Citation
Cuba's fight for freedom, and the War with Spain

Material Information

Title:
Cuba's fight for freedom, and the War with Spain a ... history of the Spanish kingdom and its latest and fairest colony ; the long struggle of Cuba for freedom and independence; the intervention of the United States and the fierce war with Spain that followed
Creator:
Beck, Henry Houghton
Place of Publication:
Philadelphia, Pa.
Publisher:
Globe Bible Publishing Co.
Copyright Date:
1898
Language:
English
Physical Description:
1 online resource (559 pages) : illustrations ;

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
1895-1898 ( fast )
Spanish-American War, 1898 ( lcsh )
Guerra hispano-americana, 1898 ( abne )
History -- Cuba ( lcsh )
History -- Cuba -- Revolution, 1895-1898 ( lcsh )
Cuba ( fast )
Historia -- Cuba -- Revolución, 1895-1898 ( qlsp )
Revolution (Cuba : 1895-1898) ( fast )
Spanish-American War (1898) ( fast )
Genre:
History. ( fast )
Historia ( qlsp )

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
UF Latin American Collections
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact Digital Services (UFDC@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
036230334 ( ALEPH )
1039096436 ( OCLC )

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TWO GREAT BOOKS IN ONE VOLUME.
Comprehensive, Accurate and Thrilling History of the Spanish
Kingdom and its latest and fairest Colony; the long
Struggle of Cuba for Freedom and Independence;
the Intervention of the United States
and the Fierce War with Spain that followed.
A Record of Oppression and Patriotism, of Cruelty and of Valor,
and above all of the triumph of the
Stars and Stripes.
PROFUSELY ILLUSTRATED.
WRITTEN AND EDITED BY
Henry Houghton Beck,
Author of isFamous Battles,"
"dThe Greco-Turkish War," etc., etc.
PUBLISHED BY
GLOBE BIBLE PUBLISH ING''Co:
,3 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa.




Entered according to the Act of Congress, In the year 1898, By D. B. SHEPP, In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C.
All rights reserved
ptRESS OF
ALFRED M. SLOCUM CO.
PHILADA.




PREFACE.
cH E HISTORY of the world is largely a
history of wars. Whether or not it is true that civilization gets forward upon a powder-cart, it is undeniable that the powder-cart keeps well up with the procession. The present work is a record of two wars, closely associated together, and both making especially direct appeal to the sympathies of the American people.
It was in a wvar that our own freedom and independence were wvon. We cannot, then, regard with indifference the much longer and not less heroic struggles of Cuba for the same great blessings. They have been conducted almost within sight of our own shores, and have materially affected our own interests. They. cannot- be forgotten while liberty is loved or valor appreciated. Neither can the story of them, told as it 1s in this volume, in hot blood, directly from the field of suffering and strife and triumph, be other than fascinating to the student or to the patriot.
It had been the lot of this country to wage three great wars before the present. The first was for independence. The second was for soy(3)




4 PREFACE,
ereign rights in equality with all other nations. The third was for the preservation of the Union. All three were gloriously successful, both in the triumph of our arms and in the establishment of the principles for which they were waged.
The latest of our wars was for a different purpose. It was a missionary war. It was the act of a great nation that, having won for itself the blessings of freedom and popular government and made itself secure, was generous enough and brave enough to take up the gage of battle in behalf of another people struggling to be free. The record of our wars for self-interest is known to all. Here is the story of our championship of the interests of others. It forms a new and novel chapter in our nation's annals and one not less glorious than any earlier one.
This record, made largely by those who saw the 'events narrated and were themselves a large part of them, is likewise to be commended to the reader, whether for study or for entertainment or for the exaltation of patriotic sentiment. It is instructive and inspiring, and fills a worthy place in the literature of "Freedom's battle, oft begun."




LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
BOOK 1.
Cubas Fight for Freedom.
Map of Cuba and the World, Frontispiece.
i. Panorama of Havana ...... ............. i9
2. Morro Castle, Havana ...... ............. 20
3. Boat Landing, Havana .... ............ ...37
4. Palace of the Captain-General, Havana . . 38 5. The Cathedral, Havana .... ............ 55
6. Columbus Memorial Chapel, Havana ... ...... 56 7. The Indian Statue on the Prado, Havana . 73 8. Obispo Street, Havana .... ............ ...74
9. Royal Lottery Ticket Seller, Havana ....... 91
io. Bull Fight, Havana .... .............. 92
ii. Avenue of Royal Palms, Havana ... ........ I09
12. Cuban Family at Home ............... .
13. Sugar Plantation, Cuba ... ............ ...127
14. The "Virginius" Outrage-Shooting of the Four
Prominent Cuban Patriots .... ......... 128
15. The Butchery of the Crew of the "Virginius"Scene at the Slaughter-house the Moment before the Execution. Captain Frey bidding his
Companions Farewell ... ........... 145
I6. The "Virginius" Butchery- Spanish Horsemen
Trampling the Dead and the Dying Victims into the Slaughter-house Trench at Santiago de
Cuba .... ................ 146
(5)




6 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
17. After the Shooting of the Crew of the "Virginius"
Negroes of the Chain-gang Tumbling the Dead
Bodies of the Victims into Mule-carts .... 163 i8. Ex-Captain General D. Valeriano Weyler .1...64 19. Papal Benediction of the Spanish Troops leaving
Vittoria for Cuba .................... 8
20. Spanish Troops leaving Barcelona, Spain ....... 182 21. Captain-General Blanco ..... ............ i99
22. Battalion of Spanish Troops before the GovernorGeneral's Palace, Havana .... .......... 200
23. Maximo Gomez, the Chief of the Insurrection 217 24. General Calixto Garcia ..... ............ 218
25. Cuban Staff Officers .... .............. ...235
26. Cubans Attacking a Spanish Regiment ......236 27. Cubans Burning a Deserted Village ......... 253 28. An Insurgent Attack near Vueltas ..... 254
29. Cubans Fighting from the Tree-tops... . . 271 30. Spaniards Surrounded by Cubans .... ........ 272
3 1. Battleship "Maine ................. ...289
32. Destruction of the Battleship "Maine" ..... 290
BOOK II.
The War with Spain.
33. Wreck of the Battleship "Maine" .......... 307
34. William McKinley, President of the United States 3o8 35. Queen Regent and Alphonso XIII ...... 325
36. Opening the Spanish Cortez .... .......... 326
37. Puerto de Sol, Madrid, Spain ............. ...343
38. General Fitzhugh Lee ... ............. ..344
39. Betore the Blockade of Havana, Cuba ......... 361 40. Prominent Officers of the United States Army and
Navy ..... ...... ............. 362




LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 7
41. Rear Admiral Sampson.......... 379
42. Rear Admiral Dewey...............380
43. Commodore Schley .. ................397
44. Captain Sigsbee. .. .............. 398
45. Cruiser "1New York"............415
46. Battleship IIndiana"..............46
47. Battleship "Massachusetts.. .. .. .......433
48. Battleship ".Oregon"..............434
49. Battleship I"IIowa".....................451
50o Dynamite Cruiser IVesuvius"............452
51- Watching the Searchlights at Havana during the
Blockade. .. .......... .....469
52. Firing Six Pounders .. .. ............470
53. Action on a Battleship oo . . .. 487 54. Action on a Monitor.... ..... .......488
55 Land Battery-Revolving Gun ...............505
56. Spanish Troops in San Juan, Porto Rico. o 5o6 57. Climbing the Mast to Man the Turret Guns 511 58. Mlap of Manila Bay and Forts ...... ....512
59. Panorama of Manila Harbor .................517
6o. Battle of Manila. .. .......... ...
6 1. United States Troops going to the Front.......523 62. United States Troops in Camp. .. .......524
63. Bird's-eye View of Santiago City, Harbor and
Fortifications....................529
64. Naval Battle off Santiago de Cuba...........530







BOOK I.
Cuba's Fight For Freedom.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
CHAPTER I.
Columbus in Cuba-The Second Visit-A Chief's Exhortation-Settlement and Slaughter-Las Casas and His Work-Extinction of the Natives-De Soto
-The British Conquest-Progress and Prosperity. 21 CHAPTER II.
General View of the Island-The Lay of the LandThe Climate-Mineral Resources-Animal LifeVegetable Life-Cuban Scenery .... ......... 35
CHAPTER III.
The Industries of Cuba-A Coffee Plantation-Preparing
Coffee for Market-Havana Cigars-A Cigar Factory-Sugar Plantations and Mills-How Sugar is Made-Cathedral and Custom House-The Danse du Ventre in Cuba-The Bull Ring-The Tomb of Columbus-Among the Pawn Shops-A Hard
Bargain-Matanzas-A Wonderful Cave . . 48
CHAPTER IV.
How the Island is Governed-The Captain-GeneralFreedom of the Press-Local Governments-Electoral Trickery-" No Cubans Need Apply "-The Spanish Senate-Discrimination Against CubansCarpet-Baggers to the Fore-In the Local Offices(9).




I0 CONTENTS.
Squeezing the Orange-The Awful Burden of Debt -Treatment of Native Industry-Bad Commercial Laws-Cuba Ruined for the Sake of Spain-Salaried Carpet Baggers-Industries Driven to BankruptcyNo Public Instruction-Early Discontent-Lopez
and His Raids-The Killing of Pinto. ........ 81 CHAPTER V.
Outbreak of the Ten Years' War in i868-The Declaration of Independence-The Spanish Reply-War in Earnest-Proclamation of Freedom-Regular Government Formed-Valmaseda's Bloody OrdersAmerican Sympathy Expressed-A Special Message. i 17 CHAPTER VI.
Savage Methods of Spanish Soldiers-Spanish Testimony
-Meagre News in Havana-A Reign of CrueltyCharacter of the War-Safety of Havana-The Spanish Mistake-Strength of the Patriots-Effects of the War upon the Island-Ruined Towns-Little Fighting-Much Destruction--Tactics of the Two Armies-The Spaniards Half-Hearted-Slaughter in the Five Towns- Outrages upon Women-Atrocities
of Camp Followers ...... ............... 132
CHAPTER VII.
Arrogant Conduct of the Spanish toward Americans and
English-The "Virginius" Outrage- Shooting Four Cuban Patriots-American Citizens Murdered in Cold Blood-Wild Demonstrations of JoySurrender of the "Virginius "-The Formal Transfer-How an English Captain Prevented a Massacre. 166 CHAPTER VIII.
Close of the Ten-Years' War-General Campos' Own
Story-Communication with the Insurgents-Rebel Dissensions-Suspending Warfare-Progress toward




CONTENTS. I I
Peace-Coming to the Point-Campos' MotivesInterview with Garcia-An Anxious Moment-At Zanjon-The Terms Accepted-The End at LastA Review of the Situation-What the War MeantHow the End was Reached-Campos' Appeal for
Justice-The Cost of the War ... .... ...... 185
CHAPTER IX.
Beginning of the Revolution of 1895-Where the Plot
Hatched-Famous Men who Organized the Rebellion-Arrival of the Leaders in Cuba-How Gomez Reached Cuba-Callejas' Attempts to Secure Peace by Heroic Measures-The First Skirmishes-Ironical
Gratitude-Spread of the Rebellion ........... 213
CHAPTER X.
The Patriots too much for Campos-Attitude of Other
Countries-The Insurgents Organize-Who the Leaders Were-Battle of Sao del Indio-Battle of
Peralejo-A Spanish Force Wiped Out....... 228
CHAPTER XI.
The News in Cuba-The New Commander-Weyler's
Arrival-First Words to Cuba-No NeutralityNon-Combatants Menaced-Call for Surrender-To End the War in Thirty Days-The Telegraph Lines -Weyler's Proclamations-Must Praise SpainPassports and Credentials-Stores to be SeizedFate of Prisoners-More Troops for Weyler-The Massacre of Guatao-Prisoners Killed-Very Near Havana-The Towns Deserted-Weyler Calls a Halt-Powers of Life and Death-More Proclamations-For Extermination-Fifteen Days' GraceThreats-Offer of Amnesty-To Report on the Suspects-Appeal for Recognition-A Long Debate
-Action by Congress .................. 240




12 CONTENTS.
CHAPTER XII.
Latest Operations-The "Competitor" Case-Weyler
Forced to take the Field-Death of Osgood, the American-Weyler goes out again-Attitude of the Washington Government-The Death of MaceoSpain's Implacable Foe-Maceo's Great Raid-The Hero's Last Campaign-The Final Tragedy-The
Demand for Recognition. . . . . 27)
CHAPTER XIII.
The Murder o. Canovas-Sagasta in; Weyler outMarshal Blanco-McKinley's Words-No Americans in Arrest Now-Offers of Autonomy-Objections to the Scheme-Ruiz and Aranguren-The De Lome Incident-Destruction of the Maine-A Survivor's
Story-Effects of the Disaster ..... ... 291
BOOK IHo
The War with Spain.
CHAPTER XIV.
Beginning of our War with Spain-Appealing to the
Powers-General Lee Leaves Cuba-No European Meddling-A Bogus Armistice-The President's Message-Grounds for Intervention-The Time for Action Come-Action of Congress-Spanish Defiance-General Woodford Leaves Madrid-War and Blockade-The Challenge Accepted-European Views-Causes of the War-A Striking ContrastSpain Reaping what She Sowed-Spain's Low
Estate-Important Step in American Politics .. 309




CONTENTS. 13
CHAPTER XV.
The Story of Spain-Roman Days in Spain-PelayoRise of Spanish Power-The Modern Tiberius-The Decline of Spain-Ferdinand's Bad Reign-The Carlist Revolt-The Latest Chapter-Porto Rico -Character of the Island-The Capital-An Ancient Walled City-The Philippines-Spanish Settlement in 1565-Invaded by Other Nations-Greatly Oppressed and Taxed-Some Natives UnsubduedNatives Mild and Amiable-Trade of the IslandsForeign Commerce Begins. . 334
CHAPTER XVI.
Resources of the Two Combatants Compared-Armies
and Navies-The Spanish Navy-United States Ships-North Atlantic Squadron-Flying Squadron -Pacific Station-Asiatic Station-UnassignedSpecial Service-Monitors-Training Ships-Auxiliary Fleet-The Spanish Soldier-The Cigarette his Solace-Bullied, Ill-treated and Robbed-The Army in Cuba-Spanish Pronunciation-West Indian Geographical Names-Cuban Proper Names -Spanish Geographical Names-Spanish Proper
Names-Names of Spanish Ships .3...... 360
CHAPTER XVII.
Blockading Havana-The First Prize-Taking the Pedro
-Shots from Morro Castle-In Havana-More Prizes-A False Alarm-Adventures of a Press Boat-A Smart Capture-Work of a Monitor-A
Privileged French Steamer. ................. 392




14 CONTENTS.
CHAPTER XVIII.
The War in the Far East-The Opposing Fleets-Panic
at Manila-Entering Manila Bay-The Battle of Manila-The Spaniards Brave but Beaten-A Halt for Breaktast-Finishing the Job-An Unrivalled Performance-Telling the News-The President Thanks Dewey-Dewey's Record-Taking Possession of the Philippines 41
CHAPTER XIX
With the Blockading Fleet-Shelling Matanzas-Other
Ships Join in-Getting Closer to the Mark-" Cease Firing "-Aboard Ship-Scenes on the New York -The Men at the Guns-Sick Men wanted to be in it-Blanco's Mule Story-Cavalry Against Navy -The Admiral Teaches another Lesson-The Cardenas Tragedy-Helpless Under Fire-The Fatal Shot-Damage to the Enemy-Ensign Worth Bagley-The Gussie's Failure-Bombarding San JuanThe Battle of Santiago de Cuba-Spaniards on the
Run-Line Cut off Mole St. Nicolas . . 431
CHAPTER XX.
The Voyage of the Oregon-No Thought of War-Fine
Work at Sea-In the Straits of Magellan-Good-by to the Slow Vessels-End of the Great Voyage-A Remarkable Speed Record-Her Size and Her
Armament-The Oregon's Commander .. ..... 459
CHAPTER XXI.
The Spanish Cape Verd Fleet-Seeking the SpaniardsNews at Last-Santiago de Cuba-The First Attack -A Peep into the Harbor-Firing Big GunsResults of the Shooting-"Sealing the Cork"-The Search for the Survivors-Waiting for Hobson's
Return-What Hobson Did. ............. .474




CONTENTS. 1 5
CHAPTER XXII.
The Seventh Regiment-Two Big Camps-The Second
Call-General Shafter-For the Philippines-Preparing to Invade Cuba-The Trip to Cuba-Operations at Guantanamo-Raiding a Spanish CampSpaniards Rush for the Bushes The Dolphin
Throws Shells 490
CHAPTER XXIII
Battle of La Quasina-Captain Capron's Heroic Death
-The General Advance-Skill and Valor of Cubans -Work of the Fleet-Spain's Banner Falls-Cervera's Startling Move-Cervera's Ship Opens the Fight-The Texas in the Thick of it.-The Oregon and Iowa to the Front-End of the Destroyers"Don't Cheer; the Poor Devils are Dying"Greatest Chase of Modern Times-Down Came the Colon's Flag-It was Schley's Victory-Not Likely that the Colon can be Saved-Admiral Cervera Wounded-Surrender of Santiago-Discussing Terms
-Great Rejoicings . . . . . . . 503
CHAPTER XXIV.
Taking Possession of Santiago-Occupied without Formality-Governing the Captured City-To Enjoy American Freedom-Private Property Rights Respected-The Capture of Nipe-Guantanamo Surrenders-On to Porto Rico-Spaniards Taken by Surprise-Gloucester Shells the Town-Cavalrymen Driven to Hills Americans Welcomed More Prize Taking-Thought Prize was RecapturedSurprised Spanish Sailors-On to Havana-In the Philippines-Tested Quality of Troops- Negotiations for Peace-The Terms Offered-Spain Considers the Terms-Coming to the White HouseThe Protocol's Appearance-Judge Day and M.
Cambon Sign-Text of the Protocol ... ......537













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Panorama of Havana.




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211-orro Castle, Havana.




BOOK 1.
Cuba's Fight For Freedom
CHAPTER I.
COLUMBUS IN CUBA-THE SECOND VISIT-A CHIEF'S
EXHORTATION-SETTLEMENT AND SLAUGHTERLAS CALAS AND HIS WORK-EXTINCTION OF THE NATIVES-DE SOTO-THE BRITISH CONQUESTPROGRESS AND PROSPERITY.
HE HISTORY of Cuba begins with the
discovery of the western world by Christopher Columbus. It was on September 25, 1492, that Martin Alonzo Pinzon, standing on the high quarter deck of the Admiral's ship, shouted "Land! land! Senor, I claim the reward!" It was on October 12 that land was actully reached. And it was on October 28 that Cuba was discovered. Columbus, as we know, was in quest of the fabled Cipango, the golden land of the East Indies, where Kublai Khan reigned. What he actually first reached was one of the Bahamas, called by the natives Guanahani. Columbus called it San Salvador, and the British have since named it Cat Island.
Columbus soon discovered the land he had reached to be a small island, and accordingly set sail for the main land, which he reckoned
2 (2I)




22 CUBA.
to be somewhere near. He passed many beautiful islands, visiting three of them, and was enraptured with their loveliness. 11 1 know not," he wrote in his diary, ,where first' to go. Neither are my eyes ever weary of gazing upon the beautiful verdure. The song of the birds is so sweet that it seems as if one would never desire to depart hence '. There are flocks of parrots that obscure the sun, and other birds of many kinds, large and small. There are majestic trees of a thousand species, each having its particular fruit, and all of marvelous flavor."
These, however, were mere islands. Nor did he find on them the gold and gems and spices of which he was in quest. But the natives told him of a great land lying to the south, which they called Cuba. It was, they said, rich in gold and pearls and other precious things, and Columbus felt sure it was the country of the Great Khan, of which Marco Polo had written. So he pressed on toward it, and on October 28th came to its shores. On that day he wrote in his diary: "This is the most beautiful land ever beheld- by human eyes,"
Columbus In Cuba,
As he approached the island he believed 'it was the main land. He noted with admiration its lofty mountains, its deep, clear rivers, its fine harbors, and the attractive appearance of all the




CUBA. 23
country. Then he cast anchor in the bay of a river just west of Nuevitas del Principe, and went ashore, taking formal possession of the land in the name of Spain. He spent many days in exploring the coast, landing here and there and visiting the native villages. The inhabitants were a race of Indians of gentle demeanor. They lived in a state of happy tranquillity among themselves, and possessed a religion devoid of rites and ceremonies, but inculcating a belief in the existence of a great and beneficent Deity and in the immortality of the soul.
Columbus went along the coast toward the northwest, until he reached a great headland which he called the Cape of Palms. Beyond this he was told there was a river up which it was only four days' journey to Cubanacan." By this the natives meant merely the interior of the island. But Columbus thought they meant the land of Kublai Khan, and was thus convinced that he was at last on the main land of Asia, near the rich realms of Cathay. He accordingly sent an embassy into the interior, to visit the Prince who ruled over those regions. The embassadors returned to the ship, however, after going inland twelve leagues, and reported that they had found no city and no prince and nothing but Indian villages. Neither did they find any gold. But they observed that the natives practiced a curious




24 CUBA.
habit, of rolling up the dried leaves of a certain herb, setting fire to one end of the roll, putting the other end in their mouths, and alternately inhaling and puffing out the smoke. Such a roll they called a tobacco. The Spaniards were astonished- at this strange practice, but -soon found it pleasant and themselves adopted it, calling the plant from which the rolls were made by the name which the Indians gave to the roll itself.
The explorer was disappointed in not finding the Court of Kublai Khan, and now turned to the east and south, and after some days sailing he reached the end of the island, now known as Cape Maysi. Supposing it to be the extreme end of the Asian continent, he called it Alpha and Omega, the Beginning and the End, and then set sail for Hayti.
The Second Visit.,
Columbus's second voyage was directed to the further exploration of Cuba, which he still believed to be the Asian continent. He reached Cape Maysi on April 29, 1494, and proceeded along the southern coast. Here and there he put in at harbors, and inquired of the natives for the land of gold. They all directed him to the southwest, telling him another great land lay there, rich in gold and gems. Doubtless they meant the South American continent. So, on




CUBA. 25
May 3, Columbus turned thither, but discovered nothing but the Island of Jamaica, and on May 1 8 he returned to Cuba. He arrived at a great cape, to which he gave the name of Cabo de la Cruz 'or Cape of the Cross, by which it is still known. Then he ran into a beautiful archipelago and called it the Queen's Garden. Every day revealed new beauties of land and sea. The delighted voyager believed that he had surely reached "Summer -Isles of Eden, lying in dark purple spheres of sea."
League after league he sailed along the coast toward the west, more and more convinced that he had found the land of the Great Khan. He proposed to keep on and circumnavigate the globe, returning by way of Africa. But his ships were out of repair and his crews weary, so at last he had reluctantly to turn back. Before he did so he had every one of his officers and men sign a declaration of their belief that Cuba was the western extremity of the continent of Asia. This was done while the ships lay in the Bay of Cortes, or Bay of Phillipina. If only some one had taken the trouble at that time to climb to the mast-head, he might have seen the open sea to the northward of the island and thus have discovered that Cuba was nothing but an island. Or had Columbus kept on for two or three days more,,,he would have reached the western end of the island and




26 CUBA.
thus have learned what it really was. Instead, he returned to Spain still cherishing his delusion.
A Chiefs Exhortation.
His last landing was made in Cuba on July 7. At the mouth of a fine river he set up a cross and had the service of the Mass performed. Among the Indians who looked on at this ceremony in mute amazement was one venerable chief who at the end of the ceremony said to Columbus: "I am told that you have come to this country with a mighty force and have subdued many lands, spreading great fear among the people. But do not therefore be vainglorious. Remember that, according to our belief, the souls of men have two journeys to perform after they have departed from the body. One is to a place that is dismal, foul, and covered with darkness, prepared for those who have been unjust and cruel to their fellow-men. The other is to a place full of delight and beauty, for those who have promoted peace on earth. Therefore if you are mortal and expect to die, see to it that you hurt no man wrongfully nor do harm to those who have done no harm to you."
A third short visit was made by Columbus to the southern shores of Cuba at the end of May, I5o3, and that concluded his adventures in that island. In 1511 his son, Diego Columbus, for the purpose of colonizing the island, fitted out an




CUBA. 27
expedition, consisting of more than three hundred men, under Diego Velasquez, who had accompanied his father on his second voyage. Their first settlement was Baracoa, and in I514 they founded Santiago and Trinidad. In July, 1515, was planted a town called San Cristoval de la Havana, which was in I519 named Batabano, and its original title transferred to the present capital of the island. The island itself, by the way, was first named by Columbus Juana, in honor of Prince John, son of Ferdinand and Isabella. After Ferdinand's death it was re-named Fernandina. Next it was designated Santiago, for the patron saint of Spain. Still later it was called Ave Maria, in honor of the Holy Virgin. Finally it was called Cuba, that being the name by which it was known among the natives at the time of its discovery.
Settlement and Slaughter.
As we have said the conquest of the island was seriously undertaken in I II. The expedition was organized in San Domingo, under the command of Diego Velasquez and numbered more than three hundred men. Among them was Hernando Cortez, the future conqueror of Mexico. There also was the celebrated Bartolome Las Casas, known as the Apostle to the Indies.
The harsh and brutal treatment imposed by the Spaniards upon the Indians in San Domingo




28 CUBA.
had caused many of the latter to cross over -to Cuba, where they expected to live in security and peace. Among these was the famous chief, Hatuey, whose name stands upon the pages of history as a monument of courage and patriotism in the face of Spanish ferocity and cruelty. As soon as he learned that the Spaniards had landed, in Cuba, Hatuey collected his warriors and proceeded to oppose the invaders. But the struggle was a useless one and 'hopeless from the outset. The weapons of the Indians consisted of arrows pointed with fishbones and of clubs, the ends of which -were hardened by fire, while the Spaniards, besides protecting their bodies with heavy clothing which the weak points of the Indian arrows could scarcely penetrate, were provided with excellent swords, powerful cross-bows, some firearms and a few horses. After several encounters Hatuey fell into the hands of the Spaniards and was condemned by Velasquez to be burned at the stake. When he was already tied to the stake, and the fagots were about to be lighted, the chief was approached by a priest who began to pray that, his soul might be taken to heaven. Hearing this, Hatuey asked to which of the two places the Spaniards would go when they died' He was told that they would all certainly go to heaven. IThen," he exclaimed, resolutely, "let me-go to hell !"




