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Application of a modern advertising campaign to improve teacher morale

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Application of a modern advertising campaign to improve teacher morale a case study
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Rowswell, Albert Kennedy, 1926-
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ix, 124 leaves : ; 28 cm.

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Teacher morale -- Case studies ( lcsh )
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Curriculum and Instruction thesis Ed. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Curriculum and Instruction -- UF
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Thesis (Ed.D.)--University of Florida.
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Bibliography: leaves 110-121.
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Typescript.
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Vita.
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by Albert Kennedy Rowswell.

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Full Text
APPLICATION OF A MODERN ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN
TO IMPROVE TEACHER MORALE: A CASE STUDY
By
ALBERT KENNEDY ROWSWELL
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED
TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1976




To my wife, Tim, who raised my morale, and to six fine sonsJeff, Steve, Scott Hayden, Eric, Timothy Scott, and Kenny--of whom I am the very proud "Dad."




ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I WISH TO EXPRESS MY DEEP APPRECIATION to Arthur J. Lewis, chairman of the Supervisory Committee, who through five years of research never failed to give solace and to keep me in the paths of righteousness. Deepest appreciation is also extended to Kenneth A. Christiansen, member of the Supervisory Committee and director of the Broadcasting Department, without whose editorial advice this study would still be a rough draft; and to his lovely wive, Olive, for gallons of coffee and fine hospitality. I wish to give my thanks to Ralph B. Kimbrough, professor of educational administration; Donald L. Avila, professor of foundations of education; and Arthur J. Jacobs, professor of broadcasting; who sacrificed valuable time to serve on the Supervisory Committee.
This research would have been impossible at its inception had it not been for the good advice received from some of the finest minds in communication and education. I sought them throughout the United States and never once did they fail to give me unlimited time, attention, and profound advice. They are Samuel Sava, Kellogg Foundation, Dayton, Ohio; John F. White, former president of National Educational Television and current president of Cooper Union, New York City; William Harley, past president, National
iii




Association of Educational Broadcasters; Tinka Knobe, director of Television News, Ford Foundation, New York City; William Bentley, father of The Purdue Teacher Opinionaire, Purdue University; Fred Rebman, general manager of Public Television, Jacksonville, Florida; Larry Israel, president of the Washington Post Radio and'Television Stations, Inc., Washington, D.C.; and William W. Purkey, Sr., professor of perceptual psychology, the University of North Carolina at Greensboro.
My thanks go to Micki N. Edwardson for her rigorous training in research writing; Vynce A. Hines and C. Glen Hass for their insight into methods of research; Albert B. Smith III for his approaches to teacher opinions; and Marian L. McNellis and Linda F. Sparks who were unstinting with their sage advice pertaining to time-saving methods.
I would be remiss in my expressions of appreciation if I failed to thank those students and members of a younger generation who spent hundreds of hours of "rap sessions" in which they gave me their germs of ideas regarding teacher attitudes which led to this research. They were Susan Franzke, Tim Testerman, Edda Eliasson, Yogi Kakadi, James Yacavone, Dan Baker, Dee Rowell, Jacqueline McCard, Kurt Antoni, Connie Heidelberg, and literally hundreds of others.
For allowing me to test in the schools and for invaluable
advice, my thanks go to William McClure, John B. Witt, William George, Jackson McAffee, Ed Eissey, Dick Stewart, and those administrators in the unnamed control market who must remain anonymous at their
iv




request. This experiment could not have succeeded were it not for the marvelous cooperation I received from the media people in Vero Beach, Florida. They were Skeet Talley, Lori Burns, and Larry Bethel of WTVX-TV; Richard Crago of WAXE; Pat.Hazel and David Preston of WTTB; and Mark Schumann of the Vero Beach Press Journal.
My thanks go to Jack Critchfield, president of Rollins College, who convinced me to begin a five-year project. This research could not have existed had it not been for the marvelous patience and fabulous statistical acumen of Gary Wright and John van Horne of Purdue University.
My everlasting appreciation and affection go to my mother and father, Mr. and Mrs. Albert Kennedy "Rosey" Rowswell, whose constant precepts encouraged me to follow in their respective careers---my mother who gave me my inclination toward her field, education; and my father who introduced me to the wonderfully exciting world of mass media.
My deepest appreciation to the men who taught me the powerful persuasive influence of the media: Sy Weintraub, Chmn. of the Board of Panavision, Inc.; David L. Wolper, Wolper Productions, Inc.; Mike Shapiro, Manager, WFAA-TV, Dallas, TX; Jack Harris, Manager, KPRC-TV, Houston, TX; Louis Reid, Vice-President, WDSU-TV, New Orleans, LA.
Very special thanks go to Alice and Bill Rowswell, Florence
and Thomas Keeher, Bev and Alex Russell, Flo and Dave Hull, and Lori and Sam Burns for the selfless aid they rendered so often during the years of this research.
v




CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iii
ABSTRACT viii
CHAPTER
I INTRODUCTION
Problem 2. Rationale 3. Scope 7.
Hypothesis 9. Preview of Coming
Chapters 10.
II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 11
III DESIGN OF THE STUDY AND PROCEDURES
FOR GATHERING DATA 23
Factors 25. Tests for Validity 27.
Treatment 31. Posters 32. Role Playing 33. Radio Campaign 34.
Television 36.
IV PRESENTATION OF THE DATA 39
V ANALYSIS OF THE DATA 46
Analysis of Media Sensitive
Factors 54. Analysis of Media
Nonsensitive Factors 56. Analysis
of Media Sensitive Items 60.
Analysis of Media Nonsensitive
Items 65. Demographic Factors 72.
VI CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR
FUTURE RESEARCH 74
vi




APPENDIX
A THE PURDUE TEACHER OPINIONAIRE 81
B HELEN HANCOCK ENDS TEACHING 89
C PROGRAM SCHEDULES: RADIO 94
D PROGRAM SCHEDULES: TELEVISION 98
E ANALYSIS OF DATA FOR FACTORS 100
F ANALYSIS OF DATA FOR ITEMS 103
BIBLIOGRAPHY 110
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 122
vii




Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Education
APPLICATION OF A MODERN ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN
TO IMPROVE TEACHER MORALE: A CASE STUDY
By
ALBERT KENNEDY ROWSWELL
August, 1976
CHAIRMAN: Arthur J. Lewis
MAJOR DEPARTMENT: Curriculum and Instruction
The Purdue Teacher Opinionaire is used to measure change in teacher morale for experimental (Vero Beach, Florida) and control markets. Change in teacher morale is hypothesized to occur when a mass media campaign is applied to samples of teachers. The mass media campaign utilizes Madison Avenue, hardsell techniques via radio, television, newspaper, and poster coverage.
Statistical comparisons involving t tests, F tests, and anovas are made encompassing four elements of the experiment.
(1) An overall comparison of experimental school results with
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control school results is made; (2) Groups of questions (referred to as factors) which are thought to be sensitive to mass media are compared with those thought to be nonsensitive.; (3) Individual questions (referred to as items) are compared on a basis of relative sensitivity to mass media; (4) An anova test is used to determine whether the nonwhite population was a causative factor in the significant morale change in the Vero Beach school.
Significant change is observed; therefore the mass media
campaign may have had a strong effect on keeping the experimentalschool teachers' morale high while the control-school teachers' morale sharply deteriorated.
Recommendations are offered for future research in order to further demonstrate that mass media may be effectively utilized to improve teacher morale. New methods of testing are discussed pertaining to the effects of unionism upon teacher testing.
ix




I NTRODUCTI ON
"My brother's a sort of poet, too, you know,"
lie said to the bristling strangers. "Things.
affect him very strongly some times and he
doesn't always know why."
-Richard Adams, 1974
ONE WHO HAS SPENT A GOOD BIT OF TIME in the broadcast arena is very conscious of its persuasive and sales potential. Modern advertising sales techniques have made the broadcast media a multibillion dollar industry. Demand creation is central to its mission. The customer satisfaction that has resulted has meant that products and ideas have moved in almost unbelievable volume to meet a wide range of consumer needs and satisfaction.
In the process of providing consumer satisfaction, inertia and negative attitudes have been overcome, the threshold of awareness raised, and value constructs modified. The result has been evidenced in product sales and idea acceptance. It is that background and experience which prompted this study. The writer wanted to test the application of media persuasion and modern




2
advertising techniques to solving educational problems-in particular to raise teacher morale and to increase career satisfaction.
PROBLEM
The writer's teaching experience suggested a basic hypothesis: educational administration has continued to operate traditionally in solving educational problems because new approaches, and in particular the application of technology and mass media in persuasion campaigns for purposes of changing attitudes or developing individual awareness, have not been utilized to a significant degree.
The researcher felt that educators were missing the target with respect to the applications of mass media in three crucial respects. (1) They were *not synthesizing the main, best ideas in education and selling those concepts to their audience. (2) They ignored the spectacular success of commercial ("Madison Avenue") advertisers who took a simple idea and repeated it forcefully in saturation campaigns* until an audience accepted the "pitch."
(3) They were directed to the medium of television and ignored the potential of other media, namely radio, newspapers, billboards,. public meetings, et cetera.
*A campaign designed for a market to absorb the message content as often as possible through as many media as can be obtained. The campaign should appeal to the eye and ear as well as force the recipient to actively participate in some action concerning the message.




3
From the general hypothesis this study emerged (1) to learn what teacher attitudes existed with respect to factors affecting teacher morale; (2) to design media message(s) which, when exposed to teachers via a mass media campaign, would effect a change in teacher opinion on matters affecting morale; and (3) having satisfied both of the above, to find a city, or market.
A review of the literature did not disclose any attempt to change teacher morale by utilizing mass media. The review did indicate that many tests have been devised to measure teacher morale. The literature search revealed ample research substantiating that mass media properly applied has the potential to change attitudes.
RATIONALE
The writer asked himself two questions. How would the "Madison Avenue" people handle the problem? How would the
media buyers and the "think-time" boys solve the problem of communicating the main, best ideas of education to a hungry constituency? The answer was simple. If the Ford dealers asked J. Walter Thompson Advertising Agency to help them to sell their automobiles, the agency people would reply,"Take your simplest, best selling point and repeatedly expose it to the public as often as you can and use the saturation technique to pound home that simple idea-over and over again using radio, television,




4
newspapers, public meetings, billboards, or any means at your disposal.""Have a Coke!" is a classic example of a simple idea pounded home time after time until "Coke" became a part of every nation's language and a beverage habit as well.
This writer has always felt that educators have been
myopic in their view of the potential use of mass media. They have spent millions of dollars trying to reach an audience via noncommercial television. They began with a dull message which offered no more than a tedious drone of a professor in front of a long gray studio curtain. Critics called it the "talking head." Often the programs were directed by television "pros" who knew little or nothing about the needs and direction of modern education, let alone a knowledge of statistics and current education research methods. "Main, best ideas" were lucky to find their way into limited educational publications or were discussed in a professional seminar with a limited audience.
Another aspect of educational myopia and the mass media is exemplified by an ignorance of the potential of commercial television and radio. Educators have largely ignored the tremendous potential of free public service spots which could be telecast over commercial television outlets. Broadcasting stations have much to gain and little to lose by cooperating with educators. The Federal Communications Commission encourages, even insists, that broadcasting stations make a real time commitment to public service endeavors over and above the requirements of the federal government.




5
Since his earliest experiences in a television station, the author had been impressed with the apparent success of American advertisers. While handling accounts on local television stations, he observed that the companies or institutions who used the advertising professions and mass media changed people's attitudes concerning their products with amazing regularity.
After fifteen years of participation in the delivery of commercial messages, the researcher made a vocational switch from television sales to public school classroom teaching. It soon became obvious to him, as it was to most educators, that public education had its problems; Moreover, when the educator found a solution to a problem, the communication of that solution seemed inordinately difficult to convey. The educational bureaucracy differed profoundly from the smooth efficiency the author had grown to expect of American business organizations. The educational bureaucracy seemed to have difficulty in determining the essentials. It either failed to'recognize its most essential problems or it failed in its ability to communicate once a problem had been identified.
In 1973 the author decided that one of the best educational ideas which might lend itself to a project of mass media hard sell technique was the question of the student's self-concept. The student's positive s elf-concept is absolutely essential if we hope to teach that student. But it was a rap session with




6
veteran educators which eventuated the direction of the study. The educators said that starting with the student is putting the cart before the horse because the real problem is the teacher and teacher morale.
Student self-concept was a popular and proper study. Arthur Combs, Donald Avila, and William Purkey (1971), and Carl Rogers (1969), as well as an increasing number of perceptual psychologists, have long espoused the cause of a perceptual-psychological approach to education. William Purkey points out that this good idea for education has been around since Rene Descartes wrote in his Principles of Philosophy that doubt was the principal tool of thinking (1970). Sigmund Freud early in the twentieth century suggested that the self was most important in ego development. Educators have long sensed that we express our self-concept with our behavior.
A further problem in beginning with the student was the
element of self-report. Would the student be willing to honestly answer questions put to him or her regarding his or her selfconcept? This researcher was not satisfied that a reliable self-concept self-report existed or could be produced pertaining to students.
Before the teacher can help the students self-concept, the teacher's image of himself or herself must be improved. The global self-concept is too large an undertaking, but self-concept with regard to job is measurable and practically interchangeable




7
with the teacher's morale. An attempt would be made to improve the self-concept of the teacher regarding his or her job. A highly reliable measure was found in the form of The Purdue Teacher Opinionaire (1973).
Teachers might be more prone to openly answer queries regarding the outside influence of their jobs than would students regarding their inner feelings. The priority of dealing with the teacher first seemed logical.
It was decided by the winter of 1974 that the research would deal with attempting to measure the morale of teachers. One sample of teachers would be exposed to a modern advertising campaign designed to boost their morale. Another sample of teachers would be observed as a control group unexposed to such a morale raising campaign. The self-concept field of endeavor had not been abandoned but merely limited to manageable proportions.
SCOPE
The author sensed that although educators had been attempting to exploit the advantages of educational mass media, they
*It has been stated that teacher morale is a small phase of teacher self-concept. Dr. William Purkey notes that selfconcept is a psychological term while morale is a sociological one. Dr. Arthur Combs defines morale as a "judgement of how. successful one is in a situation or job" while "self-concept .. way he sees himself" (telephone conversation, May 12, 1974).




8
were unaware of the potential a modern advertising approach
could give their message. He saw that a case study might have as
its objectives the following:
1. To ascertain, through a search of the pertinent
literature, a formula for delivering an effective
message which will change attitudes.
2. To determine that teacher morale could be improved by employing a modern mass media advertising
campaign.
3. To measure a possible improvement in teacher
morale by comparing an experimental market with a
control market and to statistically compare the
scores of pretests and post-tests administered to
both sample populations.
4. To demonstrate to educators that there is help in
any community for an educator to convey his message.
This help comes from not only the educational
television station, but from radio, newspapers, billboards, community meetings, and other media.
5. To determine some possible problems that a
researcher might have in measuring attitu de change
in a sample population.
6. To recommend future research which gives input regarding the possibility of educators delivering
high-priority educational messages rapidly and effectively to any selected audience-teachers,
parents, taxpayers, pupils, or the general public.
Vero Beach, Florida, was chosen as the experimental market.
A ten day mass media campaign was conducted via radio, television, school hall signs, school intercom, newspaper, and teacher
involvement meetings.. It was design ed to do a hard sell during




9
a limited time span and to create as great a rise in morale among teachers in the experimental market as possible. Teachers in two schools with similar demographic profiles were selected as control populations. The Purdue Teacher Opinionaire was selected to measure teacher morale. This instrument yields a score indicating the general level of teacher morale while providing significant factors, or subscores, which break down morale into ten dimensions.
HYPOTHESES
HYPOTHESIS 1. Teachers exposed to a mass media campaign to improve morale will score no differently in a test designed to measure their morale, pretest/post-test, than will teachers who are not exposed to such a campaign.
HYPOTHESIS 2. Teachers exposed to a mass media campaign designed to improve their morale will score no differently in a test designed to measure their morale on factors which should be sensitive to change by a mass media campaign, pretest/post-test, tan will teachers who are not exposed to such a campaign.
HYPOTHESIS 3. Teachers exposed to a mass media campaign designed to improve their morale will score no differently in a test designed to measure their morale on factors which should not be sensitive to change by a mass media campaign, pretest/ post-test, than will teachers who are not exposed to such a campaign.




10
HYPOTHESIS 4. Teachers who are exposed to a mass media campaign designed to improve their morale will score no differently, pretest/post-test, on scores on items sensitive to such a campaign than will teachers who are not exposed to such a campaign.
HYPOTHESIS 5. Teachers who are exposed to a mass media campaign designed to improve their morale will score no differently, pretest/post-test, on scores on items which should not be sensitive to such a campaign than teachers who are not exposed to such a campaign.
HYPOTHESIS 6. Teachers of one race who are exposed to a mass media campaign designed to improve their morale will score no differently, pretest/post-test, than will teachers of another race who are exposed to the same campaign.
PREVIEW OF COMING CHAPTERS
In Chapter II a review of the literature is made and a definition of terms is presented. Chapter III offers a design for the study and discusses the procedures for gathering data. Chapter IV presents the raw data results while Chapter V discusses the results. Conclusions are drawn in Chapter VI and suggestions are made with regard to future research.




REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
The concept of attitudes is probably
the most distinctive and indispensable
concept in contermporary American social pyschology. ---Gordon Allport
IN THIS STUDY Madison Avenue terminology is utilized to describe the treatment of mass media effect on opinion change. Underlying the assumptions, hypotheses, and methodology of this study is the technique in which a simple idea is stated over and over again until it is believed.
Image makers working on Madison Avenue have employed this basic technique since the early days of broadcasting. In 1928 Dr. Frank Stanton, the father of the Columbia Broadcasting System, utilized the concept. He offered the advertiser a sales guarantee whereby the sponsor would be given a refund if the campaign did not produce a specific sales volume. Stanton offered to refund to a sponsor, the American Tobacco Company in this case, $3,000 for each point below 24 on the Hooper Rating Scale for
11




12
each week that the radio program,. "The Jello Show Starring Jack Benny," failed to attract more people than a rating of 24 indicated. Frank Stanton gambled, as this researcher has gambled, that audience impulses would change attitudes toward tobacco or Jello or morale.
Two decades after the birth of CBS, the Yale communication research program began to study the reinforcement theory of attitude change. Theories developed in this research program set forth certain conclusions, one of which was that attitude change
-results from learning produced through reinforcement (Hovland, Janis & Kelley 1953 in Insko 19.67, p. 13). Hovland et al. followed concepts of learning developed by Hull (1942) and concepts of complex forms of social behavior, like teacher morale, developed by Miller and DollardI (1941) and by Doob (1947) (Insko 1967, p. 12).
This research pivots around two fundamental assumptions explored by Hovland and other researchers: (1) Attitude change results from reinforcement and (2) Attitude change follows change in opinion. This researcher did not attempt to explore the question whether change in teacher morale is necessarily followed by change in teacher behavior in the classroom.
It was assumed, however, that change in classroom behavior
*must be preceded by change in a teacher's opinion of work as a teacher. It may be assumed that a communication advocating that smoking is harmful to health may produce a nonsmoking attitude without nonsmoking behavior. Similarly, in this research the formulation of hypotheses was limited by the thesis of Hovland




13
et al. that new opinion must precede change in behavior, although
new opinion does not insure any change in behavior.
In determining how teacher morale might be changed, several
factors seemed to demand a priority in historical research: the
communication, the source, and the exposure to a communication.
The communication. A message is constructed by the experimenter which advocates a position discrepant from that of the intended
audience, and which contains supporting arguments, evidence, and implications. Usually
there is only a single, relatively short
message of unitary direction and organization.
The source. Typically the source of the communication is explicitly stated, as when the
message is attributed to a specific person or
known organization. In cases where it is not explicit, there is usually implicit endorsement of the message by the researcher or person in charge of the group (e.g. a teacher or an official in an organization to which the subjects belong). This legitimization
of the message by the researcher's sponsorship increases the likelihood that subjects
will view the advocated position as one that
is reasonable, or at least worthy of
consideration.
Exposure to the communication. With the use of captive audiences there is no problem of
subject self-selection. That is, the audience is not composed of only those who want
to hear this particular speech; rather it
is made up of people with a variety of attitudes toward the communication. However,
there is no assurance that the audience in an experiment will attend to the communication, or that there will not be self-selection
in exposure to some or most of its content.
(Zimbardo 4 Ebbesen 1970, pp. 24-25)




14
Regarding the communication, certain axioms were assumed
which are discussed by Watzlawick, Beavin, and Jackson (1967).
Axiom 1. There is a property of behavior
that could hardly be more basic and is
therefore often overlooked: Behavior has no opposite. In other words, there is no
such thing as nonbehavior or, to put it even more simply: One cannot not behave.
Now, if it is accepted that all behavior in an interactional situation has message value, i.e., is communication, it follows
that no matter how one may try, one cannot
not communicate. Activity or-inactivity,
words or silence, all have message value,
They influence others and these others, in
turn, cannot not respond to these communications and are thus themselves communicating. It should be clearly understood
that the mere absence of talking or of
taking notice of each other is no exception to what has just been asserted. The man at a crowded lunch counter who looks
straight ahead, or the airplane passenger
who sits with his eyes closed, are both communicating that they do not want to speak to anybody or be spoken to, and
their neighbors usually "get the message"
and respond appropriately by leaving them
alone. This obviously is just as much an
interchange of communication as an animated discussion. iMortensen 1973, p. 37)
Axiom 2. The report aspect of a message
conveys information and is therefore synonymous in human communication with the
content of the message. It may be about anything that is communicable regardless of whether the particular information is
true or false, valid, invalid, or undecidable. The command aspect., on the other
hand, refers to what sort of a message it
is to be taken as, and therefore ultimately
to the relationship between the-communicants.




All such relationship statements are about
one or several of the following assertions:.
"This is how I-see myself . this is
how I see you . this is how I see you
seeing me" and so forth in theoretically infinite regress. Thus, for instance, the messages "It is important to release the clutch gradually and smoothly" and "Just let the clutch go, it'll ruin the transmission in no time" have approximately the
same information content (report aspect), but they obviously define very different
relationships. (Mortensen 1973, p. 38)
This has implications for the strategy which was used in the campaign, namely that we used the National Education Association as the message giver on television, and students and parents on radio. We avoided saying that this was part of a research so that the teachers would not be affected by the feelings of being used as guinea pigs.
Axiom 2 runs over into the problem of the source. The nature of the speaker who would address teachers through various sources is crucial to credibility and to nonconflict with the message giver. It seems likely that a trustworthy source giving the same persuasive messages as an untrustworthy source will produce more attitude change (Zimbardo, & Ebbesen 1970, p. 49).
In 1951 Hovland and Weiss conducted a study to determine how much more change a trustworthy source would produce than an untrustworthy source. They concluded that the magnitude of difference in attitude change produced by trustworthy communicators




16
was more substantial than that produced by untrustworthy sources. The average change for trustworthy sources was 22.5 percent, while for untrustworthy sources it was 8.4 percent (Insko 1967, p. 43).
Axiom 3. The nature of a relationship is.
contingent upon the punctuation of the
communicational sequences between the
communicants. (Mortensen 1973, p. 41)
Staccato, nagging commercials tend to arouse opinion change and cause "reality distortion." In other words, the wife may nag. Then the husband broods or withdraws, but he may change as the result of being nagged. As she is dressing for school and listening to the CBS morning news, a teacher may hear several times a one-minute public service announcement praising teachers. If she mulls these messages over in her mind as she stands at her classroom door later in her day,her morale may change.
This researcher proposes two additional axioms.
Axiom 4. In order to sell a new opinion,
the idea or product must appear new.
Modernity is in; obsolescence is out. No evidence supports this axiom, although the fact that national advertisers sell newness is self-evident. To be "in," one must drink the product and thereby "join the Pepsi generation." Similarly, in this. study'




17
teachers were told through students and townspeople: Say thanks to a teacher; it's an idea whose time has come.
In actual practice during the 1930s, the hucksters of Madison Avenue followed a visceral instinct for all these. principles of communication and developed, without benefit of research, convincing arguments based on experience with much larger population samples than researchers have been able to employ. The hucksters' results were the positive, sometimes astounding, product sales volume for clients who believed in the Madison Avenue techniques.
In short, the evidence of Madison Avenue's success is the best support of these axiomatic principles: Reinforcement is necessary; words have message value; content is important; presentation should be staccato; trustworthines s is required; and. opinion change must precede attitude change. Advertisers have sold and continue to sell products by using techniques based on these principles (Insko 1967).
Axiom 5. Role playing of an attitude position contrary to one's own supplies new
insight into that position.
Zimbardo and Ebbesen have stated the idea in these terms:
The technique of role playing has been
used for producing changes in a person's
personality. By role-playing behavior




18
which normally he would not have performed, the person is assumed to gain insight into how others see him and how he might behave.
In other words, the person gets. to see the world from another point of view by acting
as if he had a different attitude. If it
can be assumed that the role playing of an
attitude position contrary to one's own supplies new insight into that position,
it might be possible to use this technique
to produce attitude change.
(1970, p. 31)
Janis and King (1954) and Hovland and Weiss (1953) performed experiments in role playing and concluded that role playing of attitude positions counter to one's own can be a powerful technique in producing attitude change' (Zimbardo & Ebbesen, p. 31). The problem in this research was to devise a method of inducing one hundred teachers to role participate.
There is ample evidence and commercial experience'to support the contention that attitudes can be successfully changed. The communication in'this research entailed a mechanical process only; a myriad of commercials was available to draw from. However, the source from which the communication was to emanate presented a crucial if not ethical problem.
The problem of the source generated the question whether to reveal the intent to persuade. Michael Burgoon and Judee K. Burgoon addressed this question, suggesting a subtle approach rather than a direct "we are testing you" gambit.




