gove ms ( Londota The Labour Publi shing Co., Ltd ., 1923), and t". F "' Cri ap, Th~ Aust:ralm F,dere1,l 14,bour P~rty


a:tfiliated. Table 1, altho ugh not distinguishing unions and TABLE l. All' FI L IL\TION O F UN lONS A N D B RA N CHES TO TRADES A.ND XABOR GO UM CILS, 1911a 34 N umber of 'l'rades ar.w:i Approximate number of Unions Laber Counoile and Branches affiliated New South \'l aJ.e a Victoria .. -. .; Quesnsla'l'ld South :Au&tt-a1ia W estern A. u st.ralia Tasmania. Oommonwea:l th. 3 4 2 4 11 l 2$ 151 186 21 73 lJO 23 584 ~able l is taken from, Commomealth of Australia, Off:tci$1 Y~arbook, 1913, "' 1017. branches, g ives some ide of the ~xtent or the numeriea?, affiliation to Trad~s and tabor CouneUs during 1911.. (As Table 2 shows there were 57) U ni00.e in 1911.) The Councils were largely urban bodies, but this wa s not such a drawback sinee m oet of the indu.stry was in the l~ge-r cities, At the ~wne time I the rui'al workers were orga.nized in the l\tral orkers Union, anct the Australian W orkers U nion which org,nizea the rural political branehes. 1 lt. F, Fitzhardinge reeounts the union organizing activities or w M ~ Hughes for the A,.ustralian Y li'oncers Union, See Fitzhardinge 1 M H ughes,.n 14S-62


35 The branches were open to all who were sixteen years of age and willing to pay two shillings a year In actual praetioa trade union member$ had a monopoly or menberehip 1n nearly every branch The branches chose the l~al oondidates and elected dele .... gates to the State Political labor League's annual conferenQe, The State conference in turn drew up a platform on the basis of resolutions submitted by the branches~ The State eonference also imposed a pledge on the parliamentary representaitiws te accept the parlentary caucus' decision on all matters concerning the platform~ The manage:rnent of party funds, orgE1nizational work and .f'ina~ $pprova1 of candidates was in the hands of the Oent.ral Executive of ~he State conference the f~deral Labor party was under the direction of an inter-state conference which coneiiJ'bed of thirtysix delgates salected by the State conferences and which me~ at leas~ every three years The inter state conttrence drew up the federal plat ... fonn and dealt with subject-a that came undi1r the scope of the Commonwe$lth Parliament Like the Stata conferences the inter state Ol"ganitation requested a pledge of adherence to the caueu$ decision$ of the Commonwealth parliamentarians on mat'tters affecting the federal platfonn The pledge adopted by the CommomreaJ.tb Political Labor Conference of 1908 was as follows: I hereby pledge myself not to oppos& the candidate s~lcted by the lr&eogni~ed political labor organization and,. it selected, to do my utmost to carry out the print::iples embodied


in the Australian tabor Party s Platf oll'm ., and on all qua at ions affecting the Platform to vote as a majority of the Parliamen tary Pal'ty maydecide at a duly constituted caueue :mseting l There was discussion at the 1908 Conference of making this pledge unif on11 throughout the Oommon.Wtalth i',e.; bind all State parliamen tarians to the federal pledge and_, he.nee the Ceder-al caucus ,. The Conference ~esolved to recommend such a uniform p l ef,ige t(i) the next triennial conference, The principal objection raised to such a pledge was that it might interfere with the already existing pledge s of the State partieth 2 Before inaicat~ng the ga>owth of po1tt1eal labor a S\U"Vey of industrl.a.1 laborfs strength will be made The rapidity with which industrial unioriistll grew during the first ten years of the is :reflected in 'Fable 2 which indicates -tha.t tmiono increased from 198 to 572 while membet'ehip more than tripled from an estilllai)ed 97,174 in 1901 to an estimated 364,732 1n 1911 This is even m ore significant when the nuinbe r of f'actoris$ and number employed in Table 3 are i;,ompars d with union ambership Table 3 gi~s / o:nly industrial wet-kers while Tab-le 2 include all labor union memberel'li.J>Howewr, when the rura,.l union membership of 50 000 is considered and allawan oe is made fo't' non...tactory union members it ::1.rtdicates that there was a high percentage of union lotfieial Re ort o the Fourth (1908 OoJJanomrealtQ Polit1oal Labor on!'enncc,., 2;J:bid,, pp .. 40~2.. M uch of organizational structure with slighi variations continues to exist in the La'bor party


37 TABLESNUUf:fER .AND MBERSHIP OF UNIONS: 1901., 1906, 1911, 1"914, AND 191~ (!'' .... 1901 1906 1911 1914 l9l9 ; Total nwnb'el' of Union~ r .... 198 Nwnbeti of' unions witn .)02 573 11i 771 :\, membe t~ available 139 2$3 542 712 771 Membe ~s~ip of the s un:i,oniiJ'. : :<1 68 ,218 Estu,,attid : total 147,049 344,999 s2J,tn 627,681 membership .. .. 97 ,174 175,$29 364,732 .. .. : 1, 81able 2 :J.s taken fll'olU.; O~~aith of Australia, OffiOM.!: Ye~ook, :: 1920, P 98~,. !; TABtE .l NU1$ER OF f A.OTORIES AND NUMBER ENrLOnID : 1907, 1909, 19,lla, Factories. ~ N umber employed .. -. 1907 11,5;1 t48,8S9 1909 1)~229 266,661 1911 14,4$5 311,772 ~able .3 :ta taken fromi of iustl'alia.1 otfi,,ial Yearbook, 191a., PP 527)0. -. { .. I I / . l I ..


38 members among the .311., 772 factory workers Another striking ant concerning U.."'lion membership wes that of the 433 ,Z2h mel?'&)ers in 1912, 297,771 were menbar s o inter .. state or federated unions, but that, these C-omnomre alth Wi; unions nlUllbe:red only sevent-y-two of the tbtal 621 ~ Furtht$0J:18, ten of the aevent;y,j,,ftwo inter.-;Sta'b~ unions had ];Jl,"201 members or over one..,.fot\rth of the total union membership in 1912 1 Tlle faet that ten unions tontained su.oh a high pQroentage of the total tmi.Gn mentlership can be explain&d by the a,c-ni'Vi.t::tes of tlie rural. wome~sf unions and also of '\he Wa'tie.z-.,... side Wo~~oc--s1 F~deratiori htuide4 bf M Hughes,2 Not only were labor 1 s f ortuntJe rising on the industrtal fi-eld, they were likewise soaring on the pt>1iti-<:$.l tn">nt. The Labor party's npre.eeniatives increased from twelve in the Fir~t Parl~ament \o forty...two in the Fourth Parliament* In the Stateij Labol" representation in the l4gi&lati-ve Aesemblies rose from 109 me-xnbEJrs of a total 303 in 1905 to 149 member8 or a total 198 in 1911.l However, the ine rease of Labor m,mbers in the State looiranontiealth of Aust-ra.1 ia, Of:ficial Yearbook,; 1913, fh 10).. 7 .. ppendix I giws a -bnakdown 1 ot union membership by trades for 1912. Ip conneati on with the Wate.-side ol'ker's Fe:d.$ratioa., t F Fitzharoinge relate the a'-Qtivities 0 W Mi Hughes as the driving force of' the organieation. Hughes Jt&S also the Preeident o the Wate%'$ide Worker-f Federat1-on or '." over twenty years and was the organ iz-er of tile Trolley Draymen and O raters' Union .. Fit.zhardinge oomments that "L'l this way he gre atly e\rengtf).ened not only the labor mo-veme-nt, but. his O'iltl position in it, giving hiJ.laelt an almost unique eta-tus as one equally at home, in both politieal and indastrial wings or the p!ty-." See; Fitznaro::t.nge ., "W ., Hughes ," 162. .3Appendix II gives a Eie-tailed plleture of the Labor party's strength in the Commonw:ealth and St-ate legisla:tu.:r-.a.


)9 assemblies "Was not matched by a comparable rise in the legislative Councils In 1905 there were eleven tabor members of a total of 20.3 in State Councils, and by 1911 this number had increased to sixteen out of' a total of 198 This latter fact can be attributed to the property qualiti,eations imposed on the vote tor the upper houses which effectiv&ly limited the membership ot the upper houses to th$ pt~rti&d and conservati,ve elements of the oommunity l lndustrial. and political labor s stre.-igth was so great and growing at such a rate that even the State conservative upper houses had to acquie$ce to the less radical social and economic measures supporbed by labor Ooi'don O:reemrood in discussing the Australian outlook towards soeial change in these years observe& that historic and environmental forces conbined to produce at an early stage a demand for the provision of facilities through state action Advancing boldly where private initiative found it unprofitable to tread, colonial governments with borrowed funds sponsored large scale developmental projaets But the cry was equally insistent for remedial public action to rectify eocial anomali&:SJ hence, the experiments in unlock-. ing the land,. the attempts t'() regulate the industr1a1 aystems, and towards the tutn of the century the introduction of old age pllnsions in Victoria and New South ales Practical rather than doctrinaire in motivation so contagious a habit; espeoia~ when reinforced by the socialist pleading, became a settled part ot the Australian outlook 2 lFor a discussion of the upper houses in the States se~u Miller, Australian Government P 3.$ and l>J>. 82-85 and Geoffrey Sa.wet>, Aue\irail.ari Govemment Today (4th ed rev J Melbourne& lbourne University Press1954) 1 PP 18 2oreenwood., "National Development ," P 209


When placed in its proper framework government intervention on behalf oflabor becomes understandable at this early date, :1..&. 1 early in term-s of other capitalistic eount:ries. Pe the best and most strikin g indication of labor power was the degree to 40 which the States and the Ctm11nonwealtih had intl'Odueed means tor 1n s11r:i.n g the worker ''fair and reasonableu wages. The C6mm~l.1Weal th Parliatrteht had passed tbe Arbit~ation Act of 1904 WhiOh established a Commonwealth Arbitration Court with power to make 4lld eni'bl'ee all'ards of wa g es in the event o inte rst te industrial disputes. The 1904 Act aleo provided for the facilitation of oonciliat1on, furtbennoe of organization of employee sand -employers,, and the reterence of unsoJ.ved State disputes to the Cemmonwealtb Court..l The States, on the other hand, established agee Boards to handle intrastate disputes. st of. the State acts we re passed at'E)und 1908 and provided for a separate wages board tor ach trade whose meni>ers were ohosen by the employers and employees involved in the tiaade. Decisions were enforceable by the coltlrts or some other agenoy of the govemmant.2 Since the a ~ &s Boards, with th exception o! Victoria., and the F ederal Arbitration Oourt., did not reco g nize in d ividuals but or g aniiations as capable of speaking for a majority of those in tba tr-ade, the aets atimlated and made imperative the ere at ion o! e-mpleyer and e m ployee or g anizationSti 2see Appendix Ill for a synopsis of the more important aspectt of the ages Boards


A tinal -0bservatiem on the a:rbitrat ion systttm is that the unions adopted the practiee of going from one authority to the other in order to get maximum wage awards. 'L'he arbitration bodies were being t:reated., as the President of the Commonwealth Arbitration Court obsened, as "competing shops.ttl It is important t o record the development or official Labor party ideology aa seen in the pronouncements of the Common wealth ?oli.tioal Labor Conferences held befow l9llt 1902, l90S, and 1908 In adopting a plati'orm., the Labor party used three di visions or levels for the statement o.f' its principles The ''objectiw" of the Party wae :Lts ultimate aim ., aoo the Fourth 0on~renc~ me ting in Brisbane stated the Labor Uobjective 11 as, ( a.) The cultivation ot an Australian sentiment; based upon the maintenance of racial purity, and the developmant in Australia of an enlightened atld salf-reliant communityJ (b) The sec\U'ing of the full re eult.s of their industry to all producers by the collective Offl'l(ll" ehip of monopolie,s ., and the extension of the industrial and econolllic tnnetions of the State and Municipality.2 In the "objective it then a seml socria.list end was proclaimed Theother two level$ of the platr orm were the 1 general platformtJ and the JI.fighting platfonn" The fa~r was chiefly a 41 lAustralia, Vol VII of The Cambridge History of :the Britieb E7!!irn, P L'.97 Labor C


propagandt,1 device, and the;re wa(J little disagreement over its eon tent The adoption of' a ''fighting platr onntt was the most difftoult 'beoauae the 'lf1ght ing plattom'' "mbodied the re eo1utions that l"e$Ulted rrotn the ideological 'battles 1thiob took plaoe between the various ra.c;tions of the c onf rt,nce. In the ory., this part of the platrQnn as to be a etatement of the practical pl'opoeals f'or wbiQh publie opinion wae consideNd ripe.l Th$ Se oond 0(m.ferance in 1902, passed a nat1,ona.11za.tiora of monopolies resolution which Wa$ ineorpo:rated in the "genara.1 1 and 11 0 platforms 'fha 1902 -gene:?'$1 plat.Corm" con'bainad a. plank c~ling for unironn industrial legislation 2 In 1905 the Cente:rence retaine~ the n~tionaJ.ieation of monopolies plank, and also placed the unifol'Jn in,dustrtal legislation plank ui the pla"bforni. !) ( It was not unusual to find planks or great importance in both th.e ngenera..1 11 and !'figbting'l platforms ) The Fourth Con.,. terenoa was a much more spirited one than those in 1902 and 190$. A.side rem disagreement over t-ne .. Pa~ye pledge, t-here Wa-$ di~ouss.1-on and disa~eement over state...Jr d&ral rela:tiionehips, nattonalizatton of industry:, and at''bitration ,, ', 1,-,1' he Labour Movement in Austra.1 ia,tt The Round Tablt, II, 660 ae;ort ,of I the S~oond (l9Q2) Co~?l'M'e~lth P1;1litictq Jebor Cont e~noe,. 190. j 3ot:fieial R& rt o the Third (190 Conmomrea ~h P<>lit.ic Labor O<,nferenee, 9


43 While the agenda questiono w,et't) still being diacuestd w. A, Holman voictd desire to clarify the ;relationship of the State and Fedel"al parties Later in the Conference a member in sympathy 1'11 th M r Holman s viewe mo\1$d1 Th!it tlle Conference a.ffirrt1s the d~s:i,ability of harmony in the operations of the Federal and respecti1'8 State LaboT p~ies and .favours the holding of conf'erencee to define the limits of their respective fields at action, and to agree to a c~mmon policy in 1 regard to such questions ae land settlement, imru.g%"at ion, etc.u Holman was the main JWoponent :of this amendment, and spoke at length on its m.erits~ His major reason for supporting the periodic .eon fel'ences between State and Federal leaders waa that they would elirninat, -any misinterpre-tatit>ns of the State and Federal platforms .. This, he argued~ would promote understanding in the labor movement concernin g the State and Fedf;lral spheres ot activity. Mr Hin.cholitfe., the 00n.t'erence Secretary, summari.ted many of the o.bjedtion-s to tlut motion when he said tbat the mot.ion ttlooked like usurping the powers of the present Confe:renct, and would aurely lead to d1ssent1on.u2 The motion was defeated;. unfortunately, the vote wae not rec&rded Holman :figured prominently in another one o! th$ disputes of th& Conference. Senator DeLargie moved that the Conference request the Commenw-ealth to nationaliz& the iron industry'" answered Sena1i~ DeLargie by saying tha.t the Wew South Wales Labo~ lot'f'icial Labor Co erencet, 2Ib:t.d ., P 29 '" ._,... 1 oe Commomrealth Pel.itioaJ.


44 party was alredY attempting to do this, and that it as unnece ssryl therefore, for the Federal Labor party to support such a measure. Nonetheltiss, the lll0t1on was carried, but it wa s not included in the nr:i;gbting plattonn "1 The nationalization plank of the "fighting platform," however, was changed t~ read; 0 Nationaliution of } Monopolies-,..if ne~e$sa.ry, amendment o the Constitution to provide for the same ,nt This plank was important because 1-t was the first indication, in an oftieial. Party source, that amendment at the Constit~tion would be ~tili~ed to achieve the Party'$ a1lns.A.rbitl"ation was a third point that crsat.ed disagreement at the 1908 Conference,, Once again Holman supported a minority viewpoint, and used the occasion fol" hie most ardent defense ,;,f i, I I States 1 rights. Se.nato r Givena moved that the plarrk "Unif'orm Industrial Legislations amendment of the Corietitution pl"oV1de for same _bmich was a pa.rt of the 'generu platf orm 1 of 19?{/ b,e included in the fighting plattorm.-.3 Holman in speaking against the motion sai.d that he knew he "going like a lamb to the ,-: slaught'er~ 11 He argued that the motion m&ant the destruction of Stat e ~boX' ', parties and the eventual control by the Ocnunonwealth lib:td., p~ )04 2 1'.bid ., Jh a. 33'.bid., P 9. f !'


45 or all t h e f un ctions of g <,vemmmt One mu-st nnnember; he continued; that the weakening or destruQ'tion -of the Stat~ parties would be bad for< the F ederal p~y as well; The S~ate Labor panies should ha?'dly be looked upon as incuba tor$ r or men and ideas in the Federal ~ arliament Ir the State ~rties wErre to be merely nQ.rseri&a for the Federi$.l, they might just ae w$ll give up.l The plank .r howt:tver, was included in the tighting platform' along with a plank cal l ing tor the impleme-ntation et "New Protect:ton11"2 1~He 1908 planks in th~ ''fighting p latform'' r,hi~h pertained to 8 New ~oteotion, 11 arbitration, and inaustrilal matters became th& basis tor YI' Hughes 1911 referendum propos-als., 'l'he diecussion which took place oft these and other plank~, pa-rticularly the one ';' dealin g with U n'(onn Industrial tegi&l.ation, indicated the minority vids held by W ., A ,. Holman 'F t> appreciate full.y the pa.rt pld by Hughes in Labor I politics m ore needs to be knc:mn ab-outhis life Unfortunately, only fragmentary pietlS of the H u g hes story are available .3 B u:b there is ad~quate information ta HWa.J. H ughe-st con,oept of State ... Federal rel a tion$ Fn.nk Brcnme, Hghes joumallstie biographer, oont-enciS, 'blla.t llif Deakin1tas the father of fed G ration; H ughes was its most steadfast exp~ntnt throughout the y-ear, ~4 Early in his 2 1bid ,. P 40 -',:. J.i' Fi tihardinge is preparing a biography 4Frank B rowne, The;y: CalJ.ed Him B illy (Sydney: Peter Huston_. 1946), ~ .48 ( The aour o es of ma~ e r!a1 are the contemporary news""' pape-re J


46 political ears ~r Hughes formed the belie that the Comnionw-ealth gowrn:ioont mus~ have the superior lttgi13lattve-, legal, an d adminis ... trative power~ Tnoug~ he has often been called an expedient :politiqi~ 'i?ithout ptinci.ple s; there oan be littl-e doubt that .. his belief in 0 tht superiority of the Comntonvrealth, which also 1-ad bim t(?' a pa.t~io1iic nationalism, ev'eJ!' changed. Nationalism was an integral pa~ -of his personal political philosophy and a tenent ; ,:.1 frolll wh:idh h~ dio. not retreat"' Indeed, Hughee. belie in the Oommonvtealth of /m(!rtralia brought him into bitter and serious clashe~ with no l~~s a friend than 1., A, Holman on the l9U refe~ endum ~r~~bsal~) with the majority of his own party on the qui.3stion of eon~o:rip'bi.on during orld War I, anci -with WoodrQW Wilson e.tthe ), Peace Gonference over the ~lf...(letermination of natidna. P'inally; at the ~ge of 13eventy... nine in 'iihe twilight of his eareer, "Billy-" cut hims.el looee frem the United Au$traua party in order to Sllpport the 1944 exten.ston of powers referendumwhih his Party had been elected t,o of)Ro~e-, This dissertation is concerned only With Hughes t ; r I ;i;, ,.' ,, nationalism in so far as it intluenced th& referenda of 1911, 1913, and l.91~ .. :rn ollder to appre<;iate the depth of hiG nationalism it is only necessary to review "The Case for tabor, u a series of artioles Hugh6s contr'ibuted to Sldney l'.>a1lz Tel~grash during a peri ot four ye.:U':s beginning iii 1907. 1:,. F .' Fitzharoinge, in a short but rather good analysiS 0 ''The Case or Labor.,n has said that these articles conliJtitutd the best sow:-oe of Hughes 1 politioal thinking., According to Fitzhardinge ., J


47 "The Oase for Labor" is the only remaining exh.ibit of a leisurely discussion of basic i.seu&s by Hughe-a 1 In the first article of' Ootober 7, 1907, Hughes clearly indicated the line that the colwnn would takei In this eoiumn, th&n., it is proposed that I sbe.ll explain the p~licy and platform of the Lab~ Party., and its attitude on current questions~ I shall set forth, mcplain and de.fend our own position so far as one member or tha-t Party may do.a It wati nbt until two months later that Hughes defined so.eialiau It 1s neither more nor lea$ than t.he substitution of natural /l'National" is substituted for "natural't in the margin .7 co operation for the pre-sent competitive system, in the industrial sphere U'nder socialism the State WCllld own and control the Dans of production,, distribution, and e!l{change" l?rivate property in au other forms of wealth wculd remain .... SoQial.ism thus involves an eeonomio change but not / 1 Necessarilyff is inserted in the matgin .7 a. political or sottial one-.l Early in the articles Hughe~ co.mnsnt&d thAt the day of industrial competition was fast passing and that pro

48 was a function of societya leg:i;slation is at all events a reeogn1.tion of the prirtoipl.e that product ion is a social function,; and that although society permits J?,Z-ivate ent-erprise it does so only upon tho distinot understanding that its welfare is properly conserved the combine is the laet word but one-a.s far as we can see-in the develdpmeht. 1 Hughe~ further ar~~d that combines were pr1'paring tJle lfaY for eornplete systettiatisation of production by s ooiety for the benefit ., o au 2 Indu$tries when they reached the proper st.age ehou.ld be' nation,:l.ized i At the beginning o:t 1908 Hughes :, theirefore, ut'ged \ his followers te> beeome militant in the drive for na'tionali-zation, aad _. by 1909 he v,:~ ~guin g that 06lllpetition was exceedingly w~steful and that monopolies and combine:3 were eff'eeient meD.ns o-f p~oduction. .,4 : Another topio Which Hughes treated frequently wa.s arbitra tion .. In an afticle devoted to a co mparison of the Wages Boar4s and the Federal Arbitration Oou.rt Hughes indicat$d his unreserved preference foJ' the la.t.te:r body He admitted that Boards seemed cheaper and quicker, but in listing ~ive d.i~dvantages of theBoards he even demolished this initial concession.~ Hughes listed the ftvt 1 :tbid. 2Ibid~, Novembe~ a, 1907, p 6. 3Tuid., No vembe-r 12, 1907,. P 17 4Ibid,_. F<3bruary 1, 1908, P 6 and April 3, 1909, P 6. ,, t 11 I ); I I\


disadvanta g es of th e W a g e$ B oards as, a F ix wa g es only and cannot settle dispute-a b Considere conditions in a single industry e., N ot capable of dealin g with strikes and other industrial, diseord d Takes : no cognisance of sympathetic strikes against ruling~ e. Vlo rkmf:! n ar-e not give n as good a treatment as they receive by th(' O ou:rt l In elaboratin g the merits or the Federal Arbitration Coutt H ughes s a id that the C ourt considered the welfare of the community and 49 that it reached industrial agreements or satisfactory alte-rna~ives F inally s he stated that there should not be a combination of all"bitra, ... tion., conciliation, and wage fi x in g in the W ages B oards because the B oards w ere p rovincial in outlook O ne of B u g hes favorite tar g ets was States ri g hts In September, 1909,, he asked bow a man actin g in the capacity of a citizen of the Commonwealth could conte mp late delibe-rately doin g himself an injury ae a oitize~ of a S tate 2 H is sharpest attack on States, r ig hts and his most extrema es pousal of nationali8m were provoked by W ,A. H olman, In, durin g Ootober and N ovember of 1909 the controversy between Hu g hes and H olman was made publio by a series of si g ned articl&s in rhe ~ez D a ily Telee:pb The immediate reason for the exchange was that Holman in his budget. speech to the Assembly or N ew South W ales bitterly attacked the Commonwealth g overnment during the course of a discussion on the 1Ibid farch 7 1908, P 7 2Ibid ~ S eptember 18, 1909 P 6


lapsing of' the Bradd.on Clause (The Braddon Clause provided that three-quarters 'Of the Federal customs revenue wo u ld be returned 50 to the States roxten yem-s after the ad.option of the Con1;1t:Ltution.) Holman characterihd the Federal Parliament as having dignity lfi thout power and the State Parliament as having pC1Wer without dignity The Of;lmmo:mreal th Parliament he reasoned,. was not national because it did not haw national powers and in one of his most definite $tates right statements Holman sa.idt I have aJ.:ways been de&-ply dubious, and at th:Ls day,. after ten years I do not see any .function worth speaking of aartled out by the F ederal Parliament that could not ha:-ve been perf o:rmed by a l'.nere customs and military union amongst the States After ten years of exietance ~he bulk of th~ Federal Parliaments ,,ork has been round to be futile and barren with the single exception or the. Ai-bitration. i1 Holman also indicated that M r. M cGowen, the M ew S outh W al.t)e Premier, agreed with him Ths Hunta:r Labor Council, one oi' the more powerful labor councils, protested against the attitude of the N-.;.w South W,alei:t Labor parliamentarians. .Mr Roche, on o the members of t:he Gouncil.; said that it was regrettable that labor had placsd men in the State Pa1tliament who were prepared to throw stones a.t members of the Federal House Roche indicated that he favored unification of governments and warned that it wo uld not be long until such unification would take place The Council passed thtt rollowing resolui.icn, l:tbid ., October 22, 1909 p 7


That this Council protests against the utterance of Messrs. McOoWtm, Holman; Dacey, and others of' the State Labor party with regafd to the question of uniicat1on, and that the dele gates to the Political Labor Leagues Conference of New South \Vaiss be instructed to uphold the idea of unification l Th~ Stqnel ~a\tY; Telegrapp in an editorial on the Hunter labor Council :resolution said that it could hardly be

52 Holman was qui c k to reply In a 1$ngthy caF&fully orded: a nd closely r8ll"$On'8d letter to the editor t,f the Telegraph he attenpted to refute Hu g hes' claim that the F de-ral P arliament wa(; mor,e impor .... tant and more p ~erful than S tate Parliaments H e ~mphasized his cohviotion that th State P arli.nment was tho lo g ical place for the lod g in g of ,. major soeial and economi:c p ov1ars of g overnment H e commEtnte d t ~he ease for La ti or" pro,res-most uneXpeotedly-to be the oase for ~ationalism The trenchant $Word whieh has for many months tl! eaoh 11eek the prominent enemie-s of our qaooe is sudden;l.y turned a g ainst me who in my innocenceimagi.ned that I,, ,, /'' ', l whateve~ elae I was I 'lt'as ~t least a Labor ~an through and through-b!3aaus~ myLabo~ principles haven't go~ the true "national j.;et n bvand ,I Labo?"' men have all got to be "t:l~t$ bow is it that up to now nothing has been said abou t it? If this is an esoteric doctrine not c-ommunioate to the vulgar~ why does ,. Hughes diseilose it ncm? If nationalism :tii one 1 or : our tenants wber~ was it When was it endorsed?l I Holman stated that he had attetnpted to follow the labor principles I as h$ untier'stood them and, thus 0 1 to lileJ.iev:e that I am oommitted t o any form or nationalism 0 As an afterthought to hi$ entire state nie. ~t Holman said that he wau l d not 'belie~& in nation ; '1' al.ism '' u n;til th,~ movement authoritativelytell m~ so n.2 H olman ts argument spurred H u g hes to soms powerful. but somEmbat e o nfu.sed prose Hu g hes neglected muob of Holman's argument; r as was his f~quent practice in debate and wa,a satisfied to repeat l '11, his original points. H ughes. defended his definition of 11 natienalism," llbid t. $ N owmbor 2, 1909, P 9 ........... 2Ibid


and ~lained it to Holman in a way that &unonetrated the $arcaem for which ha was especially noted More significant than Hughes pat,ronizing attitude towards Holman 'Was the manner in whi~ he defined natiortaiistn 1a Holman, a man t-o whom the philosophy of Kant is a cbUd s t ale and the torturou.s undertaking of Sehopenhau.r a recre a.tion for an idle half-hour, a:ffects not to understand what "Nationalism" me.ans I will te 11 him "Natienaliemn is a stage in the evolution of mankimi. Nationalism is to provineialism what prov:ineialism is to parochialism Nation ai1-sm is the.:_,name given to ?J)in~s., sentiments ard aspir ations 0 a people aa a whole-, as opposed t-0 any mere se-otion. or p'a:ri fl. I Thus in one short bur1:tt Hughes had revealed where he stood on State-Fede~al relations. 53 '\ ., 'l'he last words in the exchange were Holman s -who character- :1, ized Hughes' nationalism as mystical It is doubtful that many read the more than S ,000 W:>rfls of tine newsprint whieh COIIJPosed Holman s answer and if the public did read it th~y would have been disappointed at Holman s lack of fire and gusto In essence the article was a. longer but more involved statement of Holman s origi nal al:'guments and a large porti.on was d~voted to the Bradd.on Holman reverted to sar c asm when he said that Haghes wae right a.bout nationalism ils0 long as those opinions, eentiment s and aspir a,iona are confined to a dreary list 0 unprofitable subjects upon which -the J!'ederal Parliament. has power te legislate n2 ~Ibid ., November 1 1 1909, P ) I


The wnole 0 the conflict had been aired but nothing was set:tled ~ ln just a year s time the question came a:p again.,, 54 but at that time it was moYe than as H V Evatt says, 1 cont)"over siee conducted on a high le ~l which a.ff orded Holman relaxation-. ul Rather I the. disagl"eement between the Labor party s two most imp~r tant figure~ was to shake the Labor organization at its foundationl!h In the closing months or 1909, When the Labor party was pr$paring for the April 1910 elections high party officials othe~ than Hughes were making known their preference for Gonwonwealth control in matters of industry trade and commerce and arbitJ>ationi. Andrew Fisher, in 4 statement on the eoal strike at Newcastle which the State government had been unable to settle,, 1nd.ieatfld a desire. for the extension of theA~bitr,ation Court's jurisdiction. B comp$l"ed the coal strike with the shearers dispute t'ive ye.are ttarlier and retold how the 1Qtte:t had been handled successfully by the Federal Oourt 2 'l'his attitude was not aurprising ~ The favor ... ab:Je jud r,; ements o-f Ju-Stice Higgins and the generous awards of the CCl)urt made the Comm()J'l\'tealth power even more de&irable to Labor There were groups within the movement besides Holman and the New South \V ales Party who were confused and upset at the Commonwealth Labor Party's changed attitude on Commonwealth-State lH V. Evatt Australi~ Labo~r Lea.de1'o the Storl of .. ~ Holman and The Labour M ovement {?ivfuie,rt Xfigus an.d Robertson, iiio), p 221 ., .,


relations-. 'l'h+'t e trongest resentment -came from those State pa.rlia ,. ,, mentarians who object d to being politically "butchered in the interests of their superiors.ul The superiority reelin g of the parliall'Bntarlane -was exhibited by ~on, Labor 11 H R 'Who re:t'erred to the State le gislatures aa ttenb-ordinat.~ bodies."-2 There were others who objeeted to the extension of C'omr :io nweal,th p-owers because thay relt that socialist ideals could be better achta.nced tlll'ough State action. This clash ever Commoll.We<h tate r&lations reflected not merely di.sagreemente over socialist objectivee or the ambitions or State politicians but revealed the presen ce of conflicti ng groups in the Labor party V Gord.on Childe, seholar and partiot: ... pant in ~~e Labor party organization, has catalogud the oontradic. tory elements in the Labor party gl"'oup coalitions The f6llowing t;roUps and classes were gl'adllally attracted to the side of Labour-...ey sentimental bond& only, demoeJ"ats and Australian na.t1onaliats; by economic inte;rest, tha emal1 farmers and settlers, the prospectors and. small mining _proprietors, .and the $mal.1 shOJ>kteper-s J by tie& of eeU'-interest, the Roman catholic Chur ch and perhaps eertain business in~rests-notably the li~r trade.3 Another observer arrives. at a different breakdown ol groups and concludes that the Labor party "embraces Imperialists and anti Imperie.liets, Communists and IndiVidualists ,. -Stat~i:s Rights men 1 Ibid., N avember 15, 1909, p .8. .2Ibid "'


and Unti'icatiom.$t$ .. 1 This commentator also note-s that the 0 diferenoes bet1teen the Wo ends or the Federal Opposition or th& Liberal* part ies is probably much less than between the extremes of taboUJ." fi 2 L,. C ~ ebb and t. F Crisp, two J110dern ~1ters -on Australian ~olitioe, are impressed with the confederate aspect af .l tb.e Labor party and other Australian parties. ebb that "both .. in Commomrec1,lth elections and %"eferenda, the parties function not as national. organizations but, as loosely knit tede~tions of State o!rg a.nizations ,.3 Crisp~ 1'hose conclueiions limited to La'bor party o'rganization, gives a clue to stUl ,another side of the conflicting organiaational and voup ten~noies in the Parb:y He says: Ye t, if the constitutional surf~ee is scratolle.d 1.t will be found that Au$tralian Labour is i.n tact not one but eeven pa.rties--the State Bl'ranchee and the i ed.eral party organization Each State Branch bas a. cbaraat~r and personality all its oWi'h Ea-eh ha.s a constitution governing it.s State-wide .and local organizliti.on in tome respects dif'ferent fi-om these 0 the other State llranches :Saoh ie preoceup.ied in v,ry large measure ith State and local government elections and adm;.i:Q.i~1. trat:i.V$ progl"&mme1!1, in regard to all of which it is aut0nomous._ q, l 1 'Tsn Years ~r the Australian 00llll'IK1inweal th,," 317 2 Ibid-. 3teicester Webb, ffThe Anet:ralian Party System, The Au~tra1ian Politio!l :P.~i ,System, ed Aue:tra11an Institute of Political Beien~ 'Sydney, Angus an

This incongruous mixture was significant because it ind.iea.tad that there wert:!' ~pt to be irrbr'il~Y differences on aeygiwn isau:e" such as extension of C0Im1Pmve-.lth pOW'ers $7 The existenc$ o~ contradictory elements in the ~or party had stiJ.l other implication$. Ohilde has up some of the r.e,sult& which had in ~tte.mpting to reconcile the divergent ela-ments 6f F the Pal"ty He said t-hat it had inevitably meant so$ ti.gbt .... r6pe for the politicians and has fill-ed the Labour Ple.+,.t'ol"'n\ with inoon"8istencies To avoid offending the little capitalists and the Catholics., Sooialism has ~een mueh wa tared down in the labour Objective To retain the support of the rationalists the l+abou!r. Party has gone in for a eourse of eentimentel flag .flapping It has allowed tba s,trietly economic motive lving behind the White Australia policy to be obscured" 1 The Labor party was not the only party composed of oont4"n dictory groups. In 1910 and ~911 the nonlab()r p;l!"ties were attempt ing amalgamation and, therefore, au!'.taring o:r-gan1ea,1;i.onal growing pains. In Duverger' s olaf?sifica't.ien scheme non-labor pa:rties are 11 direot partiea, and t he ms o:r eueb 'iireet parties oan b6 seen in the non .. labor patties of Aust,....1ia,, i.e.,. l.acm of permanent nembership and organization, spG:radic act-ivit.y and interest 1n politics""""1nainly at ele~tions, and ~omination of political activity by party Workers and parlimnentar;r representativee. 2 '!he non ... labor parties in the Comm.onwealth State Parliaments were a series ot lcbilde~ H01f Labour Oovet:n~ P 85 2nuve:rger,. Political Parties PP 13.


58 political alliances largely based on e.xped1ency ~ To be sute; non labor parties existed in tho V'arious S tates, but they generally dormient except whe n called upon by the parliame-nta.i,iana to get ou'b the vote~ A.fte.r the disastrous election defeat of the Fusion group in 19io steps wel"e taken to bring about a ,, permanent Federal --Liberal party, A partia1. e x planation of ,,-hy non-labor g;-oups so lat& in recognizing the ne-ed for organ:tzation was that they \'lere t~ e domi.Mnt politi.c:al .force in the $tat-es ~d had betn at least on tt p ar with tabor in thcfJ Federal Commonwealth P a~liam.ent prior to the F ourth Parliament Despite the loose organizational nature of non labor groups., there was every ~videnoe that various individuals were carryin g on a vigorous anti-labor campaign through p amphlets and speeches 'l'wo of the. protagoniots of anti--soeialism and State-e' r~bts we~ B ruce S~1th and P J.l o' ..l O lynn These two men have been eho$$n ~s more or ltes typi.ol spokesmen for the non-labor side Bruce Smith was t~ m ore extreme of the two., and Smith; unlike Glynn, did not c;tarve in eupport the ministries that were 1ympathetic to tabor Glynn on the oth,er hand was Attorney General. I . in the "bhird D&akin government Bruce S mith in a pamphlet, Some 'bofih~$ in R~gard to an A,nti..Spciali81:, L1!?$!ral Pr~ aside from attacking Deakin and sooialism proposed a platf on The fifth and sixth points of S m ith s pl~'bform had the following to say with


59 regard to State~ederal ~la.tionss 5-. The ai1)idance of all proposals 'bo etf ect changes in t-he Constitution by a~tempting to aJ.ter the toundat1on terma of the Federal partnership; and thus threatening the rela tive right& of the Staiies and the Commonwealth.....,.xoept in those cases in whi c h the need tor constitutional change has al~eady been widely felt and desired by the people of the dif ertjnt State a ., 6 The steady and continuous cultivation of more hannonious relations betwreen the States and the Commonwealth and the avoidance of all legislation that unnecessarily interfer with or ehalleng$$ states rights~l 1 Olynnts principal pamphlet of period Federal Measure-s and Tel\dl'Jncies, was a less extreme statement of States :ri hts .. This, of course, wae to be e,q>e.etGd because Glynn had served as Attomey Gene ral under Deakin and had recognized sonie of the inadequacies of the Australian federal system N onetheless; Glynn restated the tra41tional arguments for fed ralism and indie~ted that he was not e. anifioationist" He warned: W e must remember that we are a oontinent. under a federal system. That .means that there are diverse .eonditions, that we are not homogeneoue; that conditions of productiQn and the cost of living ;u,e: not similiar in all 5tatea......a fact that is recognized in the ederal system, under whioh industrial pQWere still remain wlth the State. Lord Acton pi.di vieW of increasing democracy-, a re$t~icted federalism ia the only p~ssible check upon concen .... tration and centraliaation After this introductory history of the lllON important aspects of Australian ideological, economic, and po11tieal development lnruoe Smith, So Tr,.ou~e Reg rd to a.n Anti..Soct11lip ttLiberal Pt-ogr!!'!!'! (syaiieyt 1 2), P 92p Mc M Glynn Federal Measures and Tendeneies {Adelaide W K. Thomas and Co 1910), P j I


during the fil"St of Oommomtealttt twee tasks remain: {a) a review ot the general political situation in the States and the Cotmnonwea.lth prior to thtl! 1911 ref'erendum_. (b) a r:en of J the genea.,al social conomic:, situation, and (c) a statement of the reasons for the l.911 refe rendum~ 60 lb. 191:l the LaboJ> party controlled two State lower boutes and the Oornmonvtealth Parliament. The P artyenjoyed a fort)"'tlro to thirty maj'oi-ity in the Commonwealth House and heitd twenty-three of the thu.:ty.,.s,ix -: Senate seats + It also had a foJ-ty .. su to th1".1rd.n.e maj on ty in thta ,' N ew South W ales and a twenty..-tw~ to twe-nty lea d in the South Australian Assembly:\1l The 1908 elsction in W estern Austra.1:ta bad increased Labor: e representation in the Aase-mbll" from seventeen .. to twem.ty .. two out ot total af fifty,, The Pert~ M cJ>ning H e-rald ., dbs&rved that the most significant fact in I.aborts gain wa$ tha~ Mr ~ Gre g ory \ ~ong it'i ;'i Ii t i\ : ~ a popU:lar non.,.labor membe~ w~s def~atsd 2 ?he'rallimanialil elections of May 2, 1909; gave tabor twel1'$ seats 1;n a li'Ni.$r heus~ or thirty 1thereae the Party had had only 'l seven 1n the ~vions Assembly of th.irty...tiv-e. In this Tasmanian genei"al e;ettton the Han-ClP-ke s;ystetn of proportional ~epresonta .. t:io~ ~ered. ~or 'bhe first t:bne in the State, and aceording ti) .:. ~he :Sztm!z ~1'in@ Herald~ September 16, 1906, P l..


61 The Hobart I'C$?,; pt>eport.iona.l :repret1entation had been responsible for Som$ of La90r s inm Labor e inarease, the Victorian I r-esul ts we re rather eontusing, and there we~e: cont:radictocy esti ' mat,s of the ~nngtb and. division of part.ies in the Assemblv,f B11t this -8f>parent confusion die not prevEmt Munay, an 1nd&pendent ~anti.;.sooialist:t .from tor.ming a ministry based on the support or. thirty-nine ,nernbe;t-tl Queeneland had had & rather disturbed political Situation and priO'r to the election of ( l ctober,. 1909, there had been thNe generU el.set.ions in two years 'rl18 QV8r&ll J'l,sult had been a ,. diminuticm Qf tabor a &ttengtb trQm thirty--fiw in an AssembJ.:y of ,{ seventy ... fi~ in 1905 tt-o tnnty igh-1) in an Assembly or seventy-two ,. The Ottober, 1906 nonl.abo:\t.iot11>ty was a tribute to the rion-labo1" leader Kidston .. $ Also_. the Q ueensland e1$otuns Nsto1ed the lirhe :Hol?art. Mero:!Z 6., 1909, P h 2irhe ,,Argus (Melbourne), DecernbEr:r 30, 1908, p 5 3-rhe ~~ey Mprnil;S Hera14 Ootober b, 1909 P 9


'two p a.rt y eyate.m and majority rule, a olean ... cut division made betwear. Libe.r-0.liatn an d$!D., 11 l T h i s alignJJ](int of political actions in to a two party $](Stem:, Labor and non~labor1 appeai:'8 to have taken p lace :tn .most $taiies as a result of State. elections held be~n 190 8 and 1910. In pal'ticular the solid support g iwn to n:on""'la'bot l~aders in New So u th W' ,ales ( W ade),' Victoria (f~a.y), Queensland ( K idaton and tlenham'), and Tasmania (S U" Earl ~a) was '' evi-denoe o f the increasing non...-labor unity- Thie non-labor unity which made for inore afi'ectiw polittcal combat in an el"a of rising Labo~ repra se-nt-ation ean be traced at le in part to Laborts growth 'rhe conservative H obart Mef?W said that the unification of the nolll ... lAbor faotions and elimination of a third party outweighed all the T asmanian g ains ot. tabor.2 "-It msans, 11 saio. the .1.I'0:!:7(, trthat th Prellli~r will no lon g er have to play, pau-ty against pa:-ty "' This t o a g reat air or lesser extent coul d b8 said of the non ... labor governments in the other St.atee One f'aature 0! the Australian situation of 19ll that cannot be ove.r-lo'Oked is the gene~a. p-:r.eape ; !l"ity, a .f a. ot recorded even by the staunch p~o laborite writer V o 4 Ohildt l B riaban,e Courie~ October 5, 1909 1 p 4 10 2'rhe Hobart Mer o W:7 .. May 6 1909,, P 4 4 3lbid 4 F ol!' a di$cussi.on of the growth of &eonomio prosperity during the first ten yeu-$ of the Commonwealth Be"& i A a L Shaw The Economic Develpnt of Austrai~a (3rd ~ ed rev New Yo1:tk; Lingniaas, elreen a Z!o l.95.S J, pp .. 112.'.'h


63 -argued that the ~awth of monopoli~s from 1901 to 1911 waa an al~ feature of 'the Australian econont1J nonethel.ese-, he $aid t it seems that the prosperity of the period 'WfUJ fairly diff11eed That is Sllggested by the ~-vings bank balan.cea ,.. 1, and by tbe faot that real 1 wagas, d8spite sharp flueiluations, ~ose on th.e whole ,. The natistics. support th~s concl:u;sionli The 1 se,z ~mil'.\g He~d, in a :special ~~ry ., ttA Decade of Progress1" u.sted the following figureeu Production Savings Deposits 190l-Ue,Q7);000 pounds 1911--174,$07,000 pound$ 1901--. 97,696 1 000 pounds l9U_;.;,13),-9$.3i000 pounds 190).......,. i8 000 ,000 pounds l.911-. 49 ,000 iOOO pound&2 Go~on G~e~ood sdtibe~ this gen,erial 'prosperity to woreased pr()ductib~ aided bf high prices for p~imary e,q,ons. 0 3 Tbis sllffll?lafy indication 0 AuetrUia' a economic pmttition in 1911 com plates the general,, am politieal picture or the eontinent prior to the 19ll r.effiirendwni, tb:Ls hi$to.rical surwy has not speoili~e.lly :r:ientioned the imlnediate reason why 1911 ttas chosen ae: the yeu 1;o try to extend Comm.on.wealth powers:, so,ne of the N~son6 : have been implied~ Undoubt .... edly, the suco-esit of two referenda p-rior ~o 1910 was not overlooked 1 0hild:e, How Labqnr Povcua$ ., P nix ~f\e S~n~z r rn ~ JJera1d," April 17, 1911., P 8 3oreemvood lfflat.ional Development,11, P 2i6


64 by a non-re~olutionary and pragn:ia.tic aocialisttabor party Moreov.r, the m onopolies, industrial. d i sputea, arbitration, and "New P rotection~ planks of the 1908 tabor 0 figl'lting platform"' clearly indica.'bed that the Party was demandin g i ncreased Commonweal th p cswers N ot onlywas the tabor p arty in general agreement on extendin g Cemmomtealth owers, ; bu;h W u H ughes., the driving force in national Labor polit:tos .1ta S a whileheal'ted supporler of increaeed OomnwJ1Wealth power In 1910 1 Labor s tiaoisiw e-leot1on victory had enabled th& Party to form a l tinistry in which Hughes served ae Attomty General and. a-0tirig P rille lU.nister vth~e Andrew F isher was at the Lnperial Conference during most or 1910 and the first pe;rt of 1911 1 In short, success of two previous referenda, inclusion of the ext~sic>n o.f CommonwtHuth powe-rs plank in the Labor plat.fonu W 1. h Hughestsupport of such an extort eion, and the Labor election victory o 191-0 were ~f'icient reasons ,rcy 19ll was the logieal time to submit proposals for the elt'bension of Comonw.eal.tb powers to the voters B 11tthe-re were four other reasons which made 1911 seem to be an even m ere ap p repriatie time F irst, there was a disparity b etween the State W ages Boards awards and t h ose of the F-ederal Arbitration Court, the latter being more f a:vora.ble in many instance-a Also, the-re was the feeling that the Al:-bitration Court was a ll.l0?'8 equit~ble booy since its awards applied throughout the Commonwealth. Seeon.d, labor the growth ~r trust and monopolies This fes.r was g rounded on the t} f aet that there was evidence of trusts; monopolifJs, and other price


fixirlg devices tt,erating within the Commonwealth,. In a detailed study of the tl'Ust movement, H ~ L Wilkinson pointed out that in 1914 there existed in Australia a, sugar monopoly tobacco trust, steamship ~~ieratiori'., and collieries Q.&eoo1ation.. Although his evidence was somewhat l~ss convincing., also attempted t-o show that there was priee .fuing in the timber., briOk, breadt and flo\U' industries 1 Thu-d~ beQause of the seemin g ly permanent mon .. 4 ~botniaj'O.r ) ities in the le gielative eounoil& the State legiel.a tu~s could peve r ha.V& be ctn :fully rtisponsive to labor demands even wheh '.Labor had : complete control of the iower house-a. Alfred Dealdn summed. up labp:r s ru-atration with State l&gislaturcrs ~Ysaying that ittl)e bulk of their speec:,hes l[abo,?7oonsisted of charges ot derelections o duty on the part of one otmere States, 'Wit.h the demand th~t this Bill should be passed, because it a.fforde a remeay : 0 2 tabor, however, knew that rem.eteo.t ion" legislation and. found it invalid because 1 Ih L. ilkineon, 'l'he Truet .M o-vement in Australia (Sydney& Critchley Pillrlter Fty Ltd ., !ill) 2c~nun.onwealth of .A.ustralla, Pp.Tli~n;t!!,Y 0$bates, LVII ( 1,10), 5396.


the Excise Tariff A c t was being u:aed fer the control ot industry and not for t~tion l An attempted extension of the Arbitration J,ot by the llrbitration Oourt through the ~pplioation t a "eommon ruleu within an indust-ry as a 1fhol$ rsgamle ss In another case the Sea.manta CompenQ-ation Act w-hieh 1 among other things, dovered p~rsons engaged in the coastal trad$ of a single State was held to be unconstitutional en the grounds, that control af intra-stat e tr-ade fell eolely undfr State jurisdi c tion 4 Gordon Orcaenwood in dis c uesing the se decisions Gtates that the Labor-party; in p articula't,, dewel!l these decisions with d~sma.y. N ot only had legis1aticm which it most cherished been lthe K ing v B arger 6 C ,. t R 41 2' A ustralian B oot E mployees F ederation v Vh.ybrow 11 c. L R .,. l H uddart P arker y Moorehead 8 C .. L. R :),30-, 4 s .. S, ltalibia v, W ilson 11 C. L ,. R 89


67 ren"red nUl.l and void but the Constitution seemed to $tand as an inipE> di.meht to the fulfillment of the party s programme It. was not surprising th N ore, that the party should spon ... sor constitiltional amendments designed to \remove the barriers in its path :l' TheFe We" thus at least eeven re asons for I.aborts int r o ... duetion or tho 1 1."efewndwn proposal.a in Parliament (A) The alteration s formsd e.n i!pp(\rtant eegment of the soeialist-labor ideals as inc or ,j )! -po:rated in the i908 Bri bane platform; (~} w M ,. H ughes was~ strong advocate of e~ension of C ommonwealth p fflfers; C o ) Labor s objeotiwe had been frustrated by conservative legislatiw assetnblie s.J (d) there wa.s evi4ence of an incipient trust gt-orihJ (.e) the H igh CQuri had in~lidated m uch of the legislatibn aimed at achieving the labor-socialist goalsJ (f} th& tabor party wu dilJsatis!ied With State: J lages BoardsJ (g) in 1910 the Labor partysecured a pas-liamen tary majority fflltch ena.bled it to fuU1ll the neeessaryconstitutional prQvisions with regard to holding a :ref'.eJ'e.ndum


OBAPTR III The Commonwealth lect:ions were held in Ma:rch, 19101 Par11a.nient was c-0nvet1ed 1n July, 1910, and at that time th~ OoV$.rnor .... GEwneraJ. 0Utlined the ~bor party$ program to itJ debate$ an the referendum proposals began in Oetobet<-, 1910; and the ref'erendum was taken and defeated on April 26, l9U~ Thus; in a littl.e more than a year's tinle drastio meas\J,1'$,s for constitutional change had been ratner vaguely mentioaed, spee:itied in l&gielative bills,. debated inside and out1,aide of Parliamsnt, and defeated_. In oztler to make 'bhie -0runpa.ign mor& under standable the actual propesale aJ'tl etated in full at this point. Section 51 of the Constitution tib1~h enumera'tes the powers of parliament, begins ~he Parltament &hall, subjeot t 0 this Constitution, have power to make la'W' for the peaee order, and good government of tbe CODJI1onwealth w:1,-th respect toi11 In the fir&t Bill, ,tconstitution Alteration (Legit:ilative Powers),'' the wording of thNe paragraphs of 5 aotion was changed and one paragraph 'lfae added The para graph changes and the propo$td addi1'i0n are giv~n below. 68


( i) Trade and Commerce with ether countries and among the Sta tetu by omitting the words ''With other countries and among the States." 69 (.xx) Foreign corporations, and trading or financial corp.or ations f9rmed wi'thin the limite of the Commonwealth1 by ~m1tting the entire paragraph and inserting in lieu thereof: Corporations including( a) the creation, dissolution, regUlation, and conti'ol of 00rporat.ions (b). co-rpC>rations formed under the law of a State (ex cept any corporation formed .solely for religiollfl, charitable, $o1entif'io 1 or art.iet:Lo purposes, and not for the acquisition or gain by the corporation or its membere), tnclading their dissolution, regu. la:tion, and control,. ("o) Foref:gn oo-rpora.tion& inoluding their regulations and ecmtrolt (~) ConcUiation and Art>1tratton for the prevention and settlement of industrial disputes extending beyond the limits ot any one State t by omitting the entire pa:ragraph and inserting in lieu the:reo.ft Labor and Employment'a) The ages and condit:L:tns of labour and employment ; in any trade, industry., <>r eallingf and : (b) 'l.\he prevention and settlement of industrial disputes in telation to employ.uent -on or a.bGut railways the property of any St ate~ Sect.ion 51 was to be further ~tered b-y adding at the end there-o.t the following paragraphs Combinations and monopolies in relation to the production, .manufacture, or supply of goods or service-a 1 The se:cotld Bill, "Conetitution Alteration (Monopolie s) .. the se-ctinn to be added after Section 51,, read as follows, l1hen each House of the Parliament, in the same session, has by resolution declared that the industry or business ot lThe Acts of the Parliament of the -Commonwealth of Austnli4 Passed Du:rpig, t!ie Year 1910; PJ> 117-ffi 11 1 1


70 producing., ~nufaoturing, or $Upplying any spec1fi$d S.l"vioee, is th.& of a. monopoly, the Parliament shall have pQWer to make 1n:P tor carrying on the industrry or busiMes by or under the oontrol ot the Gonnnomfealth and acqui.ring for tba.t putrpQse on just terms any p:r-ope:rty used in connection with the business o:r i naustry.1 'fha e leotore were called upon to make twe c;,hoics in Whioh there were involved five speoific quetione.. Catts ., Labor H'R .. expl~d these requests as w&ll as anyone hen he said: F irst, we ask fer pot(er to Wipe out those limitatione 'Which at pre eent. ,iippear in the Oonstitution in Ng#d to trade a.nd oommaroe That power ie necessary to bring the Constitution into conf ol'il11ty with t~ p0\'1$1'8 asked or in :relation to mono,. pc>l', and eorporationsJ eeeondly~ we ask fer an alteration of the Constitution to enable us to natiQnc(i.ize or regt1late any :llidu.atl'y; buJtiness or service J thirdl,, a8k for power to malte ~aws regarding corpon.tionSJ and fourthly for the power to ctea:tu~/ regulate and control any co:rporations .,. formed under ~ State llw am to include fol'eign corporationsi inalua~ tng their rGgUla.t!on and oentrel F ifthly,. we ; a$k for an exten .. slon of the arbitration pe x-, which is practically unlimited., and which will give U$ the ri g ht to daal with matters of indust riai di-spute without tear of our power being whittled aws::,, if not who1}y dissipated,, by the judge~nt-s of a conservative High Oo~ ; h~ These p~oposal$, ~a explained so clearly by Catts are in essono.e the -one-s forwhich Labor ~ttempt-ed to get elef!)toral approvl in ltll, 191); and 1919 ~~1ia.mtaeyde bate-a reveal that, thei-e were -two r ormal mo:M.on's or r f 6tenda. prior to 1910 tha't d-ealt with the $11bjeet$ contained tn tile l9ll reter&ndum. 11 First, there was a mot.ion by :tabel" Sena-to-r i>earce in 1908 which called for the aonf of 2com.monw~alth of Australia, Parl:iamltnt!!l !:)$bates; LVII (1910), 4829.