CUBA. 29
Las Casas and Is Work.
Las Casas, whom we have already mentioned, was the son of one of the companions of Columbus on his first voyage of discovery to the new world. In 1498 he accompanied his father in an expedition under Columbus to the West Indies, and in 1502 he went to Hayti, where he was admitted to priestly orders, being the first person to receive such consecration in the new world. In 15 11, the conquest of Cuba having been resolved on, he went to that island to take part in the work of populationn and pacification." He witnessed and vainly tried to check the terrible massacres of Indians which Velasquez soon perpetrated. A year or two later there was assigned to him a large village in the neighborhood of Xagua, inhabited by many Indians, as his share of the new colony. Here, -like the rest of his countrymen, hie sought to make the most of his opportunity of growing rich, though he continued occasionally to preach and celebrate Mass. Soon, however, having become deeply convinced of the injustice and other moral evils of the system of rule adopted by the Spaniards, he began to preach against it, at 'the same time giving up his own slaves. Then he went to Spain to speak in behalf of the oppressed natives, and the result of his representations was that in 15 16 Cardinal J imenez sent over a commission for the reform




30 CUBA.
of abuses-Las Casas himself, with a salary and the title of "1Protector of the Indians," being appointed a member of it. He soon found, however, that the other members of the commission were altogether indifferent to the cause which he had so much at heart and he accordingly returned to Spain where he developed his scheme for the complete liberation of the Indians. This scheme not only included facilities for emigration from Spain, but was intended to give to each Spanish resident in the colonies the right of importing twelve negro slaves. The emigration movement proved a failure, and Las Casas lived long enough to express his sorrow and shame for having been so slow to perceive that the African negyroes were as much entitled to the rights of man as were the American Indians.
Extinction of the Natives.
Velasquez was thus the founder of Indian slavery, and Las Casas of negro slavery, in America. The Indians who were not distributed among the Spaniards as slaves were compelled to pay a tribute in gold dust, and as gold never abounded in Cuba this was a difficult thing to do. 'Although the Indians were physically well developed, they were not accustomed to continuous and hard labor. The tasks imposed upon them by their ruthless Spanish masters caused so great a mortality that in about half a century the whole native




CUBA. 31
population of the island had disappeared. Some of the estimates placed the number of inhabitants of the country originally at 8oo,ooo. Others place it at no more than 400,ooo. But even taking the latter figure as correct, what a frightful destruction of human life there was in a few years!
The discovery and conquest of Mexico and Peru, with their immense wealth, caused the Spanish to look upon Cuba with indifference, and for nearly 3oo years it was almost forgotten. Nothing but the geographical position of Havana saved the island from utter neglect and oblivion in Spain. It was a convenient stopping-place for ships plying between Spain and the American continent, but so little was known in Spain about Cuba that not infrequently, even as late as the latter part of the last century, official dispatches were addressed to the Island of Havana. Even after the country was yielding to the Spanish treasury millions of dollars of revenue every year, the Spaniards remained so ignorant about Cuban matters that in the laws enacted for Cuba at Madrid in 1856 a reward was offered for the killing of "foxes, ferrets, wolves and other wild beasts of prey." Of such animals not a trace had ever been discovered in the island. The only wolves and other wild beasts of prey known to the Cubans have been the Spanish office-holders.




32 CUBA.
De Soto*
Havana was frequently attacked by the ships of powers hostile to Spain. In 1538 it was almost entirely destroyed by a French privateer. To prevent a similar disaster in future the Castillo de la Fuerza, a fortress which s till exists, was built by Fernando de Soto, who was then Governor of Cuba. This was the same de Soto who afterward became famous for his explorations in the southern and western regions of the United States and for the discovery of the Mississippi River. When he went on his last expedition to North America, on which he lost his life, he left his wife and family behind him at Havana, where his wife died of a broken heart three days after receiving news of his death.
Trhe British Conquest.
Despite this fortress, in 1554, the French again attacked and partly destroyed Havana. The early settlers of Cuba devoted themselves chiefly to the rearing of cattle, but about I 58o the cultivation of tobacco and the sugar cane was commenced, and this led to a vast development of the system of negro slavery. Previous to i 6oo two more forts were built for the defence of Havana. These were the Punta and the Morro Castle, which are still in existence. For a century and a half after this date the island was kept in a state of almost perpetual fear of invasion from the




CUBA. 33
French, English, Dutch, and other raiders. It also suffered much from the pirates and freebooters who infested those seas. About 1665 the building of strong walls around the city was commenced. In 1762 Havana was captured after a desperate struggle by an English fleet and army under Lord Albemarle. The fleet consisted of more than two hundred vessels of all classes manned by more than fourteen thousand men, while the Spanish army of defense numbered more than twenty-seven thousand. The assault began on June 6th. On July 3oth Morro Castle was surrendered, and on August 14th the city itself capitulated. The spoil divided among the conquerors amounted to more than $3,600o,000. By a treaty concluded at Paris in the following year Cuba was restored to the Spaniards and thereafter its progress was rapid. Indeed, that was the beginning of the island's real importance and prosperity.
Progress and Prosperity.
Another Las Casas arrived in 1 790 as Captain-General of the island and his administration was a brilliant time in the history of Cuba. He promoted with indefatigable perseverance a great and useful series of public works. He also introducect the culture of indigo, which became an important industry. He extended the commercial importance of the island by removing as far




34 CUBA.
as possible the trammels imposed upon it by the old system of monopoly, and also made noble efforts for the emancipation. of the slaves. It was owing to his wise administration that the island remained peaceful during the time of the revolution in Hayti, although the latter was closely watched by the negroes in Cuba and a con-, spiracy for revolt was actually formed among them by French agents. Many of the French who were driven out of Hayti by the negro revolutionists came to Cuba in 179 and settled there.
The news that Napoleon had deposed the royal family of Spain reached Cuba in July, i So8. It caused great excitement and aroused much patriotic enthusiasm. All the offcers of the island at once took oath to preserve Cuba for the deposed sovereign and declared war against Napoleon. It was partly from this fact, and partly from the fact that it remained loyal to Spain when, a dozen years later, all the South American colonies revolted, that Cuba received the name of "The Ever Faithful Isle."




CHAPTER II.
GENERAL VIEW OF THE ISLAND-THE LAY OF THE
LAND-THE CLIMATE-MINERAL 'RESOURCESANIMAL LIFE-VEGETABLE LIFE-CUBAN SCENERY.
SUBA EXTENDS from Cape Maysi, on
the east, to Cape St. Antonio, on the west, in a curved line of 790 miles. It lies between I9 and 230 north latitude, and 740 and 850 west longitude. It is I 17 miles wide in the broadest part; from Cape Maternillos point on the north, to the western point of Mota Cove, on the south twenty-one miles east of Cape Cruz-the Cape of the Cross.
The narrowest part of the Island is twentytwo miles, from the mouth of Bahia del Mariel, on the north of Cove of Mavana on the south. From Havana to Batabano, it is twenty-eight miles; near the centre of the Island, the breadth north and south is about seventy-five miles. The periphery of the Island, following a line the less tortuous and cutting the bays, parts and coasts at their mouths, is 1,719 miles, of which
(35)




wwJ 4otLnig aaa




41 g"; 1w 80
Palace of the Captain- General, Havana.




CUBA. 39
Domingo's key, thirty-four miles. From Punto del Ingles, on the South of Cuba, to the nearest point of the northern coast of Jamaica, the distance is seventy-five miles.
Cuba contains the following ports on the North, viz.: Guardiana, Bahia Honda, Cabana, Mariel, Havana, Matanzas, Cardenas, Sagua la Grande, San Juan de los Remedios, Guanaja, Nuevitas, Nuevas Grandes, Manati Puerto del Padre, Puerto del Mangle, Jibara, Jururu, Bariai, Vita, Naranjo, Salma Banes, Nipe, Leviza Cabonico, Tanamo, Cebollas, Zaquaneque, Zaragua, Taco, Cuyaguaneque Navas, Maravi, Baracoa and Manta-thirty-seven in all. On the South, Batiqueri, Puerto Escondido, Guantanamo, Santiago de Cuba, Mota, Manzanillo, Santa Cruz, Vertientes, Masio, Casilda, Jagua, Ensenada de Cortez and Ensenada de Cochinos-thirteen in all.
The Lay of the Land.
Low as the coast lands are, the island is plentifully supplied with hills and mountains. The highest part of the island is in the southeast portion, the loftiest peaks here reaching a height of more than 7,600 feet. From these mountains a ridge of somewhat less general elevation follows closely to the central line of the island westward, rising to a height of 2,530 feet at the extreme west. A considerable group of hills also rises immediately behind the harbor of Trinidad, near
3




40 CUBA.
the centre of the southern coast. The summits of the mountains are mostly rocky and naked, though occasionally smooth and covered with soil and vegetation. The internal structures of the mountains consist of chalk, limestone, sandstone, and gypsum. There are also numerous masses of serpentine and syenitic rocks. In some places petroleum is found in considerable quantities among the serpentine, and abundant springs of the same oil are also found in the eastern part of the island.
The rivers of Cuba are necessarily short, and their course is generally toward the north or south. The largest is the Cauto, which is about 150 miles long, and navigable for sixty miles. Several others are navigable for from five to fifteen" miles each. At the northeast of Guantanamo is the hill of Moa, in which is a huge cavern, and in that cavern the river Moa descends in a superb cascade more than 300o feet high.
The Climate.
Cuba lies near the northern edge of the tropical zone and its, climate is therefore largely torrid. On the high ground of the interior, however, it is fairly temperate. As in other tropical and semi-tropical countries, the year is divided into two seasons, known as the wet and the dry, the former being the hotter of the two. The wet season extends from May to October, although




CUBA, 41
rain falls in every month of the year. Spring begins in May, and thenceforward thunder storms are of almost daily occurrence until fall. Almost every day is exceedingly warm except on the mountain-tops. From November to April is the dry season, when the temperature is somewhat more moderate. The average rainfall at Havana in the wet season is about 27 8-10 inches and in the dry season 12 7-10 inches, making a total of 40 5-10 inches for the year. At Havana in July and August the average temperature is 820 Fahrenheit, varying between a maximum of 880 and a minimum Of 760. In December and January the maximum is 780 and the minimum 580, the
*average being 720. The average temperature at Havana the year round is 770. In the interior of the Island, at elevations more than 300 feet above the sea, the mercury occasionally falls to the freezing point -in winter. Light frosts are not uncommon and thin ice is sometimes formed. Snow, however, is never known to fall in the Island, The prevailing wind is from the east, but from November to February the north wind occasionally blows for not more than two days at a time, especially in the western part of the island. As a rule the hottest hours in the day are from ten o'clock to noon. In the afternoon a refreshing breeze almost always sets in from the sea. From August to October is the hurricane season.




42 CUBA.
These storms are sometimes extremely severe and destructive, though not so much so as in other West Indian Islands. Sometimes five or six years pass without a single hurricane. Earthquake shocks are occasionally felt, but are seldom so severe as to be destructive.
No serious diseases are known to be indigenou's to the island. Yellow fever, which rages every year on all the coast lands, was imported many years ago by vessels engaged in the slave trade. It is probable that its continuance and annual recurrence has been due to the indescribably foul condition of the harbors, especially that of Havana. This plague causes great loss of life every year, especially among visitors and naturalized residents of the island. It attacks comparatively few of the natives and its ravages are exclusively confined to the lowlands along the coast.
Mineral Resources.
The mineral resources of the island have not yet been developed nor even explored to any considerable extent. Gold and silver have, undoubtedly, been found on the island in various places, but never in quantities sufficient to pay for the working of mines. The early settlers sent gold to Spain from the island, but they obtained it from the aborigines who had accumulated it for centuries and had probably im-




CUBA. 43
ported it from other islands and from Mexico and the South American continent. Traces of goldbearing sand are found in several of the rivers, and attempts have been made at two or three places to secure the metal in paying quantities, but without success. Early in the present century silver and copper were discovered in the Province of Villa Clara, and some of the first ores found yielded no less than seven ounces of pure silver to the quintal, a quintal being 107Y4 pounds. The mines have never been properly worked, however, and thus have been regarded as unprofitable. Near Santiago, in the eastern part of the island, are some copper mines of great extent and richness. A considerable town has grown up about them and a railroad has been built to carry their product to the sea. More than fifty topis of very rich ore have been taken out daily, the best of it being shipped direct to Europe for reduction. The poorer part of it is retained and smelted on the island. These mines were worked with considerable success during the seventeenth century, but during the eighteenth century were entirely neglected.
Coal is found in almost inexhaustible quantities. It is of a highly bituminous character, giving out much heat, and leaving very little ashes or cinders, In, some places it degenerates into semi-liquid form, resembling asphaltum, and in




44 CUBA*
some places naphtha or petroleum. TIhere are excellent quarries of slate near Havana, the product of which is used for floors and pavements. In many parts of the island of Cuba, and more particularly in the Isle of Pines, marble and jasper, of various colors and fine quality, are found. Iron is believed to exist in considerable quantities, especially among the highest mountain peaks, but because of the difficulty of access, the scarcity of fuel, the want of capital, and perhaps, above all, lack of enterprise and energy, no considerable mining operations have ever been undertaken.
Animal Life.
The aboriginal animal life of Cuba varied but little from that of other islands. Savage -wild beasts were unknown. The only quadruped peculiar to the island is the hutia. This is an animal somewhat resembling a rat in form, and from twelve to eighteen inches in length, exclusive of the tail. It is pure black in color, lives among trees, and feeds on leaves and fruit. Its flesh is sometimes used as an article of diet. A few deer have been found in various parts of the island, but they are supposed to have been introduced from Florida. Plenty of wild dogs and cats are found in the woods, but' they are merely the degenerate descendants of tame creatures.
The chief domestic animals are the ox, the horse, and the pig, and these form a large pro-




CUBA.*4
portion of the wealth of the island. Sheep, goats and mules are less numerous. The manatee is found along the coasts, but no attempt has ever been made to domesticate it. Domestic fowls include geese, turkeys, peacocks and pigeons. The wild birds are notable for the beauty of their plumage, and more than 200 different species are found on the island. There are very few birds of prey. The principal ones are the vulture and the turkey buzzard, and these are protected from destruction by law, on account of their services as scavengers. The waters in and about the island are plentifully supplied with fish. Oysters and other shell fish also abound, but are of inferior quality. Numerous turtles are found on the coast and reefs, some of them attaining enormous size. They *and their eggs form an important article of diet. Crocodiles and enormous lizards are common. Land-crabs are frequently seen. in large numbers. These cross the island from north to south every spring, at the beginning of the rainy season. There are comparatively few snakes. The largest is the maja, which attains a length of twelve or fourteen feet, but is quite harmless. The most venomous snake is the juba, which grows to a length of about six feet.
Among the insect life of Cuba the most notable creature is the firefly. These flies are very large and luminous and exist in enormous num-




46 CUBA.
bers. They are much used among the poorer people instead of lamps or candles. A dozen or more of them confined in a bottle or even an empty gourd pierced with holes will serve to illuminate a room fairly well. Bees are exceedingly abundant throughout the island. The poisonous insects are the jigger, one species of ant, the mosquito, the sandfly, the scorpion, and spiders.
Vegetable Life.
A considerable portion of the area of Cuba is covered with forests, some of them being so dense as to be almost impenetrable. It was estimated a few years ago that of nearly 2o, 0OO,ooo acres of land still remaining wild and uncultivated, about I 3,000,000 were covered with uncleared forest. Among the valuable woods are mahogany, ebony, cedar and grandilla. These are valuable for manufactures, cabinet work and ship-building, and form a considerable article of export. The most valuable tree on the island, however, is the palm, which abounds everywhere.
The fruits and vegetables of Cuba are such as are found elsewhere in the tropics. Most esteemed of all are the banana and plantain, the pineapple, the orange and the cocoa. The sweetand-bitter cassava, the sweet potato, or yam, and other farinaceous roots are common, and Indian corn and rice are extensively cultivated.




CUBA. 47
Cuban Scenery.,
Travelers coming to Cuba for the first time usually see what they have expected to see, and fall temporarily into ecstasies over tropical scenery and semi-saracenic architectural effects. It is imagination fired by overheated books of travel that lends to the view greater enchantment than distance in a foreign land. When the eye becomes accustomed to the contrasts with familiar scenes offered in town and country, disenchantment quickly follows. Then the truth is discerned that the woods, foliage, plants, flowers, landscape effects and suburban drives are incomparably more beautiful in the temperate zone than in the tropics. Raptures over Cuban scenery are transitory vagaries in Havana. The harbor, with a long line of high-bastioned fortifications flanking the low peninsula upon which the city stands, is an imposing pageant, especially under a moonlit sky; but the country about the city is flat and unimpressive. A railway ride across the island from Batabano,' or westward to Matanzas, discloses vistas of undulating levels and moors under poor cultivation, relieved only by sen-tinel palms of the royal guard, or by encampments of palmettos, or by straggling cabins with palm-leaf roofs. The plazas have an ill-nourished and stunted look. The Bishop's Garden in Tulipan was once a lovely retreat, but it is now neglected ground.




CHAPTER III.
THE INDUSTRIES OF CUBA-A COFFEE PLANTATIONPREPARING COFFEE FOR MARKET-HAVANA CIGARS-A CIGAR FACTORY-SUGAR PLANTATIONS AND MILLS-HOW SUGAR IS MADECATHEDRAL AND CUSTOM HOUSE-THE DANSE DU VENTRE IN CUBA-THE BULL RING-THE TOMB OF COLUMBUS-AMONG THE PAWN-SHOPS -A HARD BARGAIN-MATANZAS-A WONDERFUL CAVE.
HE PRINCIPAL agricultural products
of Cuba are sugar, coffee and tobacco.
In former years indigo was extensively cultivated, but that industry has greatly declined. The sugar industry has also been injured by the development of beet sugar production in various other countries. Still, the sugar plantations and mills, which include both refineries and distilleries for the production of rum, are the most important industrial establishments of the island. The bulk of the sugar is shipped to the United States. Next in importance is the coffee industry, which was established in 1748, the seeds having been brought from San Domingo. Tobacco is indigenous to Cuba, and is famous over the world for its fine quality. Hundreds of millions of cigars are exported every year, beside many million pounds of leaf tobacco.
(48)




CUBA. 49
The other industries of Cuba comprise cattle farms, cotton plantations, fruit and vegetable farms, chocolate plantations, and bee farms, devoted to the. production of honey and wax. Generally speaking, 'it may be said that these industries have been conducted in a rather slipshod manner. The best establishments are now those conducted by Americans, largely with Chinese labor. At the same time, contact with American progress has considerably improved the character and disposition of the natives, and under a proper government the 'Industrial condition of the island would be vastly improved, and would contain a considerable measure of that prosperity for which nature evidently designed it. The saying that if you tickle the earth with a hoe it laughs with a harvest" is to no country more applicable than to Cuba.
Four centuries have been nearly rounded out since the discoveries of Columbus, yet Cuba to-day is, with the single exception of Brazil, the leastdeveloped country in the New World. Out of a total 'area Of 43,000 square. miles barely more than one-tenth is under cultivation. At the western end of the island there is a population exceeding i oooooo, but the remaining districts, of which Puerto Principe and Santiago are the capitals, are practically unsettled, having between them less than 5ooooo whites, negroes and Chinese. Only




50 CUBA.
within five years has iron-mining begun in earnest. The forest areas are unexplored. There are vast tracts of unreclaimed lands available for future industry. There are broad savannas, now abandoned to tropical thickets, where sugar, tobacco and corn could be cultivated. If there are now 1500o sugar plantations,, large and small, on the island, there could be 15~,ooo. If there are 1 5,000 tobacco-planters of every degree, the number might be multiplied. If coffee-farming has declined and is now restricted mainly to the mountain slopes of Guantanamo, it could be restored to its old-time efficiency and prosperity. A transformation of administration and economic conditions are needed in order that there may be a new and reinvigorated Cuba. Spanish rule has been like the wild Indian fig of the island that winds about the monarch trees of the forest and paralyzes and kills them with its serpentine embrace. The de.--s troy ing fig must first be uprooted before the tree can have soil, light, air and moisture needed for its normal growth.
A Coffee Plantation.,
Any person desiring to make a coffee estate chooses for his plaza, or plantation, high and steep ground, if possible facing east and west; altitude above sea-level from i,ooo to 3,000 feet. Experience has proven that ground lower than i,ooo feet is too apt in the dry season to parch




CUBA.,5
and give the plant insufficient moisture, whereas on the mountain side in the altitude mentioned the dews are always heavier, and the morning fogs settle longer and give the soil time to absorb the moisture it needs to sustain the plant during the hot hours of the day. For these reasons, and also to avoid the direct rays of the noonday sun, steep hillsides are chosen, facing east and west, as said above, if possible. As a general thing the planter, never having studied the chemical properties of coffee-producing land, looks for ground where lance-wood, redwood and olive-wood grow as a never failing proof that the land is adapted for the cultivation of coffee. The land must be virgin soil. On this the planter puts his laborers to the work of clearing. The larger trees are burned out and the smaller trees and brush chopped down with ax and machete. The cost of clearing the land is about $500, Spanish, per caballeria (thirty-three and one-third acres).
The land is lined out., the lines running from the top to the bottom of the hill, four feet apart. In these lines five or six coffee berries, three and one-half feet from each other and two inches from the surface, are planted. In other words, one cabellenia contains, where the whole space can be utilized, ioo0,ooo plants. The coffee is planted during the rainy season-in March or September. In thirty-five or fortyr days the seeds begin to sprout.




52 CUBA.
These sprouts are allowed to grow for six months, after which the healthiest alone are left, the others being pulled out. The remaining sprout is left growing for eighteen or twenty months. In the meanwhile the planter, desiring that his land shall yield something, plants corn, plantains, and all kinds of vegetables ; also, at intervals between the rows, cacao, which, however, does not yield a full crop until the coffee plant is exhausted, say, in ten or twelve years. As soon as the coffee plant reaches a height of four feet it is stunted and trimmed, all young sprouts thereon being killed off in order to force all the strength into the fruit. For the first two years the plant produces nothing ; the third year it yields a half crop; on the fourth year a full crop, which runs from io,ooo to 6o,ooo pounds of coffee, ready for the market, according to the condition of the soil, per cabelleria of thirty-three and one-third acres. This production continues for ten or more years, and the planter can gather his crop of cacao, planted as above.
The coffee plant blooms in January to April, then the berry forms and is ripe for pi-cking- from August to December. The negro is paid for picking and delivering the berry at the "1secadero (a large platform, made of stone, covered and smoothed with cement) fifty cents per bag. It is calculated that one hundred pounds of




CUBA. 53
berries yield fifteen pounds of marketable coffee. Each bag of berries delivered at the "secadero" must contain 200 to 300 pounds, and a good workman can pick three bags per day.
Preparing Coffee for Markets
The berry is then spread on the "secadero" and exposed to the sun to dry. How long this takes depends wholly on the weather-under ordinary -circumstances, say seventy-two hours. The berries while drying are repeatedly raked or turned over to quicken the process. During this process great watchfulness is required, as the slightest rain would ruin the berry. To prevent this covers are always ready for the "secadero." These are cone-shaped, and when the berries are raked into heaps these covers completely protect them from rain and dew.
When the berries are completely dried they are put into the "Molina de pilar," which is a circular trough, usually cemented, in which a heavy wheel made of hard wood, the rim plated with metal, revolves. This wheel crushes the berry and leaves the bean. Ox or mule power is employed. The bean is then put into the blower to remove all particles of the outside shell. When the coffee is clean it is again put into the "tMolina de pilar to receive a polish. If the color is too light a little charcoal is put into the trough with the coffee.




54 CUBA*
The coffee, after this process, is ready to be put into bags and conveyed to market, which is done on mule-back.
Another process, not so much in use now, owing tthfact that the coffee is exported, 'is washing. The berry, as it comes from the playa, is put into a crusher to press out the bean. The bean falling into a stone basin is left therein over night to rid it of the gum adhering to it. The next morning the basin is filled with water and the bean washed. This process is repeated two or three times, when the coffee is spread out on the "secadero to dry.
The coffee is conveyed to market on 'Muleback, in bags of about 102 pounds each, a mule carrying two bags and traveling ten leagues per day. The cost of carrying to market in this manner runs from 75 cents to $i per load.
Havana Cigars.
There is a popular theory that since the choicest cigars come from Cuba, Havana is the best place in -the world to buy them. American visitors when they come here expect to revel in the luxury of smoking the mos 't delicate brands and of paying very little for them. Cigars are cheap, but not so good, in Havana. "I have sampled all brands in various stores," says an American traveler, "1and have not found anything better than an ordinary Key West cigar that is sold in




01
The Cathedral, Ilavana,




Columbus Memorial Chapel, Havana Columbus Memorial Chapel, Havana.