19
Rule (pertaining to the-male's communication behavior): While ribald humor is not
appreciated or tolerated at cocktail
parties and other large social gatherings,
it is appreciated and tolerated, in
moderation, in the privacy of your
apartment, but not during moments of
intense romantic involvement.
Rule (pertaining to the female's communication behavior): While you are not to assert your dominance over me at large social gatherings, you may dominate on
occasion when we are alone. But under no
circumstances are you to attempt to
dominate when I have had-a frustrating
day at work or when I am with one.of my
close friends.
(Steinberg & Miller 1975, p. 129)
I n Chapter III the decision to substitute for the researcher as message source an amorphous force of students, townspeople, teachers themselves, and a national teachers' union as source of the -message will be discussed.
Klapper concluded that a wealth of evidence indicates that the very fact that a message originates from a mass media center, such as a radio or television station, insures that a certain amount of credibility attaches to the message via the medium
(Sears &i Freedman 1971, p. 212). That is, if it's on television, it must be true.
In political research and in studies of the Army-McCarthy
hearings, Horton and Wohl (1956), Bradford (1956), Burdick (1962), Lang and Lang (1959), and Weibe (1958) all concluded that viewers superimpose personalities on an objective view of the issues




20
(Insko 1967, pp. 174-175). Pool (1952) found that college
students' perceptions of political candidates varied according to the medium of information, either television or radio (Insko, p. 175). Although student perceptions varied, the strength of the Eisenhower personality overwhe lmed the issues.
This uniformity of perceptions may mean
that all media project the same image or that the characteristics projected over television and radio were assimilated to the images developed through
exposure to other media. There is
some suggestion in the data that television increased partisanship, for differences between supporters' and
opponents' assignments of attributes
to either candidate were greater among watchers than among listeners. However,
Stevenson fared better on radio, for
the listeners' image was more favorable than the watchers', regardless of which candidate they favored. (p. 175)
At no time. did a search of the literature reveal that
educators have attempted to raise teacher morale by employing mass media. One can speculate that such television network shows as "Room 222"1 and "Lucas Tanner" did much to raise the teacher's self-image or opinion about his job. The researcher wondered what effect a character such as Miss Brooks or Lucas Tanner had on teacher self-images--just as he speculated about the attitude changes which may have come about in police. "Dragnet," "Police Story," "The Blue Knight," and many other




21
law enforcement presentations must have had some effect, pro or con, upon the police. The researcher speculated as to how the me dical profession viewed its role after exposure to such image makers as "Doctor Kildare" or "Medical Center." How did "Emergency" affect the fireman or "The Waltons" change the self-image of West Virginia mountain people.
Ample evidence was found to support the supposition that teacher morale or student morale was improved when either was asked to role play as decision makers in school projects. Miller et al. (1967) described a rather typical procedure whereby administrators attempted to obtain feedback from thirty-two Wisconsin elementary teachers, their viewpoints of classroom teaching and learning (Deal 1975). Miller et al. found, just as many other experimenters have, that regardless of the teachers' views they generally felt better about their jobs following the participatory sessions.
Positive attitude changes were observed at the state level in a multimedia utilization project and on a national level in Japan, when teachers were asked for their advice (Deal 1975). The literature clearly indicated that the more a teacher participated in decision making and in positive role-playing situations, the more positive the attitude became toward teaching.
John A. Lee (1971) observed in his brilliant documentation of the Scarborough College experiment that teacher morale went down when the feeling was created that the machine might replace




22
the teacher (in Deal 1975). Scarborough College of the University of Toronto was the first North American college planned from its inception for television.
It became apparent from the review of the literature that the experiment would probably be enhanced if some form of moraleraising teacher role participating, or role imitating, 'could be arranged to convey the morale raising message to the experimental group.
The review of the literature also made the author aware of a restriction whichwould be applied to this research. The morale raising campaign would be directed at changing teacher opinion regarding their jobs and would not address itself in any way to attacking the.much larger undertakings of changing their attitudes.




DESIGN OF THE STUDY AND PROCEDURES FOR GATHERING DATA
There was no answer but a gentle
snoring. The snoring got more
distinct every minute and sounded
more like a tune; at last she
could even make out words.
-Lewis Carroll.
THE DESIGN OF THIS STUDY was the pretest/post-test control group design.
ROI X RO2
RO3 R04
where R = a randomly selected group from the population, 0 = observation or testing, X = the treatment on the experimental group. Subscript 1 = pretest sample in the experimental market (Vero Beach), subscript 2 = post-test sample in the experimental market, subscript 3 = pretest sample in the control market, and subscript
4 = post-test sample in the control market.
23




24
Vero Beach High School, Vero Beach, Florida, located on the Atlantic Ocean in southeastern Florida was selected as the experimental school. Two demographically similar high schools in the area were selected as the control schools.*
A mass media campaign designed to improve the morale of the teachers of Vero Beach High School was conducted during the late spring of 1975. The Purdue Teacher Opinionaire (1973) was utilized as the test instrument (see Appendix A). The, instrument is designed to measure teacher morale and is especially well suited for this experiment. It yields a total score indicating the general level of a teacher's morale and it also provides subscores from which in this research the effect of the mass media campaign upon certain factors and items were determined. These factors and specific items break down morale into meaningful dimensions, some of which would appear to be more sensitive to a mass media campaign designed to improve teacher morale than others. A panel of experts was asked to select factors and items from the opinionaire which they felt might be affected by such a campaign and other factors and items which they felt were relatively immune to such a campaign. The ten factors with brief descriptions and test/retest correlations follow.
*Anonymity of the control group has been maintained because of the embarrassment the statistics in this research might create for these schools.




25
In Chapter IV the reader will find the three factors which an expert committee deemed most sensitive to media persuasion and three factors which they felt were least sensitive to media persuasion.
FACTORS
FACTOR 1. TEACHER RAPPORT WITH PRINCIPAL deals with the teacher's feelings about the principal. Reliability .84.
FACTOR 2. SATISFACTION WITH TEACHING pertains to teacher relationships with students and feelings of satisfaction with teaching. Reliability .84.
FACTOR 3. RAPPORT AMONG TEACHERS focuses on a teacher's relationship with other teachers. Reliability .80.
FACTOR 4. TEACHER SALARY pertains primarily to the teacher's feelings about salary and salary policies. Reliability .81.
FACTOR 5. TEACHER LOAD deals with such matters as record
keeping, clerical work, community demands, extracurricular loads, and keeping up to date professionally. Reliab ility .81.
FACTOR 6. CURRICULUM ISSUES solicits teacher reactions to the adequacy of the school program in meeting student needs and in preparing students for effective citizenship. Reliability .76.
FACTOR 7. TEACHER STATUS samples feelings about prestige, security, and benefits afforded by teaching. Reliability .81.




26
FACTOR 8. COMMUNITY SUPPORT OF EDUCATION deals with community understanding and willingness to support a sound educational program. Reliability .89.
FACTOR 9. SCHOOL FACILITIES AND SERVICES has to do with the adequacy of facilities, supplies, and equipment, and the efficiency of the procedures for obtaining materials and services. Reliability .80.
FACTOR 10. COMMUNITY'PRESSURES gives special attention to community expectations of a teacher's personal standards, his participation in outside school activities, and his freedom to discuss controversial issues in the classroom. Reliability .62.
The author hypothesized that a factor such as Teacher
Status would be more sensitive to a campaign to change teacher morale than would a relatively constant factor such as Teacher Salary or School Facilities and Services; that is, a teacher might be more amenable to a change in attitude regarding teacher prestige in the community following nice things being said
about the teacher than the teacher would with regard to salary which is relatively constant. The author speculated that if the post-test scores of the mass media sensitive items and scores were better than the nonsensitive items and factors that there would be an indication that the mass media campaign had indeed had an effect upon the experimental group which helped the experimental group's morale. He also reasoned that a comparison of the sensitive items and factors between the control groups




27
and the experimental groups would show better results for the experimental than the control and thus indicate that the mass media campaign had indeed had an affect upon the experimental group.
TESTS FOR VALIDITY
Because of the design of the experiment, certain sources
which might affect the validity of the study had to be controlled.
HISTORY. In the spring of 1975 the question of teacher unionism and the right to collective bargaining was a volatile issue. There were indications that union factions had a mistrust of researchers who asked questions regarding teacher morale and teacher aspirations. There were cases in adjacent counties to .the experimental county in which as many as two hundred take-home questionaires had been returned with identical answers. It was felt by the administrators in several of those Florida counties that undue pressures might be brought to bear upon the teachers to answer the questionaire according to the desires of certain pressure groups, either pro-union or anti-union. Every administrator who expressed an opinion indicated that there would be no validity whatsoever in the test if the teachers were permitted to take the questionaire home or to discuss it in any political sense. It was therefore decided that the only possible solution to control for history was to call a teacher's meeting in the test school on short notice and to strictly control the geography




28
and time of testing. The teachers were given approximately .30 minutes to complete the questionaire without discussion with other teachers and without leaving the room. In each case the principal indicated that he intended to use the results in his state report, which was a true statement. Further, the results would also be utilized by a graduate student as data for a doctoral dissertation. The teachers were assured that at no time would their individual answers be made available to any administrator. Because of the pressure of time and a fear of fatigue on the part of the teachers, plus the fact that fewer .than 100 teachers could be expected at the Vero Beach High School meeting, the following approach to sampling was employed. A group of 49 teachers was randomly selected to receive the pretest. The rump 49 teachers on a staff of 98 were told that the meeting was over and that they could go home. Three weeks later following the treatment- mass media campaign designed to improve their morale-the rump 49 teachers were post-tested. Discussion of the test was discouraged during the three-week treatment period. If a teacher was counted absent from the meeting, that teacher, for purposes of the experiment, was counted as a mortality.
MATURATION. The experimental time was limited to a threeweek period in order to limit the effect of maturation. The author suspected that the morale of all schools tended to decline with end-of-the-year fatigue but that such fatigue would be considered relatively uniform in schools which had identical teaching days and were demographically similar.




29
TESTING. In the experimental school, questions were asked by the teachers: "Why was I selected?" "Why was I allowed to leave early without having to take the test?" The answer given. was the truth: The teachers were told that the selection had been random and that the other half of the teachers was to be tested at a later date. In that way, the guinea-pig effect was kept to a minimum. The teachers apparently accepted the answer as reasonable. Furthermore the Hawthorne effect seemed to be minimized by the apparent interest the teachers displayed as they proceeded to take the questionaire. All of us seem to forget the effect of testing once we begin to answer questions about ourselves. It was observed that if there was an effect of testing, it was one of total interest and an attitude of pleasure in the fact that someonehigher up in the school echelon was showing concern for the feelings of teachers. As the test progressed, teachers seemed to relax and to enjoy the game.
Campbell and Stanley state that instrumentation, regression, selection, mortality, and interaction of selection and maturation, et cetera, are not sources of invalidity or cannot be controlled in the pretest/post-test control group design (1963, p. 17).
INTERACTION OF TESTING AND X. Every possible precaution was taken to separate the test from the campaign. The campaign simply happened as if some unknown teacher benefactor had




30
decided to say nice things about the teachers. Never was there any suggestion that what was occurring in the media had anything to do with the post-test in the experimental school.
INTERACTION OF SELECTION AND X. The selection was random and all experimental teachers were exposed to the treatment with relative uniformity and consistency.
MULTIPLE TREATMENT INTERFERENCE. There was no case in any
of the test high schools where similar tests had been administered.
REACTIVE EFFECTS OF EXPERIMENTAL ARRANGEMENTS. The testing situation in all cases was a typical teacher's meeting in that particular school. The test was administered with an emphasis on helping the principal with his annual report. The teachers did not note anything out of the ordinary.
As an extra precaution in the control market, the test was administered to the faculties of two nearly identical schools. The superintendent of the county selected two high schools which were within three miles of each other, whose modi operandi were similar, and which were demographically as identical as the experimenter could hope. Because of the
political climate, it was felt that a better reading could be made by this split-school approach than by testing half the faculty in each school and then returning three weeks later to test the other halves. Because both schools had faculties of less than a hundred, it was decided to test the entire population of each school. The author recognized that a large random




31
sample over many schools would be more desirable, but he was forced to recognize that the loss of security from union and non-union activists was too great and that it would jeopardize the validity of the results. He felt that a design of splithalves (randomly split) for Vero Beach High School and splitschools in the control market was the best solution considering the volatility of the political situation in Florida during the spring of 1975. Events which occurred during the treatment time in the control market showed that these precautions had been necessary and that a mailing or a split-halves design would have been a fiasco.
TREATMENT
The Vero Beach High School pretest group R01 was scheduled to be tested on Tuesday, May 13, 1975. The control school R0 3 was tested the following day. A mass media campaign to improve the morale of the Vero Beach High School teachers was then conducted. During the week of June 2, 1975, the post-tests were given: Tuesday, June 3, in the experimental school and Friday, June 6,-in the remaining control school. The treatment period was scheduled to begin at 6:00 PM Tuesday, May 13, and to continue'through Tuesday morning, June 3. The basic strategy was to attempt to change teachers' opinions about their jobs through five approaches: posters, role playing in the form of a teacher banquet, newspapers, radio, and television.




32
POSTERS
We had a learning experience with posters.
Murphy's 4th Law: If you wish to say nice
things about teachers via hall posters, do
not place them where students can write
replies on them.*
During the early parts of the campaign, we placed posters in all the stairwells and halls of Vero Beach High School. The posters looked as though they had been painted by students (studied amateurism) and said,"Say thanks to a teacher; it's an idea whose time has come." We soon discovered unrepeatable graffiti by disgruntled students offering unflattering suggestions. Fortunately the graffitis were discovered early in the morning before the teachers could read the countersuggestions. The contaminated posters were promptly removed, and others were placed in the library, teacher's lounge, or in glass cases where student ribaldry could be restricted.
Posters served a purpose. If a teacher was not exposed to any other medium, the chances were almost a certainty that every teacher was exposed to the posters on several occasions. We felt that the poster was a guarantee that every teacher would get the message.
*This is the author's extension of Murphy's three laws which are discussed by Laurence J. Peter, The Peter Prescription (New York: William Morrow & Co., Inc., 1972), p. 38. Murph-y's third law may also apply in this case: "If anything can go wrong, it will."




33
ROLE PARTICIPATING
Although the review of the literature in Chapter II
indicated role participating as an important element in changing opinions, this researcher originally planned to utilize role participating at a minimum level. The ultimate goal of this and future researches is aimed at creating instant morale change via ,mass media. It was felt that creating a tole participating situation would be tedious and limited in the group it might reach. Nevertheless, luck was with us and we were not about to refuse Dame Fortune. At first our plan was to entice certain teachers into helping with posters and radio messages, and that was to be the extent of the role participating. However, as Christmas vacation ended (1974-1975), talk began to circulate in the teacher's lounge that one of the truly great teachers at Vero Beach High School was about to retire. As time passed, committees were formed by teachers, former students, townspeople, and administrators to honor Mrs. Helen Hancock for her superb services as a teacher.
It should be noted by future researchers that this
researcher feels that the Helen Hancock testimonial was quite possibly the most important factor during the spring of 1975 in maintaining high morale among teachers in the experimental group. Future researchers should attempt to create role participating situations for the experimental group, but they should also be aware that spontaneous situations may occur whi6h may do far more morale raising than any staged situation. Should such a situation




34
occur, it is best to roll with the tide while enjoying all the side eddies, such as extra, positive radio, newspaper, and television exposure.
The Helen Hancock testimonial received sixty-three news
commentaries on Vero Beach radio stations, six television exposures on WTVX-TV, unlimited word-of-mouth exposure, and newspaper coverage.(see Appendix B).
RADIO CAMPAIGN
The radio campaign may have been the second most effective medium used. In order to create a feeling throughout Vero Beach that Teacher Appreciation Week was spontaneous, it was born in a social studies class as a student project. The students readily agreed that any project which would improve teacher morale was to the students' advantage. Very soon other classes were involved in painting posters, helping with a teacher retirement dinner, and especially, working on a slogan for radio spots. Spontaneity was complete. No one asked,"Where did this idea originate?." It just "growed, like Topsy." Over one hundred students tried their hands at slogans and commercials. A student committee decided that Neil Stannard, a senior and a local disc jockey, had developed the best slogan. They adopted "Say thanks to a teacher; it's an idea whose time has come."
Neil became our radio commercial producer and, in some cases, announcer. The spots which he produced had upbeat music




3S
in the background and sounded as though a student was speaking.
On the other spots we used the voice of a mother who was well
known in the community as a successful parent and a working
Contributor to many facets of a better community life in Vero
Beach.
Indian River County has two AM radio outlets, WTTB and
WAXE, and one FM outlet, WGYL. We decided to forego the use of
WGYL because its coverage area extended into the control market
and could easily bias the experiment.
We broadcast the following messages alternately on the
AM stations (see Appendix CQ:
Hi, I am a concerned parent . and I'd
like to take this opportunity to say
"Thanks" to the teachers of Indian River
County . .because they, more than
anyone else, have made this past school
year the best ever. It's teachers in
their day-to-day work who determine the
quality of a school system . and our teachers deserve our gratitude for a job
well done. Say "Thanks" to a teacher...
today!
I am a concerned parent asking you to
say "Thanks" to a teacher. Indian River
County schools have just experienced
their greatest year ever, in terms of
both accomplishment and of harmony ..
and this is due in large part to the
men and women who are the "front line"l
of education . the classroom instructors. Say "Thanks" to a teacher . it's
an idea whose time has come.




36
During the experimental week, student leaders spoke over the Vero Beach High School intercom. expressing their appreciation for the fine job that their high school faculty had done during the 1974-1975 academic year. They concluded each announcement with the slogan "Say thanks to a teacher; it's an idea whose time has come."
TELEVISION
The experimenter was fortunate in obtaining the help and public service time of WTVX-TV, a CBS affiliate. WTVX-TV is the only television station in the area between Palm Beach and Cape Kennedy on the Treasure Coast of Florida. Therefore, with the exception of fringe signals from other cities or the rare households which were connected to cable at that time, the teacher praising announcements were directed to as nearly a captive audience as any television programmer could hope for.
The following public service announcements were telecast (see Appendix D):
AUDIO VIDEO
STATION BREAK 1
If we can afford to pay two Senator Edward Kennedy speaking
thirds of the cost of mass at a National Education Associatransit in our community, then tion convention.
we can afford to pay one third of the cost of educating our
children.
Say thanks to a teacher; it's an .Still shot of smiling teacher idea whose time hascome, helping interested student.




37
AUDIO VIDEO
STATION BREAK 2
We are trying to meet our Montage of rapid transit films.
responsibility in mass transit. Urge your congressional representative to do as much for our children's education.
Say thanks to a teacher; it's an Still shot of smiling teacher
idea whose time has come, helping interested student
STATION BREAK 3
Each child is like an arrow Animated arrows.
pointing to his future. Bending arrows.
There are slow learners and Wiggling arrows.
fast learners. Some have special difficulties. Some need extra guidance and help. Some falter. Reverse action arrow.
Some drop out. Arrow tailspins.
The teachers of.America believe Arrows shooting skyward.
that their job is to shape every child for its true flight to his own target, Arrow heading toward target.
and-they need your help. Arrow hits target.
Say thanks to a teacher; it's an Still shot of smiling teacher
idea whose time has come. helping interested student.
STATION BREAK 4
When is it the individual's Young male teacher addressing
right to determine his own high school students in classactions? room.
The right to say what you want First student responds.
and equality. Ninety-eight percent isn't good enough; it's got to be 100% or it just. isn't. Government should guarantee Second student interrupts.
that ..




38
AUDIO VIDEO
STATION BREAK 4, continued: Six students interrupt. Camera zooms in on teacher
Audio background speaker:
For Pete Shrively, teaching is more than a matter of fact. fie is helping America's future learning to speak it's
conscience.
Back to teacher speaking:
Is that an interference with one's civil rights or not? Many students respond Camera on students.
enthusiastically with varied answers.
Say thanks to a teacher; it's an Still shot of smiling teacher
idawoetmehscmhelping interested student.
Following the announcements, four prime time programs
were aired over WTVX-TV, exposing parents, students, and community leaders who expressed their appreciation for the con-m tributions which had been made by Indian River county teachers.
The most serious decision made regarding the design was
the question of the split-school approach in the control market. Every precaution was taken to assure the researcher that the teacher populations of the two schools were similar. Nevertheless, a serious, although necessary, limitation remained. Would a change
in morale from the pretest to 'the post-test in the control markets reflect a true morale change or simply differences of the two populations?




IV
PRESENTATION OF THE DATA
There is a high correlation
between the birth of new
babies in Dublin, Ireland,
and the stork population.
-Graffiti
THE PROFILE PRESENTED in Table IV-l can be interpreted in the following manner: The value on the percentile scale represents the percentage of a group of schools similar to those indicated by the norm group that obtained either the same or a lower median rating* than did another school on that factor. For example, a school which received a median rating of 3.67 on the first factor might have a percentile rank of 71 on that factor. This would mean that 71 percent of all schools upon which the norms were based received either this median rating
*The median ratings for The Purdue Teacher Opinionaire
are: Factor 1, 3;46; Factor 2, 3.69; Factor 3, 3.25; Factor 4, 3.06; Factor 5, 3.70; Factor 6, 3.46; Factor 7, 3.00; Factor 8,
3.17; Factor 9, 3.63; and Factor 10, 3.72 (Bentley & Rempel 1970, p. 13).
39




40
or a lower one. Only 29 percent of the schools received a higher median rating on that factor.
Since factor ratings offer a more consistent picture of a school's relative standing, the percentile norm profile represents median values for the ten factors rather than for each of the one hundred items. The item weights used in computing factor medians are explained in the Manual for the Purdue Teacher Opinionaire (Bentley & Rempel 1970). High values indicate the presence of the quality represented by the factor, whereas low values may suggest lower morale concerning this dimension when compared with other schools included in the norm group.
The item median results of the experimental (Vero Beach) pretest, of the experimental post-test, of the control group pretest, and of the control group post-test are presented in Table IV-2.




TABLEIV-1. FACTOR PERCENTILE PRETEST AND POST-TEST DATA
Experimental Experimental Control Control
Factor Pretest Post-Test Pretest Post-Test
1 71% 56% 23% 1%
2 88 71 56 25
3 55 54 54 8
4 85 59 8 2
5 95 46 8 1
6 91 91 95 38
7 66 56 22 1
8 78 71 80 40
9 97 90 64 32
10 94 84 42 4




TABLEIV-2. ITEM MEDIAN PRETEST AND POST-TEST DATA GROUPED BY FACTORS
Experimental Experimental Control Control
Item Pretest Post-Test Pretest Post-Test
Factor 1:
2 3.8 3.3 3.1 2.3
3 3.2 3.1 2.9 1.7
5 2.9 2.2 3.4 2.0
7 3.7 3.3 2.2 1.4
12 2.8 2.5 2.0 1.3
33 3.1 3.2 2.9 1.4
38 3.4 3.2 3.0 2.1
41 3.7 3.4 2.6 1.3
43 3.0 2.8 2.4 1.8
44 3.5 2.2 2.5 1.2
61. 3.5 3.3 2.8 1.3
62 3.8 3.6 3.4 1.8
69 3.7 3.3 2.9 2.2
70 3.7 3.7 3.0 1.3
72 3.4 2.7 2.4 1.7
73 3.3 3.1 2.9 2.1
74 3.6 3.4 3.4 2.6
92 3.7 3.5 3.4 2.6
93 3.2 3.2 3.0 2.2
95 3.7 3.5 3.0 1.6
Factor 2:
19 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.7
24 3.1 3.3 2.9 2.8
26 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.5
27 3.1 3.2 3.1 2.8
29 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.3
30 3.4 3.5 3.4 3.0
46 3.9 3.8 3.8 3.9




47 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.0
50 3.8 3.7 3.8 3.8
51 3.3 3.5 3.3 3.4
56 3.9 3.9 3.91 3.7
58 3.5 3.6 .3.7 3.5
60 3.8 3.7 3.5 3.1
76 3.9 3.7 3.-7 3.7
78 3.8 3.6 3.7 3.7
82 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.5
83 3.4 3.2 3.2 2.9
86 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.9
89 3.9 3.8 3.8 3.9
100 3.8 -3.6 3.5 2.8
Factor 3:
18 3.3 3.2 2.8 1.4
22 3.3 3.3 3.2 2.9
23 3.1 3.1 3.2 2.4
28 3.7 3.7 3.3, 3.1
48 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.8
52 3.6 3.5 3.6 2.8
53 3.4 3.2 3.3 3.2
54 2.4 2.2 2.3 1.5
55 3.2 3.2 3.3 2.9
77 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.0
80 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.2
84 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.0
87 3.1 3.2 3.1 3.0
90 3.0 .3.1 3.2 3.1
Factor 4:
4 3.1 2.9 1.9 1.8
9 2.9 2.5 1.4 1.1
32 3.6 3.2 2.3 1.4
36 3.1 3.0 .2.1 1.3
39' 3.3 2.8 2.6 2.1
65 1.9 1.8 1.4 1.2
75 3.1 3.2 1.8 1.4




TABLE tV-2, continued:
Experimental Experimental Control Control
Item Pretest Post-Test Pretest Post-Test
Factor 5:
1 2.3 1.4 1.3 1.1
6 3.2 302.4 1.9
8 3.9 3.6 3.6 3.6
10 3.8 3.6 3.4 3.5
11 3.8 3.7 3.3 2.*0
14 3.6 3.5 3.0 2.5
31 3.6 3.4 3.3 2.9
34 3.7 3.5 3.0 3.1
40 3.7 2.9 3.3 2.7
42 3.9 3.8 3.6 3.2
45 3.8 3.6 3.0 2.6
Factor 6:
17 3.6 3.7 3.9 2.7
20 3.6 3.5 3.7 2.9
25 3.2 3.2 3.1 2.3
79 3.7 3.5 3.6 2.8
88 3.2 3.2 3.4 3.0
Factor 7:
13 2.7 2.8 2.6 1.8
15 3.2 2.9 2.3 1.9
35 2.5 2.7 2.6 2.2
37 3.5 3.5 2.8 2.3
63 2.8 2.9 2.5 2.3
64 3.2 2.6 1.7 1.4
68 2.8 2.9 2.8 2.4
71 3.3 3.3 3.4 2.9




Factor 8:
66 2.8 2.7 3.2 2.8
67 3.7 3.8 3.5 3.0
94 2.9 2.8 3.0 2.7
96 3.2 3.3 3.1 1.9
97 3.2 3.0 3.2 3.0
Factor 9:
16 3.8 3.2 2.8 2.3
21 3.0 3.0 2.8 2.3
49 4.0 3.9 3.5 3.5
57 2.9 2.7 2.2 1.5
59 3.7 3.7 3.5 3.2
Factor 10':
81 3.6 3.6 3.4 3.1
85 3.8 -3.7 3.3 3.2
91 3.3 3.3 3.2 2.3
98 3.8 3.6 3.3 3.1
99 3.9 3.8 3.6 3.4
Ul




V
ANALYSIS OF THE DATA
If you want to change
history, write it.
--Gr.affiti
FOUR CRITERIA WERE ESTABLISHED whereby the experimenter could decide whether a mass media campaign had in fact affected teacher morale in Vero Beach. The experimenter assumed that teachers in both the experimental and control markets would experience declining morale at the end of the school year. The experimenter's hope was -that a mass media campaign in Vero Beach would retard that decline, keep it level, or possibly raise it, while the control sample would decline. Four questions were asked.
1. Did the overall picture from the pretest
and post-test in Vero Beach remain relatively stable while the morale in the control market
plummeted?
2. Would certain factors which were more prone to be affected by a morale raising
campaign show less decline than factors
which could be considered immune to a mass
media campaign?
46




47
3. Were there certain items which were
more sensitive to a 'morale raising campaign
than other items?
4. Were there any obvious demographic
differences between the population in the
experimental market and the control market?
Regarding the first question, the experimenter illustrates gross differences by relative percentile changes in Table V-1 and in Figures V-1 and V-2. With reference to-the second question, it seemed that a question pertaining to the teacher's feelings of status in the community would be more affected by television spots praising the work done by teachers than a teacher's feelings regarding his salary-or the physical plant in which he worked. Salary and physical plant seemed to be a constant factor which would not be readily changed by a morale raising campaign.
Similarly, it was reasoned in the third question, there should be. certain items which are more sensitive to a morale raising campaign than other items. If questions could be found such as,"I think my community appreciates me,." then it was reasoned that such a question should be strongly affected by a television campaign. Whereas such a question as.,"Are you ple ased with the amount of audiovisual material in your school?" would be relatively unaffected by a morale raising campaign.
Regarding the fourth question, if there were substantial differences in the black/white population of the experimental market as compared with the control market, then an analysis of




48
variance might indicate a demographic causation for the differences in the results.
All hypotheses were tested using the same general statistical procedure (excepting Hypothesis 1; see page 49, below). The procedure involves using four t tests in an attempt to determine whether one group had changed relatively more than another group.* The limitation of this procedure should be noted since the pretests and post-tests were given to different subjects. Because of the political climate in Florida at the time, the experimenter felt that the procedure of split halves was most desirable in order that teachers would not have an opportunity to discuss the questionaire among themselves and in order that they would not be exposed to unnecessary political pressures.
Measures on each Purdue Teacher Opinionaire morale variable were obtained for four groups: Vero Beach pretest, Vero Beach post-test, control pretest, and control post-test. If t tests are used and it is found that Vero Beach pre is not significantly different from control pre but Vero Beach post is significantly different from control post, then there is evidence of a significant difference in the change from pre to post in the, experimental group relative to the change from pre to post in the control group.
*For a more complete explanation, see page 247 of Reading Statistics and Research by Huck, Cormier, and Bounds (New York: Harper & Row, 1974).