11 oQl' on ~l own and 'bQ~ ~ onop 14' in t in : iciei;efl ~,,u 1 r Mt'. Hall., La.bol' M. u. 8 a ote ea,n1c of'.iti 'i" -.u,:it,y-.-~.2 cu.~ wtcil ft4'.tfm pou

apparent rew1"$al Fenton said that he wasratn~r surprised to ind the gentlemen like the ~ader cf the Opp9aition ,. holdi~ up hit hands in holy horror llh&n a proposition is made that the Constitution should be amended,. c;i that he himself has placed various pro position s of' that kind before the House ,1 Deakitl received indirect critieiSlll from a member of his awn Oppei$i,'t.ion groUp.; w E Johnson,, M ., R R., who said th~ 72 s refel'enee to the referendum reminded him of one of tho~ tt~~ineiue paragraphs which had of'ten puzt0:led membe~'S of the House. 'ts ~,.Batoheler, Labor .M H ,. R., reminded Mr Johnson ,, ~ that h" "as n(,j\f a mer of the J}eakin team and imCIUld not Uf'log ., bis b~ ; ~u3 ln ~n $d.1torial, Th! ~zd!!z l.tonl~pg Herald aid that the, prop9'.sal ~ were the most menacing featti!"ee or Mr Fieher s program., The 1 Hrr~,,~,g a~tted that constitutional r~vialon might be needed at some time,, but reminded ite readei-s that t&bate~, LV (1910,), 178, .'\ \ 1 # ~ ). '. ;'' f


~chahges of this type were carried on untU October or 1910 men tl'u1 ,arlian1,entary d~ba.te on the Bill.a began B:r this dat$ the main ~Qttt\1stants 1n the etrug s ltts Hughes and Deakin had had time, to iD!Wl;ll?:al argumntf In discussing the Parliam(tnta.ey debates 1 t ii m,tl.1 to ~ealiize that there waa never an..v Nason t.o 73 I" ,ti. beli~w. th~t ~ pl'oposals eottld bs defeated oxeven altered Labor had an unbeatable majority under the strict conl.-t.,:l of the pledge; i-Urtha~ioore 1 .. u Hughe.a wae: a parliament~ stl' tegiist pat' ~~ell~~ lt$ ft.B a young and vi g orous man Jib.OM pe>litical. star vra~ ;if.a'Xil'lg'.9 'Wted l'Jeald.n 1 on ~he otller band, 1'a$ two and a half '. ytars j,way, trQm truf &rul of nil'? ctiw poli\ical career .. ''" .. 1 t 1.,, I, I ~. Witn Y oi' tbe nen la'boT 0n whom. he now l.ed, ft:Ue tt ....... w~ e~n:s1~r~d :, otllw a first step by many pGttert~ laborites ~ Deakin ,,.aa veeyap,pteh9nsive at the beginning of the $8Sa1ott He said that tne lEJ~ewthip of the Oppositton ~s really more than hfi could hand}jf f ~~t\i,\I~~ it involveil little more lhan GPfiaking ed advieini:., Even Without tbs b~n of edministnt:1.t?n be ~rized his proSpeots by hying 0 1a t, public isowr, and th sooner it ends the r>et,ter fo-r .-wl ?fctwitbstanding this h~hly pessimistic attitude at the begimimg of the se sion, Deakin s health htld and he oandueted the parlian1enta:rybattle With some of hie former gusto,. His prin"" oipal eauae for rej(!)icing was that the Opp&sition. had cont.inued to !, I~ .. : I,. I_,,


74 fight it 'l;'he gNat pojnt 1s that as a party w~ kept the flag flying., presented a. good fa,oe to the toe:, <;oncealed our diflel$ncee, and accepting the aituation, were able, owing to weakness in debating power and the folly of some of their propot,al.&., to maintain a dignit'ied attitude of resistance, achieving small sueC$s ee&, and generally iving the id.$a of being far more e.t1'ecti ve than we we:re or indeed ewJd be Of course, al together we haw donf nothihg warth mentioning in the way of am~n:1ding the Gove.rrient ma$Ul'SSJ that was out of the question...l In this short app,raisal Deakin Jummat'i~ed the noni-labor opinion eon oe rnipg the wol"k of tb.e F.trst SessiGn of thQ Fourbh Parliament .. Exceptj.c:,n oan bf taken to his vie-w tbat the Labor pal"ty was not too ert:eet.:t~ ti d9bate 'fo be sure., most of the Iabo-r argumnts ., espe()~il.y on th& rei" erendum propoew, were repetitions of Hughes 1 ; none'\lheless:, Htighes as ree.ogni zed aa one of the three or four gre$t. Austriil..n parliamentary debators. Jlu h~~ stcartea the debate on the seeond reading cf tlle two BillfJ,. (The clau.eelt were actually .read ane voted on one at a time1t But from the outset of the debates the Speaker permitted cotnment (tD any one$ the claw,es 1n Bill One and also allowed eommertt on Bill Two.) The A~ting JT itue Minister began by rttoalling the fa~t that the pe<;>ple had been asked t-o amend the Oonstitution I 0n two sucoes-si \'8 ooeasions and that they Bad done so. He alleged that this was proof o.f the ease of amen&oent and that this bad been the prime eons1d&rat:ion 8f the framers wh&n they ineerte-d tbe referen .. dwn proce $s into the Con stitution. Next.Ii Mughes rewaled his eoncept ',, {


7$ of federalism and argued that it did not make fln.1' difference if the O~ntral G overnment ha,d fifty powe:r-s and the States fit't,y or Whether tht States had tJighty and th-e Central. Government twentj'" lie Aid that what is essential ~s that 'if'ithin the seope of its powers $&ch body shall be indepen,(l'en-t o the other, so that nothing done by the O&nt-ral Go~mment shall impair the authority /Jif the States7 ,. and nothing dcme or to be done by the State's shall iq,alr the so\Ttr eigtit,of the National ~mment II Thie i e the one eseential feature ef Federations all othe~s or which mention has been made are not e ssential.J Federations may ~d do exist wi tbout them -. 1 Pursuin g this line of re-a.sorting R~hee said that the essen()e o.f the amendlllents was that they would give the N ational Gov-emment supreme power in it-s Oln sphere thus, enabling it to legislate e.f!'Gotively on ~l the matters enUinlrate4 in Section 51 of the ConstitutionJ therefore, the one essential feature of federalism would be ful!illed At this point he also stated that these changes did not involve a question of unification vs, fedei-ation Hughes argued that th& alteration<'ere aimed at the well.being of the community More0-ver he content.ed that they were inter-connected, "like the four sides of a rectangular block t and beca11se of this they had been submitted as a unit But th& well-being of the community and the inter-oonneotedness ot the altei-ationa -.rere points which led up to the real reason fGr the changes, i e .. an advaneenent or Australian nationaU, .. 9m ,. Hughes said that if Parliament loommonwealth of Australia, Par;l.iameni!!7 Debates LVII (1910), 4699


76 amd at being a gl.Qrified shire council uttering re...ut'berin g p1ou.s '$jaculati.ons et<>nee:rning na1d.onal Sentiments about one flag and one destine, no doubt the Consti ... tution clothe& us with more than ample power. But I talc& it tha.'b ()UJ.'" de&~s lie in quite ar:,o,thetdireC!tt1on. We des1nt to giv-$ legis+a.tive and adm::Lnistrat1w ef.tect to the national atf* p;ira~i6n$ or th~ people of the COlmllOnWeel th l ~t~r ttu,gbes la4.d thiS backg#ound he discussed e~ch power and the apecif'ie reasons for its :1.nolusioth He maintained that the Trade and Coinm8roe Ola.use o.f th-e Allstralia:n Constitution was the resUlt of n slaYish imitation of the United 8tat&s Constitution. '?hts he ~rgueti had been responsible for the Oommo-nwealt-bt$ inability tc,; deal with int:rastate commerce; further-mo-1"6, it had had the a"<,n dant e.tfe.ot of prohibiting CollUllOfflealth from dealing satista : ctorlly with inter'state ;. eommeroe"' In discus sing the request rox-inerea8ed paweta ow.r t rade and eonuaera ffughes' nat-i-onaliBla. appeared a.gain. He argued tho.t oormne:rcit vitally affected the we lfare ot all the 1Utmbers. 0 the ~ol'flnnUlity, and therefore., those who oon.-ollecl the eo~eroe eomt~oll$-d the whole col1ll!U1niLt-y,. Hughes then reasoned that if the Na.ti-0nal Gove~nt did not ha'lte po11ter over the "1t'el1 spring ft'()m whi:oh all must pt,rf ~rce dr!nk or da," then it was redUce.d to impot,nns and the welfare of the nation wa-s imperUd.,. 'fhe contl'ol and natienal.i.zation of indttstrywas the major issue o-t the oa.ntpaign, aid it occupied the major portion or Hughes parl i&l'll3nt~ speech. Several reasons can be $Uggeeted for the


importance of this i&~ue. FimJ it appeared that the proposals ~aling tritb iridust1t1 wBt to tho vecy b8'a-rt f the socialist and anti-socialist .contl"overq. eowd $ thia issue was a relatively' &inple one Wld gave the of being wry c-lear-.cut, a convenient rooai po1nt in attempting to g4:in electoral suppon, Th1rd at, th1$ tinle the~e wae general agreelil3nt that s onetbing should be done about monopo3,.1ea, t4nd, thel"ef ore, the issue had e; dlgNte ot appeal to most eleetors, or that is, labor thought it had s'tieh an appeal~ "/7 :tn arguin g for the fflQnopoliea powe.xHughes recalled the adverse deoisit>n of the High Oourt,, particularly the Huddart PQikor CaBEt. Be also cited peninent eeot:tons troiu a JMinOl"-andllm:, "The Australian Industru,s Preservat1Gi1. Aet1 Huddarb Parkeiand Cea Prop., Ltd~ V+ Oomptrol1et ol Oustou .... Tlhicb had been prepared by one of ~ekin f s Attorney$ General, l>., McM Glynn, in August of 1909,. The eighth point in t-h$ mamol'alldwn point,4 out that i'b difficult to de~ with indaetry in a uniform manner. The ninth point statecb On the otne r hand, it the P&Tltiament cf the e~onwealth p-osseased pc,wer to legi8late 1n. z-eepeot 6.f or monopo11ee in restraint of trade ., Sta~ as well aa. Inte.r...State and external, the ld and. the administration w'ou:W b uniform thro'bghout 'bhe Oominonwealth. One proceeding, insttiad of seral, wollld suffice; and the judg$men'b or the court would apply to all not, ao at preaent, only to Inter-State operations of the defendant .. 1


Hughes in re-ading this made the all too obvious point that nJI\V honora'b:t and lea.n\ed f';riend: preeieely und&rstood the difficulty, even if his oolleaguee did not.-nl N o matter how mucb. Hughe& disliked private monopoli&$ Wh!Qb fixed, as he said, the price of coal, f'reights,, sugar, ,.;, w~at flour., ~icks, timber, oil,meats, artd" he did not contend that monopolie$ were evil, He maintaint,d that pries fixing by a f1W was a natural stage in the evolution o pt-o ~tuction and a !',motion to be taken over by Jociety+ In sho:rt, hie er-itici1nn wa$ the same as it was in 1 "l'he Gase for l.abor,, 1 t~e~, monopolies rul.e the people instead o f the people rulng tbo 1'rying to defir:i~ a. monopoly' Hughes Uid that altlloagla 78 he could not do it in precise 'U$.l"m$1 r.twe know one whe.n we see it~" h fairness to !llughes, even thougl!. his or:t.ti-es ridiculed this s-ta.te.,.. 111Etnt, it can be shown that he had. a fairly good idea of nwnQpolie&., tru$ta, and combinea He eaid that it was the firln.g ot price by arrangement am~ng the dmbers of a corporation o:r among mHibera or an industry that the Lab or p~y wanted to CMtl'f>l and t,o nation alize it n:et,essary WhUe he was discussing this subjec\ Hughes replied to one of the moat frequent criticisms of the proposale, namely that the psurf)rs would be atn1~ed He answered this criticism by maintaining that Parliansnt was capable of abusing aey of the


p"8rs that it p~saessed, b'\lt that an Ul'l'lfal"r.anted -,xet-ciQe of at:Jy legisla.ti;,e povm:r 1raa always liable to the ~hek of the 1 tpeople behind the Parliament 79 ln support of the a~bitration clause Hughes at-gued that the Fede~al Arbitration Oourt had been severely lil?lited by decisions ot thi3 High Court, al'ld therefore, 'the Arbitration Court had been h~er'ed in bringing about a "fair and r-eaisonable'" wage for the entilv laboring fore6 ot the Oommomreatth In support of this contnti,cm he citetj,_ the majority report of the liairvee'ber CommielJ:Lon which had conclude:Q: tllat a system of fedet'al>itYS.tiota was the most d.t1sirable. t conjunction with this argument tor 'bbe ext&naion or thEI Federal Arbitratio~ Court Hughes advocated a bold and aggt"essiva Co:rmnonw$alth legislative program. 1.n all !1e1ds He $lid that auch a legislatiw progam could only ~ car rie o. out With the aid o.t the e.onstitutional alterations. Th~ reply to Hughes was made by Deakin.; ano eakin t e ~acfu 11 like Hugheei- 1 required the J.argeet part of one day s sitting .for delivery. In his raply Deakin appeared to be anything but 'bht sick and intapablt man 'that ha bad pictured himself at the opening o.f the session H1s spee-chtu) in the HoUM on the al.tar .. attone and subsequent eftort in the campaign demonstra-ted great apt.itud.e for polemics and devotion iio a .cause. In the first po:rt.ion of his spt$c,h De akin dealt with the Olynn mel'llQTandurn Crom which Hughes had quoted and in so doing


80 revealed his own position on federalism, Me quoted at length from the nem.orandtim to refute liUghes Werence that Glynn or the Deakin Government would have supported legislation similar to that contained in the 1911 pl"oposale Deakin quoted-in part-frem the Glynn mem orandum: e must not forget that centralization does not alwe.ya insure the perfect of the Democl,"a.tic p rinciple) that direetnesa and proximity stimulate electoral interests and strengthen administt-ative control; and that uniform regulation of all affai~s of a continent may be inexpedient.if not misehie~ous i Deakin not only objected to Hughes interpretation of the Gl,nn mem0randtun, but he took exception to Hughes' definition o tederalism 4' Deakin said that federalism. depended upon the balance and reciprocal adjustioont of the powers of both National and State governments and the c:ircumstances of the Australian economy In Deakin s opinion the referendum proposals would have upset the balance and would hav been a one..,.sided adjustment to current conditionp ~ I lfext ,. Deak-in di scussed what he deemed te be the real ques tion of the debate-whether immediate end~ should be sought through a ngreat alteration of the naoional machinery." It waa a critical question because any change of thi~ nature would persist long after the immediate and particular end had been accomplished, Deakin favored tilSing the fede:ral system in order to achieve political. ends., but judged by what he callEtd the highest standard of federalism the complete development of loeal units......ithe 19ll alterations fell


81 short of these standards In othe r words Deakin objected be c ause the changes moved in the opposite direction from that which fedr aliStn aei a s~m sho~ld head 'the hJader cf the Opposition a:eoused Hughes. of not being fa~ l' arlia.msnt because hte did not Nveal t~t, ~he powerswould have to be taken from the Stat,s. Deakin arg\led that this ft'S so the wry na~ure of tederali$t\1 asa division of powers, and any addition: to G0mmol'lWEJalth pO"NeX' must made at thf.) e-~ense of Stat.e gcyemments. At 'tthis point in his speech there were inteijections of 41 States Rights ., tt Deakin answered bysaying that this C'J:Y did not of:f end him, and t.o ~11.enee hi-$ e:rities he used tbe rea soning that Hqgh$& had found e.o convinting in his Ugum$nt fol' extended Cetnm.omre~th poweirs 11 That is, Deakin :u-gued that all n were eitizens of individual States and the Oommonwe-alth, and, there.fore, as Oomnionwealth citiiens they bad nothing to dNa.d when tbe States in which they 1Jere citizens developed t.oa. high degree. Hence Iieakitl argUtd,. these alterations were opposed to t:he highest standards of tederali~ Eind he said that if hie oppositi-on was trstatea Rights" it. was of no pneem to him. since all men were dual eitU&n$ who should ht eneag-ed in fost. :ring local development., for When "bhe O~n1tealth became all ... povrerf'ul there would be an ewn worse oonsequence...,.. the aurtail.ms1'lt o individual fteeciom On thia :point the Opposition leader saidt


One rill not be abl~ to buy a pep.nyvrorth or lollies., to drive a nail in~ boot_. to shear a sheep, to saw grain; to pick tr11it, 6t to carry hod, in a.n,y part of this continttnt without u~der the operation o! the Commonwealth laws.l Although thie might have bee.h an exagge~ati<>n,, it was something whieh Deakin : as a protagonist or individual :freedom feared, Deakin obj$cted to the alter,at.ions on another ground,, they ere merel;v attempts to further the aims et the Labor party t He did not cbjeet to m&asares Which wete motivated by party goals., rather ,he objeotad t.-o th(HS.e measures be.cause they did not involve anytbing mortt ~h:an patity aim$. Ha .felt tha1t this was a p\1:rsuit of 4n expad1ent policy aece>l"cli,;lg : to whieh L$bor,; with ite n1ajartty, would enact i~s poli cy rega:rdl.ess of 'fl'hethe:r it conf'erJd to the need$ of, what De~in called, the acts a.a we t'ind them~ 11 1n answer to $~ .~ccuaation that he opposed all amendment, 13eakin said:. I at:1 ~~ihg not only that the people should amend their Oon stitutio,;i. ,, wh.en neees BMY l)ut tqty sh<:>itld amend it exactly :v,he-r~ it most. needs, anti as it ru)$1$ it, and that they should not E;Jndeavour to exercise the gift of p~ophecy so as t.o deter ... mine what gflnerattons to cone n-J.ght nquiN.2 Deakin was objecting to w~t b& considered a lllltt'e partisan poli;r. ~e-al ing with the individual p;roposale, Deal(in def endecl the Trade. $.nd Commerce. parauaph of Seotion ,51 on the grounds that it was wider than any othel" p'G1fer 1n the !uat.ralian Constitution. He conter.ded that the United 5t at&e Won11ng , adopted after a careful l~i.., P 4825 .. 2Ibi.Q..


t,tuczyof U nite~ States constitutional d.ecieione. Deakin s objection t-o the transf1il t c1f th& arbit-r~t:Lon po-wal's to the Commonwealth coin eided with h1s emphasis on local development. He reviewed the in duf!trial aituat i on with respect to wage detanniaation ~d concluded that because 01' the dil'fer:tn~ proble111,s q.nd the variety of problem$ the S te.tee were nn:,.eh battel" $uited to deal nth the arbi,.. tl"ation and conciliation problems that arose from industr-ies operat ing exclusively, within their borders. Oh jeiction to oont2"QJ.. o was oased Ot'l simii:argr~unds, i e differing conditions in the State$. Deakin also ~gued that the ooet-s woUld be high and that bureaora(!;y of tbe worst kind would Neult roin the extensive regulative macb 1nery that would 'be established In this ee.$8 he. offered a substi tute proposal., contained in the Glynn memorandum ,. ta establish an Interstate Col'JUXM!irc Commis1;1ion--a device wh1eh the O onetitution provided or but 'Which had not been utilized.. That body as he envisaged it, TJ'ou1d be very much like t.he United States CoDJUdssio11 Such a. body in the Uru.ted st te.s of America today ie of oapi .... tal LTJ\Pot'tance; and, unde:r owr' Constitution ,, is of being inado still more effe-etive An Intel"--Stat e Co:mmiSs1on itonl.d diS'chal'ge both admini-~t:rative duties,' $id what mig-b.t be termed judicial duties in all matt;.ars or praotio$.l conOEtrn. The Coml11:i.ssi.Qn beirlg provided for in advance by t he Oonet:ttu tion, we h a ve made more tne.n one attempt to br1n g it into existence bu.t our arforts have not been crowned W i th succees l


84 Later in the debates Mr. Joseph Cook, liiberal M. H. n., moved an amendment in the form of a eub$titution to the monopolies clause of B1ll. One to establ.ish an Imter...Stat.e CQ?lUld.eeion, B ut this motion, like other et"forts of this kind, was unwccessful and was d&feated thiny-nine to twentyfive, 1 It should be stated that althou g h there wen other attempts to ans-nd the proposals by nonlabor meJtibers, amendment was the main a.lternat.ive suggestion (,!) / the ~ position. One of the most nquent demands of the 0ppe$ition wa~ that the four clauses of B Ul One should be embodied 1n f<.>ur separate bills., Daakin admitted that the propo$itions were allied but inde pendent of each other. He contended that eaeh proposal involved a new grant o:t pOW'i!ft1 and that the g rouping togEJther 0-f ~eh pro posals did n.ot permit disoriminatio.n on the part of the elector Sir Robert l3 al$t and Sir John Quiel, two of the le ading students or the Australian Constitution; also criticized this asp.est of the raterendum.. F inally, S ir John Forrest moved, Tha'ti, as the inclusion in a single measure of more than one substantiw amendment o f the Constitution is unjust and undem ocratic a:e it deprives the elect.on of an opportW"tity of the 8'1prGS$ion,s of a free and ind~pendent j udg&ment upon the several questions raised g tiavely a.f.t'eotin g the t'ttture of Australia, it be an instru.etion to the Committee to divide the Bill into four bills, so as t o allow each of the proposed alterations to be dealt as a separate measure : .2


'L'ha wo.rdin. g ot this ~tien insured itfJ defeat 1?h~h it i$ doubtful that submitting th proposals t ogether had any influence on the vote., mu-oh was mad or this r act 1n the debates and 1n the ign campa Ind:tvi-duo.l apeeehea by memters othar than Hughes and 85 Doaldn w;ere m uch eh..,rt&r and were g emirally oonf ined to an elabor ation of the a~nte a.civ.e.nced by these two me-n One of the favorite topies disouseed by Labor msmbers lfas the eontradiotory stand of those who su.ppol"'t;ed ttNew Proteetionn a-nd at the same time opposed tbe ~te:ratione Ml. tthffs, Labor u H R.-, that he had backed Dee.kin for two ye are and tl'lat it we.& Deakin who bad first &.eked h:u:i t-a support legislation su.oh as was bet ore the HoUSG 1 a r W i e e., Labc,r t H R. wa$ e\1$n more cutting than Matthews The position and the spee'ohes 0 the honorable meixbe~ for Balla.rat lfleakin7give me only a feeling of the deepest regNt that a J$ri 1fho led the national cauee 1n Au stralia, with all bi$ aspirations and after all bis efforts lhould now, in the l;a.ttittdare of his politieal cax-~er ., be facin g every time he speaks, the sptctet of the past 2 If suoh att~cts as these had any et.feet on Beakin ., there i$ no record of it G lynn s memorandum was used by both sides Another memorandum. wh1h figured in the debates was one on the workings


O'f Auetrali~ tedetaliern written by Robertr GalTa.n SeoretariJ tc Littleton Groom who Was Att om.&y Oeneml under Deakin, at,, the request of the oovem0 r of Transval,. I'lughes quoted a sect.ion of the Tr-ant;val_ memorandum Ylhieh ref awed to the Trade and Commerce pO'We?' ct th~ ies and among the States. The limitation to 86 Inter tate and external commerce bise(lts the subjeot of trade an~ ~ommeree, and makes a hard and fast division ot juriadic lion of which it is dii'tioult to d~te:m:tna t..he boundariesand lfih; doe s not -correspond with any natural distinction in the conduct of bu$ines,:,. It ~d be nore satisfactory 1 poseib1e_ ,, to takepcw&r owr trade and ool111nerce generally.l This tl8e of the Garran memorandum was an astute D1(:)V'e on Hughes part,It did not have the desired et.feet of ~litting the Opposi tion., but n o non-labor menibflr attempted to explain the inconaistent stand 11hieh they, or at, least Groom:, had taken on the Trade and Labor often r$fert"ed to unfavorable ~de aisione or the High OoUri as the,reason for seeking the ehanges. Senator Rae., commentitlg on the Governor-General's speee~, charged that the Court; wae the,t refuge of reactionary forces Ha stated that, he did not believe in erecting id.els and worshipp'ing thel!l as some had done '. ~1th the Court and, since the High Court wa$ in the path of erumgs, it would have to be modified or $Wept out o existence ,.:? 1 l'bid.-, P $2'13 .304,


67 ts charges against the Court and said th:ta was reason enough for him to .support the a.lteratione. 1 nr. Archibald, ~bor Y. H~ R., in answr to a direot quast;t.on .from Ur. Joseph Cook asking him t-o make a case for the inol'eased. grant of power, eaidt ttI stronglyad'Viae ray honor. able frl.Grid to read the decisions of th$ Higb Court during the last s~ ysar-s. 1 t2 lJa.t.urally, th.ere wen1 al$o those Who ma to th d&fense of the Court The Syqne;y ~orning 1-J~:rr!3zd aw a mont or lees typical cs.ea for maintananee ot the Oout-fu The H~~ald argued that it was thai -dourt tmich k$pt tp.e Parlia?nent in b~ds aMd sate .guarded 1.ndiVidual treedom from th$ eauous rule to w hich tabor wanted to sub~ect the Oo~altb) There as only Q-n& member who did not vote a st,t-aight 11 yes" or Qnott en clause and on the sepa:uate Bil:ts, and tthis was w. H Irnne who supported the alteration -with :regard to "U'l!Lde and oomneroe, He argu.ed th4t commerce was an organic whole and any attempt to deal with an organic whole ih two p6l'ts wo11ld eventually 11 prow as inef.t'eetual nere as it has proved in th United &ta\es.. 11 4 lOoonweeltb of Australia> P 4rl.lJl!~~aa: :peba;~~~t ivn ( 1910} I 4~42 1 2Ibi4111 lh 4929 3;Th,e Se!l. Llr>.izn9 1 Her,1d, Auguat 8 1910 p. 6 .. 4cominonwealth ct A u.stral:La, P ~li~ntflrz !).&bat s, LVIi ( J..910).? 5294


86 Tbe Arbitr~tion Clause was another Qase,. and W. H ., Irvine was one of it& most Violent arities and conru,mned it as a political eonepira.ey. His reasoning was that the Labor party had added after the'te on the S.eeond lte~ding, the portion of the olause whieh gave the COllll'nonwealth control over railw~ ~n'q;)l.oyees. The original o~ was th alter Section 51 by omitting paragraph xxxv and ins~in in lieu thereof tho ll;~p,i~ : !nd:u.&tri~:t matters including enploymant ad tho wages an,d CQl'lditions of emplQyment and also tooorevent1on and 'flettarnent o industrial disputes ., n 1 Irvine said th~t he the :in.o.J..ue-ion of raillray servants as ,. an a.tteq,t to tak, a.way from the States tl)e contl"ol of the:ll"' servant.a ,s the direot outcome or a poli~ical oonepil"acy between the 100;000 or more employeeo of 'bhe State Railway Depa.ttnsnts and tho~ Who al'& now occupying the t:reasury Bench and their supporters to use this Federal Parliament as a ~ans of ex ploiting the Sta-te Treasuries and to seeur,e for these people w'ha.t th67 have net been able to obtain through the autl'lorieed State tribunal.a, because tb$y haw wade demand& to which they are no~ ~ntitled 2 Irvine s chatrgei was echoed by others 1.Yho implied that the Federal organt.eation of the .Ra.ilway employees had be en carried out With this in mind La.boir ignored t-hi~ argument, ~d non-labor did no'b make lllll:Ch use : <>i it Non-labor dropped the conspiracy 017 because they were afraid of the railway -employees who re.presented potential votes or because they realized that there was little validity tn the eberge However ~he change in the arbitration 1 lbildo p~ 5366 2:fb:l.d p $198


olauae did ha~ an influence on St-ate Labor parli.llm&ntarians, particulc"ll"ly those in N e South W ales,(Th& general attitude or 8~te parliiamen;tariane is 4iscussed in Cnapi.r v") :P aerer to contl-cl and nationaliztt monopolies was supported by Labor because in the United S tates industrial growth had p~o~ duoed an unqual diffusion of wealth, and, thus, pc.verty had resulted., This pov rty, they maintained, was du.e to a lack of g ove:mmerrti control. In order to prevent this in AUS'bi-alia., tabor wanted to contr-cl and regulate 6tld, if neceusary,. nationalize bu.sine:,s.., N crilabor me-mb,n,1 argued that ntonopolies needed to be eontrolled~ but they flt it as u.p to the States to do lt. Non-labor did not admit the need to nationalize, in f'aet, they contended that public monopolietJ war as bad as private monopolie$+ other points were (lonside-X-e-d in tbe debates of the Rous,, but a listin g ot then,. hen, tro uld be of little use. There wa.a no at'lbate in th &mate because non...).abor ms~ refused to discus, the proposals on the groundl that they could do nothing to $top th$1.r passage. It also bears repeating that t-he voti ng in the HouM was trietly along patty lines 1fith the exception of w. H. Irvine Who voted with Labor on the eeeond reading of the trade and coJMterce olauee o f Dill one M oreover, no changes in the Bills we:re effected by the n()n-labor eide, and the only change was :t.aborte alteration. of the Ait>itration clause.


90 The debates of the Hou fumiah no materials for startlin g ooncl~sions Fer the most pa.rt tbey wen unspeot-acula:r and uninttt esttng, but this d oee not mean that they we-re uniq,ortant, The 1911 ptll'liamentaiy 4ebatea were We first stage in a s eriee of .strug g l,ui which centered upon extending Oonmomrealth p,G1fere A:s such they provtded a bald.a for the negat:he and af'i'irmat1ve a1'gu.ments of 19lli l915;, and 1919. Finally they establuhed the immediate, fr...,or~ for the l.911 Oal!lpaign

PAGE 100

April 26., 1911, as t~ date set for the .f.'iret exte:n,1on of C0MQ>nweal;&J1 powers rei"e:l' ndum t The l<>ng cainpai n llh:Lch prec.eded 111 w;s ofi'ioia:\.ly opened by ~he Pl-ime M:i.nisters (he had jt ;re. tut:ned fn>m Imperial Conference.) speElCb to an etimatey f'~her Who had been. baent when. the propoQale were diseueeed ll.n. ,, ;the H.ouse Bec-au,se of the death of E~ vn he le.f't :Ln the J4<1dle or the campaign to represent tbe Comm()ffllealth at the coronation .ot ; Oeorg~ v., W I"' Hughfts was the recognued leader of the a1'firmat1n S1e and the :referen
PAGE 101

92 Hughes was at his best. Sin ce he draftied the amendment s and ~d Labt,rte Plrli~ntalj strtegy manyreganie~ the ;p~osals as "Pi11ghes pX'op4:)~a ls 0 'l!his, no doubtJ was flattering te his already inflated eg-o,. : but there was aleo a ~nt deal of truth in it~ Tho: altani.tions did irtv:c>lve an integral part 0 Hughes e-on ... eept of thepOfteN that the Commonwealth f;lhoul'..d: exercise if nation al.i:s:m. was to be ad~ced Fisb$reJ prolcmge.d absence made Hughes asswnption of l.eadersh:Lp possible, and the issue$ inve1"8d mad$ it rightfor Hughes to play the major role on tho attinnatiw side Hughe:~ ns r.tGt giv&n to s or compromi-ee He realiz~d per~s as well ai;i aI\V Australian pi,lit'ician that an a.rgu""' ment muet be unders\ood t(I) be aoeepted, fie po$&eSsed the political. acumen to knffl't that the best way to we an ar,iument uncterst-ood ,ras to personalize it. The referendum proposals could be discussed on a semi...theQretiea-1 ba.sie, as some pa.i-tieipan\$ in the campaign did, but this was n0t t-be m.anntr in lth.ich Hughes .framed his speecheJh His words were int.ended to :reach the labor audience to which he owed his political euccee&-the audienee 1fhich could muster the n$c&~ftal'Y vot11s to pass the QmeruimEints The monopo lie-s and trusts issue was one Whioh labor under stood and had heard previously. Ha had told the voters in the 1910 election that: The questioa ie-what lmrs do you want? Are you in favour of land monopoly? If you are don t-t support me. Are you in

PAGE 102

9) favour ot tner sugar monopoly ? 'fhent are a dozen industr~ s in Australia whe:re there is no Colif)etition-or p:raetioally none. ,. :Lr yoti ellow monopolies, the price of 'bhint;s you have to e-at-tm. necessities of lif'e-ie beyMd ~onpet1t:ipn and beyond your contr~1~l 1911 HueM,e renews(! the 1910 plea and thereby establ1$hod the to~~ or tabor s re.ferendum ca~ign. The Wol'ker : which enthu.sia tically d.evot~ '. d ita pages to tho fight .f on ac ceptance. of thet alttl' attons t~ its main theme from Hngnes. In a tyP1ca1 piees of doggerel The W oril'er :raiUed agai.n$t t.xiustst l*m not 4ustral.i:a cries, To meet : a fellow tnee tily $1ie If othaxthings ffl even But now I tve got to fight tbi's bl.aka I .must h~ve somethmg iaol'8 than smoke To him throw the sewn $0 .mtas on day Whe'n ail Aulftraliaris have a say, Vot'3 stnd.ght f,;)r our yroung nation, Iet 1 a ow:"selves with .fuller poWers Keeping thd.$ glod.ou! land of o\U'I Free from trust ma-chl.Mti.on _.2 Tht';J ):,abor c,,l' "'No 1 Mani.testo Which was issued on Ue.rch 3-, l.911, likewise based its argwuent s f'o:r the preposals to a large extent on the ne-ed to curb grGWing monopolies. The eleetors WeJ!'t told that gro-upJ of ea p:l.talista controlled. ope~tions not 1n 0-na particular industry but in tb.e niajority of indu etr!.es throughout the entire epntinent.. After discu.sein.g the growth of Jllbnopolies in general te : rms the Manitesto re-iterated Hughee conclusion tha\ l.Ibid,..,. April 9 1 1910, P llt. -2Tbe Australian Worker, Maren 9 1911., P 1.

PAGE 103

94 "prices of eonunodities are fixed by the capita.list a in the various States actin g in Qommon,_nl the ~ifesto said tbat OotDlllonwealth control; because of the interstate oollu1ion or indust-17; was the only way to eliminate industrial p.-ofits., and the~by lmrer prioes, After plead:m for control er business, the Manifesto demanded pow.-rs to nationalize monopol!e s on the ground that con'bt'-ol arid regulation wculd not be sufficient to deal with ma industry that had sueceEiided in eliminatl)lg competition In a eking for this poWei' the nifesto gavci ssurance tha'ti not all ind~stries would be nat.ionali-eed but only those 1 tfrom which collptl'tition is excluded and whi~h enab:t& a very few rich men to exploit the whole 'l'nroughou1the campaign Hughes was pressed to nam.& the inonopolles. The two which he frequently cited ere the sugu and tobal!lco industris aut hi& dtuicri:ption of thoir monopolistic a(;tivitieS wa vagu~ I Suea.:r Refj,ning Oompany,-TM price : or sugar as regulated b-y tbe oompany 'Which was doing verfany,,.3 2 Ibid p_. 10 _,... 3Ibid ., March 3, 1911, P 10

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Il'l one e-bii~~n, Hughe.e alleged that there we re thirty ... thne com bines and tr-q,sts. :tn -4.ust;ralia, but he ne,&T listed them.1 On another oce$;sion he blandly stated that ~1 authorities....:Bryce .. all law text books ,. had painted oixt the futility of State l"egUlation of theoperations of truste and QOl'nbines, and l)oint.ed to the g rowth publ ic opilon in favour of full federal control.2 The .\u$1i-ralian W orker was much mo:x-e epeoif ic than Hughes in its attack on the monopolies and carried a VtJry d$tailed description of the operations ot the Oclonial Sugar Refining QC)liljl,, pany .. In November, 1910 'bbe Company issued 7,.500 shares of tvren'by p>m'ld stoek-s in the :proportion o! one each to every hold(lr of ninete$ll share e 1,$0 1 000 pounds were taken from the pt-otit QM divided among aharehol-denh The profit for the year at that time was )12 1 685 pounds and the nse:r-ve fund was 500;000 pounds The Company oould sell 1uga,i at a price much low to the A.ustralia.n consumer but that might reduct the twenty pound bonue share Give the Fe~ral Goveffi:lQ&nt pow&r to regulate the p.riee to the consumer byvotin g 0 yes. 11 3 There wen, also cE1>nt:inuous :refennee s to the United States monopolies and their at.ten~ant evils. of the amendi?:lg proee-sees 1n the Austt-alicul and U nited Sta~s Co1'l.stitut1onst ~:If?~, larch 10, l9ll, P 10. 2 Ibid .. P :5., lThe Aust,ra).ian Worker ; April 20, 1911, p 11

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~E+' framer, of \he Auetralian Oons\itut:t.on although in many repat,s ~aopting the American Oonstitu'tion ae a model, delib erately det,lined to i'c>Uow it in one vitally hnp rtant parti cula.r Tl:le Am1:prican Oons-M.tution though technically capable of anien~t, hae in ~act1ce defi,ed ave in a tn unimpor tant matters, ewty etf'ort to adapt it t0 the ohfUlging eircUl'.l)!o, atance s of a pMgf&Sstve pe:opl It r~quil'El(i' the s.acrif'iee of 60o,.ooo men and the expenditure o two hundred million pounds to erase fl"om the Oen~titut~ af Amer.Lea tlle m,i"d s that permitted sle:ve~ .. The framers of the Aust:ra1ian Oonstitut.ion wisely forebode not t-0 make it rigid and unamend able l Inclusion of. such points in th~ nif E)st;c, s1gni.fied tno de su-e ot the Party 'te play down the sweeping nature of the amendment.a, but iit 'flas also indictive ot the Party's aim to convince the eleetot's that the Constitutiot:1 WA$ ~t to be amended frequently oreover it demon~rated \he :Partyis Willirtgnee& to acctpt and utU11e the l'llles tlf the d&mocratio gaine as dswn by the Australian CGnati tutiohi Rugh$s 1 'l'he l o$e .r, other membere of the Labor press., and Labor participante 11'1 the ee.tnpaign mad violen1. attacks on Alf'rtld Deakin, Although the ctis o "Judaett and ~raitor" Which were huTled against him in the 191-0 elect.ion oampaiga were drop!Mi dt hie joining the Fu-eion movementi t,he S&$m1ng :inconsistency of his stand ~n the i-eferendu.m propotaal$ 1 and bis minority parliamentary position were the soul'Cea of constant Labor tauni,;,e ., Hughes who constantly attacked Deakin asked; rfuo is the gentle~ Who co~& out and speaks about the dangete of giving the people blank cheque books? What di.d h do with

PAGE 106

his blank cheque book? 'l'o what use did he put it? The daba-cle. of the Fusion Will long be rem$mbered.. In the opin ... ion o. the pEt'ople he did wrong And greviou.sly has ho anS\vered fo't' it.1' 'l'r~itorous; indeed wa.e Deakin 's aetion in joining tabor' s oppO'"!' nents. '.t'he Aus:tl"al,im:i \fort(er let loose all of its pent -up enmity and fiercely assailed ,.Alfred the Eloquent turned l.lfred the Oontrad ict,ory n Howevei' silvery his tongue, the old echoes of the old Dea..l
PAGE 107

the de cision of t-be High Court which prohibited the "comon Nle" a.~ being ad"6rse to all of labor II The tabor ifesto quoted Jus-. tiee Higgins on the effe,ct of the High Court decisions on the Fed eral Arbitration Covt f.S fQllows, Arter,full oons:t.deration. l mus'b state it is nzy, opinion that th$SG deoisions as to the Umi'1ts of the eou.rth, paw r, Ylit-h a.11 the eorol1aries which they involve wiU ma~ it impraetieable to ft-aue a,itai,ds th a t will work._.ill entail, indeed; a g paralr,~is of the funot.ions of t-ha Court Yet tho Oourt, if' it b& tru6'te4......and unleee i'b can be trusted it o ht not to magnilieent, prond.Se of usefulness t~ tlhe pllblie l Labo):'ts r&aSoriing on this point Wati' Quit~ s i mplelf The State ages Board~ f{ crea;t~ unf'a-vorable conditions~ and the Mi g h Court I bad blooke4 effec'tive Federal action,. thewf ore, a unitorm system of Federal bit~ation secured through constitutional. mendment \Vould sQl'VfJ th~ ;problem. Adverae decisions of ~he l&gb Court were also used ~o be c,ause without it thei'e would be endles.s conf'\f.Sion and also fed eral ;l.egis~tion dealin g 'With trustCJ and monopolie$ oul.d be hope lessly in-effeeti11e Furthermore, .ebifting of these powers to the Commonwealth would erase any doubt concernin g the constitutionality of lElgisla..tion under any po er enumerated in the Constitution '.Ibe

PAGE 108

1fanifeatosaid that "'$Urely the people are entitle-d to something mere ~han endl.ess litigation.ol 99 One o! the mest. interesting items publiahed by The .Au:8\ralian Worker wa~ a lie"of those opposed to the alterations: l the Ant+ Ralf--Holiday Gang 2 The lfob9le and Hartm Skirt fenageri 3., The 11oreat Dailies'' of Australia, the Champions Qf Capitalism i ,ew)Y time ae against tabor li~ The Food Adulterators and the Shott eigbtel"s 5 The Cheap Labor and Freedom o Contract Apeatles 6. The Land draboers and ttG-round Sharks" 7, The Bl'ick Combine Th-e Flour Trust The Meat Ring o The t.tTimeis-not-yetripe" Hwnbug~ 9 The ldle OWners of the Huge .Rent rolls lOi. l'he Political Opportunists Found Out by the Labor Movement ll .'.cl)e -r l'ket Manipulators Who Oamble 1n Human Foodstuff& 12. The Men fho " the Farmers 13 the !Jll'~~od-fo~heUgislativa Council" Boodlera 14. The GlorU'ierG of Scab Labor and Haters of' Industrial Unionism2 This H.s1:l .have appeared to be humorous, but it contained. under one heading or anothe:r people and. groups which had rankled Labor in the past, m tab c,r ~eohe& in the House ie suffioititnt to giw an indication of the tcm,e arui \~ of affirmative propagand~ Mor-e over, these laboJ' ~atements hs.w been sel$oted With the intent of listing tho 1 Ib!d 2rhe Australian drker:1 ch 16, 1911, P 5.

PAGE 109

pleas which had o~ which were hoped to have th most effect on the electors M ore '3nl.iglitening than this statement of arguments ie a siu-v, y of t~e activity ot industrial and po1iticai labor during 100 the campaign. Indu$trial labor s stand las quite clear and there was oti]v one segment ot the induatrial movement the radical or r. w W group, which
PAGE 110

lOl industry by the and specifically called for the nation""' alizat16n of thf> :l..ron indust:ry. 1 The sa:nJ Council also issued: pamph ... lets in support o the ret"erendwn One of these pamphlets was devoted to showing how the Vic'liorian State l>arliarantbad blocked meastir&s favoraole. to Labor~ 1n $ubstantiation of this eontention the votin g re~~d of the Legitllative Assembly m&mbers waa given on fotn' key measo.res-minimum Wage, exteneio.n ot the wages boards to government efl4)lbye~s :r-e form of the tsgislative Council; a,nd cont~1 or r~ : wageei 2 l lbo~e t-s Trade.a Hall Council,in addition to carrying on the oan4:)aigri in their own e1~y endeavor~d to enliet the coopera tion oi' the SY4n~y'll"adee Hl,.11 Council The two Councils agreed to coope:r!ata by exehanging epe-a.kers and matertals In appre-cia'bi~i oi the Sydney Oouncil s cGopere.tion the Melbourne C6u11:c:1.+ pa&sed ~he loll-=tng resolution, that this Council ~nd congratulatiU;t to the Sydney Trades Labor '00unciil tor their cooperation with us or the cotnmon good: the 'Working claes by their endo-rs&ment or the Federal re.tenndum, a~ it mean$ making the brotherhood of l bor moro ~olid against the phalanx of cap:1:bal,.l The Melbourne Ooun~il was also responsible f'er a Spec.i-1 Oonte~nce or the Induet:r-ial OJ'ganizations of Victoria. to diacues lJr~~ $~ey ,omint'{ Heral~; November 14 1910) P 10 2p,olitical Labo:r Council or el:bourne Voting reeotds or tha Vieto:ria-,n l&gisla.tiw Assembly ~mbel's, ( lbournes 1911). 3rhe Sr!e~Z .torning JI~rai~, January 20, l9ll, P a

PAGE 111

thij r~fe~ndwn At this Ccmf'el'enoe,. where lllOSt of the major indu ... t?'ial groupe were represent~d pl"oblem,s of org-anizing and campaign .. .. ing were discuesed The trades unions pledged their cooperation, anq the Con:ference ga19 unaninlou$ approval to a motion '.\.n sur,port ot th alterat.1~nf$.l At the April 1911,. Annual Victortan .Politic$l tabor Council ~at a r solution -s a~opted 'Which stated, '!base p(IV.rera are v;\.tal to the well ... being of the wol"ke~s or A.Ustrali.a as a wbole The supremacy of the pe"ple gove~ipg themselve$ is at s-taltth The oampaign is now in p~ograB:S, and being ought unscl'upu1ously by all the monopo intere$ts and 1.lto party which stands or unf.'ai:rpst1"' as against thQ x-ights ot a r:ree people : 2 T!le resolution eontinu.e by urging all laboring men in V1ctor1a to vote for the 'llle New South ales tabor Oou.n4ll The Sydney Trades and Labor Council.,. The Political Labor League~ and the other industrial. organizations of New S0uth W al.e$ adopted torma.l motions in support of 'b.he changes At a Janua.r, mee-1dng ttf the New South ales Labor Couneil the referendum was dietcu seed t Mr-. Johnson, Secret,anof the Boo'b frad& Federation, said that the High Coun dec1t1on in the Boot Tirade Oase lllade his unien all the more determined in their fight row the a').teratic,n~ 3 At. the same meeting of the Council lTh A'!J,,V;S ( lbourne), JanlUlry 20-.-301 1911 l 2nie Aus~liar,i omer; April to, 1911; p 9; 31.Qid Januaey 12.a 19llt P l,

PAGE 112

10) kr. A. c., ll arton, Secretary of the Ti"8.116f$Y Empleyfts Union, main tained. that he saw nothing anomalous in the Commonwealth overn ... mimt"s co~'brollin g wages and conditions of S tate mployees. W arton*s cnollil$ionwas based on the fact that the Comrnomrealth exereiaed aont~ol over a number ot tmploye~s of interstate concrns and nobody disputed its right tQ do so11 1 A further expression of trade 11nio.n attitude on the alterations and still a.noib h er reason for unil.:0n members to support thein was put toJWard by Durach., Secretary or the Amalgamated Journeymen Tailore Union of N ew South W al,es. That the CQmmomrealth should conti-ol wage s and eondit-ion.s in clothing factories is a vital question to thousands of women in N ew S outh Wales., who, though of equal ability to those employ$d maicr order goods aTe at present paid fifty percent lower wages. At a later mee"ting the Council e President, Mi'. n" L Duncan, m oved "that this council &ndors&e-the proposed ~lterations of the Commonwealth Constitution, and urges upo~ all trades union ists the necessity ~f doing their utmost to secure their acceptance by the eleetors 11 } Those who spoke for the resolution were w R Bagnall ( Process Engrave rs), P J. Q ui g ly ( Brid g e and barf Oarpen ters), J. Scotland (Seamans U nion), w Ban (Storeman), ., oBrien (Furniture Trades), and 1.1r. H, Connel (Iromnoulders). Yr. Connel 3lbid, 1 January 19,, 1911, P 1,5

PAGE 113

loh o f the IronmoulderG Un ion ur g e d that the New South ales Political ta.bQr Co unoil, a. a ~pr.esentative of thetrade uhionista, knew that the S tat.~ industrial wages boards were unable .to assure g ood condi tions and wages beeause or the "int,el'813t diversity and competition of the Uf!lioni sts.,ft He ocmte-nd~d that it 1';1s incu.mb nt upon trade unio11iste to vote 1 '?es 1 1n order to g .et uniformity 0 treat. ment .Afte r this pl.ea,. the Council u.nan:t.moualy pa~sed M r D uncan t motion.._l In ll:bs Annual Report theExeou1.ive o:-f New South ales' P olitical Labor League asked ro-:support of the proposals because of the High Court deQi&ions Which bad prehibited the enactment of the UNew oteotion. 11 The keout:Lve maintained tba.t the 4u$tl'aliau Parliament 1s in many respec.ts paa3.ysed under the existing O?n&titutio-n, ft-i,2/it is stro~ g ly urged that every e ffort should be made t~ s~oure a deu.ded majori.,y in .fa'V'Our o the proposed atxiendments. The Political Labor t&e.gue of New South lalt;)e and the Labor Council agreed to cooperate in the campaign, and a. eommittee of members from the P olitical Labor Lea g ue and Labor Ommcil was e-stabliehe,d with reapon~ibili'by for coordinatin g Caillpaign activities 0 tthe politioal. branches and the trade mrionEh This join.ti committee also had control ove:r the New Sottth ales 0 Yestt campaign fund.

PAGE 114

10$ "!'he Omrunittee became the c~ntral a..gency of political and industrial labot' in :tfov., South W ales d~rin g the reterondum ea.tllpaign 1 Wes tern 4,ustral~s Labor Federation supported the refer endum op the ilhat the States posses~d but had not '1secl the powe-re sou ght by theJ}qmmonwe11lth 2 1'h~ Labor Co~neil qf Pe rth, a council of tntl W estern Au$tra:t.ia.n Labo,r F.ade:ration1c l'fflS the ooordi t,a~ing qody: ,for the Western Australian trade : u.nion :testt ~aign) J;n Wa~~i Sou th Au~ralia and Queensland the Labor Councils in the capital c:i, were respQnaible for the largest portion of : the ref erendum eampaign work 4 Tasmanias ntes canpaignfirs received a b~ost from tlie W or}cei,s League Gontennce hich passed a resolu ... t~on calling the ttt{ott argwne11,ts ~purile and f'al.s and charged all of those who did Qot vote in favor @f the alterations 'With iraseist"""' ing rin g s., tru~ts, and combines to fleece the producers and consumers at their own sw:eet Wills u.5 The Victorian and Tasmanian M iners Association at their annual meetj,Jag resolved that the trade unions ~bo uld span no ei':f()l"b in the passage of the proposals 6 Atte~ra1ian Wortcer, Ma,roh 2,. 1911., p -. 13 2t~e 1 ~tdn:~;Y M o 0 m3::!:i Hef4ld N oWmber JO, 1910, P 12 33:h:?-.t Je.nuacy 23, 19;11, P 24 hsee The A"stralian orker r or January, February, rch ., and April of 1910~ !ach edition contains reports from the Labor Cowicils in the o.apital cities on the progress of the ref' erendum campaign 5:t:bid April 20 ., 1911 P 6Ibid. March 9 1911 P 14 _...

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Also the. Am,el g i;lnlated Mine E mployee.a Conference advocated aceep .... tance of' the proposals in a stron g ly worded reaolution l The rural lab.or-er was urged to vote "Yes" by the rural unions The A u~rtralian ij orkerst Union edition of The Australian 106 orker (published weekly like The W cfrker ,; but issued a day earl i er); constantly carried arguments in favor of the proposal ( N o doubt the Aust:ral.i:an W omer-aU nion edition of The orker eventually roached $iist rural labore~s ot the noutback,tt sin c e it was the only trustworthy s urce -of shea:rin g fixtures and award wages the rural worker pos6essed R adical labor in A u stralia ., the :t W and S oeial Demo ... era.tic party., took no part in the referendwn campa1gn 2 The S ocial D smocratic p att ;r. ; a perty that did not participate in e-l~ctions, was co mp osed of .. members from the P olit; La b or Lea g ue, ( T M Crystal of the Wh arf Labourer.s' Union and P resident of a P el.itical Labor league br&1cb. was the chief' organi~er of the Party), tho International Socialists the Australian S ocial.if!t :League,, &nd the I~ w ~ w .. 'l 'be Social Democratic partys platform called fer natio-nalieat ion of industry and abolition ot State boundar1e$ l The Socialist tabor party ., another left wing labo:r p-.rty passed qf'or a discussion ot the I .. W w in Australia see P F Brissenden, 1'f1~ l 1 w., a Study American Sl13dical~m ( New Yorio Lon g mans, G nleh and bo 19~6), PP j4!=h5 > T. ~e. S YB!eY, <>ming lie;rald Au g ust ,; l910 P 9

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107 a resolu.tion at their annual conference wnich saith That this Cont'e;re nce o the Soeiali~t Labor party ~ of Aust rolia recognizes that the F-ed~ral referendum agitation is simply a faction f:igh~ 'b,>~ween tl3re p olit1oal representativesof the opposing capitalistic interests It has n0 pra-ot icai interest tq tlie WoX'~~g class 1'ho al.Naqy pos~ss sufficient political and constitutional power~ if organized politically in Claf3& party and 1.fl?Ustrially in the I W Union, to end the eaptta11stie syetm of e.xploitat:ion.l t Tlle P~?R~e; the ot;fioial organ of t.h~ Parby and aloe of the I. tr W ,' I publlfJhed one 1! 1 d.itorial on the re.f.erendum whieh waes a repe tition ; I of the resolution just cited, but had nothing else to say 2 It. should l)e no,t-s.d that with the exception of the I. w. W ., these ioal la~~r mownts w-ere or little consequen-ce, ene rather intereat:tn g p ersonality received a great deal of space J n tbt daily presJ and also in the labor press., Thia was ProfessoF i alte r TJ:wmaa Mi lls,. paq,hleteer and left win g labor prop,ag~d!tst. fnm the United St~tes Prafessor M ills carri~d on an ext-ene:L"I/$ $pe$ki.n g tour in favor of th& referendum base.d large ; J.y on the ~~st'tictiveness of the Aust~ian and Ameri can Oonstitutiona.3 The b:l.g g est ll$ gathei-ing appears to have 'baken place in Adelaide" The f\d~l ~?e J.:ai!l; Herald; the South Austral~ labor daily, ga-ve ; ; I S more. publicity to Mills gathering than to the P rime M inister's speech l i.r~, ?toele ~p?"'il 5, 19U,, P 3 2lbid ......._' 3 s ee The Au$tralian orker fo:r rch and April 1911, for ~ports of Ui.lls 1 actli((y I I;

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108 in _.delai.da ~ ls apparently had a packed house every time he spoke in South Austra.lia 1 Representat1veso one .major org anized religious group 1 the Roman Catholic Church., indicated that they approved the alterati-ons. 2 Cardinal MofQn on$ of the most influential and outspoken n in Au-Gtralia sign~ied his approval of the changes 1n a very general JuGtiee is all we aek for. We donHi as fo:r patronage or privilege,. tho~h politics are g ~ing on famouely. Vle are w:tshinlt the 1 referendum euocess. W e shall seek 'to make it ~~ ei!J~ul., A grea t t.h is to swengthen our central ge>vern ment, Vl & must put in its bands grea-t power ,, Rea.ct.ion-$ to this sta~ment were particularly violent in the con serta~i-v&-! press.. .. The Fact that Cardinal Moran ns engaged in a I battle with T~~. ,SY!;ney M orn~ ,He~i.? and othe:r papers on the ques tion of State financial assistance to Catholic education only in tensit:L-ed the objections to hi.S support fo -r increased powers to the ce.nt~al government One rad~ protestant, conservative temperance ;neT1spaper, Tha Watc~. ( organ ot t-he O;range Lodge) de scribed the Cardinal I a press c cmt-ere~ll in a most derogatory manner, l.Adelai~~ ~a1l,l Herald, March 10, 1911, P 6. 2rn the population of four mUlien the religious breakdown 1n 1911 was as foll~wsi Church of England ., 1, 710,443J P resbyterian., 5S8,:336J Methodist ., 547,8061 Catholic, 999,450. COllllllomtealth of Australia; Offi cial Year Book, 1912, P 160. 3Tbe Seel Morning Herald, March ll:, 1911~ P 14,.