CUBA. 57
New York. Exception must be made in favor of a handful which I received at a cigar factory as a present. These were very good. The cigars sold over the counter even in the best restaurants are not worth buying. The visitor who wants a fine brand cannot do better than to visit one of the best factories and make his purchases there, throwing himself upon the mercy of the proprietors and paying well for them.
"The truth is that the world smokes too much to enjoy any longer the luxury of the pure Havana of *other days. The district where the choicest leaf is produced in the Vuelta de Abajo is of limited area. It is surrounded by belts in which leaf of excellent color, but lacking in delicacy of aroma, is produced. It is soil rather than -climate that regulates the quality of tobacco, and while the plant grows readily throughout Western Cuba, and in certain districts near Matanzas, Cienfuegos and Santiago, it is only from a comparatively small area that the best, leaf can be obtained, and then only when the plants are trimmed after budding. The 'demand for well-known brands is very great, and 'it has to be met in some way. I was told in Santiago and Cienfuegos that much of the tobacco raised there was'sent to Havana and made up as cigars passing under the best names. The depreciation in the quality of Cuban cigars imported into the
4




58 CUBA.
New York market during recent years is undoubtedly to be accounted for by the artificial widening of the Vuelta de Abajo preserves so as to include various "hot" tobaccos, similar in color, but inferior in aroma. Heavy fertilizing, moreover, while increasing the productiveness of the land, injures the quality of the leaf.
A Cigar Factory.
"No visitor ought to neglect to visit at least one of the many large cigar factories of the city. I saw at the Corona works a force of 8oo men,women and children employed in the various processes of grouping wrappers according to color, making cigars by hand, putting paper labels on them, sorting cigars and manufacturing cigarettes. This force is increased to 2000 in busy times. This factory produces many millions of cigars in the course of a year, and about 2,000, 000 cigarettes every forty-eight hours. The expense of cigarettemaking is greatly reduced by ingenious machinery for filling and packing the paper-holders with tobacco, closing them at both ends and finally emptying the trays in which the shells were placed before the delicate mechanism was brought to bear upon them. This machinery enables six men to do the work of 3oo, and turns out 6oo,ooo cigarettes a day. Apparently there is some apprehension felt lest this intricate mechanism may be reproduced in detail in the United States, for




CUBA. 59
the inventor, whose rights are controlled by the Corona, will not allow any visitor with a camera to enter the room. Wonderful as the improvement in machinery for tobacco-working has been, it has not emancipated children from this unhealthy and laborious employment.
",In one of the departments I saw groups of sallow-faced children under ten years making cheroots and leaf-cigarettes. One was a little thing, with a pale, wizened face, bending over the table, with strained eyes, and working nervously with her tiny fingers as rapidly as the two strong women between whom she was sitting. Rarely have I seen a more pathetic figure than this child, so preoccupied with her work that she could not spend time to look at the visitors pausing before her with pitying eyes. I asked her age. She was barely six years old, and could make 3000 of these cheroots a day-almost as many as her mother. American visitors will do well to avoid that corner of the Corona. Cigars may never have the same flavor for them again if they see a child of six bending and -straining over a work-table in order to make them for the pleasure of the grand caballeros of the gay world."
Sugar. Plantations and MlYlls.
Matanzas is one of the largest sugar-producing- centres in Cuba. Last year it exported about i 6o,ooo tons to the United States and 6o,ooo




6o CUBA.
tons of molasses. More molasses is made here than in Cienfuegos, but. there is never anything wasted by the Cuban planters anywhere by any process of the manufacture of sugar. The centrifugating machines separate the syrup into sugar and molasses, each of the first grade. This molasses is then worked over a second time with more syrup, and the centrifugators divide the combination into sugar and molasses, each of the second grade. This second grade of molasses is carried through a distillery and converted into rum of various, grades. In these hard times sugar-planters cannot afford to lose anything at all sweetish that comes from the cane. They sell their sugar, molasses and prime rum in New York, and their worst rum is worked off in the Mexican trade. The refuse cane makes the engines go.
The processes and machinery employed here closely resemble those found elsewhere. There is one plantation, owned by the Count de Ybanex, which is operated differently. The cane instead of being ground by milling machinery is cut up into small sections and the sugar is worked out of it by water, by a process of diffusion similar to that employed in the manufacture of beet sugar. This method has been tested with satisfactory results during the last year at this plantation, and has been adopted tentatively at one ,other




CUBA. 61
Cuban factory. More labor is required and coal is necessary, but it is asserted that the increased expense is more than made up by the larger percentage of sugar obtained from the cane. One of the most prominent planters here has furnished me with a table showing the percentage obtained by seven processes of diffusion by water, the aggregate result being the extraction of over 992 parts of the thousand. The proportion is twelve to ten in favor of the diffusion against the ordinary milling process. About 143 tons a day are produced by diffusion on the plantation to which I have referred, and this is done with machinery which has not been perfected.
It would be a singular result if the diffusion process by which the cultivation of European beet sugar has been largely developed and enabled to crowd out cane sugar were adopted generally in Cuba as a means of cheapening and enlarging the product. One manufacturer, who has made sugar by the grinding method for many years, believes that this will happen. He admits that the change of method will involve the abandonment of an extensive plant and the substitution of much new machinery; but he contends that a revolution in the current processes of making cane sugar is impending. The Spanish Government now blocks the way by imposing a duty of one to two dollars a ton on coal. The diffusion




62 CUBA,
process involves the necessity of using coal, and the duty materially increases the cost of production. This is an apt illustration of the burdens imposed upon Cuba by a tariff system which does not protect any of its industrial and productive interests.
How Sugar Is H~aO e.
Soledad has the reputation of being the best managed sugar plantation in Cuba. It produced last year 12,000,000 pounds of sugar, and this year it will probably send to market 1 4,000,000 pounds. Other plantations largely exceed it in cultivated area and mechanical resources, Constancia having a product Of 40,000,000 pounds, but Soledad is conducted on scientific principles and with American thoroughness, system, and organization, so that there is the greatest saving in the cost of production and the largest margin for profit on the investment. All the improved machinery is here'; every time-saving and labordispensing device is employed, and the maximum amount of sugar is obtained from the cane at the lowest possible cost. Soledad is largely owned by Americans.
Soledad lies near a picturesque little river flowing into the bay of Cienfuegos. It is reached from the town after a delightful sail on a steam yacht across the bay and up the river, and a short railway ride from the wharf to the sugar works




CUBA. 63
and plantation house. When the train draws up before the door the manager is at hand with genial smile and graceful hospitality to welcome his guests, and to conduct them personally over the works. With his explanations the intricate processes of converting cane into sugar are speedily revealed. Then follows a plantation breakfast served in the airy dining-room of his house with lavish hospitality and refinement of courtesy. The dining-room adjoins the parlor or reception room, which is furnished in characteristic Cuban style with cane settees and rocking- chairs-a spacious, high-studded room on the second floor, with windows overlooking the sugar works, and a lovely plantation garden. The floors are bare, carpets never being used on the island, but no Yankee housewife with a mania for sweeping, dusting, and polishing can have a more scrupulously neat parlor than what the manager facetiously describes as the bachelor's hall of Soledad. An afternoon passed in a planter's house is something to be treasured in memory as one of the delightful experiences of a lifetime.
The first sugar plantation in Cuba was established about a hundred years after the discovery of the island. For three centuries the chief industry of the island has been the cultivation of cane and its conversion into sugar. For a long period the processes of manufacture were




64 CUB3A.
crude, inexpensive and wasteful, oxen 'being employed in gri nding cane, and the machinery being of the roughest and simplest design. It is no longer either practicable or profitable to raise cane, and make sugar on a small scale. Steam has taken the place of the ox and mule, not only in the grinding mills, but to a large extent in the fields. At Soledad the cane is carried to the works by long trains running on narrow-gauge railways through the estate. It is unloaded from the cars by negroes and thrown upon a broad carrier traveling up a long incline to the rollers of the first mill. As many as fifteen men are employed in handling this moving mass of cane. When it reaches the first mill it is grou nd by rollers weighing fifteen tons and set close together. The cane is broken up and about sixty per cent. of the liquor which it contains is drawn off underneath the mill. Under the old process there was only one grinding and much of the liquor was wasted. Now the cane is ground twice and an additional fifteen per cent. of the juice is obtained. Streams of liquor from the vats of the two mills unite and pass through a strainer, one workman being employed in raking off floating refuse and preventing obstructions. The liquor is then ready to be pumped into the boiling works.
The refuse of the cane after the two grind.




CUIBA. 65
ings is the only fuel used in the works. It is carried by moving conductors to the furnaces and dumped automatically, being dried by the intense heat and consumed as rapidly as it is fed. Wood was used as fuel when the steam engine was introduced in sugar works, and subsequently bagasse, or refuse cane, was put with it. Boilers have been invented to facilitate the employment of bagasse as fuel. Those used here are the Porcupine boilers of the Stillwater pattern. Ordinarily, when the furnaces are fed with bagasse, a force of eighty laborers is constantly occupied in transferring it from the mills to the boiler-house. At Soledad two men do the work of eighty ; or, to speak more accurately, the automatic action of the mechanical conductors dispenses with the labor of seventy-eight men. Indeed, a close approach is made here to the solution of the old problem of perpetual motion., The cane, when fed to the conductors, serves to keep all the complex machinery of the works in operation; the broken and crushed fragments, of bagasse are carried to the furnaces and furnish the power by which not only the grinding, but also the pumping and boiling are done; all that is not juice, but sheer waste, goes into the production of force by which the mills are kept grinding and the liquor clarified, boiled and crystallized into sugar.




66 CUBA.
Cathedral and Custom House*
Some 300 years ago, when Spain held dominion over the greater part of the New World, and the city of Havana was rising up as a central station and key to these possessions, a magnificent cathedral was erected, fronting the sea, inside of the beautiful bay which now f6rms the harbor, and Just about the centre of the front of the walled city. This cathedral was said to be the finest in the New World, and was held in great veneration. When Havana was captured by the British in 1762, a considerable force was landed to garrison the place, a part of which was cavalry with little regard for the sacredness of the edifice, the conquerors used the cathedral as a stable for their horses. A year later the city was restored to Spain by the treaty of peace signed at Paris, and the cathedral was restored to its rightful owners. In consideration of the use to which it had been put by the British, it was declared to be defiled and desecrated and entrance to it was strictly forbidden. For a period of ioo years the stately building was condemned to be closely shut up in darkness. When that period had elapsed, the building was reopened but never again was used as a place of worship. It was converted into a custom house and devoted to the secular purposes of the Government,




CUBA. 67
The Danse du Ventre in Cuba.
"I attended," says a recent visitor, "a dramatic performance at the Alhambra one night. Three zarzuelas, or short one-act plays, are presented, and after each one a bale, or dance resembling the Cancan, is performed (in this instance) by three women and three men. The dancers are very graceful, and although the femo of the music is disconcerting to my ear, they manage to keep perfect time, which is perhaps the most remarkable feature of it.
"But the dance of the evening is given by a slender and rather pretty Spanish girl, very modestly costumed and accompanied by soft, voluptuous music. She is assisted by a nimble male dancer, who circles about her with simple, yet graceful steps, advancing wildly toward her at intervals as if about to embrace her; she escapes him, however, and he himself seems to think better of it on reflection, retiring discreetly to the back of the stage where he gesticulates madly to some mysterious personage in the flies, appearing to give up the whole business as a bad job. The dance of la senorita has so far been similar to that given by Carmencita, but now her movements become nothing more than a series of wriggles and contortions of the abdomen and hips-it is, in fact, the danse du ventre exactly as seen in the Midway Plaisance, only more suggest-




68 CUBA.
ive and indecent than the Chicago article and infinitely more graceful.
"Amid a final discordant crash on the part of
the orchestra and howls of delight from the audience, the curtain descends, when the American visitor betakes himself to the caf6 to escape the inevitable encore and to enjoy his cigarette and lemonade in peace.,
The Bull R9ing,
The most famous popular amusement in Havana is, however, bull-fighting, especially on Sundays.
As early as 2 o'clock the people begin to gather at the ring, although the sport will not begin until 4. In the meantime a vast quantity of lemonade, water sweetened with panales, cheap wine and cognac, is disposed of by the hot and thirsty crowd. In the palcos (boxes) many senoras are to be seen with fan and mantilla, attended by dandies smoking cigarettes or big black cigars.
Everybody is talking, the band plays gay music and occasionally you hear the bulls bellowing in their pens outside the ring.
The latter is about eighty feet in diameter and surrounded by a board fence some four feet high, over which the fighters vault when hard pressed by the bull. At -4 o'clock exactly the president enters his palco, signals with his handkerchief for the slaughter to begin, and from the




CUBA. 69
opposite side the bull-fighters enter the enclosure, marching in pairs across to the president, whom they salute before taking their several positions about the arena.
The trumpet sounds and as the bull bounds into the ring, a rosette of colored paper fastened to a sharp piece of metal is driven into his shoulder. This is unpleasant for the bull, and, snorting with anger, he charges on an offensive partisan, called a capeador, who gently waves a red cloak before him. Just as the animal reaches him, he steps nimbly aside, escaping by a hair's-breadth.
For ten or fifteen minutes the bull is teased in this manner by the gentlemen with gaudy cloaks, when at another signal from the president the trumpet sounds again and a banderillero enters armed with banderilas-short sticks ornamented with colored paper, having wicked-looking barbs or darts in the ends.
The banderillero, taking one of these pleasant toys in either hand, approaches his enemy, raising himself on tiptoe and waving his arms up and down. The eyes of the bull have a dangerous gleam, as he faces the fighter, pawing the ground and bellowing with rage. Suddenly he lowers his head and rushes straight at the banderillero, who calmly awaits the onset, until the bull is within three feet of him, when, like lightning, he hurls the darts into the animal's neck and escapes with




70 CUBA.
nothing worse than a tumble. Sometimes these banderillas have bombs affixed to them, which explode, under the bull's skin, causing him to feel very ill, and amusing the audience beyond expression. This act, when cleverly executed, calls forth rapturous applause and showers of silver coin and cigars, while some throw their hats into the ring-wearingr old ones there for the purpose.
El Toro, who up to this time has been fighting with great courage, is streaming with blood and begins to lose confidence in his rusheses" The people, too, are impatient and clamor for the deathstroke, and at a final signal from the presidential box the matador, carrying a red flag and a long, slender sword, makes a salute and takes his position. The business of the other fighters now is to tease and madden the bull while endeavoring to direct his attention to the matador, The latter waves his red banner, advances, retreats, while the audience yells and the band plays. The poor victim is fairly blind with rage by this time, and steadying himself for a moment for a last mighty effort, makes a dash toward the matador, who, with a deft and vigorous stroke, pierces the heart of the bull and the butchery is finished.
A brutal sport, you say? Well, it may be so; yet, as a Cuban friend puts it, how much more refined and elevating is it to see two per-




CUBA. 71
feetly developed human animals beat each other's heads to a jelly with two-ounce gloves ?
Trhe Tromb of Columbus.
One of the first conventional duties which an American visitor feels called upon to perform is to pay his tribute to the discoverer of America by visiting the Cathedral and reading the Spanish doggerel inscription near an altar with porphyry pillars. If he be uncertain whether it was the great Christopher 'who was really buried there, and not Brother Diego, who was disinterred in Santo Domingo and brought over by mistake, he needs to hasten back to the hotel and not to make a short detour in order to glance at the wr-etched little Columbus Chapel erected where the discoverer is reputed to have attended the first Mass ever celebrated in Havana-one of the most bare-faced fictions ever repeated by priest or layman. Before going more than three blocks he will be in the centre of one of the most interesting trading-places of Havana. In Compostela and adjoining streets he will be among the pawnshops, where the best bargains in the West Indies are to be made. These shops are stocked with old furniture, plate, china, jewelry, clocks, watches, firearms, fans, laces, medals and ornaments, with everything of value 'on which bankrupt or spendthrift planters, soldiers and gamblers have been able to borrow money. Three months




72 CUBA.
only are allowed for the redemption of the goods. Long ago the time expired and noweverything is at the disposal of the Yankee purt
chasers eager to obtain curios or anything tha is very old and at the same time very cheap.
Among the Pawn-Shops.
There is no more unerring sign of the exhaustion of Cuban resource s than the revelations of these pawn-shops, which monopolize the trade of foreign visitors. In these shops are to be found heirlooms that were handed down from one generation to another; medals of honor for bravery in the field; engagement rings', necklaces, diamonds, antique lace that has been worn by heiresses, and costly fans behind which have shone the dark eyes of the belles of Havana furniture of the colonial period, of which the New' England stock was long ago exhausted by the demands of curiosity-hunters, and silver and china of antiquated patterns, which would be marked up to the highest figures in fashionable New York stores. The pressure of hard times caused by the losses of the patriotic war and by the stupendous folly and supreme selfishness of Spanish economic law have brought all this wealth of bric-a-brac into the cheapest of cheap markets. The pawnbroker nines his price, and it is a low one ; but if he b e offered one-half or one-third as much, he will 'drive a bargain rather than see art




The Indian Statue on the Prado, Havana.




3u A,,J j
NAM=
Obispo Street, Havanao




CUBA. 75
American customer with gold'in hand leave the shop.
A Hard Bargain.
It may be well to warn American travelers against venturing into this quarter until the sights of the town have been "done," the drives taken, and the excursions made; for otherwise they may leave Havana without seeing anything except the railway station, their hotel, and the pawn-shops. A New Yorker and his charming wife got into the pawn-shops soon after their arrival, and they remained there almost continuously until the Tampa steamer was ready to sail. The husband started out early each morning for Compostela Street; in the afternoon his wife accompanied him to temper his ardor, and in the evening he returned alone to clinch the bargains. Sunday brought with it some scruples of conscience, and the wife succeeded in carrying him off to high Mass at the Cathedral ; but after the noon-breakfast he was overpowered by the fatal fascination and crept back to the pawn-shops for more bargains, returning with a guilty conscience, but laden with booty.
On the following day the interpreter was fairly compelled to drive him out of the pawn-shops in order to get him on board the steamer before the sailing hour. Retribution for Sabbath-breaking met him on deck in the person of the medical
5




76 CUBA.
officer employed by the United States authorities to protect the health of Florida.
This stern official refused to allow a tall colonial clock, which had been bought at a pawnshop, boxed and carried like a coffin to the ship to be received as private baggage. He remarked sententiously that it was an old clock, and might have germs of yellow fever concealed under its antique dial-plate. A long parley proved ineffectual, and the suspected clock was sent ashore to the medical officer's house to be quarantined. Two days afterwards it was sent to Florida by the next steamer. What precautions had been taken to disinfect the clock, and to render its shipment safe is not known ; but there was a fee of two dollars paid for the quarantine. Private baggage containing fabrics which might more reasonably be supposed to be disease carriers was not overhauled ; but Florida was protected with inflexible purpose against the risks of contagion through an old clock.
Matanzas*
The decadence of a once prosperous and beautiful city is a melancholy spectacle. Matanzas in its best days was a luxurious centre of wealth and fashion, as well of profitable industry and commerce. Surrounded with sugar, coffee and tobacco plantations, it ranked after Havana as the busiest hive in flowering Cuba. All the indus-




CUBA. 77
tries of the island were carried on with success on the verdant hillsides and undulating plains encircling its spacious and picturesque harbor. The Yumuri Valley was dotted with country seats, where rich planters entertained their guests with prodigal hospitality. Their massive town houses were miniature palaces built with showy colonnades and stone verandas, and furnished with lavish expense. On the coast were their summer cottages, where their families could enjoy the refreshing northern sea-breeze in seasons of inclement heat. The San Carlos Paseo was blocked with carriages in the afternoon, and the evenings were filled with gayety and sumptuous entertainment. All is now changed. Emancipation and the insurrection impoverished the rich planters. Many of the finest estates passed into the hands of Spanish immigrants and adventurers, who have been condemned to maintain an exhausting and ruinous struggle against a system grounded upon violations of economic law. Planters who have escaped confiscation and conformed to the conditions of free labor have witnessed the gradual shrinkage of the profits of their industries and the collapse of their fortunes. Costly residences which were once valued at $50,OOO are now offered, without purchasers, at $25,ooo. Depreciation of values is even greater here than in Havana.




78 CUBA.
Country seats which were conspicuous for elegance and social festivity are now bare, silent and fallen to decay. The seaside villas are shabby and tenantless. The famous San Carlos drive is a neglected and unfrequented road. Matanzas is a centre of unremunerative, laborious and unsatisfactory commerce, a city haunted with memories of its former prosperity.
All is changed save the beauty of the landscape setting of the city and the unrivalled splendor of the marine views from hillside and headland. No grander prospect can be had in Cuba than that which opens from the Chapel of Monserrate back of the town. The Yumuri flows through a gorge four miles in length, which is walled off to the right and left by abrupt and picturesque hillsides. There is a wide-reaching vista beyond with plantations of sugar, coffee and tobacco, groves of palmettos, pineapples, cocoanuts and orange trees, thickets of almond trees and limes, fields of corn and patches of potatoes, and here and there a stately royal palm. From one of the highest coigns of vantage near the city may be seen plantations and farms on which every fruit and product known in Cuba is under cultivation; and the landscape is fringed with dense woods, wherein ebony, mahogany, cedar and even rosewood, flourish. From Monserrate it is a short drive to the Plaza de Armas, with its




CUIBA. 79
fine display 'of tropical flowers, to the Government buildings and club houses and the water front; but it is on a moonlit evening that the bay roads offer superior scenic attractions. The vivid sunlight lays bare mercilessly the faded glories of the town and the ravages of commercial ruin. By moonlight, one needs to be told of the neglected condition of these once famous drives and promenades; and the pathos of faded grandeur and exhausted fortunes makes only a transitory impression upon a sympathetic mind. San Severino Castle and the ruined fortifications are enveloped with silvery radiance. The San Juan River, with its dingy lines of crumbling warehouses, is softened and transfigured. The broad bay, with its sparkling shipping lights and the ocean beyond, foaming upon a coral ledge, are s ilhouettes to be seen, and never forgotten.
A Wonderful Cave.
The visitor has also at Matanzas a natural phenomenon which cannot be rivalled in Cuba. This is the subterranean passage through a formation of carbonate of lime, known as the caves of Bellamar. The road follows the shore of the bay'and then over the rocky hillside for a distance of five miles. The old-fashioned volante, a vehicle which has been displaced in Havana by the Victoria, is here required. It has two great wheels, on which rest the thills, with seats for




So CUBA.
three above them suspended by straps. The pony between the thills is accompanied and partly preceded by another, which the driver rides like a postilion. It is a hard, jolting drive to the caves, and a laborious descent by steps, bridges, and cavernous passages underground. Guides are in advance with long bees-wax tapers, which light up here and there recesses and corners of the high -vaulted chambers. The ceiling is hung with crystals, and the sides are buttressed with stalactites and stalagmites of bewildering beauty and lustre. The passage underground is many hundred feet in length and offers a succession of spectral lace-work combinations of crystal architecture in amber, pink, and gray. The largest of the chambers is fancifully named the Gothic Temple, and is provided with a jeweled altar, near which hangs the Virgin's cloak, embroidered with resplendent lace, and heavy with glistening pendants. The garrulous guides see all these wonders if the visitors do not, and photographs are available at the entrance, if doubts are to be removed. The tapers furnish streaks of light that are utterly inadequate to illumine these wonderful caves.




CHAPTER IV.
HOW THE ISLAND IS GOVERNED-THE CAPTAINGENERAL-- FREEDOM OF THE PRESS-LOCAL GOVERNMENTS ELECTORAL TRICKERY "NO CUBANS NEED APPLY "--TIE SPANISH SENATEDISCRIMINATION AGAINST CUBAN S-CARPET-BAGGERS TO THE FORE-IN THE LOCAL OFFICES SQUEEZING THE ORANGE THE AWFUL BURDEN OF DEBT-TREATMENT OF NATIVE INDUSTRY BAD COMMERCIAL LAWS-CUBA RUINED FOR TIlE SAKE OF SPAIN-SALAPLIED CARPET-BAGGERSINDUSTRIES DRIVEN TO BANKRUPTY-NO PUBLIC INSTRUCTION-EARLY DISCONTENT-LOPEZ AND
HIS RAIDS-THE KILLING OF PINTO.
ORRUPT and incapable administration
has always been a Spanish characteristic. Cuba has been reduced to its present extremities largely through the rapacity of the governing class in former years. If there has been a marked improvement during recent years so that the Captain-General now expects to return to Spain only with what he has saved from his salary, and the burden of direct taxation has been decreased rather than increased, it is because the industrial resources of the island have
(8I)




82 CUBA.
been exhausted through old-time methods of plundering the population and systematic violation of the economic laws of exchange. The orange has been pressed dry; even Spanish administration does not attempt to squeeze the seeds remaining on the spongy pulp. For this reason sugar planters and tobacco farmers are now frank in admitting that the direct taxes on their land and industries are not unduly high. It is the burden of indirect taxation by which the cost of living and of production is heavily increased and the exchangeable value of sugar and tobacco correspondingly reduced that is overwhelming this wonderfully fertile island with ruin.
The country is poor and impoverished ; the palaces of the nobles are deserted; there has been an extraordinary shrinkage of real estate valuations ; the treasury is exhausted with extravagant payments for an inefficient and corupt civil service and the interest on the war debt, which is held in Spain; and the municipalities are without means for ordinary public improvements and enforeing sanitary regulations. Havana is capable of becoming what Humboldt found it in his day-one of the most brilliant and imposing capitals of the world. The'old city was well built of enduring stone, which only grows harder With the lapse of time. The Cathedral, churches and public buildings were fashioned at a time




CUBA, 83
when severe and simple architecture without meretricious ornamentation was in vogue in Spain. Even the great prison, which is the most prominent object from the harbor, is not without good lines. The newer portions of the town are well laid out with broad shaded avenues, frequent squares and breathing places, a spacious alameda and a fine botanical garden adjoining the Captain-General's country seat. Even in its ruined estate, where public grounds are neglected, street pavements in great need of repair, and the whole town fairly perishing for lack of fresh paint, poor, faded Havana has an air of distinction and even grandeur.
With good administration the city could be transformed in a decade. A canal constructed so as to let the tides into the back bay would flush out a harbor that is now a cesspool and restore the healthfulness of the town. Moderate expenditures could restore the crumbling plaster of the public buildings, replace the broken lines of shade trees in the avenues, and restore the brightness and glory of the Cuban capital. Havana now awaits, like a queen in tattered, patched and soiled robes, the turn of the wheel which shall reinvest her with the dignity of her prosperous days of power and wealth. So long as Spanish administration and a ruinous economic policy continue in force, it is a lottery with blanks.