49
Or if t tests-are used and it is found that-control post is not significantly-different from control pre but Vero Beach post is significantly different from Vero Beach pre, then there again is evidence of a significant difference in the change from pre to post in the experimental group relative to the change from pre to post in the control group. A similar argument allows a comparison of the changes in Vero Beach pre/post for whites and blacks.
It is not necessary to
HYPOTHESIS 1. Teachers exdetermine whether the differences posed to a mass media campaign to improve morale
between the experimental market will score no differently
in a test designed to
and the control market are measure their morale,
pretest/post-test, than
statistically significant. It will teachers who are not
exposed to such a campaign.
is only necessary to determine.
whether there was any difference at all inasmuch as some of
the factors should not have been affected by the media campaign and therefore would serve to dilute the results. What the experimenter is essentially asking in the first hypothesis and in the other five hypotheses is whether there was an overall change in the experimental market compared with the control market and, if there was a change, was that change much greater in the media sensitive factors and items than was the change, if any, in the media nonsensitive factors and items.




50
A cursory glance by the reader makes the answer to the
first hypothesis rather obvious. The reader can see that overall the control market morale dropped 30 percentile points while the experimental-market morale dropped 14.2 points (Table V-l).
TABLE V-1. BREAKDOWN OF VARIOUS FACTOR SCORES FOR VERO BEACH
PRETEST/POST-TEST AND CONTROL PRETEST/POST-TEST*
Vero Beach Vero Beach Control Control
Factor Pretest Post-Test Pretest Post-Test
1 71 56 23 1
2 88 71 56. 25
3 55 54 54 8
4 85 59 8 2
5 95 46 8 1
6 91 91 95 38
7 66 56 22 1
8 78 71 80 40
9 97 90 64 32
10 94 84 42 4
EP 820 678 452 152
EP/N 82.0 67.8 45.2 15.2
(EP1/N) (EP2/N) = 14.2 (EP3/N) (EP4/N) = 30
NOTE: P = percentile score.
*Sizes of samples were: Vero Beach pretest 49, Vero Beach posttest 49, control pretest 86, control post-test 41.
Figures V-1 and V-2, following, illustrate visually the percentile changes of Vero Beach pretest/post-test as compared to the greater change in control pretest/post-test.




100
90 I I
Io I.
80
70 I
I I
60 .
I Io I I
4oI I I
S 50
3 o I I I I
I I I I
1o I I I I
30I I I I
i oII I j I j
20 I
10I
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
FACTORS
FIGURE V-i. PERCENTILE CHANGES OF VERO BEACH PRETEST/POST-TEST. Solid line indicates pretest and broken line indicates post-test for each factor.




52
100
90 8.0
70 60
z
50
40 I
30 I
I I
I I
20 10 I .
- I
1 2 3. 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
FACTORS FIGURE V-2. PERCENTILE CHANGES OF CONTROL PRETEST/POST-TEST. Solid
line indicates pretest and broken line indicates post-test for each factor.




53
Table V.-i shows twice the decline in morale in the control market as opposed to the experimental market. In this connection, it should be recalled that the morale in the experimental market was exceptionally high statistically to begin with and therefore had potentially far greater distance to fall. On Factors 1, 4, 5, 7, and 10 the control market literally hit the bottom.
Having noted that there was a gross difference between the morale level of the experimental market and the control market, an expert committee* and the experimenter separately chose factors and items which seemed to be more or less prone to being affected by a media campaign. There were significant differences between factors considered media sensitive by an expert committee and factors considered media sensitive by the experimenter, and these sensitive factors were compared with the selected nonsensitive factors.
Both the select committee and the author, in blind ballot, selected as media sensitive Factors 2, 7, and 10. Nonsensitive' media factors, both the select committee and the author agreed, were Factors 1, 4, and 9.
*Theauthor's appreciation is extended to those committee members: Micki Edwardson, professor of communications; Julius Hodges, director P.K. Yonge Laboratory School; Carson Coleman, Jimmy Johnson, James N. Young, and Thomas Greene, administrators, Vero Beach High School; Gail Archer, Beverly Brubaker, Samuel. A. Burns, Annie Grace Foster, Sue Linley, Nancy McDowell, Jessie Salmon, and Andrew Walls, teachers, Vero Beach High School.




54
The f value, the pooled
SENSITIVE FACTORS variance estimate (t value), Factor 2. Satisfaction
with teaching.
and the separate variance Factor 7. Teacher
Status.
estimate (t value) for all Factor 10. Community
Pressures
ten factors may be found in NONSENSITIVE FACTORS
Appendix E. In the discussion Factor 1. Teacher
Rapport with Principal. of the media sensitive factors, Factor 4. Teacher
Salary.
Factor 9. School the author has selected the Fco .Sho
Facilities and Services.
pooled variance estimate
(t value) as the most sensitive.
ANALYSIS OF MEDIA SENSITIVE FACTORS
For media sensitive HYPOTHESIS 2. Teachers exposed to a mass media cam- Factor 2, df of 96, t is
paign designed to improve their morale will score no significant at the 1.98
differently in a test designed to measure their level. Factor 2 shows
morale on factors which should be sensitive to that the one-tail t score
change by a mass media campaign, pretest/post-test, for the change between
than will teachers who are not exposed to such a pretest/post-test Vero
campaign.
Beach is .94 and that the
two-tail probability is. .348. Therefore, the null hypothesis is
accepted for Vero Beach for Factor 2. In the case of the control
market for Factor 2, with a df of 125, the-point of significance
is 1.97. The one-tail t value for the difference between pretest
and post-test in the control market is 1.55, and the two-tail




probability is .125. The null hypothesis for the control market is therefore accepted for Factor 2. Apparently the treatment in Vero Beach in the case of Factor 2 would not significantly change the morale as compared with the control market.
In Factor 7 the Vero Beach pretest/post-test one-tail t score is .04, and the two-tail probability is .970. The null hypothesis is accepted. In Factor 7, control market pretest/ post-test, the one-tail t value is 2.44, and the two-tail probability is .016. Hypothesis 2 is therefore rejected for the control market. There is a significant difference between the decline of morale in the control market compared to the lesser decline in the experimental market. It is concluded that the significant difference in Factor 7 may have been caused by the morale raising media campaign.
In Factor 10 the one-tail t score for Vero Beach pretest/ post-test is 1.75, and the two-tail probability is .084. The null hypothesis is therefore accepted. For Factor 10, control market pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is 2.6, and the two-tail probability is .01. Inasmuch as both groups indicated the same direction (morale drop), the null hypothesis is rejected regarding the control market, and it is concluded that the media campaign may have been the cause of maintaining relatively high morale regarding Factor 10 in the experimental market while the control market declined.




56
ANALYSIS OF MEDIA NONSENSITIVE FACTORS
By hidden ballot both
HYPOTHESIS 3. Teachers exthe committee and the author* posed to a mass media campaign designed to improve
agreed that Factors 1, 4, and their morale will score no
differently in a test
9 would be relatively nonsensi- designed to measure their
morale on factors which
tive, or insensitive, to a should not be sensitive to
change by a mass media cammedia campaign, and therefore paign, pretest/post-test,
than will teachers who are
the end-of-the-year morale not exposed to such a
campaign.
drop in both the experimental and control markets should be similar.
Regarding Factor 1, pretest/post-test Vero Beach, the
one-tail t value is 2.01, and the two-tail probability is 0.48. The null hypothesis for the experimental market is rejected. For Factor 1 in the control market, the one-tail t value is 6.41, and the two-tail probability is .000. The null hypothesis for the control market is rejected, and it is concluded that the decline in morale in both markets was relatively similar and was unaffected by the media campaign.
For Factor 4, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t'value is 1.73, and the two-tail t value is 0.86. The null hypothesis is accepted for Vero Beach. For Factor 4 in the control market, the one-tail t value is 2.68; the two-tail probability is .008. The null hypothesis is rejected. There is a significant difference in the morale change between the control market and the experimental market on a factor which was considered nonsensitive to media persuasion.




57
For Factor 9 in Vero Beach, the one-tail t value is 1.31.
The two-tail probability is 1.94. The null hypothesis is accepted. Regarding Factor 9 in the control market, the one-tail t value is 2.55, and the two-tail t value is .012. The null hypothesis is rejected. There was a significant difference in the relative decline of morale in the control market as compared with the experimental market.
It should be noted that in the vote, Factor 3 (Rapport
Among Teachers) missed being included as one of the television sensitive factors by one vote. A discussion of this factor seems to be in order. First some background information regarding the influences which occurred during the time between the pretests and the post-tests in both markets and what has occurred in the year since is in order.
In the experimental market during the testing period, there was little or no discussion regarding the question of whether teachers should leave the National Education Association and join the American Federation of Teachers. However, in the control market the superintendent of schools noted that the low morale which was reco rded in the post-test was the direct-result of militant teacher organizations stirring up discontent among their teachers. He therefore concluded that this research was meaningless because of the bias of unionism in his county. It should be noted, however, that it may well have been the mass media campaign in Vero Beach which kept the teachers in a more




58
moderate attitude regarding unionism in the-county. Furthermore, it is interesting to note that one year after the mass media campaign was stopped in Vero Beach, the teachers in the experimental county did indeed vote to j oin the American Federation of Teachers and did take a strong militant stand against the school administration, threatening to strike. Above all, it is interesting to note that one year following the removal of media persuasion from Vero Beach that the experimental high school teachers were deeply divided over the issue of unionism and that apparently the rapport which existed in the spring of 1975 had diminished by the spring of 1976.
Another observation is that the media campaign in Vero Beach was generally directed to the high school teachers only. For instance, the role playing experiment honored a high school teacher, and the people involved in the ba nquet were high school faculty. When the election was held in the spring of 1976, junior high school and elementary te achers in the experimental county voted 80 percent in favor of the militant union, whereas a majority of the high school faculty rejected unionism. Figure V-3 illustrates what happened to rapport among teachers in the control market during its move toward unionism. Although in the experimental market rapport remained generally high, possibly the result of the mass media campaign, it is a matter of record that radical unionism did not come to Vero Beach until one year after the morale raising media campaign had been stopped.




59
100 90 80 70
LI 60
z
50
40 30
20 10
0 ______________________________ I___________________________________________0VERO -BEACH FACTOR 3' CONTROL
FIGURE V-3. PERCENTILE CHANGES OF EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL MARKETS ON FACTOR 3. Solid line indicates pretest and broken line indicates post-test.




60
ANALYSIS OF MEDIA SENSITIVE ITEMS
The following items were
HYPOTHESIS 4. Teachers who
considered to be more sensitive are exposed to a mass media
campaign designed to improve
to a media campaign designed to their morale will score no
differently, pretest/
raise teacher morale than any post-test, on scores on
items sensitive to such a
of the other items: Item 8 campaign than will teachers
who are not exposed to such
(committee selection only), a campaign.
Item 13 (committee and experimenter selected), Item 15 (committee and experimenter selected), Item 19 (committee and experimenter selected), Item 24 .(committee and experimenter), Item 26 (experimenter only), Item. 35 (committee and experimenter), Item 42 (experimenter only), Item 45 (committee only), Item 46 (committee and experimenter), Item 47 (committee and experimenter), Item 48 (committee only), and Item 63 (experimenter only).
In Item 8, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t
value is 3.20, with 96 df, and the two-tail probability is .002.
The null hypothesis is rejected ITEM 8. Community demands
upon the teacher's time for the experimental market.
are unreasonable.
For Item 8, control market
pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is .19, with 125 df, and the two-tail probability is .851. The null hypothesis is accepted. It is found that on Item 8, an item which the committee felt was media sensitive, there was a significant drop in morale in the




61
experimental market rather than the control market. Therefore the fourth null hypothesis is accepted.
For Item 13, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is -.50, and the two-tail probability is .618. The null hypothesis is accepted
ITEM 13. My teaching posifor the experimental market. tion gives me the social
status in the community
In Item 13, control market that I desire.
pretest/post-test, the onetail t value is 2.02, with a df of 124, and the two-tail probability is .046. The null hypothesis for the control market is rejected, and the fourth null hypothesis is therefore rejected.
In Item 15, Vero Beach
ITEM 15. Teaching enables
me to enjoy many of the pretest/post-test, the one-tail
material and cultural
things I like. t value is .57, and the two-tail
probability is .572. The null hypothesis for the experimental market is accepted. In Item 15, control market pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is 1.60, and the two-tail probability is .113. The null hypothesis is accepted for the control market. Since the null hypothesis is accepted for both markets, the fourth null hypothesis is accepted.
In Item 19, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t. value is -.40, and the two-tail
ITEM 19. Teaching gives
probability is .693. The null me a great deal of personal
satisfaction.
hypothesis is accepted for
the experimental market. In Item 19, control pretest/post-test,




62
the one-tail t value is -.21, and the two-tail probability is .836. The null hypothesis is accepted for the control market. No significant difference is found between the markets. The fourth null hypothesis is therefore accepted.
For Item 24, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is .92, and the
ITEM 24. Teaching enables
two-tail probability is me to make my greatest
contribution to society.
.361. The null hypothesis
is accepted for the experimental market. For Item 24, control pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is .93, and the two-tail probability is .354. The null hypothesis is accepted for the control market. No difference between the markets is found, and the fourth null hypothesis is therefore accepted.
In Item 26, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is -.13, and the two-tail probability is .895. The null hypothesis is accepted
ITEM 26. I love to teach.
for the experimental market. For Item 26, control market pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is 1.09, with a df of 125, and the two-tail probability is .278. The null hypothesis is accepted for the control market, and no significant difference is found between the two markets. The fourth null hypothesis is therefore accepted.
For Item 35, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is -1.05, and
ITEM 35. Our community makes the two-tail probability its teachers feel as though
they are a real part of the
is .296.The null hypothesis community.




63
is accepted for the experimental market. In Item 35, control market pretest/post-test, the one tail t value is 1.97, with a df of 120, and the two-tail probability is .051. The null hypothesis is accepted for the control market. However, it is noted that under separate variance estimates, the one-tail t value is 2.02, and therefore the fourth null hypothesis in the control market could be rejected. Since the pooled variance estimate is used, no significant difference is found between the two markets, and the null hypothesis is therefore accepted with reservations.
In Item 42, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is 1.11, and the
ITEM 42. My teaching load
two-tail probability is .270. is unreasonable.
The null hypothesis is
accepted for the experimental market. For Item 42, control market pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is 1.47, with a df of 124, and the two-tail probability is .144. The null hypothesis is accepted for the control market. No significant difference between the markets is found, and the fourth null hypothesis is accepted.
In Item 45, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t
value is 2.25, with a df of 95, and the two-tail probability is .027. The null hypothesis
ITEM 45. My heavy teaching
load unduly restricts my is rejected for the experinonprofessional activities.
mental market. For Item 45,
control market pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is .99,




64
with a df of 122, and the two-tail probability is .322. The null hypothesis is accepted for the control market. There is
*a significant difference between the two markets in the wrong direction. Therefore the fourth null hypothesis is accepted for Item 45.
In Item 46, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is .81, with a df of
ITEM 46. I find my con96, and the two-tail proba- tacts with students, for
the most part, highly
bility is .422. The null satisfying and rewarding.
hypothesis is accepted. For
Item 46, control market pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is -.94, with a df of 124, and the two-tail probability is .349. The null hypothesis is accepted for the control market. There is no significant difference between the markets. The fourth null hypothesis is therefore accepted.
For Item 47, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is '12, and the two-tail probability is .907. The null hypothesis is accepted for
ITEM 47. I feel that I am
an important part of this the experimental market. In
school system.
Item 47, control market
pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is 2.30, with a df of 125, and the two-tail probability is .023. The null hypothesis is rejected for the control market. There is a significant difference between the markets. The fourth null hypothesis is therefore rejected.




65
For Item 48, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is -.81, with a df of 96, ITEM 48. The competency
and the two-tail probability is of the teachers in our
school compares favorably
.419. The null hypothesis is with that of teachers in
other schools with which
accepted for the experimental I am familiar.
market. In Item 48, control
market pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is .40, with a df of 124, and the two-tail probability is .693. The null hypothesis is accepted for the control market. No significant difference is found between the markets. le fourth null hypothesis is therefore accepted.
In Item 63, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is -.98, with a df of 94, and the two-tail probability is .327. The null hypothesis is
ITEM 63. Teaching gives me
the prestige I desire, accepted for the experimental
market. For Item 63, control
pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value isi.66, with a df of. 124, and the two-tail probability is .099. The null hypothesis is accepted for the control market. No significant difference is found between the markets. The fourth null hypothesis is therefore accepted.
ANALYSIS OF MEDIA NONSENSITIVE ITEMS
The nonsensitive items are: Item I (committee and experimenter selected), Item 4 (committee only), Item 16 (committee




66
and experimenter), Item 21 (committee and experimenter), Item 31
(experimenter only), Item 39 (experimenter only), Item 49
(committee and experimenter), HYPOTHESIS 5. Teachers who Item 54 (committee only), are exposed to a mass media
campaign designed to imItem 59 (committee and prove their morale will
score no differently,
experimenter), Item 64 pretest/post-test, on
scores on items which
(committee and experimenter), should not be sensitive to
such a campaign than
Item 65 (committee only), teachers who are not
exposed to such a campaign.
Item 67 (committee and
experimenter), and Item 72 (experimenter only).
In Item 1, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one tail t
value is 3.43, with a df of 96, and the two-tail probability is
.001. The null hypothesis is ITEM 1. Details, "red tape," and required reports absorb rejected for the experimental
too much of my time.
market. For Item 1, control
market pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is .244, with a
df of 125, and the two-tail probability is .016. The null hypothesis
is rejected for the control market. There was a significant drop
in morale in both markets. The fifth null hypothesis is therefore
accepted.
For Item 4, Vero Beach ITEM 4. The faculty feels
that their suggestions
pretest/post-test, the one- pertaining to salaries
are adequately transmitted tail t value is 1.23, with a by the administration to
the board of education.
df of 95, and the two-tail
probability is .221. The null hypothesis is accepted for the




67
experimental market. In Item 4, control market pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is .58, with a df of 125, and the two-tail probability is .565. The null hypothesis is accepted for the control market. No significant difference between the two markets is found. The fifth null hypothesis is therefore accepted.
For Item 16, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is 1.92, with a df of 96, ITEM 16. My school provides
and the two-tail probability me with adequate classroom
supplies and equipment.
is .057. The null hypothesis
is accepted for the experimental market. For Item 16, control pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is 1.64, with a df of 124, and the two-tail probability is .103. The null hypothesis is accepted for the control market. There is no significant difference. between the two markets. The fifth null hypothesis is therefore accepted.
For Item 21, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is .21, with a df of 96, and the two-tail probability is .838. The null hypothesis is
ITEM 21. The procedures for
obtaining materials and accepted for the experimental
services are well defined
and efficient, market. For Item 21, control
pretest/post-test, the onetail t value is 2.81, with a df of 125, and the two-tail probability is .006. The null.hypothesis is rejected for the




68
control market. There was a significant difference between the two markets. The fifth null hypothesis is therefore rejected.
In Item 31, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is .92, with a df of 96, ITEM 31. The school
schedule places my
and the two-tail probability classes at a disadvantage.
is .360. The null hypothesis
is accepted for the experimental market. In Item 31, control market pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is 1.52, with a df of 125, and the two-tail probability is .130. The null hypothesis is accepted for the control market. There is no significant difference between the markets. The fifth null hypothesis is therefore accepted.
For Item 39, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is 2.42, with a df of 96, and the two-tail probability is .017. The null hypothesis
ITEM 39. Teachers clearly
understand the policies is rejected for the experigoverning salary increases.
mental market. In Item 39,
control pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is 1.67, with a df of 125, and the two-tail probability is .097. The null hypothesis is accepted for the 'control market. There was a significant difference between the markets. Therefore the fifth null hypothesis is rejected. However, it is noted that on this particular item, considered to be nonsensitive to media persuasion, the Vero Beach morale dropped significantly while the control school morale did not, which would seem to indicate




69
that influences other than media were tending to depress the Vero Beach morale with a greater force than was occurring in the control market.
In Item 49, Vero Beach pretest, the one-tail t value is
1.24, with a df of 95,
ITEM 49. My school proand the two-tail probability. vides the teachers with
adequate audio-visual aids
is .217. The null hypothesis and projection equipment.
is accepted for the experimental market. In Item 49, control market pretest/post-test, the onetail t value is -.11, with a df of 125, and the two-tail probability is .912. The null hypothesis for the control market is accepted. No significant differences are found between the two markets. The fifth null hypothesis is therefore accepted.
In Item 54, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is 1.14, with a df of 96, and the two-tail probability is .256. The null hypothesis is
ITEM 54. Our school faculty
has a tendency to form into accepted for the experimental
cliques.
market. For Item 54, control
market pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is 4.00, with a df of 124, and the two-tail probability is .000. The null hypothesis is rejected for the control market. There was a significant difference between the two markets. The fifth null hypothesis is therefore rejected.
In Item 59, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is -.66, with a df of 96, and the two-tail probability is




70
.511. The null hypothesis for the experimental market is accepted. For Item 59, control
ITEM 59. Library facilities
market pretest/post-test, the and resources are adequate
for the grade or subject
one-tail t value is 1.78, with area which I'teach.
a df of 125, and the two-tail
probability is .077. The null hypothesis is accepted for the control market. No significant difference between the two markets is found. The fifth null hypothesis is therefore accepted.
For Item 64, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is 2.09, with a df of 96, and the two-tail probability is.
.039. The null hypothesis is
ITEM 64. My teaching job
enables me to provide a rejected for the experimental
satisfactory standard of
living for my family. market. For Item 64, control
market pretest/post-test,
the one-tail t value is 1.09, with a df of 125, and the two-tail probability is .277. The null hypothesis is accepted for the control market. There was a significant difference in morale change between the two markets, with a significant depression in morale expressed in the experimental market, probably caused by something other than the media. Therefore Item 64 is similar to Item 39 in indicating that something was depressing the Vero Beach teachers more than it was depressing the control market teachers. This would seem to indicate that when Vero Beach morale rose significantly on media sensitive items, the rise was possibly despite whatever was causing the significant decline




71
on Items 39 and 64. It should be noted that both of these items pertain to salary, which in the case of a teacher's occupation is considered a rather static or set variable and therefore should be relatively impervious to the blandishments of a morale raising campaign, just as the committee and the experimenter determined in their balloting.
In Item 65, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is .69, with a df of 96, ITEM 65. The salary
and the two-tail probability schedule in our school
adequately recognizes
is .491. The null hypothesis teacher competency.
is accepted for the experimental group. For Item 65, control market pretest/post-test, the onetail t value is 1.43, with a df of 123, and the two-tail probability is .154. The null hypothesis is accepted for the control market. No significant difference is found between the markets. The fifth null hypothesis is therefore accepted.
For Item 67, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is -.84, with a df of 96, and the two-tail probability is .403. The null hypothesis is
ITEM 67. In my judgement,
this community is a good accepted for the experimental
place to raise a family.
market. In Item 67, control
market pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is 3.91, with a df of 125, and the two-tail probability is .000. The null hypothesis is rejected for the control market. There was a significant difference between the two markets. The fifth null hypothesis is therefore rejected.