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109 ThGJ reporten buziea about,, and the papers the neJt morning regaled tbs publi c wt th columns of de ta.Us anent 1ttfie g reat prelaten ,,n,~ : ~JY cnaracter1$tically spoke as a man; as one ot the eccle s iastic apologists put it This apeaking arter thEl r a shi.on of ,men and not angel~ meant that tlre Cardinal had spread h:i,ms 1f on the subject ot the refes-andum .... As so~thln.g m&re than a quid pro quo is ever in the ecoles~ tical R ~ mind, Protestant advocates both affirmative and n&ga.ti"8 should read, mane and learn, and inwardly digest the Cal'di?mle :remarke l In a issue the atchlna.ft. another rather pointed n,-ferenoe to tne OQXdinal and Catholics in general '.fhe W atchman that those Oo:bh
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evident that h Was in favor of the alterations He criticise~ the State Parliaments for 110 ma.king t0a many laws, becas every law takes away some 0 our liberty. There ;s the clo$ing of the re.f'I'!~nt room,i on $undays -., Because some pt;'ople have abused i t/ 1 others can t get l'efl'$$Jner,i'b-s on Sunday-s .1 U ndoubt~dl.y 1 the ArQhbisbop mad hi$ point to this group of Irish Oatholi:e ?l).8n Cardinal o.t"an, Archbishop taken to tas~ the pree.s and. reminded of his Home .Rule for Ireland stand ( Oommen~~ op th, Hibe~ia.n SQeiety addrese Thii Sy
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111 It is (luite true in Anerica..-th.e land of sweaters, of multi m111ionaints 1 and or blood sueking trusts-th& Federal govern. ment no such pO'Wer ae ours ~mands The majority of the Attterloan people w-ould give the Federal evemment in creased powers if the ConstitutiOl'l Would permit, but since it as interpJr:eted ey the High CoU'tt-.pernl.ts the minority to l"Ule, strike a} meatinf'h monop oly, and public rQbbery are l:ik ly to contihue unt:U a complete J;"e~lution-bloodlees percrumce bestaws the pow-er so as to l gial.a-t.e as to minimize or to destroy these evil .i'o:rc&f.hl Uter 'this (,ievaatating critioism of the United Stat$s th$ Journal told i'ts :readers that Australian.a ,rho could amend their Constitution without bloodshed eoul.d avoi_d this kind ot t 1 .An1erlc~iem" by voting J\noths r Catholic newspaper, Tl)! supported the referendum alo-e attacked those who opposed it No politi cal question of the late years bas been so fiercely contested., and with so little regard for' the truth, by the plutt>Qratic brigade as the pre-sent N.fe:t'endum .. Like the Jew who sent his eon ou.t into the wo,-Id with this advice 1 lf8ake money 1 my ba;YJ make it hanes.tlyif you can, but make money 1 the opponent s of the ref'ertmdum s t out with the fixed purpose of deteating the proposals by fair means or :f oul .. 2 The stand of ;i.nfluent~l Oa.'bh-0lic churchmen and the Oat-bo lio pr-ess was urtde-retandable when it is remembarN:3d that the oveJWhelming Jnajorit:y ot the Catholic population at that. tilne was Irish and belonged to the working class. The Irish were lrell~nown tor theil" pol:l.tical. aeti\fi.ty, and th& 1911 referendum campaign was not an exeeption. +The F~eeman 'e Journal (Catholic).., rcb 9 1911, P 12 2'.rhe Yress (Catholic)~ April 20t 1911, P 19

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. To a larg.e extent. the nye,s" campaign was conducted 'by trade union g roups and the non-:-parliamentary poU.tical bodiea 112 of the States It w~s a ready'-made organization and one whiQh had been functioning for nearly twenty yevs To be sure, tabor ts political org an ;t.z.ation was not so complete as was its i n duatrial organization, b ut du.ring a campaign such aa the 1911 referendum one, industrial laber mobilized fo'!? polit-ical action and was actu .... ally niuch fnore e.f~Qtive than its political wing, the l!>arty Indust,rial trade unione and their central OJ'ganizations did the major p~rtic:>n of the necessaxy political work-raismg money oon -. taetin g voters individually and getting them to vote on the appoin:hed day Non.-labor, however was just be g inning to organise '' polit1oa1ly, and had nothing like the trade union movement to fur ther its efforts Xhere were eh-ambers of commerce, farmers asso ciations, and municipal 0 civiett groups but these organizations ,, .' di.d not ha,ve the degree or comm.on objectives that the trade unions posse seed. N onlab~r organizations which generally went under the title of "Libenil Assoeia:~ion,u were being in New South ~ al-e : s and Viptoria.t and to a much. lesser extent in the other States : B uv at this date there was no central body whi c h clarified goals or faeil:,l.tated organization suoh as the Interstate Political Labor Confe~nee t On the State lev&J and 1n theCommonwealth parlia-. ment non-labor parties were largely parliaioontary coali tion s which

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llJ were oQm_posed of g roups with somewhat similar views In many in stances these -parliamentary coali'hions coalesced and split on speci ... fie le g islative .iooa~ures ~ Obviou,ely, there wae eome degree of co he sion or non-labor. would not have been able ta govern ith the stability th8;1i i. t had de m onstratedJ ~ever, the degree of c.ohesion was f'reci.uen.tly determined by the attractiveness of a pa~iaular parson~lity,'$ p n,g_ram. This de.script-ionot non~labor parties. i's not meant to hw, iy that the strength or weakness of a personali'by-wa.s tne o nly f'aeto'l' of the size or life or a faetio1i. Q uite t o the con ... trary; these non-labor g~oupii were generally led by personalities who np~s.ented.,, to a g reater or lesser e~ent, a particular i nter-. I < est in the Staw .An example of this was the fact that in every State legislature ~hert waa an identifiable faction Which repre SfJ'1-1tei:i the raral int&re ats, and in sons eases there were two or three legislati -ve .' factions that repreaenteo the diff'fi! ring interests of the rur-al coimntU'dty i e the big ,ra.ziaf$' and the small n'JlliJted farmfi)rs" were rivals and demanded different kinds of political actions+ D aapite the lack of -t~grasu, roots 11 political organization and the parliamentary and personal nature of non-labor the anti soeialist labor campaign of 1911 achieved a high degree 0 ffioie11Cy and oarried on a vigorous f:Lgbt i; The me~ers of the ''No" side were an incong~ g i-oup, and their organizat:ion though improvised and makeshift was nonetheless eftectiw. The motd.vation for groups to

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enter the .fi g ht to defeat the proposals was varied and in many cases it wae spontaneous and not cool!'dinated with any other ele""' ment of the !!No" campaign-. E xistin g organizations, Chambers of Mam.tfa.ctureres, The Farmers and SettlcGrS AssooiatioJls and Shire Councils, baeame dedicated to the defeat of the proposals and State and Comonwealth p arliatnen.tal"'J leaders oa.mpo.igrnid with or lfithout eponsorship. l,ibe.ral .party worke:rs :r&-a.ctivated their local assooia ... tions and formed new ones. The press, with the ex-ception of the labor neYfspapers and The ~ nlletin d~voted its news columns am e-ditorial pag~s to all ma.nnet' of al"g\l.l'll&nts ~ainst the proposals With so many different campaigners the-J';a \ta$ bQund to be duplica ... tion of efo rt, but there was also a surprising amount of coopera tion compared with paert p&rformanceM They had only, one objective defeat of the re;feren~ um,. ., t.l.'b~:re were the "Nott partisans those who favored so of the change&; / but d.ue to. their profound obj~otion to other prop~ eal$ they fQttgb~ tor complete refection !he Bulletin depict'Gd the inCl!ln g rous aspect of the 0 'No" eampa~ers The refetendum e~aign is unique among politi-cal f'i.ghts in o~e respect N early all the opponents of the enlarged powers asked tor by the National Oovenunent cla'im to be in favour of some of them It is thus possible in any 'foq gathering, t6 strilte an elector who is enthusiastic about the New :Protec-,, tionj another who believes in railway employees having a right o ,;1ppaal to the F e4eral Arbitration Court, another who goes baldheaded rot Conmonwealth c ontrol er monopolies_ ,. l

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Group and jndividual sen'bimerits ot this kind c ounted for little. Disputes of t)le past were ineoneequ.ent:Lal when compared with the powei"s the F ederal Parliament would possess ir the proposals were aaoepted 115 Alfred Deakin shffled the way for the negative aid.Eh His speaking and t:ravelling in tbe 1911 campaign was unmatched by pre vioue ei'fQI'ts on his part or by the efforts of tilt& other c~gners either ttYas 0 or '' N o .. n He travelled over 7,000 miles and spoke three an(} our 'tintes a day le:;e than two months time 1 The u o press was -especially. lauda~or, in it i, reporting of Deakin re spoeches, and his arguments we:re given the most prominent place in most news .. paperStt The S;r
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U6 Deakin took very little notice of those who criticized him or of the criticisms which they made Instead h& concentrated on meeting the "Yee" arguments and proving them insufficient to warrant extending Commonw~alth powers In this last political campaign of his caree:r Deakin had no l"ivals for leadership He offered posi ... tive ttlt-ernative~, e g ., the Inter-Stat~ Commerce Commission., but his main line of a:~tack was that the proposals would hinder rather than aid national development beeausa national development was dependent upon iocal development (See Plate ll) The activities of Deakin and the other and State parliamentarians w~re important in the ttNon campaign, but these people the propqgandis'bs ~i,le othe:rs ni.d the le-ss glamorous and much ti! eded practical political 'WOl'k The .fact that the Liberals had speech~ s but had not organi~ed voterswas pointed out by The s~. ming Hemd on nWQBrous oceasiont;1 alter the 1910 debacle., The non-laborl tes were reminded that their a&s had a powe:rrui o:rg a.nization, and that a~ a first step towards victory the Liberals emulate the organizational strength or Labor 1 The Herald's admonitions were not in va:inJ dur:in g cent.,er, 1910, one hundred chairmen of the New outh ~ ales Liberal Associations mst and planned an organizational campaign and also pledged their support to the N -0'* referendum oampaign 2 In Victoria. Liberal A.ssoeiations 21bid ., December 2, l.910, P 8.

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THE YES-NO. akonian Study of a Great Original. 1 To -.a y not11in~ of tti e do~ aThe Australian orker January 12 1 1911 ~ p 1 5 117

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118 multiplied rapidly du.ring the latter half of 1910 and the first half of 1911, 4t the time that the we:re increasing their organized stron h in Victoria, the Pe ople*s party, mainly a rural group, was expanding ,. In rch, 1911, it held a Conference at which thre L 1e1bourne bra.ncnes and one hundl'led rural ones were represented. This meetin g had the d\:lal purpose of stimulating organizational work and ~emonstrating that there waa a united front in the rum areas against tl';le propo.~s 1 Party vrorl! of this kind was carried on in the ot4e:r States~ but it did not raaeh the ak that it did in New South \ ales ~r.d Vi-ctor:ta The immediate reason r o~ this non-labor awakening was the referendum, but the renewed non ... labor political interest was also the result of the Labor victory of 1910. Foithe firsttiroo Labor was in Gomplete control of the Commonwealth Parliament and non""'labor was gr atly alarmed at the way Labar was In the pi.viou& Parliamente it had be.en a ca se ot proposal, amend?n&nt, eoncssion ( generally to 'Labor) J>$rhaps ministerial oollapse, and finally, agreement 4! This, howewr,. was changed now that a party, w ll dis,. ciplined through the pledge, with definite legislati-ve ends,. was in power Concession, amendment and agreement to a very ~at degree ;iv: re the functions or the Labor caucus,. The nonlaboritoa bf)came convillced that in orde:r to be effective in this type of parlia mentary situation t-hey would haw to organize in Parlia.'118nt,. as well l'fhe A!JUS ( el};)ourne). ~:rch 6, 1911, P 8 I

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119 a.s step up tl).eir work on the branch level as had 'the Labor party. In ahort, the Liberals were beginnine to look beyond one election and one parliament" The 1911 referendum offered an excellent stim,. ulus to this kind of thinking. caucus ovemment was sornethu:ig new to the AuStl" national scene, i-.e., new in the se nse. that it wae the first time that the C e mm.omoal:th was gowmed by it in the :f'oriool llllnner #, it became an excellent targ t for the opponents of the 1911 reterendum, Critics ar g ued that cancus g ove:ttJ.:nJ&nt eould not be di.eaesociat.ed .from the referendum proposals since the oauoua controlled. the Ooromon .. wealth. Af''ber this j?l'i..~ :tacie a.s(:l~tion, opponents 0 the alterations generally painted the caucus in it.a worst po.ssibl e lj,ght. Vf ada, leader of the New South ale~ Liberal Opposition,. pointed out that wa el"e coming into an e:ra in Australian politieal history when the poli~ of the Oov&rnment ie f ram&d in secret by the aid of candle burnt in some re.mote ccrne:l)y men who a~ ablEii to get in The man who refuses to accept their au.thorlty pays the penalty by e.l(l)UlGion with di3grace f:rom the movement l ThGse Qrities tai:led to ~ntion that. State and Comnonwealth govenunent had 'been ear:-ied on in this fashion 1n the past~ It did not ocour to them aad probably was not revealed to the elect.orate be cause g owmment oy 11 ca 1. icus 11 prior to Labor had not been a formal or a regula.ri~d meQna or sacur:in g the desired parlie.menta:r"IJ vote, bu~ had existed 1n an inf0rmal manner T he St<:!nez Morning Herald waa

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120 quick to find fault with the Labol' caucus,; and in a series or col umns called. "Campaign N otes," a gtoup of quote& arranged with accompanying editorial conment.s, the Her.ald dwelt on the evils of the caucus. Typical or thi, was a quote ft-em Thomas Labor u L. Ait, ., defining the Labor movement-tt;tn one preeie&., pr4:1gnant word, it lllGans socialism~'l Immediately under this quotation yas th& follow ing statement t "The present M inistryie governed by the eauous tnach:lnery.. Le-t the powex:-s asked for be g ranted, and the Government will undou' make a vast experiment in soc::Laliem. 11 2 In another editorial the }:terald stated that the powers sought were unprecedented, and therefore,, Labors :rule by caucus eould be exercised unchecked. In the same editorial the Herald also criticized the Lab.or party's use of the tr1.uit issue in order to g ain such broad powers. The vague an~ unknown menace of trusts, and the weakness of the Arbitration Court, haw been paraded as grounds tor accepting the referendum whilEJ the general clauses 'l'hioh thre',lten the whole :f'rameworic of the Constitution have been 1gno~.l The monopolies argUlll8nt was rejected. by the Herald which also endea voured to paint the manufacturer 1n the best light possible. Just 'before the referendum a six page feature was carried on, "Australian Industriess a Remark-able Record of P:rogress. 0 h There was no llpid .,, April 8, 1911, P 14. .31'bid., art'tll lO; 1911, P 8 .. ---Ulbido 4 pril 16,. 1911,: PP !,-10. -

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121 reference to the ref erendUJn, but the infe:r-ence to be drawn was plain i~e ., A u stralian indu.sti-ias had made amaing progress under free enterprise and that this progress might be halted if :industry was regulated by t~e Col'.lllllOnwe alth in a stringent manner or it oertain industries were nationalised Several pa~hlets were pre pared by those oppo sed to the referendum l.tbtleton G room issued what was perhaps the longest aad most involved ot t-he QNo 0 pamphlets Groom argued that Australian ederalism had been geared to Aus-tralian oonditions and that it was the best form of g overnment under existing eil"'cumstancea 1 B eeause of the length and semi-technical nature of G rooms discourse it probably did not .reach a wide audience despite the wide cir c ulation it bad in Q ueen:eland and the Commonwealth B ut there wa$ information in it .: wbich no doubt, proved to be useful to other nNo" speakers One pamphlet was issued with the expressed purpose of beirlg an aid to "No speakers the Speaker.e 1 l~dboel( on the Referendwn 2 4 f Z J 8 The Handbook contained many stati : stics and useful quotes ne effec tive' piece contained in the Handbook was a comparison of State W ages Boards and the fedeTal Arbitration Court The comparison ia summa rized below z l:t E ,. G room, N otes on tpe Prgposed Alterations of the Con stitution of the Oonunonweaith (Brisbane: People's Progressive Lea g ue, I9ll) 2oounoil of the ti'beral lea g ues, SP!~ers H andbook on the Referendum ( lbournea 1911),.

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i/AGES BOARDS 1. Com.posed of equal. number or employees and eroploy e~s in the trade con~ cehled, with a Chairman elected by themse.lves or nominated by the Govern ment I 2 The mellbers are conver ... sant with all the intra~ oa.cies of their partieu lai" trade and it$ ::tnn~&rable requirelll6nts .. I 122 FEDERAL AN.8.I'l.'RAT ION COURT Judges,; 0:r Judgat;J and Assessor,. Judge gets his know:l.ed~e second hand from the evidence brought before him 3 The f-unet ionf.l of the A Oou:rt must be mQved byart, ind1 Board are exercised 'Withvidual or an association, and the out any expense t,o aey or mo't/ is borneby tbs trade. person moving it 4 In 1911 there will be bout 100 boards sitting in Victo~ia dealing with theiJ:' respective trades., 5 'the cost tQ consolidat ed revenue for the W~s B-0ard.e in ~910 was 6 1 700 pounds 6. At a fl'agee Board the men meet in a friendly spirit to settle their di!ferenees and come to a determination libid ,. pp 16 ... 17 There would require to b& 100 Courts in Victoria alone to deal as expeditiously with these de~ terminations {a) Tho cost of the Conciliation and .Arbitration Go\ll"t of New South in 1910 wae 18.861 pounds (b J 1906 to June, 1909, the co&t to all parties concerned before the Federal Oourt was 31 ;000 ipounds The atmosphere of the Court is not eonducive to coneiliation Conoiliation becomes subordinate to le al contentions and bitter i'aelings are aroused .. Cross examination 0 witnesses takes plaee to prove the la17ers case. 1

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This comparison wae 1n direct contradiction to that which had been offered by .. J.! Hughes in '1The Case for Labor" and was intE,nded to counter th~ erttieism that tabor wa-, leveling at the arbitration The b-ullt of the negative arguments seemed to stem from one source: that thealtei-ations would mean a deprivation of States ri g hts-. In Soll6 eases the plea was more subtle and carried a reminder of the va~nese3 0 thecontinent and the d:iff arlng condition$ whi-Oh n&cessa.rlly etKisted in such a va~t area. It was reasoned that the size of Austl'alia alone necessitated tha most fle~le type of "'f, .... -a ~ ~,, J, government Thie argumelilt was beet present.ed in a dodger. (Se:e Plat I1U Such a rlglits argument also appeal"ed in the comparii:Jon of' the State ages BoaJ'(le and Arb-it:ration Oourts SUlllm& rtz~d above, The or:, of States :rights involwd something deeper ~han a blind f.eatt of tne G-omomrealth Interest g:roUps particularly the farmers whe feared nat1onal111ation of land and the lllanufacturere who had evet"t reason to expect nationaliza ti~ 'if industry f< that they were fighting for their VfJl"y existenco reover., tM States righte plea ,ras an0cther way of saying that the eommomrealth wa,s a nmv and unfamiliar institution when compared the various State governments In short., State.a i rights was a shibboleth frequently uaed by the 1 iN9" side to diSguise ite real reasons for opposin g 'bhe extension of Commonwealth powers This conclusion is

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g' [ .. .?; I-'..., t .. 1,-1 '-0 I-' I-' .. 't:i \r1. ~~-GERMANY C ~ From I One J ... .. .. s~ -. ~.. \ .., . Centre.I ~ '=a ..f <' .z ~AVSTRIA HUNGMY 4 ;___~ .... .... -~ ~~ ? .. i.. NAWlll'NKAU:. THEN VOTE IN THE BOTTOM SQUARE. YES .... L L..N._P.e t .,.._, Put Cross THUS: [Kl NO "t1 H I-' !\) .i::

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12.S not meant to imply that the opponents of the referendum were insin"" cere, but that States rights became a symbol to which the Australian electore r&w-rted in 1911 and in subsequent campaigns of thia nature~ This synbol oi'tn obscured the real objections to particular JD1umures. In 1911 : it was the important st N0 1 symbol and was used in con juncti.f> n: nttt :l' Puilifioation 11 which was to be the reeul t 1 States ri g hts we~e 1()st States rights Ntp:resented the positive symbol> the on!9 ,-,6:rth pre eervin g while unifioation represented the negative of the smne symbol or the evil which ouJ.d result if States ri ghts were lost pGwertul interest g roup which used Sta.tee ri g ht a repeatedly was the farmers This group was in the .forefront of the fight agai,nst the p~aposalG-. and its activity was carried on b y the Fanners a,nd Settlers .Association, and Shire Ooun-cils The u:ral ,, Times of Aust~alia sounded the alarm early in January, 1911 The u nprejudiced elector even if he happens to favo-ur the poliey of the Lab-or party will und,rstand the full import of. the repeated warning of the leadin g Const1tutional.1st e of the Commonwealth as to whether this perni c ious principle in our Australian ayetem of government; tends l Su.bsequent to thi~ the Rural T:1,.mes warned its readers that they the armers and 68ttle:rs were the class which was ~c.ted to bear t.he largest p\ of the financial burden involved in any of the Labor schemes, Aooeptanoe o:f the proposals would also have meant lThe Rural Tim es of A,uetralia January 16,. 19ll. P 1

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126 furthering the nationalization policy of the LabOT partywhioh ffllald eventually l"esult 1n land nationalization l The April 20l 1911~ f..ural T!!s-,.a special referendum isau.e ...... ~f I gaw e-wry, PQJ!Sible. ~a,on for voting against 1;he alterations including a.n appeal. to labor, Wagefi Boards may not be alt<>g&ther pert'ect., but they h a-v& done yeol't*,l service to the worker in the past ~ :and they ar& just as capable of doin equally good service in the future II Truly., they are wonh all the arbitration courts that Mr. Hughes in his 'Wild~st moments ever dreamed of eras.ting., and lF THE 10RKEB$ OF AUSTR.\L!A DEL!BERA;'l'ELY om Tl '1' HE ~0-BY" THE1 ILL PROVE THEJBELVES A. C lTY OF ASSES.2 Suob reasoning pl'o'bably had littl.-e effect on the worker, but it serves to demonstrate the variety of arguments used by the opponents 0 the alterat:Lone; ._ o n~ rural paper, The ~armer att4 SettJ;er-, urged rej,otion of the proposals but not because it objected to the Commonwealth exereis-ing more powws .. In faet-, The Farmer a,id Sett~r re...affinned its belief that the more i.mper'bant poirare still retained by the states should be transferred to the Comiomealth This along with the abolition or -State boundarle&, contended The Farmer and Sett l er;. was to be the first step towards thedevelopment of a comprehensive I system of local government The g:ranting of increased pO'Wers to a tabor gowrnment could not be considered ae a step in this direction f 1 for the t~nd of a<:lministrat.ion would inevitably be in an undesirable libid March 20 1911., P j,. .. 2Ibid 4pril 20, 1911, P 3

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127 di.Nctien 1 en g e n derin g induatrtal ~trite and provokin g inter-state jealousy.~l T his dual feel' of o.entra'.li~tion and of Labor g overrunent was repeated in the eolumn.$ ~f '1'.h!f ~anne,~ and 6et:t;l.eJt; in its special referendum number The Fanner and sett.1-er sa1,h Let our readers vote ttNo" to the first -qaeetion because they eannot trust the Labor par'tiy Let them vote "Not to th& Sfloolld que8tion becaase they fear the Labo~ party may natio,nalize the great \rush i1 1 if' g iven the opportunity. an d n<:>~ be'eauef;l they de ait'e to p revent th trust from 'being o~n\ro1led 2 } The position adopted by 'Th~ F armer and S ot-t,ler was unique amon g the rura,l opponents o the alteration~, not !,>Goa.use other rural groups nr& o p posed to local &fve lopment but be.cause 'l'he Farmer and Settler wa.e the only organizat-i.on which c h ose to &xpres& these g oale and did not plead S tate et ri g hts as the other ~oral interest g roups did The ta.rid the officW neWS.f)ap8t" of the N ew South W ale s Farmers and Settlers Aesec iation argued that i! the propoeals were accepted Labor would b& i.n a position to gain ite ends They quoted Henry George to the effect that "It is not neeeesary to confiscate landir All that is nece 1aa'ry 1e to confis-aat-e rent d 'l'llis being the case., The tam said a uif'~ed Commonwealth having complete control of all g overnment would mop up the margin left by, the Federal land tu._n4 lrrbe F armer and S ettler' F ebruary 24, 1911, P 1 2Ib:uh; A pril 21 1 1911, Jh l --"". ) f h e Land, A pril 21 1911,. P ; 4I b id

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128 U nlike :? he Fal"me:r and &1ttler, The :Land felt that the trust ;i.s$Ue wa.$ a bogy and 11 E$'o much cleverly .contrived moonshine to delude the poople-.n-1 'l'h~ tsd admitted th$ rteed or the Ngulation of' industry but maintained tbat regula\ion only required a minimwn o f powers The M eat. '.rrust Which had been the :target of The Australian Worker,. ~r h e F ar~r and Sett.le?',. The, S ytlpey orni?W R er'.lld and I I nmrsp~r~ ot ~11 p olitical opinions did not oonce:rn Tba Land Over a period ~ ten year~ the tttankeee had attempted to g et a foothold,, I i but T h e )'.and saw no danger because everyone as aware or that p rob lem ( & ee. : P late I V.) B t:llf-int&rest ceompelled the people of New South W ales to oppoee t-11e .' trade and comm& rce a:ttex-at-ion T l~ Land maintained It pointed out that the railways ot the State belon ed to the people that the state had borrowed money for railwayconstruction ~d that the taxpayers of the State were responsible tor the interest on the loans and. for the i'&payment of the debt.. If the amendment relating to trade and commerce wa1 passed,, and the supre1D8 pewrer to regulate ares and rates belc,nged no longer to the State govemme,nt, but to a P arliatne nt whic h consisted chiefly 0 repr&eentatiires of &bates which are not oorieerned tinanoially speakin g one jot or tittle, what h et' the rail.ways a re p rofitabl y worked or not N ew S outh would suf f er a g reat financial lass 2 llbid~ Mar cil 10 1 l9ll. > p 411 2.ibid. January l 1911, P $

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129 FLA.TE rva 3The Aust ralian o rker, arch 9, 1 911 P 11

PAGE 139

130 The rural pap~rs were the chief spokesmen for the p owertul Farmers anci S ettlers Ai,sociation whieh was stron g ly opposed to the. alterations A t the Seventeenth Annual Conference of the Farmers and S ett-le1"s Assoe.iation of New Sou,h W ales the Executive of the \ Assoclation reported to the lllSn!bership that the in1port~t problems or land settlement and primary production and the aoeession to power of th$ tabor party can not result in benefit to the primary producer, in as much as its pol1iy was avoweely the political development of tradesio-unioniSll'l Later the E.xe.o'1t1ve ur g ed the members to vote "No Thie appeal was cont ai.t,-ed in a letter t'll'om the General Secretary of the :N ew South W ales Association to all the branches in Au.stralia The N ew South W ales S ecrettwy said that aeceptan.ce of the proposals would perma ... nently injure the farming conmunity !or at least two :Feasons F irst., the rail freight rates of New South W ales l'(ould be raised to correspond with the rates prevailing in other States Second, llthe carrying of the ;Nferendum'Will seriously handicap the !arming oomunity in the approachin g fi g ht in the Federai Al"bitmi-ation Court on the c laims advanced by the Ru ral. W orkers U nion ,, 2 After this letter a series of st rongly worded resolutions of opp~td.tion to the alterations was passed by th individual branches .. T h& Riverena B ranon, one of the m ost powerful, char g ed that the ohanges meant either unification or a g rant of p ower which the Go.mmonwealth would not use .3 lThe 8 l21;6Y oripg Herald, ~uly 12 1 1910 P 6 2The F armer and S ettler, rch 3, 1911 P 4 >:t'h~ S 12ney fforning Herald* M arch 24, 1911; P 6

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131 Indep ndent of this letter;; A K T:reth01Jan, member of the New South W ales Executive, ctrculattd a plea to t h e 'l'retnowans oppo&iti~ was baeed on (a) the the fact that the al.ter4tions would mean loss of control over l0eal matter'9 1 -, (b) shi~ rat.a& 1rould be tix~d by a Labor government, and ( c) La.bor would grant full adult suffrage :l.n ~ll elec-tions 1 R u.r al opposition to the proposals wai; expre sseq i.n si;ill another way, 'throUgh the a,etion of the shire councils The$e, qoun cils passed r~sol.utions eondemnin g the alterations, Qrganized local ( 14 N oll aommi:t,tees,, inserted advertisements in tn.e newspapers, while their memb e )l's tout-ed the $hire apeaking against the altertions The Shire' a Aseocliatlon Exeeutive of N ew Bout;& W ales s8nt a circular to all shwes telling th$m that their existence was in dan g er i the referendum wap passed 2 In Q uee-nsland the Southport $hire Couneil took action which typified that of the othe-r ooun-eils throughout the Commonwealth The Council adopted the following resolution 'Phat as the p~posed alteration of the Constitution ae enbod.1ed in thi3 referendum, looill authorities wer likely to be subject. to the regulation and eentrol of the Federal Parliament The Southport Council,, believing the dedica~ian ef such pow:ers to a P arliament so remote and out ct touch 'With local conditions to be det rimental to th,e beet interest of local self:...govenunent, str g ly urges the i-atepayers of Q ueeneland to vote ~ ()'. 1 libid .. Ap ril l) ., 1911, P l 2 The I.and., April 7, 1911 ., p 6 3rhe ,f> Courier, April 6, l9ll, P 6

PAGE 141

The Council ordered a thou~and copies of this resolution to be print&,d and distl'U>uted throughout the Sbire 132 I! aey municipal counci:Ui also indicated their disappPoval of the ,, ~~eratione. 'J.'heilopposition was strengthened by a ci.J"cular sent to the m by the Victorian M unicipal A ssoc:Latien. In a special meeting et/Jlled to ; diseuas th~ pl-oposals the Viet orian As-moo.1ation had
PAGE 142

13.3 The indu,ati-ial and commeroie.l groups displ~d eolidarityin opposing the alterations and entered the oa.mpa:tgn with all of their resources The bi g i:ndu.sttialis\s maintain~d th y were fight ... ing tor their existence and the smaller bueinfesmen indicated that they feared strict oont:rol by th$ Conwonweal th As soon as th r date or the refa:rendum ~t and shortlr after the Labor party vi~tory : ip the New South W alee elections of 1910, Mr Wunderlich, P-Nlsident of the N ew South Wales Gha.mber of M~ufa-cturers called a special meetin g of the i1lember1:1 to a~quaint th~m with ttthe socialistic'.tve progwa.mme of our present rulers and the recent dtvelop-. mente in our own $ 'tate politi-C$ 1 At this meeting it wa$ apparent that there W&s ext-re'l!le unr~st and appl'ehens1on among the 2 Thia a1avm soundel by tbe State Chanbel' of Manufacturers was quiokly fol10fled by aetion on the part of the. Sta\e Employers Federations and by the various Chambffs of Cotn111erce .. Tb& oomere:Lal and industrial i-e:aetion against the proposal.s.waa signified by resolutions of,.. the formation of. 11 No" oommittee, and the eontri:hution ot ll10M1 The S~y Obamb~ of Cc,mmero.e in listing the following five :ea.eons for voting 11 echoed the sentiment ot many busine S$ gl"oups r l. Depz-ivation of State eell governmen'b. .. 2 ,. J.l'ederal Parliament 1:iimited to strictly national problems 11-he Sy
PAGE 143

134 3~ No ju.stification for the proposals hCentJ'al.izat1on was an obstruction to business. ,, State parliaments Al~a.dy have power to correct those but;;inesses that operate injuriously to public interests l The Sydney Chamber elaborated on these, but the main headings pro vide a good sW11ll!Vf of the arguments u$ed by the b'1$iness oormnwiity. In 11.pril, 1911, the Australian A~so eiation ot State Ch bers of Commerce met in &part, Tasmania and devoted: much of its two.week ~eting to a discussion of the Nferendum. The Associa~ion heard many.speerohe s of protest against the alterations by outs:l.dera.,'ily p~l1~n.tar1$ns and finally adopted a motion condemning the Th only evidence or the way in which the moneywa$ raised tor the 0 Mo" side was contained in an aocusat1on by Hughes and in a ~port in The Auatrali~ WJ.i~h tlleir u3 No one bothered to de-ny thisf and Hughesdia not menti0n the subject $gain The ._ tustra.1 ... ian VIQX'lf:~ r pu'bli~h-ed a i-athet' .full report of th~ activiti'1S of the Constitu.tienal Union Committee o:f Victoria .. ooordil'l g to. The Aus ... t ralian ot-k r 'bhe1.'8 were tlu-ee trustees who guided ite actionc llbid.; Uarch 16, l9ll, P* 1011 ~ee The Szdn!l MorP5;n& Herald for the firat two week$ of A.p~il, 19ll. .3Ibidu April 18, 191l, P 8

PAGE 144

135 Mr. E E,. Smith ., a member ot the sh:t:pp~ng firln of Hffl'lard and SmithJ Mr George Fairbain a member ot a large gJ:-ain oompanyJ and :Mr William Riggall a lawyer who was retained by many of the big Victorian graziets Tl:le Australian W:orker also :r printed a. circular that the 0ommitt ee was alleged to have sent to various people; Constitutional Union Oonm1ttee Nos .. 10 & 11, 'rhird :Floo-r ll.:q_uitable Bldgs ,, Coll:in8 St, Melbclll'ne Victoria l February 1911 To ensure unikd aetion on the part of all oppoeed to Labor Fe.dral St.a te;, and Municipal Electi ons, the Con ... stit:4tional Union Committe ,., eon$i~ing of ~epresent~tive : busin~ssmen has been formed, Its main objects are: (1) To collect donations tor a ~entral tund or the SUpporti of all
PAGE 145

136 o:f overlapping, eto .. in working of league branche e, euperv:Lse the prep~~ion and d.istl"ibution of aague literature, and proi.oote an aet-ive campaign abainst the nrerendum. DoMtio:ns from th~ Central Fund, collected by the Constitutional U'ni9n Committee will be given to the leagues from time to time, as long as 'bh~y show that they al"e actively carrying out the obj&ots for which they were formed. e are, dear sir, Yours faithfully; Tbe Tnnrteea l '!'his letter i although C$r:r 1ed !n The Austral_ian W orker I bears every sign of being authentic._ It gave an excellent p.i.cture of the attempt to oo-.oroina.t-e tund...raising lomen s non-l.abor politi,-cal o:rganizations existed in all States and during the n.teJ"&ndum campa,ign their activity wa$ devoted to dtf ating the al.tert ione, The main 1roment1 ~oup S 'Were the Woman 's Nti.tlon~ Leape which wa-s act.ive in New South Wales. Victoria,. and Queensland I the Pople s l?flf' orrn League in Nn South Wales and Victoria) and the Womens tibe ral League whioh ns .-i auxiliary organiiat-i.on of the Liberal party. :t'he Penple ts Reform League issued a statement which made the abt.Jurd omment that the Commonwealth would even make laws for the management of our household, tbe education 7 f)i' our children., th air establiehment ['~at o the children? in lif :. ,. 1'f e hqu.sekeepere know hem the cost of living hae increa,aed in the ten year,. Be asau:red that it will be doubled if nyesn be the answers to the. reterendums .2 ~ne Au$tral~ orker., y 4 1 1911, P 15. 2Tne Sv;1:n,z jlto~ Herald April, 1911, P 10.

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137 ltidiculo~ appeals ~11cb .. as tbis one were. repeated by wanen speakers I throughout the CfmPaign The BUl.iet~n in a s oat1'ing p~raph called these wonen th~ oot,lside~able arm;v of semiillite.ratee Who are incapable of iridepen
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1.38 Thre~ annual State con.terenoea of the once pow&rtul Aus tralian Natives Aseo.ciation an organuation that. sponsored pro .. f'e-deration leagues during the 1890 a discassed the reterendwn.The A ssociation voted one hundred t o eightYOl!!Six not to support the al terati-ons In New South W ales the .. ssociation voted by a usmall maj.orityff to oupport the "l'es,. side.l The W estern Australian Association by a nineteen to sev~mteen vote deterred consid&ration ot the pl"opoaals until tbeir next yearly ~til_i g 2 Onei mp ortant labor industrial leader ,. Peter B owling, urged a U ? foft vot;e This was the same Peter B owli ng who bad led the N ovem lf,e:r, 1910 c oal miners stlrike m New S outh W alcts. ~ 1n an address to the :miners at B rQk.en H ill BOlfling aake:tl the miners of N ew S outh \t ales and the W ater$ide W orkers Federation to vot-o N o ttu received support from many groups and individ.uels Yet., its big g est single boost and mor4le buUder oame tromwiuhin the labor movement E~n though industrial labor am the Co?lml()nwealth parliamentarians sol1dly sUpported the alterations the S tate p-arliamant~ians par ... tioularly in New South W ales, did not give approval T he split in the tabor party is or such importa..nce that it is reviewed at lenguh in the next ohapter l 'l' h~ S ll!~et M,S ,J!ef1tl,d, 4 p:ril 20, 1911 P 10 2 Ib id. .lsee 1 Th e s efl'l ornip 13 ,,Heral4 N ovember 1910 4 T be Arsu,s ( '.M elbourne), April 10:t 1911 ,. P 7

PAGE 148

CHAP? ER V UOU{AN 'VE-FBUS HUGHES Up to this point 1n the discussion of the 1911 ref ere ndum camp~n considei~tion hae been giv.en t o th4' aotiv;i.ties of the Oommon wealth p a.rliamen'tiarians~ the Oonunonwet;ilth pol:i-tical partie& and to the position of 'bbe socio"""conomio interest groupe In order to complete the analysis., atte~ti-on must be given to ,,,he attitude of the State parliamentarian, and to the 5t(i'l;,e polttical organizations. The diso~esion in the preeedirlg ohapter focused attention on the State pa:rtiEtS in relation to th~ total 1 'Yes 1 or "No" campaign effort. In the :t:orthcondng ehapte~ the positions of the 'State ~rtiea will be revieWed in order to d1$Cern~ whe n poss:ihle, the reaction of the. St ate po li ticiane t 0 the propo$als in the context of the stand taken b y their re~ot1ve tate pattie s. Au.stralia ~opted ederaliem 1n a particular social, econo mic_, and po litical <:l1mate, it$ adoption oert~in changes took place 'Whieh affected the organization of political pties This is espeeially ~ue of the Labor piu'ty, while F ederation did not affect non-labor par-bi&$ fully until after the Fusion group became the Liberal party:. 139

PAGE 149

140 The most important fact to be noted in political party devel QPm.ent on tho tabor side is the existence of separate, distinct> and formal party organizations 1n th a.evera.1 S tates ten years prior to Federation 1 When Commonwealth came into being these State organiza ... tiGns formed a pol.1ti~al 1 h.old1ng company, 11 the Inter-state Political Labor Confe-rence, to represent 'bhtlir 1ntere~rt,s in Gommomrealth poli ties ia '!'his was a "holding company'- because the pawett to select can d1date s and oany on the party woi:k remained with the individual Statll Politi<:al ta.bor League Conferences. The thu-ty ... eix delegates to t-he Inte~...state Conf t'ance were representatives of the State conf e:renoes, and 'tiheh.main respon&"ibility was to clarify Labor aims on the CQmtnonwe;J.).t~ .. l'flYEtl ar.d eee that the Commomrealth parliamen tarians remain.ed true to the Labor platfoi"m. TheI&bor party had achieved a hi g h degree of organir;a.tion on the State level before Federatio~ which enabled it to make an easy, it not entirely satis faetoey, adj ustment to Federation~ Non .. laber parties had not re~ched tbi13 sta g e of organiiati.on and little more than informal State par tiee eadsted. Th.eref'ore, non-labor had a tremendous organizational problem whe'tl the COJllmonwea.lth Wa$ inau g tll'at$d, and it was not until ;,,. .fait'ly well est$bliehed group of State p.artie:e existed, mainly in New South W ales, Victo;ria, and Queensland., that non ... labor could form a Commomrealth party; lstate Labor parties haw different histories) but it ie cotT&ct to say that they had their beginnings between 1885 and 189>J seen R., s. O ollan, "Trade Unions and Labour Parties, 1890," H istor1,.cal $tudiesJ Australia and New Zealand, Vil (November, 1955), 17 6 .; 1

PAGE 150

'{'he wa.y in which Australian part:Les have evolved ha.s led J .. D .. D,,. ll~r \o state 141 The State o~ganizations have their own traditions, sometimes their own separate names.. They are autonomous bodies conoemed primarily "W < the politics of their own St:ates .. Thu a, in the .field or politic al partitis, as in many others, Federalism ie eharacter'istic of the non..;.govei'rurle ntal .qpecta of Australian life, as we ll a.a of the governmental ayetem. The result is that any genel:"alitation abe\lt an Australian political party must always be e~ed 'tio eee whether it applies only at the Fede ral level, or to only one .State, or to most $tat~a but not an.1 Millsr then suggests the reason for e:itamining the State party atti tudes t>n the 1911 referendum., namely that the refetendum fight was not a el~al'""nted,.. Be~auae of the int'rmal and dir.ect nature 0 non-labor state parties an eX!alninai,ion of ~heir positions on the 1911 referendW!l eannot yield exact nsults Perhaps the best way to determine the non-labor party stand in the State s 1$ to review the positions of the non..-labor parliamentary 'this method is suitabl$ because the pr0111ouncements of Stat& lead.era are easy to obtain, and beoause poll::bi ciMI had achieved a position ot some govemmental re sponsibility which entailed the advocacy of certain po licies. t this date. in the ~Qn-labor pany development there was not neoesea.rily an offil.eial connection betw&en parties in the States and the parlia mentarians, but there was general~ an unofficial and an informal ~lationship bert1Jeen non-labor parties and parliamentarians In l u iUer,. 4ust ralian O ove:mment,. P 53

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general .. non.-1.aboll' State parlialnentary leaders were asked to address xneeibing of tl:le va:rio11s 8'.ta,\e parties even ii' they w re not member& of the p~icular p~y ln view~ the nature of the 1911 altrex-ations and in light I 0 the trtand of tllf t:ion~la.bor interest ~o-ups, it ie not surprif:li.Dg to fa.nd iha~ the non-labor State parl1alll$ntarians wew on the Mga~ tive a:td:~u, The Q!l'animity with which this group opposed the measures wa$ indicated by the statements 1thic,h ram a meeting of the r,>.en-labot leader$ in lbourne Pre sent at the lbourne meeting 1'e:re ~emiers .. tfurray (Victoria), Kid$ten (Quoerurland):1 Wilson (W'est. ern Austra11A),1 and Sir Earle .Le'Wis (Taemania), and also the EJt.,:pre ... mie J' of South Au sttalia, Mr. Peak..e and the Leader of the Nn South Wales Opposit1on ., Mr,. Wa
PAGE 152

143 l. The rs ef' ,, the Constitution unanimously ag:re ed that the States cmould handle their mm probleQ 2 ._ Peace, order, and good government would be imperill&d by this bre-aoh o: contract 3 Stateshav, taken step a to meet. the objectives or the referen ... dum4 State pWeF ie etill an.exhausted., 5 4l te ratione imply e-onwol of \,orz,,Oif'ing 6. ill be a weakening of State tax reso'Ul'ces .. 7. Result in increased State taxation., 8 ages B oards Will e-,ase to ope-rats in ac.cordance with lctoal c900'1t.ion49 ,~ O ove ~ nt by regulation 10 : aomplete destruction of Home Ruie 1 I Mr J,. F : Quinlan, ti 1.,. A ~ of W-estern Australia and Speaker of t A. ; took an awn mere pessimistic view thtm Denham, '!We might just J as welf ~etui-n to rule by ~wning st as be !ru.led from Spring .St, Melbo~ ., or Yass..Canbftrra 2 /. ,, ~t'ate tabor parliamentaryleaders were divided on the alter atioas 1 ~d : many of them who supported the changes wet-e unenthusiastic I n ontra. : rst with their parlianientary lea:dets the State Labor parties (, we:re in thefore!'ront of the ttYesn campaign In three non-labor Slate.a the Labor Leader~ ~f the Opp~sition :indicated early in the c paign '. that they a pp rove~ of tbe cha.nge,s Thea& three opposition leaders were tx-, ., .J Earl e {Tasmania) ~ o } Pendergast (Victo-r:i.a), and: n. Bowman ( Q ueensland) Their e.trorte in support of th$ pro ... posals a manitestati.on of their unqualified aoceptanc& of the pri.1l c1plt!e ~un,bodied in the alt rations ) lib~d,, U arcb lS 1911.p, lQ 2~;, March 27, 1911~ lh l.O 3.see Th$ Australian W or~ for January 12 1 19ll,. and aleo tor ; the months ot F eb:ruary, llaroh and April for the utterances of these t~e Labor leaders

PAGE 153

144 Mr 'ffeewan Labo:r Premierof South Au&tralia, based his support. oi' ths proposals on the inactivity of a "Ji'$actionary af oonsel'vat:1:ire South Australian Legi&lative Coun_eil,nl But Veeran was not too active U1 the ca1'1J)a:Lgn as a review of the Adela,ide D~ilz He r~ld ailed to pr-Qduce .ny e vidence that Veel'Qn or et.her m. ~ers of the $.c>uth Australian eabinet did mu~h to s:uppori the r ferendu.m. 01;11y two So uth Australian Stat11 Labor members, r. Vaughn and MJ. Deney,, did a gTeat deal of campaigning~ 2 In fa.ct the Actelaide Dai).y tt~r:t\ld oql11pl&ined that t,he "lea"' eampaitgn in South Australi~ t was being carried on in a oonfueed and disorganized manner, The Herald said that eome spt!laker$ were SGn'fl to the wrong place, others we:re sent to addtJ'ess a meeting on the l'frong night., an~ in sev, ra1 :tn.s.tmiees p.oate-rs lheetings wex-e il.ncottec1f..3 The incom pet.e nee ot the South Australian United Lab~ party resulted from tihe gnera.1. eakn~ss of t;be Party at this time ~4 \'f estern Australia's parlialllSnt:ariana .aleo were not very aot.iw durin g the c~aign. Two Labor members of th
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145 he felt that the referendum shsuld be rejeoted 1 M r Taylor the other out Spoken labor member was not so cautious, and he said that "h:e supposed he Would be eou:rt,.;.martialled tor having it" but that he was defihitely $n the N o" side In Viotoria. there was at least one .Labor parliamentarian, Mr~ M oOa.ny from rwnbidge trh-o wa s opposed to the alteratiol\s His objection$ were so pronounced and continuous that the Wa:g g a Wagga. Political UbQr League eensured his aotivities ~ 3 The opposition of Messrs McOany, H o-ran, Tayl o r and the conf11se-d and dis9rganized nature of the South Australian Yes" effort are minotand had littl .feet on the ou.tcome 0 the campaign ~ They are cited simply to shoir how difficult it was for the Labor pari-1 to ; adjst its organitation to the Gotllmotl'fleal th soene ~ or a. more serious nature was the de.feetion of one-half of t.b.e Mevr South W ales member,s c,f the Legislative Ass embl,y and the activities of the New South ales Labor Government. Adjustment to Commonwealth poli ... tie$ by Labor had be$%\ t-ai:uly ,asy and highly SU(1Cf:)6$ful, and there had been few isaues either within the Labo-r party or outeide it whiel:1 pr~wn'bed this ~ustant. However,, in 1911 this organizational adj~stment was called into quest.ion. It wa:-1.9 just this kind of S tate ,;Arie {Melbourne) M arch 3, 1911 p 8 2~., April 18 1911 P 7 3lbidu April 10 19lli P 7 .,

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~reak with the ComomJealth leadere whioh g a'Ve significance to the sil'ateme11t quoted from Mi ller at the be g innin g of this c hapte r. New: Sou th W ales wae the dominant and lea.ding State in t-he Conmonwealth Table IV indicates. t-hflt N $W South i ales had the largest population of any State in the Commonwtealth in fact New South N popula'tiort wae la1:ger tha,ri the combined p0pulations of Q ueerisland So1:1th :Australia if estern 11.uetralia an d 1'asmania. Tbe importance TABLE : IV POPf;JJ'..A.'f IO N OF AUSTRALIA !}I STATES l9 1 la New. South W ales i. 1 646 7 3 4 Vietot-i.a 1 1 )15,$~1 Q ueensland ,. i 60,S ., 813 South Australia .. .. .. ., 408 558 '1 este-rn .!UJ;tra.lia .... ae 2, 114 TaiSl;:lania. .; .. ., l91;2ll N ortham Te1'.ritory 3 310 : F edbhU Capital Terri:l1ory 1 714 '. Total ; .. h,455 00$ i:trable: IV .ie tal(:en frq.zn or Australla Official Yea?bool:< 1912, p ,. 116 o,f N ew S outh W al&$ was .recogni,1~d 'by t~ oth r Stat,u'J, ~d the P re l'llitl'I of N ew S outh W alt?-6 w.~s choQen ae the perm.anent e.xe.cutive officer of the Miiual Fr~~rs C onferenefl; ... N ew South W ale-, was also in the f'ore.tront in the fi g ht 'b-0 preserve -State autonomy New : 5 o~th W' alea probably more than any other State assumed the chi~f ,:e,sponeibiJ,ity .fqr the inittating and e!lergiein the idea of eell.eetive State action ,. Its reason c o mmon to the oth$r States, w~ \Uldoubtedly to contain th$ spread of Federal activity and influence ~ Bu t more than this, with the potJsible &)CCeption

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147 or V'ictioia, ~t felt its olaita to the leadership of inter -state collective a.otion wae consistent with its historical role as the senio:r St,at.e, and its g.eneral political importance .1 W" A HolmM, as mueh as any other parson Ctltldu.cted the ~fain o New South Wales in eueh a manneir as to ~nhance the State s neral poli.tieal standing JmQng the othexS~ateth It as als.o durtng Hol. mans ~~rf;lhip that the Pr&1111il::t-s Conference gained 1n inportance and : prestige Holman was not sati.sf 1ed with the New South Wales Premier serving as the executive officer of the Conference t in 1916 h Plf"Opo~d that in all matter& of colieet:Lve ltate interests the .. ; FedEWal govel'ntnent should cpn.duet negot:Lattons th.rough the office or the New South Wale~ Pt-1nn1er .. ~ 2 This attempt tailed because the Federal govenun&nt, acting on Hug.hes adviee, rejected: tt. Nonethe less., Holmaa s ef:t' orts demon stra'bed the pre--emil'tent posi tio..l"l that New South W ale:e enjoyed amoag St :te s Of more .ignifioance to the discuseion of the and Hughee oontroven,y ltas the .fact tba,;t Holman wanted to el;;ta'blilih Na South ales in the position of being able to repre$ent all Stat~s !t this co'l.ll.ta have bean aoco pli$hE!d, New Bouth ates weuJ.d ha been t\\ble to contpete With the Commonwealth on an even feo'bing, i,e., : New South ales wou1d ban been. able to speak foT six States. ls. R" Davis, Co-c>p~rative Federalism in Retrospect ,tt Hi$torieal studieii1 Australia ana New Zealand V (November, 1952), 2r6 7 I t fl

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148 In diseuaaing the eequ~nee 0 events between October 1910 and April~ 1911 in th$ Holman and Hughes oonfli-ct it is important to r.eal-ize ti.hat it. lr'a s. not a welilk ol' disorgani.zed group of Stat-e parliamentarians that Challeng~d the Federal authori.ty., but the strong fll:ld Eiqually suocessu.l New h:tlef1 legislat.ora The controversy th-at had taken p),.a ce between Hollllan and Hughes during 1909 was tra.nsten-ed into ttha $?'ea ot practical politics Although these two personalities were the ohi-ef oppontnts in the contest., the $tl'Ugg1e involved more than pereonalit.ies._ ;tt went to the he ~ of tha ~nfliot b tween the Oomniomtealth Labo:r party and the State par ties~ wing (:.rank and file) vs parliamenta:tzy" repreSQn tativee, and the non"'Parliam&ntary o:fioiai polit;Leal or.gani~a1ii9n vs. the parliamentar:i,$1'ls ., In disou$eing these ctenfliet.s it '\fould not be wise to underplay the role ot either Holman or Hughe:a HUghss nationalum and faith. in th& $octal.1st labor pol icies appealed to a ele ... I ment in the Party $1d he had convinetd mnch 0 the labor movement th~t their goals eould only be reaohi.ld thl'o~h Commonweal th action Holman wAs no leas a supporte-r of the lab.or ideologyand also had a ~arge political f0llonng, bu~ here t~e compari~on between the two end Holman was primarily an intellec tual who had logically rea$oned that the tl
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149 thr : ough no great ~xeroise or intelle-ct. He saw situation$ which needed at:tetl ion and aoeepted the reaey~de socialist solutions as his poliey W hethe.r. it was b y the force o circumstances or by a' as s~ have sug steel.,. Hughes went into th Commonw o..1. th Parliatnell~ ~g Hplman :ri mained in the New South fl al~s Legislature !t was ~~k8'S,t-he ~ man with the ftf~el" fol' polities who abo:ndoned any d&s~~ .tf.i' : see ,;, bhs socialist poli<;y adopted on the. State: leve 1., and there))Y, : -OtJ~l~d Holman who :remained 1n State poltti cS:t to support to h:h s fQl.'lnS'l' oolle ague : on i sues ~ that did net in.volve ex1 ,;,. ,' '.'. tended ~
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1$0 Hughes knew that Holman would not easily surrender the g round won at Brisbane Aceordingly, he planned the referendum tor .A,pril 1911 .At that time the Commonwealth Labour Government had already carried out many of it.s electoral undertakings, but the New W ales Labour Gownirne.nt had not yet convened Par1.ial(Jent or its ma:ln bu~iness session The obvious contrast plaQed Holman at a very considerable tactical disadvantage..,1 In short, Hugh-es had caught the New South Labor leader in a bad pt>S'.ltion, and had evecy l"f>ason to believe ifrom o1.her political signs that Holman could de little to defeat t-he rete:rendum even if he was willing t-o 1. ~av-e th-e Labor pa.ny in orde;r to do Sch Hughes must have re~li'ied that Holma n w0-uld not give even tacit cont1ent to the alteratiQns, but the oppa!'tunity was too good for hi.In to misa. .H'olman s reaction and that of the majority of the New South W ales Minis~rs as hostile from the start. The M tnisten, during the debate on the .s&eond reading of the instrueted Holman to draw up a mmora.ndum stating the general inp1.i ca.t1ons of the pro"" posa ls Tl!le unpubliehed memorandumt preserved among Holmarr s papers, wat! high;l.y unfavora'bl.e to the alterat10l1lS:.. He said that .from a legal point of view the amen.dnts would put (a} a11 domestic Qommerce as well as interstate commerce in the hands o! the Fede ral Govemment (b) all l af'fectin.g oorp-0:rations and their relations With the rest of society into its hands~ ( 0) all industrial legislation into its handtih ( d) all natiot1ll-lization scheme a intQ ite hands-.. These po1rers W'ouJ.d be on the level as the existing pow~rt:, o the Federal Parliament, i.e., existing $tate laws Qn any ef those topics would automatically ce-a1;1e to be valid the

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moment an 1:nooneiste-nt Federal 1o eowring the same topie, even aooideritall-y, was paesed .1 Holman continued r,'ith a rev:i.(JW of the N~ South Wales measures which covered the same $ttbje:cts and he conclud43d that rgeneral effect of the alteration.a if carried, will be to paralyse S'bate legislative aot~vitr in thes el ~ireftion$1cu 2 This would have results~ a ~OommoilWflalth Parliamentwith all the weatroes ses of Federation and I ' with all th~ wnrk of' u.nUication 1 3 liolm.a. also had grave doubts c onceming the fact that the ,: '1 #oposaLa .: we:~ not to be found .in the Labor pla:t.fom Holman said 7 : that it ~s ;rernarkable that in all 0 the labor platf0rm there was I :, 0 0 no~ one or 1ea1slat1on on dt>m&stic e&mmerce industry, pr t~ cont:,ol of corporations that operated within one State., to ,, '' be ~~sfe~d_ to the ie:deral Parliament It safely be said that no authorize(! candidate /'Isbor or o'hhentiment1oned one of these su:gge st1on& at the la i,t FedE:lral election.& 'l'hei,, was no popul.4%' mandate on them li\ .. ., Th& Fede~l Gove~nt now assert. t,hat they are Qb~a~ ing a .mandate by means of the reterendU1.11 If so these matters which have ntve::r been discussed bef 01"8 and are not upon their platro,rm and h; never been announced as a part ot their p~lidf oUght to 'be caref'ttllY separate from 01,her matters in which thoee steps have bee-n taken .,. u lHolwm PaporG, Set lll { W.t ohe:3.l Library., Sydney ustralia) Unpublished r.emorandUl!l on the 1911 Referendum prepared for the New South V ales Cabinet

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152 The Ne,r South W a,les l&ad~r argued that if the c lause which gave the Federal governmentpower o'V$r State :railways as passed the responsibility f6 r the managemen:t of the large capital inv-ested in the r a.ilways woulcf rel'ain nth the State., bUt the power of fixirlg ') wages an d th eharg1n g of rates woul(l be in the hands ot the Fe$ Pa~1 i ament tt N o sane eonstituen.t asse'Would ever create a S tate Consti~ut1.on upan theae 1:1.nes ~ sad<;iled with this re-aponsibility and deprl.ved of thf) st pOW8l"S ul on ~h e baeis of Holman s memorandu m the Ministry decided t.0 send P r tbat they Would llot be objailtionable to the N ew South W ales Labor G o\le~nt~ S~~l ~ H-e ~ ~d ~ommsnted that the moat import amt oono&rn of 'bhe St te. M inisters was the elauee relating to State railways.2 This was probably a well informed guess, but it onlyaer't$d t o make the public ~ware of diffe:re n ees of opinion between the two la b or g overnments and by no means proved t l: u~ g reat g u lf that separated the two 1 ;n,1a T his argwnent agains.t the railways elauss as to~ one used by The Land which was discussed in the p~ cedin g ohapte~11 2-!The S ydn,y M orning H rald, N ovember 4 1911 1 P 8. ~ ii tjl[ I

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153 No reoord of the Jll.8eting has been preserved; and McGowan and Hughes very vague statem&nt,s at its conclusion owen e.xpressed the hcpe of an ttamcable arrangement /where7tnere is an apparent conflict of interest bttween the States and the Oommonwealth.,, 1 HUghes said that tbe ?{ew South Wales Ministers had ''e xpressed a. wish to Work in harmony 'With the Federal Oovemment in this mat,tar .112' HOltever, the Federal '.Ministry oould only hope that the New South ales Yinisters ,rould not openly l"evolt<, since all bopo o altering the proposals wa.$ gone, 1 e., both Bills had been passed by the COlQlnOfflfea.lth Parliament bef'Ol'e Holman and e01Dpany returned to S:ydney ln Qi att,mpt te awn a complete b"ak and reassure Holman, tab Fede:r~i CabiniJ t instrueted Hughes to draw up a m.emorand~ .. tor th& New $euth Wale s Uinistars 'Which would det$.ll the manner in which th~ Fe~era; go~~nt .. ~opo~ti to use th& pow ers. ug~$ melD.Orattdum was refet>Nd t.o Holman for evaluation. Bolnlan in a Mthe:r eh~ space, showed that the pcm-ere Hughes eldimed would be JB.f't to. the Ste.tee would not in fact be und r the Sta tes jurisd:tot:Lon Holman conotUded that th States would b l'i18re figureh ads when the Federal govemment began to exercise the pQW&ra requested .3 : 1Jl;> id.,. November 7, 1911, P 6,, %id_. -3Hplman Papers Set 111. Unpublished memorandwn in reply to one prepared by M Hughes on the 1911 referendum

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The '.Kughes memora.ndW11 "'1as the last rec.oi-ded official ex ... c hange that t ook plae e between the wo Oovettunents ., and with the end ot semi-seoret of:ficial exchan,ges the eontroverey was gi-adually aired 1n a mt>re public mann&r The Smez ~ing Her4td interviewed Premier I McOewen no doubt th the hope of getting him to speak against the ., alterations~ 'J.cOcwen wa s &Sked. it be intended to take action if the rights 0f the people of New ~outb : ales were encroached upon by the CelI!lllOmrealtb MeGowen ropli d that 1f there ns. sueh an encroaclmtnt he would be q,uite :' ;pJfr pared to tak.e what-ever act.ion that was necessary to presarv St,;ttest rights 1 on the last day of tha 1910 sesston of r,.. .,, the New $0,xbh (les l.&gi slative Apsembly.,. owen and other isteFs we:re asked .. to :Lniicate \he stand the Ministry had decided to tsk.e on the alwx-ation:-t1 The llinis.t gan non""o.mmittal and eva@i'W an ... a 8:11'$rG Fi;naliy-, 1n January,. 1911 .the 'W.nist:ry publicly indicated its deCi$ion not to tl;lke any stand on the referendum eGc,wan issaed a statement on 'b~hal.f of the Mini$t;ey to the etteet that it was a que et:lon betwen the Federal PIWlia:men'h and the Federal oonstituents .. NonethelfJGS. 1 he did N p~at verbatim the powers which Holman in hie first mel'llO:ta.ndwa had maintaj;ned woul;d be put in the hands of th Federal gowu:nuen~ if the e.'l. te~at.ions 'Qr& accepted;, At the end of thil re cital of the powers the State Parliamem,t would lose,. cOc,,ren made ~he; ~~nl ~mi~ He.~l~.t Novembe r )0, 1910 2Ibid Pe
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this tta:tiementj '"This gives you., I think ., not only the decision of the Cabinet but an important statement of the case .1tl There wei-e two general types of reactio,n to cOOW'&n s state ment, (a) th L:U>~~ attaeked it, and (b) the non-parliamentary State labor bodies regarded it as a betrayal of the labor movement The Ltbe attaok took two lines Firs~ th$re was the aceusat'ion of Mr .. W ad:d~ll Liberal M L A who along with others p)l'etendad to be horrififttjl that Jr MeGonn ant;i his colleagues did not etat4t i, their posit.1;tm when New: South 'W ales future ae an independent g overnment al unit was at stake 2 Se eond, and this attack eam after it was apparent that the New South W ales &iners were going to remam relatively silent on tlle al tera.tions the tiberale used the New South La.bbr '. c:tefection to i,bow h 'the P arty silenced those 0 its JD&mbers who opposed ite pt-cgram Mr W ada observed that the puble are t.old that the only opponents are the "fat" men with vested interests and the monopolies Thi~ i s tar from true seeing that a number of leading members of tl:le Labour party of the Sta te Parliament who are f Qt-Ced to remain silent are of the that the vote should be "No u3 ith eaeb new id January 17 1911 p 9 ...