84 CUBA,
7he Captain-Generale
The chief of the Cuban Government is a Captain-General, the representative of the Crown, appointed by the home Government and accountable only to that body. Bya royal edict issued June 9th, 1878, his prerogatives are defined as follows: He is the commander of the army and navy, as well as the highest authority in Cuba, and is empowered to overrule any decision at a meeting of the superior authorities, including the courts of judicature under his presidency, and' also to withhold the execution of any order, resolution or law issued by the home Government whenever he deems it advisable to do so. Practically, he has the powers of life and death in his hands and is as absolute as a Czar.
As a rule, this office is hizhlv coveted by Spaniards, and, generally speaking, after a short rule, which rarely exceeds a term of three or four years, the majority of its incumbents return home to enjoy the fruits of the harvest, as the emoluments are considerable. The Captain-General has a salary Of $50,ooo a year, a winter palace and a country-seat, horses, carriages, attendants, a retinue of servants, and almost everything, provided for him at the expense of the Government. It is a military office, usually filled by distinguished generals, who have won their laurels in the Spanish army,




CUBA. 85
Next in rank to the Captain-General is the General of Marine or Admiral of the Port, who occupies a handsome palace, also provided by the Government, and who has carriages, horses and attendants from the same source. Then follows the Segundo Cabo, who is CaptainGeneral pro lem, during the absence of that functionary from the capital. The Civil-Governor has charge of the civil administration of Havana. The generals of artillery, cavalry, engineers, infantry and gendarmes are also provided with quarters suitable to their ranks.
The Commandant of the Navy Yard is next in rank to the Admiral of the Port, and he has a handsome residence at his post. From twelve to twenty men-of-war are stationed in the waters of Cuba, and the standing army on the island usually numbers 22,866 officers and men. Besides these military rulers there are the Governor of the Morro, of La Cabana, El Principe and other strongholds.
The chief of police of Havana is an officer of the regular army, and the divisions and subdivisions under his control consist of commissaries, aladores, constables and sergeants, who are civilians; the police force of Havana numbers 767 men, taken from the ranks of the regular army, soldiers of orden public (public order) and guardia civiles (gendarmes).




86 CUBA.
Freedom of the Press.
At the close of the rebellion, or so-called Cuban insurrection in 1878, freedom of the pre izs was established, as well as freedom of speech, but in I88I this freedom was modified by an edict requiring every editor or manager of a newspaper to send, duly signed, two copies to Government headquarters and submit two others to the District-Attorney as soon as printed,' who shall determine whether they contain any objectionable matter. By the press law the royal family and the form of government under the Spanish Constitution are tabooed subjects. Editors are often fined and the publications of their journals is suspended for going beyond the cilrcumscribed limits.
By a royal edict issued June 9, 1878, Cuba is entitled to elect to the Spanish Cortes one representative for every 40,000 white and colored inhabitants. By another decree, issued shortly after, the island was divided into six provinces. Still another, issued June 21, 1878, provided municipal laws, supplemented with requisite election laws. In each province the administration of affairs is committed to an Assembly, elected by the people, and a Governor sent out from Spain, the incumbent being an officer of the Spanish army. The province is entitled to three representatives for every one of its judicial diSO




CUBA. 87
tricts, except that no province shall elect more than twenty or less than twelve representatives. As soon as the provincial representatives are elected they meet and nominate by ballot three candidates from among themselves, one of whom is chosen president by the Captain-General, who may, in accordance to the same law, discard their candidate and choose another to preside over it. The Provincial Governor selects five Assemblymen as members of the Provincial Cbmmittee and submits their names to. the Captain -General for ratification. This committee serves as arbiter or counsellor when called on in reference to any municipal election, and performs various duties during the recess. The vice-president of this committee is appointed from among the members by the Captain-General, at the suggestion of the Provincial Governor, who, when it suits him, may preside over any sitting, with the right to vote.
Local Governments.
Provincial representatives are elected for four years, but one-half are replaced every two years by new ones. Their biennial election occurs during the first fortnight of September. The assemblies meet at the capital ot their provinces on the first working day of the fifth and tenth months of the fiscal year. If during that period anything should happen to render discussions or debates dangerous, the Provincial Gov-'




88 CUBA,
ernor is obliged to prorogue the Assembly and advise the Captain-General of that fact immediately. He is likewise authorized to suspend any Provincial Assembly in a body when the preservation of public order may so require.
According to the municipal law, the smallest number of inhabitants entitled to self-government is 500, who may elect five Aldermen, at every meeting of whom the Provincial Governor is entitled to preside. The board levies municipal taxes.
Cuba possesses two judicial divisions, those of Puerto Principe, with jurisdiction over the adjoining province of Santiago de Cuba, and of Havana, with jurisdiction over the remainder. First comes the high court, called Tribunal Supremo; then provincial courts, "Audiencias Territoriales"; country magistrates, "Tribunales de Partido"; court of first instance, "Juggado de Instruccion"; municipal courts, Tribunales Municipales, and justices of the peace, "Jueces de Paz." By a decree issued in January, 1891, the civil and criminal courts are incorporated into one, and this measure has been highly displeasing to Cubans.
Electoral Trickery.
In order to render the native Cuban powerless in his own country, Spain, legislating for Cuba without restriction, as it does, and only to




CUBA., 89
give him an electoral law so artfully framed as to accomplish two objects: First, to reduce the number of voters; second, to give always a majority to the Spaniards, that is, to the European colonists, notwithstanding that the latter represent only nine and three-tenths per cent. of the total population of Cuba. To this effect it made the electoral right dependent on the payment of a very high poll tax, which proved the more burdensome as the war had ruined the larger number of Cuban proprietors. In this way it succeeded in restricting the right of suffrage to only 53,000 inhabitants in an island which has a population of i,6oo,ooo ; that is to say, to the derisive proportion of three per cent. of the total number of inhabitants.
In order to give a decided preponderance to the Span ish-Eu ropean element, the electoral law has ignored the practice generally observed in those countries where the right to vote depends on the payment of a poll tax, and has afforded all the facilities to acquire the electoral privilege to industry, commerce, and public officials, to the detriment of the territorial property (the ownership of real estate). To accomplish this, while the rate of the territorial tax is reduced to two per cent., an indispensable measure, in view of the ruinous condition of the land-owners, the exorbitant contribution of $25 is required from those




90 CUBA*
who would be electors as freeholders. The law has, moreover, thrown the doors wide open for the perpetration of fraud by providing that the simple declaration of the head of a commercial house is sufficient to consider all its employees as partners, having, therefore, the right to vote. This has given us firms with thirty or more partners. By this simple scheme almost all the Spaniards reSiding in Cuba are turned into electors, despite the explicit provisions of the law. Thus it comes to pass that the municipal district of Guines, with a population Of 13,000 inhabitants, only 5oo Of which are Spaniards and Canary Islanders, shows on its electoral list the names of thirty-two native Cubans and of four hundred Spaniards-only 0.25 per cent. of the Cuban to 8o per cent. of the Spanish population.
No Cubans Need Apply,,
But, as if this were not enough, a so-called Permanent Commission of Provincial Deputations decides every controversy that may arise as- to who is to be included in or excluded from the list of electors, and the members of this Comm ission are appointed by the Governor-General. It is unnecessary to say that its majority has always been devoted to the government. In case any elector considers himself wronged by the decision of the Permanent Commission, he can appeal to the "Audiencia" (higher court) of




..........
4"X
11 12 12 1 8 ::i
Royal 4ottery Ticket Seller, -Havana.




Bull Fight, Havana.




CUBA. 93
the district, but the "Audiencias" are almost entirely made up of European magistrates; they are subject to the authority of the GovernorGeneral, being mere political tools in his hands. As a conclusive instance of the manner in which those tribunals do justice to the claims of Cuban electors, it will be sufficient to cite a case which occurred in Santa Clara in 1892, where i,ooo fully qualified liberal electors were excluded at one time, for the simple omission to state their names at the end of the act presented by the elector who headed the claim. In more than one case has the same "Audiencia" applied two different criteria to identical cases. The "Audiencia" of Havana, in 1887, ignoring the explicit provisions of the law, excused the employees from the condition of residence, a condition that the same tribunal exacted before. The same "Audiencia" in i885 declared that the contributions to the State and to the Municipality were accumulative, and in 1887 decided the opposite. This inconsistency had for its object to sponge from the lists hundreds of Cuban electors. In this way the Spanish Government and tribunals have endeavored to teach respect for the law and for the practice of wholesome electoral customs to the Cuban colonists!
It will be easily understood now why on
some occasions the Cuban representation in the
6




94 CUBA.
Spanish Parliament has been made up of only three deputies, and in the most favorable epochs the number of Cuban representatives has not exceeded six. Three deputies in a body of 430 members! The genuine representation of Cuba has not reached sometimes 0.96 per cent. of the total number of members of the Spanish Congress. The great majority of the Cuban deputation has always consisted of Spanish Peninsulars. In this manner, the ministers of "Ultramar" (ministers of the Colonies), whenever they have thought necessary to give an honest or decent appearance to their legislative acts by an alleged majority of Cuban votes, could always command the latter, that is, the Peninsulars.
The Spanish Senate,
As regards the representation in the Senate, the operation has been more simple still. The qualifications required to be a Senator have proved to be an almost absolute prohibition to the Cubans. In fact, to take a seat in the higher house, it is necessary to have been president of that body or of Congress, or a minister of the crown, or a bishop, or a grandee of Spain, a lieutenant-general, a viceadmiral, ambassador, minister plenipotentiary, counsellor of State, judge or attorney-general of the Supreme Court, of the Court of Accounts, etc. No Cuban has ever filled any of the above positions, and scarcely two or three are grandees.




Full Text

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124 CUBA. Congress at Guaimaro, a small town in the central part of the island. Gen. Cespedes resigned to it his provisional authority as Chief of the Government, but was immediately and unanimously elected Constitutional President of the Republic. Thereupon he issued the following inaugural address to the people of Cuba: Compatriots: The establishment of a free Government in Cuba, on the basis of Democratic principles, was the most fervent wish of my heart. The effective realization of this wish was, therefore, enough to satisfy my aspirations and amply repay the services which, jointly with you, I may have been able to devote to the cause of Cuban independence. But the will of my compatriots has gone far beyond this, by investing me with the most honored of all duties, the supreme magistracy of the Republic. "I am not blind to the great labors required in the exercise of the high functions which you have placed in my charge in these critical moments, notwithstanding the aid that may be derived from the other powers of the State. I am not ignorant of the grave responsibility which I assume in accepting the Presidency of our newborn Republic. I know that my weak powers would be far from being equal to the demand if left to themselves alone. But this will not occur, and that conviction fills me with faith in the future.



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S or -Al f4 4p _41 .4, Aj, "k k;e 'o, x m it We j; q N 2 tv k ;ko' Y1.1 ei ty UNIVERSITY OZ Z J OF FLORIDA V "10o All:_c L I B R A R I E S Z )A 3i Of PF ri A 0, !06* i-A 111SIN K -MIS VOLUME HAS BEEN MICROFILMED 'By UNIVERV-SITY OF fo FLORIDA LIBRARIES6 40 AT T" V &4 _lu -"x N L i r4 kV wp In z WJ I V .1 a "I k lh, 0, -.1 ? W t -qn,> 43, F-, -, 14



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 2 T CZ normal conditions, and finally, for the freeing of this Government from the intolerable nuisance of chronic war in Cuba and continuous and enormous expense in preventing filibustering and from the constant menace to our national peace and safety. These were the grounds and they appealed to every one as moderate and absolutely just and convincing. Let some of his own words be quoted for the record. After arguing against recognition of the independence of the Cubans, he said : 11 There remain the alternative forms of intervention to end the war, either as an impartial neutral by imposing a rational compromise between the contestants, or as the active ally of the one party or the other, "As to the first, it is not to be forgotten that during the last few months the relation of the United States has virtually been one of friendly intervention in many ways, each not of itself conclusive, but all tending to the exertion of a potential influence towards an ultimate pacific result, just and honorable to all interests concerned. The spirit of all our acts hitherto has been an earnest, unselfish desire for peace and prosperity in Cuba, untarnished by differences between us and Spain, and unstained by the blood of American citizens. The forcible intervention of the United States as a neutral, to stop the war, according to the



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278 CUBA. aga-.in Weyler hurried back, without striking the long-promised blow. Attitude of the Washington Goverliment. At the beginning of December the United States Congress met. The President's message paid much attention to Cuba. "The insurrection in Cuba," said Mr. Cleveland, "(still continues with all its perplexities. It is difficult to perceive that any progress has thus far been made toward the pacification of the island or that the situation of affairs as depicted in my last annual message has in the least improved. In addition to the President's message, Mr. Olney, the Secretary of State, issued an elaborate report on the state of Cuba, in which he said: "Its effect upon the personal security of our citizens in Cuba is not the only alarming feature of the reign of arbitrary anarchy in that island. Its influence upon the fortunes of those who have invested their capital and enterprise there, on the assumed assurance of respect for law and treaty rights, is no less in point. In the nature of things, and having regard to the normal productions and trade of the island, most of these ventures have been made in the sugar and tobacco growing and stock-raising districts now given over to civil war. Exact statistics of the amount of such investments are not readily attainable, but an approximate statement shows that American interests -in actual property in the district of





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204 CUBA. could practice their thefts and sometimes their oppressions, because of the distance at which they resided from the supreme authority, public opinion, until then restrained, began vehemently to desire those liberties which, if they bring much good, contain also some evil, and especially when applied to countries that have so peculiar. a life of their own, and are without preparation for them. A people sometimes vehemently desires what is not best for it-the unknown-and when everything is denied, aspires to everythi 'ng. So it happened here. I do not blame the captains-general, nor the government of that epoch. They thought they were acting for the best; but they were separated from the people, and had about them only partisans of the slaizis quo, and very few of progress, and even these, persons of heated imagination, but cautious, did not make manifest their ideas, and even applauded acts which were carrying the ship on the reef, like those inhabitants of England who kindled bonfires to attract ships. What the War Meaint. "The ioth of October, 1868, came to open menys eyes; the eruption of the volcano in which so many passions, so many hatreds, just and unjust, had been heaped up, was terrible, and almost at the outset the independence of Cuba was proclaimed. The concessions which General Lersandi -then made were of no avail; the triumph



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The Virginius Butchery. Spanish Horsemen Trampling the Dead and the Dying Victims into the Slaughter-house Trench at Santiago de Cuba.



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Battleship Indiana*



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CUBA. 299 disputes between the Governor-General and the Legislature, the purport of this provision is apparent. It is to give judicial sanction to the Governor-General's absolutism, and to deprive the islanders of all recourse against him, no matter what he may do. The third objection is the financial one. It is provided that the Madrid Government shall fix the amount of tribute to be paid yearly by Cuba to the Peninsular treasury, and that the Cuban Legislature shall be required to appropriate that amount in full before it can even consider the question of the local Budget. It is also provided that the Madrid Government shall hereafter fix the proportion of the public debt to be assumed by Cuba. And acfainst these exactions of the Madrid Government the Cubans shall have no appeal. The enormity of the debt has already been explained. It amounts to hundreds of millions of dollars, and it has been created not for the benefit of Cuba but of Peninsular Spain. The Cubans are unwilling to have it, or any considerable part of it, laid upon them. That they will agree to a scheme under which it may all be laid upon them, and they be burdened with, a debt many times greater than any other public debt in the world, and they be compelled, moreover, to pay to Spain, for the benefit of Spain and not of Cuba, an enormous yearly tribute-that they will



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456 WAR WITH SPAIN. six shots were fired from the St. Louis's gun forward, and io6 shots from the after gun, while the little Wampatuck fired seventy-three from her 3-pounder. The conduct of the officers and crews of the St. Louis and the Wampatuck during the engagement was worthy of all praise. Segraves and his men, working with the lines on the forecastle, bravely stuck to their stations while the shells were whistling around them. The men of the engineer force not on watch rushed up and volunteered their services in passing ammunition. The officers and marines at the guns worked with a will, and fully exemplified the motto which Captain McCalla is said to have given the crew .of the Marblehead: "The best protection against the enemy's fire is the rapidity of fire directed against the enemy's guns." Line Cut off Mole St. Nicolas. After cutting the cables at Santiago de Cuba, Captain Goodrich decided to cut the French cable that runs from Mole St. Nicolas, Hayti, to Guantanamo, Cuba, about thirty miles eastward of Santiago. On the morning after the encounter with the forts of Santiago, the St. Louis and the Wampatuck appeared off Guantanamo about daylight, and the Wampatuck, with Lieutenant Jungen in command, Chief Officer Segraves, Ensign Payne, Lieutenant Catlin, eight marines and four seamen from the St. Louis on board, steamed



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64 CUB3A. crude, inexpensive and wasteful, oxen 'being employed in gri nding cane, and the machinery being of the roughest and simplest design. It is no longer either practicable or profitable to raise cane, and make sugar on a small scale. Steam has taken the place of the ox and mule, not only in the grinding mills, but to a large extent in the fields. At Soledad the cane is carried to the works by long trains running on narrow-gauge railways through the estate. It is unloaded from the cars by negroes and thrown upon a broad carrier traveling up a long incline to the rollers of the first mill. As many as fifteen men are employed in handling this moving mass of cane. When it reaches the first mill it is grou nd by rollers weighing fifteen tons and set close together. The cane is broken up and about sixty per cent. of the liquor which it contains is drawn off underneath the mill. Under the old process there was only one grinding and much of the liquor was wasted. Now the cane is ground twice and an additional fifteen per cent. of the juice is obtained. Streams of liquor from the vats of the two mills unite and pass through a strainer, one workman being employed in raking off floating refuse and preventing obstructions. The liquor is then ready to be pumped into the boiling works. The refuse of the cane after the two grind.





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6o CUBA. tons of molasses. More molasses is made here than in Cienfuegos, but. there is never anything wasted by the Cuban planters anywhere by any process of the manufacture of sugar. The centrifugating machines separate the syrup into sugar and molasses, each of the first grade. This molasses is then worked over a second time with more syrup, and the centrifugators divide the combination into sugar and molasses, each of the second grade. This second grade of molasses is carried through a distillery and converted into rum of various, grades. In these hard times sugar-planters cannot afford to lose anything at all sweetish that comes from the cane. They sell their sugar, molasses and prime rum in New York, and their worst rum is worked off in the Mexican trade. The refuse cane makes the engines go. The processes and machinery employed here closely resemble those found elsewhere. There is one plantation, owned by the Count de Ybanex, which is operated differently. The cane instead of being ground by milling machinery is cut up into small sections and the sugar is worked out of it by water, by a process of diffusion similar to that employed in the manufacture of beet sugar. This method has been tested with satisfactory results during the last year at this plantation, and has been adopted tentatively at one ,other



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396 WAR WITH SPAIN. away before the Pedro hove to. The prize crew which was sent on board the captured vessel biad scarcely left for their new command when a blank shell was fired from one of the New York's forward guns. This was the signal for another steamer which had been sighted to westward to st Iop. She was scurrying away as fast as possible, when the flagship began a second chase. The excitement now became intense, but perfect discipline was maintained. To the great disappointment of all on board, it was presently seen that the steamer was flying the German flag. An ensign boarded her to obtain information, and she proved to be the tramp steamer Reumus, bound from Havana to Santiago. Her captain stated that he knew nothing about the war, and the American ensign accordingly made the usual apologies and returned to the flagship,, the Reumus proceeding on her way Shots from Morro castle. The Pedro was captured on April 24. The preceding night the first shots were fired at-our fleet from Morro Castle. The flag-ship New York was engaged in signalling with lights to the other members of the fleet when the firing began. Captain Chadwick of the New York 'was asleep at the time. The firing from the forts was. at once reported to him by the officer of the deck, and the signal officer asked in excited tones



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 393 on the westward, gradually approaching to round out of the Gulf.About seven o'clock it could be seen to be a two-masted black-hulled merchantman flying the Spanish flag. Suddedny the Nashville left the line of Captain Sampson's squadron, and steamed at full speed westward towards the Spaniard. A moment after breaking from the line she fired a shot from her port side, which struck the water a hundred yards wide of the Spanish merchantman. The latter wai half a mile off, and held on her way without heeding the shot. The Nashville pressed on in full chase. Two minutes after the first shot she tried another, which passed within a rod of the Spaniard's bows and struck the water a mile beyond. On seeing this, the merchantman immediately reversed her engines. The Nashville was now close by. The Spaniard struck her colors at 7.15, a. in., and waited. By then the Nashville was alongside, with every starboard gun trained against the merchantman. The United States vessel lowered her whaleboat, and Ensign Magruder-a name known to an earlier generation in the American navy-' with a small prize crew, boarded the stranger, who proved to be the Buenaventura, laden with lumber. The United States torpedo-boat Foote was up alongside in a few minutes. The Spanish vessel's papers were at once handed over, and taken by the Foote to Admiral Sampson's flagship.



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206 CUBA. and by the advantage of ground and their familiarity with it, they defeated large columns with hardly a battalion of men. Hunger in the villages swelled the ranks of the enemy. They almost put us on the defensive, and as we had to guard an immense property, the mission of the army became very difficult. "The instability of governments in Spain, the oantonal war first, and the civil war afterward, encouraged our enemies, who began to doubt in proportion as the throne of Don Alfonso became firm, and when they found themselves shut up in villas and unable to carry out their project of extending the war to Matanzas and Cardenas. But public spirit had decayed, and the invasion of Spiritus and Villas marked a fatal period. It was our fortune that the military man who commanded against them had not, because a foreigner and because of his character, in spite of his courage, the sympathy of his subordinates, and that the battle of Palma Sola subdued his energy. But the war went on languidly for ,want of forces, public sentiment growing weaker, and the army remembering too well its reverses. The principal of authority was strengthened, and I believe that, with more resources, we should have triumphed in 1875 and 1876. ",The insignificant affairs of the railway of Spiritus, the attack on Villa Clara, Ciego, de Avila,



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"I "N., Cb ............. NA so VON' a Cb MI. *40



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,346 WAR WITH SPAIN. Queen had to leave the throne and let General Espartero govern the country. Her personal life was marked with immoralities that were the scandal of all Europe. Finally, in' 1868, she was driven from the throne by a revolution, and Marshal Serrano, one of her lovers, and the reputed father of her son, became the head of a provisional government. In 1870 she formally abdicated in favor of her son. But the Spanish people had had enough of that family, so Amadeus, Duke of Aosta, son of Victor Emmanuel, King of Italy, was called to the throne. He had a stormy reign of three years and then abdicated. For two years thereafter, Spain had a succession of dictatorships and attempts at republican government, and a continuous struggle with the Carlists. At last Serrano regained supreme power, and, in January, 1875, gave the crown to Prince Alfonso, son of the ExQueen Isabella. The Prince accepted and was recognized by all the European powers as King. The Carlists were soon subdued and peace restored. Then for a few years the much troubled country had peace. The Latest Chapter. Alfonso I. married the Spanish Princess, Mercedes. After her death he married Marie Christina, an Austrian Princess. At the end of 1885 he died leaving two infant daughters, the



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412 WAR WITH SPAIN. the Spanish, but they were larger and better ships, and he felt no doubt as to the result of an engagement. On April 27 he set out for the scene of battle. It was announced that the Spanish fleet would come out of the harbor and meet him in the open sea. Meantime the land defences of the harbor were strengthened, and the Spanish Governor issued various proclamations, defying and vilelycalumniating the Americans. One of his proclamations declared that ,the American people are composed of all social excrescences, who have exhausted our patience and provoked war with their perfidious machinations, their acts of treachery and their outrages against the law of nations and international conventions." The proclamation proceeded to say: "A squadron manned by foreigners, possessing neither instruction nor discipline, comes to the Archipelago, with the ruffianly intention of robbing us of all that means life, honor and liberty. The aggressors shall not profane the tombs of your fathers. They shall not gratify their lustful passions at the cost of your wives and daughters. They shall not cover you with dishonor or appropriate the property your industry has accumulated as a provision for your old age. They shall not perpetrate any of the crimes inspired by their wickedness and covetousness because your valor and patriotism will suffice to punish this miserable people,



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502 WAR WITH SPAIN. The Dolphin landed water arnd ammunition, as an attack was expected on the return march, but none was made. Evidently the Spaniards were too thoroughly beaten to attempt further fighting. The marines did not reach the American camp until after nightfall; and, as they had been without food since the early morning, they were thoroughly exhausted. But there were no more Spanish attacks upon Camp McCalla.