72
For Item 72, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is 2.48, with a df of 96, ITEM 72. Teachers',meetings
and the two-tail probability is as now conducted by our
principal waste the time
.015. The null hypothesis is and energy of the staff.
rejected for the experimental market. For Item 72, control market pretest/post-test, the onetail t value is 2.58, with a df of 125, and the two-tail probability is .011. The null hypothesis is rejected for the control market. There was a similar significant decline in morale in both markets. The fifth null hypothesis is accepted.
DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS
There were no obvious differences regarding the sexes of the teachers in the experimental market as compared with the control market. The ages
HYPOTHESIS 6. Teachers of one race who are exposed to a mass of the teachers in both
media campaign designed
to improve their morale groups were similar. However,
will score no differently,
pretest/post-test, than 40 percent of the experimental
will teachers of another
race who are exposed to faculty were of the black
the same campaign.
race, whereas the control
market was 99 percent white.
The experimenter asked himself,"Could this demographic difference between the markets be the contributing factor whereby Vero Beach morale remained high while the morale of the all-white faculty of the control market declined? Was it




73
the high morale of the large black population in Vero Beach which kept the overall Vero Beach scores elevated and not the media campaign?"
F tests and t tests were calculated as well as an anova, comparing the scores of the black population to the white population in both schools. No significant differences were found in any of the tests. The sixth null hypothesis was therefore accepted.




VI
CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
Someone pointed a finger at It is a terrible era in
a serious world problem-- which we live. .. we
the educator studied the have answers to questions
finger, and the mass we haven't even asked.
communicator moved the ---Graffiti
finger. ---Graffiti
IN THE SPRING OF 1974-1975, a mass media campaign designed to raise teacher morale was conducted for a period of ten days in Vero Beach Florida. It was directed to the faculty of Vero Beach High School. One half of the faculty, randomly selected, was pretested with The Purdue Teacher Opinionaire. Two weeks later the remaining half of the faculty was post-tested. In the meantime, control schools were selected and tested in a similar, neighboring county.
The results were calculated in the form of percentiles,
F tests, and t tests. Having observed the percentile changes in the Vero Beach pretest/post-test compared to the control market pretest/post-test, one might conclude that something happened during the two-week test period which caused the control market. morale to drop at approximately twice the rate of the experimental
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market even though the experimental market had a far greater distance to drop.
It would appear that the main conclusion to be drawn from the statistics gathered in this research is that the morale raising campaign which was conducted in the experimental market may well have been the contributing factor in a significant difference between the morale drop in the experimental market and the morale drop in the control market.
It was noted that there was a significantly larger population of black faculty members in the experimental market than in the control market. It was found that there was no significant difference in the black teacher responses compared with the white teacher responses. The data for demographic differences probably did not account for the differential between the two markets.
Six factors were selected by a committee and the experimenterto be either sensitive or nonsensitive to a mass media morale raising campaign. Three factors showed that the effects of the campaign to maintain high morale in the experimental market as opposed to the declining morale in the control market. were inconclusive. In two of-the three media sensitive factors there was significant change, and in all three factors selected as media sensitive, the trend was in favor of rejecting the second null hypothesis; that is, the media sensitive factors. remained relatively high in the experimental market while they declined in the control market.




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The three nonsensitive factors indicated that something
other than the media campaign may have caused the difference. in morale between the experimental market and the control market. (See later comment regarding causative factors.)
An analysis of the television-sensitive items indicated very strongly that the media campaign may have been the contributing factor in keeping the Vero Beach morale high while the control market morale significantly declined. It is further noted that in the agreed-upon nonsensitive items regarding salary, Vero Beach morale was significantly lowered and control market morale was not significant-ly lowered. That is, on items which should not have been affected by a morale raising campaign (because salary is considered a relatively constant item by teachers), the overall statistics were depressed, much more so in Vero Beach than in the control market. In other words, had there been no questions regarding salary, Vero Beach morale would have indicated far higher results while the control market would have indicated far lower results.
It was observed that on a fourth factor (Rapport Among Teachers), which would appear to. be a media sensitive factor, Vero Beach morale remained virtually constant while the control market morale declined sharply and significantly. It has further been observed that one year following the withdrawal of the morale raising media campaign in Vero Beach, rapport among teachers has significantly declined and Vero Beach teachers




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have voted to join a militant union and threatened to strike, just as the control market teachers did one year earlier.
The question is raised: Would Vero Beach teachers have voted for radical unionism one year earlier had there not been a morale raising mass media campaign? The converse of that question may be applied to the control market.
Additionally, it was observed that when the union vote came, 80 percent of the junior high and elementary school teachers in Vero Beach voted for the militant stand against administrators, while a majority of the high school teach ers voted against the militant stand. The morale raising mass,media campaign had been directed toward the high school faculty, and it is possible that its effects were sufficiently long lasting to alter high school teachers' opinions one year later.
it is'important to note that the process of observing
these results through the perspective of the selection committee and the experimenter is highly questionable. Who can say that the teachers' attitude and relationship with the principal is not profoundly affected by a change in the teachers' morale as the result of a morale raising media campaign? In other words, the concept of selecting media sensitive factors and items is highly suspect. What seems to be much more important is that in every factor and item, with the exception of the salary question, the experimental market morale remained much higher than the control market's morale. That is the primary conclusion and should lead to further investigation.




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The implications of this research are profound, even frightening. The questions which flow from it are almost limitless. If in fact the morale raising media campaign in Vero Beach did indeed affect teacher morale, as the results would indicate, then we are dealing with a question of
how much can we change morale and for how long and in what types of markets. A positive conclusion to this question would obviously lead to the query, can we raise the morale of firemen, policemen, or another group? Finally, the results of this research lead to the realization that'we are dealing with a profound and measurable process of mind control. One would naturally ask the question, just how significant is the raised eyebrow of Walter Cronkite upon the political decisions of the electorate? Was General De Gaulle popular because of his wartime feats or because he controlled mass media in France?
The following additional research is suggested.
(1) Experiments similar to the Vero Beach test should be conducted in other small-to-medium sized markets to measure the possibility that similar results may be repeatedly obtained.
(2) Tests should be conducted over longer periods of time to measure the possibility that morale will remain high during the period of a morale raising campaign-regardless of the length of those campaigns.
(3) Ten-day campaigns, such as the one in Vero Beach,
should be conducted., with the addition of further post-testing




79
so as to measure the long-term effect, if any, of the campaigns.
(4) Similar campaigns and testing should be conducted
in large cities. The validity of the Vero Beach results may be applicable to small markets only inasmuch as entropy and multiplicity of media outlets is so great in major markets that the results may be significantly different from those, of this research. Furthermore, the process by which educators obtain public service spots may be far more difficult in the more heavily commercialized major market stations.
(5) Additional study is recommended for the model of this research. It is readily admitted that the statistics obtained in this research are what the statistician refers to as "soft." That is, the author was hindered from obtaining truly random samples because of the fact that the administrators in the school systems which were tested felt that the Political climate was such that anything but a surprise test would be biased by outside influences. Militancy among teachers in 1976 is a fact of life. New methods of testing must be devised which will assure that the teachers' answers are not biased by outside influences, but at the same time, the researcher is assured of obtaining truly random samples rather than dealing with split halves as this researcher was forced to do.
(6) A shorter instrument and more polarized instrument than the one used should be devised for this research. One




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hundred questions involving a testing of approximately one-half hour is too much to ask of teachers who may be tired and overworked and overtested. Furthermore, the author is not satisfied that there is a clear delineation in The Purdue Teacher Opinionaire between what is media sensitive and what is nonmedia sensitive. It may be that there is no such difference. Once a teacher's morale is changed, he may perceive everything in a more positive light.
(7) A great deal of additional work remains to be done in the field of morale raising public service announcements. One might ask, does the image of Kotter on television raise or lower the teacher's feeling of importance? It is not enough that we put a morale raising campaign on the air, we must feel certain that what we are putting on the air will truly do the job.
(8) Additional research should be conducted in other occupations.
(9)-Extensive research has been conducted in the past on the question of violence on television. It would seem from the results of this research that a much more serio us implication of the effects of mass media needs to be researched, and that is the question of just how powerful mass media suggestion really is upon our way of life and upon the way we think.
(10) This research assumed the populations of the split schools of the control market were similar. It would be much more desirable and conclusive if a truly random survey within the same schools could be conducted where the political climate would permit.




APPENDIX A
THE PURDUE TEACHER OPINIONAIRE




THIS INSTRUMENT IS DESIGNED to provide you the opportunity to express your. opinions about your work as a teacher and various school problems in your particular school situation. There are no right or wrong responses, so do not hesitate to mark the statements frankly....
Fill in the information below. You will notice that there is no place for your name. Please do not record your name. All responses will be strictly confidential and results will be reported by groups only. Do not omit any items ....
Read each-statement carefully. Then indicate whether you agree, probably agree, probably disagree, or disagree with each statement [A, PA, PD, D] ....
1. Details, "red tape," and required reports absorb too much of my time.
2. The work of individual faculty members is appreciated and commended by our principal.
3. Teachers feel free to criticize administrative policy at faculty meetings called by our principal.
4. The faculty feels that their suggestions pertaining to salaries are adequately transmitted by the administration to the board of education.
5. Our principal shows favoritism in his relations with the teachers in our school.
6. Teachers in this school are expected to do an unreasonable amount. of record-keeping and clerical work.
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7. My principal makes a real effort to maintain close contact with the faculty.
8. Community demands upon the teacher's time are unreasonable. 9. 1 am satisfied with the policies under which pay raises are granted.
10. My teaching load is greater than that of most of the other teachers in our school.
11. The extra-curricular load of the teachers in our school is unreasonable.
12. Our principal's leadership in faculty meetings challenges and stimulates our professional growth. .13. .My teaching position gives me the social status in the community that I desire.
-14. The number of hours a teacher must work is unreasonable. 15. Teaching enables me to enjoy many of the material and cultural things I like.
16. My school provides me with adequate classroom supplies and equipment.
17. Our school has a well-balanced curriculum. 18. There is a-great deal of griping, arguing, taking sides,, and feuding among our teachers. 19. Teaching gives me a great deal ofpersonal, satisfaction. 20. The curriculum of our school makes reasonable provision for student individual differences. 21. The procedures for obtaining materials and services are well defined and efficient.
22. Generally, teachers in our school do not take advantage of one another.
23. The teachers in our school cooperate with each other to achieve common,personal, and professional objectives 24. Teaching enables me to make my greatest contribution to society.




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25. The curriculum of our school is in need of major revisions. 26. 1I love to teach.
27. If I could plan my career again, I would choose teaching. 28. Experienced faculty members accept new and younger members as colleagues.
29. I would recommend teaching as an occupation to students of high scholastic ability.
30. If I could earn as much money in another occupation, I would stop teaching.
31. The school schedule places my classes at a disadvantage. 32. Within the limits of financial resources, the school tries to follow a generous policy regarding fringe benefits, professional travel, professional study, etc. 33. My principal makes my work easier and more pleasant. 34. Keeping up professionally is too much of a burden. 35. Our community makes its teachers feel as though they are a real part of the community.
36. Salary policies are administered with fairness and-justice. 37. Teaching affords me the security I want in an occupation. 38. My school principal understands and recognizes good teaching procedures.
39. Teachers clearly understand the policies governing salary increases.
40. My classes are used as a "dumping ground" for problem students.
41. The lines and methods of communication between teachers and the principal in our school are well developed and maintained. 42. My teaching load in this school is unreasonable. 43. My principal shows a real interest in my department.




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44. Our principal promotes a sense of belonging among the teachers in our school.
45. My heavy teaching load unduly restricts my nonprofessional activities.
46. 1 find-my contacts with students, for the most part, highly satisfying and rewarding. 47. 1 feel that I am an important part of this school system.
48. The competency of the teachers in our school compares favorably with that of teachers in other schools with which I am familiar.
49. My school provides the teachers with adequate audio-visual aids and projection equipment. 50. 1 feel successfuland competent in my present position. 51. 1 enjoy working with student organizations, clubs, and societies.
52. Our teaching staff is congenial to work with. 53. My teaching associates are well prepared for their jobs. 54. Our school faculty has a tendency to form into cliques. 55. The teachers in our school work well together. 56. 1 am at a disadvantage professionally because other teachers are better prepared to teach than I am. 57. Our school provides adequate clerical services for the teachers.
58. As.far as I know, the other teachers think I am a good teacher.
59. Library facilities and resources are adequate for the grade or subject area which I teach. 60. The "stress and strain" resulting from teaching makes teaching undesirable for me. 61. My principal is concerned with the problems of the. faculty and handles these problems sympathetically.




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62. I do not hesitate to discuss any school problem with my principal.
63. Teaching gives me the prestige I desire. 64. My teaching job enables me to provide a satisfactory standard of living for my family. 65. The salary schedule in our school adequately recognizes
*teacher competency.
66. Most of the people in this community understand-and appreciate good education. 67. In my judgment, this community is a good place to raise a family.
68. This community respects its teachers and treats them like professional persons.
69. My principal acts as though he is interested in me-and my problems.
70. My school principal supervises rather than "1snoopervises" the teachers in our school. 71. It is difficult for teachers to gain acceptance by the people in this community.
72. Teachers' meetings as now conducted by our principal waste the time and energy of the staff. 73. My principal has a -reasonable understanding of the problems connected with my teaching assignment. 74. I feel that my work is judged fairly by my principal. 75. Salaries paid in this school system compare favorably with salaries in other systems with which I am familiar. 76. Most of the actions of students irritate me. 77. The cooperativeness of teachers in our school helps make
my work more enjoyable.
78.' My students regard me with respect and seem to have confidence in my professional ability.




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79. The purposes and objectives of the school cannot be achieved by the present curriculum. 80. The teachers in our school have a desirable influence on the values and attitudes of their students. 81. This community expects its teachers to meet unreasonable personal standards.
82. My students appreciate the help I give them with their school work.
83. To me there is no more challenging work than teaching. 84. Other teachers in our school are appreciative of mywork. 85. As a teacher in this community, my nonprofessional activities outside of school are unduly restricted. 86. As a teacher, I think I am as competent as most other teachers.
87. The teachers with whom I work have high professional ethics.
88. Our school curriculum does a good job of preparing students to become enlightened and competent citizens. 89. 1 really enjoy working with my students. 90. The teachers in our school show a great. deal of initiative. and creativity in their teaching assignments. 91. Teachers in our community feel free to discuss controversial, issues in their classes.
92. My principal tries to make me feel comfortable when he visits my classes.
93. My principal makes effective use of the individual teacher's capacity and talent. 94. The people in this community, generally, have a sincere and wholehearted interest in the school system. 95. Teachers feel free to go to the principal about problems of personal and group welfare.




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96. This community supports ethical procedures regarding the appointment and reappointment of members of the teaching staff. 97. This community is willing to support a good program of education.
98. Our community-expects the teachers to participate in too many social activities.
99. Community pressures prevent me from doing my best as a teacher.
100. 1 am well' satisfied with my present teaching position.




APPENDIX B HELEN HANCOCK ENDS TEACHING
*Schumann 1975.




RETIRING AFTER 37 YEARS OF TEACHING, Mrs. Helen Hancock, abusiness education teacher at Vero Beach High School, will say goodbye to the profession she said she would never enter, but found so rewarding.
Mrs. Hancock will be reminded of her teaching career as
long as she stays in Vero Beach. She has taught in Indian River County her entire working life, and constantly comes in contact with former students.
"When I go downtown and see all the young men and women.I have taught, and they are using, developing and refining what I began to help them learn, it is most rewarding."
A graduate of Vero Beach High School, Mrs. Hancock and her family moved to Vero Beach from St. Louis Missouri when she was
2 years old.
Journalism was the profession she had planned to enter,
but during the depression these jobs were scarce and the pay was low. She instead entered the business field to become a secretary or bookkeeper. Mrs. Hancock worked at this for several years until a higher-paying teaching job was offered to her. "It was the only thing I said I'd never do, and I'm so glad I did, because I've been so very happy."
Teaching business education at Fellsmere, she began her
long teaching career. Because the school was so small she had to teach English and science, too.
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The at mosphere of small classes was enjoyable for the
first-year teacher. Had it not been so enjoyable, she probably would not have stayed with it.
While learning all the things a first-year teacher has to learn, and developing her-teaching personality, she admits to making all the mistakes a rookie teacher makes. Her advice to young teachers is "Like what you do, enjoy your classes and work hard.".
Mrs. Hancock doesn't find anything really difficult about her job. There are problems, but if the students and the teacher work at them, they can be overcome.
Different personalities and the things that come up in 'class that can be laughed at are what she finds most enjoyable about her job.
"It's interesting to watch the youngster s develop. When you are working real hard and explaining something that is difficult and you see the student's eyes light up, he's gotten what you said. But they don't always get what you say, and you have to do it over again."
Mrs. Hancock is now teaching her "grandchildren." She
taught the parents of many of her present students, but doesn't feel the standards of education have been lowered anywhere along the way. In fact, she thinks today's youngsters have a wider variety of experience, making them more interesting.




Full Text

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APPLICATION OF A MODERN ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN TO IMPROVE TEACHER MORALE: A CASE STUDY By ALBERT KENNEDY ROWSWELL A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF TI-IE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF TI-IE REQUIREMENTS FOR TI-IE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1976

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To my wife, Tim, who raised my morale, and to six fine sons Jeff, Steve, Scott Hayden, Eric, Timothy Scott, and Kenny--of whom I am the very proud "Dad."

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I WISH TO EXPRESS MY DEEP APPRECIATION to Arthur J. Lewis, chairman of the Supervisory Committee, who through five years of research never failed to give solace and to keep me in the paths of righteousness. Deepest appreciation is also extended to Kenneth A. Christiansen, member of the Supervisory Committee and director of the Broadcasting Department, without whose editorial advice this study would still be a rough draft; and to his lovely wive, Olive, for gallons of coffee and fine hospitality. I wish to give my thanks to Ralph B. Kimbrough, professor of educational administration; Donald L. Avila, professor of foundations of education; and Arthur J. Jacobs, professor of broadcasting; who sacrificed valuable time to serve on the Supervisory Committee. This research would have been impossible at its inception had it not be en for the good advice received from some of the finest minds in communication and education. I sought them throughout the United States and never once did they fail to give me unlimited time, attention, and profound advice. They are Samuel Sava, Kellogg Foundation, Dayton, Ohio; John F White, former president of National Educational Television and current president of Cooper Union, New York City; William Harley, past president, National iii

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Association of Educational Broadcasters; Tinka Knobe, director of Television News, Ford Foundation, New York City; William Bentley, father of The Purdue Teacher Opinionaire, Purdue Universi~y; Fred Rebman, general manager of Public Television, Jacksonville, Florida; Larry Israel, president of the Washington Post Radio and'Television Stations, Inc., Washington, D.C.; and William W. Purkey, Sr., professor of perceptual psychology, the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. My thanks go to Micki N. Edwardson for her rigorous training in research writing; Vynce A. Hines and C. Glen Hass for their insight into methods of research; Albert B. Smith III for his approaches to teacher opinions; and Marian L. McNellis and Linda F. Sparks who were unstinting with their sage advice pertaining to time-saving methods. I would be remiss in my expressions of appreciation if I failed to thank those students and members of a younger generation who spent hundreds of hours of "rap sessions" in which they gave me their germs of ideas regarding teacher attitudes which led to this research. They were Susan Franzke, Tim Testerman, Edda Eliasson, Yogi Kakadi, James Yacavone, Dan Baker, Dee Rowell, Jacqueline McCard, Kurt Antoni, Connie Heidelberg, and literally hundreds of others. For allowing me to test in the schools and for invaluable advice, my thanks go to William McClure, John B. Witt, William George, Jackson McAffee, Ed Eissey, Dick Stewart, and those administrators in the unnamed control market who must remain anonymous at their iv

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request. This experiment could not have succeeded were it not for the marvelous cooperation I received from the media people in Vero Beach, Florida. They were Skeet Talley, Lori Burns, and Larry Bethel of WTVX-TV; Richard Crago of WAXE; Pat Hazel and David Preston of WTTB; and Mark Schumann of the Vero Beach Press Journal. My thanks go to Jack Critchfield, president of Rollins College, who convinced me to begin a five-year project. This research could not have existed had it not been for the marvelous patience and fabulous statistical acumen of Gary Wright and John van Horne of Purdue University. My everlasting appreciation and affection go to my mother and father, Mr. and Mrs. Albert Kennedy "Rosey" Rowswell, whose constant precepts encouraged me to fo llow in their respective careers-;ny mother who gave me my inclination toward her field, education; and my father who introduced me to the wonderfully exciting world of mass media. My deepest appreciation to the men who taught me the powerful persuasive influence of the media: Sy Weintraub, Chmn. of the Board of Panavision, Inc.; David L. Wolper, Wolper Productions, Inc.; Mike Shapiro~ Manager, WFAA-TV, Dallas, TX; Jack Harris, Manager, KPRC-TV, Houston, TX; Louis Reid, Vice-President, WDSU-TV, New Orleans, LA. Very special thanks go to Alice and Bill Rowswell, Florence and Thomas Keeher, Bev and Alex Russell, Flo and Dave Hull, and Lori and Sam Burns for the selfless aid they rendered so often during the years of this research. V

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CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ABSTRACT CHAPTER I II I I I IV V VI INTRODUCTION Problem 2. Rationale 3. Scope 7. Hypothesis 9. Preview of Coming Chapters 10. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE DESIGN OF THE STUDY AND PROCEDURES FOR GATHERING DATA Factors 25 Tests for Validity 27. Treatment 31. Posters 32. Role Playing 33. Radio Campaign 34. Television 36. PRESENTATION OF THE DATA ANALYSIS OF THE DATA Analysis of Media Sensitive Fac t ors 54. Analysis of Media Nonsensitive Factors 56. Analysis of Media Sensitive Items 60. Analysis of Media Nonsensitive Items 65. Demographic Factors 72. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH vi iii viii l 11 23 39 46 74

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APPENDIX A THE PURDUE TEACHER OPINIONAIRE B HELEN HANCOCK ENDS TEACHING C PROGRAM SCHEDULES: RADIO 0 PROGRAM SCHEDULES: TELEVISION E ANALYSIS OF DATA FOR FACTORS F ANALYSIS OF DATA FOR ITEMS BIBLIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH vii 81 89 94 98 100 103 110 122

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Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Education APPLICATION OF A MODERN ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN TO IMPROVE TEACHER MORALE: A CASE STUDY By ALBERT KENNEDY ROWSWELL August, 1976 CHAIRMAN: Arthur J. Lewis MAJOR DEPARTMENT: Curriculum and Instruction The Purdue Teacher Opinionaire is used to measure change in teacher morale for experimental (Vero Beach, Florida) and control markets. Change in teacher morale is hypothesized to occur when a mass media campaign is applied to samples of teachers. The mass media campaign utilizes Madison Avenue, hard sell techniques via radio, television, newspaper, and poster coverage. Statistical comparisons involving t tes ts, F tests, and anovas are made encompassing four elements of the experiment. (1) An overall comparison of experimental school results with viii

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control school results is made; (2) Groups of questions (referred to as factors) which are thought to be sensitive to mass media are compared with those thought to be nonsensitive ; (3) Individual questions (referred to as items) are compared on a basis of relative sensitivity to mass media; (4) An anov~ test is used to determine whether the nonwhite population was a causative factor in the significant morale change in the Vero Beach school. Significant change is obse-rved; therefore the mass media campaign may have had a strong effect on keeping the experimental school teachers' morale high while the control-school teachers' morale sharply deteriorated. Recommendations are offered for future research in order to further demonstrate that mass media may be effectively utilized to improve teacher morale. New methods of testing are discussed pertaining to the effects of unionism upon teacher testing. ix

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I INTRODUCTION "My brother's a sort of poet, too, you know," he said to the bristling strangers. "Things affect him very strongly sometimes and he doesn't always know why." ~Richard Adams, 1974 ONE WHO HAS SPENT A GOOD BIT OF TIME in the bro~dcast arena is very conscious of its persuasive and sales potential. Modern advertising sales techniques have made the broadcast media a multibillion dollar industry. Demand creation is central to its mission. The customer satisfaction that has resulted has meant that products and ideas ha ve moved in almost unbelievable volume to meet a wide range of consumer needs and satisfaction. In the process of providing consumer satisfaction, inertia and negative attitudes have been overcome, the threshold of awareness raised, and value constructs modified. The result has been evidenced in product sales and idea acceptance. It is that background and experience which prompted this study. The writer wanted to test the application of media persuasion and modern 1

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2 advertising techniques to solving educational problems-in par ticular to raise teacher morale and to increase career satisfaction. PROBLEM The writer 1 s teaching experience suggested a basic hypothesis: educational administration has continue d to operate traditionally in solving educational problems because new approaches, and in particular the application of technology and mass media in per suasion campaigns for purposes of changing attitudes or developing individual awareness, have not been utilized to a significant degree. The researcher felt that educators w~re missing the target with respect to the applications of mass media in three crucial respects. (1) They were not synthesizing the main, best ideas in education and selling those concepts to their audience. (2) They ignored the spectacular success of commercial ("Madison Avenue") advertisers who took a simple idea and repeated it forcefully in saturation campaigns* until an audience accepted the "pitch." (3) They were directed to the medium of television and ignored the potential of other media, namely radio, newspapers, billboards, public meetings, et cetera. *A campaign designed for a market to absorb the message con tent as often as possible through as many media as can be obtained. The campaign should appeal to the eye and ear as well as force the recipient to actively participate in some action concerning the message.