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156 Counoil was the first. body to oeneu.tre the stand of M c G owan and CQUe4auea ., The Central Executive of the Council passed the following motionr .. That the Gentnl Executive of tbe Politi,.cal. Labor Council desires to place on record it1:1 deep d1.sappointment at the announeemant 11'8,de by eoowan, the Labor :Pvemier of N ew South ales, thet the Government does no'h intend to officially support the refer-en dum made possible by. th., Fedl'~al Labor Govenunent1 further,. thia E ~eotitive, knOlfing that. the anti..J,.abor Oovemments in the States "fill do their utmost to pNvent any expansion of national powers, views with p:rooun4 diesatisfaeti on the attitude of U cGowen as tending to dierupt the Labor i'o:roEnl in N ew 8011th W j] .1 tni, reeolution 11f'as but the first of many censures that thG New SQuth W ales M inistr:, receiv.ed i'rom the Political Labor Leagues, the t,.-ade unions* and labor oounei.l&-. The ~ual Political Mbor League Oonte:renc e ot N ew South alee, held durin g the last week of January and the first week in F$b2"uaey1 p rovid~.d the: main stage for semi-i:iublie airin g of the di.f f'erenoes i n the ia b oJ" p arty.. At the fir&t 1 session f.orme.r Prime :Min i$1ier J 0-. W atson Ii!Ove-d that 1ihe dbcussi.on on the referen dwn should be 0losed to the public becanse ttsOllle
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1.57 Early in the proceedings the Conference indicated its approv al of the alterations II During this early deb-a~-e Andrew Fieher J G. Watson, and Hector ~nd, the editor of Th~ Australian Worker urged the Conferenc~ to give its endorsement,; while !'cGowen ,. Holman; and Nielsoe n, Np South Wales Minister or Lands, opposed Political tabor Leagaee suppor'lh A ,reek after this lllOtion in support o the proposal.& was adoptflJd, Senator Rae mowd ; 'Tbat in the o,r,inion of the Gonference the deci&ioh arrived at by the Nsw $ W al9s P L11 t last week to support the re!'er. endum p:roposale requires the me~l's of the St.ate Labor parlia nentary party to fall into line, and \tithdraw tru,ir opposition or 191$8 n1sign fi-'1>m : the tabe>r niovement,l Amid eonsidet-a'bl-e disorder whi-eh bad been created ap a :result or this ; motion, HectorLamond moved~ That th~ clall$e in the Constitution disqual'ifying from membership in a league or mion any members ttho opposed a' candidate at an e:t,ect io11 abould be extended to anybody 'in the movement who opposed a refe~ndwn p:roposal. submitted to the people by tho Iabo~ party.I Lainond -argu$dthat tbie amendme~t was i.mper~onal whe;reas Senat~ Rae s had baen vs %IY' :per onal. During the discu.s.sion which f ollOW'ed Lamond ts arnendmnt the Cha.iir eb.~ged hands twice and both Chairmen ruled it out o:f ol'der-.: Finally it was decided by a show of hands that the OonfeNnce sustained the ruling of the two Cha.:lrmen .3 2 lbi
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:M'ter th~s t.waultu.ous discussion ,. R D Ueagher ., u L.A.., moved: "That this Conference having decided by an oven.,lltel:tning MjoX" it;r t0 support the rei'erend'Q.m proposals trusts to the loyalty of the State Labor p;irty ~o reapt4ct the decision of the Confereno"l Meagher :p~inte
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reconstituted the Interstate Conf'ereno on a. population basis Thia watl' passed by a voice \i'ote The AustJ"alian W orker viewed thts ae the irst step tn a series which eould have led to Holman's pro. gram replacin g that of tho Federal Pa:rty .. 1 Hov,eve r, H olman s lIIQtion was reseind'aa: on lfcn d.4y night and anot her motion was ruled out of orde r~ Tnis m otion called for the labor movement to oppose any tunher extension of Oonw('nwealth p ot;er~ until the Constitution wae altered p-0n th-e lines of P arliamentary supremacy.,2 '! hils tho Political ~or Leagae Ccmtel'ence was th& Australian w oncerot Union wu hol.din.g its avnual mee:ting and after Ho1Jn.a.n s repeated opposition to tbe ref~l'8hdum in the Political Labor t,yagua Oont~nce the Australian W oncere Union pa.eaed a motion eensuring Holman. That this Oont'eren e s of the A. w .. U indignantly resent$ the traitorous attitude of A Holman ., tL L A .. ., in his attempt to trtelt the P L~ L Oon:f'et11noe into op osing after signifyin g his illingness to o'bey the former decision of the Confet'enc,$ ., and not to oppose the Labor party's re.rerend,um H:ts motion is a d18-tinot ht-eaeh or faith and prows that. he is to do the work of Wade and other reaot'1.onariee Further., this Conference is of the opinion that ? Holman should at ono be request:ed by the P L L to ret i re from the l>olitical Labor M ovement~ and fight it from outside and not :trom wiibhin 3 Holman p ublicly roplied to tho motiont n1 bea~ the r; buke with f'ortitutle J Itve been there bef'oN i4 !n a mmorandum Qn the P olitical l'tht!l J}.ustf~lia.t1 Worker, F ebl"Uary 9 ; 1911 P 10 ~lb!,d 3The $ydne:y m9 Hera.~d, feli>ru~ 1, 1911 P 9 4Ibid,; February 6 1911 W 12

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Labat> Lea g ue Conference he said that hie personal troubles at the Oonfe:rence "were ap p a.rently entirely with the Shearers delegates an d nth a certain section of the C onfereno$ which agn;,e with or wel'e influenc ed b y 't,h-e Sh earers Con$rence.n 1 160 H olman realit.ed as well as anyone else that his troubles went d ee p er trum any peirsonal al,tereat1on nth the Austnlian W ork ers U nion or its riends. T he me m orandum on the P olitieal Labor Leagua 00ni'6renee in whieh he :reetated his objeetiene to the aJ.ter-a. tions avo.idel!l any ~e1N1nce to per~Qnalities. He continued to main ttin tha,t his actions conformed to t)he general lab.or philosophy and the tabor pmy pla troni,,. and he repeated his (tueey whether it wae he Qr the other membEtt'S of the labor movement who had changed, He asked& 'W hen and hy did they change?n 2 Thirty years later H V. Evatt attempted to answer Holman's question. E V$tt renewed the 1908 Brisbane Platform and concluded that it neoese-itated three amendments t o the Constitu.ti0ru lt po-.ver t o p rmit the Commonwealth P arlument to impoee customs Of' .exoiae duties with a $J>eeifio pcmer to exempt from duty by reference either the wa g e paid or the p:rice charged in those indu$tries that 1'ere paying a tai~ and reationable wage ( N ew Proteotion):j, 2. poWer to acquire busin&s$e.s that were in .raot m onopolies .3. powar to establish an arbitration tribunal w:i,tb the power to settle intra and inter S tate trade disputea.3 1 H ollna.n Paper&J Set U.1. 2Ibid .,

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161 But the 4-91,1 alterations called fr muoh monJ ~xteneive powers than tbt se; therefore Eva:bt eoneluded that 'it was Hughes and not Holman who had dfparted .rx, om the Spirit of B risbane l In the narrow a.nd technical sense va~t's detense of Holman wae sound, but the Bris bal'le Conf'erl;ince 'had hMn held in 1908 when Deakin was still in power and Labor wala in the m inority. ueh happened between 1908 and 1911 to alter the :interptetation of the L.abor Platto-rm. tabor now fornM!ld the t;}oV$rmn.ent and this tnaant that :Lt had the legi.slatilve poWer to d o thin, i $ that it eould not have .d-one fout Y'iJ'in'l be.f'on:. There was al~o \he fact that H ughe : 1 backing in the t'Joir.unonwealth Par-liamen~ the trade un!ons, the New 6outh W ales and otheiPolitical. tabor League ; C onfe-:r-ence-s.and the Lab0;r .crouneil.s 1 indieate d that, re g ard~ less of Who was t-e:chnieally right, Holman was out ()f $tep With con teq,or~y l9ll Labor pe.t.ty ideale, Ten day& aftel' tlae Politio:al Labor League C.onferen.ce ts rejectio n of Holman's motion and the Australian W orkers U nion can ... sure, Hol.tneil an4 McG owen issued statemsnts to tb publi,c. Holun again appeared to be rt:,signed to the Political Labor gue decision. I 11ave abond.otted rey or:t g :tnal intention of enterin into an active ~runpaign in opposition to this referendum out of loyal def' to the general wish o-f the movement ., I have entered. m. y protest againet it, and I now content to accept ~he va~iet o the majority on polling d~y.a ~The S fdneY M orning Herald, February 17 1 1911, p 8 I

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162 In light of Holman ts appar~mt de sire to stay in the Labor party, irre,apeotive of wheth&tit as based c,n prineiple or on the know'l.edge that he would be the next Labor Pre-IllieJ' 0 New South W ales, his deCi sion not to go to the platform to e;xpress his opposition was tbs only dtc.i$iion. that he could have made Als", ft.n this statement Rolun again reterNd the the Australia n Yi ork~rs Union censure and said that he understood *'that iG theof'fioial language of the A u .their recognized fonnula or xp~aeing differences of opinion, l take it in the P ielwiokian sns e nl ,. d eGoWen s colnDl nts did n -ot indicate that the N ew South W ales .ani~ters were taking a back ~at in the re;fe?'$tldum campaign H:ts statement efflbo<:ii,&4 tbe eonaems that~ been e:lCJ)i-&asad previously 1n Holman's utemorand.a I and my aolleagues and a number or me u abers cf the $tate li&bor party Will continue the campaign tor the reconsider ation of the whole F.$derl position~ 2 H owever., he al.So reiterated Ho~"s. position of no open opposition to the proposals B ecaU'.se ()f these sta~ements and the relative silence of the inieters,. The ~l!l~f ?m~ 1 qg and others claimed that the Political Labor League had ordered the Yinister$ not to disclose their reasons tor Qppoming the referendum-,3 T be "No" advo0 ates ma~ ood use ortne Ne,r So u th W M i.n1st:e rs* silence D odgera like the one below (See P late V .) which shows Holman and M o G owen bound hand and foot 3Ibi(i Mareh 10 1 1911, p 8

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l.63 aLiberal P arty P amphlet File (Sydney; it o he ll Library)

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164 and gag g ed While Fisher and Hughes bind and gag Australia" and while still other Commonw alth tabor parlianientarians at,e~l the Constitu tion~ were widely circulated E-\'Snts de1119nstrated that the new S0uth Wale.s inisters were not as silent a-a they eaid they would be nor were theyas silent as their opponents t~em out to be Whenever one of the Ministers indioat;e4 h~s di1;1appreva.,l of the alterations the 1 No" support~rs wou1lf 1 ~it~ thi~ ae evidence of the division within Lab(>r's ranks ., but -wh~n the !! inisters remained silent the opp.oeition would oriti.. cize the Parly for mu~0ling the Uinisters Hlman and his colleagues aveided any official meeting or the Party which discussed the refer.. endum Their abeenc.e was noted particularly at a meeting of the :Political Labor League Executiv& which di-scussed methods of support ing ~he referundu.m Although not all of the Ministers were members of the Political Labor ~ague Executive it was customary that they 'be representeai l During the second week in March Hol.lnan attended the Junee ailway Employe$s Picn'ic He admitted to thie atherin that there was a difference of o inion between himself and the Federal .linisterss moreover, he eaid tha.t he approved of the "Home Ri:d O prinoipl .for .A.ustralia, 2 At about thi$ s~ tins Premier ( owen addressed a Sydney gt'OUp and a-s$ared it tha.1, monopolies and combines in New South libid .. arch 3, 1911 P 9 2lbid arch 10 1 1911, P 8.

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165 \i ales could be e~faotively dealt with by means of State law 1 Hughes did not ool'.11/.llent on HcGowen's statement but he did take no ... tice of Holman I s "Honie Rule" statement bile speaking at Ooota mundra t fughas aaid that Holman s utterance was the 1n0at foolish of the whole campaign na Later at W agga :agga Hughes eommented that "Home Rul e' 1 was the 'mo st ingenious argUill8nt against the referendum that he had ever heard ., .3 Three days after H olman' s Junee Picnic Speech was mentioned. by the p ress there was a report of his address to the yearly meting of the Irish H ational Fo resters Ar-0hbishop Kelly as Chairman of the moating ... H ol.n\an did not epecifically object to the referendum, but he did give tho$-e who were saying that he was lllllZ zled plenty of ammunition I assure you that fo)' the last fp wee-ks I have suffered I, the most deepera~e punishments that could be devised by malig nant inver1tion namely the imposition of silence upon a natur .. ally loquacious politician. That ha-s been my fate ., I have shrunk from making any speech referring to the referendum for fear of hoW it might be -P.reated I will not say by our enemies, but by ll\Y f rlends. /iie/"' Less than a week later Hol.f!Uln told lhourne press :reporters that Hughes' speeches fascinated him because they were fashioned a:14)ng the lines of a. famous French J-ecipe fqr love letters 1 He eta.rte out 2 :tbi.d P 10-. 3Ibid-. 4Ibid oh l} 1911, P 9

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166 witbhout knoW'ing exao-tly 'What he is going to say, and he ends up without quitekndW1ng what h~ has said nl At another interview :Ln J.Ielbourne Holman wasquestioned concerning his stand on the refer endum. 1ia.VEt you _, apything t-o say to 1tbe people of Victoria re garding the refel!endum? N'o \ Mymouth is cloSf)d on the refemrtdtlm. But an you not tree to speak when out or your own State? ir o l The-~ iU'f! no such th~s as boundar-1 s to those who are lilUpporting the referendum~2 Ona of the New South W ales Ministers Beeby did not even retain the appearance of eilence"' He o,pe nly announced hi.s opposi tien to ~he : proponl.s .. l3eeby based his opposition on the feet that the alteration& .mE?ant un;lf'ioation, and on an ffiesue of such graw imponanoe I think am entitled to explain my po sition to iny coneti. tuent.ih,..3 t~e SXS!z ~Pl Herfd~ cited :Seeby s objection becanse it Oatll$' :fr~ one wtio had been a long proven 1rorker in the Labor parlyJ therei'o~, U :Seby said the e~~alth Labe.l&aders had unification as th,ir ~im it mu e\ be so);J ?he A.ust .. a}y1p Work-er reacted to 13.e"8by s deteetion in quite another wq and called Beeby a supporter of Labor' & enemies. 11 It is eheap courage" said !!:!! I W orktr':; ttto denoWllee a movement 1'hile hanging desperate).y on to its coattails~ l,rp~ ,4,rgus (Melbourne),. 'Mfu'oh 18, 19ll. p l~J. 2'rp$ Sytipez ~~ ~ral.~; .~h 27, 1911, p 10. 3-n,;id., April 1 1 l9ll, P l.3 4Toid., April 2 1 1911, P 8., 5'rhe Australian orke:r, April 6., 19ll, P 12 ..

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167 Two other important New South ales Labor parliamentar1ans, Ur, Estell (Govenl1l1E!nt \'h ip) and Mr. Ed d&n (Minister :or M inee)., broke their silence during the first week of Apr.;l.l ~ Their open break with the re:ter:endum eu,pporters came at a tneeting of the New Castle t>ol.itieal tabot.League tmich passed a N$olution favoring th$ referendum. 111" ', Edden ob,j-e-cted to the proposals on the g_roun.ds that t~ State p-rlie.mentary had not be n consulted prior to the introduction of the Bill$ in the Commonwealth. Parliament The ~o vemment Whip simply deelar$d that fifty ~otion-s would not make li ~t!NP~ ~ th~ refe 1rendum.i i.'-n~ ,a South W ales ni~ters weN condemned by the Vic torian J\nn~ -PoliticQ.l, Labor u,agu1:t Con!'-erenee one week prier to } the r$~reh.dum. The Victorian body also complimented their own > t ,i 4~ =. 1 : parl.ianentS:iy lee.drs on their vigorous ttYes 0 activity, and oolUJ)ared ~' 1, : .. :.... .:, the ''~t'h\e Auet~iaw position of the New South W ales liinis'bers w~th ~1 ~ A.u~~lia" etand of th ir own leaders 2 This a~ti,on was typi~ ~ that taken 'by other lab:W bodies througho~t the Commonwt1,a1th .~olma.n.ts shl'eWdee-t actions were reserved for the last week of the referendum campaign On ..\pril 21, he delivered the Labor Gove$Jllentt s. polic;r speeeh to the .N ew South al-es Parliament. The :result of this., according t.o Evatt, wass 1 Ibid., P 15 2~be pdtdn.el J4o~i9 Herald, Aprll 17 19ll, p 11 10 .. :

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168 to l'; the a.ttention of l.,abaur eup p o-1-tero in Nn South ales UpGn the ~diate pl"oposals ot the State Gowmment In this ', W&;y,; : many waw1'$l"S concluded that,. at any rate during the life ot the existing Federal Parliament., it would be vary risky to support great coru1titutional ebange, which buadding to Coll'illonwealth l.egislatiw p01tera, might render intJffective the legis lation which Holman was prop:osing to introduce l .'. :, l' daye after this well timed polioy t,peeoh Holman 1n the ". Eto ffi? ~n:t of other Min isters attempted f"llrtherto $hi.ft the Spot. .. [ n' li g ht \o h ~ s o bj e,ction to bh.e alterations b:r .mot orin g to Mo unt ,l .-, It oscitiEJkoj a N ew S outh i al$s G overnment Touriet .B urea.u attraction. Thf) tour ~$ ~y as accompanied by mrnnben of the press who Nl.ated ,. thei3' ; ~ nts to the publie in great m,tai-1,2 >< it 1 ~ cliseus.s-ion ot the a.e ti:rl.t; or' the New South ale s \, :\~ ri~-~.~ \ri .; Labor O o~nt raises at l ast two questionst (a) 'What p&rt d i d the:w a~~ t onh p lay in the de:f.'eat or the proposals; and (b) why d id ,, the :tah ~ k r p~rty continue to tolerate $11Qh insuboi'dina~ion on the p art ~ t. 1r, ps.rl~nta;ry repneentat~ws? Neithel' or th:e se (1Ue$-. ':-.'' ,:/' :, ;, ti.ens~ ti im BWffr&d ea.s ilft but an att!npt wU1 be made in the ne~ Ch$!)~ ~. ,'. ,,, ...

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THE FIRST 11 NO" VICTOltr Tijo 1"8Sult of the l9ll referendum voting, the defeat or botb rcd.'ere~dum proposals ., was a surprise t-o bot-h sides Although the ttiifoff ~Upporters had et-eated va-s:t organization to defeat th& altera.t;t6ns and had predict c;! ootlidently that they would be defeated, there was an implicit. lr18ssi,mi ~m ln of thei~ campa-lgn uttel' ... ancaa O n the ot-her side, tbe t1Iastt advooates. had often epoken as if the proposals would b~e-Oll'll;J o.pra-tive afte-:r they had been endor$ed by the &le.ct-ors and they eon&idaNd this endoraemen-t to be $ for Jllalit,y B ut the f&arsof the tfJfo" sida were not realiz-4<'.l and the hopes ot the 0 Yes-" c ampaign&.rs we~ d shed -. Only one State, est ei,n Australia., ha~ an affirmative major-i.ty and the Comm.onwealth totals sh.owe~ that the proposals had been overwhelmingly rejected by those of the qualified e l e c t o rs who had voted As fa>, as the Oommomrealth total.a were con c erned ., there were no significant differences between the total vote on th two sepe.Pate (luestions,. Table V indicates that 5 1 312 more people vc;ted ttYe$u on tho s&-con.d question, M onopolies B ill than had voted 11 Yos" for the te g ialative Po-were Bill B ecauseof this $lightly higher 169

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TAB IE V 1911 REFE.RENDU VO'l'Ea .... N S .. Vie. Qld. S. A w A,~ fas .. 'J:ota1 Electors enrolled ... .. 1368 19'4 723,3 77 29Ji'003 ~16..,027 1.38,697 lQ!.,326 2~~~?24 teg1s1at1ve (t. ... .... pa1ters, l lo" .. 240,60$ 270,390 89,42-0 61,904 27,185 33,-200 7~>10h " .... .. "' l.35.t:968 170,288 69s-55"2 50,J58 33,043 24 ,l.47 1'83 ,3-'6 % electors en32J45 rolled, tsNou .. -71 37 .38 30.52 .37.91 19..6o Jt.72 -uyes 11 l5..l56 231154 23.74 23.31 2.3.82 2).oO 20.64 Monopolies, 268,,743 88,47~ 81,1'79 2,5,~61 J2;9o0 "No" ... .. .. 238,.177 736,-392 Yes" .. .. lJBii237 171,453 70.,2.$9 So,a.3~ 3:3,592 214~92 ~88,668 % electors enrolled, & f fo" 27.,43 37.15 )0.19 37~72 19.1.5 32~21 31.67 "Yes. 11 .. 15-.92 23.70 23.98 23.53 24.22 23,..74 20.87 8!.able V is \aken f'romt Commonweal th of Au stralia, Parliame ntarz P::3P!rs, II ( l9ll), 136167 ..

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TA,Bll)VI .A. 1910 S EN ATORIAL VOTE A! m 1911 REFE 1910 Vote .for tabor s leading Senate candidate. ,. 1t.,_ .. 1910 Vote to r Liberal"s l~d ing Senate ~andids.te ,,, 1910 el.ect.erfJ 82,234 77,895 SB 955 50#729 enrolled ...., ~ tt 249.212 220,569 834,662 217,S73 21.3,976 70),699 279 207 ,65$ 1910 1, of enrolled electors vo' ,. ~ --,.. ., 19ll "Yes 0 votas fQ.r L~ .g isla. tive P owers B m tt .. 1911 "No" votes for I.egisla tiw Porers B ill "" .. 1911 % of enraUed a1eetiors voting ~ ~. 6L._8h 135:,968 2h0 60S 44.2~ 66..,58 170,286 270,390 62 01 61 1.5 69,552 89,420 55 .34 55.JJ So,J58 81 90h 61..9h hh.12J.5' 37,263 1341979 62,.J.> .33,0u.3 27,18.5 44-33 ,. :31,304 68),b9h b 24~2 630~854 9 8 .456 2 .,258 ~82 5 s ;;i 62 16 24~lh7 483,356 33,200 742,709 -C-0DIIlOJDll8-alth Cl' Austral!a, P arliament~ P ~ers, II {1910), and II (1911) T here is no ~f'tic.ial publica'tion which gi~:S elee"tI on s\at!7.cs~y political party affiliation. The party m-tea in this table am su bsequent on&s are derived from.: (aj an uno:f!ieial publication of the Comraonwealth E lectoral Office, F ederal eettions 1901-.1 9 54 V otes A ITan ed P art; (b) a check of' The ~1t fum~ Ha rald p r:1.or o t e ee ion or &r to asce a:m p y :i.a:tion and the:n referring to a Parl nt~ P 5?8rs which eontain the election results by JlaI118 o.f candidate B ot h ?OOthods were used fu !liis 1iab a. bAt this time one half of the C o omrealth S enate retired every three years. In an election for senators ea-ch major po lit.ical party selecte d three candidates in each S tate, an d the three man who had the largest total vote weredec1~d to be elected.. Th e votes of tbe .sena t orial candidate who received the largest total vote o his party's senatorial candidates~bee n p lace d .:in this table.

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17.3 partieipation distorted the electoi'al ;result and had more people voted the proposals might not ba"te been de.teated or at least they ould not haw been beaten so badly. Viewin g the referendum results in ales~ partisan manner aJid havl.ilg the advantage of lmo' 1fhat took pl.ace. subsequent t.o this referendum, the argument claiming that the 1911 r sul.t was dis torted against th~ 11 Iest-t eide be cause of a. low vote can be diSlllUsed a.a not very &ignificant t The general e videnee \ends to indicate t.Mt qualified electol's did not vote in 1911 b~cause; (a) they did not I underEJt1Uld t114 i.s&u:ee which would aeem to indicate that La:ber s oampai.gR had net made the :reafSone for adQpting the alterations suti cien-tly clear to get people to vote, or the Bills were poorly dra.fted and -could 11ot 'be expJ.ainttd in a r&-ason able m&nner J (b) the voters felt no particular ~qOJ:: ~ vo~ing and t.his CGuld have !!e sulted .trom a miS1iride:r~anciin o the ree1rendum. pvoC$SS or vo'ber apathy; ( c) the tlet':ecitton of the ~ Sol.ith ial$S M inisters created fruet-ra,. tion among labo:rer-s 1f.b.<> were tom between loyalty to the N ew South Wal.-e& Wlli~ters and the Federal 1sters, and rather th4n eommit tfutmselves many N ew iouth Wal&fS workers and o'thtr labor supporters throughout the tonmionwealtll tiho -0onsid$ted f olma.n and his ollea.gues fights-rs for labor stayed away from the pollsJ and (d) the ele.ctore were not conf'-ronted with a. choice between peF1;1ona.lit1ee, as was the ease in parliame.ntary elections, and w re asked to endorse or rejeot an abstract set of principlee ln spite of the 10 per cent drop in

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174 the 1911 refe~endum vote from the 1910 general elections vote so interestin g eorep3il'isons can be between the two electoral event-s~ As Table VI shows ; tabor had about a 50 1 000 majority in the Common .... wee.1th senatorial voting at tho 1910 Commonwealth general election, but in a little more than a yea?" s tine 'the 1911 proposals, w h ich th vast :majority of the trade wiions and Party c-onsidered integral to the urtherat1ee of the general labor goals, wqre de:feated by over 250 000 vote-a. 'l'he enormity of thie shift in voters can be mor clearly S&eri when the distribution of seats in th 1910 Parliament is compared with the distribution which would have resulted had the 1911 ''Yesn vote been allocated to the LAbor party and the No" vot dis tributed to 'bhe Libe:rals Table VII indicates that Labor held TABIB VII DISTRIBUTION OF COWONWEA.LTH PABLIAMENT4RY ELECTORATES AT 'l'HE EI.E CTIOJ OF 1910 AND THE F.EFE1 NDUY OF 1911 8 N S WP Vie 0 Q ld .. .A s Tas 1910 Labor .. 16 10 6 2 4 3 1910 L iberal 10 ll 3 3 3 2 1911 UNo" 23 18 5 3 6 4 1911 ttye s 0 5 ,. 4 4 2 l l !f l;"a ., ehap ., VI., p 1 72 n a b0ne Independent member 1n Parliament Total 41 3~ 58 17

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175 tol"ty-one se~ts, tibel'als thirty-two, and Indepent;lente two in the 1910 Parliament but that there were fifty-eight parliamentary dis .. triets that voted ':;No 1 t and only sev.enteen that voted "Yeatt in 1911. Thus,. there were tw nty..four l.910 Labor districts that voted I on in 1911, and also the two Independ ent dis tr.lets went to the negative side while the thirty-two Liberal districts retained what can be call$d: theUnon -labor majoi-ities, A list of the Labor districts that went i'No" is given in Table tnlhich also shows the size of the swing in. eaeh of these twenty~.rour Labor districta.l New ~outh W a.les ane Victoria registered over tw~-thirds of the toia.l Commonwealth vote in 1911Although South W ales had more total qualif'1ed elCleto:rs then Viotot'ia; lS pe-r cent more of VictOl"ia' s qualifitd electors went to the p.olls in 1911 The per centage of voting dropped in 'both State a at \h& 1911 referendum, but it dropP')d ~nly 4 per cent in Vietoria. 2 The Liberals most success .. ful senatorial. ar:tdidate was about 30,000 votes behind the highest Lab or senatorial candidate$ total or 1911 in New South, but the 1911 negU:tiVtii vote was mote than 100,000 greater than the af.f'irma-. tive vote. Still mot"e striking than this total vote comparison in lnue to the present 8ta.tus or the soUX'Cf.3 material for the study of Australian polities it i$ not feasible to estimate the extent or the influence of g roup activity in individual elec~oral districts Thus, :t.n the analysis of the referenda result$ emphasis is placed on the influence of g~oups on the Stte level. 2nA.ustraliaa the Constitutional Issue, n The Round Table, I, 3,9. The Round Table in its discussion of the low i9ll vote said that the absence o a general election was the main factor.

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TABLE Vin COMl..'OHWEALTH PA.RLI~ARY DISTRICTS THAT VOTED LABOR IN 1910 AND "Non IN l9lla Labor 1910 Liberal 1910 19ll"Yes" New South W ales Oalar t .. 10,561 9.,147 S,18o Cook l4,02l 7,856 6,.347 Dalley .: ,. 14,610 11,21.5 6,661 East Sydney 10,487 7, 890 4,831 GWydir ... "' 10,569 7,160 5,382 Humeb 9,322 4,_708 4,409 Hunter 14,803 9,523 6,151 !acquarie 9,-875 7)618 3,656 Nepean .... 11,123 10~461 5,1.32 New Engla.n~ .. 9,;622 8,637 4,936 Riveriha. 9,274 6,520 5,414 Robertson ;, 1,957, 7,681 4,427 Werriwa 10,87p 4,986 4,178 Victoria I Bourke 17,819 12,66o 12,3.39 Corangamits ., 11,.300 9,350 1,158 Coria 10,164 8 ,.519 6,865 Indi 10,900 9,633 6,775 annon 11,977 9,797 7,847 ue.ensland Brisbane 8,909 8,500 7,370 W:i.d& Bay 11 12,1.$4 10,303 8iL.45 South Auatl'alia Adelaida It 9,443 ,,466 8,290 Bootbhy .. 9,786 5,546 7,866 Oniy it unopposed .,. 6,468 Tasmania Bass .. 6,612 $ ,022 5,293 Denison ., 7,170 5,l.12 5,4.39 &su;ra, chap, VI P 172, n. a. 176 1911 11 l foli 8,872 7,1.56 10,Q05 7,078 7,538 7,838 7,781 6,575 11,345 9,~61 7,701 8 ,341 8,315 1.3,796 13,338 12,.581 11,91a 11,968 11,.302 10,049 8,474 12.,6.37 11,247 6,052 6,492 buume was the seat of Sir illiam Lyne whowae an active Labor supporter although he clas~d himself an Independent .,

PAGE 186

177 New S outh W a:Lee was the act that of New S o uth leet twenty-seven Commonwealth p arliamentary districts, of which si.Xteen had been taboi-, t.en Liberal and one Independent, twnty registered a N o" maj'ority! On the other hand,. 1n V ictoria tbe Liberal' & most success ful senatorial candidate ran less than 4,000 votes behind the Labor high rnan a,n d in the 1911 ~eferendu m thie 4jooo vote d.efieit was tr.1ns~ .. ) .. f'ortne 4 in ~ o a : l~~ majori~t In tne ~enty-two V ~ etorian p ar}ia ... mentar i '. d1$rthts; of wh~Jl ~1-ven weii tiberal., ten Labor, and one ~'i. I~ 'i I\. ,. j ' I ,;( f !\'< _,l Independ,ea"ti i too alte:l"ationet were rejfii>te-d 1-n all but folll'.Anotber _. '< ,. t;-,, .., 1 'i, I l'_, faetot., tl 0: )~ ~e :into oonsidaratien 1'h&n comparin g the t.wo S tates is 1 i ~):/;; "\ -; ,-~' 'I that ; q ~'.t; o ~r:, 1910, Laber had achieved a victory in the N ew S outh t, ,;Ji ... .. W' .S t ; ~ ,, elEJCit:Lon19 Wh.ile the last S tate elections in Viotor:ta ',: ... /,r ... ~?,., ~ .. had 1"f.f~lllt 1n Libffal vietory. 'fherer~, the size o the !l o ;.:.,.' '' .:t'),' '": ... I" VO'G$ in ~JIJ outb. w a1e $ as even JllOr& sianiti<>ant.. Victoria had ,..... t, \ rejeote,:d ,' tha $1tet-$tlons bj abottt 30 1 000 more total votes than N ew ..... 11 South 'Vi ~ ; s had, but this was a ease of Victoria remaining a Libe%"al ... ,1 State 11hil~ South Wales, a State which had rapidly beoome a ,, fhe switch .fi--om Labor to :t fott 1n New South W alee was pa%',J.4t iy, rio, tice~ble in the rural di&tricte Among t h oa rural par lialll$JJ.~ Y d i:etrlcts in which a majority of the eleotors rejected the advice of t heir sitting Labor Jll$mbers W$J."e U epean, l, erriwa, G wydir, New ~ng l~, an d Riverine.. In the latt er two districts bot}l Labor rep:resentative s,. F oster in New E ngland and Chanter in Riverina, had wa g ed a vi g orous campaign for acceptance, bUt their oonst:t.tuente

PAGE 187

178 g w tbe negative s-ide a clearcut victory.. The Nelf South ales ind$pendent .tnen-l:>er, Sir William Lyne, ho was one of the staunchest advocates of the exteneion of powers and a Labor supporter on the majority of parliamentary measures, received a very de.f'init& back 1n bU 'distrtct In 1910 he had beaten hie Liberal opponent 9 ,32l to 4, ?08 but in l9ll the voters Nljeeted the altes-ation by a 7,838 to 4 1 409. vote, Pr?bebly the most surprieing shift in New South ales took place in the electoral district of Cook -Wh$re the sitting l;.ab<>l' member; Mr. Catts, Who had been one of th most active of all proponents of the changes., found that his constituents gave the 11 t lo"; aide a small majo~ty and di$played an zing apathy to all of his e-xhonation:s as the vote tell over .3.3 per eent from what it ~ s~zillg the Ne,r South results two obvious generallzati0ns can be. mad9.1 (a) the rural distcrtots swung solidly against the p:ropo.l&:1, in .faet,: there was a 0 Yes" majority only in the f1w met,:,-opo1itan dist~ct11J and (b) notwithstandin the intense and active campaign which 'bo:tb sides appear to have carried 011<, the lowst percentage ot qualified votere ftnt to th polls in New South Wales There are aeveral reasons -which explain each or these genera1. izations;; Very conclusive re.aeons exist for the switch wbi'3h took plae& i the ~-al districts, but it is more difficult to ascertain why vo'bt' apathy 1Jae greater in New South a.lee than it was eleewhsre. The oontradiotbry advice which the Labor electo~ received from his

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179 State parliamentary leaders an d tne CollU' party, the S tate Politieal Labor Le~gue Co.nfere-nce, and trada unions mig ht havecon .fused him to such en e~ent and created a aenee o .frustration., i--.e ,, conflict of l-0yalty to State parliamentarians and other groups, as to cause the electoX' to stay awa,y from the polls .Also, the fact that H olman r&leased his legislative policy proposals which met most of the : p roblems tbat the alt-eratione were ~d to correct might have created i}ust ._ &no ugh relu-ctance among those who were dubiousabout inore ~s ~ C ommonwealth poweres: to k eep them :mm v~tin g Of course, I there : 1s ~o way to measu.t"e the influence the unfavorable attitude or Halman an cl hi a c oll&-aguee had With re g ard to ldW'erin g the ,,ote or causing 1.abor supporter~ to vote N e. 1 R oWever, to say that it I had no Wluenee would 'be to disregard the prest ig e position which ... Hollnan and the other Nff W al s tabor Assenbl,y members Who oppose d th~ chaRges had in thetabor movement. 'rwo very good reasons can~ suggested for t.ha defeat or the ~&ferendwn in the rural dietrtcts of 'New S outh W ales.. First, then was the anti-altel"ation stand taken by the oountey prese,, the F and Settlers Aeeo ciation, and the Shint CouncilsJ although the rural ttnions were st!'eng, th&ywen not organized sufficiently to coq,ete successfully With this type of nonlabor opposition. Ssoond, there wae tha split -within the Labor movement which probably oaueed many undecided voters to actept the advioG of the ovenrhelmin g bulk of r@al organs of opinion which were against the proposals

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180 Th.e same f' aatora w:h1oh ha~ 'been sug g e-sted as having played a major rol,e in th Naw South W rejection o the changes were partially:responsible for tbe ateat of the amendments in Vic .. toria and Q ueehsland 'fhe Progressive League in Q ueensland and the People t s party :l.n VictOl"ia were very ef.f~et.iw 11'1 their or~anizatio n of th~ rural vet.ere, and 1me rutal press in these States to g ether with the actions of th Shire Councils and the Farmers and Settlers Associations aided in producing a ''No" majority in the rural districts As been pointed out, ther as veey little apathy among tha voters of Victoria when the 1911 :refer&ndum vot is eompa,rced with the 1910 elections Victoria. registered the high&st total 0 No 0 vote, but d;id not have as h4Ih a total vote gain on the non-labor side as New South Wa les had. This ean be explained to some extent by the fact that the balane which h$d beeri es~ablished between the parties in 1910 was re-fl.eoted in the re.f'erenciwn results Th~ .fact that the VictC!>l'ian vote remained high can be ul98d in support of the pre vious stat~me-nt that it was not the low rate which kept the alterations f?'cml being ace pted Though the attitude o.f Holman and his oolleaguee did not ciu1S& labor to abstain in Victoria, it could have been r& garded by many as a.not-her reason or even the only reason for voting aga1t1st the alterations 'l'he lack of unity in th Labor party would have been ample reason for an indep&ndeni Victorian elector to vote ''No it 0

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181 In Q ue-ensland the ret.e renduni vote ohanged a five to f oui Labor majority in the parliament~ disttlcts to a eix to three 11 N o" majol'1:by. 'W ide B ey, 't;he d.istti.ct Andrew Fisher represented 1n par liament, reooJ"ded a UNon victory, but this probably resulted from Fisher e abeenee The. act th.$.t Queensland -was predominantly a rural State would seem to account fo~ the 11 No" victory In coll)ari e,on with J.910 ( Table VI} the vote in Q ueensland was not g reatly redu~$d in 1911, but the alterations lfeft very soundly defeated If the 4?1al.ysi.J of Victorias voting behavior is applied to Queens faot tha11911 voting t-eneoted previoue att:t.tua,eit might be e:,tpected that the .alterations ould have secured a slight tnajority~ Hc,wever it must be :remembered that comparisons betwe-en the senat~rial vot-e of 1910 a.nd 19U and the comparison between the distribution oi seats in parliament 'fiith the "Yes" or lfNotl majorities in the refeiendum is used. because it is. con\"$nient and because it offers one# but not the only, basis for analyzing the reterendum l'esults-, /U'l.y eonolusiona from sueh comparisons are al.ways nsant to be t-entative_j, and sS::,nce there is no way of :reconetruct in g the soci"'8conomic st:ructu-e of the electoral districts these impr sttl.on istic comparisons and eonclusione m.ust euf'fice LiLttle ean be gained from ana~ing the voting statistic~ in Tasmania and ~outh Australia In th$ former State Labor held thrEte of the five seats in the Hoi1se, but in the referendum only the seat of King oValley regi stered a "Yes" majority The retention

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of this one distTict was probably a result of the personality of oMilley and the ~xteneive campaign that ha ca~ried on. 182 The only surprising fact rewaled in the votin g statistios ot S outh A ustralia is that it was the only S tate in whieh the p.ercen ta geof qualiti~d electo~s votin g -w a s hi g her in 19ll that 1n 1 9 10. 'l' bis was ma de possible by an increal!fe of 10 1 000 in electors enrolled, bu~ tnis increase in the number 0 qualU'i.ed electors ifJ not ?'(3 a eon Ql:lou g h for the 6 per oe.nt ris.e 1n the. number of those voting, F ur, ca;reful r se~ch has not ;revealed evidence of a particu lar;l.y acti~ campaign in South Austt'alia., so that the rise over 1910 eannot be explained by a vigorou$ ge't-out .. tbe ... vote effort,. There. was n o rsaeo.n given at the time for this !i.ncrea 8J thel'etore, itremains one of the ~nswered queat:1on s concerning th 1911 refer endum. lt can be c()ncluded that the cause fer the de.feat of the proposals in South Australia ae pro~ly a result of the ineffective cainp~iga of the "Yes suppor1iers and the g enerally stepped u p aot.1 ity or nonlabor throu gh out the Commomre 1th. W estern Australia was the only S tate to re g ister an atfirma tiw .majo.:rity, The ttYes~' supporters sucoeeded even though there was & N ott lrlajOrity in three 0 the f ive paliamentary districts in fact, the tttet;u and -ott m$.joritie,s correepon~ed w1 th the Labor and Liberal. dtsv~uti~ of parliamentary seats., and also despite a 17 pe:r cent drop in the vot~ The fact t o be 8lllJ?hasized in comparing the W estern Aastraliaa election and referendum votes and dis'bl"ibution of seats

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183 with the "Y~s and "Non districts; is that Labor only won two seats iri 1910 but had a 5,000 majo,-ity in th total vot This same margin of victory wae reoorded by. the rtres" eide in 1911. Even though the vote dropped 17 per cent and, theref.ore, caused a 10,000 vote decline in the non ... lobor and Labor vote or 1910; it was not very significant. In a comparieon of the vote by electoral districts for the House of Repreeentatiws t< 'fable IX, it is evid ent that the tabor TABIE IX A a<:)'.UPARlSON OF T WESTERN AUS'tRALIAtl 1910 00 N il\LTH VO'fE AND THE 1911 REr.ERENDU varEa Distrj,ct :Liberal Labor Indap ndent "Yes" ff 0 u Coolg~ie .3,170 9,915 22 6 7,898 2,587 Fremantle .. 7,788 6,496 4,099 5,48.3 Kalgoorlie ., 2,550 11,162 9,385 1,l.lh Perth :e -. fl .. 9,648 6,237 4,732 6,990 Swan. ,. 1$,012 9.930 ~ 6,938 11:,011 T9tal -. ,. 38,168 43,740 226 :n,os2 27,185 aatpra, ehap, VI, P 172, n. a.. strongholds of Kalgoor lie and Cool g ardie gave Labor a sufficient surplus in 1910 and 1911 to offset the Liberal majorities in Fn, n$ntla., Pe rth, and swan Aleo the reduction o.f votes Which took place in all five districts, although not nearly proportionate for both sides in all five electorates, suggests that electoral apathy

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184 was more or less un1t'orm throughout the State This leads to the further eono1asion that the 'VOte in astern Aust r alia was divided more nearly on party lines, 1 e ., party lines in parliamentary elections; than in other States where voters failed to follow p~ty \ '\. lines Qene-r..Allyspeaking 1910 non-labot voters gave their sup ort to the ttffoU side. In addition, a lar numb$r of the Labor backers Qf' 1910 mnst haw voted .ttN 0 11 e!toopt in eetern Aue'bl'alia, becau_ee there was not a signiieant :rise in registration and bees.use the deoline of ~tin in 1911 wao greater on the 11 ?lo" (non-labor) aide After thi comparison of 1910 d 1911 votin g results and the limited analyeie of voting statistics, some general eonolusions giving the reas()ns for the defeat of the proposals are In lisbing g eneral reasons or the defeat of the 1911 alterations it should be stated at tne outset that thel'I was a combination of tac.tors 1.fhiGh : was responsible for the defeat vf the proposal Contemporary ebservere of the referendum give the f ollowm re sons or itsdefeat-1 Sta.tee rights (f-ear of unification) J that Labor was asking too much too soon; ooior anization and presentation o-f the uye stt aide; and the de.f ection of the South W ales inist&rs Harrison Moore oont nd&d that the most obvious reason for the failure of th& proposals wae the fact that the citizens of the Stats which had onoe bee n independent came to ether voluntarily to form the Common wealth., and therefore., had a strong bias ainst "complete seli' surrender and absorption" in the absence of any imperative force

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18.$ ~on concluded by saying that States would not only preserve their identity-., but would reserve tor them.selves "the general powers of government and trill comruit to the nGW federal authority specific pawers only.,., 1 Tp:e S~ l rnill13 Hera;J.d gave three reasons for the defeat ef the a.lterationes (a) A.u stralia voted ttNo ~cause it wae better fer Australia and the peoplee "instinct kn6W it"; (b) there was a \ "Non majority because the tabor party's demand carri ed reform "too far too $Uddenl.y"J and (c) the raasons or voting '*Yee'' we re vague.2 In its fir st article on the refe-rendum The Round Table avo the fear of moving too far too suddenly" as the chief reason for the defelat of the proposals.' In a later article., "'1'h Referendum in Retrospect.," 'l'he. Round Table Said that hietorieal and geographical Nasons w re the most important in explaining the rejection of the l"Eiferendum.4 Mr Walter Duncan Presid$nt of the Nn. South WalJ$ Labor Council, voiced the sentilnents of man;r people when he coxnnanted that the utterances of Be6by and Holman and th& silenc of the New South Wa les ~iamentai-ians were turned into th most effective pieces of "No" campaign propaganda .5 M Hughes maintained that or "all Harrison Moore ; 11 Political Systems of Australia," Federal Handbook of 19lJ+ ( elbournei Government Printin Ofti oe, i9fiif, P 547 2iihe S~ney ~~ rnin g Herald, April 27, 1911, P L,. ) 0 Australian Politics,, : The Round Table, I, 33.3. 4nAustr-alia.t the Referendum In Betrospect," The Round Table, II; 145-56 ~T~e S~l orniz?g Herald, April 29, 1911, P 11.

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186 the argun.ien.t6 reli~d UPQn. by the other aide th$ attitude an d u.tter anccs ot Me ~SS"$,, M cGO\fen Holman and B eby wer.e giwn the 1'1.dest publicity ul T he Austr~ W orkttr did not place the entiN blame on the lf ew S: outh W at &EJ M inister.a and said there were three reasons for the de.fea~; (a) the vast org$1zation of 'lying" brought to be:ar upo n tha public nu,nd b y the monopol~sJ (b) the inadequate tacili~iea 6 the LabOl' party or pressing the 11 truthtt (at this time 'th& ,A ~st,ralian W o;Jcer wae agitating for a Oomomrealth lAbor .. -da.ily); and ( the treac-hery ot crt-ain Labol" D1$mbers in New South W al.est It) .. fygard to the latteiThe 4t:t&\i'alian W o~er cent~ndedt M EJSM'"S H olman, MoGOlten and Beeby Viefe set up on a pe.destal ot: Tci!;y adulation, and the workmg man was ealled upon to 1f0rsh:Lp thei n ,. by '!'those who sought to rivet ., his &yes on these new deitie$ t i:i ., r:e;I:ld$r h im easy pr y for plunder N or was the mischief they 1 ,. ~ ~&. : c ; d ~ in ed to their om state In -every part or Au stralia .. ~ Y ; ~fe utilised by Labor s ene,miee against the ea.use of _, or" M r. Wh ite S &eretary of t-ht Au stralian orkei-s' U nion,, in his annual report. to the tl nio n eaid that it waa a cOlllbination of tab()r apathy and the 4 '1, arochial influence of the N eff South W ales M inisters which d.$feated the alt rations 3 It ia D r -. E vatt!s opinion t.bat the most deotsive .factor in the campaign wae Hol.mEu'lca IU'gument that i t~ proposals were adopted tbe workere mig ht be worse~ not b tter offJ 1 and his promise that, 1~, Aptil 27, 1911, p 7 2rrho Australian V forker y 4, 1911s P l ,. ( ~he A us,ral~~ W cz~r (Australian orkel" s U nion ed ) January 31.1, Jh t

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if the onatitut1onal position remained unaltel'6d,. they should eert~inly be better off fll &ut this :ls an a:bttmpt to imply that 18? the worker.s we:re aware of Holman's reasons for opposing the referen ... dum, or that they had t-h.e ability to inf'&r c rt~lin arguments trom the few pu: b'lic pronouncements he made, Undoubtedly Holmane action along with that of bis -colleagues wa.e a sign for ca.ut.ion and caused :tndivldual. la'boi'ites to reject the proposals. H()'tfever, it is dU'fiealt to maintain that the majority of the we)>kers knew why Holman objected t
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188 commanded the support of a certain number of electors who were 1fill ing to follow them 1.rreepective of any consideration as to why they were following. B ut the Labor split was only one re~aon among many for the de.feat of the ~lterations. The~e are always a large number of voters who cast theirballots at the direction of their t.raditional or inhertted party. The:re were certainly a large number -of traditional non"""'labo~ voters thl'eughout Australia at this time, and this g roup a:ecour:1.ted f r.J r a large percentage of the *' l fo" vote,. just as the tra:ditional or inherited Labor vote accounted fo:r of the '"Yes 0 811:pport., Among the arguments offered in opposition to the proposals there were. two whi-ch had a great influenot!J on the thinking" elector F irst, tbe.te was the States 1 rights plea w i th all o its many his torical,. geo g raphic., and self ... intere st facetQ.. Seeond, there was thefear of ra d ie-al ehange and a desire to maintain the .familiar in$bitution$. T hia .fear of change and States rights was repeated oitei:and over in the spee-ohes, :pamphlets, and newspaper and editoritJ. columns of the "No*' supporters. The simplicity of these arguments and their great appeal to the electors lead to the conclusion that there would have bee-n ample reason for people to have voted against the pro posals even without the defection of the N81f Sonth W ales Min isters. This ob se.1'1\$tion 1a purely speculative an assumes that such arguments would motivate a auf.fieient number of voters, non .. labor, Labor and Independent, to have swung the majority against the alterations.

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189 Actually,, it -wa.s the combination of traditional nonlahor su pp orters, members 0 the socio""6conomic interest groups who followed the~ leaders i n op p osing the changes, electors who waro. affected by the defection of the U ew South ,ales lliniste:l"e, and electors influenced 1;,y the fe ar of chang~ and Stat (H3' rights and other arguments who dtifeat~c\ i.."l 1911 referendum Prob-a.b:cy, individual electors voted '-' N beoause ._ tb,e-y belonged 'bo se-veral of the four broad oate gories just lisbed 6 in faet. it is difficult to conceive of a vottr not belonging to men t han one 0-f them

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CHmE R vn THE SECOND "N0 11 VIOTORY Are : we dish~artened? Ae they forward go Hear tabours le g iins ton g ue a thundrous NOl Wi th the aid o two scapegoats, the New So uth Ta les nisters.., and the p ower and money o! nra,t, the Labor party and partioulai-ly th& me-cn:tri-al W M. H.ughes ware able to overlook all other causes pr the defeat of the 1911 referendum. Immediately after the reaults were known HUg hes announced that the proposals ould be resubmitted.2 ~~i'Q, ;epl4flld by sayin g that su.te ly ijughes did not expect to be t~en f.;let-ious1:r,, llHe /J.ughei/certainly will amend hi8 hand,. andweil. he knc.its that, on the ground of his choosin g he had a beating, and a bad ~a1>ing,. He will not rlak 3 But D eakin underesti mat~d the ability of his advtrsaries to rebotll'ld from defeat. Aside trom ~ocla~ing that they were not "dishe artened, '' The Australian W orke~ ran A series of arhicles by Adam t alker explaining the 1911 prop0$.al.S an d reatsns *ht they should have been adopted .4 he Australian \' lo?k~r, y 4, 1911, P 15. 2The St!!nez M orning H~rald, May 2, 1911, P 9 J~. 4The Au stralian N o:rk~r, July and Aug ust, 1911. These articles were reprinted in pamphiet lorm for distribution by the trade unions, see: .\lan W alker, On the tar of oloohi Some 'rho hts on the Referendum 9!1!>a!;gn ( S eys 190

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191 Si.;multaneouslywith this indication that tbe alterations woUld be resubmitted there was a move, mainly on the part of w A Ho1man, for the States to rater some of the State powers to the Conunonweal.:~h O ne of the firet public mentions of the possibility of States handing over some powers to the Coil.llllonwealth was by Mr Denny,> M L .. A of South Australia., who suggested that the State :Pnuniers under Sec-tion iftyone, paragraph thirtysewn of \ c I< tho 06mtn~ealth Oonetitutie>n could ask their State parliaments to tru~~i, PQW&rs to the Commonwealth 1 Penny s rewu:ke were followed by ~ ~i;~hla~ of Holman to the State Premier& In order to make Hol.nla.nfs position as clear as possible a good portion of his circu lar will be q,uoted: 08 'rhe rEJsult of the vo-ting on the recent referendums may be ~agarded as pNetioally complete The question n
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192 f'urbher explained this requ&st by sayin g that his Government wanted to enlarge the powers of th~ Fedwal Arbitration Oourt eo that dieputes of a truly F ederal o-baracter could be dealt with effec. ti'Vely A. lthough Hollnan felt that tnoat of the industries affected by "' N n P rotectiontt wo u ld be covered by an increase of the arbit:ra ... tion p(.)Wer; a fu rther s.urrenda:r o p oWer b y the .S-tates would be ne:eded t (j cope with those special eases which were not su!ficientl;r ecver~
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193 The Labor Party is wrong, the Labor conte ranees are wrong; they cannot be trusted to define -what is necessary to the full realization of the Labor Platform. That, say-s., Mr Holman, is the wo?ic that can better ) 'b,J done by foUJ' To ry Premiers sitting With om~ Labor :Pt'$m1er ; and one of very doubtful classification. The mantle of Wade fits the Acting Premie r of New South Wales to well:, 1 The entire text of Holman s spttech in defense of his position was print&d in The ustraltan 9.rker He said hia position was so olear tha,t it w,as like "belaboring a dead horse" to explain it further. And then. h~ 1lllW~ a comm.ant whioh was surprising for its f'r~ness but probably contained a great of truth. If I had liked to hit back wh,n they struck me during this Jr6ferendum ea.mpaign, and had a.nS'lfered certain fools according to their )f.'olly, l have sufficient influence in the movement to have oat;Ji8? :LrrepBl"C.ble disruption. .. I hope that we ehall hear practically tlie or this little here&y hunt,2 V. Ooreon Childe .suggested that it was a ear of HoJ.m&nts Power which caused theLabor movement to talera.te him. as long as they did. The move nt tolerated, albeit,, not without iq>atient protest,, the obvious determination of the Parliamenta17 leaders to set the rank and file at defiance This was probably ttributable to the unwillingne ss of the Party to saerifiee the sei-vices of $uoh bFill.iant men as w A. Holman _..3 Holman a p restige and power notwithstanding, the replies to his cil'cular wore noncommittal. The acting Premier of 1 /estorn Au.strali.s. Gregory wrote : "Your proposals seem to ma, at first glance., to ,go further than we should, in the face of the enormous 2Ibid11, July 6, 19ll, P 11 .. .3childe, How tabou.r G overns, P 25 ..