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130 CUBA. were not attacked by the disease at all, spent their time in drilling and preparing for further operations. The burning of sugar plantations became general. More than i 6o large plantations belonging to Cubans were confiscated by the Spaniards, who hoped to get much money out of the crops. To prevent this, the insurgents raided these plantations and destroyed the cane by fire. In November the Cuban Junta in the United States was reorganized at New York, andbegan doing excellent service for the patriot cau se. The sympathy of the American people with the Cubans was very strong and well-nigh universal. It was openly expressed by President Grant in his message to Congress in December. He took, however, the ground that "the contest had at no time assumed the conditions which amount to a war in the sense of international war, or which would show the existence of a political organization of the Insurgents sufficient to justify a recognition of belligerency. A Special M~essage* Six months later, in June, 1870, President Grant deemed the matter of such importance as to require discussion in a special message to Congress in which he said: "During the six months which have passed the condition of the insurgents has not improved, and the insurrection itself, although notsubdued, exhibits no signs of advance,



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14 CONTENTS. CHAPTER XVIII. The War in the Far East-The Opposing Fleets-Panic at Manila-Entering Manila Bay-The Battle of Manila-The Spaniards Brave but Beaten-A Halt for Breaktast-Finishing the Job-An Unrivalled Performance-Telling the News-The President Thanks Dewey-Dewey's Record-Taking Possession of the Philippines ............41 CHAPTER XIX With the Blockading Fleet-Shelling Matanzas-Other Ships Join in-Getting Closer to the Mark-" Cease Firing "-Aboard Ship-Scenes on the New York -The Men at the Guns-Sick Men wanted to be in it-Blanco's Mule Story-Cavalry Against Navy -The Admiral Teaches another Lesson-The Cardenas Tragedy-Helpless Under Fire-The Fatal Shot-Damage to the Enemy-Ensign Worth Bagley-The Gussie's Failure-Bombarding San JuanThe Battle of Santiago de Cuba-Spaniards on the Run-Line Cut off Mole St. Nicolas ......431 CHAPTER XX. The Voyage of the Oregon-No Thought of War-Fine Work at Sea-In the Straits of Magellan-Good-by to the Slow Vessels-End of the Great Voyage-A Remarkable Speed Record-Her Size and Her Armament-The Oregon's Commander .. ..... 459 CHAPTER XXI. The Spanish Cape Verd Fleet-Seeking the SpaniardsNews at Last-Santiago de Cuba-The First Attack -A Peep into the Harbor-Firing Big GunsResults of the Shooting-"Sealing the Cork"-The Search for the Survivors-Waiting for Hobson's Return-What Hobson Did. ............. .474



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188 CJI3A. were subjected to the law which imposed the penalty of death on all who should treat with us except on the basis of independence. "In spite of the assurances which Varona gave me, I cherished no hope of result with Camuguey, that I believed that it was not yet time, that his presumption was not sufficiently humbled, but that I was confident that the greater part of the guerrilla parties of Manzanillo, and perhaps of Bayamo, would disband. Rebel Dissensions. "In spite of the obstacles which arose in the business, the result answered my expectations, though I will not conceal that the government of the insurgents, by its treatment of the committee, contributed not a little to deepen the dissensions that existed among them. But that act of brute violence met with a prompt chastisement in the capture of the president of the executive council, and the death of the speaker of the congress, which delayed more than forty days a meeting for the choice of a new one, and the very active pursuit to which they were exposed, in spite of the rains which lasted longer than usual. The idea of peace introduced into their camp, which they had the baseness to attribute to me, though they asserted that I proposed it through weakness, began to take root among the masses, and the impulse from below upward reached the



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CU3A. 1 75 and the vessel crept cautiously along the narrow, but clearly marked channel which leads to the smooth water where the 'Virginius' was supposed to be lying. "As soon as the 'Despatch' was sighted from shore, the Spanish flag, bearing the crown, notwithstanding the republic abolishing that monarchical emblem, was flung to the breeze. We discovered a black side-wheel steamship lying about a mile beyond the fort. It was the IVirginius.' No other craft, except two or three coasting steamers, or fishing smacks, was then visible, and it was not until we were about to come to anchor that we discerned a Spanish sloopof-war lying close under the shore, about two and a hale miles away. "Very soon a boat from the Spanish man-of war came alongside of the 'Virginius,' and immediately the Stars and Stripes were raised by Spanish hands, and again floated over the vessel which carried Ryan and his unfortunate comrades to their death At the same moment we saw by the aid of field-glasses, another boat let down from the Spanish vessel. It proved to be the captain's gig, and brought to the 'Despatch' a naval office in full uniform, who proved to be Senor de la Camera, of the Spanish sloop-of-war Favorita.' He stepped briskly forward, and was met at the gangway by Capt. Rogers and



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 497 Engineers-Companies C and E, 9 officers, 200 enlisted men. Signal Corps-One detachment, 2 officers and 45 enlisted men. Trhe Trip to Cuba. This great fleet of troopships and its powerful naval escort, headed by the battleship Indiana, presented the most imposing spectacle of the kind ever seen in American waters. From Key West the procession moved to Rebecca Shoal, near Dry Tortugas, and then steered for the eastern end of Cuba, the objective point being the harbor of Santiago, where the Spanish fleet was held prisoner by the American ships of war. The voyage was made carefully and without mishap, and at noon of June 20 the whole fleet was off the harbor of Santiago. A conference was at once held by General Shafter, Admiral Sampson, and the Cuban General Garcia, to consider the best place for landing. It was decided to make a naval demonstration at the entrance to the harbor and a little west of it, to attract the attention of the Spanish troops thither and then to hurry the troops ashore at Baiquiri, some miles to the eastward. This was done with eminent success. Landing was begun on the morning of June 22, and by the afternoon of the next day all were ashore without mishap. The Cuban insurgents aided materially



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 553 form was given to the vague rumors afloat at Washington and other capitals that Spain was about to sue for peace with the United States, when M. Jules Cambon, the French Ambassador, charged with the care of Spanish interests in this country, formally advised the President, in a personal Interview, that the Madrid Government earnestly desired a speedy termination of the present war. President McKinley received the overtures amiably, and supplemented his verbal assurances of his willingness to discuss terms of peace, with a formal note acknowledging the overtures made from Madrid, and outlining the conditions under which negotiations could be seriously begun. Trhe Trerms Offered., The President's proposition of preliminary terms of peace was as follows: "The President does not now put forward any claim for pecuniary indemnity, but requires the relinquishment of all claim of sovereignty over or title to the island of Cuba, as well as the immediate evacuation by Spain of the island; the cession to the United States and immediate evacuation of Porto Rico and other islands under Spanish sovereignty in the West Indies, and the like cession of an island in the Ladrones. "The United States will occupy and hold the city, bay and harbor of Manila pending the con-



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368 WAR WITH SPAIN. Terror, Captain Nicholl Ludlow. Iron, lowfreeboard coast-defence monitor, 3,990 tons; 3,oo000 horse-power; 10 knots speed. Armament-Four Io-inch breech-loading rifles, two 6-pounder and two 3-pounder rapid-fire guns, two 37mm. Hotchkiss revolving cannon and four Gatlings. Cincinnati, Captain Colby M. Chester\ Protected cruiser, 3,1I83 tons; 10,000 horse-power; 19 knots speed. Armament-Ten 5-inch and one 6-inch rapid-fire guns, eight 6-pounder and four I-pounder rapid-fire guns and two Gatlings. Detroit, Commander John H. Dayton. Cruiser, 2,oo000 tons; 5,200oo horse-power; 18 knots speed. Armament-Eight 5-inch and two 6-inch rapid-fire guns, six 6-pounder and two I-pounder rapid-fire guns and two Gatlings. Montgomery, Commander George A. Converse. Description identical with that of the Detroit. Marblehead, Commander Bowman H. McCalla7 Description same as Detroit. Dolphin, Commander Henry W. Lyon. Dispatch-boat, 1,485 tons; 2,240 horse-power; 15 knots speed. Armament-Two 4-inch and two 6-pounder rapid-fire guns, two 37mm. Hotchkiss revolving cannon and two Gatlings. Wilmington, Commander Chapman C. Todd. Sheathed cruiser, 1,392 tons; i,6oo horse-power; 13 knots speed. Armament-Eight 4-inch, six



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"N A Panorama of Havana.



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CHAPTER III. THE INDUSTRIES OF CUBA-A COFFEE PLANTATIONPREPARING COFFEE FOR MARKET-HAVANA CIGARS-A CIGAR FACTORY-SUGAR PLANTATIONS AND MILLS-HOW SUGAR IS MADECATHEDRAL AND CUSTOM HOUSE-THE DANSE DU VENTRE IN CUBA-THE BULL RING-THE TOMB OF COLUMBUS-AMONG THE PAWN-SHOPS -A HARD BARGAIN-MATANZAS-A WONDERFUL CAVE. HE PRINCIPAL agricultural products of Cuba are sugar, coffee and tobacco. In former years indigo was extensively cultivated, but that industry has greatly declined. The sugar industry has also been injured by the development of beet sugar production in various other countries. Still, the sugar plantations and mills, which include both refineries and distilleries for the production of rum, are the most important industrial establishments of the island. The bulk of the sugar is shipped to the United States. Next in importance is the coffee industry, which was established in 1748, the seeds having been brought from San Domingo. Tobacco is indigenous to Cuba, and is famous over the world for its fine quality. Hundreds of millions of cigars are exported every year, beside many million pounds of leaf tobacco. (48)



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302 CUBA. utterances, and appointed another and more acceptable man to take his place. Destruction of the Maine. The evening of February 16, 1898, witnessed the most appalling tragedy the United States has suffered since its own civil war. This was nothing less than the destruction of the warship Maine in Havana harbor, and the death of more than 250 of her officers and men. The disaster came with awful suddenness, in the form of an explosion. Captain Sigsbee, commander of the ill-fated ship, thus describes it: "On the night of the explosion I had not retired. I was writing letters. I find it impossible to describe the sound or shock, but the impression remains of something awe-inspiring, terrifying-of noise, rending, vibrating, all-pervading. There is nothing in the former experience of any one on board to measure the explosion by. "After the first great shock-I cannot myself recall how many sharper detonations I heard, not more than two or three-I knew my ship was gone. In such a structure as the Maine, the effects of such an explosion are not for a moment in doubt. "I made my way through the long passage, in the dark, groping from side to side, to the hatchway, and thence to the poop, being among



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286 CUBA. the country between Havana and the Trocha on the Mariel side, under General Figueron and two colonels. Maceo had only been three days in the province of Havana, and the Madrid Government was much displeased when it heard that he had passed the Trocha and that for forty-eight hours the news had been kept secret from their General. The Final Tragedy. It would have gone hard with General Weyler if Maceo had succeeded even in making only a rapid dash to the suburbs of the capital, as he intended. The fortune of war favored the Governor-General of Cuba. As he was hurrying back post-haste with seven battalions, several squadrons, and mountain artillery-as soon as General Ahumada had informed him that his enemy was on the Havana side of the TrochaMaceo fell in an obscure fight with a small Spanish column of four hundred and eighty men, commanded by a Major Cirujeda, who only became aware of the significance and importance of his brush with the rebels when he was retiring towards Havana with his wounded and dead. He then discovered that a bugler and a guide of his column had found important papers, documents, arms, clothing, a field diary, field glasses, and watches, which showed that the bodies rifled by them were those of Maceo and his Aide-de-Camp,



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534 WAR WITH SPAIN. possible delay, and be permitted to take portable church property with them. Discussing Terms. The clause in regard to church property was especially interesting in view of the fact that when the Americans first threatened to bombard the city the Archbishop of Santiago and the priests and nuns came out to the American lines and demanded safe convoy out of the city. They were told to go back and point out to the Spanish officers the foolishness of further resistance. There was a good deal of discussion regarding the arms of the Spaniards. They were anxious to retain them. It was finally settled that they should give them up. The Americans declared that the point was of trivial importance. They suspected that the Spaniards only wanted to gain time. The Commissioners argued all the morning and until late in the afternoon, when an understanding was arrived at. The conditions stated were accepted: the Spanish to leave the city with military honors, but surrendering their arms before leaving. The Spaniards also agreed to co-operate with the Americans in destroying the mines and torpedoes at the entrance to the harbor and in the bay. .IThe agreement was signed in duplicate by all the Commissioners on each side, and each



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 377 8-inch smooth-bore guns, two 20-pounder breechloading rifles, two smaller guns and four 37mm. Hotchkiss cannon. Alliance, Commander Albert Ross. Bark, 1,500 tons; 550 horse-power; 9 knots speed. Armament-Four 4-inch, two 6-pounder, two 3pounder, one i-pounder rapid-fire guns and one Gatling. Adams, Commander William C. Gibson. Bark. Description similar to Alliance. Mohican, Commander George M. Book. Bark, 1,9oo tons; 613 horse-power; io knots speed. Armament-Eight 9-inch smooth-bore guns, one 8-inch muzzle-loading rifle, one 6opounder, one 20-pounder, one 3-inch breechloading rifle, two 37mm. Hotchkiss cannon and one Gatling. Auxiliary Fleet. Yankee, Commander Willard H. Brownson. Cruiser; 4,659 tons; 15 knots speed. Armament-Four 5-inch breech-loading rifles, smaller guns not decided on. Dixie, Commander Charles H. Davis. Description same as Yankee. Prairie, Commander Charles J. Train. Description same as Yankee. Yosemite, Commander William H. Emory.7 Description same as Yankee. St. Paul, Captain Charles D. Sigsbee. Crui-



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238 CUBA. men wounded. Colonel Canellas was slightly wounded in the left foot, and had his horse killed under him, whilst his chief of staff also lost his horse. The artillery officer, Captain Gonzalez Gomez, was severely wounded when changing the po. sition of his guns towards the close of the action, and he died from the effects of his wound. Lieutenant Ruiz, another of the wounded officers, suffered amputation of the right leg. Battle of Peralejo. Another important encounter was that ol Yuraguanas, where the Spaniards were routed, leaving on the field seventy-seven dead and much arms, ammunition and baggage. After some other minor encounters the important battle of Peralejo was fought. The Spaniards were commanded by General Campos himself and the Cubans by General Maceo. The former were utterly routed, losing over 400 men, among them one of their generals. Martinez Campos himself came very near falling into the hands of the Cubans. Next came the capture of Baire by the Cubans, afterwards the battle of Decanso del Muerto, the Spaniards suffering heavily and abandoned their arms, ammunition and baggage. The accessions during August and September to the army under Gomez in Camaguey and to that in Santa Clara, commanded by Roloff, Sanchez and Rodriguez, encQuraged General



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The Butchery of the Crew of the Virginius." Scene at the Slaughter-house the Moment before the Execution. Captain Frey Bidding his Companions Farewell.



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Puerto de Sol, Madrid, Spain.



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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 7 41. Rear Admiral Sampson.......... 379 42. Rear Admiral Dewey...............380 43. Commodore Schley .. ................397 44. Captain Sigsbee. .. .............. 398 45. Cruiser "1New York"............415 46. Battleship IIndiana"..............46 47. Battleship "Massachusetts.. .. .. .......433 48. Battleship ".Oregon"..............434 49. Battleship I"IIowa".....................451 50o Dynamite Cruiser IVesuvius"............452 51Watching the Searchlights at Havana during the Blockade. .. .......... .....469 52. Firing Six Pounders .. .. ............470 53. Action on a Battleship oo ....... 487 54. Action on a Monitor.... ..... .......488 55 Land Battery-Revolving Gun ...............505 56. Spanish Troops in San Juan, Porto Rico. .o 5o6 57. Climbing the Mast to Man the Turret Guns .-511 58. Mlap of Manila Bay and Forts ...... ....512 59. Panorama of Manila Harbor .................517 6o. Battle of Manila. .. .......... ... 6 1. United States Troops going to the Front.......523 62. United States Troops in Camp. .. .......524 63. Bird's-eye View of Santiago City, Harbor and Fortifications....................529 64. Naval Battle off Santiago de Cuba...........530



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 485 "I shook hands with Hobson the last of all. He said: Powell, watch the boat's, crew when we pull out of the harbor. We will be cracks, rowing'thirty strokes to the minute.' "1After leaving the Texas I saw the Merrimac steaming slowly in. It was only fairly dark then and the shore was quite visible. We followed about three-quarters of a mile astern. The Merrimac stood about a mile westward of the harbor and seemed a bit mixed, turning completely around. Finally, heading to the east, she ran down and then turned in. "We were then chasing him because I thought Hobson had lost his bearings. When Hobson was about three hundred yards from the harbor the first gun was fired, from the eastern bluff. We were then half a mile off shore, close under the batteries. The firing increased rapidly. We steamed in slowly and lost sight of the Merrimac in the smoke which the wind carried off ashore. It hung heavily. "Before Hobson could have blown up the Merrimac the western battery picked us up and began firing. They shot wild, and we heard only the shots. We -ran in still closer to the shore, and the gunners lost sight of us. "Then we heard the explosion of the tor-, pedoes on the Merrimac.



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PREFACE. cH E HISTORY of the world is largely a history of wars. Whether or not it is true that civilization gets forward upon a powder-cart, it is undeniable that the powder-cart keeps well up with the procession. The present work is a record of two wars, closely associated together, and both making especially direct appeal to the sympathies of the American people. It was in a wvar that our own freedom and independence were wvon. We cannot, then, regard with indifference the much longer and not less heroic struggles of Cuba for the same great blessings. They have been conducted almost within sight of our own shores, and have materially affected our own interests. They. cannotbe forgotten while liberty is loved or valor appreciated. Neither can the story of them, told as it 1s in this volume, in hot blood, directly from the field of suffering and strife and triumph, be other than fascinating to the student or to the patriot. It had been the lot of this country to wage three great wars before the present. The first was for independence. The second was for soy(3)



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CUBA. 125 "In the act of beginning the struggle with the oppressors, Cuba has assumed the solemn duty to consummate her independence or perish in the attempt; and in giving herself a Democratic Government she obligates herself to become a Republic. This double obligation, contracted in the presence of free America, before the liberal world, and, what is more, before our own conscience, signifies our determination to be heroic and to be virtuous. On your heroism I rely for the consummation of our independence, and on your virtue I count to consolidate the Republic." Two days afterward there appeared a proclamation issued to the army by Gen. Quesada, the Commander-in-Chief. It urged the Cubans to wage brave and vigorous warfare against their oppressors and reminded them of the ferocious character of the Spanish leaders. He said: "I implore you, sons of Cuba, to recollect at all hours the proclamation of Valmaseda. That document will shorten the time necessary for the triumph of our cause. That document is an additional proof of the character of our enemies. Those beings appear deprived even of those gifts which Nature has conceded to the irrational-the instinct of foresight and of warning. We have to struggle with tyrants, always su.ch-the very same ones of the Inquisition, of the conquest, and of



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314 WAR WITH SPAIN. This was done without any negotiation with the Insurgents and without any assurance that they would accept the offer. As a matter of fact, it was perfectly well known that the Insurgents would not accept the offer. This move on the part of the Spanish Government was evidently a mere ruse or pretext for delay, which the United States Government recorded at its real value. Then the Prime Minister issued a call for the Cortes to assemble on April 20th, five days earlier than had been intended. This was evidently done for the purpose of expediting, if possible, preparations for war and also on making some representations that might have effect upon the other powers of Europe. Trhe President's Message. At last, on April I1Ith, the President sent to Congress his long awaited message on the Cuban question. He related in detail the story of his patient dealings with Spain and her incorrigible conduct and asked for authority to intervene in Cuba, peacefully, if possible, forcibly, if necessary. He gave hi's reasons for favoring intervention in a logical and conclusive form. First, for the sake of humanity and to put a stop to starvation and massacre and all the horrible miseries that prevailed on the island; for the protection of American citizens and their property in Cuba and the restoration of American commerce to



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CuI3A. 187 was confident that with all his untrustworthiness, he would serve to open for us a way to relations which, if leading to nothing immediately, would bear fruit later. I was not mistaken in my reckoning; those unofficial relations procured us the surrender of Don Estiban de Varona, with the permission, as he told me, of the then president, D. Tomais Estrada and the capture of the latter's kinsman, Duque de Estrada. Commumicating with the Insurgents. "The moment Varona reached Manzanillo he put himself in communication with the leaders of those bands discouraged by fatigue, and at times by hunger, without resources, and who, desiring peace, did not dare to surrender, not only through fear of the treatment they might receive from us, but through distrust of each other. A few interviews and an armistice, which in a narrow neutral ground permitted our soldiers to mix with the insurgents, and the discovery by the latter in our troops not only the generous character of the Spanish army, but also how well the country people were treated in the towns, at last broke their resolution, and the desire of peace made itself so manifest that the leaders agreed to send a committee to their government to try for it. "This committee obtained some guarantees from the president, but the irreconcilables were too strong for the government, and the committee



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258 CUBA other than interested persons before accused men would be deported, and warning commanders that they would be held responsible for false answers. Without doubt General Weyler had in view the effect of this order abroad, for tbe manner in which Cubans who had never borne arms against Spain were dragged from their homes and thrown into prisons with felons, and after a few days' delay placed on board ship for what is probably the vilest penal colony on the face of the earth, had become a shame which cried aloud for redress. General Weyler, on his arrival, set at liberty a number of these civilian prisoners whom General Pando had taken from their daily occupations. The only evidence against these men was a paper purporting to be a list of the people who were aiding and communicating with the enemy. It was made up by a Spaniard. Powers of Life and Death. Said a correspondent writing from Havana on March 9: "General Weyler has removed the alcaldes of all towns in whom he had not absolute confidence, and has appointed the ranking military officers of regular troops of volunteers alcaldes or mayors. These men possess arbitrary powers. Under the proclamation the life or death of any man, woman or child in their zone is in their



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 527 Down Came the Colon's Flag. At 1. 15 o'clock he headed for the shore, and five minutes later down came the Spanish flag. None of our ships was then within a mile of her, but her escape was cut off. The Texas, Oregon and Brooklyn closed in on her and stopped their engines a few hundred yards away. Commodore Schley left the Brooklyn in a small boat and went aboard the Cristobal Colon and received the surrender. Meantime the New York, with Admiral Sampson on board, and the Vixen were coming up on the run. Commodore Schley signalled to Admiral Sampson: "We have won a great victory; details will be communicated." It Was Schley's victory. The victory certainly was Commodore Schley's. Then for an hour after the surrender in that little cove under the high hills was a general Fourth of July celebration, though a little premature. Our ships *cheered one another, the captains indulged in compliments through the megaphones, and the Oregon got out its band, and the strains of the "Star-Spangled Banner" echoed over the line of Spaniards drawn up on the deck of the last of the Spanish fleet, and up over the lofty green-tipped hills of the Cuban mountains. Commodore Schicy coming alongside the Texas from the Cristobal Colon in his gig, called out cheerily, "It was a nice fight, Jack, wasn't it?"