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3 From the general hypothesis this study emerged (1) to learn what teacher attitudes existed with respect to factors affecting teacher morale; (2) to design media message(s) which, when exposed to teachers via a mass media campaign, would effect a change in teacher opinion on matters affecting morale; and (3) having satisfied both of the above, to find a city, or market. A review of the literature did not disclose any attempt to change teacher morale by utilizing mass media. The review did indicate that many tests have been devised to measure teacher morale. TI1e literature search revealed ample research substan tiating that mass media properly applied has the potential to change attitudes. RATIONALE The writer asked himself two questions. How would the "Madison Avenue" people handle the problem? How would the media buyers and the "think-time" boys solve the problem of communicating the main, best ideas of education to a hungry constituency? The answer was simple. If the Ford dealers asked J. Walter Thompson Advertising Agency to help them to sell their automobiles, the agency people would reply, ''Take your simplest, best selling point and repeatedly expose it to the public as often as you can and use the saturation technique to pound home that simple idea over and over again using radio, television,

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4 newspapers, public meetings, billboards, or any means at your disposal." "Have a Coke!" is a classic example of a simple idea pounded home time after time until "Coke" became a part of every nation's language and a beverage ha.bit as we 11. This writer has always felt that educators have been myopic in their view of the potential use of mass media. They have spent millions of dollars trying to reach an audience via noncommercial television. They began with a dull message which offered no more than a tedious drone of a professor in front of a long gray studio curtain. Critics called it the "talking head." Often the programs were directed by television "pros" who knew little or nothing about the needs and direction of modern education, let alone a knowledge of statistics and current education research methods. "Main, best ideas" were lucky to find their way into limited educational publications or were discussed in a professional seminar with a limited audience. Another aspect of educational myopia and the mass media is exemplified by an .ignorance of the potential of commercial tele vision and radio. Educators have largely ignored the tremendous potential of free public service spots which could be telecast over commercial television outlets. Broadcasting stations have much to gain and little to lose by cooperating with educators. The Federal Communications Commission encourages, even insists, that broadcasting stations make a real time commitment to public service endeavors over and above the requirements of the federal government.

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5 Since his earliest experiences in a television station, the author had been impressed with the apparent success of American advertisers. While handling accounts on local tele vision stations, he observed that the companies or institutions who used the advertising professions and mass media changed people's attitudes concerning their products with amazing regularity. After fifteen years of participation in the delivery of commercial messages, the researcher made a vocational switch from television sales to public school classroom teaching. It soon became obvious to him, as it was to most educators, that public education had its problems.Moreover, when the educator found a solution to a problem, the communication of that solution seemed inordinately difficult to convey. The educational bureau cracy differed profoundly from the smooth efficiency the author had grown to expect of American business organizations. The educational bureaucracy seemed to have difficulty in determining the essentials. It either failed to recognize its most essential problems or it failed in its ability to communicate once a problem had been identified. In 1973 the author decided that one of the best educational ideas which might lend itself to a project of mass media hard sell technique was the question of the student's self-concept. The student's positive self-concept is absolutely essential if we hope to teach that student. But it was a rap session with

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6 veteran educators which eventuated the direction of the study. The educators said that starting with the student is putting the cart before the horse because the real problem is the teacher and teacher morale. Student self-concept was a popular and proper study. Arthur Combs, Donald Avila, and William Purkey (197~), and Carl Rogers (1969), as well as an increasing number of perceptual psycholo gists, have long espoused the cause of a perceptual-psychological approach to education. William Purkey points out that this good idea for education has been around since Rene Descartes wrote in his Principles of Philosophy that doubt was the principal tool of thinking (1970). Sigmund Freud early in the twentieth century suggested that the self was most important in ego development. Educators have long sensed that we express our self-concept with our behavior. A further problem in beginning with the student was the element of self-report. Would the student be willing to honestly answer questions put to him or her regarding his or her self concept? This researcher was not satisfied that a reliable self-concept self-report existed or could be produced pertaining to students. Before the teacher can help the student's self-concept, the teacher's image of himself or herself must be improved. The global self-concept is too large an undertaking, but self-concept with regard to job is measurable and practically interchangeable

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7 with the teacher's morale. An attempt would be made to improve the self-concept of the teacher regarding his or her job. A highly reliable measure was found in the form of The Purdue Teacher Opinionaire (1973). Teachers might be more prone to openly answer queries regarding the outside influence of their jobs than would students regarding their inner feelings. The priority of dealing with the teacher first seemed logical. It was decided by the winter of 1974 that the research would deal with attempting to measure the morale of teachers.* One sample of teachers would be exposed to a modern advertising campaign designed to boost their morale. Another sample of teachers would be observed as a control group unexposed to such a morale raising campaign. The self-concept field of endeavor had not been abandoned but merely limited to manageable proportions. SCOPE The author sensed that although educators had been attempt ing to exploit the advantages of educational mass media, they *It. has been stated that teacher morale is a small phase of teacher self-concept. Dr. William Purkey notes that self concept is a psychological term while morale is a sociological one. Dr. Arthur Combs defines morale as a "judgement of how successful one is in a situation or job" while "self-concept way he sees himself" (telephone conversation, May 12, 1974).

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8 were unaware of the potential a modern advertising approach could give their message. He saw that a case study might have as its objectives the following: 1. To ascertain, through a search of the pertinent literature, a formula for delivering an effective message which wil 1 change attitudes. 2. To detennine that teacher morale could be im proved by employing a modern mass media advertising campaign. 3. To measure a possible improvement in teacher morale by comparing an experimental market with a control market and to statistically compare the scores of pretests and post-tests administered to both sample populations. 4. To demonstrate to educators that there is help in any community for an educator to convey his message. This help comes from not only the educational television station, but from radio, newspapers, billboards, community meetings, and other media. 5. To determine some possible problems that a researcher might have in measuring attitude change in a sample population. 6. To recommend future research which gives input regarding the possibility of edcators delivering high-priority educational messages rapidly and effectively to any selected audience-teachers, parents, taxpayers, pupils, or the general public. Vero Beach, Florida, was chosen as the experimental market. A ten day mass media campaign was conducted via radio, tele vision, school hall signs, school intercom, newspaper, and teacher involvement meetings. It was designed to do a hard sell during

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9 a limited time span and to create as great a rise iri morale among teachers in the experimental market as possible. Teachers in two schools with similar demographic profiles were selected as control populations. The Purdue Teacher Opinionaire was selected to measure teacher morale. This instrument yields a score indicating the general level of teacher morale while providing significant factors, or subscores, which break down morale into ten dimensions. HYPOTHESES HYPOTHESIS 1. Teachers exposed to a mass media campaign to improve morale will score no differently in a test designed to measure their morale, pretest/post-test, than will teachers who are not exposed to such a campaign. HYPOTHESIS 2. Teachers exposed to a mass media campaign designed to improve their morale will score no differently in a test designed to measure their morale on factors which should be sensitive to change by a mass media campaign, pretest/post-test, tan will teachers who are not exposed to such a campaign. HYPOTHESIS 3. Teachers exposed to a mass media campaign designed to improve their morale will score no differently in a test designed to measure their morale on factors which should not be sensitive to change by a mass media campaign, pretest/ post-test, than will teachers who are not exposed to such a campaign.

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10 HYPOTHESIS 4. Teachers who are exposed to a mass media campaign designed to improve their morale will score no dif ferently, pretest/post-test, on scores on items sensitive to such a campaign than will teachers who are not exposed to such a campaign. HYPOTHESIS 5. Teachers who are exposed to a mass media campaign designed to improve their morale will score no dif ferently, pretest/post-test, on scores on items which should not be sensitive to such a campaign than teachers who are not exposed to such a campaign. HYPOTHESIS 6. Teachers of one race who are exposed to a mass media campaign designed to improve their morale will score no differently, pretest/post-test, than will teachers of another race who are exposed to the same campaign. PREVIEW OF COMING CHAPTERS In Chapter II a review of the literature is made and a definition of terms is presented. Chapter III offers a design for the study and discusses the procedures for gathering data. Chapter IV presents the raw data results while Chapter V dis cusses the results. Conclusions are drawn in Chapter VI and suggestions are made with regard to future research.

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I I REVIEW OF THE LITERArURE The concept of attitudes is probably the most distinctive and indispensable concept in contermporary American social pyschology. ---{;ordon Allport IN THIS STUDY Madison Avenue terminology is utilized to describe the treatment of mass media effect on opinion change. Under lying the assumptions, hypotheses, and methodology of this study is the technique in which a simple idea is stated over and over again until it is believed. Image makers working on Madison Avenue have employed this basic technique since the early days of broadcasting. In 1928 Dr. Frank Stanton, the father of the Columbia Broadcasting System, utilized the concept. He offered the advertiser a sales guarantee whereby the sponsor would be given a refund if the campaign did not produce a specific sales volume. Stanton offered to refund to a sponsor, the American Tobacco Company in this case, $3,000 for each point below 24 on the Hooper Rating Scale for 11

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12 each week that the radio program, "The Jello Show Starring Jack Benny," failed to attract more people than a rating of 24 indicated. Frank Stanton gambled, as this researcher has gambled, that audi ence impulses would change attitudes toward tobacco or Jello or morale. Tuo decades after the birth of CBS, the Yale communication research program began to study the reinfDrcement theory of atti tude change. Theories developed in this research program set forth certain conclusions, one of which was that attitude change results from learning produced through reinforcement (Hovland, Janis & Kelley 1953 in Insko 1967, p. 13). Hovland et al. followed concepts of learning developed by Hull (1942) and concepts of complex forms of social behavior, like teacher morale, developed by Miller and Dollar~ (1941) and by Doob (1947) (Insko 1967, p. 12). This research pivots around two fundamental assumptions explored by Hovland and other researchers: (1) Attitude change results from reinforcement and (2) Attitude change follows change in opinion. This researcher did not attempt to explore the ques tion whether change in teacher morale is necessarily followed by change in teacher behavior in the classroom. It was assumed, however, that change in classroom behavior must be preceded by change in a teacher's opinion of work as a teacher. It may be assumed that a communication advocating that smoking is harmful to health may produce a nonsmoking attitude without nonsmoking behavior. Similarly, in this research the formulation of hypotheses was limited by the thesis of Hovland

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13 et al. that new opinion must precede change in behavior, although new opinion does not insure any change in behavior. In determining how teacher morale might be changed, several factors seemed to demand a priority in historical research: the communication, the source, and the exposure to a communication. The communication. A message is constructed by the experimenter which advocates a posi tion discrepant from that of the intended audience, and which contains ~upporting argu ments, evidence, and implications. Usually there is only a single, relatively short message of unitary direction and organization. The source. Typically the source of the com munication is explicitly stated, as when the message is attributed to a specific person or known organization. In cases where it is not explicit, there is usually implicit endorse ment of the message by the researcher or per son in charge of .the group (e.g. a teacher or an official in an organization to which the subjects belong). This legitimization of the message by the researcher's sponsor ship increases the likelihood that subjects will view the advocated position as one that is reasonable, or at least worthy of consideration. Exposure to the communication. With the use of captive audiences there is no problem of subject self-selection. That is, the audi ence is not: composed of only those who want to hear this particular speech; rather it is made up of people with a variety of atti tudes toward the communication. However, there is no assurance that the audience in an experiment will attend to the communica tion, or that there will not be self-selection in exposure to some or most of its content. (Zimbardo & Ebbesen 1970, pp. 24-25)

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14 Regarding the communication, certain axioms were assumed which are discussed by Watzlawick, Beavin, and Jackson (1967). Axiom 1. There is a property of behavior that could hardly be moie basic and is therefore often overlooked: Behavior has no opposite. In other words, there is no such thing as nonbehavior or, to put it even more simply: One cannot not behave. Now, if it is accepted that all behavior in an interactional situation has message value, i.e., is communication, it follows that no matter how one may try, one cannot not communicate. Activity or inactivity, words or silence, all have message value, They influence others and these others, in turn, cannot not respond to these com munications and are thus themselves com municating. It should be clearly understood that the mere absence of talking or of taking notice of each other is no excep tion to what has just been asserted. The man at a crowded lunch counter who looks straight ahead, or the airplane passenger who sits with his eyes closed, are both communicating that they do not want to speak to anybody or be spoken to, and their neighbors usually "get the message" and respond appropriately by leaving them alone. This obviously is just as much an interchange of communication as an animated discussion. (Mortensen 1973, p. 37') Axiom 2. The report aspect of a message conveys information and is therefore synon ymous in human communication with the content of the message. It may be about anything that is communicable regardless of whether the particular information is true or false, valid, invalid, or undecid able. The command aspect, on the other h a nd, refers to what sort of a message it is to be taken as, and therefore ultimately to the relationship between the communicants.

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15 All such relationship statements are about one or several of the following assertions: "This is how I see myself ... this is how I se~ you ... this is how I see you seeing me" and so forth in theoretically infinite regress. Thus, for instance, the messages "It is important to release the clutch gradually and smoothly" and "Just let the clutch go, it'll ruin the trans mission in no time" have approximately the same information content (report aspect), but they obviously define very different relationships. (Mortensen 1973, p. 38) This has implications for the strategy which was used in the cam paign, namely that we used the National Education Association as the message giver on television,and students and parents on radio. We avoided saying that this was part of a research so that the teachers would not be affected by the feelings o~ being used as guinea pigs. Axiom 2 runs over into the problem of the source. The nature of the speaker who would address teachers through various sources is crucial to credibility and to nonconflict with the message giver. It seems likely that a trustworthy source giving the same persuasive messages as an untrustworthy source will produce more attitude change (Zimbardo & Ebbesen 1970, p. 49). In 1951 Hovland and Weiss conducted a study to determine how much more change a trustworthy source would produce than an untrustworthy source. They concluded that the magnitude of dif ference in attitude change produced by trustworthy communicators

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16 was more substantial than that produced by untrustworthy sources. The average change for trustworthy sources was 22.5 percent, while for untrustworthy sources it was 8.4 percent (Insko 1967, p. 43). Axiom 3. The nature of a relationship is contingent upon the punctuation of the communicational sequences between the communicants. (Mortensen 1973, p. 41) Staccato, nagging commercials tend to arouse opinion change and cause "reality distortion." In other words, the wife may nag. Then the husband broods or withdraws, but he may change as the result of being nagged. As she is dressing for school and listening to the CBS morning news, a teacher may hear several times a one-minute public service announcement praising teachers. If she mulls these messages over in her mind as she stands at her classroom door later in her day,her morale may change. This researcher proposes two additional axioms. Axiom 4. In order to sell a new opinion, the idea or product must appear new. Modernity is in; obsolescence is out. No evidence supports this axiom, although the fact that national advertisers sell newness is self-evident. To be "in," one must drink the product and thereby "join the Pepsi generation." Similarly, in this study

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17 teachers were told through students and townspeople: Say thanks to a teacher; it's an idea whose time has come. In actual practice during the 1930s, the hucksters of Madison Avenue followed a visceral instinct for all these principles of communication and developed, without benefit of research, convincing arguments based on experience with much larger population samples than researchers have been able to employ. The hucksters' results were the positive, sometimes astounding, product sales volume for clients who believed in the Madison Avenue techniques. In short, the evidence of Madison Avenue's success is the best support of these axiomatic principles: Reinforcement is necessary; words have message value; content is important; pre sentation should be staccato; trustworthiness is required; and opinion change must precede attitude change. Advertisers have sold and continue to sell products by using techniques based on these principles (Insko 1967). Axiom 5. Role playing of an attitude posi tion contrary to one's own supplies new insight into that position. Zimbardo and Ebbesen have stated the idea in these terms: The technique of role playing has been used for producing changes in a pe rson' s personality. By role-playing behavior

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18 which normally he would not have performed, the person is assumed to gain insight into how others see him and how he might behave. In other words, the person get~ to see the world from another point of view by acting as if he had a different attitude. If it can be asswned that the role playing of an attitude position contrary to one's own supplies new insight into that position, it might be possible to use this technique to produce attitude change. (1970; p. 31) Janis and King (1954) and Hovland and Weiss (1953) performed experiments in role playing and concluded that role playing of attitude positions counter to one's own can be a powerful technique in producing attitude change (Zimbardo & Ebbesen, p. 31). The problem in this research was to devise a method of inducing one hundred teachers to role participate. There is ample evidence and commercial experience to support the contention that attitudes can be successfully changed. The communication in this research entailed a mechan ical process only; a myriad of commercials wa~ available to draw from. However, the source from which the communication was to emanate presented a crucial if not ethical problem. The problem of the source generated the question whether to reveal the intent to persuade. Michael Burgoon and Judee K. Burgoon addressed this question, suggesting a subtle approach rather than a direct "we are testing you" gambit.

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19 Rule (pertaining to the male's communica tion behavior): While ribald humor is not appreciated or tolerated at cocktail parties and other large social gatherings, it is appreciated and tolerated, in moderation, in the privacy of your apartment, but not during moments of intense romantic involvement. Rule (pertaining to the female's communi cation behavior): While you are not to assert your dominance over me at large social gatherings, you may dominate on occasion when we are alone. But under no circumstances are you to attempt to dominate when I have had a frustrating day at work or when I am with one of my close friends. (Steinberg & Miller 1975, p. 129) In Chapter III the decision to substitute for the researcher as message source an amorphous force of students, townspeople, teachers themselves, and a national teachers' union as source of the message will be discussed. Klapper concluded that a wealth of evidence indicates that the very fact that a message originates from a mass media center, such as a radio or television station, insures that a certain amount of credibility attaches to the message via the medium ( Sears & Freed~an 1971, p. 212). That is, if it's on television, it must be true. In political research and in studies of the Army-McCarthy hearings, Horton and Wohl (1956), Bradford (1956), Burdick (1962), Lang and Lang (1959), and Weibe (1958) all concluded that viewers superimpose personalities on an objective view of the issues

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20 ( Insko 1967, pp. 174-175). Pool (1952) found that college students' perceptions of political candidates varied according to the medium of information, either television or radio (Insko, p. 175). Although student perceptions varied, the strength of the Eisenhower personality overwhelmed the issues. This uniformity of perceptions may mean that all media project the same image or that the characteristics projected over television and radio were assimi lated to the images developed through exposure to other media. There is some suggestion in the data that tele vision increased partisanship, for dif ferences between supporters' and opponents' assignments of attributes to either candidate were greater among watchers than among listeners. However, Stevenson fared better on radio, for the listeners' image was more favorable than the watchers', reg~rdless of which candidate they favored. (p. 175) At no time did a search of the literature reveal that educators have attempted to raise teacher morale by employing mass media. One can speculate that such television network shows as "Room 222" and "Lucas Tanner" did much to raise the teacher's self-image or opinion about his job. The researcher wondered what effect a character such as Miss Brooks or Lucas Tanner had on teacher self-images--just as he speculated about the attitude changes which may have come about in police. "Dragnet," ''Police Story," "The Blue Knight," and many other

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21 law enforcement presentations must have had some effect, pro or con, upon the police. The researcher speculated as to how the medical profession viewed its role after exposure to such image makers as "Doctor Kildare" or "Medical Center." How did "Emergency" affect the fireman or "The Wal tons" change the self-image of West Virginia mountain people. Ample evidence was found to support the supposition that teacher morale or student morale was improved when either was asked to role play as decision makers in school projects. Miller et al. (1967) described a rather typical procedure whereby administrators attempted to obtain feedback from thirty-two Wisconsin elementary teachers, their viewpoints of classroom teaching and learning (Deal 1975). Miller et al. found, just as many other experimenters have, that regardless of the teachers' views they generally felt better about their jobs following the participatory sessions. Positive attitude changes were observed at the state level in a multimedia utilization project and on a national level in Japan, when teachers were asked for their advice (Deal 1975). The literat~re clearly indicated that the more a teacher participated in decision making and in positive role-playing situations, the more positive the attitude became toward teaching. John A. Lee (1971) observed in his brilliant documentation of the Scarborough College experiment that teacher morale went down when the feeling was created that the machine might replace

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22 the teacher (in Deal 1975). Scarborough College of the University of Toronto was the first North American college planned from its inception for television. It became apparent from the review of the literature that the experiment would probably be enhanced if some form of morale raising teacher role participating, or role imitating, could be arranged to convey th~ morale raising message to the experi mental group. The review of the literature also made the author aware of a restriction which would be applied to this research. The morale raising campaign would be directed at changing teacher opinio regarding their jobs and would not address itself in any way to attacking the much larger undertakings of changing their attitudes.

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I I I DESIGN OF THE STUDY AND PROCEDURES FOR GATHERING DATA There was no answer but a gentle snoring. The snoring got more distinct every minute and sounded more like a tune; at last she could even make out words. -Lewis Carroll THE DESIGN OF THIS STUDY was the pretest/post-test control group design. RO 4 where R = a randomly selected group from the population, 0 = obser vation or testing, X = the treatment on the experimental group. Subscript 1 = pretest sample in the experimental market (Vero Beach), subscript 2 = post-test sample in the experimental market, subscript 3 = pretest sample in the control market, and subscript 4 = post-test sample in the conrrol market. 23

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24 Vero Beach High School, Vero Beach, Florida, located on the Atlantic Ocean in southeastern Florida was selected as the experimental school. Tuo demographically similar high schools in the area were selected as the control schools.* A mass media campaign designed to improve the morale of the teachers of Vero Beach High School was conducted during the late spring of 1975. The Purdue Teacher Opinionaire (1973) was utilized as the test instrument (see Appendix A). The instrument is designed to measure teacher morale and is especially well suited for this experiment. It yields a total score indicating the general level of a teacher's morale and it also provides subscores from which in this research the effect of the mass media campaign upon certain factors and items were determined. These factors and specific items break down morale into meaning ful dimensions, some of which would appear to be more sensitive to a mass media campaign designed to improve teacher morale than others. A panel of experts was asked to select factors and items from the opinionaire which they felt might be affected by such a campaign and other factors and items which they felt were relatively immune to such a campaign. The ten factors with brief descriptions and test/retest correlations follow. *Anonymity of the control group has been maintained because of the embarras~ment the statistics in this research might create for these schools.

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25 In Chapter IV the reader will find the three factors which an expert committee deemed most sensitive to media persuasion and three factors which they felt were least sensitive to media persuasion. FACTORS FACTOR 1. TEACHER RAPPORT l~ITH PRINCIPAL deals with the teacher's feelings about the principal. Reliability 84. FACTOR 2. SATISFACTION WITH TEACHING pertains to teacher relationships with students and feelings of satisfaction with teaching. Reliability .84. FACTOR 3. RAPPORT AMONG TEACHERS focuses on a teacher's relationship with other teachers. Reliability .80. FACTOR 4: TEACHER SALARY pertains primarily to the teacher's feelings about salary and salary policies. Reliability .81. FACTOR 5. TEACHER LOAD deals with such matters as record keeping, clerical work, community demands, extracurricular loads, and keeping up to date professionally. Reliability .81. FACTOR 6. CURRICULUM ISSUES solicits teacher reactions to the adequacy of the school program in meeting student needs and in preparing students for effective citizenship. Reliability 76. FACTOR 7. TEACHER STATUS samples feelings about prestige, security, and benefits afforded by teaching. Reliability .81.

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26 FACTOR 8. COMMUNITY SUPPORT OF EDUCATION deals with community understanding and willingness to support a sound educa tional program. Reliability .89. FACTOR 9. SCHOOL FACILITIES AND SERVICES has to do with the adequacy of facilities, supplies, and equipment, and the efficiency of the procedures for obtaining materials and services. Reliability 80. FACTOR 10. COMMUNITY PRESSURES gives special attention to community expectations of a teacher's personal standards, his participation in outside school activities, and his freedom to discuss controversial issues in the classroom. Reliability .62. The author hypothesized that a factor such as Teacher Status would be more sensitive to a campaign to change teacher morale than would a relatively constant factor such as Teacher Salary cir School Facilities and Services; that is, a teacher might be more amenable to a change in attitude regarding teacher prestige in the _community following nice things being said about the teacher than the teacher would with regard to salary which is relatively constant. The author speculated that if the post-test scores of the mass media sensitive items and scores were better than the nonsensitive items and factors that there would be an indication that the mass media campaign had indeed had an effect upon the experimental group which helped the experimental group's morale. He also reasoned that a comparison of the sensitive items and factors between the control groups

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27 and the experimental groups would show better results for the experimental than the control and thus indicate that the mass media campaign had indeed had an affect upon the experimental group. TESTS FOR VALIDITY Because of the design of the experiment, certain sources which might affect the validity of the study had to be controlled. HISTORY. In the spring of 1975 the que stion of teacher unionism and the right to collective bargaining was a volatile issue. There were indications that union factions had a mistrust of researchers who asked questions regarding teacher morale and teacher aspirations. There were cases in adjacent counties to the experimental county in which as many as two hundred take-home question aires had been returned with identical answers. It was felt by the administrators in several of those Florida counties that undue pressures might be brought to bear upon the teachers to answer the questionaire according to the desires of certain pressure groups, either pro-union or anti-union. Every administrator who expressed an opinion indicated that there would be no validity whatsoever in the test if the teachers were permitted to take the questionaire home or to discuss it in any political sense. It was therefore decided that the only possible solution to control for history was to call a teacher's meeting in the test school on short riotice and to strictly control the geography

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28 and time of testing. The teachers were given approximately 30 minutes to complete the questionaire without discussion with other teachers and without leaving the room. In each case the princip a l indicated that he intended to use the results in his state report, which was a true statement. Further, the results would also be utilized by a graduate student as data for a doctoral dissertation. The teachers were assured that at no time would their individual answers be made available to any administrator. Because of the pressure of time and a fear of fatigue on the part of the teachers, plus the fact that fewer than 100 teachers could be expected at the Vero Beach High School meeting, the following approach to sampling was employed. A group of 49 teachers was randomly selected to receive the pretest. The rwnp 49 teachers on a staff of 98 were told that the meeting was over and that they could go home. Three weeks later following the treatment--a mass media campaign designed to improve their morale-the rump 49 teachers were post-tested. Discussion of the test was discouraged during the three-week treatment period. If a teacher was counted absent from the meeting, that teacher, for purposes of the experiment, was counted as a mortality. MATURATION. The experimental time was limited to a three week period in order to limit the effect of maturation. The author suspected that the morale of all schools tended to decline with end-of-the-year fatigue but that such fatigue would be considered relatively uniform in schools which had identical teaching days and were demographically similar.