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majority ~oo-rded against the proposals ., n 1 After such a. cool reception the matter was dropped .. 194 As has b$en indicated, the official labor bodies continued their agite.t!.ori. for increased power to the COlllUonwe.alth in spite of the 1911 defeat. But the pt-osperity of 1909 .... 1910 was continuing, and the economic reas:o~ .(or eupporting the alterations eei-ta:tnl.y ha'VE! seamed remota to the leoto,rs., Tbe Sz_dpef om~ 1-Ia~d oc.,imen'bed in July, 1911, that tt.e,ven though ft al''e fairly well into tha win~rc mo ti tha, and, therefore, in the periG>d in wnich labour is least d$ntted 1 th.ere is eveeywbare an outcry for more workmen. 1 2 A check of the tlasuifie a advertiS81J18nts in the major papers bears c,ut thi& stat ement A further indieat:ton of trn, continued prosp rit y 1.s that the 1911 wool elip., although down in priee, yielded an increased morietary retum as a result of a larger quanity or wool heing so1d Though th~se two factors do not tell us anything du-eet).y abo u t the w:ell-beling of tne worker, both would tend to improve th& position of the laboNr The eontinuttd pr-ospetity and the su.ecess of the Labor G'evemment on th Conmonwealth level were not enou g h to halt the general. l~or desire tc, discipline th& New outh ales M inisters The Sydney Labor Council passed a ~tion which called for a speciD.l Po.litical Labor IAJague conference to aonsid ;r the future attitude lT~~ ~ ~dne;t; _Mom:516 Hei:ald July 20, 1911 p 8 2n,i:d ., June 4, 1911. P a

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195 of th.e movement te representatives of the Party whoee opposition to the rete:rendum was "undoubtedlyt' 1'$'sponsible for its defeat 1 During M ay, June, and July, of 1911, The Austral1~ orke r ran a column entitled,. "What Shall w Do With Them?" This column recorded. the Political 1,a,bor Isague bt-anoh resolutions calling for a special conference it.o discuss Holman's fate. In the latter part of July the Exocutive of the N ew South W ales Oonlerenee polle-d the branches., ele ot :0rat$ councils, and affiliated unions t o ascertain their stand en calling a special conference. 0 those groups replying, twenty-nine branehes -seven electorate councils, and seven affiliated trade unions gave their approval of the special eonferenoe ; there were only fi ; ve bran ches that voted against the proposed conference. 2 D uring mhis pe:r:Lod the Labor mowment indibated its ex treme disgust iith Holmane actions, but it should b r e -emphasized that there was V$ry little talk of actually expelling him f~om the Pal'ty. H awever, this was not the oa$e wi:bh B eeby, the N ew South W ales Mi nister or Education. The Australian Worker observed that it was a urnarvel" that :Beeby continued to associate with the Labor party in view of his hostile and anti-labor eoDll!lents, his opposi'b:ton to the 19ll referendum was ope-n and not silent lilce Holman's had been 3 B eeby, however, could not be brought back into line, and lfhe Auetra.lian W orker, y 4, 1911; P 15. 2lbid., July 27, 1911, P 14-. Jibid., July 20, 1911, P 15.

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196 in 1912, Wh&n it was certain that the alterations would be resub mittedi B ~eb,y said that regardless of the eonsequenoes he intended to assert bis right to take the stand that he had taken in 19lh 1 B ecoo:st tbis position was incompatible With that of the Labot party. Bee,by as forced to resign despite Holman's friendship and B eeby' long time aff ilia.tion w.t th the Party .. Hie resi nation was i'olloWed by a two : page attack in The Au,t-lian ff o;ker ; Be eby s leavin the l4bor partycaused a speoial electton to be held in hie electoral distrio.t, -and it wat only af'ter a second ballot that ,B eeby was abie t o return to the N ew South W ales Legislatiw A ssembly as an ind&. pendant menibel" .3 H ol man eventuall y wa~ forced. t o witihdr"' fit'Om the tabor patty b ut not :for the same reasons a$ D eeby. althou g h c<)llcillatory towarde B eeby resi&ted the lattelt' s. idea of founding a ce n tre party with the odera.t s o both partiea 4 T he r act that H olman .-a, reluctant to l.eaw the Labor party was based in part on his continue~ adhtrenoe to the general socio-economic philosophy of the Party, and it wae also based on the knowledge th~t he would sh-ortly auoeeed to the leade~ahip o the ~ew South l Ibi d N ovember 14, 191~, P 17 ~ 2lbid D ecaml)eX" 12, 1912, pp,. 12 ... 1,3 3Ibid,_, January 3 1913, P l@ .. 4 Eva. tt, A u stralian l-aboUJ.' Leader; PP 315, 317, 3.3h, 34.3 S ix yet1rs aft r B e by s break ?rom the !abor party he became a member of th Country party1 PP 351~ .371, 394

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197 Wales parliamentary party and the Premiership On the face o. the past aetirtt.ies of the Labor party in N ,w South ales Holman could b$ assuted that the Party ght criticize him, but that they would no~ C,.isnti,.ea hi m for tailing to suppo~ P: .. Oposals :relating to the inox-eatle of pO'V{et for the C0Ia11.10fflf6al th tabor party T h is was also demon$trated by the actions 0f the Special Political Labor League Conf'erence-, held in August, 1911;; which was compooed of representa tives frQ tn: si:Jttynine of the seventy ... f'ive electoral districts and eighty-three unions Holman ac,id~ssed The Con!er enoe and d'Ul'in g the o.ouree of bis epeech h~ described the trip the New South W ales M inisters had made to lbourne in N o~mber of 1910 Me revealed that they had otfe.?."e~ a,'l$nlimt s which would have made the propoeals acceptable to ~he N ew South :W ales Labor G ove mment E ven thou g h Hughes was aw~& of their coming, the Bille had passed the third reaiUng in the Oe~te~ Holman pointEld out that this was the fir~t time that these .f ao'ts we-re ge:nerally lmotm In thi$ same speech Holman .r-idiculed the idea that th~ Fed l't1l Pu15..amentary Labor party shoul.d have the power to interpret the platf'orm of the Inte11-State Oont'rence when :the Inte.r.$tate Conference wai, in reality a creation of the State Political Labor League c onferenoes The Labor party shouad not be at the mercy of any idea that a couple of domtn poli~ieians dow,n tn lbourne might get into their heads The State tabor party cannot be bound by what the Fede~al caucus noeR be c ause it had no representation there l he Australian Worker August 24 1911 P 19

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198 Hughes interjected that New South ales had nineteen representa:~1vas 1n the Federal eau.cus and a$8d 1 ttHow many more do you want?u 1 l'.n his reply to H()lma:n 1 s speech before the Special Confexence Hughes maintained that the Fed1tral M'inisters w re una-ware of the reason fo:r the November, 1910 visit of the N ew South W ates depu t-tion., fluglle$ aLso challenged Holman s standing in the tabor ove Nor,, .. Bolman has told you something which he said was a $eCl"et I will tell you eo-mething too Mr Holman in the pre pence I or Ml'. eGoWen and )4-. B,eeby threa'j;eried that unless I,dt$W the B111 he would oppeetl it everywhere he went,. and would pa tup a man against me and against men like me in the oonst.ii.tueneiee. I oaid that '.t would not consent to be brow beaten ., And unleae the coming Intl"-State Conference tells me plainly that :tt is not going to stand by whet the people of .Au&tnl~ aff:1.rms is necessary to be done the ref'er. &ndwn questions will be put again in the eanie term Mr Holman notwithstanding ,1 1 . Hol.maU did not answer Hughe a- acouaations, but Holman e subsequent actions 'd'3monstra.ted that he continued h1s opposition to the, Hughes' pFoposals. Aft r much debate the Oonferenoe rejected b1 a vote of 170 to 61 a motion of outright cene.ure, but earned a. motion which bound Illbmbers of the Party to support all ;tv;ture referendum proposals that had the approval of the lntel""State Confe rence .3 The Cont'ereneo abo passed a motion that the Intet--State Conference be asked to

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199 place the 1911 alt1Jrations upon the 0 righting platform.o 1 The Austral ... Wc>f!fer gave what waa probably the best interpretation o the Political tabor teagu~ Conference deoi~ions 'When it labelled its edd.t.orial dealing with the Oonfel"ence, "Oo and Sin No re 1 2 The next opportunity:for a cla ah b&twsen Holman and Hughes was the 1912 Pre-mi.$rs ConfE!rence, but Hughes wired Holman that he wauld not he : able to attend and ~ssured tne New South \Va,1.e s cting ... Prem:i~r th~t the Fede:ral Government did not intend to trespass on the epher& ot States Hughes refen-ed :Wolman to his 1910 speees in Parliament fe~ more details.) Holman told the Premiers that he had :read Hugh~s ape-.eches and still was of the opinion that the pro ... posals would giv,e all" over commerce to the Federal Pa rliame-nt 4 In pl.ace of the Hughee al wrations Holman a.skea the Pn;miers to endorae the proposals contained in his Ma,-, l9ll circu1a.r to thsrn E~tt said that 'Holman made a good showing at the Conference, but that was soon made clear that none of them /the Premiers7were anxious 'bo assist him in composing hisdispute 1th Hughes 1 Holman 1'as technically correct in saying that. bi.$ proposals would have been a fulfillment of the Drisbane Platf'orm. But, as Evatt pointed out.., llbid ,. 2Ibid P 16, miers' 3New South Wales Parliament!!7 P!{>e:rs~ Report of the PreCont"'erefice (1912) P ~5 4Ibid. ............ / 5Evatt Australian Labour Leader, P 301

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200 the Oon!'e:renee included thN,e Liberal Premiers, and 11 they did not care a rap whether the Labour OoV9mment of the Commonwealth was wnturlng to a,sl( too much or too 11.ttle." 1 In short, 'bhe Premiers Conference of 1912 rejected liolman'e proposals. It was ine-vitabla that there would be discussion of the 1911 proposals $th the Inter-State Labor Conference held at Hobart during January, of 191~ Hughes supporte re predominated among the Confe!'i-,, tn(:e meint,ei, ~htp, and it soon became obvious that the Conf'ewnee would: not rlptt~~te Hughes or his principles. The Conference dontinued I \ ? ~he dG~-e .. that Holman and Hughe.a had begun in Brisbane but it wa, not as sensational aa preceding disouseions. The main reason for this was that the prin(llipal antagonie-t>s, Holman and Hughes, were not present.. Through a letter read to the delegates Hughes made it clear that be de.sired their woval. for the a.lte-ration.s. Hughes uiten tion was to obviate H0lman 1 a 1911 gument 'b.nat the alteratit)ns were not a. portion of official Labor policy. Wit.h. regard to the referendum, I do sincerely trust that ~he Confeiran-ce will not attempt t-o lay down any ha.rd and fast rule or define the questions -.hich will have to be submitted to the people My own idea ie that it the Confel'9nce broadly ~pprevea of what we ask for, and broadlf disapproves of the attitude of those State parties that oppose our attitude It nll t-r.emendously help us.2 The letter continued with re4uest that ths Federal platform should bt interpreted by the Inte~-State Conference, and that during the 2irhe Aust ra,lian orker, February l, 1912 1 P 4.

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201 intervals between Conferences the interpretive pawer should be lodged with th~ Federal P.arliamentary party 1 The Conference defeated bf a nineteen to six vote a motion for uniioation bef or.e eo.rnplying with the r quest to re-submit the ~ 2 Szstriez Morning Herald with rare insight commented; ~t '' i,s in a way a reassuring fact that the Labor Conference tu med down by a large majority the unification proposals submitted to 1 t, 1'he Labor party, in spite of its seeming solidarUy is r@' a 't'el"Y loese conglomeration of mutually destructive el~ments J The specU'ie faotor which caused the fa,:r~y to di$integrate could not have been f'orseen by ~ ~e Herald.but differences on such issues as inoreased Commonwealth poflll!' -w,ex-e enough to indicate that a in t~e Pa:r.1:iy ~as probable ~"t;er def~ating the unification motion, the Conference dis cussed resubmitting the l9ll propotals along the lines suggested in. ~olman a ~U-oular to the Premiers These at-tempt$ ere eas~ly defeated 4 After Holman s friends failed, it was rno'"3d that the alterations to the Constitution be clearly defined by explaining to the lectors how fat' the Fedel'.'$1 Labor Ministry 1nte.nded 'bo go in its exercise of these p-GWera., 'l'm, concluding speaker on this motion, Mr. 4, Fisher, sug gested that the motion be withdrawn and promised ~ e will do our best. "5 Fishers advice a repetition of that contained in Hughes l:fb;td. 2J:bid., January 25, 1912, P 13 )rhe &ez Morn;ng Heral.9 January 11, 1912, P 8,. 41'he Au.s-tralia.n orlcer; Januuy 25J 1912, p lJ .5lbid

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letter., as accepted and the 1n0tion wa~ withdrmm 1 Finally the Conf'erenoe agreed to all of. Hughes' requests by merely endorsing 202 the submission of the 1911 amencbnents 2 This action received approval or the State Political Labor league Confereneee Which met in 1911, the United Labo:r party 0 South 4uetral:i.a.,. many labor counoile, nwmrous trade unions ., and a high per~ntage ot the Labor League branohe s. Bet or.e discussing the dewlcpm~nts in the Liberal party dur ... :ing th'is period, it. is interesting ti!! not-e that there was one group in Au&t ;ralia whieh backed unifieation;i This e-xtreme position was put forth by J, B Steel, l'reeident of the: very $lllall Yo ung Australia. party) in a p&J\Phlet whieh eont-ined a new constitution for Australia In th~ pnif'aoo to the pamphlet Steel said that the keynote to his plan was.,, ~um:EY 0 Basically, Stael s plan was to divide Australia into a Si!Wi&s ot provinces with a unif'orm and cientral system of leg ... islation am admin1strat1on Which was to govern fFom Alice Springs 3 Steel s suggestion was sign1t'icant not because he had a great many supporters ., but because the opponents of oonst-itutional ehange could eay that if the alterations. 0 the Labor party went accepted Australia would be headed toward a system of government not too far removed from that proposed by Steel lJbid .3J. B St$el., 'l'he Cormnqmroalth Constitution Act (Sydney, 1912) ..

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20.3 ThroUghout this period, Labor was vary buf.iY making p lans tor the r&subndssion of th& 1911 alterations. This renewed labor effort cou pled with th-, defeat 0 the referendum spurred the Liberals on to increased organizational activity. Throughout 1911 am 1912 there was a ~r"'1lat'ormation o.f the various non ... labor State parties into 4 Commonwealth Liberal party. 'l'hese non...J.abor State parties had had t.l oomnion bond in the past, but now they were beginning to possess $ ; tlbgree of organizational unity Ullder the Liberal party banner,. The first meeting of the State Liberal puty organizations was held in Melbourne during January of 1912. (This LibEtral me ting shtme~ th:e l~light ltith the Hobart Inter ~ata tabor Conference which wns me.e g at the same time.) The gath r.i.n p was officially '. called t,he Conference of the A.uat:ralian Liberal union and the impGtus for the gathering came from the Victorian Constitutional Union Committee...the body which had been founded in 1911 and had been responeible for raising funds for the opponents of the referendum.; The ~ctutive of the Liberal Union eventually contained mos'b 0 the reoognized Ljl)eral leaders of the Commonwea', e.g., ade of New South Wales~ Joseph Oook, the leader of the Commonwealth Parliamen tary Idhe:rs.1 party and Sir John Forrest .2 lirhe Liberal December, 1911, P 135, January, 1912, p ~ 160. 2second Annual Australian Liberal Union Conf'enmce (Report of the Proceedings} 191'.).

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204 At the same time the Liberals were perecting their Oom:non .. wea.lth organization the various S tate Liberal parties stepped up their 11dtiviti&s. An effort was made to aid the work of the Liberal pqrty byestablishing a C011Donwealth Liberal peper a monthly journal called ~e L!'\:>e:ral There was also a L1l:>eral pape1., The F,ht:i5 Line, in New South ales. 'rhe Liberal did not haw a long existence. It ws a 11 &,~Qk~ mega.tine ., the only a-qeh kind amQtlg the political news pap$r~, -~cl' had an attrao\ive :nnat and color eartoona, (an advance o,rer the l..;lb~r party organs} The Liberal fa motto ns a rathe:r le>f'ty \ 1 .{1 one, i;~ ~t /by the Abstraet hcellencies or Its Constitution, But ~"by Its Oa.paed.:by to Make F%'8e n Shall this Australian Commonwealth be .Judged, 111 D espite the riobility of its purpose and its other attrac.t lons, 'fhe Liberal was a singularly uninformative newspaper. There w~s llt tle discussion of organitational p:roblems or progress, and most of its columns-were devoted to the parliamentary speeches of Liberal$ or biographies or prominent Liberal leaders~ Wh ile the Liberals were intensifying,. e)!}:)anding, and co--o~inatin g their organii tio~l w~., :subtle changes were taking place ir1 the g eneral nonlabor philosophy This oan beat bl!l see n :Ln n.on ... lab o:r s attitude to,rards the 1911 referandwn propoesals o t oourSfJ, some nonlabor poli tieians like Deakin and Glynn had always ad"\tQC&ted a e&rt-ain degree of extended Commonwealth power in the areas covered by the 1911 proposals, but now thie was spreading to lsee any issue 0 The tiberal for its motto.

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others.. The change in non-labor s a.pproach was probably a result of a desire 'llio correct certain economic ills hioh it ap eared impossible to correct withe~t constitutional change It was also likely that the Liberal polit1ciana had an eye on broadening not only the basis or their a p peal., but on eventually inC()rpo :rating m ore groups into their camp .r n an .anaJ.ysis of itThe R ivalPoli~iee 11 of Australian parties '.!'he ~29! Wt:ibt9 ColDl?lfJnta.tor stated that the non laboritea had abondoned their soU,.d :t!'eSistanee to all proposals tor amendin g the Constitution and apt>eared to be willing to accept 1 ( a) modification of the powers ova~ t~~ :a~ ol'dr "to give adequate control over oombi1" : .. i, i 'j"':. )> natio.hs ~ td, ~nepol:Les to the Commonwealth; (b) a uni.form companies acrhj nd .(c) Inter-.Stt wages boards a.nd a Oormnomrealth judicial :i; '. tri.bunal. t o give unity and coh4119-ion to the whole arbitration am ,, I cone:Uia.t1on s:rstem l __ ThEt g eneralizations of Ta,, Round Table are backed up by an examination o! the p latforms of the Victorian Peo p le s Liberal party and r. he Libett,.l Association of N ew S o u t
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did not go that far, and the fifth, seventh., eighth, and tenth plank$ of 1-:htt 1911 platf onn stated t .. To secure, if neceseary-, to the -' Federal Govemment, full powt:1~ to Qtmtrol trusts and combines operating in harm206 full ~etraint of trade within any State of the Conunomrealth,. 7 Te maintain State control ver local industrial matters 8. T~ promote J;egialation of a humanitarian ch.ara-c:ter, and to 1,1'.ls\ll!'e a .tair wage and healthful conditions of employment to all workers, by approved f aotory leg isle. tion and judi cious extension of a wages boarcl system applicable to empl'oyer and employee alike 10 To enc-ourage individual effort and private enterptise. 1 Planks seven, eight, and ten seem t-o contradict the. sentiment con ... tained in platlk five., but even. so it indicated that the V'iotorian People's party realized that there were certain problems that could not be $)l.ved by the States and that eons extension of ac t:tvity ,ra;s in~vli.table The Liberal retreat from the u:nqual.ii'ied c ritioiern of the 1911 referendum, and their advocacy of certain alt&mate policies., and the continued and apparent willingness of Holman to settle hie ~ifferences with the Federal Government even at the expense of some State powera to the Commonwealth did not deter Hughes f~em ~ reintrodueiD.g drastic proposals for alteration of the Oonstitt,iibion in the Cotnmomrealth Parliament on November 1.3, 1912 2 The 191 : 3 proposals were in sub$tance the same as the 1911 ones Appannitly, it never occun-ed to Hughes to introduce alternate '.Lrhe Pepple s Liberal Party ( Melbourne i 1911) 2contmonwealtb of Australia, Parlia.menta2; Deba~s, LXVII (1912}, $396.97

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207 proposals that could have placated the New ales Labor par ... lu.ment.arian-$ and that might even have gained a certain amount of Liberal suppo~t. The 19l3 proposals were as follonal 1,, Ooru:ititution Alteration--'l'ra4e and Ooxumerce ( tf 1RtDEl un CmmERCE ( Wll'lt (fl'flilt OoulffR!Ea AND AY:>NG THE STATES) but not including trade and commerce upon the rauwaya the property of a State except so ar ae it is t~de and commerce with other oountriee ot among the Statee 2 ~ Constitu.ttorf AJ.terat-ion-co;oraticms ~-)t'Ptm&!!tm Ooffl"Offl:IM~, 71 T1iAD1N G O R .:F INANCIA.L CORPOL ATIONS 7'D-RMED illTHIN THE LIMITS OF THE Co NWEALTlh) aorp-0rations inoluding(a) the, disselution, regulation, and control of eoxp()rations, (_b) corporations r onned under the law of a State, including their diss.olution., regulation, and oontrolJ but n<>t includ:ing mund.cipal or governmental eor;-porations, or any eorp-erations foI'llled -sole-ly' for religious, charitable, or .arti$tic purposee, and not or the acquisition of gain by the corporation or it$ members ~ (o) Fo:reign corporations, including t~ir regulation and .oontrelt 3, Oonsti;ution Alteration-Industrial t 1$tte~,i (iaiv)(C6m!Itm'!l!4 DO Dlrtti:l'ldN F 1 bft 'tHE PRE\tENTION ND Sl!.'TTLEMENT OF INDUSTRIAL D-lSPUTES EXT ENDING BEYOND THE; Lillt'l'S OF ANl' ONE STATE .) Labour and Employment and unemployment including( a) terms and c.onditions of labour and employment in a~ trade, industty or callin1.u (b) the rights and obligations of employers and employees; (o) strikes and lock-.outsJ (4) the maintenanoe of industrtal peaceJ and Ce) the settl.emeet of indwstr:tal disputes. 4,. Constitution Alteratio~-Railw! Bieputee (xx:xva) eonc311!a-t!on and arbrratL,n fo:r the prevention and settlement of industrial disputes in relation to employ ment in the :railway service ot a State .. he mater ial in capitals was in the Constitution originally., that in paran-thesis 1tas to be excluded, and that in lower case was the proposed addition.

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208 5. Cons~ituti9n Alteration..Jl'rusts {xi} Trusts, ooiiib!nations, and monopolies in relation to the production, manufacture, or supply (}f goods, or tht supply of services 6, Constitution Al.te~ation-Nationalization of nopolies 5lA (1) When ea:ch House of Parliament, in the same eeseion has by resolution, passed by an absolute majority of its nembers declared that the industry or business or producing, manufacturing,. or supplying any specified services is the subjeot ot a monopoly, the Parliament shall have power to make laws or carrying on the industry or business by or under the control of the Commonwealth., and acquiring for that purpose on just te:rmi, any property used in connection with the it1dustry or business (2) This section shall not apply to any indastry or busines~ eondueted or carried on by the OoveFl'lDlent of a State or any public authority constituted under a State. 1 rl'ughes made some co11eessions as a comparison between the 1911 and 191.3 proposals rewals The concessions made were: (l) amenqn'Jents t:ieverally submitted instead of oolleotively submittedf (2) specif;to exemption of municipal and go-vern.ment corporations from th~ extension of corporation power; (3) exemption of trade and commerea on the State :railways rem the extended and oormnerce powerSJ (4) exemption of business or industry carried on by a. State from the power to nationalize industry These changes were designed to miti g ate soJl18 of the basis for criticism., Conces sion number two is obviously a tribute to the 1911 oa~paign arguments of the shire councils and the mw1icipal associations. But these con cessions did not meet the objections of Holman, and did not go far lcommomrealth of Australia, Electoral Of'fioe, The Case for and ~ains~ the 1913 Beferepdums.

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209 enough in the direction o! the prCYposals Holmrul had made and 11'hioh would ha'VS appealed to (?ertain liberals. Of course, the Inter-State Labor Conference, the State Political Labor League Conf&rences, labor c-ouneils, and trade unions had endorsed the resubmittal of the 1911 proposals, but Hugbes eould have prevented the Intel'-'State Labor Contere.n~ s endorsement and eoUld have asked them to SUpport less tk'astic :veil'isions. Had he ohos&n to have done these things it would .have foro~d other labor groups to re consid$:r their actions s.nd bring their demands in line with those of the Coumonwealth Labor part7 But HUghas was in no moed for compromise, as indicated by his letter to tm; I~tet-..S tate Oonfei-enc He was determined to gain eventual approval for the alterations of 1911 His decision not to alter matex-ially the 1911 proposals was probably based on the solid back ing given the proposals by overwhelming majorities of the labor move100nt, despite the 1911 defeat.. To help his cause Hughes planned the 1913 referendlJ):n to coineid~ with a Commonwealth parliamentary election, an alection which would involve individual Labor members in a struggle for their seats. 1he tabor party had been successful in its general legislative program, and: Hughee. must haw felt that the tide of victory wes With him The concees:tons did littleto change the course of CotmQOn wealth parliamentary debate. As was the case in. 1910, the debate ranged over the entire subjec t even though in 1912 the proposals were submitted one at a time Th& Attorney General once again based much

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210 of his parliamentary appeal on the industrial aspect of the al ta;ra .. tions ~ Ids t:hat were / ";,nee 7 adequate for industrial conditions are insuffioient for a state of affairs in \lrhich competition is non-existent, and mighty a.coul'!lul a tion of weal th 1n th hands of e. comparatively fffff men control the economic world. 1 'l"he opposition was unimpressed by this line o.f reasonin g elld reit~r ated its former charge that the alterations meant unification~ Alfred Deald.n admitted that tbe proposals were worthy of consid.$rat1on llbut each 0 of them impl iet1 as a first consideration ., an abrogation of the srstem of government as we know it and the adoption of a unitary system1~ These arguments and others eimiliar to those reviewed in Chapte :r III did nothing to affect the parliamentary vote, which .fellowed pa~ty lines just as it had in 1910 The debat& was al$o -shorter than it had been in 1910 The alterations passed tbSl.l' third reading in the Senate on cember 18; 1912, just a. lit.tle otrer a. mon'bh after debate had begun May31 1913 was the data set for the election and re:f.'erondum. Campaigning which had never really halted since 1911 resurnsd in earnest almost two months before the electorate was to i:nake its d,;aoieion. Be.fore reviewing the 1913 campaign it would be well to note the aitua'tion of the parties on the State level New South ale was the only State in which there was no election prior to th Commonwealth lcon:rnonwe alth 0 Australia, Parliamentary Debates., LXVII {1912).; 5607 aibid., .5619

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211 election and referendum of 1913 In Victoria the State elections of 1912 eontinuJd the. Liberal Government in office In the Victorian Legislative Assembly the Liberals increased their numbsr from thirty .. nine to forty ... fiw in an Assembly of sixty ... five The Liberals also increased their majority in Queensland by six, g iving them orty seve n members :1..ri an Assell'lbly of seventy-two.. The four seat Labor majority in South Auetralia was into a twenty-four to sixteen Liberal Assembl,y majority This trend for increased Liberal rapre sentation wa s not evident in \l estern Australia or Tasmania The 1906 Libe:tru. vj.ctOJiY of tlrenty-o-nine to tw.enty-one in W estern ... _, I tra.lia was reversed in 1911 by a thirty~.four to tw&nty-on~ Labor J!Jlljority., Tht previously Liberal dominated Assembly of Tasmania. was captured ~Y tabor by the narr01t margin of one seat 1 In brief_. in the three populous States 0 Victoria,, Queenel.and, and South 4ustralia the Liberals were succesetul, and Labor reversed previous Liberal majorities lll the smaJ.:J_er S'tates of W estern Auetralia and 'taen,aniaJ Labor also had gained a majority in N ew South W ales during the 1910 State elections Thus, it would appear that there was a definite trend away !rom labor between 1910 and 1913 if the State e1edt,1ons and 1911 referendum results can be used as accurate indi cators. or eourse, the Stat~ elections :illvol ved m ore local issues and the referendw,t,ras held on a apeoifio serie$ of iesues., but it l E verett u Olapsy, Atlas of Political Parties in Australia and the U nited State 1 s (Sydney, u S .. bll'!ce" of War !iiformation, fWi&)

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212 was still significant that the Labor p.u"ty lab 1 was being rejected by the voters. The setbacks that Labor had received di.d not lessen the vigor with which the ~ade unione, $ tate parties, and State ~l:Laxnent~iana entered the 1913 election and referendum 041I1Paig F urthermore the N ew South W ales Ministers d1d not cause thf.t 11 Yee 0 supporters any political embarrassment in 1913 Holman for rea$Ons of ill health returned to E n g land at the beginning ot 1913 and did not return to Australia Mtil a we k after the raferendum vote bad b$en. taken. Not. only was Holman absent, but he did not have any comment on the rei'er$ndum, His departure :for England became an oc:casion for Lilieral o:rit:Leiarn. u-. Levy, Liberal M L. A. or New W ales, made a comment frequently rEJpeated by Liberals, who 1.s oppoised to the p roposals instead of takin g the prol>S r. att itude as a. public man on matters involvin g the wslfara of the State is absent in E ngland dining with Duke.a, playin g golf with marguises, and stroking the lap dogs of prineesse s. 1 The leader ot thff New South ales Opposition, l W ade, said that Mr. Holman had .tled 16,000 m il&s rather than do his duty. 2 T his criticism di~ not upset the tabor party which was apparently quite pl a~ed with Holman's abeence lE cGowan, on the other hand, d1d not le :ve the country and was not silent as he had been in 1911. Instead, he actively campaigned lThe Sydney pming Herald, y 2, 1913, P 12 \A

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21.3 fori the Labo?' candidates a.nd the alterations. At the opening of the New $outh W ales campaign by Hughes, Gowen mowdt That tbis. meeting of North Sydney electors has every confidence in the Labor party and its candidate W M Hughee and expresses its approval of tlle l.abor O~rnment s legislat-iw record, am pledg!e itself to secure adoption of the proposed amendments . .. In ~upp~ of \his motion McGowan aai.d that the example of .America s a stern object, lesson f~r AustJ;'alians He ~xplained that he had thought that the oould be to the Collll11onwealth by the ~tate l$g;1.ts l aturos, but the Prel'.!liers Conference of 1912 had proved ~hat it eoulq notJ tbe:refore, a ree::rendu.m was the only hope 2 wade and ot~ers called the New. &outh w'ales .Premier fl ooward While the l,abel" ~ty elcom,ed him back '1 1th H~'a absimce eGowen's supp ort, ,an,;' B e eby 1 a having left the Labor pany, the tttes" eampa:Lgn \ I in 191.3 z~s '. a ,a united e:ffo:rt. 'lhe press repor:te and speeches indicated that the re.feren dum dominated t}1e entire canpai~ anti even the :individual contestants wet& arguing the ~ri:bs ot the extension o Commonweal th pc,wers were, helWever va.riations on. the 19+1 arguments One of these was Lapor a ~gun'JJnt tnit prices had rieen as a l'eSUlt of monopoly control. The Aust~lian W orke,r carried a. series of articles through out 1911 and 1912 that highlighted this iaeus-"We Told You ~o," nThe Cost of V<;>ting 'No," "The G~at S teel Trust," "The Patent dicine 1 Ibid April 10~ 1913 p" 17

PAGE 223

Trust," fuy Prices Are H igh, 0 and "How Prices Are Fixed .nl The Liberals were quick to tum thip argument against Labor by saying that it was LaboT that had been governing for three years, and., therefore, it was the Labor party s tault ti' pri ces were h ig h. HUghes ansWe~d this Liberal argument by saying, 214 In .A uet.ral'1.a. tbe cost of living bae increased sixteen t-oent in the three years The Labor party is in Office But the tnet:s a;re here I and regU.late pricea and output of nany of the neoeeities of life One more fact. The Australian trusts beh i nd the Fue:ion to a man Th se two .facto, addttd together, expl~in why the Fusion, wh.ich is baokttd by the t::,uats, says that. the tru&t& are not the -cause, of high prices 2 This $mphas1s on increased :p ri-ces was an attempt by Laber to show tba..t those Who vot$d t'No" in 1911 had onl y harmed themselves an d the re s-t of the Commonweal th The tabor Manie$tO of 1913 oontainedt (l) the record of the party; (2) "The 'i'm' e G reat Q uestions," i.e.~ Industrial U nrest., Tne Operation.a of 1',;-usts and Go m binet!, an d the Increased Coat of tiv:tngJ {3) a. t-eview of t.he p awer of tru,ats, their exhorbinant pro f'its and h ig h pricesJ and (.4) a state~nt t o the eftect that trusts w:ex,e the cause of the hi b cost of living and u.nreet The Manifesto had very little to say at>out the reasons why voters should support the ind.1v1
PAGE 224

215 T he T Jl r~a.t ue stions,n industrial unrest, was another Labor 11ariati on o ri the 1911 n1es" arguments. Labor pointed out that the trouble in th@ it'ot:1 trades and the difficulty that. arose in the ~eensland oanefields whio}'l nearly eau.sed. a gene~al strike would have "bae ?\ IIIB.t t~rs of eQ.t,y sattleamt but or ttie a<,tion of the dull ~I a;nd unth,inkin ~ orowds 1tho voted ttNo,. at the biddin g of parochialism and pe'bty ~ tata: jea,.ousy~l At th.e 'beginnin g of 1912 t, he B risbane ~neral st;lke which resulted fr~ffl. tramtJay o~fic1ale retusin g unio n n$mb&rs the ., rl g ht to -.ea.r union badges, 'Vfa.s used ae another r&o.son to~ the r~1'"a:rtJn<:l,um alterations It was atrgued thata $tate O ovemments too often are the tool.Et or the11e nalthy eon .. c""rris .. toeal influ&ncee are apt to become entangled With the interestl3 of p rivate enterprise. That i s the -pos1.tion in Q ueenslan(l .. The chaos brought about b t the coercive hau g htiness of B adger /yram Conpan ys Manager/ unchecked by State authorities once more demonstrates tna'i de m oeracy' s. only hope lies in the achi$v&mant of nationhood.2 As each new in du:stt'ial difficulty a ros,e the La b ori.tes held it up as an example of, why increased al"'bitration power was needed by the The Australian W orker d urin g the 1913 campaign said: I you, believe that Arbitration is good and in conformity 'llfith the bett ide a ls ot civilization then you met cast y-our bAl.let -for the constitutional a.ndtnents., and obviate Industrial W ar by of!e~ing to employers and employee,, who have dif.ten:,nces to adjust the effective ll\aehinery of INDUSTRIAL P.E4C 3

PAGE 225

216 These new e.rgutnents for the increased power and a unitied Party made tha Labor party optimistic-. The "Yes advocates also felt that the proposals bad a much better chance than they had had in l9ll beeaus, those who had put Labor in p(11'ler at the 1910 elections in votip.g to~ tne cand:Lda:te of their choice would if they voted for labor 1n ~913 : also vote for the refere-ndum. Another raet which Caused rejoicing among t"Yes" supporters was Alfred .Deakin s retire ment in JanUUy, 1913 Deakin announcing bis retirement had indicated that be would fight against the alterations., but ht played a very minor role in the 1913 eampaign. 1 The ''No" sid& was composd of the 1911 opponents, but us without the indirect aid of Holman and the othe~ New South Wales Hinisttrs. HC1Yre~r,. the Liberals did make a great deal ot the fact that ceerdiottn had been used on Holman and other New South ales Ministers, and the dodger below(See P late VI.) is typi~al 6f the way tld.s arg~nt -was presented to the electors. To offset anyloes that the Lfb ) et~s ?night have sustained as a reeul t of a united 1-bor party;, theta 1Jas the fact that the L~rals had a l.arger and more active pai-ty orgaM.zation than they had poseeesed in 1911. State politie~ who h~d formerly been independents or affiliated with minor parties now were becoming integrated into the Liberal organ :1.zation, Mc)reover, the Liberals had two newepapers, The Liberal and T!!f Fifsht~~ 1:~ which cou~d be used to aid their cause. :Lrhe Liberal, May-, 1913, pp.30.3-304.

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21 7 FLA.TE VI a 1' 1 1 1 1 1 T \ '. ... I l oh NO TIii ........ .-..... ............ ... C:...Cu.. ... -""erhd Coehc tioll ad "-"'lill t... ...... .ll w ..... la tlle coavy rtaht,i .. ,..._.__ .,_, diem bJP ll IIII s111 VOTlt NO, ANO UCAPlt CAUCUI IIVL&. aL i b er a l Pa rt y P a mph le t if ... il { Sydney : i tc 11 Lib r a:ry)

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218 Tha '.Liberal.a renewed two arguments whieh appeared to have been eectiw : 1n 19111 (a) dep:t'ivat!l.on o States right&J and (b) that the Conmionw9altb ahol,lld not be ruled by an undemocratic caucus The Fighting Line 1n an "Ode ,o Referenda" gave a lyrical picture or hat ooul.d happen if some future caucus poaseseed the pawHs that we-re requeet84~ But these false f'eet called caucue, ?hough F j~er feebly says them n&.1J Wovl.d, ,. ilOl"i individual industry Wri:e~er they found itf And Natiena l ize 'Would cry l'es, Nationalize and then yQu could R~d socj.U gossip such as this J:n A$Wspapers profound WI'he J in :lster for Boote and Shoes forsooth Is the week-end -.1 Whether i.t 1fial!i in veree, epeeohe& or pa.'Ilphleta the caucus remai~d ont o the most frequent targets for Liberal criticism The unifica,.. tiort fear Md :bhe attendant loss ot. States rlghta were pl'8sented in dodgers like the one bel.ow (See Plate vn .. ) which shcnr Hughes and FifiJher :tffl
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19 .,, \ 1-" a ', :i ~ 11 I ,, \! : I .,,~ VO! / R efere n da G as-tons of it available fro m ioniatic p oliticia n and O nion agitator, orkers, remember that efe:renda G as, if sucke d :Ln, will d evelop nasty after-effects. i ake up, D emocrats, your freedo m and aJ.1 else in way of State rl g hts are in danger. O n .31st" VOI''.B N O t a L iberal P arty P amphlet File (Sydneys tchell Library).

PAGE 229

220 intol.erable.-tl Joseph Cook, Dealdn"s successor as leadet' of the C~7lmomv~a1th P~lia.mentary Liberal party, charged that Labor had been in pcmer for three years and had done nothing about rising prices or inda$trial unreat He asked 1t' such a P.iy could bl tru$ted 't!o ~o;i.$8 the powers sought, and should such a Party be Feturned to office i~ view of unrest and rising prices B8-$by tok another line and argued that all the powers al!lke.d for Wollld not m&~tl"ially atf.ect Atn1tJ-alia ts problems' as they were prob'lemEr ot ,; etfe et 2 4lthough the Uberals logie was not always the best,. th$ywere attmpting throl.lgh any -argument that had a degl'ie.e 6:f pop~ appeal te counteJf the tabor part;rr on its own ls"'l., 1-.e ., ~! the argUJD$nts per'Somu Al'though the campaign was cent&red around the extanai.on o / OGnmlonw&alth p~ and thereforie, l'la~ a ~epe iiiti.on of n:rueh that bad b~en ss.i,d hi 1911 there was a new Oommonwealtb E1eet~ral Act I Whioh gave~ the campaign. One section of the El.e ctoral Ac-t pro vid~ that 'blw rete~ntiUlll proposals should be published ., and that the Commonwealth l!tl.oct~ral Offioer was author.Laed to accept an official statement from tlle "Yes-" and "No" s~ppOl"ter, which a.s to be pub lished lfith the proposals, Both partioa provided a state1111nt, lThe: Sl!!~l MomY:ii Herald, May8, 19131: P 10 :Ibid ... lay 6 191.3, p 10-. ...,...__

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221 and these etateroents were condensed ~rsions of the general oampaign argwnents,~ Anoth~r s.6ction of the Act was somewhat .more eontrover sial arid requ:b."ed that evezy article, report, or other ma.tte;r pub .. li:shed in the ass that comni$nted on ant po~i oandidat.e, party, or issue, must be:a:r the au.thor.s signature-. The SY'!nal orn!gg ,$! $&iQ. tha.-t it did t 1 n.ot intend to depart from thelong established tradition of ~itisb journaliBln by signatures to its le 1 ading artt-01-es.nt J h~ -Herald was the onl:y newspaper :reviewed for this .. study whicb tQQk this ;ittitu.da, and ewn, though th e \ierald renuuned editol'ially silent it ueecl other methods to convey its general opinion.. _The H$t-ald pe~itted Wade, Cook, and others th$ free '1ft of it$ eol 1s and ran a series ot signed articles by seftral Liberal peliticiane 1'11'>::Lch mq,r, ssed oppoeition to the referendum Election .. meetings were Nported through the words of speakers I and although comment was avoidfjd, Liberal spe akers r-.eceived 'the fullest coverage. (The HE~ral.d s objection as short li~d, and the pract.i.e or signing politieaJ. articles du:ring elactoi,al oanpa.1.gns has beooma a fixed pert of Australian al&ction procedure ) one diy. before the re.ferendwm: vot w. s taken the Privy Oouneil handed down a decision on ap~al firom the I igh Courtof Au.atNlia, t1le Coal Vend decision, which had oo.cupied much time and loommorrt1ealth of Australia, The, 191) Refe,rendUJ?lJ the Case For. a.nd :Aainst l9ll ($ 2Th~ S~nel :Mom i:ng Herald, April 19, 19ll, P 8

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222 litigation~ The history of the case us as follows In 1906 the Gommomealth Oovenumnt alleged thateontrazy to the Industries Preservation Aet the Assoc iation of Northern Collieries and the Association o Steamship Qlmere had entered into a combination in restra,i.nt of trade The case was first heard by Justice Issacs of the Hig~ Court who aeted as a spcial judge sitting 1n original jtU"isdie~ion. Re found the ~ties guilty and tined each five hun dred pounds, the max1muro amount stipulated 1n the Aet The judgement was notablfJ 'because it took thne days to deliw:r and consisted of 193 foolscap folio pages Issacs decision was based on the tact that there was a persistent destruction of competition on land and se$, that prieee were excessive and that there was restriction or the O()rifJutnel"S opportunity of choice ,. l The colliery propl"ieters aceepte.d the dftcision However the steamship OOJIPany appealed and the High Court in ite appellate jurisdiction found no violation of the Industri~s Preservation Act because in the words of the Act the actions of the collieriee owners and steamship companies was not "detrimental" tothe publie 2 The Privy Council upheld the High Court s rewrsal. on the same grounds 3 From. the atandPoint of this study the importance of this ease is its impact on the '-Yes" and ttNo" advocates. Joseph Cook contended that the failure of the prosecution Lrhe King and the Attorney General of the ColDltlomreal th v The Aesoe1Q.ted NoJ"them Collieries and ()there, 14 e L R )67..675 2 Ibid 3The 4ttorney General:, of the Oonmomrealth of Australia and The .Adelaide Steamship Oo Ltd and Others Appeal Cases House of Lords and Priv,v Council (191.3), 781..Sl6

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223 was "not. 'or want of pOftr but for vtant of facts to warrant the exe:r.c1se of the power The law i.s there.,. it has not been violated; that is alJ_,.nl Hughes took a different view of the decision., and a Bked wno could appro-ve the acts Issacs had cited in his decii,ion. He coneludta. that. : we have exhausted evecy means to determine llbat o-ur p
PAGE 233

be not()d (See Tables VI and x.,) is that th.$ 1913 vote wa-o highert ne arly 2;000 1 -000 people voted in 1913, sonl4 800,000 morQ than in 1911, in act, 731161 pe~ cent of th1;1 total enrolled electors voted in 191.3 as ~a;i.nst 53.31 pe.r cent tn l9ll and 62.16 per cent in 1910 'l'hui h:4sher vote .probably is the result or holding two electoral e~nts tdgfthef)' 1,e ., people v.oted beo4u~ of the parli.amen~ taty elecM ons and, othe~s vot$d bee~uee of the refa~ndm, although :those 1"Qt; fo-X, ~he f'.irat reaQon probabl? outnumbered those voting for the se~onch -\;. ~able )f. ahotrs that tbr,&e States, Q ue.,neland, Bou'bh Austr$l.ia 1 an d W este:rn 4 a stnl;la (These three Sta~es were consistent in the~ wttng on all quest1cns .) re~stered ''Ye stt majorities, Also there 11s fffVI a,; 8 1 $00 vo~s sepa.rat ing tha total ''Yestt and '' N o" 'O'otes qn. t-hs mo.nqp ol.ies que$tions fu:rtbemoro, there ffel:'e ae many as 65,000 votQS separating "Yes" and J fo 11 on the traqe and eomm&rce vote-. (Sea A p pendix IV lt'hich giws the vote on each question._) Stx:ty-five thou.Band votes wat1 the approxte majorityot the N o" sideon all queati()ns except the ~nopc:>lies 0~. ~ ut th& voting varied from clause to ol~uM, e.g lharc, were 170 1 000 informal votes on the :nationalization quest,1~ while there was .-i average of 80,000 informal. votes on the other quee-tions. The high Wonnal vote was to be e~ted because of the number of questions and the different issues that we:z:ie _, involved. 4nother conclu1ion to be drawn on the basis of the voting wae the.t the control of trusts wae t,.loje m ost popular or

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TABIE X 1913 SENATOIWJ. ; VQ'f E AJ."ID 1913 REFETIENDW VO'l':E BY STA'!ESa N.S .. Vie., Qldw c s ... w: .., Tas.Total Vote for Labor 1 s l.eading senatorial <:andidate ........ .. .. ... 301,994 299,-969 lhS.,kT.l 96,_750 68.,,916 3$.,052 9-48.,168 Vote for Libaral 1 s leading senatorial 358~143 39,409 eandidate .......... .. 297,)90 12).,621 82.,829 561'730 958,-122 Elector enrolled .:,. ......... 1,0.36 ,.187 8)0,391 36),o82 244,026 179,784 106,746 2,760.,216 % of enrolled elt1ctors voting -. ..... 69.82 75.49 11 .. 2-0 80.-10 73 .. 50 75.)2 73.66 ttYe-s votes f'or Trade and Commarce Proposal ... ....... ... .... ,. ~ 317,89) 297, 290 146,-187 96,085 66,349 3h,66o 958,' "1fo u vote tor Trade and Co!IIID8rceela9,se 359.,418 301,915 122.,813 91.,J.44 59,181 42,o84 982,61.S 117-400..8Tbis Table is taken from Commonwealth of Australia, Parliamentarz Papeq> II (1913) .,

PAGE 235

226 the t,abOl' alteratione. This .. desire to Ngulat and control. monopolies I and trusts was stimulated by the ~dverse 'decisions or the High Court. .. r~ the 0~1 V~nd deei$ion of 1913 had added to the La.por disgust Labor had also continued to a grim piotunt of monopoly tvils both in Australia and th-Et United State$ M onopoly and money power were also e~h~aiaed by FNder1-ck Watson, former ,aitor ot lf.ustraJ.i~ nisto-riqal ~cords, in a pamphlet whidh dealt with th ea:rly Cormnonwealth nterencla ffie argument was t~t the 19i) mcnop oli&s question would have passed bad it not been for/ the moneyed interests in New South Wales ~ 1 on the basis of the tig~ee in 4ppen
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227 191;3 refer endwn and election simultaneously.. But the more ~ortant question, and one which as not raised in connection with the analysis or t~e 1911 referendum results, is whether the voting result of the retet~mdum. was aected by the .. holding of a general election on the ~ ,da1 Probably the personal nature of election battles a.fleeted the voting in the referendum, but it is extrem$ly difficult to deter mine '.bb,e .etfeet of the parliatnentary e:teetioa on the ret:erendwn. 'liable X shows that in 1913 thell'e wae a simi.lar pattern in the Sta~-by.State voting f r "bhe eenatorial condida11es and vo-ting on t~ ~terei~dutn. Victoria. was the only State in which the retel'en"'" d\llll vot~ ~d not f'Gllow the s& vote In Victoria a Labor senato:rlal candidate reeeived the highest totai vote 1 but the State vot$d UNQ'_r at the referendum., The senatorial vote and the referendum vote in Queen.eland were almoat the same, a-ad in the remaining States tihe voting ~-tJults were c~ose enough to sug g est that those who votfid Labor were the o:nee who voted "Yes" and those who voted Liberal were the ones who voted "No" H-owever, any conc:lusiC!>n based on such a I premise must t-emain in th r.ealm or speculati on A Comparison of the voting results in the electoral. district$ reveals that the parties llplit even in electing D1$mbere to the House while t:her: was a "No" majority in f'ortythree of th eewnty-ifive d1i,triete As Table XI sh01te only Queensland am South Australia electoral districts were consistent in their voting at the election and referendUlll. Howe'Ver as indicated by Table XII the rural districts of tJew South W ales mtchttd t'POm Labor to ''No.'' This was a, continuation

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228 T.A.Bl.E XI DISTRIBUl'D)U OF COUMOlfflE.ALTH PARLLWEN?ARY El.EOTO~ DIS'l'RlCTS AT THE El.Ji:CT-ION Alm REFERENDUM OF 1913a N .s w Vic-. 0 Qld 'W .A. IS .A. Tas. Total Lab0l' .. l~ 9 7 r 4 3 37 Liberal 15 ll 3 3 ) 2 31 !JNoh '' 18 12 .3 4 3 3 43 tfl'~sU ., ii 9 9 7 1 4 2 )2 81his table ii, taken from material ina Commonwealth of Australia, ~~~~,n~afl raer~, ll {l:913), 117-400 bv;teto:ria had one independnt member who supp~ted the Libertna TABIE lll DISTRICTS THA'l' VOTED WOR AWD "NO" Ill 1913a l)ist:rio1i N~ South Wal.$$ ~ir lllawara 11. Maoquarri$ ,,. Vict~ia Bal. l~at Western Australia Fnaemantle Tasmania Bass .~ Labor Vote ll.,296 J.4,852 11,163 16,417 15,428 7,954 ,. Liberal Yes Vote on No Vote on Vote Trade and r rade and 10;348 lh,746 10,451 16,049 12,225 7,212 Commerce Commerce 10,489 14,445 9,681 15,791 13,540 6,890 10,696 14,538 12,050 16,129 13,662 8,024 I aTh.iS table is taken from material in.a Commonwealth of Au.s'bl'al.ia, ?arlia.mentarr PaPf!rs, II (1913), 117-400 ..

PAGE 238

229 o~ the pattel'n shown~ the comparison of the 1910 election and the 19:Llt t'efer&ndum votingJ but, the. etiitt trom Labol" to ttNor was not near-1y so prono~ed in l9lJ Thef et that fewer district& switched ircra ;tabor to. 0 No" in 1,1; 1 &long with th& increased Vt)ting at the election and :refe~e~ui,n ot 1913, suggests ~other ef'feat ot' holding th6' tet:ere~um and e:Lction simultaneous~. Briefly etated, the eft#Ct lfas tbat the tlYeat~ vote incraaEJed.Th1e conclu11ion is based ,t11 ... I on th$ astl.Ul'iption that th~ electe,rs we-re mor~ -~iepoaed to voting foit~e ~fenlndtuu p,a,,opo~e ae a "sult of their desiJ'e t-0 vote or a : I, ,, '.-:;.,t. "t t '\ tabe~ b4ri~il~\es at the ect1on. That 1$# vo~re telt that in voting '1~~ ta'b-o:teandidats th y should also vote tor the alt~ations 'ltd.Cb ~~~ ::; jart the Labor Tpere wa.e -a l"edietrib'1tion of' el&etoral district, be tween 1911 and 191) whieh es it virtuall;r impossible to compare the ~l ,,I eompari&on ~n the 1911 ~d 19lJ referenda is not of JJ.'!\V g reat Gigniticance The important point 0 comparison 'between ti-.o two refe~nda 1!3 that the ali~nment of tnte:rE1st group$ remained the sam Furthermore, tlle @gUDl$nts used and the posi 'bions adopted by he l!l6l'e t ... i.lnp()t't.ant pe~sonalit:ie e :in 1913 were to a large extent a repetition ) -of 1911.The im,a.t W. A,,. Holman did not figure so pl"ominently in the 1913 c&q,ign probabl aided the ''l'es" cause, But or the moet part; the same combination. of taatore which brought about the .. de;i'eatof the 1911 proposals were als-o N1Jponaible for the rejection of the alterations in 1913,

PAGE 239

CHAPTER VIII POLil'ICAL METAMORPHOSIS It was apparent .from the outset of the Firth Commonwealth Pal'lianl$11t ( July 4 to December 18; 19l.3) that the thirty-eight to thitty...s~wn Liberal majority in the House (The Victorian Indepen dent ma.nibe'i'., R. ise voted witl:l the LU>erals ) and the Labor majority in the Sean$.'be would make Liberal Government impossible It was ; only ~ ~tt&r of time before the Cook Miniatry had to :resign During the First Session of the Parliament the House of Representatives, tho Liberals on the Speaker s casting vote 1 abolished preference to unionists in the publio e,ei'Vic, and also abolished postal voting at Commonwealth elections; the tabor Senate rejected both or the se mea sures The House pe.seed the Bills again in the SecQnd Session, am they We?'e again defeated in the Senate by twenty-one votes to five Upon the second defeat o! the Bills Cook asked for a double disso lution of Parliam$nt on the argument that the ttwo Houses were dead locked This was a deliberate policy on Gook s part., because he tho-ught th~ Liberals could be returned to p c,ver with a working major i ty The Govemor-
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2Jl bees.use of the war the election be hatted and that the Parliament continueas it was. Hughes sug gestion was rejected. At the election of Septeri:>er 5 1914 the distribution of sea.ts was Labor rortytwo and i,iberals thirty.two I in the Senate tabor had thirty.-one seats and the I ibet--nls five.1 T l ll'oughout !the period of the Cook ilinietr-J the ~ferendun,, p;Voposal.J ot 1911 and 191$ were discussed by Laboz: .and Liberals alike.. The .J\usti-al ian orker, Hughes., Andrew Fisher and the other "YestJ $Upporte~s continued their advoeaey of the proposals, but sin:co they were not in eontt'ol ot the Commonwealth Parliament they t:eul,d not hope that th~ _alterat1one ould again be submitted. UberAls lil<-e Jo$epb Gook 'Who were, experiencing the p:roblems that come wi~h th& responei.'bility ot goveniment were more willing to admit the neeessi'by for s0121e 1 ~xtEJnsien of Commonwealth powers.2 However, be:et:uee of the nanr01mf.lee e tbe 1%' majorit;r in the Honse and because of opposition within the Far.ty, tb-oae Liberals favorble to some e xtens:Lon of pOWeJ"S did not ha~ an opportunity ta advance any con ... erete proposals dUl"ing their 'brief tenure ot of tice. When Labor returned to power in 1914 it quickly indicated that another rei'eNndum would be taken.. rhis ns to b8 expected ustralia in the 2see Joseph Cook. The Polie;: or Liberalism, 1914. There were other Liberals like Bruee 1 SmIJi,he 1'ari!ye:a or a Nation ; 1914, who were more interested in eriticising Iitior.Sm!th revealed muoh ot the conservative bias of a section of the Liberal party when he eaJ.lod Herbel't Spencer '"the greatest thinker of the age."

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232 since all of the original reasons for introdu cin g the propoe,a,ls continued to exist.And there were noW two new reasons r (a) the :referendum had be&1'i defeated by a very narroW margin 1n 19i3, thu the Labor party :cenend confidence; and (b) th$ European W ar mde it necessar,y, .for the Commonwealth to possess gre :ber pow&X's '.l' he pleas to tu~ another. ref();oondu1n were endorud by the y 1 1915 m~r..St-a.te tabor Ooni'eren~ .. 1 The new Bills submitted M were like those of .l91JJ these Bil1 a were introduced I' into :bbe Hou$~ of RepresentaUves on June 18i 1915 an werepa aN.d on July 2, 191$. 2 After the Bills pas~d Parliament the referendum was: tehati~l.y set far Novmnber of 1915.) e.ny opservers took a veey d,i.Jn vi(m' of the decision to hold anoth r ret~rttndum. .Muoh or th& opposition to the referendum was ,: up in the Rond Table, It is p1'opo$8d by th Ministey that the referendum shall be held ih Nqvember It is not at all likely that the war will be o~r by that ;time. Ir th& pr.sent rate or los8' in Gallipoli eontinuea, the entire original force lfill be out of action and fully a h1lrtdred thousand more re:quire.d to hold our own there .. No more 4 1nausp;toious time could have been cho~ n for such an appeal., lofic;Lal Report of the S~th p9l>t Commomrealth Political Labor Conf'.ehmce t Sycfoeyt 19!5) 2oQ$llomr&alth of .Australia, Parliamentarz Debates LXXVII ( 1915), 4168~598 -'00Illnonw(3alth of Australia.; Parliament!:17 Debates, IXXIILX UI (1915) 4 11 Austra.J.ia1 Party Politi cs," The P.ound '!'able, v 868.