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WAR WITH SPAIN, 333 further strengthen their system of self-satisfied exclusiveness. This is sufficient reason why the European States should, though -observing strict neutrality, keep a wary eye on the happenings over there. "For the Americans, however, the same law exists which has prevailed throughout the entire history of mankind, and the abuse of which has ever been revenged most terribly on nations and monarchs-that is, the law of temperance. If the Americans abuse this law, not even the fact that they are Americans will protect them from the fatal consequences of their recklessness. For over them, as well as over Spain, the indisputable history of the world sits in judgment,"



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514 WAR WITH SPAIN. officers handling the troops with bravery and good judgment. As in all of their fighting, so far, however, they did most of their work under cover, rarely showing themselves in large bodies in the open. The American loss was nearly a thousand in killed and wounded, and the Spanish loss at least twice as great. The battle ended with the Americans encamped within a mile of the walls of Santiago; but General Shafter thought it best to await the arrival of re-enforcements before attacking the city. Work of the Fleet. Our fleet was too far away to take part in the battle proper, but it did some effective firing at the fortifications of Aguadores, on the coast. The target was an old stone fort, flying the Spanish flag. When the small shells hit its battlements, almost hidden by green creepers, fragments ot masonry came tumbling down. A shot from the Suwanee hit the eastern parapet and it crumbled away. Amid the smoke and debris the flagstaff was seen to fall forward. "The flag has been shot down !" shouted the ships' crews, but when the smoke cleared away the emblem of Spain was seen to be still flying and blazing brilliantly in the sun, though the flag staff was bending toward the earth. Apparently



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er B/~o /,. I* -1 Afro 0P-5 /117 &V ~ K.01 MaxfMnl ByadFrs



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CUBA. 149 perhaps Matanzas and Cardenas excepted. Man. zanillo, like Cienfuegos, is a comparatively new town. Its level territory, for a distance of ten to twelve leagues from the Sierra Maestra, was cut up into sugar estates, many of which have been burned or abandoned, while the others simply exist at the insurgents' discretion. No man can venture half a league out of town at night; no man can travel even by day to Bayamo, a few leagues off, without an escort of at least sixty well-armed men. Yet the little seaport itself is considered safe from a coup de main, as it has been hastily surrounded with petty forts; it boasts a force of 400 volunteers, besides 200 1omeros, or firemen, all staunch in their loyalty; and it has, besides, regular troops everywhere quartered in the environs. Every place in these districts, however insignificant, is thus virtually an encampment. At Santiago, where is the chief command of the eastern department, life and property are somewhat safer; yet the beautiful coffee plantations established there and at Guantanamo by French fugitives from the negro insurrection of Hayti at the close of the last century have in a great measure disappeared; and what cultivation still survives depends for safety on the immediate protection of the troops-a protection precarious at the best of times, and in return for which the wants of the soldiers have to be supplied and their comforts



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414 WAR WITH SPAIN. The transport General Alava. The transport Manila. The transport Cebu, Panic at Manila. Meantime there was something much like a state of panic at Manila. The American Consul, Mr. Williams, who was warned on April 15 by cable to leave Manila, sent warning to the American residents and began negotiations with Governor-General Primo de Rivera to hand over the affairs of the American Consulate to the British Consul, E. A. Rawson Walker. Rivera professed to be ignorant of the strained relations between the United States and Spain, so he' cabled to Madrid for instructions, as Spanish consent was necessary for the transfer. Rivera temporized for several days, until the arrival of General Augusti, his successor, when thetransfer was made. The American colony at Manila consisted of twenty-five persons engaged in business. Williams warned them to wind up business and leave as soon as possible. Several went away, but the majority went on board British vessels in the harbor to await the outcome of Dewey's arrival. One American named Johnson refused to Pro. as his wife had just given birth to a child and could not be moved. Consul Williams was treated with much courtesy, but as soon as he deserted the consulate the insignia of the United



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CONTENTS. 13 CHAPTER XV. The Story of Spain-Roman Days in Spain-PelayoRise of Spanish Power-The Modern Tiberius-The Decline of Spain-Ferdinand's Bad Reign-The Carlist Revolt-The Latest Chapter-Porto Rico -Character of the Island-The Capital-An Ancient Walled City-The Philippines-Spanish Settlement in 1565-Invaded by Other Nations-Greatly Oppressed and Taxed-Some Natives UnsubduedNatives Mild and Amiable-Trade of the IslandsForeign Commerce Begins. .....334 CHAPTER XVI. Resources of the Two Combatants Compared-Armies and Navies-The Spanish Navy-United States Ships-North Atlantic Squadron-Flying Squadron -Pacific Station-Asiatic Station-UnassignedSpecial Service-Monitors-Training Ships-Auxiliary Fleet-The Spanish Soldier-The Cigarette his Solace-Bullied, Ill-treated and Robbed-The Army in Cuba-Spanish Pronunciation-West Indian Geographical Names-Cuban Proper Names -Spanish Geographical Names-Spanish Proper Names-Names of Spanish Ships ..3...... 360 CHAPTER XVII. Blockading Havana-The First Prize-Taking the Pedro -Shots from Morro Castle-In Havana-More Prizes-A False Alarm-Adventures of a Press Boat-A Smart Capture-Work of a Monitor-A Privileged French Steamer. ................. 392



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532 WAR WITH SPAIN. to the latter's cabin, but he made every effort to bear bravely the bitter defeat that had come to him. Lieutenant-Commander Wainw right had been the executive officer of the Maine. H e was aboard her when she was blown up through Spanish treachery at Havana, and was one of the last to leave her shattered hulk. Now with grim satisfaction he watched the flames and smoke roaring through the decks of the three Spanish warships. To his brother officers beside him he remarked: "The Maine is avenged." In this battle six Spanish ships were destroyed, 6oo men killed, and 1,800 taken prisoners. On the American side not a ship w as injured, and only one man was killed and two wounded. Spain's finest fleet was utterly destroyed, and the doom of Santiago was sealed. Surrender of Santiago. After the destruction of the Spanish fleet no important movements were made by the army, except to tighten its grip upon the city of Santiago by extending its lines around it more fully. Then the Spanish commander asked for terms of surrender. He at first proposed to evacuate the city if our commanders would let him do SO. But they refused. Unconditional surrender was their demand. Time was given to him to communicate with Madrid, and ,as a .result an agree-



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28 CUBA. had caused many of the latter to cross over -to Cuba, where they expected to live in security and peace. Among these was the famous chief, Hatuey, whose name stands upon the pages of history as a monument of courage and patriotism in the face of Spanish ferocity and cruelty. As soon as he learned that the Spaniards had landed, in Cuba, Hatuey collected his warriors and proceeded to oppose the invaders. But the struggle was a useless one and 'hopeless from the outset. The weapons of the Indians consisted of arrows pointed with fishbones and of clubs, the ends of which -were hardened by fire, while the Spaniards, besides protecting their bodies with heavy clothing which the weak points of the Indian arrows could scarcely penetrate, were provided with excellent swords, powerful cross-bows, some firearms and a few horses. After several encounters Hatuey fell into the hands of the Spaniards and was condemned by Velasquez to be burned at the stake. When he was already tied to the stake, and the fagots were about to be lighted, the chief was approached by a priest who began to pray that, his soul might be taken to heaven. Hearing this, Hatuey asked to which of the two places the Spaniards would go when they died' He was told that they would all certainly go to heaven. IThen," he exclaimed, resolutely, "let me-go to hell !"



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CUBA. 67 The Danse du Ventre in Cuba. "I attended," says a recent visitor, "a dramatic performance at the Alhambra one night. Three zarzuelas, or short one-act plays, are presented, and after each one a bale, or dance resembling the Cancan, is performed (in this instance) by three women and three men. The dancers are very graceful, and although the femo of the music is disconcerting to my ear, they manage to keep perfect time, which is perhaps the most remarkable feature of it. "But the dance of the evening is given by a slender and rather pretty Spanish girl, very modestly costumed and accompanied by soft, voluptuous music. She is assisted by a nimble male dancer, who circles about her with simple, yet graceful steps, advancing wildly toward her at intervals as if about to embrace her; she escapes him, however, and he himself seems to think better of it on reflection, retiring discreetly to the back of the stage where he gesticulates madly to some mysterious personage in the flies, appearing to give up the whole business as a bad job. The dance of la senorita has so far been similar to that given by Carmencita, but now her movements become nothing more than a series of wriggles and contortions of the abdomen and hips-it is, in fact, the danse du ventre exactly as seen in the Midway Plaisance, only more suggest-



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 375 14 knots speed. Armament-Four 4-inch, two 6-pounder, two 3-pounder, one I-pounder rapidfire guns, one 37mm. Hotchkiss cannon and one Gatling. New Orleans, Captain W. M. Folger. Cruiser, steel-sheathed, 3,600 tons; 7,500 horsepower; 20 knots speed. Armament-Six 6-inch, four 4.7-inch, ten 6-pounder, four I-pounder rapidfire guns and four machine guns. Built in 1896 at Elswick, England. (Formerly Brazilian cruiser Amazonas.) Gwin, Lieutenant Clarence S. Williams. Torpedo-boat. Talbot, Lieutenant William R. Shoemaker. Torpedo-boat. Special Service. Wheeling, Lieutenant-Commander Uriel Sebree. Cruiser, steel sheathed, 1,200 tons, 850 horse-power, 12 knots speed. Armament-Six 4-inch, four 6-pounder, one 3-pounder and two I-pound rapid-fire guns, one 37mm. Hotchkiss cannon and I Gatling. Miantonomoh, Captain Mortimer L. Johnson. Iron, low-freeboard, coast-defense monitor, 4,000 tons, 1,426 horse-power, 10 knots speed. Armament-Four Io-inch breech-loading rifles, two 6-pounder, two 3-pounder and one x-pounder rapid-fire guns.



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MAW ;wm Wumm .. .......... 2M Am .......... NOW! '71 FX:, 77-77 ,T. .. ........ .. 211-orro Castle, Havana.



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 401 There was no rest for Havana that night. The squadron continually shifted its position. Evidently there was a dread of torpedoes, and the greatest care was exercised. The reconnoitring and signalling went on until dawn made the electric light needless, and then the American fleet moved off in line to the east and disappeared, whilst the wearied sightseers went home to their beds, and the timid ones came from their hiding places to their own homes. More Prizes. The taking of prizes now became a matter of almost daily occurrence. On April 24 the gunboat Helena took into Key West the valuable steamer Miguel Jover, with a cargo Of 2,000 tons of cotton and staves. She was worth about $400,000. A little later the same day the gunboat Detroit captured the Catalina, a large steel steamer, of considerable value. And so it went on day after day. All sorts of Spanish ships were taken, from large ocean steamers to small fishing smacks. Now and then a ship of some other nationality was overhauled, but of course released unless she was trying to run the blockade, in which case she either turned back or was taken prisoner. The blockade was effectively maintained. One or two ships succeeded in eluding the vigilance of our squadron, but they were merely the exceptions that proved the rule. The



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CUBA. 43 ported it from other islands and from Mexico and the South American continent. Traces of goldbearing sand are found in several of the rivers, and attempts have been made at two or three places to secure the metal in paying quantities, but without success. Early in the present century silver and copper were discovered in the Province of Villa Clara, and some of the first ores found yielded no less than seven ounces of pure silver to the quintal, a quintal being 107Y4 pounds. The mines have never been properly worked, however, and thus have been regarded as unprofitable. Near Santiago, in the eastern part of the island, are some copper mines of great extent and richness. A considerable town has grown up about them and a railroad has been built to carry their product to the sea. More than fifty topis of very rich ore have been taken out daily, the best of it being shipped direct to Europe for reduction. The poorer part of it is retained and smelted on the island. These mines were worked with considerable success during the seventeenth century, but during the eighteenth century were entirely neglected. Coal is found in almost inexhaustible quantities. It is of a highly bituminous character, giving out much heat, and leaving very little ashes or cinders, In, some places it degenerates into semi-liquid form, resembling asphaltum, and in



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CUBA. 71 feetly developed human animals beat each other's heads to a jelly with two-ounce gloves ? Trhe Tromb of Columbus. One of the first conventional duties which an American visitor feels called upon to perform is to pay his tribute to the discoverer of America by visiting the Cathedral and reading the Spanish doggerel inscription near an altar with porphyry pillars. If he be uncertain whether it was the great Christopher 'who was really buried there, and not Brother Diego, who was disinterred in Santo Domingo and brought over by mistake, he needs to hasten back to the hotel and not to make a short detour in order to glance at the wr-etched little Columbus Chapel erected where the discoverer is reputed to have attended the first Mass ever celebrated in Havana-one of the most bare-faced fictions ever repeated by priest or layman. Before going more than three blocks he will be in the centre of one of the most interesting trading-places of Havana. In Compostela and adjoining streets he will be among the pawnshops, where the best bargains in the West Indies are to be made. These shops are stocked with old furniture, plate, china, jewelry, clocks, watches, firearms, fans, laces, medals and ornaments, with everything of value 'on which bankrupt or spendthrift planters, soldiers and gamblers have been able to borrow money. Three months



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BOOK I. Cuba's Fight For Freedom. TABLE OF CONTENTS. CHAPTER I. Columbus in Cuba-The Second Visit-A Chief's Exhortation-Settlement and Slaughter-Las Casas and His Work-Extinction of the Natives-De Soto -The British Conquest-Progress and Prosperity. .21 CHAPTER II. General View of the Island-The Lay of the LandThe Climate-Mineral Resources-Animal LifeVegetable Life-Cuban Scenery .... ......... 35 CHAPTER III. The Industries of Cuba-A Coffee Plantation-Preparing Coffee for Market-Havana Cigars-A Cigar Factory-Sugar Plantations and Mills-How Sugar is Made-Cathedral and Custom House-The Danse du Ventre in Cuba-The Bull Ring-The Tomb of Columbus-Among the Pawn Shops-A Hard Bargain-Matanzas-A Wonderful Cave .....48 CHAPTER IV. How the Island is Governed-The Captain-GeneralFreedom of the Press-Local Governments-Electoral Trickery-" No Cubans Need Apply "-The Spanish Senate-Discrimination Against CubansCarpet-Baggers to the Fore-In the Local Offices(9).



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194 CUBA, Campos' Motives. "The reasons I had for acting thus are three: Not to solicit from the government an authorization which could not be understandingly given at so great a distance; second, to assume all responsibility myself, leaving them in entire freedom; and third, not to give rise in Spain to hopes that might prove illusions. "Some time before the first steps had been taken toward a conference between Vincente Garcia and General Prendergast, but since the former had been chosen president of the executive council, he thought that he could not be present at it, and sent his commissioners to Banchuelo (Tunas), to which place the General came. There, after long debates, I being in direct communication by telegraph, I answered all questions, and fixed as a limit the terms which I reported the same day, 3oth of January, neutralizing the road between Tunas and the camp of the congress, so that messages and reports might pass, because we had unfortunately severely wounded their commissioner, who bore my safe conduct, which prevented the order for meeting from reaching Vicente Garcia in time. Interview with Garcia. "On the 5th he asked for an interview with me, which could not take place on the 6th at San Fernando owing to a mistake; and on the 7th he



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 443 Cavalry Against Navy. A few days later came an amusing incident. The New York was lying about two miles off shore at the picturesque harbor of Cabanas. It was early evening, and the ship's band was playing its usual dinner music, when from a hill to the eastward of Cabanas Harbor came the sound of volley firing. It was plainly a small-arms attack, though no smoke could be seen. The enemy was thought to be hidden close to the beach in front of a ruined white building, which sloped as if it had once been the hacienda of a tobacco plantation. Now and again individual firing was heard, and well-regulated volleys continued. It was estimated that a troop of cavalry, dismounted, was doing the firing. The officers of the flagship stood on her deck trying to ascertain definitely the location of the enemy, more amused than annoyed at this novel method of attacking an armored cruiser. The Admiral Treaches Another Lesson. Rear-Admiral Sampson decided that the lesson taught at Matanzas must be taught again at Cabanas. "1Man the port battery !" was the order. At a few minutes after 6 o'clock the four-inch gun in the after port battery sent a shot flying over ,the water into Cuba's 'soil, raising a little cloud of dust about one hundred yards in front of



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 373 Marietta, Captain Frederick M. Symonds. Gunboat, 1,200 tons; 850 horse-power; 12 knots speed. Armament--Six 4-inch, four 6-pounder, two I-pounder and one 3-pounder and two Gatlings. Alert, Commander E. H. C. Leutze. Gunboat, 1,020 tons; 365 horse-power; 10 knots speed. Armament, four guns. Asiatic Station. Commodore George Dewey, Commanding. Olympia, Captain Charles V. Gridley.> Protected cruiser, 5,500 tons; 13,5oo00 horse-power; 20 knots speed. Armament-Four 8-inch breechloading rifles, ten 5-inch rapid-fire guns, fourteen 6-pounder, six I-pounder and four Gatlings. Baltimore, Captain Nehemiah M. Dyer. Protected cruiser, 4,600 tons; 10,000 horsepower; 19 knots speed. Armament-Four 8inch and six 6-inch breech-loading rifles, four 6pounder, two 3-pounder and two I-pounder guns, four 37mm. Hotchkiss cannon and two Gatlings. Raleigh, Commander Joseph B. Coghlan. Protected cruiser, 3,1 83 tons; 10,000 horse-power; 19 knots speed. Armament--One 6-inch and ten 5-inch rapid-fire guns, eight 6-pounder, four Ipounder and two Gatlings. Boston, Commander Benjamin P. Lamberton. Protected cruiser, 3,189 tons; 4,030 horse-power; 15 knots speed. Armament-Two 8-inch and six



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Entered according to the Act of Congress, In the year 1898, By D. B. SHEPP, In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C. All rights reserved ptRESS OF ALFRED M. SLOCUM CO. PHILADA.



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510 WAR WITH SPAIN. Sergeant Hamilton Fish, Jr., was, the first man killed by the Spanish fire. He was near the head of the column as it turned from the wood road into the range of the Spanish ambuscade. He shot one Spaniard who was firing from the cover of a dense patch of underbrush. When a bullet struck his breast he sank at the foot of a tree with his back against it. Captain Capron stood over him shooting, and others rallied around him, covering the wounded one. After ten or fifteen minutes' hot work the firing fell off somewhat, and Lieutenant-Colonel Roosevelt ordered his men back into the trail, narrowly escaping a bullet himself. It now became evident that the Spanish were falling back and changing their position, but their fire continued at intervals. The troopers tore to the front and got into a more open part of the country than where the enemy's fire was coming from. As soon as the position had been changed the Americans poured a more terrific fire upon the Spaniards,, They had now got them into more open country where they could see them better, and it. was not long before the enemy gave way. They ran down the steep hill and up another to a blockhouse. Colonel Wood and Lieute nantColonel Roosevelt led their troopers onward, and a hail of bullets was poured upon the blockhouse. When the Americans got within



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552 WAR WITH SPAIN. After about three-quarters of an hour, two companies of the 3d Regular Artillery, under Major O'Hara, arrived to relieve the Pennsylvanians, whose ammunition was almost exhausted. They soon silenced the enemy's fire. The I st California, under Colonel Smith, and' the I st Colorado, under Colonel Hale, acted as supports. The affair lasted two hours. But notwithstanding the tremendous fusillade and the heavy shell fire, only ten Americans were killed and forty-six wounded, though there were some casualties among the supports, while, during the advance of the relieving battalions, the only officers wounded were Captain Richter, of the i st California, wounded seriously in the head, and Captain Hobbs, of the 3d Artillery, wounded slightly in the leg. Tested Quality of Troops.e Although the engagement scarcely attained the importance of a battle, it thoroughly tested the quality of the United States troops, and had an excellent effect, stimulating their zeal and enthusiasm and inspiring them with confidence. It now became evident that the fall of Manila was at hand, and could be effected whenever the American commander pleased. Negotiations for Peace., But there was to be little more fighting. Peace was hand. As early as July 26. substantial



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 509 and shrieking sounds of Mauser bullets, while the short pops of Spanish rifles could be easily distinguished from the heavier reports of the American weapons. Sometimes shots came in volleys, sometimes following each other in rapid. succession for several minutes. Captain Capron's Heroic Death. Captain Capron stood behind his men, using his revolver whenever a Spaniard exposed himself. He had killed two, and was just preparing to fire again, at the same time shouting orders to his troopers, when he was shot through the body. His troop was badly disconcerted for an instant, but as he fell he cried out, "Don't mind me, boys; go on with the fight." Sergeant Bell stood by the side of Captain Capron when the latter was mortally hit. He had seen that he was fighting against terrible odds, but he never flinched. "1Give me your gun a minute," he said to the sergeant, and, kneeling down, he deliberately aimed and fired two shots in quick succession. At each a Spaniard was seen to fall. Bell in the mean time had seized a dead comrade's gun, and knelt beside his captain and fired steadily. When Captain Capron fell he gave the sergeant parting messages to his wife and father, and bade the sergeant good-by in a cheerful voice, and was then borne away dying.



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274 CUBA. under the command of the General-in-Chief, Maximo Gomez. The other was in Pinar del Rio, under the dashing Lieutenant-General, Antonio Maceo. The latter gave the Spanish by far the more trouble. Frequent raids and forays menaced even Havana itself. Weyler constructed another trocha across the island, west of Havana, which, he boasted, would keep Maceo and his men shut up in Pinar del Rio until they were starved into submission. But this boast was vain. The rich province furnished ample supplies for the maintenance of the patriot army for an indefinite time, while arms and ammunition were easily smuggled in by small, fleet vessels from the United States, Mexico and elsewhere. Moreover, more than a few successful attacks were made upon the trocha itself, and patriot bands succeeded in crossing and recrossing it almost at will. The "Competitor" Case. In April the "Competitor," a small schooner of American registry, eluded the vigilance of the Federal authorities, took on board men and supplies, presumably intended to aid the Cuban insurgents, and reached the coast of that island near San Cayetano. Being discovered by the Spanish coast guard, a conflict ensued, resulting in the capture of a number of those on board, as well as the seizure of the vessel, The prison-



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250 CUBA. Seventh-Those who by the same means shall praise the enemy. Eighth-Those who shall furnish the enemy with horses or other resources of warfare. Ninth-Those who act as spies will be punished to the fullest extent of the law. Tenth-Those who shall act as guides to the enemy and fail to surrender themselves immediately, and give proof of their loyalty and report the strength of the force employed by the enemy. Eleventh-Those who shall adulterate the food of the army or alter the prices of provisions. Twelfth--Those using explosives in violation of the decree of October 17th, 1895. Thirteenth-Those who shall use pigeons, rockets or signals to convey news to the enemy. Fourteenth-The offenses above mentioned are punishable by the penalty of death or life imprisonment, the judges to take summary proceedings. Fifteenth-All orders conflicting with the foregoing are hereby revoked. Passports and Credentials. The second proclamation was as follows: First-All the inhabitants of the country within the jurisdiction of Sancti Spiritus and the provinces of Puerto Principe and Santiago will present themselves at the headquarters of a division, brigade or column of the army, and pro-



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41 04, IN t f JW* 777 Cuban Family at Home.



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CUBA. 263 Fifteen Days' Grace. "(5-The military governors of Havana and Pinar del Rio will present reports to the Captain-General. "(6) -The authorities of the villages who will show themselves friendly within a term of ten days, and those of the vicinity of the same, and all those within its limits that are engaged in the insurrection, are warned to surrender themselves within the space of fifteen days from the publication of this proclamation, otherwise they will be subject to arrest;and well-disposed persons will be held to their civil responsibilities, and to effect this it will be proposed to the Governor-General to nominate a body which will see to carrying this out. "(7-If, in the case of insurgent parties who have sacked, robbed, burned or committed other outrages during the rebellion, any one will give information as to the participation that such persons may have had in them, not only those who may have been in the rebel ranks, but also those who have. succored them, or who have, not remained in their homes, they will be fittingly punished; and, moreover, if any town or other place where robberies have been effected is known to them, they will be required to make identification that proper responsibility may be fixed.



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178 CUBA, tamn Whiting should have discharged the duty. A quick survey by our officers showed the 'Virginius' to be in a most filthy condition. She was stripped of almost everything moveable save a few vermin, which haunted the mattresses and cushions in cabin and staterooms, and half a dozen casks of water. The decks were caked with dirt, and nuisances recently committed, combined with' mold and decomposition, caused a foul stench in the forecastle and below the hatches. In the cabin, however, the odor of carbolic acid gave evidence that an attempt had been made to make that part of the vessel habitable for the temporary custodians of the ship. Our officers were reluctant to put the men into the dirty forecastle and stowed them away into hardly more agreeable quarters afforded by the staterooms of Ryan and his butchered companions. Some attempt seemed to have been made, as shown by the engineering survey, to repair the machinery, but a few hours' work put the engines in workable order. The ship was, leaking considerably and the pumps had to be kept going constantly to keep the water down. After a few hours of hard work we got under way, but had only gone 200 yards when the engine suddenly refused to do duty, and it became necessary for the 'Despatch' to take us in tow. As we passed the fort at the entrance to the harbor the Spanish flag was rather defaiyI



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CUBA. 31 population of the island had disappeared. Some of the estimates placed the number of inhabitants of the country originally at 8oo,ooo. Others place it at no more than 400,ooo. But even taking the latter figure as correct, what a frightful destruction of human life there was in a few years! The discovery and conquest of Mexico and Peru, with their immense wealth, caused the Spanish to look upon Cuba with indifference, and for nearly 3oo years it was almost forgotten. Nothing but the geographical position of Havana saved the island from utter neglect and oblivion in Spain. It was a convenient stopping-place for ships plying between Spain and the American continent, but so little was known in Spain about Cuba that not infrequently, even as late as the latter part of the last century, official dispatches were addressed to the Island of Havana. Even after the country was yielding to the Spanish treasury millions of dollars of revenue every year, the Spaniards remained so ignorant about Cuban matters that in the laws enacted for Cuba at Madrid in 1856 a reward was offered for the killing of "foxes, ferrets, wolves and other wild beasts of prey." Of such animals not a trace had ever been discovered in the island. The only wolves and other wild beasts of prey known to the Cubans have been the Spanish office-holders.