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29 TESTING. In the experimental school, questions were asked by the teachers: "Why was I selected?" "Why was I allowed to leave early without having to take the test?" The answer given was the truth: The teachers were told that the selection had been random and that the other half of the teachers was to be tested at a later date. In that way, the guinea-pig effect was kept to a minimum. The teachers apparently accepted the answer as reasonable. Furthermore the Hawthorne effect seemed to be minimized by the apparent interest the teachers displayed as they proceeded to take the questionaire. All of us seem to forget the effect of testing once we begin to answer questions about ourselves. It was observed that if there was an effect of testing, it was one of total interest and an attitude of pleasure in the fact that someone higher up in the school echelon was showing concern for the feelings of teachers. As the test progressed, teachers seemed to relax and to enjoy the game. Campbell and Stanley state that instrumentation, regres sion, selection, mortality, and interaction of selection and maturation, et cetera, are not sources of invalidity or cannot be controlled in the pretest/post-test control group design (196 3, p. 1 7) INTERACTION OF TESTING AND X. Every possible precaution was taken to separate the test from the campaign. The campaign simply happened as if some unknown teacher benefactor had

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30 decided to say nice things about the teachers. Never was there any suggestion that what was occurring in the media had anything to do with the post-test in the experimental school. INTERACTION OF SELECTION AND X. The selection was random and all experimental teachers were exposed to the treatment with relative uniformity and consistency. MULTIPLE TREATMENT INTERFERENCE. There was no case in any of the test high schools where similar tests had been administered. REACTIVE EFFECTS OF EXPERIMENTAL ARRANGEMENTS. The testing situation in all cases was a typical teacher's meeting in that particular school. The test was administered with an emphasis on helping the principal with his annual report. The teachers did not note anything out of the ordinary. As an extra precaution in the control market, the test was administered to the faculties of two nearly identical schools. The superintendent of the county selected two high schools which were within three miles of each other, whose modi operandi were similar, and which were demographically as identi cal as the experimenter could hope. Because of the political climate, it was felt that a better reading could be made by this split-school approach than by testing half the faculty in each school and then returning three weeks later to test the other halves. Because both schools had faculties of less than a hundred, it was decided to test the entire popula~ tion of each school. The author recognized that a large random

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31 sample over many schools would be more desirable, but he was forced to recognize that the loss of security from union and non-union activists was too great and that it would jeopardize the validity of the results. He felt that a design of split halves (randomly split) for Vero Beach High School and split schools in the control market was the best solution considering the volatility of the political situation in Florida during the spring of 1975. Events which occurred during the treatment time in the control market showed that these precautions had been necessary and that a mailing or a split-halves design would have been a fiasco. TREATMENT The Vero Beach High School pretest group R0 1 was scheduled to be tested on Tuesday, May 13, 1975. The control school R0 3 was tested the following day. A mass media campaign to improve the morale of the Vero Beach High School teachers was then conducted. During the week of June 2, 1975, the post-tests were given: Tuesday, June 3, in the experimental school and Friday, June 6, in the remaining control school. The treatment period was scheduled to begin at 6:00 PM Tuesday, May 13, and to continue through Tuesday morning, June 3. The basic strategy was to attempt to change teachers' opinions about their jobs through five approaches: post~rs, role playing in the form of a teacher banquet, newspapers, radio, and television.

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32 POSTERS We had a learning experience with posters. Murphy's 4th Law: If you wish to say nice things about teachers via hall posters, do not place them where students can write replies on them.* During the early parts of the campaign, we placed posters in all the stairwells and halls of Vero Beach High School. The posters looked as though they had been painted by students (studied amateurism) and said, "Say thanks to a teacher; it' s an idea whose time has come." We soon discovered unrepeatable graffiti by disgruntled students offering unflattering sugges tions. Fortunately the graffitis were discovered early in the morning before the teachers could read the countersuggestions. The contaminated posters were promptly removed, and others were placed in the library, teacher's lounge, or in glass cases where student ribaldry could be restricted. Posters served a purpose. If a teacher was not exposed to any other medium, the chances were almost a certainty that every teacher was exposed to the posters on several occasions. We felt that the poster was a guarantee that every teacher would get the message. *This is the author's extension of Murphy's three laws which are discussed by Laurence J. Peter, The Peter Prescrip tion (New York: William Morrow & Co., Inc., 1972), p. 38. Murph-y's third law may also apply in this case: "If anything can go wrong, it will."

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33 ROLE PARTICIPATING Although the review of the literature in Chapter II indicated role participating as an important element in changing opinions, this researcher originally planned to utilize role participating at a minimum level. The ultimate goal of this and future researches is aimed at creating instant morale change via mass media. It was felt that creating a ~ole participating situa tion would be tedious and limited in the group it might reach. Nevertheless, luck was with us and we were not about to refuse Dame Fortune. At first our plan was to entice certain teachers into helping with posters and radio messages, and that was to be the extent of the role participating. However, as Christmas vaca tion ended (1974-1975), talk began to circulate in the teacher's lounge that one of the truly great teachers at Vero Beach High School was about to retire. As time passed, committees were formed by teachers, former students, townspeople, and administrators to honor Mrs. Helen Hancock for her superb services as a teacher. It should be noted by future researchers that this researcher feels that the Helen Hancock testimonial was quite possibly the most important factor during the spring of 1975 in maintaining high morale among teachers in the experimental group. Future researchers should attempt to create role participating situations for the experimental group, but they should also be aware that spontaneous situations may occur which may do far more morale raising than any staged situation. Should such a situation

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34 occur, it is best to roll with the tide while enjoying all the side eddies, such as extra, positive radio, newspaper, and television exposure. The llelen Hancock testimonial received sixty-three news commentaries on Vero Beach radio stations, six television expos ures on WTVX-TV, unlimited word-of-mouth exposure, and newspaper coverage (see Appendix B). RADIO CAMPAIGN The radio campaign may have been the second most effective medium used. In order to create a feeling throughout Vero Beach that Teacher Appreciation Week was spontaneous, it was born in a social studies class as a student project. The students readily agreed that any project which would improve teacher morale was to the students' advantage. Very soon other classes were involved in painting posters, helping with a teacher retirement dinner, and especially, working on a slogan for radio spots. Spontaneity was complete. No one asked,"Where did this idea originate ?" It just "growed, like Topsy Over one hundred students tried their hands at slogans and commercials. A student committee decided that Neil Stannard, a senior and a local disc jockey, had developed the best slogan. They adopted "Say thanks to a teacher; it's an idea whose time has come." Neil became our radio commercial producer and, in some cases, announcer. The spots which he produced had upbeat music

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35 in the background and sounded as though a student was speaking. On the other spots we used the voice of a mother who was well known in the community as a successful parent and a working contributor to many facets of a better community life in Vero Beach. Indian River County has two AM radio outlets, WTTB and WAXE, and one FM outlet; WGYL. We decided to forego the use of WGYL because its coverage area extended into the control market and could easily bias the experiment. We broadcast the following messages alternately on the AM stations (see Appendix C): Hi, I am a concerned parent ... and I'd like to take this opportunity to say "Thanks" to the teachers of Indian River County ... because they, more than anyone else, have made this past school year the best ever. It's teachers in their day-to-day work who determine the quality of a school system ... and our teachers deserve our gratitude for a job well done. Say "Thanks" to a teacher today! I am a concerned parent asking you to say "Thanks" to a teacher. Indian River County schools have just experienced their greatest year ever, in tenns of both accomplishment and of harmony .. and this is due in large part to the men and women who are the "front line" of education ... the classroom instruc tors. Say "Thanks" to a teacher ... it's an idea whose time has come.

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36 During the experimental week, student leaders spoke over the Vero Beach High School intercom expressing their apprecia tion for the fine job that their high school faculty had done during the 1974-1975 academic year. They concluded each announcement with the slogan "Say thanks to a teacher; it's an idea whose time has come." TELEVISION The experimenter was fortunate in obtaining the help and public service time of WTVX-TV, a CBS affiliate. WTVX-TV is the only television station in the area between Palm Beach and Cape Kennedy on the Treasure Coast of Florida. Therefore, with the exception of fringe signals from other cities or the rare house holds which were connected to cable at that time, the teacher praising announcements were directed to as nearly a captive audience as any television programmer could hope for. The following public service announcements were telecast (see Appendix D): AUDIO STATION BREAK 1 If we can afford to pay two thirds of the cost of mass transit in our community, then we can afford to pay one third of the cost of educating our children. Say thanks to a teacher; it's an idea whose time has come. VIDEO Senator Edward Kennedy speaking at a National Education Associa tion convention. Still shot of smiling teacher helping interested student.

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AUDIO STATION BREAK 2 We are trying to meet our responsibility in mass transit. Urge your congressional representative to do as much for our children's education. Say thanks to a teacher; it's an idea whose time has come. STATION BREAK 3 Each child is like an arrow pointing to his future. There are slow learners and fast learners. Some have special difficulties. Some need extra guidance and help. Some falter. Some drop out. The teachers of America believe that their job is to shape every child for its true flight to his own target, and they need your help. 37 Say thanks to a teacher; it's an idea whose time has come. STATION BREAK 4 When is it the individual's right to determine his own actions? The right to say what you want and equality. Ninety-eight percent isn't good enough; it's got to be 100% or it just. isn't. Government should guarantee tha t ... VIDEO Montage of rapid transit films. Still shot of smiling teacher helping interested student Animated arrows. Bending arrows. Wiggling arrows. Reverse action arrow. Arrow tailspins. Arrows shooting skyward. Arrow heading toward target. Arrow hits target. Still shot of smiling teacher helping interested student. Young male teacher addressing high school students in class room. First student responds. Second student interrupts.

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AUDIO STATION BREAK 4, continued: Six students interrupt. Audio background speaker: For Pete Shrively, teaching is more than a matter of fact. He is helping America's future learning to speak it's conscience. 38 Back to teacher speaking: Is that an interference with one's civil rights or not? Many students respond enthusiastically with varied answers. Say thanks to a teacher; it's an idea whose time has come. VIDEO Camera zooms in on teacher Camera on students. Still shot of smiling teacher helping interested student. Following the announcements, four prime time programs were aired over WTVX-TV, exposing parents, students, and com munity leaders who expressed their appreciation for the con tributions which had been made by Indian River county teachers. TI1e most serious decision made regarding the design was the question of the split-school approach in the control market. Every precaution was taken to assure the researcher that the teacher populations of the two schools were similar. Nevertheless, a serious, although necessary, limitation remained. Would a change in morale from the pretest to the post-test in the control markets reflect a true morale change or simply differences of the two populations?

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IV PRESENTATION OF THE DATA There is a high correlation between the birth of new babies in Dublin, Ireland, and the stork population. --{;raffiti THE PROFILE PRESENTED in Table IV-1 can be interpreted in the following manner: The value on the percentile scale represents the percentage of a group of schools similar to those indicated by the norm group that obtained either the same or a lower median rating* than did another school on that factor. For example, a school which received a median rating of 3.67 on the first factor might have a percentile rank of 71 on that factor. This would mean that 71 percent of all schools upon which the norms were based received either this median rating *The median ratings for The Purdue Teacher Opinionaire are: Factor 1, 3;46; Factor 2, 3.69; Factor 3, 3.25; Factor 4, 3.06; Factor 5, 3.70; Factor 6, 3.46; Factor 7, 3.00; Factor 8, 3.17; Factor 9, 3.63; and Factor 10, 3.72 (Bentley & Rempel 1970, p. 13). 39

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40 or a lower one. Only 29 percent of the schools received a higher median rating on that factor. Since factor ratings offer a more consistent picture of a school's relative standing, the percentile norm profile repre sents median values for the ten factors rather than for each of the one hundred items. The item weights used in computing factor medians are explained in the Manual for the Purdue Teacher Opinionaire (Bentley & Rempel 1970). High values indicate the presence of the quality represented by the factor, whereas low values may suggest lower morale concerning this dimension when compared with other schools included in the norm group. The item median results of the experimental (Vero Beach) pretest, of the experimental post-test, of the control group pretest, and of the control group post-test are presented in Table IV-2.

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TABLE IV-1. FACTOR PERCENTILE PRETEST AND POST-TEST DATA Experimental Experimental Control Control Factor Pretest Post-Test Pretest Post-Test 1 71% 56% 23% 1% 2 88 71 56 25 3 55 54 54 8 4 85 59 8 2 5 95 46 8 1 6 91 91 95 38 7 66 56 22 1 .j::. 8 78 71 80 40 9 97 90 64 32 10 94 84 42 4

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TABLE IV-2. ITEM MEDIAN PRETEST AND POST-TEST DATA GROUPED BY FACTORS E x perimental Experimental Control Control Item Pretest Post-Test Pretest Post-Test Factor 1: 2 3.8 3.3 3.1 2.3 3 3.2 3.1 2 .9 1. 7 5 2.9 2.2 3.4 2.0 7 3.7 3.3 2.2 1.4 12 2.8 2.5 2.0 1. 3 33 3.1 3.2 2.9 1.4 38 3.4 3.2 3.0 2.1 41 3.7 3.4 2.6 1. 3 43 3.0 2.8 2.4 1.8 44 3.5 2.2 2.5 1. 2 61 3 5 3.3 2.8 1.3 62 3.8 3.6 3.4 1.8 .j::,. N 69 3.7 3.3 2.9 2.2 70 3.7 3.7 3.0 1.3 72 3.4 2. 7 2.4 1. 7 73 3.3 3.1 2.9 2.1 74 3.6 3.4 3.4 2.6 92 3.7 3.5 3.4 2.6 93 3.2 3.2 3.0 2.2 95 3.7 3.5 3.0 1. 6 Factor 2: 19 3.8 3.8 3.7 3 7 24 3.1 3.3 2.9 2.8 26 3.8 3.8 3. 7 3.5 27 3.1 3;2 3.1 2 8 29 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.3 30 3.4 3.5 3 4 3.0 46 3.9 3.8 3.8 3 9

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47 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.0 50 3.8 3. 7 3.8 3.8 51 3.3 3.5 3.3 3 4 56 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.7 58 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.5 60 3.8 3.7 3.5 3.1 76 3.9 3.7 3.7 3.7 78 3.8 3.6 3.7 3.7 82 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.5 83 3.4 3.2 3.2 2.9 86 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.9 89 3.9 3.8 3.8 3.9 100 3.8 3. 6 3.5 2.8 Factor 3: 18 3.3 3.2 2.8 1.4 22 3.3 3.3 3.2 2.9 23 3.1 3.1 3.2 2.4 28 3.7 3.7 3.3 3.1 48 3.7 3.8 3 8 3.8 52 3.6 3.5 3.6 2.8 53 3.4 3.2 3.3 3.2 54 2.4 2.2 2.3 1.5 55 3.2 3.2 3.3 2.9 77 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.0 80 3.1 3 1 3 1 3.2 84 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.0 87 3.1 3.2 3.1 3.0 90 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.1 Factor 4: 4 3.1 2.9 1.9 1.8 9 2.9 2.5 1.4 1.1 32 3 6 3.2 2.3 1.4 36 3.1 3.0 2.1 1.3 39 3.3 2 8 2.6 2.1 65 1.9 1.8 1.4 1. 2 75 3 1 3.2 1.8 1.4

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TABLE tV-2, continued: Experimental ExperimentalControl Control Item Pretest Post-Test Pretest Post-Test Factor 5: 1 2.3 1.4 1. 3 1.1 6 3.2 3.0 2.4 1.9 8 3.9 3.6 3.6 3.6 10 3.8 3.6 3.4 3.5 11 3.8 3.7 3.3 2.0 14 3.6 3.5 3.0 2.5 31 3.6 3.4 3.3 2.9 34 3.7 3.5 3.0 3.1 40 3.7 2.9 3.3 2.7 42 3.9 3.8 3.6 3.2 45 3.8 3.6 3.0 2.6 Factor 6: .;::. 17 3.6 3. 7 3.9 2. T .;::. 20 3.6 3.5 3.7 2.9 25 3.2 3.2 3.1 2.3 79 3.7 3.5 3.6 2.8 88 3.2 3.2 3.4 3.0 Factor 7: 13 2.7 2.8 2.6 1.8 15 3.2 2.9 2.3 1.9 35 2.5 2.7 2.6 2.2 37 3.5 3.5 2.8 2.3 63 2.8 2.9 2.5 2.3 64 3.2 2.6 1. 7 1.4 68 2.8 2.9 2.8 2.4 71 3.3 3.3 3.4 2.9

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Factor 8: 66 2.8 2.7 3.2 2 8 67 3.7 3.8 3.5 3.0 94 2.9 2.8 3.0 2.7 96 3.2 3.3 3.1 1.9 97 3.2 3.0 3 2 3 0 Factor 9: 16 3.8 3.2 2.8 2.3 21 3.0 3.0 2.8 2.3 49 4.0 3.9 3.5 3.5 57 2.9 2.7 2.2 1.5 59 3.7 3. 7 3 5 3.2 Factor 10 : 81 3.6 3.6 3.4 3.1 85 3.8 3. 7 3 3 3.2 91 3.3 3.3 3.2 2.3 98 3.8 3.6 3.3 3.1 99 3.9 3.8 3 6 3.4 ,.,. c.n

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V ANALYSIS OF THE DATA If you want to change history, write it. --Graffiti FOUR CRITERIA WERE ESTABLISHED whereby the experimenter could decide whether a mass media campaign had in fact affected teache.r morale in Vero Beach. The experimenter assumed that teachers in both the experimental and control markets would experience declining morale at the end of the school year. The experimenter's hope was that a mass media campaign in Vero Beach would retard that decline, keep it level, or possibly raise it, while the control sample would decline. Four questions were asked. 1. Did the overall picture from the pretest and post-test in Vero Beach remain relatively stable while the morale in the control market plummeted? 2. Would certain factors which were more prone to be affected by a morale raising campaign show less decline than factors which could be considered immune to a mass media campaign? 46

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47 3. Were there certain items which were more sensitive to a morale raising campaign than other items? 4. Were there any obvious demographic differences between the population in the experimental market and the control market? Regarding the first question, the experimenter illustrates gross differences by relative percentile changes in Table V-1 and in Figures V-1 and V-2. With reference to the second question, it seemed that a question pertaining to the teacher's feelings of status in the community would be more affected by television spots praising the work done by teachers than a teacher's feel ings regarding his salary or the physical plant in which he worked. Salary and physical plant seemed to be a constant factor which would not be readily changed by a morale raising campaign. Similarly, it was reasoned in the third question, there should be certain items which are more sensitive to a morale raising campaign than other items. If questions could be found such as,"I think my community appreciates me," then it was reasoned that such a question should be strongly affected by a television campaign. Whereas such a question as,"Are you pleased with the amount of audiovisual material in your school?" would be relatively unaffected by a morale raising campaign. Regarding the fourth question, if there were substantial differences in the black/white population of the experimental market as compared with the control market, then an analysis of

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48 variance might indicate a demographic causation for the differences in the results. All hypotheses were tested using the same general statis tical procedure (excepting Hypothesis l; see page 49, below). The procedure involves using four t tests in an attempt to determine whether one group had changed relatively more than another group.* The limitation of this procedure should be noted since the pre tests and post-tests were given to different subjects. Because of the political climate in Florida at the time, the experimenter felt that the procedure of split halves was most desirable in order that teachers would not have an opportunity to discuss the questionaire among themselves and in order that they would not be exposed to unnecessary political pressures. Measures on each Purdue Teacher Opinionaire morale variable were obtained for four groups: Vero Beach pret'est, Vero Beach post-test, control pretest, and control post test. If t tests are used and it is found that Vero Beach pre is not significantly different from control pre but Vero Beach post is significantly different from control post, then there is evidence of a signifi cant difference in the change from pre to post in the experimental group relative to the change from pre to post in the control group. *For a more complete explanation, see page 247 of Reading Statistics and Research by Huck, Cormier, and Bounds (New York: Harper & Row, 1974).

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49 Or if t tests are used and it is found that control post is not significantly different from control pre but Vero Beach post is significantly different from Vero Beach pre, then there again is evidence of a significant difference in the change from pre to post in the experimental group relative to the change from pre to post in the control group. A similar argument allows a comparison of the changes in Vero Beach pre/post for whites and blacks. It is not necessary to deter~ine whether the differences between the experimental market and the control market are statistically significant. It is only necessary to determine HYPOTHESIS 1. Teachers ex--. posed to a mass media cam paign to improve morale will score no differently in a test designed to measure their morale, pretest/post-test, than will teachers who are not exposed to such a campaign. whether there was any difference at all inasmuch as some of the factors should not have been affected by the media campaign and therefore would serve to dilute the results. What the experi menter is essentially asking in the first hypothesis and in the other five hypotheses is whether there was an overall change in the exp~rimental market compared with the control market and, if there was a change, was that change much greater in the media sensitive factors and items than was the change, if any, in the media nonsensitive factors and items.

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50 A cursory glance by the reader makes the answer to the first hypothesis rather obvious. The reader can see that overall the control market morale dropped 30 percentile points while the experimental market morale dropped 14.2 points (Table V-1). TABLE V-1. BREAKDOWN OF VARIOUS FACTOR SCORES FOR VERO BEACH PRETEST/POST-TEST AND CONTROL PRETEST/POST-TEST* Factor I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 LP tP/N Vero Beach Pretest 71 88 55 85 95 91 66 78 97 94 820 82.0 (I:P 2 /N) = 14. 2 NOTE: P = percentile score. Vero Beach Post-Test 56 71 54 59 46 91 56 71 90 84 678 67.8 Control Pretest 23 56 54 8 8 95 22 80 64 42 452 45.2 <;ontrol Post-Test I 25 8 2 I 38 1 40 32 4 152 15.2 *Sizes of samples were: Vero Beach pretest 49, Vero Beach post test 49, control pretest 86, control post-test 41. Figures V-1 and V-2, following, illustrate visually the percentile changes of Vero Beach pretest/post-test as compared to the greater change in control pretest/post-test.

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51 100 90 I I 80 70 40 30 20 1 ( 0 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I i I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ) I I I I I I I I I I I I I l I I I I I I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 10 FACTORS FIGURE V-1. PERCENTILE CHANGES OF VERO BEACH PRETEST/POST-TEST. Solid line indicates pretest and broken line indicates post-test for each factor.

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100 90 8 0 70 60 U) fJ.l ...:J H f-, z fJ.l 50 u A:: r.u Cl.. 40 30 I 20 I I 1 0 I I 0 I I I I 1 2 3 52 I 4 I 5 FACTORS I I I I I I I I 6 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 7 8 9 FIBURE V-2. PERCENTILE CHANGES OF CONTROL PRETEST/POST-TEST. Solid line indicates pretest and broken line indicates post-test for each factor. I I 10

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53 Table V-,-1 shows twice the decline in morale in the control market as opposed to the experimental market. In this connec tion, it should be recalled that the morale in the experimental market was exceptionally high statistically to begin with and therefore had potentially far greater distance to fall. On Factors 1, 4, 5, 7, and 10 the control market 1i terally hit the bottom. Having noted that there was a gross difference between the morale level of the experimental market and the control market, an expert committee* and the experimenter separately chose factors and items which seemed to be more or less prone to being affected by a media campaign. There were significant differences between factors considered media Sensitive by an expert committee and factors considered media sensitive by the experimenter, and these sensitive factors were compared with the selected nonsensitive factors. Both the select committee and the author, in blind ballot, selected as media sensitive Factors 2, 7, and 10. Nonsensitive media factors, both the select committee and the author agreed, were Factors 1, 4, and 9. *Toe author's appreciation is extended to those committee members: Micki Edwardson, professor of communications; Julius Hodges, director P.K. Yonge Laboratory School; Carson Coleman, Jimmy Johnson, James N. Young, and Thomas Greene, administrators, Vero Beach High School; Gail Archer, Beverly Brubaker, Samuel A. Burns, Annie Grn~e Foster, Sue Linley, Nancy McDowell, Jessie Salmon, and Andrew Walls, teachers, Vero Beach High School.

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The f value, the pooled variance estimate (t value), and the separate variance estimate (t value) for all ten factors may be found in Appendix E. In the discussion of the media sensitive factors, the author has selected the pooled variance estimate (t value) as the most sensitive. 54 ANALYSIS OF MEDIA SENSITIVE FACTORS HYPOTHESIS 2. Teachers ex posed to a mass media cam paign designed to improve their morale will score no differently in a test designed to measure their morale on factors which should be sensitive to change by a mass media campaign, pretest/post-test, than will teachers who are not exposed to such a campaign. SENSITIVE FACTORS Factor 2. Satisfaction with teaching. Factor 7. Teacher Status. Factor 10. Community Pressures NONSENSITIVE FACTORS Factor 1. Teacher Rapport with Principal. Factor 4. Teacher Salary. Factor 9. School Facilities and Services. For media sensitive Factor 2, df of 96, tis significant at the 1.98 level : Factor 2 shows that the one-tail t score for the change between pretest/po.st-test Vero Beach is .94 and that the two-tail probability is 348. Therefore, the null hypothesis is accepted for Vero Beach for Factor 2. In the case of the control market for Factor 2, with a df of 125, the point of significance is L 97. The one-tail t value for the difference between pretest and post-test in the control market is 1.55; and the two-tail

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55 probability is .125. The null hypothesis for the control market is therefore accepted for Factor 2. Apparently the treatment in Vero Beach in the case of Factor 2 would not significantly change the morale as compared with the control market. In Factor 7 the Vero Beach pretest/post-test one-tail t score is .04, and the two-tail probability is .970. The null hypothesis is accepted. In Factor 7, control market pretest/ post-test, the one-tail t value is 2.44, and the two-tail probability is .016. Hypothesis 2 is therefore rejected for the control market. There is a significant difference between the decline of morale in the control market compared to the lesser decline in the experimental market. It is concluded that the significant difference in Factor 7 may have been caused by the morale raising media campaign. In Factor 10 the one-tail t score for Vero Beach pretest/ post-test is I. 75, and the two-tail probability is 084. The null hypothesis is therefore accepted. For Factor 10, control market pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is 2.6, and the two-tail probability is .01. Inasmuch as both groups indicated the sam~ direction (morale drop), the hull hypothesis is rejected regarding the control market, and it is concluded that the media campaign may have been the cause of maintaining relatively high morale regarding Factor 10 in the experimental market while the control market declined.

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56 ANALYSIS OF MEDIA NONSENSITIVE FACTORS By hidden ballot both the committee and the author agreed that Factors 1, 4, and 9 would be relatively nonsensitive, or insensitive, to a media campaign, and therefore the end-of-the-year morale drop in both the experimental and control markets should be similar. HYPOTHESIS 3. Teachers ex posed to a mass media cam paign designed to improve their morale will score no differently in a test designed to measure their morale on factors which should not be sensitive to change by a mass media cam paign, pretest/post-test, than will teachers who are not exposed to such a campaign. Regarding Factor 1, pretest/post-test Vero Beach, the one-tail t value is 2.01, and the two-tail probability is 0.48. The null hypothesis for the experimental market is ~ejected. For Factor 1 in the control market, the one-tail t value is 6.41, and the two-tail probability is 000. The null hypothesis for the control market is rejected, and it is concluded that the decl:foe in morale in both markets was relatively similar and was unaffected by the media campaign. For Factor 4, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is 1.73, and the two-tail t value is 0.86. The null hypothesis is accepted for Vero Beach. For Factor 4 in the control market, the one-tail t value is 2.68; the two-tail probability is .008. The null hypothesis is rejected. There is a significant difference in the morale change between the control market and the experimental market on a factor which was considered nonsensitive to media persuasion.