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23,3 ;Be,cause of ths hostile attitud and the seemingly favorable dispo si;tion of t~ State Premiers to re.fer the powers to the OommolTlfealth; Hugb~s, nowPrime .Ministel'., considered that it would be preterabl-e to aSk the Premiell's to :recommend the desired legislation to the State Parliaments The Premi&rs--New. South W ales ., Q.ueensland., a.hd Western Austl"alia. had liabor Pre-mi.era while Vict oria., South Australia ., a.nd .. '. . Ta sroortia had Liberal Premiers.......agreed at their annual Conference in .. .. l fovembe:r.; 1915 to requesttheir re sp$etiv.e State P arliaments to refer the p~rs SQU,ght to the Commonwealth P .arl!ai:ient fo:r the d.ura.tion of the W' a;r,. R Ug'hes said1 e ~ve accepted th~ otter of the Premiers in the eapirit in which it wa.s tendered w e hope that our act 1rill win approval .. I am o.e11,ain that we have. done what 1& :right.. W e s-hall avoid a campaign in which neeesearily m.uoh would haw been said that we::r.e be tter left urisaid : and much : time would ha~ been lost which. ought to be devbteC!l to other things ~ We feel the country ~ to ~e congratulated. upon the result l :But Hu g aotion did not win the app>!'-o:val he se-emgd to think it Then emerged two main Liberal IU'gumants, one favorable in a grudging $6nse and the other definitely unf'avorable The majority ot the :rank and file of the Labor party were opposed to the action, The unfavorable element in the Liberal party contended tha.t it would be disasterous if the Prime :Minister and the State F'l'&mi.ere could i't:>X'C4t su.oh maeure on to the Commonwealth without approval of the people through a re.fet-endum The leader of the New Sou th ales lo.ommonwealth ef Australia, Parliamentary Debates, LXXIX (191~), 7266

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2)4 LU,ei-als., Wade accu.sed Hughes of receiving through th caucus con ... trQl,ied State Governments tha~ which he coald not get by vote of \he people 1 On_ the other hand ~be Srdnaz t rn;!!}'~ Hel'~ld praiSGd tbe ,. decis'ions, and clain;ld Hughes had never interpreted public op~ien : ii.n ; a .. ~ereaccurate manner a Joseph Cook added his approval.a n ,,, I'n '. this dir,ction /an all ou--t war ell~{ and for this purpose 'V'Sey,thing had ti be paid tor and the pl'ic of political peace ,,. and the cessation from partycanpaigning, is the transfer or a 'Vet-;Y ;large grant of State pfflr to the Federal Government It is but f air to say th! pri~et is a big ~ne .,, ; Cook appe~$ iio have oken f ot' the majo~ 'liy: of the Liberal me.lllbers in the O ommonwaal th Pa.rllament While W ade was echoing the sentiments of 1)1atly State L~eral. poLi.ticians~ The ncast vehe-:m.ent oppositi~ to the postponement of the referaridu.m did not come from the Liberals but from the rank and file ot the tabo:t, paty-~ This disapproval was sicniicant because it wa-s one :' or the 1 f:Ust outward signs that Hughes was not :;ttpportad by a la,i,ge : segn,s'nt of the Labor moven,mt -. As a parliamentat~ian H1:ighes was willing to a-Cij$pt a halt .,. ... loaf but the coneiderations which ltiOt~va~ such a decis1~ .-,re abaent ro~ many of the non..otfice holding ~e~a of the Party The Auet~alian WoJ'kr in a blistering lTpe S~dnet Morn~ Hel'aid Novenber 18 1915, P 10 The Central Oouncll: 7 ol' 7ie ~tt\poyers Federation of ustralia issued a stateJDfllnt objeQting to the deci1.1on on tht,. same lines ade Seei f'~e :llffi!Y M'ol'l'.l,100 ~~rald lfovembe:r 13,, 1915, p 19 .2roid ., N'ovembet' 16, 1915, P 15

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235 front page ectitortal called the argwnent that a referendum campaign would hurt the war effort a "lie~" and alleged that it was "invented in the desperation of fear by those who saw themselves driven from the Paradise of Plunder ul This was the t1tandard worker attack on nonlabor argwnents, but what was more important w:as that the V ol"ker objected to th fact that the Federal Ministers had demonetrated no desir(, to consult the Labor organizations ttwhich were responsible for te~ tbem to Parliament. 112 't'hG newq erea.ted Federal Executive of 'the Inter-State Labor Conference in its first meeting of 1916, according to Stewart and Cohen, Vietorian members of the Executive, passed a motion to the eff&ot that they 0 regretted'' the faot that the Federal Ministry did not consult them before assenting to ,ostpone the reterendum,3 1. F. Crtep, who has had ae-cese to proceeding$ or the Executive, reaffirms this point, and reveals that tbtr Ol':lginal motion of condemnation was passed by an eight to three vote ff1n the ace of a passionate defense by Hughes.,n4 Hughes, according to Crisp, threatened to le11w the Party if the Executive, did not reeeind the motion, and apparently Hughes thl'eat was taken seriously e.inoe the &cecuti ve abrogated lirhe Austf'lian Worker, November 11, 1915, P 1. 2lb1d., Also in this issu of The Woricer there was an attack on Bishop 1laimixs statement that the propoaie had been withdrawn because the Roman Catholics ould vote against them .3Reported ina Feport of the Proceedings of the Political Labor Council pr Victsrl.,., :l'.916, pp. 8-9, 4C;riep, TP,e Australian Federal Lab
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their condemnation by an eight to three vote..1 T he Victorian State Political tabor Oouncil who was immune to Hughes threats passed a motion censuring th Federal Ministry for failing to consult the Executive of the Inter..State Conference 1.'he Victorian Council contended that the deci.aion. not to hold the referendum was made by a "body :recognized neither by la nor the tabor party as competent to de11~ to shelve the issue .,! This in eseance was the same crit1c1mn that had been made or Holman's action 1n 1911, and although the rank and. :tile were willing to tolerate "insUbordination" for a long time there were certain issues which nre o~nsidered fundtA!D8ntal and on which, if some agreement could not ; be reached, the Party would splitIn st,1.te <>f all of the Liberal fears concerning the undemocratio no.tu,?'(!) of the Premieri,' dec:l.sion, there was nbthin g in it whic~ violated the Constitution in !aet, the Constitution made provisions or a reference of powers by the States Furth~rmore, those wo were. calling the action undemocratic had the conservative Legi$la.tive Councils on their side, and less than a month after the Premiers Cor.ifeNnee the Queensland Council rejected legisle:tion passed by the ]\ssembly designed to gr~t the powers to the Commofflfealth 3 E'99n though the States failed to pass t he neceeeary legislation the 1 1bid11 ---2Report of the Proceed:l,ngs of the Political Labor Council of Victoria, 1916, P 7 3-rqe Sydney rning Herald, ovexnbe:r 19, 1915, P 0

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237 Htgb : Court in Farey v Bu.rvet'h came to 8~hes 1 rEiseu.e by recogniaing t~ Qoinmonwealtllts eonstitutio~right to fix the price of bNad ~r the ,VMP.recautione, Act 1 1 -This decis1.on was of the ut)llost sig~iQ~ct;. ainct it .. insUNd that almost any action taken under the ,' War F'recau'tiions Ae 'b cou.ld be sustained, 02 I I,, ., ;:, il~he s had the power that he Tlanted thanks to the High C~lli't, pt hi: : partY a& continuing to reg~ him ~ith suspicion. E;:r~IJldloott claims that the reason fo't' this wae Hughest "vehement I... ',\ ' ., ',. ... 1' dete~ti.on to subordinate all other objects to that Qf renderin ,, ... eff,e~t:k~ -.1\Utjtral,ia~ participation in the war ttl During July and J\ug~ d l 916 the dif'ferenc,s in the tabor party concerning th l -I w.a1i the war was to be waged cams to a bead The immediate reason 1 fer the ~l;it w~s ~onscJription~ Hughes had become convinced that ~nl~ttmn1s Y1ere not high enough to the fighting ,force at it$ Il8ed$d l 11el, and he felt that eonsoription was the way to < I solve :,,:robl.tnn~4 He e:9ident1y made some erfo~ to win others in ~e P$/My 0ver to his point o.t' v.1.n, but when he saw that his ef.fol'!ti# were not meeting with. success Q.Ild that there was no chance ,, 1' of the S~~~s accepting conscription he resorted to a re.t'enmdum,. But ~rtain eleD~mta in the Party object,d to the fom of the lFai'e,y v, Burvett 21 o 1 R 455 2aorooQ. Ot-eenwood, '~Australia at War," ed, Gnienwood, P 263 )Scott,, Australia ~urj,ng the War., P 305 .. 4Ibid PP 330-34

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refel"$ndum as wel;l as to the epd,sting fQi'IDS of Censorship This opposition came into the open when Representative tooor resigned fl;,c,m -the Federal Ministry on the seqond raadirig of the Conscription &U:t The referendum Bi.U was pa.S!3fld by Parliamsnt and a bitter :caltlpaign w~s waged O~nscription however.t was defeated On$ result of th~
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opposition$ support On February 17, 1917 Hughes resigned 4nd requestoda fresh comn1*ssion in order to form a coalition with the Li'ber~s.l '!'he coalition was formed, and it contained forty-nine membtrs in the House" but laOked a majority in the Senate the eleqtion of May-, 1917 corrected this minority Senate position of the Nationalists t tni~ election : the } Jationa1ists al.So increased their 111.linb ar 1n thG> House to ftf't;y--four Thue, the tibnaliets 1 J..1t. ,1\1 i_.~, ,.,. had art oWI'Whelming majority 1.n the <.fommonwaalth ParliamentJ but r it is illlportan:t to note that the ?lational:l.stu were ba19ically a pat-, liall)el : nttul'y' party ded~ated to winning' the war. There w-er State Nationalist Parliamentary ~oups, but. these were also 'twin tha war* organi1i~tions 2 The tabor party split :in the Cottm1omvealth Parliament was similar tabor party splits in the Stat~ legislatures, and by 1919 five Statee had Natiox:,.al.1st premiers ., The position of St;a:he parties is set out in Table XIII Throughout the war Aus~ralia wa-s beset by most of the prob lems att~ndant on gearing a peace-time ecQno?Iij" and society to 1'al'time needs) Th.e fact that Hughes as Prime inister could take almoet any action he deemed necessary under the War Precautions Act was not enough to pre vent w~ time problems from growing to serious 3:rhese pro-bltma are cove~d in the chapters in Scott, Aus ... tralia tbe Vlar, whieh deal With ttTbe Economic Aspects oftlie War PP 0-1,s 0

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TABIE XIII P.\RXY REPRESENTATION IN THE LEGISLA.Tm ASSEYBLIBS, 1919a N.S.l'f. Vi o. Qld. s w .A Tao. Lab~ ; 1 30 20 48 19 1, 13 Na.t:i.onalit:tt .. 54 41 24 23 35 16 Others 6 4 4 Pnrmie r ft Holman !Awson Ryan Peake tohell I.86 BJJ.'his is taken tt-omt Clapsy-, A.tlas of Political Parties in the U $ a.,.. Aust rf!lia~ Bt the parliamentary situation was so t~u:fct during thi& pe rlod these are only rough divisions. propot-tions11 Many problems of this period can be traced to Hughes detendnation to 8\lbordinate all other oonaiderations to that of' winning the war. In line ,rith his 11 win the war" policy Hu hes and his lttnister fot' Navy, S:ir Joseph Cook, left Australia for England in April 191fh Upon arrival in England Hughes continued his vig oroas and out.Spoken dedication to the war effort He became a ser iouJ 118mb8r of the Itiperial W ar Cabinet and at times wa$ a thorn in the side ot the Engl~sh Government Hughes exploite in England made headlines, and the ttlittle diggern gradually achieved a degree of world f'mnh His reputation was further &nhanced by his activities at the Paris Peace Con.ference.1 All of Hughes activities seemed to reinfotoe his popularity at home. A l't\Yth sprang up in Auetralia that 11 Billyft won the war and. put President l Uson in his place at llbid., PP 757-8$8.

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the peace eonference. Hughes was quick to take advantage o this situation, and many ti?oos after returning to Australia he boasted n won tho war ; and I won the peace tt 241 rhe Australian d~l,gatiqn to the eace conference returne(l on August lO, 1919. Upon his return Hughes was faced with all of the probiems of ,1i;iding up the war effort and getting Australia back on a pea9e.:,.tie l;>asis. Sir Rooe:rt Gan-an who was Oommonwsalth SoliQitorGeneral ancl Hughes aeoretary at the peace eonferonce; claim, tl)at tbe Prine Mini~ter had avoided making any detailed commit .ment:s 'Wi~h respect to the poet-war problems until he t'eturned to Aust~i;a al,ld had had time to get his bearing. 1 The three problems w1 th whioh liugb#>'s was confronted were proftteertng, high pricee "nd ipduetrtal. ~st. Acoording to Sir Robert "nobody knevt how far the High eourt woQl.d let us go in legisl.a tion that '!&nt beyond the w ar but would be needed for general post_.,ar conditions.u 2 L'l'l othel' words, Hughe s bad two things to eonsidr in dealin with post-war problems; (a) what legislation -was neededJ and (b) what was the constitutional power needed to support the le islation he thou ht l'l8,C8 SSal"'J 'l'l}e ar Precautions .J\ct was immediately disoardad as a possibility for putting uetralia on a. peace-time basis. 'fhe Act exp.ired at the end of 1919. The Round Table commented that 1 Letter from Sir Robert Garran to the author, y 27, 1956. 2 Ibicl.

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242 th-el"e is serious doubt whether some measures which it might be prudent to eontinne or e'Ven dangerous to abrogate at once can be ju-stifi.ed under the head of de.fence 'When the emergency has p~ssed awa.y .l Moreover j there wa-a a grc,,dng dis$a.tisf action w:i th -what The Sydnez r~ er~d c~lE!d "Government re gulation of a f.ew men under the War Preeautions Aet 112 At the same time the Herald condemned rule b-y government :reeulation. It called attention to the fact that there was a general lack Q information concerning the method ttproposed to be ad-opted i n ,fighting the evil growth /profiteerin,&J I Hughes 'I has given no spoken indication of' his method of Whi le The Herald was making these eriticis:ms the re was a. report in the press o n September 22 that thet't might be an ~lection and a refe~ndum 1 sonvatime in Deoembe ~.4 'l'his was the first public epeculat-ion on the possibility of Hugh es' using the referendum process in order to get the powe:xs needed te de:al with profiteering,. industrial unrest, and high prices W hile the press and public vtere engaged in speculating on Hughes intention$ it was reported that 0 growing rumors against the autooratio method of Hughes can be heard in the lobbies fot parliamen~J".5 These charges were most probably justified as Hughes 602. luAustra.lia; Constitutional Revisions ," The Round Table X. ,. 2Tl'.ie s12ney rnin(; Herald September 25, 1919, p. 6 .31btdo September .30, 1919, p 19 .. ~,, Sept-,mber 22, 19'19, P 8. 5lbid.

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243 no detailed etatement to his Party conce-rning the possibility of a t-efe:t to extend Commomreal th powers. me~t1ng of the National party -0a.ueus on Septemb(9r 25, had, so it was reported, approved an eleeti.on in December.. At this same mf3ting t!Wre was. some 'balk of extendin g Commonweal th powers by means of a ~eferendum, but the%'$ were no formal i,notions advano don this point When the sUbjeo t C.a-ll18 up the Pr:t.'lle : :Minister requested and wae granted an adjoumment of the meetfug until Septetnber 30. 1 Although Hughes was unwilling to f State Pa:rUaments.,. h& thought it lfiae to try to et the 'blessing of the State Prem.te:rs befo re he broke the nsws to his pat-t,-.~ .. \ TlU,s statement ot Sir Robert 's seems to fit the .facts. on September 18 Hugbos ier:;ued an invi-te.tion to th State Fremie?"s to meet in s.e-cret in l J.bou:rne on &eptembe r 26 With him end ~ att, ox-Liberal Premier of V1etoria and acting Prime 1ster while Hugh&o was in Eur ope.3 This September 18 invitation to the .Premiers seems to ll'he .~1113s ( Melbourne) September 26, 1919, P 7. a1etter from Sir Robert Oar ran to the author, '1' 27, 1956. JNew South Wales 0 S~g ested Draft of a Report to the Addition al Constitutional Pow$ rs propQsed to b~ o~tained from the States to En able the to Deal with Proiteerin and Industrial U'nrest ,' 1 Parliamen,t 1 5t Papers, II (1919), 409.

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244 indicate that Hughes had made up his mind to eaek additional powers and that he had come to this conclusion prior to the 1 tional party oaucue me~ting of September 26 All of the States sent representatives to the lbourne meeting with the Pri?oo lfinister. The State representatives were Premiers Holman Peake, '.Lawson and lee and Coyne (Queensland) and Coleb&teh (West ern Australia) who represented their Premiers Ryan and '.Mitchell Hughes began the meetin g with the State representa tives by ~laining he wanted to obtain additional Conetitu it1or.\al. p011sr which wol:ild enable the Ooillmonwealtn P arliament to deal I ttfteotivelywith profiteering and industrial unre-at This, according to a memorandum prep~ed by Kolman, a statement of Premier Lee 0 Tasmania,' and a report presented to the New 8011th Wales parliament waa the tirst indi-eatio~ of the p\Jll>OG of the oonferenoe 1 After outlining in very gene ral terms the natuni of his request, Hughes pointed out that the powe~a c oul.d be secured by a refe:renee from the$tats pa'rli~ents or by a Commonwealth referendum The Prime Attnister said that in light of what had happened in 1915 he considenid it lf' utiie to ask for a re-fe:rence of the poWers Thus., the purpose of the oonfe:rence was to o.seertain tbo 1rillin g nesa of the St-ate G overn.. ments to co-operate in securin g the adoption of a reerendurn. After asking fo1! their eo.-operatlon Hughes presented. the State :represen tatives nth a series of alterations similar to those submitted in llbid ,, 11 morandwu on the Federal Situation Holman Papers Set 111; anif"a statement of Premier lee in The SE;MY Morning Ierald, Octobar 1 1919, P ll

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245 the referenda of 1911 1913., and 1915" (There is no report of the specific powers Hughes requested tihe States to refer to the Common wealth at thi$ meeting with the State representatives ) 'l'he State leadere ,roieed obje c tions to the proposals on the grounds that soma of them bad ne traceable connection to profi teer:Lng They also &.rgll.ed that it wou.ld impossible to determine the attitude of their States with.out full consideration of the alteration-, Hu hes in answe)" to th~ ci-iticism that the time was toe short for adequa'tle o~naideration, said that be had already given notice of his inten tion to introduce two Bills in the Oomnonwealth parliament :for the amendroont of the Gonsti tut ion aleng the lines he ws.~ suggesting 1 ( This statement 'Was not true Hughes did not give notice until Oet()b&r l ) 'The PremieJ:"s did net accept m.1y portion of the Prime Minis ... ter's requ~st during thie meeting However, they agreed to meet among themselves on the next day., Saturday, September 27 :Holman said that the PI19miers in their Saturday me eting centered their di s .. cuss1on on a ''ti-anee:r of power to the Commonwealth covering profi..,. teE!~ing and industrial unreat n 2 Holman mentioned this lfbecause it demonstrate-a ole{I.J'ly the impression left in the minds of all or us by the .first day s prooeadings. ,tl That is, they understood Hughes llbid. All three of the reports on the conference contain a similar 'aec'ount of the meeting.. 2Holman Papers Set 111 .31bi
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246 to be requesting limited powers D u e to t h is interpretation "it was urumimously felt that the powers asked for by the Prime inister werfi too 19.t'ge-unne c esaarily so JJ 1 The State reprae&ntatiws agreed that -pl!'ofiteerin g and industrtal Wll"est were problems that needed .iintnediate attention even though they thought the p owers reqliested weJ'e too broa~ At th.~ c onolusi on of their Saturday meet ... in.g ths State. representatives prepared a rnemo,:-andum for the Prime Mi nister which waa submitted to him at a joint meeting on onday, September 29.. T he S tate leaders be g an their me:tnorandW!l by stating that there w are certain facts which, they wished to call to the P rime Min i8ter' s attention. The m ore L11portant p oints which they men .. tio.hed were : (a} t h ey ha d been oall.ed to g ether to discuss profiteering and i 'fl du.strial unrestJ (b} the Prime ister had not p resented them with a le g islative seneme to deal with these problems; (o) th e y .,. however were prepared to submit to their p arliaments in a favorable war proposals to deal with th e problems as outlined; ( d) in their opinion it -was not necessary to vest the Commonwealth wit h conplete paw&%' owr trade and corruoorce or eorporationsJ (e) they dissented altoge ther ,from the propoeal to subject the S tate railways to Common weuth oontrolJ and (.t) it was a physical impossibility to secure agreement o n e:ny proposals eo that the Prit'le Ll inister could introduce them in the Commonwealth parliament dur1ne the current waek 2 2 N ew S outh \ ales, Parliament!!,Y Papers n (1919), 410

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In the discussion that folloWed the presentation of this memo-randwn Premier Lawson asked Hughes it' he. would a c cept a time limit on the t:ranst'er of powers ghas answered: I want the poei.t~on to be made quite clear The powers required are those ne c esea:ry to deal effectively with the con~que:nce of the aftermath of the war, including industrial unrest ._ high ooet ot living and profiteering Lesa than this ~11 not do I am prepared to treat it as a war meae,ure. 1 In his memorandum on "The Federal Situation" Uolman wrote a comment (in red ink) on this etatement by Hughes to the ei'tec:t that ttthis new phrase /aftermath or the war] went unnoticed by the Premiers present Lawson regarded it aa,a; mere I rhetorical flour1sh~n 2 .Although the State representatives were generally disse.tis :1.ed with liughes 1 propoeale they did agree with him on some points11 The -a,g1,ae-'tlent was revealed by Premier Lee in a statement to the mem ... bel"s of the 'rasmanian uigislative Assemly on Tuesday evening, Sep tembar ,30. Le told the Tasmanian legislators that in their 1 nday g with ~he Prime Minister the Premiers had modified the re o~ lutions which they had pas$ed at thai:r Saturday meeting He also stated that these modifications had been accepted by Hughes subjeot to the concurrence of the Corm:ionwealth cabinet a.Id. the State Govern ... ments The modifications agreed upon were; (1) 'l he powers asked for to be given for a period of 3 years, or till such time as a convention shall have met and dis cussed. a revision of the Constitution, and euch decisions _____ .. Papers Set 111 2 Tuid

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arrived at are endorsed by the people by ref erendwu, whicheve1t period shall be the shorter. 248 (2) If the convention is not called in the period named the po1ters vested in the Commonwealth shall automatically cease. In reference to the question raised by the State ministers as to the Coounomrealth government asking for more power than was ?1ElC8l!u1aey to deal e:f'tectively with profiteering the Prime Minister undertook to submit thi.a to a OoJ!lllitte.e of oonstitu ti6nal lawyers; and if e.t'fect1ve power ,could be obtained with than -was asked for he would be prepared to modify the ;anendinent$ eought. Professor Han-ison Mo ore, Professor Jethroe )3r.awn., atid Sir Robert Gu-ran ar-ct to be the committee and ltill at oneij confer, rt as round that w.e were not able to go the i.fnolt w.a:y., but it .-ould be take n or granted ~hat the Stat OoY'.Srnment would do all i:t possibl.r could to enable the Federal ; Government to get powers to dea l 1,rith prof it ering durin the period referred to, as, howew'1'; to give effect the Prime Mtnisto:r 'a proposals \Yould take a long time, he L?f!.7 had clacided to go on with his anti-profiteering bill. This, h o-wevar was only lee's view of the result of the :Premie rs' deoi.s:ton, and as is shown in Chapter X -was not the v!9w of the other St4te representatives at the co.n:f.'erenco. Prior to Lee's statement, i.e., Tuesday morning and afternoon, Septembe r 30_. the National ~rty caucus re.auxned its ad~ourned meeting of Septe:mber 25 It was reported that after conferring all day the eauqus agreed to hold an on either the sixth or thir teen-th or December The oaucae also discussed the referendum.; unfor-! tu,na:tely,. the only information which could be uncovered about this discussion is a report that appeared in the He rald. Hughes inf o:nned the Party caucue7 that he had been able to effe ct a unanimous agreement w it'ti th Stat Premiers rega,:-ding the powers to be transf'e:ITed to the Commonwealth, and l-rhe SY?nez .orning H~t:nld j October l., 1919, P ll.

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if these are to be taken by referendum tho Premiers will re-ooinmend thei:r Governments to Support him in seeking the altel"a.tion of the Conetitutio:nt There wa-e not complete 249 unanimity jJ.n the caucu!.7 on the question of the r ferend but a. vote which was taken 13howed a large majority in f.avour.1 This ,teport on the .cauous meeting indicates at least two things. Firs-ti .it further sub$tantiatee $:Lr Robert Gar.ran ts statement that Hughes ~thought it wise to get the ble.seing of the State Prem.i.srs b(.l:t" or& he t,:roke the news to his party+ 0 Andi second; it means that Hughe~ over.state the de gr~e of agreement that he aetually been \ able to effeet with the State representative,s. The effectiveness of Hughes strategy will be more clearly seen in the discussion of the parliamen'ta~ debates and the reterendum campaign '1-Iughes had been relatively suoeessful 1n k
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Octooer 8 1hen H ughes co u ld be present. Hu.ghee was aware of this adjounlment and the ll'8ason for it Because of this the Herald con cl~ded: that the F rime Minister was hoping to present the e-onf'er&nce with a i,t ,acp05?li when it reconvened-11 'l'he paper cited this as anot,her example of H.ugbe s' dictatorial methods, and suggested that it eould b$ a way to wre~ the N ational party 1 The $uggestion that Hughes might wreck the National party b;Y' not cc,:nsul ting them was somewhat naive Sir .Robert Oarran tba.t at this particular time was more necessary to the success of the N ational party, or at least to the Commonwealth parliamen tarians, than the Party was to him. Hughes- popularity was at its p~ak, and thel"8 was no one inside or outaide the Party who was his equal. Furthermore, Hughes had already demonat:rated that he possessed enough ele-etoral support to quit tha Labor party and still remain as Pr-ime M inister The eabinet ministers and other members of tho National pM-ty fully -.ppreciated Hughes position and the fact that their tenure rested to a large extent in his hand 2 This ma.y be an overstatement of Hughes prestige and power with the electorate and 100mbera of' his Party-, but certainly the manner in which. Hugh a acted with respect to th referendum indicated that he knew he could go to great lengths in ignoring his Party without the fea:r of the 1 s him out libi.d September 29, 1919, p 9 ----2rnterview with Sir Rol:>$rt Gan-an., April 28, 1956

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C&J?TER IX 1919 PA~TARI D.EaATES After the Prime Minister had received the tentative backing 0 th~ State representa.ti'V9 s and tne almost unanimous backing of ~he National puty caucus he wasted no time in introducing two Bi lls in Parliama,nt~ At J:J,$ p.m., Octobe l' 1, Hughes called !or the ordeit of the day and Jl,10Wd 1 "that he have leave to bring in a Bill foJJ an Act to alte~ 5ction 51 of the Constitution" He then said, "I declare th:ts to be aJl urgent Bill and mow-that the Bi ll be considered an Urge:at Sill. ttl Amid '.Labor partyprotests that theykn.Q' nothing of the O()ntt1nta of the Bill except what they had read in the press, the Speaker eal1.$d for a division and at 3,26 p.m te he declared the q11estion to ha~ be en resolved in the a.t'firma:tiiv(h 2 These motions having be.en cart'li.ed Hughes ro.oved~ 'l'hat the time alloted {a) for the initial stages of th B ill up to but not inclusive of the second reading shall be until $ p m thi$ day; (b) for th$. second reading of the Bill shall l)e from; the conclusion of the initial ~'bag s until 4;00 p m ., on ?hursday; second October ., 1919; (o) for the committee star,, of the Bill shall be from the second 1-eading of the Bill until lu,30 p;m on ',I.'.buraday ., ,second October, 1919; (d) for the lc-ommonwealth of Aust ralia, Parliamentary: Debates LXXXIX ( 1919) 12836 2 Ibid.

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rema1nin~ stages of the Bill shall be fl"om the concluaion of. the oommitt~e atage until 10'30 p,m on Thursday, second O ctober, 1919 .l The leader of the opposition, Mr Tudor:, speaking ow the motion to limit debate argued that he had no knowledge of what was contained in the Bill but if it was similar to the 1915 one it was alright nth him ti' the House passed it th~t night Tudor .also stated that the Pr!3lllie:t" of Tasmania bad ttelown the gaff' ., othenrise honorable members on this side have to depend u;pon what appears in the news papers ... 2 tudor acc\,J,sed the Nation.$list8of being opportunists. They .ffeationalist_! 7 regard tlie preeent as a fitting time for an election, and in order to have an or holding one, and fo;r the pUl'pos of making the people believe that they are amcious to g et at profiteers, they propose to put these Bil ls through de~ite the fact that honorable membere of the Ot)posi .. tion have not had the opportunity of seeing them J Labor representatiw Higgs, depaty l~ader of th& opposition, contended that it was not ne ce ssafy to occupy the titllB of the Hou se in intro ducing a hill to deal with problems beoause the Prime M in ister already poss:essed ample pc,wer to do 'What he w~nted 4 Hect~ Lamond, ex-editor of The A.uatralian Worker and National M H R ~., waa the only O ove.J'nmEmt supporter who spoke on the limitation of debate. He pointed out that all the pros and cone of the B ille 1 Ib:i.d _.,... iibid~ P 12837 .3Ibid, 4Ibid

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253 had been debated previouslyJ nonethe-le-ss, Lamond did not reveal. the content$ o the Bille 1 Thereto~ tabor did not learn the details or the Bills until after th$ vote on the limitation of debate was taken Although Labor opposed the lim;.tation, th& motion was easily carr:i$d.2 The proposals in their final for m are set out below..Some min~ aspects of the were changed as a result of the report of tha committee of cenetitu;tional eJi:perte. T h eS8 alterations are eo-wred at the appropJ'iat.e place in the di~cussion of the parlianJ!tn 'bary debates,. 1919 ReferendUtn Proposale3 l. Constitution Alteration ... -:Le~iel.a ti~ Power~ {i) TmruE AND OmmE1WE(i TN dI'flEH. Ot50NTREE8 AND NO THE S-TATES) provided that the alteration of this para graph shall not be constructed to empower Parliament to Dl$ke laws with :respect to the control or management of railways the property of a State,. the rates or fares on such railways .. (xx) (FOIUUON CORPOBATIONS, AND TRADING O R INANCIAL CORPOBAT IONS FORMED WI'l'l lIN THE L S O F THE C OMM ONIEALTH Corporations including( a) Corporations formed under th& l aw of a State il'l cl'liding theilr dissolution, regulation; and con trol; blitt not includin g municipal or g overnmental corporations,. or any corporation fon:ned solely for religious, charitable, educational, scientific, or artistic purposes, and not for the acquisition of gain by the oorpora.tio n or its members; and 1 lbid u p, 128.)8, -hhe material. ill capitals was in the Constitution originally, that in paranthesis was to be excluded., and that in lower case was the proposed addition.

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254 (b) foreign corporations including their regulation and controlJ (J00CV) (CONCitIATlON, AND ARB?rRATIO FOR THE PREVENTION IU-lD SE'l'TLE.t.t,'NT OF INDOSTRIAL DISPUTES EXTENDL'-10 BEYOND lrHE lTS Oi' ANY ONE STATE ~) Industrial ma.tters, including (a) lab~urJ : (h) employment and unemployment; (c} the terms and conditions of labour and employme-nt in any trade, industry, occupation, or callingJ ( d) the righte and obligations of smployers a.nd an1ployees; (e) strikes arid lecl<:-outsJ ( f) the maintenance of industrial peace J and (g) the $$ttlenent ot industrial disputes (xi) 'il'rus.ts combinat.ions., monopolies and arran ements in relation to' {a) the produ.-otion, manufacture, er supply of goods, o:i"' supply of services,; or ('b) the svmership of the means or produ ction., manu.faoture, or euply of goods or supply o! services, 2. Oonstitution Alterat:ion -Nationaliza.tion of Monopolies : !ill i'he Parliam nt ehall have power to make laws for carrying .' .on by or unde~ the control of the aomm.onweal th the in dustryor business of produ cin g manufacturing, or supply ing any specified services, and .for a~quiring for that : purpose on just t~rms the assets and goodwill of the industJY or oueiness where ea.oh House of Parliament has in the same session., by resolution passed by an absolute majority of it.s members, referred to the Mi h Court,., for int}'i.dry and report l>y a Justice thereof, the question Whether the industr.yo~ butdnese is ~he subject of a monepoly, and where, after the report of the Justice has been tJceivem.., each Hot1Se 0 thePa.rlia..ment ha.a in one Session by resolution passe by an absolute major. 1 ity of its ~unbars declared that indu.stzy or busine ss :l +Jte the subject of a monopoly -.( 2) This eaction shall not apply to any industry or bue.inee s eon.ducted or carried on by the Oowrnment of a State or any public autho~ity constituted under a Sta ta,{l) ~he altei-ations made by this act shall remain in .force { a) until the expiration of th:ree years from the assent of the Gc:>vernor...Oeneral thereto; or (b) until a convention oon&tituted by the Oommomrealth makes reeommendati.ons 'for the alterations of the

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Oon stitution and the p ople. end o rse th8s.e recommen .. datione whichever first happens and shall c ease to have ffect Provided that if" no such c onvention is consti tuted by the Commonwealth before the thirty.first day of De c ember One thousand nine hundred and twenty, the alterations made by this Act shall cease to haw eff'eet on the said thirtyf1rst day of De eember One thousand ninehundred and twenty {2) ?q o law passed by virtue of the powers conferred by this Act, ehall continue to have any force or Qffec.t by vir tue of tnis Act attar the al terat.ions mady by this Act tu.iw ceased to haw affe~t 1 The P rime fAinister opened the debate on the second ~eading oi: the te gislative Pow-ere Bill at lu05 p on October l:, At the outse'b he said that he Would not traverse the ground that he had coveted in prevlous years Ilughes told pt1I'liament that the war was ove.r ar..d that the w:ar-tiroo powers of the Commonwealth were dis. appearing, and the Governmant ttas being brought back to its pre-v1ar limits and yet. had to deal with '1tlle aftermath of th& war-a condi ... tion as difficult and as full of dange.i"s as the irar 2 The problems were even more di:ff'i-oult because they wera interconne c ted B ach is the eause of both of the others : ., and Qll eff ot of both others~ The high cost of living h&lps to ea.use industl'ial unrest) industrial unrest is fatal to production and helps cau$e the nigh eost of living The scarcity or necessaries oontrib'utes to the high cost of livin g and t o the industrial unrest, and so 6n in a vicious a-ire la, and in and out through the ways and wo cif l'UnS th'& trail of tha profitee-v, 'Wl10 takes unfair advantage, for his personal gread., of the abnormal and unsettled oonditians 3 '.l!the A~ts of the PIU'ltw!t of the commonwealth of A~1Stre.lia Passed the Year 1919 pp 09ll2 .. 2cormnCtnwealt,h of Australia., Par4-ia.nle,nt,an:: Deba.1!9e, LXXXIX (19 1 9), 128)6 3Ibi4 ., p 1 2844

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256 The for these ill.a., according to the Prime Minister, was to be "dra stic" and the program of x-ef'onn. was to be "comprehensive nl Upon concluding these general remarks Hughes emphasized tbe major diffenmces be tween the se proposals and those of years The dif:f'er8nees were i ( a) the p r oposals were limited to a maxinllln of three yea3'S$ (b) there was a prov ision for a eonatitutional conven tion; and ( c) State rail,ray employees were excluded. 2 This was a very dil'forent approach from that which Hughes had mad-e in previous debates on extending Commonwealth pawe-ro In hie new role as leade~ of a Partywllieh contained ma.ey ot the opponents of the 1911 and 1913 reter enda, Hughes could ill aff ord to 'be dogmatic and advocate a etraigh-t~fonral'd socialist solution. His 1919 speech became an att-enpt to c onvinCG the House that the powe:re were sufficient and the only way to deal with post.war problems, but at the sane time he was a~ious tQ as sure his ex-Liberal eolleagues that the powers 1Jera to be temporary and not so drastic as the l9ll and 1913 propo ealt had bee.ti The Labor ll!Bmbe:rs we,:,e quiek t~ : eiilpbasiee Hughs problem with the ex-l,iberal element of bis Party .. Labor member Oharl ton called the proposals a. sham and charged that Cook and his Liberal eollea guea baeked them because they were a means of getting re-elected Charlton eontinued, ftif they were sincere as a Go vernment and a party

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257 and if the Prime Minister himself were :sincere, he would have gone for an amendment of the Constitution, as he did before, that would give this Parlian:ent full pa,rers.,u 1 Higgs went even fa:Mlher than Charlton and alleged that Hughe s' supporter-a in parliament would riot let him earry out the terms of the altel'ations. Amongst the pre8')ntsupporters of the Prime Minister who were leading meurers of the Liberal pal'ty when the 1913 referendums were '31lbm1tted a;re-6ir Joseph Cook, the Honorable p M o ab.on Glyrm, the Honorab le Little E~ Groom, Honorable W A,. Kelly, 1:.r ., W. J .MeWilliams 1 Mr A. S Rodgers Mr s Sampson Hon .... drab la 'Bruce Smith-imagine the Honorable Bru ce $ support.;.. ing the Prime ~J.nis ter in any endea:vour to deal with prof i tears, corpo)'a.tions, shi,pping combines, and rings-? John Tompson, lfonorable o. A Wiee and Sir Robert Best .2 HiggtJ a. sketi if Hughe a ''nn" .riends outeide parliament would back: 1.m. Ai-e the ,gent l&m&l'l of the Metal Exchange who banqueted him yesterday Socialists? Ar~ they going to support him in carry ing out thif3 rnea:e:iure? Not one of them will do st>They know however, that thef have complete and absolute cont.rol ovel' him in the caucu1,His followers a.t most number ele-wn.3 Tudor took the Prilne .Minister to taSk on his sincerity, and ac.oud the ex-tiberals of fallowing Hughes ~blindly relying nn his promi se to them that the Bil l is ab;solutely useless11"4 This state ... ment caused H\)8h8s to rise t0 a point of order. "The statement is distinctly out or order and
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withdrawn. 1 1'udot' re_p'.l.ied lfWhether or not the Primo Ui.nister made tha promise> I haw no doubt that a trained legal gentleman like the honorable memer for P~kee /Bruce Sndth J can see thatthe Along with the argument that the ex-Liberals would not let : Hughe. s carry o u t the propotmls, tabor memers made much of the tiJ?e limit that had been placed in the Bills ~presentative Anstey conttndod that the :Bill was a dead letter be-cause a (a) pa.rlia-,, ment could not resume o:rk until July, 19'20 becausethe aenatoi-s elected in l.919 could not take their seats until then owing to the .tact tha:t there must be a thme year lapse between senatorial elec tions; (b) if a conv&ntion was not 4alledWithin a year the altera tions would die; and (c}. e-ven i.f a convention met the whole sub-.. etanee of the alterations could have been changed b y the conven tion's decisions .3 Dr :Maloney ridiculed tne id$a a calling a I kncm that we are to have a glorified commission called a convent.ion. A. witty philos opher once wrote-''lf God Al.mighty bad pla-ced the making of the ear-~h in the hands of a. commi~sion it lfiould never have been ~uilt.nq Tudor raised another question 1n connectio n with the conV'ention by asking how i'b was to be eonstituted.5 Hughes did not anl!JW'er this 3Ibid,, PP 1297$-80. 4Ibid., P 12988,; P 12848 ..

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259 question., in fa.ct, he did not explain the basis for representation to the convantion until mid~ay thro11gh tha carq,aign Labor members specifically attacked the exclusion of rail way employees f:rom the arbitration section of the proposals They charged that it was a result of a bargain between the Prime Minister and the Premiers In the co11JXI1ittee stages of the Legislative Povrers Bill, Tudor several attempts to restore the Bill to its 1911 and 1913 word:i,ng and th$reby bring railway employees under the Federal ro1tration Court In moving b:i.s amendntents to the Bill he quoted letters .from Arthur S Drake ord, General Se.cretary of the Oonfer .... ence of' Locomotive Engine~n of Victoria;, and William Smith, General Secretary of Victorian b.ilwayment s Union Both of these Victorian railway union officials strongly protested against the ra.ct that their unions wold not have acci3S6 to the Federal Court 1 Lamond de,t'ended the exclusiq>n or railwaymen. desire is that these proposals ehall be carried, and I am prepared te strip them o every minor proposal that may stand in tho -way of their seeuring a. majority vote on appeal to the 4ountry If th& omission of the railway provision will help in that directiori-as I believe it will, tor it certainly will insUPe the support of the State Governments, which would not be given unde'i' the old conditions-than I think it is battler it should be abondoned than that we 1hould risk the loss of e.n amendment to ~he Const:itution 2 1 Ibid., P 12955 2 1bid 12853

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260 R epN sentative A tkinson repeated Lamond s general argument and added that the Pi'ime M could not g o back on his words to the Premiers 1 H ughes defended hi$ action by arguin g that the ex c lusion of th railwe,y men at the request of the Premiers was just the same as the Labor meme:re agr~einent to withdraw the 'Whole of the 191.5 refer endum upo n th-a request of the P remiers+ Tudor interjected and said that thil statement wa.e untrue'. The Speaker immediately asked Tudor to withdraw his charge, but befon, Tudor could an$Jer Ur tthews 1nterjeeted, let the P rime Ministt,r show some decen c y Me is tellin g a lot of damned l ies. 2 E ventually both men withclrew their st~tements T he nature and f~equency of interj~et i ons demonstrated that the debate w a s ve ry heated The agreement with the Premiers was also a subject for Labor s attack Early in the debates H ughes had g iven his version of the meeting 1tith the State representatives He told the H ouse that the Pr emiers wer-e "quite Willing" to g ive the Commonwealth power to deal with profiteerin g an d industrial unrest but that there h a d been a disa g reement over the amount o f p ower actually ne eded to d eal with these pro b lems B e-cause of this disagreement Haghes had suggested a c ommittee of constitutional experts to review the proposals ~I have said if it L the eommi ttei/ unanimously agrees that lesser powers will suffice I Shall be wi l ling on l lb;id PP 1 2 957-8

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261 of the Commonwealth G overnment, to ooneider the matter a.vox-ab.J.y. 111 Later in the debates Finlayson, Labor M H ,. R ., asked Fsnton; Labor M H R ., "Wh at guaranteo haw we tha. t they f P-remieri/ will. not oppose this Bill 'When it is submitted to t.e people ?tJ Chapman Nationalist replied, 1 Biliy1 nae them tied up fl Finlayson then sai<\ j'He told us in 1915 he bad them tied up," Fent:on added 0 He said he ha d them in the bag but they go~ out. inlayson concluded the excMnge by saying it n1 do not believe be e-ver had them :t.n the bag. 1 l2 Actually Labor was not worried about. the Premie r s going ba~ on their Wol"d what b0tbered them and the peint they emphasiz d lfa.s that the Commonwealth eoUld not pursue a vigo r ous policy if' i't; had to consult the conser1ative Sta"tes Despit e the bitter and personal nature of the debates no Nationai party me1nb&r yoted against the alt rationp. Even the uoh~ onsenative Bruce Smith gave his support to the measures on the ground:s that th re ~a.a a need to solw tbe post..war problems w:hieh had arisen beoause of popular uhysteria.n Smith also empha oized the .fact that the alterations would be temporary R epreoon ta.ti ve Fal.ld.ner, 'Who left the Hationalistt party to become the Oountry party oarui:i.da:te for Senate in New South Y. at th& election of 1919 did not vote on the al terationt:I but he ea.lid ttI am not 1n accord lib:td -, 1 p"' 12847 2Ibid.,, P 12991

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262 1'i'bh the party to which I have hitherto belong-ed .. 111 Falkiner wa& the only mmb&r lfho explained why he did not vote The vote on the third reading of the iegislative Pawers Bill was taken on October 2 There ware only tw'() members -of the& House who voted against the :measure,. and they were. Labor members Finlayson and Brennan .. 2 Debate on the Monopo lies Bill began on October .). Con s1dertilition or the Bill was limited to one &.y a-s the result of a motioli -by Sir Joseph Oook .. The only point which the Prime linister empQasiied 1n apeaking on the Bill was that it was different from pao1i -:' on$fh Hughes Qall,ed attention to the fact that 11 : asaets and good-will' had been inserted in $e place of '"property," and, th:e~~or.e, li~ arg-ue d the l.9l.9 Bill assured the monopoly awners of just cotl!pensation; second, the 1919 Bill prov~ded for an inquiry by, t~'l~ High Court be-fore parliament collld nationaJ.:Lze an industry, tne ,:-store .f the Minis ter reasoned that it was not likely for l an indus-try to be nationali,ed that was not a monopoly. Further, thia, 'pn:,vd.-aion was aimed at allay~ the fe :rs. of those who thought that all industry '1ould be nation6:11z~d.J I,abor attacked this Bill as a retreat from the previoua ones. They maintained that reference to the High Court was a claver means of preventing monopolies .trom bein g nationalized. Once again 2lbid"\

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263 Tudor attempted to restore the alteration to its original wording ., and in o,o!llfldttee he moved a lll9tion which "Would haw replaced Hu he s wording with that 'Whieb had been u sed in l9ll, This attempt failed be~ause it was only su pporte by the Labor ntenibrs 1 The final division in the Hou,se on the Mon.opolies Bill was a rflpEtt;l.tion of the ivlsion on the Legislative Powers Bill ., and only Labor repreeenta t:LVEJ$ Brennan ~d Firuayson votad against the bill ~ Botb House$ of Parliament were adjourntd from the fourth to the eighth of October 1 and so the Senate did not begin its con13idera tion ,of the Bills until the eighth The arguments :tn the Senate \'fer& sim:i,.lar t;o those w-bich had be&n preeented in the House and the only important thing to note about the Senate proceedings is the effect which tne r$p Grt of the committe~ of constitutional experts had; on theBill~ Tne conttnittee made ite report on the eighth October., and the:re t1as ~isagreement amcng the experts. Jeth:roe B rown and Harrison Mo or.e took the view that the powers other than the ones dealing 'With ecrpo;,ations and xnonop~lies were too wide and we,:e not needed to deal 1fi th proti teei:-:tmg and industrial unrest Sir ~berb Garra.ti thought that the p ers wer-e not too broad ecause they wen intended to deal With the problems of lfthe aftermath of the war.n3 'l'he committee did agree en eome minor pointsJ thErse ere 1 l Ib<1id p., l.304.321bid .3:rhe ~Idnoz M,oming Herald; October 9 1919, :P 9

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264 (a.) educational institutions should be removed .fl"om the operations ot the .orpora.tions olauseJ and (b) laws made under the Acts would c.e-ase to have e.ffeot afteT the Acts had lapsed or three years had passed Both ot these minor: ohan es Wiare aocepted by Hughes and they were inserted into the Bills durtng the Senate deb tea-, On October 10 the Sana~ p~ss$d the Bills 1 When the Bills ware returned to 'b,h$ H ouse they wei-e pasSftd on party line.s wi thowt debate. 2 Alth-0ugh the oomrnitte~s report did not give ris to a great deal of immediate oontrover$".1, there are things to be Mid abou'!l it. First there was no chance that the co mmittee ,,ould haw a.greed that Hughes wa~ asldng t-oo nu-ch as long as Sir R ob rt oarre.n was a m(3mber of the aommittee. Sir Robert was in oompl&te ~a:
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to nw mind, sufficient indication that the amendJnents agreed upon were to be speeial ones, and not general ones. 1 265 1'hird, it can be inferred from Hughe' statements to the House that he never intended to folloW the c0Jt1J1ittee had the members seen 1'it to disa g ree With him. hen the committee made its report H u g hes took the view that l!oore and D rown had misunderstood hie intenti<;>ns which he, of course, had made quite clear .. 2 I t is probably correct to say that Hughes had meant his ltafterrnath of the ,ra;rrr statelll8nt to the Pr.ends~ to cover all eonteagencies, but he delib erately did not emphasize it when presenting his proposals to them, 'fhas, Moore and B rd'W'n who were not on the "inside" like Sir Robert Garran labored und(tr the impression Which. H ughes had left with the Premiers.The question as to who was technically correct is not ths most important pE>int to be made about the conmittee I s report. The eignifi.eant thing is that Hughes was willin g to use such a de l vice to terminate his di,scuesion nth the Premiers_. and,. therefore,. r or a time was successful in avoiding gny more disagreement Fur therlltore by quiOkly eoncluding his discussions with the Premiers on a note 0 partial agreement Hughes was able to tell the National party caucus and parliament that th& States supported him, and this, at least oxthe motnent, gave him a strong talking point to both the ex ... Liberal element in his own Party and those who wero fearful that libid ......_

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266 the alterations would be unfriendly to the interests of the Statea 1n other worde the objections of conservatives were somewhat over rule by the ft\ct that the State representatives who were ost direetly ai'ected, agreed to the Prime M inister s proposals It was also probl:ibly reassuring to the ex-Liberal members of the Hou se that H ughes had been willing to submit the entire question to a comndttee 0 constiim .. tional eXperts. Finally, it c be ~sumed that Hughes realized thai tha Bills would be very near their final stages before tpe C()nmit1;ee hAd tim& to its de-eieion, and onee he received the solid of hie Part:r in the H ouse he knew that it would ba di.ff~ ., iou1t fot' an adverse de c ision of the committee to alienate this .support A final c01Wi1ent o n the Parliamentary debates is needed to explain the faot tht tabor ., the exceptions having been not ed either sapporied the al teratione or did not vote Laber a po$i t.ion se ema to be sow~t anomalous in view of the natun, of their ob~ections during the debate Tudo;r attempted to olal'ify thts position: We ha~ no opportunity of recording a vote on clause eix /ti limit/ I again place on record the fact that I was opposed to t'hat olatiG&, but awing to the operation of the uillotine I had either to vote against the clauses which I considered ben~..f!ci&l in order t~ show my opposition to elaus& siX; or ~o v9te for them all This w~i'e only a partial explanation o! Labpr s actions Labor s motives 1'1ere undoubtedly mixed but some of theee can readily be iqf,mtitied First the 1919 proposals were certainly wat red down 12982 lcpmrnonwealth of Australia, Parliam.ent!!l Debates, XC (1919),

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267 versions of the Bills which Labor had introduced in the past, and Labor members were probably genuine in their desire to restore the B ills to their past wordin g hlch of the Labor movement had b en extremely dissatisfied with the fact that the l9lS proposal5 were dropped, and because of this Labor parliamentarians desired to make the 1919 p roposals a~ stron g as possible. S econd, H ughes' seoret meetin g with the Premiers was ope ~ to question o ven by his own supponera, and, therefore, it was natural that th P arty he trayedtt should be Ellxtre me ly c:r:t:tial of any agreement reacehe(i with the N ational Stat~ repre$entatiV'3S Third, labor parliamentarians almost had to vote for the p~oposals beeauee a (a) the alterations embodied a portion er gtneral labor ideology; (b) the Party inside and outside of pm-liam.ant had supported all three previous attempts to exten,d Commonweal th powers; and ( o) theLab oiparlia.mentarians had no time to ascertain the attitude of the movement, an:l to be on l the safe side the : y voted for the altera-tions lfhile rais ing serious objeotcions which were possible "outs" if it was seen that the move ment opposed the referendum. Finally-, tabor members were willin g to accept a portion of what they wanted rather than nothing at all.

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THE THIRD llNQtt VICTORY The parliamentary debates and the conference between the State repreoentatives end the Prime finister indicat'3d tha~ the oirc:umsta.nees ~urrounding th~ 1919 extension of powe rs referendum were d:U'ferent from eith~r of the two evious referenda These Ch8.nged ciremnstances of the 1919 r,eferel).dum were thatt (a) the alterations introduced in a. crisis period rather than in a. pe:t-iod of o(;il.iuJ (b) the Bille i-e ostensibly motivated by a par ti atJ.d limited problem and not by a polit p.artyr sideology J (c) the '11JS~nts :wert not a pt:U"ty mo\18 but we~e l~g&ly th~ reeult c,f itughes- polioy J (d) many of those who opposed the p efforts were $1pp.ortei-s cf th& l.919 ~hanges;, ( e) c-once ssions in the scope and application of the powers were made in order to maka the alter ations more palatable to the ~4'tibE1ral.s in the National party and the :St.ate premiere ; (.t') the Labor party wa.s not advocating but was. criticiiing the alterations; (g) the vot& in parliament with two exceptions it a.ppear as though the proposals were eupported by all parties; (h) the States for the first time were consulted prior to the introduction of the alterations in parliament These early 268

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differe n ces meant that the 1919 campaign would be different from previouG camp~igns and, in fact, the effect of the 1919 prelimi naries can be traced through the campaign 269 In 1911 and 1913 the referendum issues had been the center 0 electoral attention but this was not the case in 1919. The referendum was only one issue in 1919 and did not receive a great deal of co n sic1el"a.tion 'by campaigners This is not to say that the .. problems w h ich motivat$<1 the ref'erendwn we:re not at iseue The questions of industrial unre st., profiteering, and h:i gh prio&s were the three that ware moat t'req~ntly d.1souseedJ however these 1:ssues were not necessarily discU.$S8d in connection -with the ref e,rendwn Irt reality the 1919 campaign was a "'khaki'' election, much like the British ~ eneral election o the same year in whioh personaliti.ea and ephemeral difi'orenc;:&$ counted morG than i~eues reover, any agJ"(\lemant that had been reached between the polltioal partie-s in parliament or with the States was no~ carried over into the campaign As the 1919 battle progressed it becwne apparent that the alterations were reo a:i.ving less group and less person~l support than they had in the past It is important to En 1 1phasize the fact that in the 1919 elect~on and referendum the extension of Commonwealth powers was not the central point,. and also that the alterations were unsatisfactory to most group$ and politi c ians TWo factors entered into the 1919 campaign W'hioh had played no part in the past carrq,aigna. The new factors were a the argument

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270 that the alterations were needed to deal With post-war problemsJ a.nd that the amendments were to be in .force for a maximum period of three years,' These two new aspects of the proposals were responsible for the attitude which most of the labor movement took towards the .measures ; they were also very important in the attitude which the non-labor g~oups adopted. As ~as mentioned in Chapter VIII th~ Se cond Inter.State Conference of the National party had adjourned its August, 1919 meeting until Octobe r 8, 1919. The adjourned conf'erence resumed its proceedings as ,scheduled and was addressed by the 'Prime Minister on the opening day. In his speech Hughes was able to present, as the Herald had sug g ested, the oonerenc with a ao~o:!;?U. with respect to 1the referendumit He told the conference that the N ational Mi nistry, the Nati
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271 The Oon!eren c:e's endorselll6nt was a result of 'bhe tttemporary charaotertt and "limited applieat1on 1 of the alterations. Thia in essence was another way of reassuring the m&mbers of the Party who had voted against the previous ref ei--e nda that they had nothing to fear from voting 1 t'Ye in 1919. The Annual Conference of Australian omen's National Leagues met le as than a week after the Inter..State llfational Conerenoe. Sir Joesph Cook assured this gathering that there were fundamentaldit ferenoes between the 1919 prop-0aals and th past on s. Sir Joseph tol;d the. '!omen that "a gr at deal of what is said to be profiteering is the t~sul t of world pric~s 1 He also reassured them that he was an.."(ious : to gua.:rd States rights and that the alterations were only a ttte~o:rary laanui of powere.l. (This was typical of the utterances Sir Joe-eph made throughout the campaign when speaking on the altera tion.) 1 rhe women., although not by a unanimous vote, agreed to sup port the ame ndmente : Th~t this confenince, relying upon the promises of the Prime Minister and the assurances of the Minister for Navy, that the paswera asked for in the referendwn are only temporary rreasures, and that States rightG are thro,hly safe uarded, agrees to support the 1 National Government 'l'he President of the eat rn Australi n National Federation W Leslie, like Sir Joseph Cook, pointed out that he was a States ri ghter ; but that "undoubtedly we who are anxious to preserve the he Argus (elbourn ), October 16, 1919, P. ~. 2.Ibid., October 17, 1919, P 6.