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374 WAR WITH SPAIN. 6-inch breech-loading rifles, two 6-pounder, two 3-pounder and two I-pounder rapid-fire guns, four Hotchkiss cannon and two Gatlings. Concord, Commander Asa Walker.>yGunboat, 1,700oo tons; 3,405 horse-power; 16 knots speed. Armament-Six 6-inch breech-loading rifles, two 6-pounder, two 3-pounder, one Ipounder rapid-fire guns, two 37mm. Hotchkiss cannon and two Gatlings. Petrel, Commander Edward P. Wood. Gunboat, 890 tons; 1,513 horse-power; II knots speed. Armament--Four 6-inch breech-loading rifles, two 3-pounder, one I-pounder rapid-fire guns, two 37mm. Hotchkiss cannon and two Gatlings. Monocacy, Commander Oscar W. Farenholt. Wooden corvette, 1,370 tons; 85o horse-power; I I knots speed. Armament-Two 6o-pounder breech-10oading rifles, four 8-inch smooth-bore guns, two small guns, eight Hotchkiss cannon and one Gatling. Unassigned. San Francisco, Captain Richard P. Leary. Protected cruiser, 4,083 tons; 10,400 horse-power; 20 knots speed. Armament-Twelve 6-inch breech-loading rifles, four 6-pounder, four 3pounder, two I-pounder rapid-fire guns, three 37mm. Hotchkiss cannon and four Gatlings. Bancroft, Commander J. V. B. Bleecker. Cadet-training ship, 832 tons; 2 13 horse-power;



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288 CUBA. the native-born Cubans who sided with Spain, especially the volunteers, guerilleros, and scouts, he pointedly showed forbearance-like all the Cuban chiefs, as Marshal Campos himself has publicly stated-to the Spanish prisoners or sick that fell into his hands, sending them back to the Spanish outposts. He was the prototype of a guerillero himself-a self-made man, who, in ten years, rose to be Major-General of the insurgents in 1878, and the idol of the colored people, who fancied he would be the Cuban Toussaint l'Ouverture. The Demand for Recognition. The death of Maceo created a profound impression in the United States, and renewed the demand that this government recognize the independence of the patriots, if not, intervene in their behalf. Resolutions to that effect were reported to the Senate by the Foreign Affairs Committee; but, on intimation that the President would disregard them, were laid aside for future consideration. Their publication, however, aroused a storm of anger in Spain, curiously mixed with rejoicings over the fall of Maceo. The year 1896 closed, therefore, with matters in slaiu quo the insurgents holding their ground. Weyler for a third time in the field, but inactive, and the United States preserving an attitude Qf non-intervention and impartial neutrality,



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CUBA. 283 munition, their American rifles, and there terrible "machetes "-short swords, or cutlasses, which a Cuban handles from his boyhood as easily as he rides horses without saddles. The raiders went over Puerto Principe territory, across the Trocha del Yucaro and Moron, across the rich and fertile provinces of Santa Clara, Las Villas, and Matanzas, dodging past the Spanish columns, dashing at outposts, burning plantations, destroying mills, laying waste every field and crop, blowing up railways, cutting telegraphs, punishing and blackmailing the Loyalist planters, terrorizing the rural population, spreading alarm even in garrisoned towns and ports. At last they met the brave old Marshal Campos, and Maceo outmanceuvred, out-witted, out-marched him so completely in Santa Clara and Matanzas, that the Spanish Kingmaker and Restorer of the Bourbon Monarchy had only just enough time to return by sea to the province of Havana before Maceo himself appeared close to the capital of the island, carrying fire and sword into the wealthiest and most loyal territory of Cuba. Maceo had thus not only carried out his threat, but also hastened the resignation and disgrace of Marshal Campos. General Weyler succeeded Marshal Campos, and the subsequent history of the war consists of a succession of dashing raids by Maceo, and of futile attempts by the commander of the Span-



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394 XVAR WITH SPAIN. The New York, Indiana, and the Iowa had been lying off during this brief dram a. A number of guns were fired from the New York without any apparent object so far as those not on board could see. However, the torpedo-boat Foote soon returned to the Nashville with orders from the commander to hold the Buenaventura as a prize of war. The Nashville then escorted her to Key West. Trhe ]First Prize. The crew of the Buenaventura hung listlessly and indifferently over the rail, and gazed with sleepy curiosity at their captors. Two Spanish officers remained on the bridge, one apparently the captain. When orders came to take the prize to Key West an American sailor held her wheel, another stood on the bridge near Ensig ,n Magruder, and a third guarded the maindeck. The American sailors were armed with muskets, and had bayonets in their belts. Ensign Magruder bore only his side-arms. The crews of the Nashville and the Foote kept silent from the moment the men went aboard the Buenaventura. All the way to this harbor they made no demonstration of fhe intense exultation they must have felt at holding the first Spanish prize and prisoners. When the Nashville, convoying her first prize, arrived at Key West, all the ships in the harbor blew blasts from their steam whistles, and



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CUBA* 251 vide themselves with a document proving their identity inside of eight days from the publication of this order in their respective townships. Second-To go into the country within the radius of the column's operating therein it is now necessary to obtain a pass from the Mayor or military commander. Those failing to comply with this requirement will be detained and sent to Havana, subject to my orders. In case of doubts as to the genuineness of a pass, or if there are reasons to suppose a party to have sympathy with the rebels or giving aid, responsibility for the same will be placed upon the officer issuing the pass. Stores to be Seized., Third-All stores in the country districts must be vacated at once by their owners. Chiefs of columns must also decide as to the disposition of such property, which, while being unproductive to the country, may at the same time serve as a habitation or hiding place for the enemy. Fourth-All passes issued prior to this date are hereby canceled. Fate of Prisoners. In the third proclamation Gen. Weyler delegated full powers to proceed with military trials to the commanders of the First and Second Army Corps and the commander of the Third Division. Prisoners taken in action were to be subject to summary court martial.



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A TV 4N, M, Battleship Maine.



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 46 1 When word came from Washington to starton the voyage the Oregon had just arrived in San Francisco from drydock, and she was absolutely in perfect order in every detail. Two days were consumed in taking on coal, and on March 14 she left the Mare 'Island Navy Yard on a voyage that 'Was destined to prove a recordbreaker. Early in the trip fair weather was encountered and on April 4 she reached Callao,' after having covered 4,000 miles. At Callao a rumor was current that the Spanish residents of Valparaiso intended to do some mischief in case the Oregon put into that port. Captain Clark decided not to stop there, but to continue on to Punta Arenas. A full supply of coal was taken on at Callao, and from the day the Oregon left there, April 7, until her arrival at Key West, the, ship's crew had not a moment of shore liberty. Fine Work at Sea. The Oregon had behaved splendidly on the run down to Callao. She had met With storm after storm, and violent storms, too. She had fought a long battle with the elements, but had come out victorious without a mark. The steel plate was intact, and the guns as firm as on the day of her trial trip. Captain Clark was handed a sealed packet containing his orders. He was not to know his destination until the harbor had disappeared from view. just as 'soon as the bunkers



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150 CUBA. attended to; for it is only by cheerfully submitting to be plundered by friends that the proprietor may hope to escape being pillaged by enemies. And even when no immediate danger arises from the approach of the insurgents, the military authorities compel the planter either to maintain a large garrison at his own cost for his defense-the ordinary number is sixty men, volunteers or regulars-or else to remove all his movable property; to gut and unroof his house, lest it should afford shelter and become a stronghold to the rebels. IRuined Towns. "The prosperity of which Havana and the Western Department of the island show such splendid symptoms, contrasts very sadly with the distress and misery which meet the traveler as he proceeds eastward. You see young towns like Cienfuegos, Manzanillo, Sagua and others, which only ten years ago were rising in importance and were laying out promenades, building theatres, concert halls, and casinos, and so ministering to the only luxuries of Spanish life, suddenly stunted in their growth and, as it were, death-stricken. The population of Santiago has indeed increased, but merely by becoming the refuge of the land-owners and of the rural population whom the Civil War has driven from their homes. At this rate, homestead after home-



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CHAPTER XVII. BLOCKADING HAVANA-THE FIRST PRIZE-TAKING THE PEDRO-SHOTS FROM MORRO CASTLEIN HAVANA-MORE PRIZES-A FALSE ALARMADVENTURES OF A PRESS BOAT-A SMART CAPTURE-WORK OF A MONITOR-A PRIVILEGED FRENCH STEAMER. HE FIRST SHOT of the war was fired at seven o'clock on the morning of April 22. It was fired from a six-inch gun on the gunboat Nashville, of Admiral Sampson's fleet, blockading Havana, and the target was the Spanish merchant steamer Buenaventura, the first prize of the war. Before daylight that morning the fleet was under way to blockade the Spanish-Cuban capital. At sunrise it was slowly steaming south from Key West. There were the great battleships Indiana and Iowa, and the armored cruiser New York, the flagship of Admiral Sampson, who was in command of the squadron. These with a monitor, four torpedo-boats, an unarmored cruiser and gunboats made the first division. By six o'clock the last ship was in line. Meanwhile the crowds at the harbor saw a trail of smoke appear (392)



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4 PREFACE, ereign rights in equality with all other nations. The third was for the preservation of the Union. All three were gloriously successful, both in the triumph of our arms and in the establishment of the principles for which they were waged. The latest of our wars was for a different purpose. It was a missionary war. It was the act of a great nation that, having won for itself the blessings of freedom and popular government and made itself secure, was generous enough and brave enough to take up the gage of battle in behalf of another people struggling to be free. The record of our wars for self-interest is known to all. Here is the story of our championship of the interests of others. It forms a new and novel chapter in our nation's annals and one not less glorious than any earlier one. This record, made largely by those who saw the 'events narrated and were themselves a large part of them, is likewise to be commended to the reader, whether for study or for entertainment or for the exaltation of patriotic sentiment. It is instructive and inspiring, and fills a worthy place in the literature of "Freedom's battle, oft begun."



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154 CUBA, fire wildly into the bush without aim, till the silence of the enemy's fire assures them that the rebels have decamped, when they take possession of the abandoned field, sing out 'Victory,' and bring back a mule or a couple of naked negro children as spoils and trophies. Tactics of the Two Armies. "The real truth is that both parties are, from different reasons, interested in avoiding encounters and prolonging the strife. The Cubans are confident that time is fighting their battles. They think, not without reason, that they must in the long run tire out, dishearten and demoralize the troops at present arrayed against them; and they rely on the incessant and incurable disorders of Spain for a gradual diminution and final cessation of yearly reinforcements. Already this year, they say, not more than 2000 men, and of these many worthless adventurers, have been landed at Nuevitas. The republic has hardly troops enough to confront the Carlists in Navarre and the Alphonsists in Catalonia; hardly troops enough to hold its own in Madrid, even supposing that those troops are bent on supporting it. For months, or perhaps years, anarchical Spain can hardly bestow a serious thought upon Cuba; and the commanding officers here, seeing themselves abandoned to their own scanty resources, are only anxious to give up the game and resign their



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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. BOOK 1. Cubas Fight for Freedom. Map of Cuba and the World, Frontispiece. i. Panorama of Havana ...... ............. i9 2. Morro Castle, Havana ...... ............. 20 3. Boat Landing, Havana .... ............ ...37 4. Palace of the Captain-General, Havana .....38 5. The Cathedral, Havana .... ............ 55 6. Columbus Memorial Chapel, Havana ... ...... 56 7. The Indian Statue on the Prado, Havana ...73 8. Obispo Street, Havana .... ............ ...74 9. Royal Lottery Ticket Seller, Havana ....... 91 io. Bull Fight, Havana .... .............. 92 ii. Avenue of Royal Palms, Havana ... ........ I09 12. Cuban Family at Home ............... 13. Sugar Plantation, Cuba ... ............ ...127 14. The "Virginius" Outrage-Shooting of the Four Prominent Cuban Patriots .... ......... 128 15. The Butchery of the Crew of the "Virginius"Scene at the Slaughter-house the Moment before the Execution. Captain Frey bidding his Companions Farewell ... ........... 145 I6. The "Virginius" ButcherySpanish Horsemen Trampling the Dead and the Dying Victims into the Slaughter-house Trench at Santiago de Cuba .... ................ .146 (5)



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174 CUBA. ton by the Secretary of State and the Spanish Minister and communicated confidentially to Admiral Scott. However, I managed to get at the secret, and, thus armed, 'stowed away' on the' Despatch,' which was the vessel appointed to receive the surrender. Capt. Rogers commanded the Despatch,' but the receiving officer was Capt. Whiting. The fleet captain and the other officers of the detail were Lieut. Adolph Marix, Master George A. Calhoun and Assistant Engineer N. H. Lambdin. With them were thirty-nine sailor men from the Pawnee,' who were to man the surrendered vessel as a prize crew. All of these people except Capt. XWhiting were ignorant of their instructions, not even knowing their destination, and the pilot taken aboard before leaving Key West had sealed orders. "We left Key West on Sunday night at 10 o'clock. We were in the open sea before I ventured to make my appearance on deck, present myself to the officers, declare myself a stowaway, and verify my information as to their mission. The next morning at io o'clock the blue hills of the Cuban coast rose above the horizon and the bow of the 'Despatch' was directed toward Bahia Honda, the obscure little port selected for the function. It was about noon when we passed an old fort called Murillo, commanding the entrance to the harbor. Speed was then slackened,



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32 CUBA. De Soto* Havana was frequently attacked by the ships of powers hostile to Spain. In 1538 it was almost entirely destroyed by a French privateer. To prevent a similar disaster in future the Castillo de la Fuerza, a fortress which s till exists, was built by Fernando de Soto, who was then Governor of Cuba. This was the same de Soto who afterward became famous for his explorations in the southern and western regions of the United States and for the discovery of the Mississippi River. When he went on his last expedition to North America, on which he lost his life, he left his wife and family behind him at Havana, where his wife died of a broken heart three days after receiving news of his death. Trhe British Conquest. Despite this fortress, in 1554, the French again attacked and partly destroyed Havana. The early settlers of Cuba devoted themselves chiefly to the rearing of cattle, but about I 58o the cultivation of tobacco and the sugar cane was commenced, and this led to a vast development of the system of negro slavery. Previous to i 6oo two more forts were built for the defence of Havana. These were the Punta and the Morro Castle, which are still in existence. For a century and a half after this date the island was kept in a state of almost perpetual fear of invasion from the



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CUBA. 245 general opinion in Spain favoring the bringing of all necessary means to bear upon the suppression of the insurrection. Knowing these and knowing my character, I would add nothing else to recommend the line of conduct which you may follow. "1But I think it convenient to add some instructions at present, and to state that the insurrection and the recent march of the principal leaders thereof without its being possible for the Spanish columns to prevent it, indicates indifference on the part of the inhabitants and also fear and discouragement. I cannot understand their inactivity while their property is being destroyed. Spaniards cannot sympathize with insurgents. It is necessary, at any cost, to oppose this state of things and reanimate the spirit of the inhabitants. No Neutrality, III have come disposed to help all loyal citizens. I am at the same time disposed to make use of all the rigor of the law against those who in any form help the enemy, speak well of them or discredit the prestige of Spain, of its army or volunteers. All who are with our side must demonstrate the fact with acts, and leave in their attitude no place for doubt in proving that they are Spaniards. Because the defense of the country demands sacrifices, it is necessary that towns should establish their own defenses. They



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 555 for the United States, and M. Cambon, for Spain, in the presence of President McKinley, signed a protocol which was to form the basis of a definitive treaty of peace. Coming to the White House, At the appointed hour a driving rainstorm prevailed, obliging all the parties to resort to carriages for transportation to the White House. Secretary Day came first with a large portfolio under his arm, inclosing copies of the protocol, of the proclamation to be issued by the President stopping hostilities and some other necessary papers. He was accompanied by Assistant Secretary Moore, Second Assistant Secretary Adee and Third Assistant Secretary Cridler. They were shown immediately into the Cabinet Room, where the President sat in waiting. He had invited to be present Assistant Secretaries Pruden and Cortelyou and Lieutenant-Colonel Montgomery. When Ambassador Cambon and his secretary, M. Thiebaut, reached the White House, it was just 3.55 o'clock, five minutes in advance of the appointed hour. They went direct to the library, adjoining the Cabinet Room on the upper floor. At 4.05 o'clock they were announced to the waiting party in the Cabinet Room and were ushered into their presence. After an exchange of diplomatic courtesies no unnecessary waste of



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WAR WIT!I SPAIN. 479 right under the guns of Morro, was opposite the harbor entrance before the Spaniards had apparently noticed her presence. A Peep Into the Harbor. The Marblehead slackened speed as soon as she had passed Morro on the east, and her officers were able to get an unobstructed view of the bay as far as Punta Gorda, which is some distance above the fort of La Socapa on the west side of the narrow mouth of the bay. Lying at anchor in the bay above La Socapa the Marblehead's officers saw the Spanish fleet, whose whereabouts had ever since the war began given so much anxiety to the authorities at Washington and kept the whole American navy on an eager lookout. In the channel between Smith Cay and Churruca Point were sighted the four armored cruisers, Cristobal Colon, Almirante Oquendo, Vizcaya and Maria Teresa, with the torpedo-boat destroyers Pinton and Furor. With them was the old cruiser Reina Mercedes, a vessel fairly well armed, but because of her unseaworthiness practically worthless for fighting purposes. Commander McCalla having accomplished his purpose turned the Marblehead's prow again towards the Brooklyn and reported his discovery to Commodore Schley. He was overjoyed to



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CUBA. 63 and plantation house. When the train draws up before the door the manager is at hand with genial smile and graceful hospitality to welcome his guests, and to conduct them personally over the works. With his explanations the intricate processes of converting cane into sugar are speedily revealed. Then follows a plantation breakfast served in the airy dining-room of his house with lavish hospitality and refinement of courtesy. The dining-room adjoins the parlor or reception room, which is furnished in characteristic Cuban style with cane settees and rockingchairs-a spacious, high-studded room on the second floor, with windows overlooking the sugar works, and a lovely plantation garden. The floors are bare, carpets never being used on the island, but no Yankee housewife with a mania for sweeping, dusting, and polishing can have a more scrupulously neat parlor than what the manager facetiously describes as the bachelor's hall of Soledad. An afternoon passed in a planter's house is something to be treasured in memory as one of the delightful experiences of a lifetime. The first sugar plantation in Cuba was established about a hundred years after the discovery of the island. For three centuries the chief industry of the island has been the cultivation of cane and its conversion into sugar. For a long period the processes of manufacture were



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148 CUBA. gents, 1if these latter had any occasion for such a commodity, and could afford to pay for it. Nay, more! I have been assured, though I have great reluctance in believing it, that some of'the colonels and other officers in command of the columns of regular troops, manage to prolong hostilities eitherby ignoring the enemy when they have him in their tolls and'could compel him to give battle, or by showing great slowness and remissness in the pursuit when they have routed and put him to flight. Their dishonorable conduct seems to be actuated either by a desire to perpetuate a struggle which leads to speedy promotion, or by some other consideration of a baser and more sordid consideration. Effects of the War upon the ]Island,, 11 No country in the world was intended for a finer, richer or happier abode of man than this 11 Pearl of the Antilles," nor could better have withstood the ravages of a four-years' civil war. Yet the results of that civil war begin to tell, at least on the central and eastern departments of the island where the beauty and fertility are more conspicuous. The port of Manzanillo, said the English Consul to me, was visited yearly before the insurrection by thirty to forty British vessels since then their number has dwindled down to eight or ten. And the same tale may be told of every harbor in the island, Havana alone, and



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18o CUBA, agreed that our government ought to have required that the 'Virginius' should be surrendered with all the released prisoners on board either at Santiago de Cuba, where the 'Tornado' brought in her ill-gotten prey and where the inhuman butcheries were committed, or in Havana where she was afterward taken in triumph and greeted with the cheers of the excited Spaniards over the humiliation of the Americans. "An attempt was made to take the 'Virginius' to some northern port, but the old hulk was not equal to the journey. On the way no pumping or caulking could stop her leaks, and she foundered in mid-ocean. The government had been puzzled to know what disposition to make of her, and there was great relief in official circles to know that she was out of the way. "The surrender of the surviving prisoners of the massacre took place in course of time at Santiago, owing more to British insistence than to our feeble representations. As to the fiftythree who were killed, Spain never gave us any real satisfaction. For a long time the Madrid government unblushingly denied that there had been any killing, and when forced to acknowledge the fact they put us off with preposterous excuses. Butcher Burriel,' by whose orders the outrage was perpetrated, was considered at Madrid to have been justified by circumstnces. It wa§



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CUBA. 183 pretended that orders to suspend the execution of Ryan and his associates were 'unfortunately' received too late, owing to interruption of telegraph lines by the insurgents to whose broad and bleeding shoulders an attempt was thus made to shift the responsibility. There was a nominal repudiation of Burriel's act and a promise was made to inflict punishment upon those who have offended;' but no punishment was inflicted upon anybody. The Spanish Government, with characteristic double dealing resorted to procrastination, prevarication and trickery, and thus gained time until new issues effaced in the American mind the memory of old wrongs unavenged. Instead of being degraded Burriel was promoted. Never to this day has there been any adequate atonement by Spain." How an English Captain Prevented One Massacre. There is no doubt that all the rest of the "Virginius'" prisoners would have been butchered, had it not been for the prompt and decisive conduct of a British naval officer. This was Sir Lambton Lorraine, commander of the man-ofwar Niobe." As soon as he heard of the capture of the Virginius he hastened with his ship to Santiago. He found that fifty-three men had already been put to death, and that the rest were in danger of a like fate. Immediately he had an II



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CHAPTER XX. THE VOYAGE OF THE OREGONNO THOUGHT OP WAR-FINE WORK AT SEA-IN THE STRAITS OF MAGELLAN -GOOD-BY TO THE SLOW VESSELSEND OF THE GREAT VOYAGE-A REMARKABLE SPEED RECORD-HER SIZE AND HER ARMAMENT THE OREGON'S COMMANDER. SY NO means the least striking and significant incident of the war was the voyage of the Oregon. This great battleship, one of the most powerful in the world, had been built at San Francisco, and had been kept on the Pacific coast station. But the destruction of the Maine weakened the North Atlantic Squadron, and made it seem desirable that an addition be made to it, at least equal to the loss. So it was decided to summon the Oregon. To get her from the Pacific to the North Atlantic Squadron would be no small job. A canal across the Central American isthmus would have made it easy. She could have come through that route in a few days with safety. But unhappily this nation had failed to construct such a canal, and in its absence it Iwas necessary for her to make the long voyage around Cape Horn, or at 459



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 455 to the one seen at the other battery only a short time before. The guns were now turned on the signal station to the east of the Morro, where the Spaniards had been engaged in signalling since the beginning of the engagement. The first few shots tore away the roof of the signal-house and the men stationed there left without hauling down their last signal. Seeing that the mortar battery could not be reached, and that the other batteries had all been silenced, the captain took the ship out of range of the mortars, and then stopped and finished heaving up the grapnel. As the grapnel appeared at the water's edge the cable could be seen hanging from two of its prongs, and a mighty cheer arose from the officers and crew, who had assembled on the forecastle. About two hundred fathoms of the cable were brought in on deck. Then the axe of Segraves rose and fell, and the work was done, and nobly done, and each man in the crew of the St. Louis treasures a piece of that cable as a souvenir of the battle they fought that day in order to secure it. The engagement lasted forty-five minutes, the ship lying motionless in the water with her broadside to the forts and only a mile and a quarter away. She could not move without cutting her line and letting the cable go, which the captain declined to do. During this time sixty-



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40 CUBA. the centre of the southern coast. The summits of the mountains are mostly rocky and naked, though occasionally smooth and covered with soil and vegetation. The internal structures of the mountains consist of chalk, limestone, sandstone, and gypsum. There are also numerous masses of serpentine and syenitic rocks. In some places petroleum is found in considerable quantities among the serpentine, and abundant springs of the same oil are also found in the eastern part of the island. The rivers of Cuba are necessarily short, and their course is generally toward the north or south. The largest is the Cauto, which is about 150 miles long, and navigable for sixty miles. Several others are navigable for from five to fifteen" miles each. At the northeast of Guantanamo is the hill of Moa, in which is a huge cavern, and in that cavern the river Moa descends in a superb cascade more than 300o feet high. The Climate. Cuba lies near the northern edge of the tropical zone and its, climate is therefore largely torrid. On the high ground of the interior, however, it is fairly temperate. As in other tropical and semi-tropical countries, the year is divided into two seasons, known as the wet and the dry, the former being the hotter of the two. The wet season extends from May to October, although



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CUBA. 99 mayors, who may not belong to the corporation, and the governor of the province appoints the secretaries. The government reserves moreover the right to remove the mayors, of replacing them, and of suspending the councillors and the 11 Ayuntamientos," partly or in a body. It has frequently made use of this right, for electoral purposes, to the detriment always of the Cubans. As may be seen, the crafty policy of Spain has closed every avenue through which redress might be obtained. All the powers are centered in the government of Madrid and its delegates in the Colony; and in order to give her despotism a slight varnish of a representative regime, she has contrived with her laws to secure complaisant majorities in the pseudo-elective bodies. To accomplish this purpose she has relied upon the European immigrants, who have always supported the government of the Metropolis, in exchange for lasting privileges. The existence of a Spanish party, as that of an English party at one time in Canada, has been the foundation of Spanish rule in Cuba. Thus, through the instrumentality of the laws and the government a regime of castes has been enthroned there, with its outcome of monopolies, corruption, immorality and hatred. The political contest there, far from being the fruitful clash of opposite ideas, or the opposition of men representing different



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CUBA. 229 doubled in three weeks. When Martinez Campos arrived from Spain there were about 3,000 insurgents under arms. There were now over 6,ooo, and the latest acquisitions had a larger proportion of white men than was the case at first. Attitude of Other Countrie8. In other countries the neutrality laws were being closely followed. Great Britain issued imperative orders that the strictest neutrality should be observed. In all West Indian ports the closest watch was kept. Captains of British men-of-war were on the lookout for expeditions. The United States Government issued simi*lar orders. Nevertheless expedition after expedition was organized, many of which reached Cuba in safety. In one case, a report came from a trustworthy source that while the Spanish ship "Infanta Isabel" was detained in quarantine, at Tampa, Florida, a filibustering expedition left Key West for Cuba. The Insurgents Organize. On October i st, it became generally known that the insurgents had taken a most important step in the foundation of a provisional government. The independence of the island of Cuba was solemnly declared on September i19th, at Anton, Puerto Principe province.