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57 For Factor 9 in Vero Beach, the one-tail t value is 1.31. The two-tail probability is 1.94. The null hypothesis is accepted. Regarding Factor 9 in the control market, the one-tail t value is 2.55, and the two-tail t value is .012. The null hypothesis is rejected. There was a significant difference in the relative decline of morale in the control market as compared with the experimental market. It should be noted that in the vote, Factor 3 (Rapport Among Teachers) missed being included as one of the television sensitive factors by one vote. A discussion of this factor seems to be in order. First some background information regarding the influences which occurred during the time between the pretests and the post-tests in both markets and what has occurred in the year since is in order. In the experimental market during the testing period, there was little or no diseussion regarding the question of whether teachers should leave the National Education Association and join the American Federation of Teachers. However, in the control market the superintendent of schools noted that the low morale which was recorded in the post-test was the direct result of militant teacher organizations stirring up discontent among their teachers. He therefore concluded that this research was meaningless because of the bias of unionism in his county. It should be noted, however, that it may well have been the mass media campaign in Vero Beach which kept the teachers in a more

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58 moderate attitude regarding unionism in the county. Furthermore, it is interesting to note that one year after the mass media campaign was stopped in Vero Beach, the teachers in the experi mental county did indeed vote to join the American Federation of Teachers and did take a strong militant stand against the school administration, threatening to strike. Above all, it is interesting to note that one year following the removal of media persuasion from Vero Beach that the experimental high school teachers were deeply divided over the issue of unionism and that apparently the rapport which existed in the spring of 197S had diminished by the spring of 1976. Another observation is that the media campaign in Vero Beach was generally directed to the high school teachers only. For instance, the role playing experiment honored a high school teacher, and the people involved in the banquet were high school faculty. When the election was held in the spring of 1976, junior high school and elementary teachers in the experimental county voted 80 percent in favor of the militant union, whereas a majority of the high school faculty rejected unionism. Figure V-3 illustrates what happened to rapport among teachers in the control market during its move toward unionism. Although in the experimental market rapport remained generally high, possibly the result of the mass media campaign, it is a matter of record that radical unionism did not come to Vero Beach until one year after the morale raising media campaign had been stopped.

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59 100 90 80 70 f3 6 0 ....:i H E-< z UJ UJ 5 0 0.. 40 30 20 10 0 '--------'---=-------------___:_------____._ VERO BEACH FACTOR 3 CONTROL FIGURE V-3. PERCENTILE CHANGES OF EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL MARKETS ON FACTOR 3. Solid line indicates pretest and broken line indicates post-test.

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60 ANALYSIS OF MEDIA SENSITIVE ITEMS The following items were considered to be more sensitive to a media campaign designed to raise teacher morale than any of the other items: Item 8 (committee selection only), Item 13 (committee and experiHYPOTHESIS 4. Teachers who are exposed to a mass media campaign designed to improve their morale will score no differently, pretest/ post-test, on scores on items sensitive to such a campaign than will teachers who are not exposed to such a campaign. menter selected), Item 15 (committee and experimenter selected), Item 19 (committee and experimenter selected), Item 24 (committee and experimenter), Item 26 (experimenter only), It em 35 (committee and experimenter), Item 42 (experimenter only), Item 45 (com mittee only), Item 46 (committee and experimenter), Item 47 (committee and experimenter), Item 48 (committee only), and Item 63 (experimenter only). In Item&, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is 3.20, with 96 df, and the two-tail probability is .002. ITEM B. Community demands upon the teacher's time are unreasonable. The null hypothesis is rejected for the experimental market. For Item 8, control market pretest/post-test, the one-tail~ value is .19, with 125 df, gnd the two-tail probability is .851. The null hypothesis is accepted. It is found that on Item 8, an item which the committee felt was media sensitive, there was a significant drop in morale in the

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61 experimental market rather than the control market. Therefore the fourth null hypothesis is accepted. For Item 13, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is -.SO, and the two-tail probability is .618. The null hypothesis is accepted for the experimental market. In Item 13, control market pretest/post-test, the oneITEM 13. My teaching posi tion gives me the social status in the community that I desire. tail t value is 2.02, with a df of 124, -and the two-tail proba bility is .046. The null hypothesis for the control market is rejected, and the fourth null hypothesis is therefore rejected. ITEM 15. Teaching enables me to enjoy many of the material and cultural things I like. In Item 15, Vero Beach preiest/post-test, the one-tail t value is .57, and the two-tail probability is .572. The null hypothesis for the experimental market is accepted. In Item 15, control market pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is 1.60, and the two-tail probability is .113. The null hypothesis is accepted for the control market. Since the null hypothesis is accepted for both markets, the fourth null hypothesis is accepted. In Item 19, Vero Bea~h pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is -.40, and the two-tail probability is .693. The null hypothesis is accepted for ITEM 19. Teaching gives me a great deal of personal satisfaction. the experimental market. In Item 19, control pretest/post-test,

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62 the one-tail t value is -.21, and the two-tail probability is .836. The null hypothesis is accepted for the control market. No significant difference is found between the markets. The fourth null hypothesis is therefore accepted. For Item 24, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is .92, and the two-tail probability is 361. The null hypothesis ITEM 24. Teaching enables me to make my greatest contribution to society is accepted for the experimental market. For Item 24, control pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is .93, and the two-tail probability is 354. The null hypothesis is accepted for the control market. No difference between the markets is found, and the fourth null hypothesis is therefore accepted. In Item 26, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is -.13, and the two-tail probability is .895. The null hypothesis is accepted ITEM 26. I love to teach. for the experimental market. For Item 26, control market pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is 1.09, with a df of 125, and the two-tail probability is .278. The null hypothesis is accepted for the control market, and no significant difference is found between the two markets. The fourth null hypothesis is therefore accepted. For Item 35, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is -1.05, and the two-tail probability is .296.The null hypothesis ITEM 35. Our community makes its teachers feel as though they are a real part of the community.

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63 is accepted for the experimental market. In Item 35, control market pretest/post-test, the one tail t value is 1.97, with a df of 120, and the two-tail probability is .051. The null hypothe sis is accepted for the control market. However, it is noted that under separate variance estimates, the one-tail t value is 2.02, and therefore the fourth null hypothesis in the control market could be rejected. Since the pooled variance estimate is used, no significant difference is found between the two markets, and the null hypothesis is therefore accepted with reservations. In Item 42, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is 1.11, and the two-tail probability is .270. The null hypothesis is ITEM 42. My teaching load is unreasonable. accepted for the experimental market. For Item 42, control market pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is 1.47, with a df of 124, and the two-tail probability is .144. The null hypothesis is accepted for the control market. No significant difference between the markets is found, and the fourth null hypothesis is accepted. In Item 45, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is 2.25, with a df of 95, and the two-tail probability is 027. The null hypothesis ITEM 45. My heavy teaching load unduly restricts my nonprofessional activities. is rejected for the experi mental market. For Item 45, control market pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is 99,

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64 with a df of 122, and the two-tail probability is 322. The null hypothesis is accepted for the control market. There is a significant difference between the two markets in the wrong direction. Therefore the fourth null hypothesis is accepted for Item 45. In Item 46, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is .81, with a df of 96, and the two-tail proba bility is .422. The null hypothesis is accepted. For ITEM 46. I find my con tacts with ~tudents, for the most part, highly satisfying and rewarding. Item 46, control market pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is -.94, with a df of 124, and the two-tail probability is .349. The null hypothesis is accepted for the control market. There is no significant difference between the markets. The fourth null hypothesis is therefore accepted. For Item 47, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is :12, and the two-tail probability is .907. The null hypothesis is accepted for ITEM 47. I feel that I .am an important part of this school system. the experimental market. In Item 47, control market pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is 2.30, with a df of 125, and the two-tail probability is .023. The null hypothesis is rejected for the control market. There is a significant difference between the markets. The fourth null hypothesis is therefore rejecied.

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65 For Item 48, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is 81, with a df of 96, and the two-tail probability is .419. The null hypothesis is accepted for the experimental market. In Item 48, control ITEM 48. The competency of the teachers in our school compares favorably with that of teachers in other schools with which I am familiar. market pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is .40, with a df of 124, and the two-tail probability is .693. The null hypothesis is accepted for the control market. No significant difference is found between the markets. TI1e fourth null hypothesis is therefore accepted. In Item 63, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is -.98, with a df of 94, and the two-tail probability is .327. The null hypothesis is ITEM 63. Teaching gives me the prestige I desire. accepted for the experimental market. For Item 63, control pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is 1.66, with a df of 124, and the two-tail probability is .099. The null hypothesis is accepted for the control market. No significant difference is found between the markets. The fourth null hypothesis is therefore accepted. ANALYSIS OF MEDIA NONSENSITIVE ITEMS The nonsensitive items are: Item 1 (committee and experi menter selected), Item 4 (committee only), Item 16 (committee

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66 and experimenter) l tern 21 (commit tee and experimenter) l tern 31 (experimenter only), Item 39 ( experimenter only), Item 49 (committee and experimenter), Item 54 (committee only), Item 59 (committee and experimenter), Item 64 (committee and experimenter), Item 65 (committee only), Item 67 (committee and HYPOTHESIS 5. Teachers who are exposed to a mass media campaign designed to im prove their morale will score no differently, pretest/post-test, on scores on items which should not be sensitive to such a campaign than teachers who are not exposed to such a .campaign. experimenter), and Item 72 (experimenter only). In Item 1, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one tail t value is 3.43, with a df of 96, and the two-tail probability is .001. The null hypothesis is ITEM 1. Details, "red tape," and required reports absorb too much of my time. rejected for the experimental market. For Item 1, control market pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is .244, with a df of 125, and the two-tail probability is .016. The null hypothesis is rejected for the control market. There was a significant drop in morale in both markets. The fifth null hypothesis is therefore accepted. For Item 4, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one tail t value is 1.23, with a df of 95, and the two-tail ITEM 4. The faculty feels that their suggestions pertaining to salaries are adequately transmitted by the administration to the board of education. probability is .221. The null hypothesis is accepted for the

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67 experimental market. In Item 4, control market pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is .58, with a df of 125, and the two-tail probability is .565. The null hypothesis is accepted for the control market. No significant difference between the two markets is found. The fifth null hypothesis is therefore accepted. For Item 16, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is 1.92, with a df of 96, and the two-tail probability is .057. The null hypothesis ITEM 16. My school provides me with adequate classroom supplies and equipment. is accepted for the experimental market. For Item 16, control pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is 1.64, with a df of 124, and the two-tail probability is .103. The null hypothesis is accepted for the control market. There is no significant difference between the two markets. The fifth null hypothesis is therefore accepted. For Item 21, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is .21, with a df of 96, and the two-tail probability is .838. The null hypothesis is ITEM 21. The procedures for obtaining materials and services are well defined and efficient. accepted for the experimental market. For Item 21, control pretest/post-test, the onetail t value is 2.81, with a df of 125, and the two-tail probability is .006. The null hypothesis is rejected for the

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68 control market. There was a significant difference between the two markets. The fifth null hypothesis is therefore rejected. In Item 31, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is .92, with a df of 96, and the two-tail probability is .360. The null hypothesis ITEM 31. The school schedule places my classes at a disadvanta~e. is accepted for the experimental market. In Item 31, control market pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is 1.52, with a df of 125, and the two-tail probability is .130. The null hypothesis is accepted for the control market. There is no significant difference between the markets. The fifth null hypothesis is therefore accepted. For Item 39, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is 2.42, with a df of 96, and the two-tail probability is .017. The null hypothesis ITEM 39. Teachers clearly understand the policies governing salary increases. is rejected for the experi mental market. In Item 39, control pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is 1.67, with a df of 125, and the two-tail probability is .097. The null hypothesis is accepted for the control market. There was a significant difference between the markets. Therefore the fifth null hypothesis is rejected. However, it is noted that on this particular item, considered to be nonsensitive to media per suasion, the Vero Beach morale dropped significantly while the control school morale did not, which would seem to indicate

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69 that influences other than media were tending to depress the Vero Beach morale with a greater force than was occurring in the control market. In Item 49, Vero Beach pretest, the one-tail t value is 1.24, with a df of 95, and the two-tail probability is .217. The null hypothesis is accepted for the experimental ITEM 49. My school pro vides the teachers with adequate audio-visual aids and projection equipment. market. In Item 49, control market pretest/post-test, the one tail t value is -.11, with a df of 125, and the two-tail probability is .912. The null hypothesis for the control market is accepted. No significant differences are found between the two markets. The fifth null hypothesis is therefore accepted. In Item 54, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is 1.14, with a df of 96, and the two-tail probability is .256. The null hypothesis is ITEM 54. Our school faculty has a tendency to form into cliques. accepted for the experimental market. For Item 54, control market pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is 4.00, with a df of 124, and the two-tail probability is .000. The null hypothesis is rejected for the control market. There was a significant difference between the two markets. The fifth null hypothesis is therefore rejected. In Item 59, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is -.66, with a df of 96, and the two-tail probability is

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70 511. The null hypothesis for the experimental market is accepted. For Item 59, control market pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is 1.78, wi~h a
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71 on Items 39 and 64. It should be noted that both of these items pertain to salary, which in the case of a teacher's occupation is considered a rather static or set variable and therefore should be relatively impervious to the blandishments of a morale raising campaign, just as the committee and the experimenter determined in their balloting. In Item 6~, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is .69, with a df of 96, and the two-tail probability is .491. The null hypothesis is accepted for the experimental ITEM 65. The salary schedule in our school adequately recognizes teacher competency. group. For Item 65, control market pretest/post-test, the one~ tail t value is 1.43, with a df of 123, and the two-tail probability is .154. The null hypothesis is accepted for the control market. No significant difference is found between the markets. The fifth null hypothesis is therefore accepted. For Item 67, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is -.84, with a df of 96, and the two-tail probability is .403. The null hypothesis is ITEM 67. In my judgement, this community is a good place to raise a family. accepted for the experimental market. In Item 67, control market pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is 3.91, with a df of 125, and the two-tail probability is .000. The null hypothesis is rejected for the control market. There was a significant difference between the two markets. The fifth null hypothesis is therefore rejected.

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72 For Item 72, Vero Beach pretest/post-test, the one-tail t value is 2.48, with a df of 96, and the two-tail probability is .015. The null hypothesis is rejected for the experimental ITEM 72. Teachers' meetings as now conducted by our principal waste the time and energy of the staff. market. For Item 72, control market pretest/post-test, the onetail t value is 2.58, with a df of 125, and the two-tail probability is 0ll. The null hypothesis is rejected for the control market. TI1ere was a similar significant decline in morale in both markets. The fifth null hypothesis is accepted. DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS There were no obvious differences regarding the sexes of the teachers in the experimental market as compared with the control market. The ages HYPOTHESIS 6. Teachers of one race who are exposed to a mass media campaign designed to improve their morale will score no differently, pretest/post-test, than will teachers of another race who are exposed to the same campaign. market was 99 percent white. of the teachers in both groups were similar. However, 40 percent of the experimental faculty were of the black race, whereas the control The experimenter asked himself,"Could this demographic difference between the markets be the contributing factor whereby Vero Beach morale remained high while the morale of the all-white faculty of the control market declined? Was it

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73 the high morale of the large black population in Vero Beach which kept the overall Vero Beach scores elevated and not the media campaign?" F tests and t tests were calculated as well as an anova, comparing the scores of the black population to the white population in both schools. No significant differences were found in any of the tests. The sixth null hypothesis was therefore accepted.

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VI CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH Someone pointed a finger at a serious world problemthe educator studied the fing e r, and the mass communicator moved the finger. ~raffiti It is a terrible era in which we live ... we have answers to questions we haven't even asked. ~raffiti IN THE SPRING OF 1974.,.1975, a mass media campaign designed to raise teacher morale was conducted for a period of ten days in Vero Beach Florida. It was directed to the faculty of Vero Beach High School. One half of the faculty, randomly selected, was pretested with The Purdue Teacher Opinionaire. Two weeks later the remaining half of the faculty was post-tested. In the meantime, control schools were selected and tested in a similar, neighboring county. The results were calculated in the form of percentiles, F tests, and t tests. Having observed the percentile changes in the Vero Beach pretest/post-test compared to the control market pretest/post-test, one might conclude that something happened during the two-week test period which caused the control market morale to drop at approximately twice the rate of the experimental 74

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75 market even though the experimental market had a far greater distance to drop. It would appear that the main conclusion to be drawn from the statistics gathered in this research is that the morale raising campaign which was conducted in the experimental market may well have been the contributing factor in a significant difference between the morale drop in the experi mental market and the morale drop in the control market. It was noted that there was a significantly larger popu lation of black faculty members in the experimental market than in the control market. It was found that there was no significant difference in the black teacher responses compared with the white teacher responses. The data for demographic differences probably did not account for the differential between the two markets. Six factors were selected by a committee and the experi menter to be either sensitive or nonsensitive to a mass media morale raising campaign. Three factors showed that the effects of the campaign to maintain high morale in the experimental market as opposed to the declining morale in the control market were inconclusive. In two of the three media sensitive factors there was significant change, and in all three factors selected as media sensitive, the trend was in favor of rejecting the second null hypothesis; that is, the media sensitive factors remained relatively high in the experimental market while they declined in the control market.

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76 The three nonsensitive factors indicated that something other than the media campaign may have caused the difference in morale between the experimental market and the control market. (See later comment regarding causative factors.) An analysis of the television-sensitive items indicated very strongly that the media campaign may have been the con tributing factor in keeping the Vero Beach morale high while the control market morale significantly declined. It is further noted that in the agreed-upon nonsensitive items regarding salary, Vero Beach m~rale was significantly lowered and control market morale was not significantly lowered. That is, on items which should not have been affected by a morale raising campaign (because salary is considered a relatively constant item by teachers), the Overall statistics were depressed, much more so in Vero Beach than in the control market. In other words, had there been no questions regarding salary, Vero Beach morale would have indicated far higher results while the control market would have indicated far lower results. It was observed that on a fourth factor (Rapport Among Teachers), which would appear to be a media sensitive factor, Vero Beach morale remained virtually constant while the control market morale declined sharply and significantly. It has further been observed that one year following the withdrawal of the morale raising media campaign in Vero Beach, rapport among teachers has significantly declined and Vero Beach teachers

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77 have voted to join a militant union and threatened to strike, just as the control market teachers did one year earlier. The question is raised: Would Vero Beach teachers have voted for radical unionism one year earlier had there not been a morale raising mass media campaign? The converse of that question may be applied to the control market. Additionally, it was observed that when the union vote came, 80 percent of the junior high and elementary school teachers in Vero Beach voted for the militant stand against administrators, while a majority of the high school teachers voted against the militant stand. The morale raising mass.media campaign had been directed toward the high school faculty, and it is possible that its effects were sufficiently long lasting to alter high school teachers' opini6ns one year later. It is important to note that the process of observing these results through the perspective of the selection committee and the experimenter is highly questionable. Who can say that the teachers' attitude and relationship with the principal is not profoundly affected by a change in the teachers' morale as the result of a morale raising media campaign? In other words, the concept of selecting media sensitive factors and items is highly suspect. What seems to be much more important is that in every factor and itemj with the exception of the salary question, the experimental market morale remained much higher than the control market's morale. That is the primary conclusion and should lead to further investigation.

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78 The implications of this research are profound, even frightening. The questions which flow from it are almost limitless. If in fact the morale raising media campaign in Vero Beach did indeed affect teacher morale, as the results would indicate, then we are dealing with a question of how much can we change morale and for how long and in what types of markets. A positive conclusion to this question would obviously lead to the query, can we raise the morale of firemen, policemen, or another group? Finally, the results of this research lead to the realization that we are dealing with a profound and measurable process of mind control. One would naturally ask the question, just how significant is the raised eyebrow of Walter Cronkite upon the political decisions of the electorate? Was General De Gaulle popular because of his wartime feats or because he controlled mass media in France? The following additional research is suggested. (1) Experiments similar to the Vero Beach test should be conducted in other small-to-medium sized markets to measure the possibility that similar results may be repeatedly obtained. (2) Tests should be conducted over longer periods of time to measure the possibility that morale will remain high during the period of a morale raising campaign regardless of the length of those campaigns. (3) Ten-day campaigns, such as the one in Vero Beach, should be conducted with the addition of further post-testing

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79 so as to measure the long-term effect, if any, of the campaigns. (4) Similar campaigns ahd testing should be conducted in large cities. The validity of the Vero Beach results may be applicable to small markets only inasmuch as entropy and multiplicity of media outlets is so great in major maikets that the results may be significantly different from those of this research. Furthermore, the process by which educators obtain public service spots may be far more difficult in the more heavily commercialized major market stations. (5) Additional study is recommended for the model of this research. It is readily admitted that the statistics obtained in this research are what the statistician refers to as "soft." That is, the author was hindered from obtaining truly random samples because of the fact that the administrators in the school systems which were tested felt that the political climate was such that anything but a surprise test would be biased by outside influences. Militancy among teachers in 1976 is a fact of life. New methods of testing must be devised which will assure that the teachers' answers are not biased by outside influences, but at the same time, the researcher is assured of obtaining truly random samples rather than dealing with split halves as this researcher was forced to do. (6) A shorter instrument and more polarized instrument than the one used should be devised for this research. One

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80 hundred questions involving a testing of approximately one-half hour is too much to ask of teachers who may be tired and overworked and overtested. Furthermore, the author is not satisfied that there is a clear delineation in The Purdue Teacher Opinionaire between what is media sensitive and what is nonmedia sensitive. It may be that there is no such difference. Once a teacher's morale is changed, he may perceive everything in a more positive light. (7) A great deal of additional work remains to be done in the field of morale raising public service announcements. One might ask, does the image of Kotter on television raise or lower the teacher's feeling of importance? It is not enough that we put a morale raising campaign on the air, we must feel certain that what we are putting on the air will truly do the job. (8) Additional research should be conducted in other occupations. (9) Extensive research has been conducted in the past on the question of violence on television. It would seem from the results of this research that a much more serious implication of the effects of mass media needs to be researched, and that is the question of just how powerful mass media suggestion really is upon our way of life and upon the way we think. (10) This research assumed the populations of the split schools of the control market were similar. It would be much more desirable and conclusive if a truly random survey within the same schools could be conducted where the political climate would permit.

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APPENDIX A THE PURDUE TEACHER OPINIONAIRE

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THIS INSTRUMENT IS DESIGNED to provide you the opportunity to express your opinions about your work as a teacher and various school problems in your particular school situation. There are no right or wrong responses, so do not hesitate to mark the Statements frankly. Fill in the information below. You will notice that there is no place for your name. Please do not record your name. All responses will be Strictly confidential and results will be reported by groups only. Do not omit any items ... Read each statement carefully. Then indicate whether you agree, probably agree, probably di$agree, or disagree with each statement [A, PA, PD, D] .... 1. Detai 1 s, "red tape," and required reports absorb too much of my time. 2. The work of individual faculty members is appreciated and commended by our principal. 3. Teachers feel free to criticize admtnistrative policy at faculty meetings called by our principal. 4. The faculty feels that their suggestions pertaining to salaries are adequately transmitted by the administration to the board of education. 5. Our principal shows favoritism in his relations with the teachers in our school. 6. Teachers in this school are expected to do an unreasonable amount of record-keeping and clerical work. 82

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83 7. My principal makes a real effort to maintain close contact with the faculty. 8. Community demands upon the teacher's time are unreasonable. 9. I am satisfied with the policies under which pay raises are granted. 10. My teaching load is greater than that of most of the other teachers in our school. 11. The extra-curricular load of the teachers in our school is unreasonable. 12. Our principal's leadership in faculty meetings challenges and stimulates our professional growth 13. My teaching position gives me the social status in the community that I desire. 14. The number of hours a teacher must work is unreasonable. 15. Teaching enables me to enjoy many of the material and cultural things I like. 16. My school provides me with adequate classroom supplies and equipment. 17. Our school has a well-balanced curriculum. 18. There is a great deal of griping, arguing, taking sides, and feuding among our teachers. 19. Teaching gives me a great deal of personal satisfaction. 20. The curriculum of our school makes reasonable provision for student individual differences. 21. The procedures for obtaining materials and services are well defined and efficient. 22. Generally, teachers in our school do not take advantage of one another. 23. The teachers in our school cooperate with each other to achieve common,personal, and professional objectives 24. Teaching enables me to make my greatest contribution to society.

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84 25. The curriculum of our school is in need of major revisions. 26. I love to teach. 27. If I could plan my career again, I would choose teaching. 28. Experienced faculty members accept new and younger members as colleagues. 29. I would recommend teaching as an occupation to students of high scholastic ability. 30. If I could earn as much money in another occupation, I would stop teaching. 31. TI1e school schedule places my classes at a disadvantage. 32. Within the limits of financial resources, the school tries to follow a generous policy regarding fringe benefits, professional travel, professional study, etc. 33. My principal makes my work easier and more pleasant. 34. Keeping up professionally is too much of a burden. 35. Our community makes its teachers feel as though they are a real part of the community. 36. Salary policies are administered with fairness and.justice. 37. Teaching affords me the security I want in an occupation. 38. My school principal understands and recognizes good teaching procedures. 39. Teachers clearly understand the policies governing salary increases. 40. My classes are used as a "dumping ground" for problem students. 41. The lines and methods of communication between teachers and the principal in our school are well developed and maintained. 42. My teaching load in this school is unreasonable. 43. My principal shows a real interest in my department.

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85 44. Our principal promotes a sense of belonging among the teachers in our school. 45. My heavy t~aching load unduly restricts my nonprofessional activities. 46. I find my contacts with students, for the most part, highly satisfying and rewarding. 47. I feel that I am an important part of this school system. 48. The competency of the teachers in our school compares favorably with that of teachers in other schools with which I am familiar. 49. My school provides the teachers with adequate audio-visual aids and projection equipment. SO. I feel successful and competent in my present position. 51. I enjoy working with student organizations, clubs, and societies. 52. Our teaching staff is congenial to work with. 53. My teaching associates are well prepared for their jobs. 54. Our school faculty has a tendency to form into cliques. 55. The teachers in our school work well together. 56. I am at a disadvantage professionally because other teachers are better prepared to teach than I am. 57. Our school provides adequate clerical services for the teachers. 58. As far as I know, the other teachers think I am a good teacher. 59. Library facilities and resources are adequate for the grade or subject area which I teach. 60. The "stress and strain" resulting from teaching makes teaching undesirable for me. 61. My principal is concerned with the problems of the faculty and handles these problems sympathetically.