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272 States rights have got to take some risk to remove the evils oom plained of~ the gravity of which is brought home to us everyday u 1 Leslie also emphasized the time limi.t T h is is theonly statement by a State National pai'ty lead e r on record Apparently the others Vlere not suffi c iently intere.sted in the referendum to expre~s their opini ons or the;r might have been keeping silent for other reaeons f Th ere are seores of :rll en among the N ationalists Who~ in other years, have bitterly opposed the g rantin g of powers which tha lati ona1 Go vernment how o fficially d entands and who excuse their p~esent attitude by pointing to the prov.isions that put a time limitation on the powers asked f o?" The l.ess said about the re:t;,erendum the better these unhappy g entlemen are pleased 2 ~llridin g t his line of reaso-nip g 1 t ean be said that the Nationalist$ eould give a limited amount o! support to the alterations on the basis that they ~re temporary; but that thay oppo sed permanent .. c on&ti.tutienal change aimed at expandin g Commonwealth powers ... > I tabo!' party ~okesmen had more to say on the referendum than the N ational varty members but labo~ show e d no ardour for the Hug~J:J am$tulm$nts By the first of December most of the Labor parliamer,itarians trade unions and the pa-rty organizations either adoptE!d a, 1 'We don t care" attitude o:r openly opposed the proposals M oreoyer, the F ederal pa rty indicated its dissatisfaction with one of the few m en, Tudor, who supported the amendments by askin g T J Ryan, Pre m ierof Q ueensland to be c ome the Federal Campaign D irector 1rhe est Australian N o~mber 10., 1919 P 7 2rrhe S ydnel M ominp: Herald ., December h 1919 ., p 6

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Ryan was ask~d to a c cept this position to enter federal politics ~Ya Speoial Inte~..State Labor Conference which met 1n October 1919, At this same contertmc Ivan moved: That in the opinion of this Conf'erenca the ref e:rendum propo sals of the presen t Commomirealth Gov.ernment now before the Federal Parliament do not provide for d finite amendments 273 to the Commonwealth Constitution or a character and permanen c y suite~ to the requirements 0 Australia and are merely intended to intslead the e l ectors as to the poli c y of the Government on the queation of prof'itearing and 0th r matters of vital ilnpor .... tan6e to the welfare of the workers 1 Senator O'toughl:in of South Austra l ia 1'ho seeon(led Ryan s motion su.gge.sted that the word 'J.ciuration! 1 be. substituted for the word "pe:rmantmeY,:'_' and wit.h this slight change the motion was earned by voice vote .. 2 tabor s election manite sto repeated the words of Ryan's motion at:J'ik:ing only 'bhe phra$9 0 now befoni Pa.rliament o3 (Labo-r C<>n'tinued its drive for unifi c ation and its "fighting plat form~ CQntained a plank which eall~d foramendment 0 the Constitu ti o n. whi'C'h would vest unlimit'e-d legislative power in the hands or the Commonwealth parliament 4 ) W ., A. Lambe r t Pre-sident of the Australian Labor party and p. ~. Evans ., General Secretary of the pa.x-ty isl!tued a statement on the re.ferendwn., lo.fficiaJ. ~oceedings of the Speeia+ Int r...State Labor Conference k 1919 pp 109-10 2Ibid ., p llO 3Tha AruS C lbourne ), November 5, 191? p 8 J.p_yh Labor News N ovelllber O 1919 1 p 9

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274 It is a g ainst the very common of oommon$ense to suppose for one moment that these hu~he corporations would devote one penny of their money to any par"tiy which threatened to assail them in any way whateveT So it is that while the Government talk of dealing With profiteers, the profiteers are blandly supplying money for the purpose of keeping this Government in offic~ 1 TheS$ sentiments were repeated in every labor newepa.peiin Australia and they a p pear to have been o ne of the main lines o.f labor ttack on the N ationalists l'he ~bar Call in October contended that "any Government w ou ld be better than the masqueraders 'Who pretend they will prevent prb!'iteering whil-e receivin g the votes of the profi teers 1 2 A g ain just before the election the Call maintained: Tha referendum is a sham arid means nothing to the profiteer, Tha1b. is 'Why th& oonservativee have somersaulted They knO'lf that the only result fi,orn it is noise Tbe referendum meaning nothing it is best left at that J The Call aiso contended that the referendum wae .a. joke One at the jokes ot t-his election is the scmnt notice tak,n of tne re.farendwn Few candidates even mention the referendum, although Hughes went to the cou.ntl";Y" six months bef"Ore the expir atioa of Parliament wi t ; h the expres-eed idea of putting the referendum to the people on the question of profiteering .. 4 ~ The people appear to be :unimpressed either way and being uninterested also the 11 No 11 vote will probably win if' this is ao~ it will show us more than ever what a howling ena-re and delusion the ni.ferendum is, and what a farce the whole profiteering question is, too 4 llbid .. Ootober 25, 1919 P 5 2The labor Call October i.3 1919 ., P 4 3Ibid D~cemb~r ll 1919, P 8 4Ibid November 4, 191? P 2

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This lbou.rne labor newspaper reasoned that all the emphasis on industrial unrest, bolsheviks, the I. ., anarchists, and syn dicalists me.ant that the referendum would be used against the work ers. 1 The W estralian Wo rker reported that W illiam Brooks New South alas ., L .. c. and Chairman of the Employers Federation, called a ting o V.ster Printers and Paper rohanta of Sydney and told the m that their share of the National campaign fund was ,&o.,ooo p~Uhds, The W estra.lian orker argtted, was proof enough that H ughes intended t~ do nothing about profiteer$ .2 Thu same. newspaper also argued that the concessions to the S tates in the oop.stitutional. al tel"a:tion& were due to Holman Th& r~tiult is that the Fl"ime M inister bas either to smash the unity 0 the N ational party o~ accept a constitution in the term.$ a8teptable to William Arthur Holmarh No matter what the newspapers of ca pitalism say to obseure the situation that remains the candi-d tru:~h. Holman 1s king\.3 Another point 1'1hieh disturbed the labor press was the fact that the alterations were limited to a ma:ximwrt of three years, Whoever beard of nationalising a monopoly for three years, Y{;lt that is what Hughes pt'8pose-s Picture the vernm.ent bea.t;tng the Meat Tniat, or any other conbine by nat1ona11eing the industry for ~ee yearfJ, and then hand it back look, sta,ok and ha.rrel l~ 2The W estralian orker October 24, 1919, P 3. 3Ibid., October 3, 1919, P 4. !ilbid .. D e.ot:mber ,,. 1919, P J.

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276 A side from allegm g that profi.teers supported the N ational party,. and that, thel'9.f ore the Na tionalists would do nothing a.bout the m, Labo,: Speakers, EJ speci&f.l:VTudor, maintained that the Govern m,ent possessed all the power it needed to deal with profiteers, Tude.r speeifioa.1J:y charged, that the :ref erendwn as nan eltventh hour attempt to appeal to the popu lar imagination aroused by tbe vecord. of inefficiency ,, Even thoagh T u dor took thi$ stand he ~ve~led tba.t he wo\1ld vote "Yes .. 1 t dont think the oan do any hta.rm though I don-tt t;hink theyWill do much g ood,_"l (S~e Plate VIII+) R~pre$$ntative Higg s was not as pes si.mistie Q.S Tudor and. urg.e-d. a .- ''!estt vote~ Higgs eaid that the time limit was unimportant. ttrrhe f'iw ~endments of the Constitution, -with the exe>eptien of tht a~lusion of the railway emp1oyees, are, in easenoe-,_ the same as those \ Sl,1.};tmtted by our party in 19ll and 1913, and agreed to U$ :L.'1 1915.: tt 2 Higgs was v.lrtuallyal.oneamong labor politi oians in his I who1e...hea:r~d a-dvooacy of the alteration$. Despite the aot that th~ Labor party did not support the refe;rendum ax1d adopted a ~e don't care attituce, there wa~ only one State Lal:>or party., bu.t the :most. import~t one in the most populous State, that asked for a "No'' vot'61t '.Phis was the Exe cutive of the New South Wales Party which e.arried a resolution instructing all candidates to vote "No lT,he Szdney ornin~ Herald, No vember 26, 1919, P 11 2The B risbane Courier, ?fo wniber 11, 1919, p 7

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NIIIDY'S 1K ,\ houi:h lh l' P. t'fi> r c-n dum I lht' all@S~d rwon for lh b pr~maturl' ...... ru l l~ctwn. Hush and bla follnw..,. ,......, mention It, d tw othur 1h1 11" ~n1tn c to pueral abtlN of LAbol' 1-4"' R,-aa .- ae1. HUGHEI: "Vow oai, fellew at a di--., ~" 1110t19: bwt I hope te,.111" ----==---Evr n e Au stralian W orker N ova er 27, 1919, 277

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276 as a. protest against the tttri.fling of the N e.t ional Government 'With the gf$at que stion of profiteering ttl ( S ee Plate IX ) The tr-ade unions took even less interest in the c ampaign than the official Labor party organuationll Only the railwaymen I exhibited any definite stand on the alterations because they had been e~cluded from the jurisdiction of the Federal Arbitration Coun.. It was reported that truii Secretary of the Western Australian &ilwa.:;:men I a Union sent a telegram to the Prime Minister asking him to SErcur the right of railway workers to approach the Federal Court Hughes replied that he would 1tagain try to get &pP r oval of the J?remier-1:1 or the several States on the matter 112 If Hughes ever made sueh an attempt there waa no indication of it in the press A eonf eronoe of the Federated Locomotive Enginemen I s Association of Australia passed a resolution '#hich stated, That the conference resents the omission by the Hughes nistry ft'om its referendum proposals of the que~tion of railwa;y men of Australia having access to the F~deral Arbitration Court, and r~eommends to membe~s of the federation to support parliamentary candidates who will vote for the railwaymen being given the same irtdustrial rights as all other citizens or the Commonwealth, and to ~hat end invites the co~operation c,f all other organized 1'torke:rs in Australia .3 There was also a special conference of All Grades Railway Unions of Australia which passed a motion condemning the :Prime 'Minister s action he W est:ralian orker ., N ovember '21, 1919 P 1 .. 2lbid ., November 21, 1919., P 1 >rhe W est Australian November 26, 1919 P 6

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279 PLATE ua MIULY MONKEYING WIT IT. --~The Austr~lian Wol'k r, Octobe r 16 1919,. 10,

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280 That this Conferenee, representative of All Grades ilway org~ni~atione in each State, and the Federated Locomotive Engine D rivers Firemen and Cleaners A.ssooiation of ustralia, ~eprasenting 50 1 000 members., views with intense ind~gnation tA r Hugh as political treachery .. and violating his pledge of 1913, and subordinating arbitration principle to political ~.1q'J&diency 1 The reatiort~ of the railwaymen demonstrated what can take p lace ,, I when:a trade union feels that it is the viatim of discrimination This discussion of the :railwaymes s attitude on the nferen du.m: oone,:).ude s 'the review o ~he attitude which labor took on the r ree~dt'.lll t proP,oeals.. There are large gaps in thie review, but they resul.t .(~om a 1aok of information on the position of various '_I, groups,.i The general tone adopted by Ryan.Tudor, the Labor ?Ua1'if'esto-, the labor press would tend to indicate that most o the lab~ groqps not c overed were silent on the re.f'erendum or adopted the lme taken by those groups which have been covered Only i'epresentatives e one religious group the Catholics, ) expressed any very definite opinion on the alterations Archbishop Mann.ix -v,ho had been an outspok en anti-conscriptioniet and a sup p orter of the Australian Labor party voiced his approval o Ryan s oandidaoy 0 There is oniy one honest man in the Whole gang of politicians and I hope he and hli.e followers -will be returned to pawer n 2 On another ocea,sion the Archbishop remarked that Hughes policy speech had been int.ere-sting and amuein.g "but the working man will not be taken in lTh,a Australian Worker, N ovember 27 1919 P 23 2Tha Sydney M ornins Herald October 27, 1919 P 7

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281 by him or his policy .Tt l By the middle of No vember the Archbishop was repeating the labor party line on proi'iteering; 'rvf e know that it he /iiughes7 is returned to power at all it nll be by thos ople ... ... who have been Ir.&king money out of the poorer classes during the wa,r.rt2 AVohbi shop Mannix who was the mo st outspoken of the Catholic clexgy harl the b ackin g of the Catholic press r he F reeman's Journ~ argu~d that liolman a complacent attitude was enough evidence that H ughes; t:onstitutional alterations were 0 inconsequential and not iptended very seriously ."',) The F reeman s Journal alleged that Hughes had nexerci~d all hia ingenuity in the invention of a scheme caI
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282 strongly behind the alterations as Hughes had led his Party and members of parliament to "lieve hen the Premiers made their positions cleatit was found that three, Holman, Lee., and Lawson., &upported the alterations while the other three, P eake, M itchell; and Th$odore, opposed the referenclum ., The manner in which thQ 1lhree Nationalist Premiers gave their f3Up-poz-t and the fact ~hat the other two Nationalist P remiers opposed the alterations caused the Herald to obeei-w that 1tit cannot be denied that, there is comparatively little svi-qen,ee as yet or that strong boad Qf sympathy between the Nat.i.onal. leaders ot the States and the Oommonwealth.l Lee of Tasmania was the .r:u st and only Pr mier to ~ive his unqualitied backing to the changes,, He based hi& s1.1pport on the assumpti.on. tha't the alterations would remo~ any doubt concerning the Gommonw$althts power to deal with p:rof'iteering and industrial unrest 1 Holman wae much more cirewnspect in his attitud, on the referendum His :first statement ga'9"8 the impn ssion that he opposed the alte:ra.tions, on all suoh subjects, which are included in the powers roposed to be transferred, but upon whioh Mr .. Hughes says h4;5 does not wish to legislate, the positioh will be that the State Parlia ments o a.nnot legislate, and the Commonwealth will not That is an intolerable and paralysing position 3 lT~~ $Z4ne1 1 orn!P; Herald, October 29, 1919, P 10 2The Arsua (Melbourne), Deae.mber 4 1919, p 7 l:rhe Szdney Morning Herald., October 6 1919 P 4

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283 Gradually the New South Wales Premier began to speak some1fhat favor.; ably ,' of the proposal.a On October ll ; he remarked that the exten sion of powers was "stt-ietly a pest-war agreement ., .. necessitated by the disturbances ar is ~a out of the war nl A month later Holman announced tha:t he favored a constitut-ions.1 convention to review S tate an~ F ed.e!al relatio~s 2 And four days prior to the referendum he made a statement in sup p ort of a temporary grant of powe-rs T he 6ontrol or profiteering is OM of the few things Whi~h can be atu.;uly done more advantageously from the Commonwealth office than frQm a Stat, offieei, that for a very obvious reaaon Ir yau ix priet s in one State you drive commodities into the other St ate~ and if you attempt to overcome that difficulty by seekit\ g combi~d action among the six State Goverruoonts there are too many diff'ioulties to OV$l'CQtnth.3 F or the first time Hughes had Hol.Mn on hi& side ., but .Ho1mans aid was tttoo little and too late 0 to affect gr-e atly the outcome 0 the referendum vote 'th~ situation in Victoria proved to be unique among the S:b att1hLate in Oetober Premier Lawson rs ported to a caucus meetin g I',,._., ,, .. I of hi$ parliamenta?"IJ pa:rty that he had been unsuccessful in hie a'btEtll\pts to g e t the Prime M inister to makG a. more definite statement on the rererendwn~h On hhe b asis of the given to them by Lawson 1 the Victorian parliamentary National party threatened to with~tlVt it s support of Hu g hes 5 A day later in a public statement lThe: Ar g ue (Melbourne), October 11., 1.919, P 21 2Ibid ., No~mber 11, 1~19, P 7 >Ibid ., December lO., 1919 p. 7, 4Ibid., October 29, 1919, p 14 5Ibid ., October 30., 1919, P 16

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284 La.son ea1d that he was deeply disappointed With Hu hes references t~ the constitutional alterations Bill~ He continued by saying "hat : 1 0th~ aftermath of the war at'ld the consequ.enoee of the war MY be interestin g a-s rhetorieal fli hts but as statements indicating ~ aphl:J:re of action they ce vague; unaa:his.factory,. and useless 0 1 F iriall:V, Lawson travelled to Sydney and coneul ted Hol.rnan con c srning the Naw Seuth W ale a Goverrunent e: $'band on the re.fer.endwn After his %'etcurn t e t lboutne Lawson announced to the caucus that 1n the name of p~rty unity and with the u.nders~a.nding that the powers t1ere tw,mpor~ and would not depriw States of their ri g hts he would 1Upp ort the ~.fe-rfmdwn Inmied:tatel.y after I.aeon s announcement .1 twtnty-.,~~rt c,f the National members of the Victorian parlJAmtln't Md decided to prepare a manifesto giving reasons ,my they, en "ting trNo This group r&ce:Lved the aid of Sir John Q.uiok :t:n pnlr,a.J'ing their state~t The thNe reasons which the Viet~ian. .~a1-.:l,:Qnaliste gave for oppo$ing the alteratione weres (a) I tne G.Olmloltflealth parliQ.lnent pos.eess.d suioient powers to deal with pJ:"O;fitEH:Jrlngj (b) the State industrial powers f:tventually would be taken over b y tthe ~~xnmonwealth :i the alterations were aoceptedj and (e) it lfQlild be possible to nationalize all industry 2 Thia split in the VictoFian National arliamentacy part y did not result in lJbi ., November 1., 1919 P 20 2lbid December 5 1919 ., P 7 Also see Sir John Q uick,., The IA-gisl'i'flv, Powers of ~e Gc,mmonwealth aoo States of Australia (ieibourne Charle& F li'axweii Eo ., 19l9)

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the ovarthrow of P~emier lawson although there was a sug estion that it might .l 285 Ilm11tH;iiately after returnin to Perth, W e stern Australi s representati'" to the conferen-ce announoed that the P riloo Min ister had modified his origina; propo~Ala on the baais of objections fron the S'tates, but that 1 'the course of action decided upon was entirely his iJiughErs:J awn course .. 02 Colebatch also revealed that Hugne-a had .refused t o accept two re-commendations wh:i,eh would have pr eluded any Commonwealth contro l of State railwa;rs and which would have pravsnted the Federal Arbit:tation Court from making a "common rule n:3 These statements were a previ~w of the announc ment which Premier W.tohell made to the effect that the 1estern A11etralian Oove:rrunent oppo$8d. the alterations The Pi"emier maintained that the interf)lets of es-tern Australia must be considered first and believing that those intereet$ can only be served by the rQ-tention in the hands of our P rlial!8nt of all the powers necessary to eontrol our intern 1 affairs and promote the devolopnient of our resources there is no course open to us but to strongly urge the electors of th State to vote "No "4 Senator Pearce of W estern ustralia 'Who was one of the lead ing %ll3mbers of the National party did not phare Mitchell s vi8Yls lie contended that -estem ustruia should have more reasons than ariy other ta.te for voting ''Yea The Wee.tern Australian Senator 2Ib\d ., October 3 1 1919 ., p 7 3Ibid ., November J 1919 P 7 4Ibid ., :Oe c ember 8 1919 p 7.

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286 ba$ed his contention on the fact tnat estern Australia had unequal pow~rs to deal. with prof'itee1ring since the State lived on imports over which it had no eontrol Commom
PAGE 296

Hughes' 3ttempt to cnurt the favor of the States before his proposals in the House and thereby gain active 287 State supp()t't fo~ the alterations was unsuccessful. It cannot be deniGtl that the conference With the Stat& ~epnaentatives served the ~dia.te purpose of orea tin the appearance that the State Govern ment s wpported the proposals. But in the long run Hughes int(;lr pt"etation ot the results of this oonterenee forced the Premiers to take a e:tand., and sine~ this resulted in only one Premier., Lee of Tasm8J'.lia., activ&ly baeking the propoeeJ.s it can be concluded that the conference WQ c,t little or no use in achi$-ving the ultimate objeotiw of getting the proposals accepted by the eiectorate. Although there were ma?lY actors which made the 1919 cam paign unique, there is only one which appears to have had any long range signifiq ance. This was that the farming 1nterests 6 under one label or another, entered candidates 1n the election and made a determ1ned and euceeesful effort to gain Commonwealth parliamentary rep:reaenta'hion. Prior to 1919 country inten,st had been reprttsented 1n the State and Commomr~alth parliaments by tiberals and Nationalists. Be cause of fundruoontal differences which divided the eowitljr memers of :pa rliament and other Liberal$ and Nationalists this arrangement gradually became unsatiafaotory to the Fal"l?l3n and. Settlers Assooia~ tions, FQJ!'mers Unio-ne an:l Progressive Leagues. Th mo t important issue v,hioh separated the farmers and graziers from the other parties was that the Liberals and Nationalists were protective tariff advocatoa.

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288 The rural areas depended on the world market for the sale of their wool and grain and as a consequence they resented a high tariff to prtotect secondary industries. For the most part the farmers and graai~rs objected to any diminution of State or local powers, and, theret~~ they were antilabor and suspected the ex-Labori'be Hl.lther:h M oJ>eover, the rural politi cians were in the forefront of the netfi.ciency and economytt move, opposed increased taxes in gen eral, and were partteularly against property and land taxes whioh affected t11em more than any other roup, The countzy interests were also disgruntled with Hughes desires to extend Commonweal th poWers, because, they argued, this would mean higher taxes, more inef.ticieney, and le$e local and State control. They further feared that the Nationalist sympathy with the development of secondary interests would result in a tariff that was even more protective. In light of this, it was not surpri$1ng that groups should chose 1919, a year when the political situation was extvemely fluid, -to enter candidates in the Commonwealth elections, They hoped to achieve maximum representation by contestin g d1$tricta in which Wa s a likelihood that they could win, and their ultimate g was to become the "'balance of power' in the Common wealth and State parliamci,nts. In line with this aim Farmers candidates contested twenty-two seats in the House and one Farmr and Settlers candidate, B s .. Falkiner ran for the S nate :1.n New

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289 South Wales -. 1 It should be emphaaized, however, that the Farmers can.didates did not make a. complete break with the N ationalists. E arle Page 's a.tti tude typified thia oontinued oo-oper tion with the .. non -l,abo:r parties Although he was a "straight-out Country party eandi date 11 Page announced that he would support thG National party in f'a.:rliame-nt so long as it did not aoni'lict with country :interasts 2 this did nbt mean that the armers oonsidered themselves a tnere fa.c1;lion ?ff the Na tional party. The Farme~a party candidate for Nsw England f Mr Hay in a telegram to the Farmers t campaign director ;Ar ~ H P W illiama;, objected to the newspapers calling him a Ua,tion ~list, .. Hay: t'&1t tha.t great injury wa.s beinr. done by this strong de-soript1on of the Farmer s candidates,.3 ot all the country candidates lf alkiner was the most uncom pro~il.-ing-ly hostile to H u ghes and the referendum. Fa lkiner explained that he had wo re a.sons f'or entering the senatorial campaign in New South Wales Hi s first reason was to .fight for primary producers, and his second "to assist in organizing the nno 11 vote .L. In carrying ltb e Sydney Mornil He rald, lfo vember 5, 1919, P 10 Littlct research has been acme on -El bountry party. There are two mono raphs which provide some of the pertinent material with regard to the origin o the Oount:ey party.. See.; Ulrich E llis., The Countit Party of ?~ aw South ales search ,' otes (Canberra; Offi ce of Rura hesearcfi f954), ant! by the same author, Notes Aust ralian Country Party (I'ed eral) ( Ca.nbeITa. t Office of' Rural ~search, 1954) 21bid ., October JO, 1919; p.. 17. 3Ibid ,, November l8,. 1919, P 7 4Ibid ., November 27, 1919, p 17.

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out his aim to defeat the refer ndum proposals Falkin r inserte full page advertisements in the rald and also spoke out against the al terations at very turn. 1 Falkiner s opposition led Hu hes to state that only the extremists of the ueo-called Labor party" and extremis-ts like F alkiner opposed the alterations.2 290 Asid e from alkiner' s 11 No" cam p ai gn ther were other country g roups opposed to the a.ltera.tiohfh The Ex ecutive of the New South Farmers an Settle:tis Association opposed the pro posals beca\186 Hu he WO uld not answer two que stions-t l In the event o the referendum being carried, is it the intention of the Federal Government to fix prices o primary : produqt&? 2 so, will Hughes guarantee that the tanners prices to ~ be t'eceivod for home cons~tion will not be fixed belQw world's eXport parity.?3 The President of the New South Wa les Farmers and Settl.ers A K Tretnowan, further elaborated the Aseooiations stand by saying that tho Aii'sociation feared the application of a 11 comrnon rule-" by the Alrbit~at'ion Court, Tretbawan explaintd that a "comon rule" meant that if 1 a man in W estern Aust ralia took one farmer before a judge and brought !'ol'Ward evidence, and an aw rd was made, that award wo~ld immediately cover every fanner in the Cozmnomrealth.4 l:tbid .. December 12, 1919, P 5 2lhid,, ifo vember 21, 1919, P 7. .3The Land, November 7., 1919, p 9 4Ibid

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291 The Land, the official organ of the F armer and Settlers "Association of N w South Vla les, g ave three reasons why the farmsrs oshould. v,ota N o": (a) the powers were too vague; (b) there was a possibility that Ryan mi ht administer themJ end (o) ther was a possibility, farmers co-oper atives might be nationalized. 1 f he ma.nif'~~o p~ the :Far.mer and Settlers Association of Nm, South W ales stated: tbat the farroe,-s ai;1eo~iations are uncompromieingly hostile to the eonst:l.tutional alterations fee-ling that the unlimited ~owers to interfere with rural induetr:tee are equally dangerous in the hands of either of the present politi cal leaders. Thetanners fefJl that with a definite progrmlin& whieh is aiming at econon:w, efficiency, and increaSt!d p;roduotion, extensi w support shculd be f from city and country Despite all of these lfNon statements, the litrald charged that the Far:roors candidates 0 New South ales were silent on the referenduJJi. vu 1iam.s, the Farmers eampaign dire ctor in Naw South W ales, answered this charge by saying that ~each of the eix candi dates ./Jarmer1,7 has co out into open opposition to a Yes vote on the re:f'e Ji'l&ndum, while our one Senate candidate, Mr Falk1ner, has devoted himself almost entirely to the matter. Other than statements by the N oW South Wales Farmers and Settler s1 Asso ciation, it has been possible to ascertain the official attitude of only two State farmers groups the Victorian 1 lbid11)' P 8 2Ibid .,_. Movember 21, 1919, p .. 7, Jrhe Sldney rrii;ig Herald, December 5, 1919, P 10.

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292 Farmers Union and the Primary Producers of W estern Australia. Unlike the N ew South al es armers, both of these groups supported the alterations. The Council of the Vietorian Farmers IJnion pa ssed the followin g resolution: That th~ V ictorian F arm&rs' Unio n reeonunends the acoeptance of the referendum p roposals of the Federal Government, on the grounds that the transferred powers only temporary, that t,hey will ensure unil'o:rmity of action between the States in dealin g with profiteering and industr;ial unrest, and in view of the -summoning of a convont-ion to de.fine better the p owers of the Commomrealth and the States. Th e Victorian Farmers union makes it a p lank in its fighting platform that the conven tion should eonsist o f not less than six representatives from each S tate, elected on the Federal franchise, and under the syste~ of propertiona.1 repre-sentation,. T'nat the convention shoulf be elected immediately after assembling the new P arlialllEJnt~ Althou g h _. the Victorian Union app-rowd of alterations.,. they were anxious to safeguard State and countnr intere st s; this explained the portions of the resolution dealing with the convention to review the Constitution. The W estern Australian Primary Producers indioated th&ir support of the r efex-endum in a telegram sent to Hughes bf t ~ .. Basil M urray a representative of their organization. 2 In New South W ales one country paper, the unofficial Farmer and Settler, dissent~d from the stand of the ctatea Farmers and S~ttlo rs Association. The F armer and Settler had advocated a N o" vote in 1 9 11 and 1913, but this was because it f the way in whiQh Labo1 1 would have used the powers. 1~ 0W that the N ationalists l T ha .Argus ( lbourne) October 28, 1919, p. 21. 2Ibid., N ovember 4, 1919; P 6.

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293 were in power people could vote to we&J(en the States Which was the only way to gain lo c al aelf...government 1 The Parmer and Settler also backed Falkiner but warned the farmers not to "blindly follow the pal'ty-..n 2 Although the country interests in the Farmers' party ot New South \'fales were unanimous in their opposition to the referendum, one group the Soldiers and Citizens Political Federation, that had joined the Party Split off of the Pa.rty 1 s referendwn stand The Fed.era.tion announced that they agreed with Hughes on the question of prof' and the methods needed to de~ lfith : it, and because the "gt>aziers association held other views they had ape&d to differ.-.-' It is also interesting to note that Gene ra:l Sir T Glasgow a Queensland Soldiers and Citizens Qahdidate for the Commonwealth Senate, said that he supported the refemndum because of the neeessity of halting pro:fiteerlng 4 It is necessary to review the position of the business and eommero ial inte rests in order t'.0 complete this survey of eroup attitudes on the 1919 The stand ef .these r:roups followed the pattern tha.t one would have expeeted, i e ., they backed the National party but oppod the altar~tions Aft r becoming a. 1The Farmer and Settler, October 31, 1919, P 1 alliid ., December 5, 1919, P 1 .37. 1 ne Hoba;rt 'Mereuxz~ D~cember 2, 1919 P 6 I 4The Briobane Courier, November 6, 1919 P 9 -.

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294 Nat:l:,onalist H ughes entered into relatively .friendly relations With the eol'.Dl11$X'Cial and business groups A~ evidence of this fact he epoke to the Industries Preservation League during the 1919 campaign o .. c, Beale, the Vice President of the Lea g ue in introducing Hughes stated. that l.1)Q.gue mEunbers were "'absolutely loound. 0 to help Hughes and tqa Na~ional party, On the platform with Hughes and Beale at this meet:ltl g -w.ere the Presidents of the ,Chambei:of nuf'actur rs ano the Chamber of Commerce 1 Durin g the course of hie speech to this gro~p, the P rime M inister expressed his belief in a tariff which _w9ui d aid in the development of secondary industrie$ and the utlliz,ation of Australian primary products in 'the production of f:Lni~ed goods ~ 2 I I Sueh show s of support id not mean that the business community approved of th constitutional alterations E mp~oyers were unin,presseti by all of the talk which painted them as b~ing responsible for profiteering and industrial unrest In November a special. confe:rence of the ~ i mployers Federations of fiv~ Stat,s was held to diseuse the84J problems One of the tew motions which the conference adopted was that the employers should carry out extensive propaganda to show that "the wage payer and the age ea.mer have a common interest in increased produotion u3 This emphasis on inreaeed lrfle Sydney ,1orninp Herald November 6 1919 p 7,. 2Ib;td )Liberty and Progress November 25, 1919 P 247

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production as t.l1a remedy. or economic ills was a point vhioh ot ber business gl'oups emp~eia-ed The Progressiye and Economic Associa-. tion pf lbourne in a pamph1et argued; Th' cure 0 h~gh prices is in the hands of the producing t(ol'ic~t not of the legislator of this country Our Parliament c:ann9t il ter the l~,s of supply ani, demand, no-b even though thQY were to nationaliie every industry in the land Thos la are ete)mally unchangeabl,. and they Will operate just as relentle esJ.y under a eoromunistic as under a capitalistic ;regin,ie. Plentitude is. the only possiblepreventative of high pri.ces .. Scarcity is a synonym for dea.rness Plenty can only bl achieved by inoreased 1 produetion, ancl that depends funda.-, mentally on the workers Thie kind o:t argument was repeated by newspaper a and bu~iness ~roups throughout the ColI!mQnw:eal th T~e oppoe:ition to the proposals was particularly strong in South Austra;li.a. The Allielaide Chamber of M anufacturers announced its t'Notf stand in October. The South Australia Chamber of uf"actui9rs :P8,ssed a resolution whieh said that the Chamber viewed with alarm the Federal GoveX'ro:llent's attempt to restrain commerce 2 South ustralias Chamber of Conmere~ maintained that the alterations would 0 seriously injw.,, the commercial interests of the State of South Australia by de stroying the confidence of capital and diminishing the enterprise of producers and The Liberal Union of South Australia was aiso among the opponents of the alterations 4 The efforts of 1 Ibid~ September 25, 1919, P 200. 2:rbe A~us (Melbourne) Deoe-mber 8, 1919, P 7 )Ibid 4Ibid November 20, 1919, P 9

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these various groups were co ordinated by the Constitutional w fence Committee of South Australia Thia Committee contained representatiws of the various group8 advocating a "No" vote in South Aust~alia~l 296 In Victoria the annual me1Bting of the Victorian Employers Federation was warned by their President., Mr Ernest Keep, that to give the Federal Parliament ttunlimited power to control business activi'by' would create a feeling of insecurity and enterprise production .and a sense of. insecurity ca~ not exist together 2 These same ideas were repeated in the annual report of thf1 Victorian Employtt'rs '.Federation.) The Tu-payers Association of Victoria convened a special conerenee at which sixteen pu'blie bodies were represented: Although t h is conference opposed the :refe:re.ndum, it requested that an 11 Econoll'\Y Commission" be app-ointed to r&view the appointment of official& who would administer the powers. The conf.erence also recomme,nded that all new departments created as a J"esult of the am ndmen-ts should be run along "ordinary business lines n4 The position adopted by the business and commercial groups was similar to the stand of the newspapers in the major cities l ibid December 12 1919, p 6 .......... 2 lb1d .. October 28 1919 P 7,. >t~berty and Pregress November 25 1919 p 258 4The A~g~s (Wslbourne) October 24, 1919 P 6

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297 That is., the press opposed the referendum but supported Hughes and his Nationalist colleagues The Herald conmented that to put the tt~r on: its lowest peseible plane "the cboioe of partie& is litnited If the popular majority canno~ have what reaches their ide~l, at le.ast they c an reject that one whose success would mean tht'OTdng the Commonwalth to the wolvtis of mo'b rule~"l Throughout the eamp.aign the Hi!rald contended that the liughee proposals too vague B eea.use ot this criticism and that 0 other groups the Prime Minister finally end$avoured to make the proposals clear He explained that the powers would s (a) insure a ttoommon rule" whioh woul(i halt industrial'. unrestJ .and {b} enable the COllll11onwaalth to tontroJ. monopolies and other businesse-s whioh would halt profiteer ing and high priees Hughes also st-ate.d that tile State parliament~ would be repre$ented at the proposed convention 2 The P rime l'l~, S~l l Heral~ N ovember 4, 1919, P 6 .. : aibid., November 18, 1919, P 7 'fbis is as far as H ughes went in discussing the basis of re presentation f'or the proposed eon .. stitutional convention.It is interesting to note that in 1921 the Hughes Goverrunent did introduce a Bill to provide for the calling of a national convention to revise the Commonwealth Constitution The conventio n was to contain lll members-seventy five of these to be elected by the electors qualified to vote in the House of Repre s&ntativea elections; eight een members of the Commonweal th Parl:iament (twelve from the House of Representatiwa and six from the S13nat&)J and eighteen members by Stte Pa:rliaments, three from each State Each State Parliament WQS left free as to method of selection The Bill waent passed hecausQ the Goveffi!D8nt could not obtain agreeroont on the basis of representation. For a d:i.eoueeion of this proposed convention and others see: Ulrich Ellis, A Federal Convention to Reviee the Australian Constitution ( Canberra, bffice of Rural R"esearch ,. 1952)

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ister' s a.ssurance s were not enough r or th H rald which was afraid that the i 1 dange!roue socialistsn might win the election; tnerefo:re, Hughes assurances would mean nothing.l 298 The ArfiUP 0bjected to the Prime nister s h ste putting the alterations before the people, It cont&nded that the problems wewe of an international character a.m:l therefore b.oo great to handle t Mr., Hughes will be able to lio no more than tinker With these prob lema ,... 2 Another concem of the Argu,a was that the pO'Yfere woUl.d. t,a permanent even though they bad a time limit attached to theut, Thie argument was based on the aseumption that "once words r are put into the Constitu tion they remain there until the Constitu+-ion is again altered to rttmove them 113 The W est Australian took a differ"" ent line and ~peated the argument that Premier. Mit chell had advanced, 1 .. e : wi that t-he affairs of W estern Australia.., Tasmania, Queensland ., and South :.ituatra.lia would not be directed a,3 the people o f these Sta.hes might iike but as the people of New South Wales and Victoria might deeide~4 Among major journa.J.-s only 'Uhe Bulletin advocated a ''Yes" votef it:refusal means a contin11ance or the old misunderstandings and r:riot.ion be-tw.een the Federal and the State governmen te. 1 The Bulletin 1Ibid. z'l'hel Ares ( lbourne), October 2, 1919., P 6 .. 3 lbid ., Nove1Dber 8 1919, p 20 4The est Australian ., Novembe r 25., 1919, P 6 5The Bu lletin, October 2,3, 1919, P 7.

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f< that the Nationalists were to be commended because they put forward 299 a. plain., straightsch&me by which. the webbed fly may be freed and the wl.ture a claw unloosed They ask that the Austmlian Parliament shall be g iven, ;if only for three years, the sauia pffl'fers to a$eail pr:ofiteering ~s the Btitish Parliament has bad for oenturtes .1 Sir EdWard Mitchell who was one of the staun~heet opponents of the 1911 and 1913 :ref'et'etlda softened in his atti'tude towards ext&~ng powers In a lengthy statement Sir Edward 1 dism1E$-aed the possibility of the pc:,weirs becoming pe : rmanent.. In his op~:toa the :real question was that of the convention. Since the Pri)ue M inister bad indicated that the convention would consist of' :repr&sentatiws from the Federal Parliament and the States, Sir I !dwam thought that there was littl chance that it would be domina.ted byt 31).t one X'OUP Sir Edw.ard sumined up his position by saying "there coUld nardlybe ant serious hai'in done in voting YesJu2 'This opinit)n was tYPioal &f many people s attitude on the 1919 reorendwn. It was eertainl;,, one ot the reasons many Nationa list$ suppollted the alterationsw The baaj,$ for their feeling that "little hal"m ca.n be done by voting Yesttt also erwd as anmunition for Labo-r atta.cka on the alterations.. That ie, the limited appli cability of the proposals was us ed by both the supporters and opponents of the ame~nts Labor condemned the proposals as a ln;,id., December ll, 1919, P 7 2'r~e ~1dney Morn5 Herald; November 26, 1919, p 6

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:,ham and ai 1 expedient election trick; N atio n al-ists, on the other hand, ar g ued that the limit.e p oWers did not endanger the S tates and ye-t would be effective ind ali ng with p ost4ar problelll8 .300 At the beginning of this chapter it v,aa stated that the reerendum was only one of the aeveral issues of the 1919 election and refeNndum campaigns Th e other political questions which be c -entangle~ wit~ th! referendum question should now b olaar The pnint which the N ationalists most frequently empha aized was l'.,ap.,r-ts attitude towards the war and th& fact that the N at:tonalists aQd not the tabor party had 11 saved 1 1 A u stralia,. Hug h&s clained in thi$ connectio n that h had always bean th e ooldiers friend and not "a latter day convert to the soldiers caus&"l In Sydney the prim(:!Uinister tol.d a meeidn g of returned soldierei I did no t in 1911 or 1918 ur-ge you. to leave him die like a dog ., no:r did I pass by on the othe~ aide IncUl'ing the bitter hatred ot many in thi& count,zy-, I as one of those who in season and out of sea-son etood tor th soldiers through thick and thin and ul'ged the people to r,einforc them 2 Thia same tone was adopted in H ughe-s final appeal to the eleo"'iore which ia set out in the letter which follot!S (See P late X .) T he N ationalists coneentra~-ed of their attention on th& tabor party s Federal ca mp aign cU.reQtor f.J. Ry an H e was a e ousad of ruining Q ueensland and of being the tool of radical labor and the Catholic Churoh As yan was a Catholic and Archbishop ~e S;zdney om,um Heralp, N oVEmber 7, 1919, p 17 2J:bid

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301 MR. ADVICI wrhe A r[US ( Me lbourne) cembar 13 1919, P 21

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302 M ann.ix had supported him,; this l.a-t;ter charge was given great play in the pr&s-s The fact that Queenaland had many major strikes wa used as evidence to support the charge that Ryan con oned the radical labor element Labor took the line that their party was the only one that 1tould and could effectively deal with the profiteers They allegod that high pr,i.Qes and ~ofiteerin g continued because H ughes would not use the p ower at his disposal to oheok them Hughes wa~ pi.atur,ed as a man 11ho could not be trust&d and was hun g ry .for power In the of this bitter ~leetio n and re!erendum c aign the Huatd Qbserwd. that "a khaki poll is nev r a n,lia:ble c;riterion of publi~ opinion Accidental and temporary !actors nay the elec tors, whoee mood may change when the emergency is paet "1 To a certain ~xtent thi.s was a valid observation There was every 1nd1 cation that H ughes helo the ,:-.e.ferendum and election in order to take advantage of what he judged to be a .tavol'Sble public opinion His strategy waa succase:t'ul in : so far as the tl a'bional party retained it p~l.iamente.r-y majority;. hmrevar, there were f ctors that entered both the 'referendum and election campaigns that HUgb s had evidently not anticipated T he entry of the Country p a rty was partially :respon sible for reducing the National party members in the H ouse from fifty...'ourto thirty-.e1ght As a result of the 1 9 19 elections tho:re w:~re twelve Country party member& and twenty-five Labor meni>ers in l lbid ,. M ovember 17, 1919., p 6

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303 the Houst This meant that if the Country party and the Labor party combined on aey issue they cold give the Nationalists trouble, but as it turned out the Country party ment>e:rs supported the ationaliste on mo~t 4uestione, Not only w.ere the number of Hughes supporters reduced but his refe;rendu.lll proposals wttre Qe.feated .for the thircl.time. s Tablo XIV sbo~s, the States Split even on the referendum proposals: there was a o" majority in New South Wales ,. South Australia., and Tasmania ., and a "lest' majority in Vi.ctoria1 Queensland ., and estem Australia For the Commonwealth as a whole there waa a lfNott majority of just le2:1a th~ 13.000. Because of the manner in which the campaign was c onflo.ete~ it is difficult to make any definite oomarisons betwQen the result& of the senatorial and relen.ndum voting. The Nationali:rts ~ally W'.on the senatorial elections in all States except New South Vfales ; yet" the referenfiwn proposals were defeated by large major ities in three States. This would tend to indicate that there was littl~ connection between the senatorial voting reeult arxi the rtfeNndum voting re$ults. An analy-sie of the distribution of elt,ctoral districts at the ele-ct-iori and referendum, Table XV; shows that the Nationalist& were strongestin Tasmania and South Australia ; but in these Sta.tea the referendum propo-sals were defeated in every electoral district. As the revie of tbe referendum campaign has reveal d, it appeared as though South Australia was the State in which there was the most

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TABLE XIV 1919 SENATORIAL AND BEFEREN DUM VOI'E BY STAT&,a N..S Vie Q ld .. S..A .. W A .. Tas .. Total Labor senatorial vote 2812315 251,433 138,919 62,946 31,055 24.,:L90 795,858 N ational senatorial vot& 242,JJ6 2862440 169,894 90,781 h.5,012 35/2 77 861,-990 Fa:rners senatorial. vote .., 100:,620 50,260 ... .... ll,853 ... Electors enroll-ed ........ 1,035,908 793,710 389,200 26 8 ,235 l63,-5L4 l22,0J6 2,762,633 % of enrolled voting 66 97 76-45 84 85 66-40 63:..J.2 58 86 71.59 "Yesn legislative po.ers 259,,751 369,210 l 75,225 40,520 48 ,1 42 1 8 .,.509 911,357 N on Legislative powers 3 90 .450 201,869 130,299 119,789 44, 8 92 36,861 924,160 ai'his table is tai,n from: Commonwealth of Au stralia., Electoral Office F ederal Elections Votes Arranged by Parties ., 1901-45. Commomrealth of Aus tralia, Parliamentary Papers, III (1919).

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.305 'l'ABI.E X V DI$ 1' Rl.BUTION OF C O ONWEA LT H P ARLIJ TAl ELE CT O RAL DIS ... 'l' RI CTS A T T HE m.EOTIQ N S AND REFEREN D UJI OF 1919a u .s w Vic Qld,. S A '.Pas Total Lab~ 1 ,3 6 ; a l 25 t fational:L$t ,.. 10 10 6 5 2 5 30 Fanne;re t: i 5 2 8 Fittmare and N,s ., 'I 3 1 4 0 Yes" Legi.alative Powe:rs .. 2 81 lO a 35 nNo Legislative PoweN 25 7 J' 5 40 .. .. ,. ii. ~!JJll'a, Table XIV t n a organized opposition to t.he alterations on the oth~r hand there was llttle. dr no opposition to the proposals in Tasmania and the PremieF of the State eupported the alterations .. N onetheless the p roposals were defeated in Tasmania bya vote of two to one an d the N ationali$ts receiwd a sizable majority in tho Senate voting and won ewry electoral district 'the results of the voting in these two S tates, i -.. e ., nationalist and lf N o n viotoriea ,is further evidE!nce that the ferendum vote did n ot f o llow p a.rty lines There were large 11 Yea 11 majorities i n Victoria and Q ueensland while the a~natorial vote was close~ in these States than it was in South Australia and Tasmania i!oreover there was a "Yes" majority in all electoral distri c t~ or Victoria and Q ueensland The result

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J0 7 of the refe:re ndum voting in Vi ctoria ean possibly be explained by the f'aot that Tudor and Hughe s were both contestin g ~lectora.l district.a tn Victoria, and that the "Ies" stand of.' both of these leading party men had an ,, influence on the electors. Also, the Victorian Farmers Ur,iion suppo:tted the alterations,. and in the five Victorian ~lectorates wha,re the F ~rs Qiandide.te was successful the re.ferendwn proposals reeei.ffd ,, a 1 l'estt majority. In Queens land on thG basis of the eampa ign there are no reasons which ca.n be advanced to explain th,e "Yes" major.ii ity. Ttie ex :t'emier of "the State 'l' J .. R yan made light of the refe:r e.nch,un. pl"oposals and Pr emer Theodot-e and his Government opposed the al te'rat:1,.ens ,, The results of tbe referendum vote in New South ales oa.n ... not bee)[plained 'by comparin g the senatorial and referendum results. The ta:otthatthe New S outh W ales Labor party executiw and the State's Far mere and Set,tlerz,Assoc.1.a.tion oppeeed the altel"'1tions could be a partial explat_1ation for the fact that twentyve of the State s twenty-seven electoral districts re gi$tertd a 11 N o" majority.. There was a No.,,. 1.GQ:jority in all of the electoral districts of NEnJ South Wales i ~ which Farmers r candidates were suocessfu.1, and this suggests that the hostility o:f the F armers and Settlerst Association had an influanee on the. electors 0 these distriots. B ut since there were twenty..-one di1:1tricts 1n which labQr and National can didates were suocess.t'ul~ there are undoubtedly other re~sons or the 'fo 11 vote in the distriets where the Farms rsI c-andidates wer elected.. I.n eotern

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JOO Australd.a the only ttro districts to register a "No" majori~y were those tn w-hh the Farmers candidates were elected, but this does not mean a great deal since the Primary Producers of :Western Australia. support&d the1 a:l t-e rations .:f:. A ; ')) of electoral districts according to party di vi sions md .. : t,tes @a" No" referendwn majorities reveals that of the th~ty-...e:tJh:t di.strict1a in which Nationalist candidates were victorious there "a,r,e nineteen districts whioh voted ttYes" and nineteen district s which 'Vii>!Mtd 1 '1 J-& 1' J of the twenty...fiw Labor districts if teen voted 11N t aM ten Yes't; in the twelve Farmers and Settlers and Nationalist a dietnots, su voted U!fo~ and six Yes.n This breadkown together with the pr~cedimg Compal"ison and analysis or :rendum and election vot. ing ~salts leads to the conclusion that the referendum votin g did not follow ipa_rty lines-; In the absence of a clearcut party division on the 1919 re.fer&rulum it is tempting to augg&$t that. the activities of cel"bain groups in various States we'l'e re$J>onsibl.e fo:r electors eJJ'Ossing party line:::1 But it :m.ust be re,membered, as the Herald remark$d 1 that ther were ttu11pot-ary factors :resulting from the wartime emergency that i.nflueilced electors; therefore; the extent to Whieh pe rsonalities ~d groups influenced electors must not be too dogmatically .. stated

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CHAX'ER XI CONG.I, SIO S In this coneludin chapter it would be impossible to answer all of the questions that have been raised in the st.udy of the 1911, 1913 and 1919 extension of Commonweal th powers ret'erenda 1 though there exiS'tS a great deal of data on the stands of groups and person ali tie&, it has been impossible to obtain some of this kind of in.for mation and that which was unobtainable would have been valuable in filling in certain evident gaps Due to electoral redistrictin and the movement of population it has been necessary to limit electoral Oont)arisons to State and district totals inst ad of compar:lng and analyeing n,turns from local polling areas Ifowevar these dra11baeka do not invalidate any a the general comparative and interpretive analyses From a colll_parative standpoint it is .feaaibl-e to make con alusions based on the nature and statement of the ref renda proposals ~ the differences in circumstances which surrounded the referenda, the motivati.on an:I. campaign arguments involved in the alterations am the voting results It is also valuable to weigh the role of parties ideology and leaderehip in an eff'ort to determine the ef'feet they had on the mov& to extend Commonwealth powers Int rwoven in these comparisons and interpretations are points whi c h give clues to the

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310 long-term trends in Australian politics particularly a.s they relate to the use of ths referendum far constitutional change and the atti tude of parties and groups toward broadening Commonweal th p owers The historical survey in Cha.ptE!r ll of the first ten or the Commonweal th was aimed at uncovering the factors which led the La:be>r party to intl"Oduce amendments to extend OOllillonweal th powers in fivo important areas-trade and commerce, regulation of corpora .. tions arbitration, control of trusts and monopolies and nationaliza tion of monopolies Briefly stated th0l'6 were tw.o main reasons for the Labor party 1 s decision to utilize the referendum, (a) tbe oon servat1:ve State legislatures were unsympathetic to labor a demands; a.ild (b) the H igh Court invalidated legislation which was favorable to labor The Labor party s ought to reml!ldy this situation by placin g the primary reSponeibility for industrial and commercial legislation in the hands of t.he Commonwealth parliament 1911 was but the first of i'our times curin g the S$oon d decade of the Cor.nnomrealth that bills to alter the Constitution in these five areas wero passed by parliament. De spite significant changes in the initial proposals, the basic aim of the 1911 alteratio-ne 1'8.$ preserved in the other attempts to amend the OonstitutiQn In eaoh of the five areas ilia St.ates and the Commonwealth possessed some of th& po'WBr which was incorporated in the alterations, and in one sense the proposals can be considered as attempts by the Commonwealt h to divest the States of their power in these matters In

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311 another sertse;, boo use no one State or the Conunonweal th coul efec ti vely utilize the pCIMU'S so long as both had partial legi slative responsibility in all areas., the referenda. wer designed to create a new set or powers for the COQnomrec.lth T he ramificatiomo.f the State,...Com."llOnwoalth controve.r$Y are dealt with later 1n this chapter., and .for the pre(;ent it ia euffioient to say that, r gardleaa of where the pOW$?' :resided or whether it existed a.tall, the alte:ratio-ns wa:ra intended -to gi ve the Commonwea.lith supremacy in fields lfhioh would haw made it th most power.f'ul legislative body in the oonti .. nent By 1919 the original Hughe s' amendments of 1911 bad gone through n watering--down procees In large part the concessions made throughout the decade resulted i'rom sooo specific pressure being brought to bear on the Oom:nonwealth Government ,,hich sponsored the le gislation. 'r h.:.s can be seen in the changes that were made in the trade and eommerce clause Initially the Fisher Government req_uested an amendment that,, in the worda of Section 51 o th Constitution, 0 The P arliament shall, aubjec.t to the Constitution, have power to malte law tor the peace, order and good government of the Commonwealth with 1'8speot to:-(i) Trade and Comme rce." Thero was such a hue and ccy ra1$ed by the Stat e Oovernmsnta farmers and graziers, and other groups ovezthe f' ate of the State r ilways under euch a blanket clauae that in 1913 th tNtde and oo.mnerce proposals specifically excluded the regulation of trade and commerce on State railW83"8

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312 excepting when it was trade and comeroe with other countries and amon g the S tates.. The critics of the exten d ed p ower were not satis fied with this concession, and so in 1919 H u g hes worded the clause so that it made a flat statement to the effect that State rail-ways, ; I their 1W1nagement, control, rate-a, and area ,,ere to be excluded from I the operation of the clau$e The development of the corporation amendment has almost a parallel history to that of the trade and commerce alteration. The 1911 corporation proposals placed re g ulation and control of corpora tions except non..profit ones-religious., charitable, soientific, and artistic--,in the hands -0 the Commonweal th p arliament. Once again the objection of the States coupled with municipal critioiem forced the tabo:r party to amend its request. The 1913 proposal exsmpted municipal and g overnmental corporations-. D y 1919 there was a further change ifi the corporation clause, which classified edueational cor p orations -vrith other non-profit oorporatione. Arbitration was another matter u pon which the Co1lllllonv1ealth g overnment was forced to amend its stand but this p roposal was not changed until 1919. B oth the 1911 and 1913 arbitration amendments had ineluded State railway servants, and along with the other workers of the Oommonw'ealth would have brought them under the Federal Arbi tFa.tion Court. In 1919 Hu g hes dropped any specific mention of the railway employees, and it was made clear in the trade and commerce clause that State railway workers would not fall under the jurisdic tion of the Federal Arbitration Court

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313 The national.izatio-n of monopolies proposal was greatly, changed by 191911 The original amendment provided for the ne.tionali11a ... tion of a monopoly th,:-ou h a $1q)le majority in both house s of parlia ment '1.'he 1913 alteration amitted State oorporations and corporations eonstitut-ed u:nde:r state authority This was a move to obviate the e~ge that the ations. The nationalization clause was further re$tricted in 1 919 1 and the amendment of that year. prorlded tor the investigation ot a buainess by a Justice ot the High Court in order to determine whether it 1tas a monopoly 1-"ur thermore, the 1919 ela:tl'S& stated that the : Oom,monw$al th must purchase on II just terrt1S~ the asaets -, e,nd good will of the corporations it nationaliz d., Pre--. viout:J nationalization proposals had made no mention of the purchase of monopoly good will or "just terms 11 Fwom this brtef re'Vitw f the cban g ,s 1n the 1911 proposals as reflected in the 1913 and 1919 alterations it can be seen t.ha.t the H ttghee Go vernments W$re seneitiv~ to the criticisms which had been brought a g ainst the proposed amendments., Ea ch cone ssion was an attempt to make the altez
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314 The 1919 time limit, the further concessions to States in rega:d to railway~ and the watered-do1m nationalization clause are endanoas of something deeper than mere attempts to meet the criti ciame of the earlier opponents of the bills To be sure the conces,... sions made in 1919 met s-ome of the objections to the p roposals, but they wme largely due to the fa.ct that a non .... labor party was putting f'orbh the alterations The plain fact was that the majority of the National party did not regard these alterations as an integral part; of their long te~m po litical aims In 1911 and l9l.3 the alterations were instituted by a pragrnia-tic soci~iat Labor party Which was led by one. of Australia 1 e most dynamic ~d nationalisti:o men 'l'he eiroumsta.noea surrounding theae two referenda were very similar, and the changes in the 1913 proposal$ were not so restrictive as those of 1919 In 1913 Labor was merely trying to remove aoJl)e of the points which seemed to be mo st ebjectionable ,. In 1919 the sides were reveraed and Labor as the opposition Partywaa only follaw:ln an expedient po licy in opposing the al terationa Labor thou ht that the defeat of the would mean a 106' of prestige for the Mat ional party even if defeat of the alterations would not mean the loss of parliament for tbe Nationalists Being very p rac'\ical, Labor was quite willin to accept hhe words of ita Federal Campaign :Dire ctor, T J Ryan, that 1 the main objective is to secure the reins of Government for

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315 th next three years 1 It w s primarily this oe sire to win the election that led Labor to oppose the referendum Thus, the di$cusaion of the ohanged circumstances and motivation for the 1919 reteren um can be sununar1zed by_ ma.king one relatively simple point between 191) and 1919 the parties at tho Co mmonwealth parliamentary le~l had switched si-
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Jl6 bodies and the Uew S.outh ales Farzoors and Settlers Associ~tion, argued t.hat the proposals meant the stifling of I free.dom or enter prise ei This traditional f'No" element was joined by memb rs of the U,.bor party who were not in the concerned with these arguments. Instead> Labor contended that there was only on& party that wol1l.d deal witn profiteering and tl!iat was the Labor party. L&bor ridiculed the 1919 altel"ationa. as an example o political expedienoy and trifling with ,a serious question. The .fact that th
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317 State by State voting at the three referen a ',rwo States., e'W' South Wales and Tasmania regi ster~d a No" majority in all three at-f;e ts to ex-pend Commonwea l th p<"fere while Western Australia had a c onsis ~ tent "!Gs majority 1 Of the three remainin States, Victoria and South Australia only voted 'Yestt at the 1919 .:id 1911 referenda respectiV'flly, and Queensland s SQle ttrfott .majoritJ ~s recorded in the 19).l :refel"en~,' (S~e Appendi."'t IV ) J. ; rom the voting results tb can be aeen th~t in all thre.e refere n da the 11 No 11 votes in New 5 outh Wates and Victoria~ although Victoria voted "Ye~"' by a sub"' st,antd.$1 majority in 1919 a.eeount.ed for two ... thi,rde of the total Oomraomtea,lth ttNo 1 v.o~e at each referendum., and 1n 1911 the 11 N a" v tes ft:om these :two Statss were greater than the combined 0 Ya~ll vote of the $U States The voting ~ssult$ ;.n th ae two tatea are si nifi eant b8oause they itldicat e that the two most populous States and at lthe o onilistent 0 Yes majority 1n estern Australia. is diffi cult to explain. s Livingston oomments2 "Western Australia s pla c e at the head or the list is not easy to understand The largest s~ate in the Oommonwe.alt~ i she has next to the smallest population fja.smani.a is the smalleey J her financial p:roblems have always been great -, Ber ta.:11: resources haw not been adequate to her needs and she ha& bad to dG~nd largely on help f rom the Commonwealth loreover she has always be&n disatis!ied with her position in the union and has chafed under the tariff policy whi'ch she believes has one her increasing harm to the bona!it of -0tber states. This dissatieaction led her in he oar~ ly l930's to make an earnest effort to secede from the Commonwealth, an ,effort that was carri&l s-o far as a atition to London to grant p9Wer of secession. Since shs haa been the most dissatisfied with the present arrangement, ~.t might be expected that abe would be the most anxious to o nange it But at the same time since she has been so dissatisfied with lih fedei'al system, it :1.s rather surprising to find her so regular. ly voting to increase the powers of the ecleral government estern Australia has been dissatisfied W1 th her plac in the r ederal systemJ she has there.fore voted to c hange the system But this is only a vug gestion, and it (ioubtleee is an ove:r aimpl1fication Federalism

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318 that the Commonwealth s legislativo rivals provided the bulk of the opposition tt' the referendum And o.f the two States it was New South ales that was the staun c h.est and most consistent in fighting again$t the extension of Cormnomrealth power~ Other than New South \iales the only consistent '1Noff State was Tasmania New South ales "Noff position oan be l,mderst,ood because of its histol'ical position among the Stat~a, the pow$-r and opposition of tho Farmers and Settlers' Aseooia.tion., and the attitude of State parliamentarians who were zealous in their desire to protect the power and prestige of the State Hd\V'8ver, it is impossible to find a set of comparable .factors in Tasmania. which would explain the Sta.tets "No" majorities The one !actor tvhieh might explain Tasmania s vote is that the State is the smalles'b in the Gommomve~ th in both size and populatiot:t, and; also,the State i!3 not cont.iguou.s to the Australian continent Thus, Tasmanian eleot,ors would be the most likely to reject extended Common wealth power on the grounds tha~ the State would suffer :from the ac.ts of a pa.,liament under the supposed domination of tho three large eastern States-New South W ales, Victoria, an Queensland At various points in this study it has appeared that the most important aspscts of the rere:renda were the inertia whioh oted in avor of the 1 o" cause an d the stand of the pax-ties. Certainly ed Constitutioal Chanse PP 144.,.45 The aol1d labor eupport 1n he minin g 'cente'.rs of Ooolgardio and .Kalgoorlie, see Table IX in Chapter VI on page 183 is another possibleexplanation for estam Austra.1i~s consistent "Yes" majorities

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319 'hh se two asp eta of the referendum deserve attention and both of them had an effect in the voting results but not to the extent main tained by some observers -. M isconceptions on these two points were voiced in the testimony of A.,, C. V Melbourne before the 1929 Royal Cottmiseion which investigated the Constitution lbourne stated that the el'8ctors who were acti'Vti supporters of a political party would vote 21$ their pany directed, and that the bulk of the will vote "l'fo' on the general principle that it is better to resist change ,.ul It eannot be denied that ll'lal1Y' ele-otor s l ook to their Common weal th political party for guidan c e, on referendum proposal$ In electio~ battles the Commonwealth party label and blessing 1a often sufficient to insure the leetion of a given party t s candidate Likmtise..1t is frequently the ease that certain party affiliates will vote for or against a referendum proposal because proposal ;Ls sponsotted or opposetd by a pal'ti.eular paxtty... But this party aspect of voting has been over--e1t1pbaaized Parliam~mtary and party govern ment insures that proposals of any consequence that ori inate in parliament Will take on a partisan appearance which ie based on non labor 'Vfh labor lines. B ut it is not correct to infer from this that the fight throughou.t the Co onwaalth on all levels is based on suo,h a division In ref rendum ba.ttleo the Commonwealth political party is only one of the many groups 'Which have an ofeot 1'luoted in Parker "The P eople and the Constitution," P 149 ..