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86 62. I do not hesitate to discuss any school problem with my principal. 63. Teaching gives me the prestige I desire. 64. My teaching job enables me to provide a satisfactory standard of living for my family. 65. The salary schedule in our school adequately recognizes teacher competency. 66. Most of the people in this community understand and appreciate good education. 67. In my judgment, this community is a good place to raise a family. 68. This community respects its teachers and treats them like professional persons. 69. My principal acts as though he is interested in me and my problems. 70. My school principal supervises rather than "snoopervises" the teachers in our school. 71. It is difficult for teachers to gain acceptance by the people in this community. 72. Teachers' meetings as now conducted by our principal waste the time and enersy of the staff. 73. My principal has a reasonable understanding of the problems connected with my teaching assignment. 74. I feel that my work is judged fairly by my principal. 75. Salaries paid in this school system compare favorably with salaries in other systems with which I am familiar. 76. Most of the actions of students irritate me. 77. The cooperativeness of teachers in our school helps make my work more enjoyable. 78. My students regard me with respect and seem to have confi dence in my professional ability.

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87 79. The purposes and objectives of the school cannot be achieved by the present curriculum. 80. The teachers in our school have a desirable influence on the values and attitudes of their students. 81. This community expects its teachers to meet unreasonable personal standard-s. 82. My students appreciate the help I give them with their school work. 83. To me there is no more challenging work than teaching. 84. Other teachers in our school are appreciative of my work. 85. As a teacher in this community, my no~professional activities outside of school are unduly restricted. 86. As a teacher, I think I am as competent as most other teachers. 87. The teachers with whom I work have high professional ethics. 88. Our school curriculum does a good job of preparing students to become enlightened and competent citizens. 89. I really enjoy working with my students. 90. The teachers in our s chool show a great deal of initiative and creativity in their teaching assignments. 91. Teachers in our community feel free to discuss controversial issues in their classes. 92. My principal tries to make me feel comfortable when he visits my classes. 93. My principal makes effective use of the individual teacher's capacity and talent. 94. The people in this community, generally, have a sincere and wholehearted interest in the school system. 95. Teachers feel free to go to the principal about problems of personal and group welfare.

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88 96. This community supports ethical procedures regarding the appointment and reappointment of members of the teaching staff. 97. This community is willing to support a good program of education. 98. Our community expects the teachers to participate in too many social activities. 99. Community pressures prevent me from doing my best as a teacher. 100. I am well satisfied with my present teaching position.

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. ~PPENDIX B HELEN HANCOCK ENDS TEACHING *Schumann 19 75.

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RETIRING AFTER J7 YEARS OF TEACHING, Mrs. Helen Hancock, a business education teacher at Vero Beach High School, will say goodbye to the profession she said she would never enter, but found so rewarding. Mrs. Hancock will be reminded of her teaching career as long as she stays in Vero Beach. She has taught in Indian River County her entire working life, and constantly comes in contact with former students. "When I go downtown and see all the young men and women I have taught, and they are using, developing and refining what I began to help them learn, it is most rewarding." A graduate of Vero Beach High School, Mrs. Hancock and her family moved to Vero Beach from St. Louis Missouri when she was 2 years old. Journalism was the profession she had planned to enter, but during the depression these jobs were scarce and the pay was low. She instead entered the business field to become a secretary or bookkeeper. Mrs. Hancock worked at this for several years until a higher-paying teaching job was offered to her. "It was the only thing I said I'd never do, and I'm so glad I did, because I've been so very happy." Teaching business education at Fellsmere, she began her long teaching career. Because the school was so small she had to teach ~nglish and science, too. 90

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91 The atmosphere of small classes was enjoyable for the first-year teacher. Had it not been so enjoyable, she probably would nbt have stayed with it. While learning all the things a first-year teacher has to learn, and developing herteaching personality, she admits to making all the mistakes a rookie teacher makes. Her advice to young teachers is "Likewhat you do, enjoy your classes and work hard." Mrs Hancock doe sn' t find anything really difficult about her job. There are problems, but if the students and the teacher work at them, they can be overcome. Different personalities and the things that come up in class that can be laughed at are what she finds most enjoyable about her job. "It's interesting to watch the youngsters develop. When you are working real hard and explaining something that is difficult and you see the student's eyes light up, he's gotten what you said. But they don't always get what you say, and you have to do it over ag ain." Mrs. Hancock is now teaching her "grandchildren." She taught the parents of many of her present student,s, but doesn't feel the standards of education have been lowered anywhere along the way. In fact, she thinks today's youngsters have a wider variety of experience, making them more interesting.

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92 "We are working with a different kind of person. Back when I was growing up there was no 1V and very little tr ave 1." Fundamentally, she sees no difference between 15, 16 and 17-year-olds who she taught in 1938 and those she is teaching today Mrs. Hancock feels Vero Beach as a high school of which it can be proud. "When we get to the place where we don't want things to be better, then we have to be on the lookout. I don't think we are ever perfect." Married and the mother of one son, she vows not to stay home and "vegetate" after her retirement. She enjoys doing things with her hands, keeping house and cooking. Volunteer work is something she is looking forward to.

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93 TEACHER RETIRES. Mrs. Helen Hancock discusses bookkeeping with student Keven Parks. Mrs. Hancock plans to retire this June, after 37 years of teaching. She began her teaching career in Fellsmere in 1938 and has been teaching in Indian River County ever since. She is presently a business education teacher at Vero Beach High School.

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APPENDIX C PROGRAM SCHEDULES: RADIO

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THE PROGRAMS OF "SAY THANKS TO A TEACHER" were broadcast on the following dates and times, on the following stations: WAXE May 29, 4: 11 PM 6: 14 PM 6:49 PM May 30, 6:29 AM 7:35 AM 8:54 AM 12:24 PM 1:07 PM 4:27 PM 6:05 PM 6:44 PM May 31, 7: 13 AM 9:04 AM 10: 51 AM 1:10 PM 3: 01 PM 6: 15 PM 6:45 PM 1975 1975 1975 June 1, 1975 10:08 AM 10:58 AM 11: 55 AM 12:48 PM 3:08 PM 5:24 PM 6:45 PM 95

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WTTB June 2, 1975 8:36 AM 12:42 PM 4:22 PM 4:50 PM 5:3.0 PM May 23, 8:00 PM 8:15 PM 8:32 PM 9:02 PM 9:35 PM 10:00 PM 10:35 PM 11 :OS PM 11: 15 PM May 24, 9:00 PM 9:35 PM 10:30 AM 11: 00 PM 12:00 AM May 25, 1 : 15 PM 2:00 PM 4:00 PM 7:41 PM 10:00 PM May 28, 8:00 PM 9:00 PM 10:00 PM 1975 1975 1975 1975 96

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97 May 30~ 1975 8:35 AM 9:35 PM 10:35 PM 11: 29 PM June 1, 1975 2:35 PM 4:00 PM 6:00 PM

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APPENDIX D PROGRAM SCHEDULES: TELEVISION

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THE PROGRAMS OF "SAY THANKS TO A TEACHER 11 were broadcast on WTVX-TV, on the following dates and times: May 23, 1975 8:00 AM 8:29 AM 8:59 AM 3:59 PM 4:59 PM 6:45 PM 8:59 PM 9:59 PM 11: 15 PM 11: 59 PM May 24, 1975, through June 2, 1975 (daily) 8:00 AM 8:29 AM 8:59 AM 3:59 PM 4:59 PM 6:45 PM 8:59 PM 9:59 PM 11: 15 PM 11: 59 PM 12:29 AM 12:59 AM In addition, 5-minute interviews of teachers, community leaders, students, and parents, stressing the great value of teachers to the community weTe broadcast May 23 and 25, 6:10 PM and May 29 and June 1, 11: 10 PM. 99

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APPENDIX E ANALYSIS OF DATA FOR FACTORS

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TABLE E-1. ANALYSIS OF DATA FOR FACTORS IN VERO BEACH POOLED VARIANCE ESTIMATE SEPARATE VARIANCE ESTIMATE F Two-Tail t Two-Tail t Two-Tail Factor Value Probability Value df Probability Value df Probability 1 1. 09 .760 2.01 96 048 2.01 95.81 .048 2 1. 30 .372 .94 96 .348 .94 94.43 .348 3 1. 10 .743 .30 96 .764 30 95.78 .764 4 1.10 748 1. 73 96 .086 1. 73 95.79 .086 5 1.53 .095 3.05 96 .003 3.05 90.83 003 6 1.07 .824 .56 96 .577 .56 95.90 .577 7 1. 74 .058 .04 96 .970 .04 89.47 .970 I-' 0 8 1.01 .986 .34 96 .732 .34 96.00 .732 I-' 9 1.01 .985 1.31 96 .194 1. 31 96.00 .194 10 2.57 .001 1. 75 96 .084 1. 75 80.41 .084

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TABLE E-2. ANALYSIS OF DATA FOR FACTORS IN THE CONTROL MARKET POOLED VARIANCE ESTIMATE SEPARATE VARIANCE ESTIMATE F Two-Tail t Two-Tail t ':['wo-Tail Factor Value Probability Value df Probability Value df Probability 1 1. 06 .863 6. 41 125 .000 6.47 80.83 .000 2 2.73 .001 1.55 125 .125 1. 83 117. 94 .070 3 1.19 .503 3.55 125 .001 3.45 73.03 .001 4 1. 22 .498 2.68 125 .008 2. 78 86.19 .007 5 1. 27 407 2.56 125 .012 2.67 87.91 .009 6 1.15 .592 5.92 1,25 000 5.78 74 18 000 7 1. 56 .122 2 .44 125 .016 2.64 96.41 .010 ..... 0 8 1.47 .140 4. 26 125 000 3.98 66 86 000 N 9 1.17 .541 2.55 125 012 2.48 7 3.52 .015 10 1.17 .544 2.60 125 .010 2.53 73.56 .014

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APPENDIX F ANALYSIS OF DATA FOR ITEMS

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104 TABLE F-1. ANALYSIS OF DATA FOR ITEMS IN VERO BEACH POOLED VARIANCE ESTIMATES t Two-Tail Item Value df Probability 1 3.43 96 .001 2 2.30 96 .024 3 .42 96 .674 4 1. 23 96 .220 s 2.16 96 .033 6 .60 96 .553 7 1.52 96 .133 8 3.20 96 .002 9 .91 96 366 10 1.16 96 .251 11 1.53 95 .130 12 .47 96 .640 13 -.SO 96 .618 14 -.21 95 .831 15 .57 96 .572 16 1.92 96 .057 17 -.88 96 .380 18 .88 96 .384 19 -.40 96 .693 20 .23 96 8 17 21 21 96 .838 22 .12 96 .906 23 0 96 1.000 24 -.92 96 ,361 25 .10 96 .918 26 -.13 96 .895 27 09 96 .928 28 -.91 96 365 29 .29 96 773 30 .38 96 .707 31 .92 96 360 32 2.05 96 .043 33 -1.19 95 236 34 2.03 96 .045 35 -1.05 96 .296 36 .54 96 .590 37 .12 96 .908 38 .89 96 .378 39 2.42 96 .017 40 1.98 95 .051 41 1.50 96 .137 42 l.ll 95 .270

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105 TABLE F-1, continued : POOLED VARIANCE ESTIMATES t Two-Tail Item Value df Probability 43 1.17 96 .244 44 2 .01 96 .047 45 2 .25 95 .027 46 .81 96 .422 47 .12 96 .907 48 -.81 96 419 49 1. 24 95 .217 so 1.18 95 .240 51 -.29 96 772 52 ;49 96 .624 53 1.18 96 243 54 1.14 96 .256 55 -.17 96 .867 56 -.66 96 .511 57 1. 26 96 .209 58 34 96 .737 59 -.66 96 511 60 1.63 96 .105 61 1.57 96 .119 62 1. 30 95 .197 63 .98 94 .327 64 2.09 96 039 65 69 96 .491 66 .53 96 .599 67 84 96 403 68 35 96 .730 69 1. 71 95 .090 70 -.13 96 .894 71 -.52 96 .607 72 2.48 96 .015 73 1.04 96 .301 74 .69 96 .489 75 .20 96 .839 76 2.13 96 .036 77 -.97 95 .336 78 1.16 96 .249 79 1.56 95 .123 80 -.15 95 .879 81 .41 95 .685 82 36 94 723 83 -.19 95 .850 84 .13 95 898 85 1.02 95 311

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TABLE F-1 continued: Item 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 t Value 1. 82 -.99 .23 1.27 93 -.04 .62 .23 -.55 1.00 -.28 .61 2.49 .66 25 106 POOLED VARIANCE ESTIMATES df 94 94 94 95 95 95 95 95 95 94 94 94 94 94 94 Two-Tail Probability :on .325 .822 .207 353 .965 .537 .822 .584 .319 782 .541 .015 .511 .802

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107 TABLE F-2. ANALYSIS OF DATA FOR ITEMS IN THE CONTROL MARKET POOLED VARIANCE ESTIMATES t Two-Tail Item Value df Probability 1 2.44 125 .016 2 3.30 125 .001 3 4.69 125 .0 00 4 .58 125 .565 5 4.48 124 .000 6 2.05 125 .042 7 2.37 124 .019 8 .19 125 .851 9 1.86 124 .065 10 -.29 124 773 11 5.43 125 .000 12 3.41 123 .001 13 2.02 124 .046 14 1.54 125 .127 15 1.60 124 .113 16 1.64 124 103 17 6.50 124 .000 18 5.32 124 .000 19 -.21 124 .836 20 4.80 125 .000 21 2.81 125 .006 22 2.44 125 .016 23 4.33 124 .000 24 .93 124 .354 25 4.44 124 .000 26 1.09 125 .278 27 1.50 125 .135 28 .89 125 .377 29 2.09 124 .038 30 1. 79 122 .076 31 1. 52 125 .130 32 2.66 124 .009 33 4.99 123 .000 34 -.06 124 .955 35 1.97 120 .051 36 2.86 125 .005 37 1. 81 123 .073 38 4.04 125 .000 39 1.67 125 .097 40 2.23 123 .028 41 6.82 125 .000 42 1.47 124 .144

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108 TABLE F-2, continued: POOLED VARIANCE ESTIMATE t Two-Tail Item Value df Probability 43 1. 73 123 .086 44 5.42 124 .000 45 .99 122 .322 46 -.94 124 .349 47 2 30 125 .023 48 .40 124 .693 49 -.11 125 .912 so .88 124 .379 51 -1.08 122 .283 52 4.01 125 .000 53 .69 123 .488 54 4.00 124 .000 55 3.53 124 .001 56 1.52 124 .130 57 2.28 125 .024 58 1. 2 1 123 230 59 1. 78 125 .077 60 1.84 124 .067 61 5.85 125 .000 62 4.83 125 .000 63 1.66 124 099 64 1.09 125 .277 65 1.43 123 .154 66 2.74 125 .007 67 3.91 125 000 68 1.96 124 .052 69 2.68 125 .008 70 6.54 125 .000 71 2.12 123 .036 72 2 .58 125 .011 73 3.06 123 .003 74 3.84 125 .000 75 1.28 125 .202 76 .17 125 .862 77 2.63 124 .010 78 .08 125 .939 79 2.91 124 .004 80 .24 123 .808 81 1.61 124 .111 82 .42 125 .673 83 .99 125 .326 84 2.47 125 .015

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109 TABLE F-2, continued: POOLED VARIANCE ESTIMATE t Two-Tail Item Value df Probability 85 .58 125 .563 86 -1.40 125 .165 87 1.50 125 .137 88 2.50 12 4 014 89 .4 7 1 2 4 .642 90 23 125 .818 91 3.88 124 .000 92 4.53 125 .000 93 3 .4 7 125 .001 94 1. 71 125 .090 95 6.76 121 .000 96 5.06 120 .000 97 1. 6 5 121 .101 98 1. 25 120 .213 99 2.04 119 .044 100 4.33 121 .000

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113 Combs, A. W., and Snygg. Individual Behavior. Rev. ed. New York: Harper, 1959. Conner, John Warren. Practices in Teaching Literature in Repre sentative Public Four-Year Iowa High School Districts. Doctoral dissertation, University of Iowa, 1966. Coopersmith, Stanley. The Antecedents of Self-Esteem. Freeman Press, 1967. Corcoran, John S. "Survey of Literature on Instructional Tele vision: Advantages and Disadvantages, Attitudes of Teachers and Students, Effectiveness of Televised Instruction." Thesis, University of Oregon, 1969. Council Against Intolerance in America. An American Answer to Intolerance. Teacher's Manual No. 1: Junior and Senior High Schools. New York, 1939. Dalin, Per. Innovation in Education--Norway. Paris: OECD/ Center for Research and Innovation in Education, June, 1971. Deal, Sylvia. Changing Teacher Morale by Mass Media. ERIC File 4196. Research Triangle Park: North Carolina Science and Technology Research Center, 1975. Dempsey, Rev. Michael J. "Relationships Between the Restructuring of Schools and Communications Technology." In Sidney G. Tickton, ed., To Improve Learning, vol. 2. New York: R. R. Bowker Company, 1971, pp. 51-56. Diggory, James. Self-Evaluation. New York, 1966. Donelson, Kenneth L. Uses, Non-Uses, Mis-Uses, Abuses--Media in Arizona English Classes: A Survey. Arizona English Bulletin Vl2N2Pl5-30. Tempe: Arizona English Teachers Association, 1970. Doyle, Frank J., and Daniel Z. Goodwill. An Exploration of the Future in Educational Technology. Toronto: Bell Canada, 1971. Edinger, Lois V. "Educational Technology and the Teaching Pro fession.I! In Sidney G. Tickton, ed., To Improve Learning, vol. 2. New York: R. R. Bowker Company, 1971, pp. 365-374. Edmund, Amidon. Interaction Analysis and Supervision. Columbus: Ohio State Department of Education, 1972.

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115 Gardner, Lindzey, and Elliot Aronson, eds. The Handbook of Social Psychology. 2nd ed. Vol. 5: Applied Social Psychology Reading. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1969. Ginther, John R. "Technology, Philosophy, and Education." In Sidney G. Tickton, ed., To Improve Learning, vol. 2. New York: R. R. Bowker Company, 1971, pp. 75-88. Gordon, Ira J. Human Development from Birth Through Adolescence. New York: Harper, 1962. Human Development: Readings in Research. Chicago: Scott Foresman, 1965. Grant, Alfred D. A Study of the Personality Characteristics of the Acceptor and the Rejector of the Newer Educational Media Among Secondary Teachers of Wisconsin. Madison: Wisconsin University School of Education, 1969 Halesworth, Brian. "Radio Broadcasts for Schools~ome Lessons Le~rnt." Educational Broadcasting International, vol. 5, no. I (March, 1971), pp. 56-59. Hamachek, D. E. The Self in Growth, Teaching & Learning. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1965. Heider, Fritz The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations. New York: Wiley, 1958. Hilgard, Ernest R. "Education and Broadcasting--A Perspective." A lecture given in Tokyo 1970 on the occasion of the 6th Japan Prize, International Contest of Educational Broad casts organized by NHK "The Psychological Heuristics of Learning." In Sidney ---G. Tickton, ed., To Improve Learning, vol. 2. New York: R.R. Bowker Company, 1971, pp 132-130. Hoerner, James L., et al. Assessment of Micro-Teaching and Video Recording in Vocational and Technical Teacher Education: Phase V-Preservice Trade and Industrial Teacher Education. Final Report. Columbus: Center for Vocational and Technical Education, Ohio State University, 1971. Hollingshead, A. B. Elmtown's Youth. New York: J Wiley, 1949.

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120 Steinberg, Mark, and Gerald R. Miller. "Interpersonal Communica tion: A Sharing Process." In Gerhard J. Hanneman and William J. McEwen, Communication and Behavior. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1975. A Study of a Proposed Multi-Purpose Communications System. Pullman: Washington State University, 1971. Suchman, J. Richard, and Sybil B. Carlson. Demonstration Center: Part II--Elementary School Programs, in Scientific Inquiry for Gifted Students. Urbana: Illinois University, 1968. Survey and Study of Educational Broadcasts, 1960-1968. Tokyo: Japan Broadcasting Company, 1969. Symonds, P. The Dynamics of Human Adjustment. New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, 1946. Tamminen, A. W. An Institute for the Training of Participants in the ES.'70 Projects. Duluth: Minnesota University, 1970. Television and Growing Up: The Impact of Televised Violence. Report to the Surgeon Ge neral, United States Public Health Service. Washington, D.C.: United States Govern ment Printing Office, 1972. Thoresen, Carl E., et al. Behavioral Self-Observation Training with a Nursery School Teacher. Stanford, California: Stanford Center for Research and Development in Teaching, 1973. Tillich, Paul. The Courage to Be. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1959. Torrance, E. Paul. Constructive Behavior: Stress, Personality, and Mental Health. Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publish ing Company, 1965. "TV As a Part of a 'Programmed' Approach." Nuffield Foundation, Learning Resources Project, March 1969. Watzlawick, Paul; Janet Beavin; and Don Jackson. "Some Tenta tive Axioms of Communication." In C. David Mortensen, ed., Basic Readings in Communication Theory New York: Harper & Row, 1973. Williams, Frederick, and Jack L. Whitehead. Language in the Classroom: Studies of the Pygmalion Effect.

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121 Willis, M. The Guinea Pigs After Twenty Years. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1961. Wood, Donald Neal. The First Decade of the "Fourth Network":An Historical, Descriptive Analysis of the National Educa tional Television and Radio Center. Doctoral disserta tion, University of Michigan, 1963. Zigerell, James J. "Universities Without Walls and With No Illusions." Educational Television, October, 1971, pp. 17, 18, 28. Zimbardo, Philip, and Ebbe B. Ebbesen. Influencing Attitudes and Changing Behavior: A Basic Introduction to Relevant Methodology, Theory, and Applicati9ns. Reading, Massa chusetts: Addi s on-Wesley Publishing Company, 1970.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ALBERT KENNEDY ROWSWELL was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on March 23, 1926. He received the Bachelor of Arts in history from Rollins College in 1948. In 1968 he was graduated from Florida Atlantic University with the Master's degree in secondary school ailininistration. Additional studies were carried on at Tulane University, the University of Pittsburgh, and Florida State University. Rowswell's teaching career includes Culver Military Academy in Indiana, New Orleans Academy, and Vero Beach High School. He has been a visiting lecturer at the University of Florida in broadcasting and in teaching teachers to teach. Algebra, analytical geometry and trigonometry, general mathematics, modern mathematics for parents, English literature, general science, world history, American history, Florida history, current events, history of the twentieth century, sociology, and geography have been taught by Rowswell in his public school teaching career. During these teaching years he introduced as emcee to the Treasure Coast of Florida a radio show involving students, parents, and community leaders, titl~d "The Now Generation," which candidly discussed the problems of modern education. 122

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123 Rowswell began his broadcasting career in 1932 on "The Blue Network" at Radio City. His father, "Rosey" Rowswell, as master of ceremonies for the "Cliquot Club Gingerale Show," secured this employment for his six-year-old son. The son's task consisted of pouring Cliquot Club gingerale in front of the microphone for the stars of the show, Harry Reisser and his Eskimos. Remuneration for this job consisted of one glass of gingerale. Much of Rowswell's youth was spent at Forbes Field watching the Pittsburgh Pirates in the 1930s, '40s, and '50s while his father did the play-by-play broadcasts. In 1948 he joined KDKA-TV (then WDTV) as cameraman, film editor, announcer, and office boy. In 1949 Rowswell opened one of the first radio-television departments for an advertising agency (Cabot-Coffman) in the city of Pittsburgh. In 1950 he rejoined KDKA-TV as sales liaison director. In 1951 he accepted the position of regional manager for Motion Pictures for Television, Inc., a company which controlled 90 percent of the feature films available to tele vision during the early 1950s, covering every television station in the southern United States, Mexico, and the Caribbean. In addition to sales and syndication he acted as assistant produc tion manager for the stars of "The Grand Ole' Opry. i, In 1956 he moved to Ziv-United Artists as regional manager for the southern and western states, during which time he was responsible

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124 for the sales of ''Mr. District Attorney," "I Led Three Lives," "The Eddie Cantor Show," "Highway Patrol," "Bat Masterson," and "Sea Hunt." He was also involved in the national sales of "Superman" to Kellogg's. In the early 1960s Rowswell was president and developer of the largest country club, real estate complex in the eastern United States: North Hills Field Club and Estates, Inc. During that period he was active in fund raising for educational tele vision, specifically WQED-TV in Pittsburgh. In 1961 WQED-TV awarded him the educational television's "Man of the Year" trophy. In 1965 Rowswell decided to return to his primary interest, which was teaching. Nevertheless, during the next decade he telecast over three thousand television shows via the CBS outlet WTVX-TV (radio and television), Fort Pierce-V ero Beach. Rowswell is married to Florence Keeher Rowswell, a diver sified cooperative training teacher-coordinator at Vero Beach High School, Florida. They are the parents of six boys-Jeffrey, Steven, Scott Hayden, Eric, Timothy Scott, and Albert Kennedy III. Four of the boys-Jeff, Steve, Timothy Scott, and Kenny have followed in their father's footsteps by broadcasting sports shows or doing commercials. They represent a third generation of broadcasters inasmuch as their grandfather broadcast the first sports interview show in the history of radio with "Pie" Traynor in 1921 via KDKA.

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Education. Professor Instruction I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doct~r'of Education. ,,/ /f .,,/ .. // ~ ~,/ _/ / /-( ~~ .,, ~~ / \ '--.~ -c,..p{ 2, t /? flclA l?_~ enneth A. .. Broadcasting I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Education. )4.;n/J~:-.~ Ralph iC Kimbroug Professor of Educational Administration This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College of Education and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education. August, 1976 Bert L. Sharp Dean, College of Education Harry H. Sisler Dean, Graduate School