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320 on the electorate~ In the referenda studied the electors were under pre ssu1"G from many sources. Among those that had an influence, at times complementary to tbe Commonwealth parties and at otheitimes contradi.e~"?cyto the Commonwealth parties_. ~re the Oommomreal. th f par).iamenttl.ey partiee, Commonwealth parties outside of parliament, State :paX'l,.ia.mentary parties., State parties outside of parliament, municipal and shtte gova ming bodies, and t;ha socio--eoonomio interest groups.. O'noe the ref ere-nda le.ft the Coxmnonweal th parliament all of th&se pressures came into action in influencing the elector, and, therefore, took the proposa:t.s out of the realm of parliamentary party pol:ttios In i9ll the defection of Holman and other Labor members of the N8fl Sout-h ales parliament i s sufficient evidence to i;,how that thu referendum campaign did not proceed along the non-labor vs. labor line $ which lfere in evidence during the course of the Commonwealth p~iamentary debates. oreover, the JJNo" stand and the vigorous campaign conducted by the ehi.Iie councils, municipal govern mente 1 and the Farmers and Settlers Association were not motivated by any great s&nse of party affiliation, and many minnbere of these g?'oup~ had undoubtedly been Labor supporters in the Commonweal th p$.rlianentary elections. Again in 191) the Labor party, al though .great deal mo re unified than in 1911 1 was i thout the services of r Holman .. By 1919 the group alignment on proposals completely explodes the contention that the ref' erenda proceed on the party lines which are established in the Commonwealth parliament.

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.321 assumption that referenda are party matters and that all of the electors vote as their party directs can be disprowd in.anotht.r manner. and thte is by comparing parliamentary electio11 re.sulttlf and ree:renda results ,As was pointed out in the eonparison of the 1910 election results and the 1911 referendum resu1ts there are 1,10 Labor districts that voted nNo" on the altera tions, Admittetny there was a lapse of one year between election and ~-erern:tum ~d also a 10 per cent drop in voting from el$otion to re-ferendwn ., but these two taetors cannot account for the :big shift .t'rom Labor to ttffo,. 0 In the elecrbion and referendum or 1913 the shift was not s-0 grta.t a.$ it wae between 1910 and l9ll J nonethe. l~ss in 19.13: tfien 'W$Te ten Labor di4St ri.cts that voted 0 N o 11 A g ain in 1919; when an election and a ret.e:rendum were held simultaneously, the results demonstrated that the electorate did not tollo11t the party lines Which were indicated in th& &leetion results. or the thirty.ei g ht N tiona.l dist.riots there were nineteen that voted 11 Yes 1 and ninet"&en that voted "No" J in the twenty ive tabor dietricte there were fifteen "No" diett-1-cts and ten "Yes st distriotsJ and the twelveFarmar and National districts split even 1n the referendum vot:Lng,. T his wide divergence between elect1on and referendum. voting When vie-wed in the light of group and individu l Splits within parties 1s ;ra.the?r c.onolusive ev-ldenc., of the lack of votin alon party line on referenda+

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322 The second half of lboumets observation on referendwn voting-that the residue of the ttNon vote not bas~d on party advice is a result of the desire to t,sist changeis another proposition that has been given wide currency But it is lacking in .factual support ~s is the prGposition that party affiliates follow th6 directions of their Commonweal th parties The opposition of the various business and commercial groups was more than a dieapproval of change. B usiness and eommaroial groups realiZed that the,il" aCttirtties would be regulated and controlled., and in 1911 and 1913 they feared th$.t th$1r business or i 11 dustry might be the subject of a. Labor party na.tio11ali0ation scbeim ftuml intere.sts based muoh of their oppo$it1on to the proposals on the rear of nationalization of land and t"411way-s, increased property truces, and greatly strengthanGd rura.l unions ope.rating under a Fadf3ral Arbitration Courts "cOtllllon rula.t State parliamentarians rreoognized that the States would be o~rshowdowod b.y a strong Commonwealth parliament:, and that a Common weal th parliament with greatly increased. power would mean that their prestige would decline and that their political futurt would be tied to that of their party in the Oommomvealth parliament There is an e1ernent of wanting to resist change m these motives and it is c~rsct to say that some groups were the path of their parliamentary party; however, more than this was involved Each g~oup had a personal atake in the outcome of the referendum voting; they mre objeetin to the unfavorable economic and political con seq,uenCEte Which they felt would .flow from a 0 Yeett victory

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323 This question of what influences the elector is one that has plagued most wx"iteI"s on ustralian politics s was stated in th In~roouetion most students of Australian po l itic who discuss refe~ enda have n-0t used the group approach In faot, ll\OSt of the researeh ha.s. been o1"ie.nted toward dis c overing how the parti~e stand on an issue, campo.ign argument$ tind the influon c $ or mass adia on the individual eiector This is an important area of political inquiry, bat it o"IJ'.ff!lrlooks the factthat electors ar& members of various g r oups, and hhat. the ae groups are continu9-usly Shaping ele c tor-al attitudes Group menibe:rship in many instances transcends party affiliation It ha.fl been the purpose of this s1n:dy to show that in the eA-tension of p~ers re-f ex-e-nda tho position of groups was more important than that of part:tes in under standing the voting reoult s R. s Parker agre s with thin concept to a limited extent and ~ays that votes based on pBJ'ty al.legiance do not decide the results of refe;enda 1 After discussing and as unimpor tant the effect of non .. voting and infol"ZJ'.al voting, Parker coioos to the tenta.tiw c on c lusion that the c lues to public attitudes on Con stitut-ional. ciueetions must be sought soJr#here in State politi c s ,.ts 2 11, pursuing this analysis Parker attempts "to ooq,nre the state re.t'el'8ndum votes with a oornposite estimate of the current 2 Ib:td ., P 163

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political flitu.a.tion in each state. 111 Parker admits that his effort is u inconple:te and perhaps inconclusive" J neve rthele se, he doee arrive at a correlation which at first glance appears to shawgrea-t deal about the pattern of referendum voting In employinf this method o.f co!l;)aJ'ing the State referendum vote with an estimate of the States political picture at the time of the referendum Parker states that the me,thod yields an apparent correlation of hypotheeis with act of about eighty to eighty five per cent. 2 In essence Parker is saying that the position of the State party which is most popular with the elector te at the time of the referendum determin s which way th. "svringing 11 vot will o, nd, thus, deeides the State s position in referendum votin g ( P arker assumes that the party vote in each State will be about equally divided and, therefont, cancel out ) There are many questions that can be raised concerning Parker's method other than the ability to evaluate the polit icaJ. sit,ua'bion in the State at the time of tho referendWll. Perhaps the first question to be asked is whether a majority of the nsw1ng1ngn vote is influenced by the stand of the most popular party in the State It seems highly possible that the stand of the most popular party and the vote of the "swi n ging" electorate could be ooin oidental The act that a State re isters a jority which follows the position of the dominant party in that 1 !bid p 164 2Ibid P 166 Parker outlines his method on pp 165-66

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325 State do$e not prove that the tingingtt vot ra in the State were inluene$d. by the State's domlll(lnt party., And even if the swingingu vote is influen ced in such a manner., the-re is the all important ques tion of 'Why the State parties eoillBta.nd such T.f!Spect from the 11 ninging1J voters In the oaae of a majority State party ., why is its stand the choice of a majority of the State votel"? hatinfluences the :State pqll'lly 1 s st.and on a re.ferendum?' I:3 the 6 swinging 0 voter :influenced by the s~ actors? It either of these la&t two questions are anawred. in the atfit-ma.111 ve then it seetns as though the vote on the re.t.erenda 1$ purely along pa;rty lines. That i.s,. a majority of the ', vote:rs fo110JI' the advioe of the 0-0nunonflealtb p_.ties, and theee 'V'otee tend to oanoel out A $jority of the ttSffirlgin g vote f.ollows the State p.arty whieh i$ most popular i th the ele-ctorate, and this means that the stand of the doininant pa:My in the State will determin$ the outcome :er the refenmdum, And a f1na.l question, in the event that the stand ot the dominant State party coincides nth the stand of the maja'z'ity Oonunonwealth party why 1-s it that the majority 11sw1ng1ngt1 voteis said to be following the State party rather than the C omrnonwe~ th party? Even if tb.ese questions can be answered satisfactorily, it doe$ not dis~ount the .fact that othet groups were important in deter mining the outoonte of the voting, In the analysis of the l9ll, 191.3, and 1919 r$.fenmda campaigns the influence of State and Conmonwealth parties is not disputed, :rather it is contended that they were onl.y

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326 two of the several groups which had an e..foct on the electors. In some in~tances they were probably the moat impo:rtant factors, but too other gl"oupe took a stand in the referend to maintain that Sta~ 'or Commonwealth parties were all important. Park~r is not alone in neglecting the importance o group attitudeR ~d their effect on the elector. In a very provoo t1ve ~:rticle s, 0 Tne Politics of Fedaralism,n Frafessor p H Partridge analyzes thex-ole the refeNnda. have played in shaping Australia 's ofeseor Partrid g eis main conclusion on this 0 point ie that the refeninda are no indication oE the electorate$ attittlde tc,wa.rd.s fedel'alism. By :reading the referendum rest1lts it ~ould b~ aeil'W:#Jd that the Australiane were staunch adher.ents to rig:W St~tt..Conunornveal11h boundaries. But thie, as Prof ssor Part ridge demopstrates is not the case. In the mid .. 1950' s the re ie no longe~ ;l:l. stat & like New South of the 1900' s to 1920' e that oa.n be ()' onsi-d~red to be the Cc,nm1onw alth's equal. Centraliiation of gow:rnmental funetiona has been taking pl.ace, and it hae been with the co~sent of the electorate. 1 The fact that Commonwealth supre macy bas been the result of public demands leads Professor P artridge to doubt that S..n a referendum the public is tohiefly concerned about lThe growing eentralization of functions and the resulting Comm.ohWealth supl'6macy h.a.s taken place duo to two world wars and the depression of the 19JO's. Thia centralization has bean facilitated by Commonwealth supremacy in fiscal matters For a discussion of this point see: S. R Davis "Co-operative Federalism in Retrospect,'' Histor~ c4i} S~udie:,s; Australi;a and New Zealand, V (November, 1952), ~12-2j3,

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;27 the constitutional or federal qu The elector is interested in tha ~tie questio n of what the gowmxoont will do if the altera tions are p assed, and sometimes a "popular vote against the .amendment is a dir:ect vo'te against the policy which i thought to be adumbrated or imp lied i n th amendment." 2 This, a rg ues Professor P artrid does not me-an tbat there has been a "eonsid&rad p ublic judg ment of the constitutional or federal question," or a s erious p ronouncement about an is,sue of poliey,. T hue, P rof ssor P artridge is say ing that refe ronda .are ne1th&i' an indicatio n of the electorate a attitud& on Gomtn.ol!ffl'ealth tate l'elat1ons nor does th voting l'"Gflect a. s rious dec tsiori '. on p olicy ot'essor P artridge's Oonc-lusions will be in 11ght of the refe:nmd a e>overed 1n thia study in an e'ort to determine their validity. A statenlftn:b of Profe ssScr Partridge's four raa:eons why th e1eeto~ate itotes N ott at 'referenda aids in understandi ng the reasons for bis g ~ral conclusions ab-out :referenda voting The four rea sons why th& iil&etoi-s vot -o'' are i {l) the policy of th g overn ment is made clear, and the electorate rej~cte the poliOyJ (2') the policy o the go"Vernment is not clear, and the electorate refuses t,o buy a11 p ig ... 1n-.a,-poke"; (3) the electorate ears any xpansion of owmme r rtJ, a nd (4) the eleotorate feels that the area 0 admin i stration ;i, r H P artrid g e "The P olitics of F ederalism,' I'ederalism., ed. G eoffreySawe-r (Melbourne, F C heshizle, 1951), p, 184. 2Ibid 0 P P iSh-85~ 3 Ib id ., P 1 8 ,5. S ee al$o s .. Livineston., F e eraliem and Constitu:t,iona'I Chanves P Pit 136'"'40, who accepts with siight variations Professor :Part1ruge s our reasons why the ~lectors vote '' N o."

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328 involved is one that $hould be occupied by the S~at and not the eommom1ealth,l The .first three of these considerations which do not involve Commonwealth-State relations in a direct sense provide the maj-ority o-f the ''No" vote while the last l"eai3on for voting ntfo" Wluent:e$ a very -small mSnority of the electors, I !he~ appears to be a cont:racU,etion in reasons on and three for 'lo'ting t;:ott and the gene~al conclusion that the referenda resuits do not indicate a serious p'.ronounC$lllent on poiicy matters Possibly tn~ e1t~~orate did not underetand the policy of the overnmEtnt to the degree t,hat Prof~seor Partridge would l~e, but from the surmy of group:, party, and individual attitudes on the l9ll and 1913 re.fer. enda; and to a lesser extent the 1919 referendum, i.t seems that the policy of the govemment, as outlined by government or ir.q:)lied by ifldividuals and groups.,. was understood, In 19ll and 1913 the trade anions were awat'-e o:f the act th-at the Oonmonwealth gowmnent through ti.he ref er8nda propo&al& intended to control trade and COilllllGrce, adm.i.niste~ arbitration and regulate an nationali~e industry in an ef.:tert to aid the laboring man 'lheth e r the trade uniona would benefit to the ell."tent that they were led to believe is not at issue What is importiant is. that labor felt it would prosper in genem and particular ways if the alterations wena successful '.t'hat labor desired this as a matter cf government policy can be Hen in the l!l,)id

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opinions, official and unofficial, 'Which were expressed before, durin g and in between referenda oampaign-s. 329 Likewise, the opponents of the .re:te:re nda voiced their opinions on the policy question& involved in th,e proposals. i1any o: the ll N o 0 arguments were iJ.l the form of meaningless cli.ches, but when the positions ot the fanning groups busin&ss and commercial bodie et, $.ll'd S ta e parliamentarians are e~amined it is clear that they were cibj <'ting to polioieti which were involved in the al tel"ations. Be{)auee of t.he comprehe neivt nature o! the amendments it 1s difficult to sa;vwhe1Jher the policy que stiona considered as important : were re~l \ '):r apparent; n:onethelees;, both $ides were basing their eupr,ort or opposition on policies whieh they anticipated would result if the p li".oposals were aeQepted. It is also correct to say, as Profe~eor P artridge does in bis third Nason why electors vote n n o,.ti that much of the opposition to the 1911 and 1913 alterations was based on the desire to halt the expansion of g overm:zrmt. This,. whe~ it i8 based on the kind of reasoning used by the tt N o 0 side, appearv to fall under the heading or a policy coneideration, r his brief discu$sion of policy and the part that it played 1n the roferend$. has been baEJed on ime 1911 and 1913 alterations. It is reasonably clear from the dieauseion in Chapters VIII, IX, and X that policy considerations were not eo illportant in 2919, In the two ea:-1iel' oampaigne the ietsues involved in the amendments were paramount t but thie was not the case in 1919 when ephemeral and

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3.30 personal issuee dominated the election and referendum. The official attitude of the Na tional party waa that the proposals were of limited application and duration. The Australian Labor party opposed the alteration, and in this campa ign tho chief concani was to he returned to parliament with a majority. Profiteering resulting from war soldiers gratuity the betre.yal of the Labor party by Hughes "effi ciency and economy" (the Fa.rmrs slogan), severing of Imperial ties., Ryan's Catholicism, and Hughes explo:tts in England and at th Pence Conference we:re all matters which obscured the polioy considerations inhe:rant ; i,n the alterations. However, 1919 was the exception in the three referenda covered The results of the 1911 and 1913 referenda can be taken to indicate a p11b lic pronouncement on poli cy, and 1 t was as serious a pronouncement as is possib le in an electore.l contest. The question is not ,. -.rhether the decision was a lasting one b11t given a certain set of cd..t-Quinerbancee and an indication of the pol ioiee to b pursuo-4 :in these oilt"ounietances, g roups and individuals made their decision. Looking back from the vantage point of the present it be diffi cult to accept this propositi
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331 public judgeln8pt on the 0.on.stitution or federal quest1on._,. In the case of the elttension of powers referenda the ar ument is that the elector is more concerned owr how the overnment intends to use the powar,, and not how the extended power will affect Commonwealth State relations. argument can be accepted, but n ot to the exclu ... sion of the Conunonw e alth-State issue Thus" any disagr 1 eement with Professor P artl"i dg a oV&.r whether the referenda involve polioy mattere is probably one a emphasis, The poi n t o f disagreement with P rofe saor Partridge atid R S ,. P~kel'; who takes a simil a r view 1 is on their contention that the eleQtor d0es not judge the effect of the proposal on t.he g~h~ral sti-uct~e of government 1 In t'he first place it should be repeated that neither of these two writers oonaiders the part Which groups play 1n shaping elsotoral apinion. Both writers refer to nthe people '' ''the publip,' and "the elector ., They are dealing with the entire scope of Common w.ealth history, and perhaps this explains their disinterest in the role of groups. Moreover, there is a pos sibility that they assume that groups aid 1n sha p ing electoral o p inion, but this does not appear to be a ep.eoitio p~t of their treatllJSnt P arker attempts to explain referenda votin g by examining S tate politics, while P rof'esaor P artrid g e relies on rather vague reasone which vlsualize the elector as under standing" not unrlerstanding, or fearin g g overnment expm111Jion and, 1 Pa;rker, "The P eople and the Constitution, stat s, 11 'l 'he in trinsic merits of the Constitutional issues, whether from the p oint of view of States ri g hts or the Co omrealth expedieno-y, seems to play a very small pa.rt indeed in the people I s attitude P 167

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therefor'=!', voting "'No 0 There is some validity in these explana tions but these c onsiderations neglect the fact that eomewhere along the .;tine the ref nmda proposals stirred up the sentiments of group-$ ,i~oh they irouJ.d affect Al though these groups n,a.y not be interest~d 1n federal or ccmstitutional questions at every refer endum., it li s been observed that in 1911 and 1913 Commonwealth. tate relationsw~e one of the several factors which influenced group am individ~al bpinion It -w-ould be impossible to maintain that he Who took stands on the; al te,:-ations wereintereet$d in any abstract conception gf what ~9tq:d b~ the pr o per balance between State and Commonwealth in a federal systf!rr i. These were not aaaclem_i.c discussions but elec toral C:.QDl)dgnsg nonethelt)ss all of the argument over States rights and unification was not just so much political hot gardless of their inability to explain it the federal system, different ae it might ha"VE! been Jt1Sant something highly practical to the vari.ous gr ups and who took sides on the extension of C.onnnormealtb pewi;ir-s Patterns of govetruno.ntal activity had been astablish&d., and despite the lack of ability to piece this activity tog&thsr and determine what it meant to Australiao pa:rticulnr brand of federali$tn there is little doubt that a federal system did imply some thing immedia.t~ and concrete The attitudes expressed in 1911 and 1913 demonstrated that there wns. some thought given to the constitutional or federal question

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.33.3 contained i,n the alterations Those 'Who argued "!esu realized, .for the reason$ outlined in Chapter II, tba.t they must resort to the Oon:mon'ealth government if they were to g ot action in the several areaa cowr ed by the proposals This doea not prove that those 11 Yes" groups knaw that to refer certain subjects to the Con:ruonwoalth parliament 'Would change Comomvcealth.State relations hence, the working of tho federal system._ Because this was not always apparent i~ not th same thing as saying that they were not e>:pressing v.tews on the workings of edera ... llsm -. T~ same can be said or the 0 tfo" :side, and in this instanc.e. the case 1$ a little clea~r So long as the propoeal were not aa o eptad the oppomtnts of extending powers oolll.d assume that thing,;3 would remain mu c h as they w re -. Again, it should b enphasi0ad that the "No' 1 .groups weJte not expressing an opinion that ,,-as fixed They were merely registering their opinion of proposal that ware brought f otth at a partioular time As wars and economic recessions came along solll8 of these groups gaw their consent, directly or :indirectly to extending Commonwealth powers But t..his does not. alter tM fact that, in 1911 an 1913 those who supported the 'Nott sicl.e were casting the-ir vote to maintain the balance of Oommomrealth...State relations which had been developed to that time There still remains one rgument which would appear to deflate this contention This i Profeasor Partridge's observation that de spi te th& ''No 11 votes on extension of Commonweal th pc:Mers th.ere has Men a steady flow of power to the Commonwealth an this 1noreaood

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3.34 Oommonwealth power has been in areas that the electors have voted 11 No'' on at referenda.. In reply to this it can be argued that thts centralization of power in the Con.nomrealth arliament took place after 191.3, and that the decline of States' power has resulted from the problems arising out of national and international emer enoies Events have IllOWd rapidly since 1913, and perhaps the other exten sion -of pdW'.ers rei'erenda were fraught with so many extraneous mttere, as was the ease in 1919, that it is difficult to say wheth r there was any c~nsideration given to Commomrealth-State ~elations The first two e:,,ctansion or powers re.f-$Nrida were taken in a period of r.lat1w cal.mJ they-wer. also held in a period when there was marktt'd di,ffenmc betwoen Labor and non-labor parties In contempo rary Australian politi c s the dividing line be-tween Labor and non-labor policies has become blurred, and it is easy to transfe-r the present state of parties to those past years The ~e>ciallst v1r free entel" prise argument was ?llOre of a. reality during the second deoade of the Commonwealth than it is today Similarly, the dividing line between States and Ootnr.lon'Wealth had not been broken down to any great extent ny of the participants in the 1911 and 1913 referenda only ten years previously bad been engaged in th struggle to eat blish a federal sya:tem It was only natural that they ehould have been more aware of the constitutional and federal questions which were inherent in the alterations It is not that groups and individuals were any more "Politically intelligent" than they ar today but that there

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335 are c ertain periods in whi c h issues sharper and the line betwepn idttologies and is c1earer It has not be&n the intention in t his discussion of group and 1ndiviciual attitudes toward the Commonwealth-State relations to obscure the major thesis of tbis study, in faot this discuf.'lsion is another way to demonetra:be hem groups shape the stand which electors take ., ThiS i s by no means a purely economic interpretation. Thero are mruv ot"oss...currents inv-~1ved in th~ formation or group opinion Ideology, lie~dership ., and sta~us were sol'OO or the factors other trum the economid o~s which swung groupsto one side or the other on the question ot extending Commomrealth .power:,,. :td.$ologically; the socialist trolution was one which the Labor piwty could readilyadapt to the problems of the 1910 s,. and thia was the p~~i~d when labor had great faith in the socialist philosophy In pres$nt day Labor pronouncements this socialism is less evident. Even in the ., early refe renda struggles Labor s socialism was teinpered by the practical conside~ations On ihe non~labor side the attachment to free enterprise provided party affiliates With a set of tenets that were opposed to the social.ism of labor 'l1he free enterprise philosophy was no more a set of abstract pril'lciples than was Labor s socialism Free enter prise had a:t.l of the sel.-intereet and e.:xpedient features thAt in Labo:rs beliefs. However, these two ideologies did provide a basis of disagreement and conflic-t, and both of the doctrines were factors in shaping opinion on the referenda a pe111 on in er, onron f aetogreemeeeme1g OI,Oth a

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336 Leadership also had its part in forming the attitudes of g~oupe and individuals Many voters were mtdoubtedly swayed by the stands whicth u. Hughes; w A Bolman, and others adopted. Hughes and : etand out as the foremost political leaders of the decade The aetiviti~s of both have been related in detail, and it is necessary 'bo s~?1e ,', some of the ways in which they :influenced party, group aad i.ndividt,ltU opinion Hug.h$S was t-he ,architect of the a:ltera.tions. He guided the proposals through his .Partir.ts led the fight or adop tion in 'Dhe. House, and e.ampa:L gned throu g hout tpe ComtllOmreaJ.tb f 01:1 the ad-option of ~he propo eals in all three referenda In many respects be was the ap0kesman for the dondnant e&ntiment in Australian poli tics, bq't "V1as also attempting to lead o'pinion His Skill and guile ~re <:U: spla.yed on 1n0re than one occasion. .!.'he wa:y 1.n which he dEJalt with Holman is an example ot how a first rate politician oper ates in aeaiing with his opponents, His :maneuvers in 1919 seem to b& a olassie eXU!ple of how one man can manipulate individuals and groups into the position that he desires Ul timately, Hughes' cause lost at the hands of the electors., but this do s not detract from his feat as a manipulator of men If any c : ri icism of Hughes can be made, it is that he was too gifted and that he couJ~ handle his party and parliament too well Sir Robert Garran relates that llughee very seldom had ar\V' detailed plan of action r a ther he reacted toe ch set of circum stances as th(?y i!fmerged r he situation favored hie getting the

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337 alterations throUgh parliament in 1919., and Hughes took full adva!t tage of it It appears as though he pls,;yed his hand too well 1n the beginhing., and that thie as the cause of his later eetbaoks. Petbaps the greatest tribute to H ughes' 1eadersh+p is the .. fact that he wa-s uniwreally disliked by members of the opposition and by the 1wsl'!lbel's of the several parties to which he belon ed. H~ had no pez-sonal or intimate friends, and there is no record or his having had contidanta or long.-time advisors There were none who were blinded by political or pe raonal affection for Hugh e-a., and h:i.s hold over others, even over his personal secrtd1a:ries, w~s always tenuous But Hughes manage~ to hold on. Occurrences which oul:d seem to threaten political death were turned into Hughes advAAtQge s On critical issues such as extending Coi.llmonweal th powers and oom3cr~:tion he was often out a step with h:L~ party and pub1ici opi.nion, but he found a Yf0.1 out of any public or party etnsure 'bhat resulted from his being out of' &'tep .. 'rhe -con~a&t betw'E!-en Hughes and Holman--Holnlan was Hughes main rival throughout the second deeade of the Commomrealtb-was a marked one Holman was logical and delibe:rate. The New South leadexcultivated the support of influential me:n inside and outside of the New Sou -th 'W ales parliaJllent .. s loader of the Labor party, and later the N ational party# in his State Holman was an influential party politician ., and as Premier of New South ales he was a power throughout the Commonwealth~ His was the most respected voice in

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J.38 the yearly Premiers' conferences over which he presided. Because of his pos:1,tion, the eilent opposition which he offered to the l9ll and 1913 alter.l\tions was a serious blow to the chances tor their euceess '!'.he ocnceesions of 1919 constituted deference to Holman and the intarest s for l'fhich he spoke. The leadership of Hughes and Holman ., and the ideological aspeets of the Labor and m:,n ... labor l>artias are only two more ways in which opinion on the alteration.a was sha.p d~ u ut these points and the other ones covered in tM,e chapter do not anSi'ler tlle in vi table c;;itiestion of why the raferencm were defeated I14 the analyses of the vciting at eae.h re.fe:rendwn soma of the more important reasons why 'tha.t pa:ttieular ref'enndum. was def eat d have been iven. Thes e analyses that ther.e is no single rea. son or serie.s of reasons that will hold for all three referenda. Eaoh ref :nmdum must be examined in its turn, and the group attitudes and other factors which affect voting be discowred. Referenda like elections, should be vitm"etl as expressions of political opinion which occur at particular times and under particu.l&t' oiroumstances, l~everthe1e as, referenda are not isolated political events, but one portion o! the politics of a period and at the same time they are a minute segment of Au&tralia' o political hietory. J\n examination of refaranda muat contain both of these, and any referen dum study which doos this will be of assistance in uncovering the main CUI"?'ents of Anstralian history. Referenda offer a particularly

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339 .fertile field of inquiry for understanding the development 0 poli tical pa,rti4!).S, because it is wholly t~ough party support that proposals %'$aeh the electorate Political partitts through the referendum pro cess are S8$k:ing the opinion of the ele ctorate on a. epecif'id issue or set of isQues which otherwise would not be directly decided by the electorate, The im1er 1rorking and functions of parties can be seen by examining referenda as an adjunct of party politics as we11 as g roup and individual politics ln this regard the present study reveals among other things the degl"Ei$ of discipline that ~a.oh party was able to extract f :rom its ntEunbere The supposedly rigid discipline or the Labor party broke down il;l 19ll and 1919., and this had serious consequ,enees In non-labor pa.rtie s discipline was generally not so rigid as in Labor paft:tes., and '!'h&n c ertain tional pax-ty members broke away in 1919 it dicl not have serious effects on the Party 's retaining the reigns of go-vefflme~t The deg~e to which the Labor party, as an "indirect" party, responded to and relied upon outside support 1s in niarked eontraet to the loose knit functioning of the Liberal and National part ies. Another aspect of party organization which was underscored in the ref er$nda was the extent to wh1Qh they had adapted their organizations to a federal system In each referendum it was evident that the parties were unctioning as federal bodies, and the co nflicts within the Labor party were magnified be cause of the federal structure of the Party ~

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340 F~'.J_y it can be seen through the study of referenda that parties part'orm se~ral functions Whiah are vital to the workings of a democratic aociety. ln the first place politi cal parties sifted groups and individual s demands and p laced the more important of these before the electors Once the referenda bille passed through p~lia.ment it was th& -parties who were instrumental in simplifying the. issu~s and g-etting out the vote By pert orming these particular functions in referenda battles the parties were nmdering their most valuable service to society; to provide and to support a. stable and representa~1ve governmn t ..

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Cl.ass of Union W ()od and furniture E ngineerin g and metaJ. t, o rks ...... F ood, drink and toba-000 ., ., Clot};ling.,. hats., and bp(>tS -. .. l ~inti.Jlg .. ll Other manufacturing Building Uin:lilg .. f Raillfays other land transport Shipping Pastoral Domestic Othe-rs ., Total Number of U nions 70 .33 30 80 60 28 2~ 19 41 14 27 99 621 e.nbership 10,569 29 9~3 28,lJ2 16,691 8 ,24:t 24.838 25.,609 39,203 56 ,00 5 14,5,o 35,000 52 ,1 80 lh;289 69,991 4.33 ,2 24 8Commomr-ealth of A ustralia, Official Yearbook, 1920, P 984.

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'fatal in Labor in Total in Labor in Com. !l ap t ~ C om. Sen. st:. :t.J.. .. St. 1 .. 4-. St .,. L.c St. l.r.,C Tot..,. tabw Tot"" Lab < 190,5 Victoria .. -68 17 35 2 23 3 6 .. New South Wales 90 .. 15 60 4 26 1 6 '"-" South Australia "' L2 6 18 1 7 3 6 3 Queensland 72 35 1$2~ 2 9 7 6 5 e stern Australia ... 50 17 30 3 5 4 6 4 Tasmania .. ... ., --, 35 4 18 ..... 5 1 6 1 Total ... ._ 357 109 203 11 15 2:5 36 13 1911 Vi ctoria .. .... 65 21. 34 J 22 10 6 & New South ales 90 46 5h 5 27 17 6 3 111[ .... South Australia 42 22 18 h 7 4 6 4 Q~ ensland ,. 72 27 44 2 9 6 6 3 Western Australia .. 50 22 30 2 5 6 6 Tasmama 11 18 .. 5 3 6 J ""' Total .. 349 149 198 16 15 42 36 2.3 :=... N aclapsy, Atlas of Politi cal Par~ies in Australia and the u s.

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Name of act.a ._ Actual Tribunal Application of acts How nenbers appointed Decisions how enforced APPKIIDll III~ TRIB V:l: c. Qld S A Tas Industrial Factorie s & Disputes ets Shop Aets 1908, 1909, Wag es Board Factories Act, 1908 Acts 1907 1908, 1910 Industrial Conciliation & :rbitration A.eta 1902 1909 ages Boards Acts 1910 & 1911 1910 Industrial Boards & Ind Court To Iadus. tries 1908 Act those added 'by Parliazoont By Gov on recommenda t:i.on of Ind Ct Ind Ct ., Ind gis trar, or Po lice a g es D oard fiages !loard W ages Board Arbitration Gou.rt 1ag es Board To any proWhole S tate 'I'ra e-s au cess-,. trade,. or such thori zed business or part as Go "' by P arl -oceupa-tion Gen -in Counspeoified in cil determine resolution ill ind1,1 s~ All trades or trial oceugroups or parts pat ions thereof Nominated by By employers By employers y employers By employers ili..p,ister-if & employee-a employee-a &:. employeas &. employees 1/5 o.f employees or e loyers object they elect Factories Fact Dept Fact Dept Arbitration Min ister in Dept.. in ct Ct. on comCt o Petty of Petty Ses plaint S essions aco onwealth of Australia, Official Yearbook 1912 p 1065

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A PPEND IX nr._ 1911, 1 9 13, AND 1 9 19 REFEREN D A RE -S U L Ts a ,~~ -_ 1_9~~1_(~_~_AP_R~_). ____ Peree111.1J1ee Percent.ire i Vot._ ... ;:hen UI I I FA.VOt;lt O( Praposert I \'otH 1rh-en XOT 1~ FAVOCR l'f Proposed Law. of Vol,el ol Vota recorded recorded IN NOT IN FAYOUllof FAVOORof f'ro JIOl!l'd l"rofl(l!l('d I.Aw to Law to t orml\l Fomml VOU'll. Votet1. N s W' .1 Constitution Alt<-ration (Legislative Powera) 1910 Constitution Alteration (~looopoliee) 19IO -,--1 --l 3i>.9li8 l :!4l),tl05 l38.t37 2:JR.-177 1 36 ll 63 8!) 63 28 V ie, Q l d Total ~Com~titution Altcratiou (Lcgiqlative Powers) 19IO f'.,on~titution Alteration (Monopoliel) l!H0 Comtitutioo Alteratio11 (Legislative Powcral I !HIJ C'.,oruititution Alt<-ration (Monopolias) 1910 Constitution Alto:ration (Legislative Powers) l!H0 Constitution Alteration (Monopolies) 1910 Constitution Alteration (Legislative Powers) 1010 Constitution Alteration (Monopoli('a) 1010 Coru1titutio11 Alteration (Legi!lative Powers) 191 Constitution Alteration (MonopoliP,B} 1910 I li0,288 1 lil.4:,3 i li9,G52 :0,2.50 .-,,), :1,58 :13,G92 :!t,147 I :!
PAGE 354

345 BomauaON !O Ka.amou ow PaoPOsst> LAws roa ma: ALTERATIO ~ -.....>------,~ ,u~ I ':t ~:-r1Votch~ or \ ot.-. ,-.,,tw .... !IO'f IN l'ft!Ofdi< I"( KOT IN ,-1.a UVOUll 'FA\" Ol"U PAV Ol 'UII f.AV0 1., 1lo, "''"'-" .. .._.. ..._. .......... Low Low Law L o La lO }= ---........ r=-it-'"' 117.8'8 S611,418 .. 93 113 07 ......._ )ltlt .. 117,8G8 181,266 ft N 13 tl o-illlllloa.......... .....,1111, .. 111.m Ml.OW .. 88 SHI C MI ....._ )1912 .. Ill.Iii 181,7'3 .. 70 113 111 C II I -ll:r-.. .. llt.UI0 1118,Ul5 ,1 1 2 62 o.:r---. of._ ..... IOl.lff stl,lN .. 85 6:s-11 ...... ~_..__.,...., ... 0......) 1911 187,J90 307,176 fll l t 60 11 C M I ~~)1911 181,479 -..11 411 1' GO IIO ..,.__ (ladllllriol au-) ltll ..,,. aot lNM '9 60 1111 0lllollllll5a ...... lioa (:t.ilwaJ Diopala) 11111 ..... llo,911 411-lt 51 o-i1111151a..,..__rr,-) ltll .119 -'9 71 II0 ........ ,x.u..t1u-of---,-i 117,171 --tl tl 60 11 1111 0 lit II .&5lonllaa ITw5 0......, ltlt .. i.-.1n Ill.Ill .. .. .. o...ii.a:.......... i= .. ,1 .. a... 1-. .. ... .. a : a........,1t11 .. lff,171 ltl,IN .. .. .. .. .,_...._......_.~=,-1111 HUii -.. .. 41 11 ~..---~ .... '"'" ..... .. .,. .. Coe ....,._.C..,._, II of ...... ) la,Olt m.. 1"17 .. '"' ...... C...lsoilioa ........ .,...., ... 0.-.,1111 .. .,_ 11,1 .. llD .. .. .. .... tl,111 .. ... .. .. ~......... ._,.... .. -e1.-1 11 40 .. Cc>uliwtlon ilaalloe 1111 .11.ffl ll tll tl ll Ooallitwlioe ~-..... .... 11 '1 .. ~..__ ......... ...... 11,111 ., . ,. __ ._.. a..lllldaaMnmlllaa...,.... ..... ..... -.111 ff k OIICndllllil,a........ .. .... ..... ... fflt c--... .......................... ... .... ~--::r--.. .., = ., .. OaanllllllllllMloaliaa~I ., ... '=-.......... {t:z:lv I I _,......, -If.Ill .... tl II ., ....... Olslllllallla ~('l'Ml-,0.-..) ltU ., Wit, .. .. ~~;, Ji .. .. .. .. .... .. .... .. ... N ll

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3 46 1919 (18th DllCEIIBEB). I =tr'V=:r:o1v ... recorded >'4Voo OTU I V-flv-~n ol Pros-,,! law. 1'4VOUB.ot,...,l!
PAGE 356

347 BIBLI-OGRA,PHi PRIMARY SOURCE$ ,~cti~s ;~d ~p.publtsood Public, Re<:o~ I Commonwealth of Anetralia Federal Elections 1901-19 41 Ax'ran~ed by Parti~s ( uno tm:'lee, 1954 Craig, J Ian .. 0 A History or the South Australian Labour Party to l917," Unpublished sters thesis, South Austr lian Archives., Ade.lude, 1940 Foder~ Parliam&nta.ryLabour Party Oopy of M inutes From 7 a, 1901 to November 1920. $ vols Ma.yep; Henry, "An E xamination of Some Con(!eptions of the ustralian Party System History Section of the Australian Association for the Advancement of Science 1955 "Select List of Research Aids on Australian Politica, 11 ,..11e""' partment of GoV'emment and Public Admini~ti'ation, University or Sydney ., 19.56 W ildauvsky, Aaron 11 The 1926 Referendums Pressure Groupe Parties and Personaliti.$s ,'" unpublished i,esearch paper, Department of Government and Public Administration U niversity of Sydney, 1955 Public Do~nts Commonwealth of Australia Federal Handb ook, 1914 elbournes O overnment Printing Office, !914 Law ReVorts of Casee Determined in the H igh Court of lustrafla ois f:.XIv Ofoial Year Book of the Commonwealth 1910-1920 ----- Parliam~ntary: Debates Vols XLVllI xc

PAGE 357

--~ Pa:rliament!:11 PapE!J:'.S 1910 .. 1920. Re2orts of Statistiest Labour and Industrial Branch ....._.,..._i,-n ... 1~6. JleiSourne, 1~!. 34 8 Statietioal Returns in Reiation to ProEosed Lawe for --'"""' 1 ~"""Fi"""e Alteration of tEie Constituiion, 1966-1926. Conmonwea1th Electoral bt'?!ce, l'.~27 Th Actp of the Parlia.Ioont of the Oommomrealth of --xl"'" u """'straila P ~ssaa ffi tna $e$Sions cl !do, 19lO, l9l2., and 1919 I ; r; i j ---~ :~ Case F or ~td 1&a:Ln~ th,e ,191.3 Referendq!19 1913 '. .. --~ The Case For and A&ains.t the ,1915 Referendums 1915. Great : Brit~in House of to~~ Judici;111 Committee of the Pri,VZ 90<>:! ai:d Y:.e-r!e
PAGE 358

349 1919 Poli tica1. l..aboU:r Councfll of lbourne. Votief: Records of the 'l/ic~o~an te~i~l4ltive 1 Apsemo:cy; Dlber~. P.:e bourn t l~ll'. PolitioaJ. Labour Council 0 Victoria Re,eort of the Proceedings of th& Annual c onterence, ( 1916) Uelbourne, 1916. I I .F L:1.beral P.arty It Cook, Jo~eph.. The Policy of Liberalism. 8ydney1 1914. Council of the Liberal league-a. S,;eeake:r 1 s Handbook on the Referen~}\m, 6 911 lbourne t 1911. M\1.l"J"ay,. John. Speech on the Pollel of the 0()vernment J e lb ourne a 1911. Tpe feople s l,ibe:ral Party Me'lbourne a 19ll. Second At}n~ Australia ~iberal Union Conf erenoe (Report or the Pt'ocee9::lngi3) Melbourne. im. S m ith, B l:.'uee The Pa~alzsis of th Nation Sydney, Uolan and Company, 19ili . S otn$ Tho~hts in Re~ard to an Anti-Socialist "Liberal --i,-r,.. r1 qir~~ ." Syoneyi 19'.n ; Personal P apers ; Sir Littleton E rnest G room P ap&rs. Conmonwealth of Australia, P arliamentary Library. v Ulle.m Arthur Holman Sydney; itohell Library. W illiam ll orris Hughes l'apera Canberra: Australian National Un iwrsity in the temporary 9ustody of L. F Fitzhardinge

PAGE 359

350 SECOND.Al SOURCES ', . Book s Austral:Lan Institute of Po litical Scien ce.. The Aust ralian Politi cal f!f:V System. Angus and Robertson, 19.54. FedeNJ.lism in Austra1ia telbt>unuu F 1 Cheshire -""" 1 -e."""n,..,a'. Oo ., ; 196'' Constitutional Re vision in A~~tralia.Sydneyt Aue -, t~ x,-al.a:s!an Pub lishe~s, 19li4. Bentlt!Y Arthur F The 2 J'rocees of 00V8fflll\81,'b B loomingtcm, Indi atul.; Prin eipi.a Press, 1949. ara.dy Alexander J:lemocr~-0y _, in the Domil'.!ions The University of Toroi;rbo Pr ess, !~~. ;B rissenden, P F Tile I,. W vi-. i a Stu NEnv Yorkt Longmans, Graen an Browne, Frank ., Taez ~~led Him Bill.Y Sydney, Peter Huston 1946. Catts, H.J and Jose, A. (eds). The ,lllustrato4 Australian Eneyc 1 ?J?.ed ia+ 2 Vols. Sydnty; Angus and Ro'hertson, 1925. Ohil:,da, V, Gordon-. How Labour Oqvem~ London, The Labour Publishing Co., fld ; 15123. Cla.psy, Everett M. Atla:i of Political Parties in Australia and the United States Syrineya ti. s. oll!ce of War Yri'.rormation, 1944 Clark, S The Labour lovement in Aus-tTal.ia. Londons Archibold Constable Co. tta~, 1967. Crisp, L. F 'rhe Austra;tian Federal Labour Party .. London & Long :mans, G~en and Co., 19.55~

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Deakin., Alfred. The Federal StMut:. Edited by Herbert Brookes lbourne1 Robertson ana lens; 1944. 351 Duve;ger ur:ice Poli tieal 'Parties I Their Form and Funotiori. !e, ~he Modern State. tondoni &tbeun and Co. !let., 195'5. Egg1esiton Sir Frederick, et. al~ Australian Sta?Xial:ds or Livi!J.i" lbourne: Australian Institute of International lllaire, l9.:39 R fleotions of an Austmlian Liberal.. Melbourne, -"""t"""~--w. ehesh!re co.: 1. 1 :; and Sugden E H. George S.inburn~n a BiograP& _...,,_$'""~.. y: Angus and Robertson f9j!,. li'itzha:rdinge, t F N~tion Bui1;d~ in Auetraliat th.e Life and W ~r~ pf Sir ~itt1,etfon Erne,st room. Syiliiey: An g us and 'Rob&rteon, !m.. Fitzpat:tick.; Brian et'" al. Fiftk, Years of Labor., 1890-1940 G olden Jubilie Souvenir of t e lustra lian Labour Party. Sydney, 1940. The Australian Pltoi> le, 17.33-1945. - -m. ... :Cbounie University Press, t,L!. lbournet ---- The B ritish Empire in 1\ustraliaJ an Economic Historz Meiboume1 Sibourne On!versl'.ty Preee., iTl'L'.. Grattan, c, Hartley (ed.). Australia Berkeley: University of California Press 1947, ---- Introducing Australia new York: John Day Co ., 1942. Greenwood Gordon (ed.). Auetralias a Social and Political His ~ Sydney; Angus anci Robertson., ~55. The Future of Australian Federalism lbournei __ M_e,...fbou.rne Un!vers 1 r!y Press, !946. Hancock 1 K Australia. London a Ernest. Bent Ltd ., 194.5.

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H bes, W M The Case F o r Labor Sydney The orker Press, 1910 Huma ...Coq-k 1 Jo s eph Aust r alian Natives Association Horti c ultural Fre'ss ., 1 9 31. lbourne: Hunt E rling o American Pre ce dents in Australian Federalism Columbia Univers!l.y s\iid!es' in History and Pubii c Lai NW!ber .326. New York: Columbia University Press 19 3 0 Jaunoay, L c. Th~ stoi of Oo~scripti 1 on ~ London George Alten and U mtin 1:-Ga ", 1r . I.ivingst-on Jilliam s F ederalis m and C onst :i. tutional Chan ~ e Lond()n' Oxford Un ive :rsi ty Press; !so ll ,. M iller J. D B Australian O, ovemment and Poli ti c s London s G e ra ld Duckworth and to tta ., 1954 M oore Vl H a.r;ri,eon~ T h e Constit.utio n or the Commonweal th of AuS'iiralia 2nd ed. Mer6ourne, bharlEfs liaxwell and Co .. 1910. M urd6ph., alter, ;.utred l) eak~n~ a Sketch Sydneya Archibald Constable Co 19! ). Overaaker; Louise The Australian Partz Sl!;!temLondono OXf ord U nive:reity .PNss $~ Palmer, VMee Nation; Portraits 2nd ed lbournes lbourne University Press 1954 1 I ~.' .\ll I ',J '\' \ Qui a lc;, $ii' Jcibn 'l'ht9 rmslatiw P olter of the Co omrealth and the States of !us: l&iibourruu Obariee Jlaiweii do T9i9 ., and Oarran Sir Robert ~nnotated C,onstitution of the -.... x u.-$tralian Commonweal th S y dney& lngue and 'Robertson 1901 Sav1e~, G eoffrey Australian G overnment Todal 4th ed revised M elbourn t H ~!Bourne University Press, 1954 __ ..., (ed ) F ederalism e l b ournet F Chesh i re Co 19.52 Scott, E rnest Australia D uri~ '!;he ar 9th ed V ol IX of O fficial H istory of Australia :Gi tfi e W ar 191.h-1918 Sy dnayt A ng 1 \.s an d ffobertson i94j. Shami E dward ,, J\Il E conomic H ieto1:Lof Australia 1834-19.39 lle lbournes !lelbourne Oriivers!ty Presa, 194i

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35.3 Shaw~ A o t. The Economic Developmen~ of Australia. 3rd ed., reviaed~ New Yorks :Congmans~ Green and'. Co i9~5. _.....,._. The StQn; 0 Australia. London1 Faber and Faber Ltd., :m, Smith~ a. N Thir~ Years, the of Austr~lia~ 19~119.30. Menro e: Brown, H!or and bo. Fty, ttd., 1~ j. ~ Spence., W 0-. A'1stralia s Awakeni2jt, Thirtl Year,a in the Life of ~pr 1,ian Xg:t\a;to'r. Syaneyt Tne Worker 'iSress; 1909. Twmer, H .. o. The First ~eoade 0 the: Au stralian Oi;>~onwaal t9. Melbourne: Mason F:i.rih, and M ilfotofieon, 19:r'i. Wat-M:r Klinneth o An lnt roduo tion to Sonia Prob lems of Auetral~an: Fe era;J.i~. Un!versity of \iasn!ngton Publ:1.oations in the S~eia! 'So!enees Vol n Seat-tle t University of Waallington .?re$$, 19.33. Webb Leicester .. Com,muni,sm and Democracy ~n AU;stra. 1 lia1 a Survei Qf the 1951 Rel'e:reriaum tleibol.11'ne, f. v2. cfiesfiire to, i~ 4 fueare;, K., c, Federal Government 2nd. ed. revised. Londont OX:f ord University Press, 1~g1,. Wilkinson,. 1:1, l,. The Trust fdowment ,in Australi~ Sydney, Ciii-trohley Pa.ricer Pty. Ltd ., l9ili. r!!W1l\~t,s Independent Wo rkers Federation The True Case for ~O);' Melbourne: 1913 F~oi-oueh, w H ~he b(onppo11s~. Sydney: 1910. G'l.yrm., P McM, Federal asures and Tendencies. Adelaide t Thomas and t: o 1 Groom t. E Notes, on the .Proi?osed Alterations of the Oonstituti~~ of the Commonweann. Brisbane :'People ts Progressive Isa ue; I,n: and 1913. Murray, John Spee ch on the Pplicl of the Government Melbourne: 1911.

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.354 Shoobridge, W ~ E.. Combines; Their Nature and feet. Hobart; 1912. Steel., J. B.. The Commonwealth. Consti tu:,on Aet Sydneya 1912,. ; ) 'l'urne-r, n .. G Scrapbook on Political Questions 1908. Newapapet' cuttings; Hilbourtie i 'lle!bourrm Public Library. Walker,. Alan On th~ Altar of 1'olocb; Some Tho,hts on the Refer' 1 e 1:1d~ Ce:5?'a[g~ Sytin$yt 1'he lorlcer Press, 9il~ Wi.llimns) R o ~ s,. Australian Whf:te .Slaves Sydney, Simm.oneBloxham 1911. PamphlS~ from the follning files wel:'Et used; Labor Party Pamphlet File. Sydneyt Mitchell Library. Liberal Party Pamphlet File Sydney c Mito}iell Library .. National Party Pamphlet File, Sydney: Mitchell L;bra.ry. Refere-nda Pamphlet File Sydneyi M itchell Library F erguison Collection of pamphlets.. Canberra: Australian National tibrary. Political Science Pamphlets lbourne t Australian Section., Victorian Public LibraTy. New!J?aper;s Adelaide Adverti13$r Ade,laid~ Daily ~ralq (Labor) I Adelaide Obse,;-wr The Advisor (country stoMkeepers journal) ~he, Age (Melbourne) The Ai:ius ( lbourne) The Australian Town and Country; Journal t

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355 The Austr4lian Wo?1cer (Australian V forkera Union organ and semi., ol'!':td .. a:t organ of the Labor party 0 New South Wales) Brif!ib.ane Ooutl~r Brisbcine Worker B,t>~en tli~l ~ar~ie:r Daily Truth (Labor) Th~ Bulletin S9~ta; Ldf.-e and $tock and ~atipn Journal The I?ar.nter and -settler ThEJ Flld oral Fastorialirst T~ F;!ih,ting l,ine (Liberal party) I The f.reemans Jou:mal; (Catholie, nFor 61 years the Reoo nized bat'Fioli c ana Irish Australian Or an 11 ) Int~;r:na.ti.onal, Socialist (with ~hich is incorporated the International s~!Mst lieviaYI ?or AuJ3tr$sia.). ?he LabQl" C all ( elboume) The ~bQt 1 f!Ws ( oticial organ of the Australian Labor Party) iThe J.and ( official organ of the !Jew South Wales' Farmers and Settlers X s-sociation) i e Libe~al ( ~~~ ci~l ~rea~ of the Commonweal th Liberal party) ,~ertz and ~roe?se { anti-socialist paper} The ;Hoba.'rt !1 Qrcutt ; :Ch~ Poo~le (ofic41 organ of th& Socialist Labor party) The Pre~s (Catnolio) The :R ural Times of Australia The $ lw.ill Te lesra,eh The S~11ey i .orning Herald The Times (London)

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The W atchman ( official organ of the Ora ae Lodge) The rl est Aus1ira::t:t,:an The Ws stmf-ian Work~r PeFiod,ieal Literature 356 vrhe Anstmlian E lectio n ," The New St$.tesman ; XIV (February 28, 19ao.) 600-10. Carletonj WilliamG "Political Science and the Group Prooess,b Sq~th e,\tlari.~ ~c ,~:,ta;rter1z., tIV (June ., 1955)., 340.,..50. . Davi : s, S. R ., C0,-0,perat,ive Fedeirali in trospeot.,n Hit:,torioal s~~di~s~ Aust.~ali$ and New Z~aland, V (November., 195~)., 2T2-.t~. Fit zhi:U'?:nge I L. F. 1 M Hughe$ and The Ca for Labor, lit eap~1n.XI:U, N o. 3 (Spring., 1954), 4lh-24. tl) l M migheij in New South Wales Politics 1890-l.900," ----Journal and Pl'<:>ctJe s of the al Australian Historical Gollan, a s .., U'l!he Trade Unions and Labour Parties, 1890-1894," Hi,e-toric-.1 S1iud e s_. Australia and New Zealand., VII (Novamer, Moore w .. Hamson and. Scoyt, Ernest ~ "The Referendum in Australia, The Quarter;ly; ~evimr, OOX!V (A.pril,. l9ll), ,529-36. The Round Table., 1910..1920. Ee.oh quarterly issue contains a commen tary on Australian politi cs, "Ten Years of the Austl'alian Gommomrealth, 0 The Quarterly view, CC.XV (October, 19ll) 305-34,

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357 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Conrad ltrancie Joyner was born in Connersville, Indiana on October 21, 1931 In September of 1949 he entered Earlham College in Richmond,,. Indiana and he ultimately decided to major in Political Science~ D~ing his undergraduate days he held various campus offices including the ~sid~ncy of the stu~ent body and tho presi,I dency of his sophomore class He is a member of Tau Kappa Alpha and hae aeryed as its Midwestern gional Governor and its First National Vfoe. .. rreaident In June, 1953 he was a.warded the degree of Bachelor of Arts with Departmental Honors in Political Science The author began graduate work at the University of F lorida. in Political Science With Econemice as his minor field, and in August, 1954 was awarded the degree of Master or Arts H is a member of Pi Sigma Alpha During the academic -year 1956 .. 57 the author was a Fulbright student in Australia He was .._ppointad an Instructor in Political Science at est Virginia University in September, 19=6

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.358 This diissertation was prepared under the direction of the chairman of the candidaws supervisory comnittee and has been approved by all members of that committee It was submitted to the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences and to the Graduate Council, and was approved as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree or D o ct.or of Philosophy bean, Graduate Schoof SUP E RVISO R Y CO TEEa