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282 CUBA. with Marti, Estrada, Betances young Cespedes, Gomez and Aldama. Antonio Maceo was one of tae first exiles who landed in the province of Santiago de Cuba, after the flag of the Solitary Star La Estre/la Solilar/a had been once more unfurled in the dark forests and mountains of Cuba, La Manigua," at the end of February, 1895. His following, on disembarking from a filibustering brig, consisted of thirty refugees, soon hotly pursued by Spanish forces from Santiago, Holguin, and Guantanamo. The mulattoes and negroes of this province had kept such recollections of their old leader that he was promptly joined by several thousand volunteers, and many men who had been Cuban officers in the previous rising. His system was purely that of a guerilero, like the famous guerilleros who had given Napoleon I. so much to do in the Peninsular War, and like the Mexicans who harassed Bazaine and the Imperial troops of Napoleon III. and Maximilian. Maceo's Great Raid. Maceo boldly prophesied, and no less boldly fulfilled the prediction, "that he would ride from the Camaguey to the gates of Havana and to Cape San Antonio, in Pinar del Rio, in less than three months." Away galloped the dark troopers, mounted on the hardy and active Cuban horses, lightly attired with no impediment but their am-



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472 WAR WITH SPAIN. Station. He received a lieutenant's commission in 1867 and became a lieu tenant-commander a year later. He was then attached to the Suwanee, which was wrecked on July 7. His service on the receiving-ship Vandalia at Portsmouth, on the Seminole in the North Atlantic, and at the Naval Academy, lasted until 18 73, when he was assigned to the Atlantic Station, where he remained for three years with the Hartford, the Monocacy and the Kearsarge. The next three years he spent at the Charlestown Navy Yard. He received his commander's commission in 1881, and after duty on the training ship New Hampshire, and at the torpedo station, went with the steamer Ranger on a survey trip up the North Pacific. This cruise lasted three years. From 188 7 to 189 1 he was Lighthouse Inspector, and was afterward stationed at the Mare Island Navy Yard. He took command of the Mohican in September, 1893, and left her to take command of the Monterey as captain, in 1896. His next and latest command was the Oregon. From a purely layman's point of view, the long journey of the Oregon from San Francisco, down the western coast of South America, through the Straits of Magellan and up along the Atlantic side of the Southern continent, is remarkable because of the peculiar condition which has existed almost from the day she started. From



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CHAPTER XVIII. THE WAR IN THE FAR EAST-THE OPPOSING FLEETSPANIC AT MANILA-ENTERING MANILA BAY THE BATTLE OF MANILA-THE SPANIARDS BRAVE, BUT BEATEN-A HALT FOR BREAKFASTFINISHING THE JOB-AN UNRIVALED PERFORMANCE-T E L L I N G THE NEWS-THE PRESIDENT THANKS DEWEY-DEWEY'IS RECORD-TAKING POSSESSION OF THE PHILIPPINES. ~,OON AFTER the opening of the war, expectation began to turn toward the Far East. Spain had a considerable fleet in the waters of the Philippine Islands, with which she might menace our commerce in the Pacific Ocean, and even cause some annoyance to the California coast. It seemed imperative that it should be promptly destroyed or captured. Accordingly, instructions were sent to Commodore George Dewey, commanding the American fleet in that part of the world, to proceed to Manila and deal with the Spanish fleet according to his own discretion. Dewey was then at Hong Kong. His fleet contained not more than half as many ships as (441I)



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 481 Firing Big Guns. The flagship opened fire at once on the Cristobal Colon, which "lay in a tempting position in the harbor mouth. The Massachusetts fired her 8-inch port gun for the first shot, but soon brought her I 3-inch rifles into play. The Spaniards replied with '0 and 12-inch Krupp guns from the batteries, while the Cristobal Colon used her 10 and 6-inch guns entirely. The firing on both sides was inaccurate at first, but the gunners on the American warships soon found the range of Cervera's flagship and Morro fort, whose walls rapidly crumbled under the terrific fire of the attacking vessels. Commodore Schley's vessels fired fifty shots in the course of the fight, while the Spaniards wasted ioo shots. Results of the Shooting. No one was injured on the American vessels, and the Spanish loss is unknown, but it is believed to have been very heavy, particularly in Morro. When Commodore Schley gave the signal to stop the attack three of the Spanish batteries over on the west side of the harbor and two on the east side were silenced and the fortifications demolished. The Spaniards kept up a weak and scattering fire for twenty minutes after Commodore Schley's ship stopped firing and long



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3u A,,J j NAM= Obispo Street, Havanao



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CUBA. 141 where the railway or the steamer can bring them nearest to the suspected haunts of the insurgents ; and thence, after a few miles, they plunge into the forest, drawn up in two, three or more columns, each column cutting its way through the thick of the wood as it advances, until it falls in with the enemy, who, after a few shots from the vantage ground of his ambush, seeks safety in a precipitate retreat to still more tangled thickets and still more arduous mountain fastnesses. In frequent instances the troops, which are but indifferently served by spies and which by reason of the nature of the ground and their own paucity of numbers are incapable of deploying, investing or surrounding the enemy, wander for days and weeks without seeing a rebel; and a commissioner of the 'New York Herald' who, anxious 'to see the fun' as he said, asked and obtained permission to follow one of the columns in an attack on a mountain gorge near Guantanamo, had to come back after a very fatiguing ride which turned out a mere wild-goose chase, the gorge being as silent and solitary as it may have been before it was first trodden by mortal footsteps. The insurrection which first broke out at Yara in the territory of Bayamo, the native place of Cespedes, in the eastern department, spread at first into the central districts and ravaged the territory of the Cinco Villas,' threatening each



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CUBA., 89 give him an electoral law so artfully framed as to accomplish two objects: First, to reduce the number of voters; second, to give always a majority to the Spaniards, that is, to the European colonists, notwithstanding that the latter represent only nine and three-tenths per cent. of the total population of Cuba. To this effect it made the electoral right dependent on the payment of a very high poll tax, which proved the more burdensome as the war had ruined the larger number of Cuban proprietors. In this way it succeeded in restricting the right of suffrage to only 53,000 inhabitants in an island which has a population of i,6oo,ooo ; that is to say, to the derisive proportion of three per cent. of the total number of inhabitants. In order to give a decided preponderance to the Span ish-Eu ropean element, the electoral law has ignored the practice generally observed in those countries where the right to vote depends on the payment of a poll tax, and has afforded all the facilities to acquire the electoral privilege to industry, commerce, and public officials, to the detriment of the territorial property (the ownership of real estate). To accomplish this, while the rate of the territorial tax is reduced to two per cent., an indispensable measure, in view of the ruinous condition of the land-owners, the exorbitant contribution of $25 is required from those



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 367 North Atlantic Squadron. Rear-Admiral William T. Sampson Commanding.'V New-York (flagship), Captain French E. Chadwick. Steel armored cruiser, 8,480 tons; 17,4oo00 horse-power; 2 I knots speed. Armament -Six 8-inch breech-loading rifles, twelve 4-inch rapid-fire guns, eight 6-pounder, four I-pounder rapid-fire guns and four Gatling guns. Iowa, Captain Robley D. Evans. Steel seagoing battleship, 11,296 tons: I i,ooo horse-power; 16 knots speed. Armament-Four 12-inch breechloading rifles, eight 8-inch breech-loading rifles, six 4-inch rapid-fire guns, twenty 6-pounder and six I-pounder rapid-fire guns and four Gatling guns. Indiana, Captain Henry C. Taylor. Steel coast-line battleship, 10,288 tons; 9,oo000 horsepower; 15 knots speed. Armament-Four I3inch breech-loading rifles, eight 8-inch breechloading rifles, four 6-inch rapid-fire guns, twenty 6-pounder and six i-pounder rapid-fire guns and four Gatlings. Puritan, Captain Purnell F. Harrington.X Iron, low-freeboard coast-defence monitor; 6,ooo tons; 3,7oo00 horse-power; I2 knots speed Armament-Four I 2-inch breech-loading rifles, six 4-inch rapid-fire guns, four 3-pounder rapid-fire guns, four 37mm. Hotchkiss revolving cannon and four Gatlings.



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 339 Isabella of Castile and her husband, Ferdinand of Aragon, practically united the whole of Spain under one sceptre. Their reign extended' from 1474tO 1512, and was marked by the final expulsion of the Moors, the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus, and the organization of the Inquisition. At this time Spain began to grow into a great European power. From this reign dates its modern history. But in the very events which made its greatness, Spain received the seeds of evil which have led to its fall. For one thing, the expulsion, of the Moors deprived the country of its best industrial element. The expulsion of the Jews, accomplished a little earlier, deprived the nation of its best tradesmen and scholars. There was little left except soldiers, priests, and a lazy 'and ignorant peasantry. Such a nation might achieve great conquests, but could not establish a lasting Empire. Early in the fifteenth century came the reign of Charles 1, better known as the great German Emperor Charles V. The history of his reign was the history of all Europe. His authority extended over all Germany and a large part of what is now France, half of Italy and the entire Western Hemisphere, He was constantly at war with some power or another, and at" last, weary of conflict, and heart-sick at the failure of his



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io6 CUBA. cent. of its value. The Spanish government op-. presses the Cuba producer with every kind of exactions; taxes the introduction of the machinery that is indispensable for the production of sugar, obstructs its transportation by imposing heavy taxes on the railroads, and winds up the work by exacting another contribution called industrial duty, and still another for loading or shipping, which is equivalent to an export duty. Cuba Rtuined for the sake of Spain. Still, if Spain was a flourishing industrial country and produced the principal articles required by Cuba for the consumption of its people, or for developing and fostering its industries, the evil, though always great, would be a lesser one. But everybody knows the backwardness of the Spanish industries, and the inability of Spain to supply Cuba with the products she requires for her consumption and industries. The Cubans have to consume or use foreign goods. The Spanish merchants have found, moreover, a new source of fraud in the application of these antiquated and iniquitous laws ; it consists in nationalizing foreign products for importation into Cuba. As the mainspring of this senseless commercial policy is to support the monopoly of Spanish commerce, when Spain has been compelled to deviate from it to a certain extent by an



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496 WAR WITH SPAIN, the month a third military party of some thousands went out, General Merritt himself going with it. Preparing to Invade Cuba. Early in June preparations were hastened for the invasion of Cuba, and thousands of soldiers were put aboard ship at Tampa and taken around to Key West, whence the final start was to be made. On June 13, despite the superstition attaching to that number, the great expedition set forth. It comprised 14,564 enlisted men, and 773 officers, as follows: Infantry regiments-Sixth, I6th, 71st NewYork Volunteers; ioth, 21st, 2d, i3th, 9th, 24th, 8th, 22d, 2d Massachusetts Volunteers: Ist, 25th, 12th, 7th, 17th, 3d, 2oth; total infantry, 561 officers and Io,7o9 enlisted men. Cavalry-Two dismounted squadrons of four troops each from the 3d, 6th, 9th, ist and ioth Cavalry, and two dismounted squadrons of four troops each from the 1st United States Volunteer Cavalry. Total dismounted cavalry, 159 officers and 2,875 enlisted men. Mounted cavalry-One squadron of the 2d; 9 officers and 280 enlisted men. Artillery-Light Batteries E and K, i st Artillery: A and F, 2d Artillery: i4 officers and 323 enlisted men. Batteries G and H, 4th Artillery siege, 4 officers and 132 enlisted men.



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CUBA. 287 the son of Maximo Gomez. Major Cirujeda ordered at once another advance to seize the corpses. The insurgents had recovered the almost naked bodies of their two chiefs, and welcorned the Spaniards with a heavy fire, which inflicted some losses 'on the column. Cirujeda determined to fall back, as he was short of ammunition. He carried to Havana the previous data secured by his irregulars, which was the next day confirmed by a deserter, the rebel surgeon who had been on the staff of Maceo. This eyewitness stated that he had seen Maceo, drop mortally wounded, a bullet having gone though his neck, after mangling his face and jaw, and another bullet having inflicted a mortal wound in the abdomen. The same Spanish volley at close quarters had mortally wounded young Gomez and less seriously injured several rebel officers. Maceo never uttered a word, though he survived a few minutes. His followers scattered in all directions, bu~t were rallied by their chief, and retraced their steps as the Spaniards were retiring, unconscious of the great advantage they had gained. This explains how they carried off the bodies of Maceo and Gomez. Maceo, was much detested and dreaded by his opponents, but in this war he had faithfully obeyed the instructions of the Generalissimo and Cuban Revolutionary ]Executive. Always unsparing in his severity to



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158 CU13A* tate and denounced him to the soldiers) who arrested him, shot two of his foremen and several inoffensive countrymen before his eyes in cold blood and without even the pretence of a trial, kept him in a condemned cell for three days, threatening him with the same fate, the officer in command meeting all his protests and remonstrances with the cool remark, All I know is that if I shoot you I shall be promoted a step.' The prisoner slipped through his hands, nevertheless, and upon clearing himself of all imputations before the Captain-General at Havana, he was reassured as to his personal safety; but the General at the same time advised him, I as a friend,' to say nothing about damages for his destroyed property, as, I under the circumstances, he ought to be only too thankful to have escaped with his life.' "It could not, of course, be expected that the insurgents on their own side should abstain from fearful reprisals. The practice with them when a prisoner, and especially an officer, falls into their hands, is to tie his feet up to a tree, and to pile up fuel under the dangling head; thus burning their enemy alive with a slow fire. Indeed, it would not be easy to ascertain on which side the atrocities first began, or are carried to greater lengths. The rule is that all prisoners be shot without discrim i nation. Nay, the con-



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CUBA* 155 office. General Morales,who was in co mmand of the Eastern Department while I was in Santiago, left that city for Havana and Spain early in March, and Cevallor, who was Captain-General and Governor of the whole island, followed a few weeks later. Even those who are not eagerly soliciting their recall have neither the means nor the mind for extensive operations, and limit their efforts to that objectless desultory warfare which has hitherto led, and which can lead to no other result than to perpetuate the struggle. Owing either to false view of economy in the payment of spies or to the disaffection of the people, the Spanish officers are absolutely in the dark as to the movements of their adversaries; while the insurgents, sure of the sympathy of the Creoles in town and country, keep up a regular intercourse with every part of the island. They have secret committees at work for them here at Santiago, at Manzanillo, at Puerto Principe, and everywhere else; and through them communicate with Key West, in Florida, with Jamaica and with any point from which arms,ammunition, provisions and fresh auxiliaries may be sent to them. I have alluded to the beauty of the coast of Cuba and of the inlets with which it is indented; but all along both north and south there are labyrinths of what are here called cayos, coral reefs and banks covered with bright verdure, still and



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CUBA. 305 bottom. Captain Sigsbee ordered the launch and gig lowered; and the officers and men, who by this time had assembled, got the boats out and rescued a number in the water. Captain Sigsbee ordered Lieu tenant-Com man der Wainwright for-, ward to see the extent of the damage, and if anything could be done to rescue those forward or to extinguish the flames, which followed close upon the explosion and burned fiercely as long as there were any combustibles above water to feed them. "LieutenantCommander Wainwright on his return, reported the total and awful character of the calamity; and Captain Sigsbee gave the last sad order, 'Abandon Ship,' to men overwhelmed with grief indeed, but calm and apparently unexcited." Effect of the Disaster. This disaster aroused all imaginable fears and passions. Some suspected that the ship had been destroyed by Spanish treachery, and a great cry for revenge arose. But the sober sense of the Nation prevailed, and it was properly decided to await in patience the result of the official investigation into the cause of the explosion. At the same time, every possible preparation was made for any emegency that might arise. The Navy was put into trim for immediate action. Work on new ships was pushed night and day. The coast defences were reinforced; and 'the



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366 WAR WITH SPAIN. The Emperador Carlos V., launched at Cadiz, in 1892, was a still more powerful armored cruiser (9,235 tons), with a larger light armament than the others, and engines of 15,000 horse-power, expected to give a speed of 20 knots. The first-class cruisers b in the above statement were the old broadside ships Numancia and Vittoria (from 1863 and 1867), which, having been reboilered, were counted as cruisers mainly for convoying purposes. Of smaller vessels, Spain possessed two remarkable second-class deck-protected cruisers-the sister ships Alfonso XIII. and Lepanto, 4,80o tons, which had their guns very advantageously placed, and, with I2,OOO horse-power, were expected to steam at 2o knots. The third-class cruisers a in the above statement include five 1, 130 ton, 14-knot vessels of the Infanta Isabel class, and the torpedo gunboats, of which 3 (of the Sharpshooter class) were in course of construction. In the b list the older and slower gunboats are grouped. Among the torpedo-boats the Ariete (97 tons, 147 ft. 6 in. long) was a remarkable craft, built at Chiswick, which steamed 26.1 knots at her trials. United States Ships. The following is a complete list of the effective ships of the United States Navy, at the outbreak of the war, including some of those purchased at that time:



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YX p,4 N, N N, Y I-A Iv 1.k c, A k -" 4 11 w I ..A, r 11 1. -, J ., lp 7, Ix "I, V y Z. v % A4 A v, Qj 74 ...... -f > N' t lc;7 R,/ N6"N 4N 2., -T. 7 IVA, ZI ILI 4. O x 'e, Q4 A I lp --,, 1,411''. A , 4t 44e wx, N V.,k A, 44 F k IT, ICY 1 0 4 I -ft ipir '40 wv rf ', 1. I eo 'T, v eq ,lty, 41 z A t v I -'s -v, v-;vc I -7, J '4 '? -0 x 7 4 P-m, 0 A4A F4 rv v PKII se, 13, Tq j 'Z, Iy elk,' J P., 4k If Z. V4 'Z' W, 4 4C lorw Y rllfrl, *A v "y N "flI Vk 4 T'l OA A -f-W ;I T C"A --y "o vo Rrl Nil



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CUBA* 259 hands. A large proportion of these commanders believe Weyler to be a man who will quickly approve any extreme act on their part., They look for no punishment for summary executions of Cubans who sympathize with the insurgents. They expect praise and promotion for shooting prisoners as soon as taken. General Canella was sent back to Spain by Weyler either for having shot down seventeen prisoners, or for having reported 'seventeen bodies were found afterward in another part of the field';but the man who confessed to his friends here, and probably to General Weyler, to having killed seventeen people in cold blood received no more severe punishment than being deprived of -his command. "When the horrible story of the butchery of eighteen peaceable citizens in the little hamlet of Guatao was published in the United States, and telegraphed back here, General Weyler announced that he would make a thorough examination and would severely punish those responsible for the outrage if one had been committed. Two weeks have gone by since the affair occurred, and no official has lost his stripes. Guatao was so near Havana that American, correspondents succeeded in demonstrating the absolute truth of the story. Dozens of reports of affairs in which unarmed citizens are killed by Spanish troops have been received .here, but Ithe authorities have placed



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-Mai After the Shooting of the Crew of the "Virginius. Negroes of the Chain-gang Tumbling the Dead Bodies of the Victims into Mule-carts.



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CUBA. 255 waiting to find any armed men, immediately began firing promiscuously, shooting down unarmed and peaceful citizens in all directions. Then they proceeded to massacre the few inhabitants without mercy. A milkman, who was shot at while pursuing his vocation, and fled into his house, was followed and ruthlessly shot down within doors. The town is very small, of only some two-score houses of inferior quality, and was easily run through by the murderous Spaniards. The people started for the woods in terror, knowing that if they met any insurgents they wov1d be well treated, and trusting to conceal themselves; but men running away were shot in the street. Several men who could not run were killed where they stood. The troops entered the houses and shot quiet men who were doing nothing. They raided bed. rooms, and a man confined to his bed by erysipelas was killed as he lay there. In one case a woman came to the door of her house and pleaded with the soldiers for the life of her husband, who lay ill in bed. Their response was the crash of the butt of a musket in the woman's head. They then broke down a door and shot the husband in bed. Prisoners Killed. The previous fight had resulted in the capture of five Cubans by the Spaniards. These five were shot dead in the fields. These, with thirteen dead '5



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 321 resist to the very end. "It is possible," she said, "that an act of aggression is imminent, and that neither. the sanctity of our right nor the moderation of our conduct, nor the express wish of the Cuban people freely manifested, may serve to restrain the passions and hatred let loose against the Spanish Fatherland. In anticipation of this critical moment, when reason and justice will have for their support only the Spanish courage and the traditional energy of our people, I have hastened the assembly of the Cortes, and the supreme decision of Parliament will doubtless sanction the unalterable -resolution of my Government to defend our rights, whatsoever sacrifices may be imposed upon us to accomplish this task. In acting thus in unison with the nation, I not only perform the duty which I swore to fulfil when I accepted the Regency, but I also seek to strengthen my mother's heart with the confident belief that the Spanish people will display a force which nothing can shake, until the time when it will be given to my son to defend in person the honor of the nation and the integrity of its territory." General Woodford Lreavcs Madrid. The Spanish Government refused to receive the President's note or ultimatum. One copy of it was delivered to the Spanish Minister at Washington. He immediately asked for his passports



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BOOK Il. War With Spain, CHAPTER XIV. BEGINNING OF OUR WAR WITH SPAIN-APPEALING TO THE POWERS-GENERAL LEE LEAVES CUBA-NO EUROPEAN MEDDLING-A BOGUS ARMISTICETHE PRESIDENT IS MESSAGE-GROUNDS FOR INTERVENTION-THlE TIME FOR ACTION COMEACTION OF CONGRESS-SPANISH DEFIANCEGENERAL WOODFORD LEAVES MADRID-WAR AND BLOCKADE-THE CHALLENGE ACCEPTEDEUROPEAN VIEWS-CAUSES OF THE WAR-A STRIKING CONTRAST-SPAIN REAPING WHAT SHE SOWED-SPAIN S LOW ESTATE-IMPORTANT STEP IN AMERICAN POLITICS. HSIS to be a chronicle of war, and of a greater war than Cuba's own fight for freedom. In the preceding chapter we have told that the President hoped, and expressed to Congress and to the nation the hope that Spain would pursue in the matter of the destruction of the warship "Maine" a course of action suggested by honor and the friendly relations of the two 18 (309)



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 515 the flagstaff had been caught firmly in the wreckage of the fort. A few more shots levelled the battlements until the old castle was a pitiful sight. When the firing ceased Lieutenant Delehanty, of the Suwanee, was anxious to finish his work, so he signalled to the New York, asking permission to knock down the Spanish flag. "Yes," replied Admiral Sampson, "if you can do it in three shots." The Suwanee then lay about sixteen hundred yards from the old fort. She took her time. Lieutenant Blue carefully aimed the 4-inch gun, and the crews of all the ships watched the incident amid intense excitement. When the smoke of the Suwanee's first shot cleared away, only two red streamers of the flag were left. The shell had gone through the centre of the bunting. A delighted yell broke from the crew of the Suwanee. Two or three minutes later the Suwanee fired again, and a huge cloud of debris rose from the base of the flagstaff. For a few seconds it was impossible to tell what had been the effect of the shot. Then it was seen that the shell had only added to the ruin of the fort. Spain's Banner Falls. The flagstaff seemed to have a charmed existence, and the Suwanee had only one chance



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WAR WITH SPAIN.51 destruction. The sunken hulk of the Merrimac was passed in safety, but just outside the harbor gate Commodore Schley was waiting with his ships. As told by a New York Sun correspondent on the Texas, at about half-past nine in the morning, while the Texas was lying directly in front of Santiago harbor, Lieut. M. L. Bristol saw smoke arising between Morro Castle and La Socapa. An instant later the nose of a ship poked out behind the Estrella Battery. Clash went the electric gongs calling the ship's company to general quarters. Full speed ahead plunged the Texas toward the enemy and up fluttered the van-colored flags signalling "1The enemy is trying to escape." The Brooklyn, Iowa and Oregon responded immediately. All headed toward the harbor entrance, being then about two and a half miles away. There was much suppressed excitement aboard all the vessels as they sped in the direction of the enemy. The first of the Spanish squadron to come into view was the Almirante Oquendo. Closely following her came the Cristobal Colon, which was easily distinguishable by the military masts between her two smokestacks. Then came the two other cruisers, Vizcaya and Infanta Maria Teresa.



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90 CUBA* who would be electors as freeholders. The law has, moreover, thrown the doors wide open for the perpetration of fraud by providing that the simple declaration of the head of a commercial house is sufficient to consider all its employees as partners, having, therefore, the right to vote. This has given us firms with thirty or more partners. By this simple scheme almost all the Spaniards reSiding in Cuba are turned into electors, despite the explicit provisions of the law. Thus it comes to pass that the municipal district of Guines, with a population Of 13,000 inhabitants, only 5oo Of which are Spaniards and Canary Islanders, shows on its electoral list the names of thirty-two native Cubans and of four hundred Spaniards-only 0.25 per cent. of the Cuban to 8o per cent. of the Spanish population. No Cubans Need Apply,, But, as if this were not enough, a so-called Permanent Commission of Provincial Deputations decides every controversy that may arise asto who is to be included in or excluded from the list of electors, and the members of this Comm ission are appointed by the Governor-General. It is unnecessary to say that its majority has always been devoted to the government. In case any elector considers himself wronged by the decision of the Permanent Commission, he can appeal to the "Audiencia" (higher court) of



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Bull Fight, Havana.



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144 CUBA. compass the rebels by their cordons, so as to isolate and localize the war. The scheme, they think, is a mere delusion ; for on the one hand the whole Spanish fleet would be insufficient to blockade the many little bays and inlets with which the extensive coasts of the island are everywhere ind 'ented, protected as they are by their numberless cayos, or coral reefs-covered with verdure which form a perfect shoal of islets stretching far out to sea and perplexing navigatwn by their -endless maze of intricate channels; and, on the other hand, the forests in these regions are not only impenetrable, but, as exexperience has proved, actually indestructible by fire, and their growth is so rapid that the tracks made in the winter are almost utterly obliterated before the summer is over, while the mountain ridges, rising one behind the other, enable the guerrilla bands to cross from vale to vale and from glen to glen with a bewildering rapidity which seems to multiply their forces and invest them with the gift of ubiquity. Strength of the Patriots. "There is a bare possibility that the insurrection. may end in the utter extermination of the insurgents by breaking open and laying bare all their forest lairs and mountain haunts, and intersecting the most savage districts with nets of roads and railroads, such as neither Cuiba nor Spain her"



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82 CUBA. been exhausted through old-time methods of plundering the population and systematic violation of the economic laws of exchange. The orange has been pressed dry; even Spanish administration does not attempt to squeeze the seeds remaining on the spongy pulp. For this reason sugar planters and tobacco farmers are now frank in admitting that the direct taxes on their land and industries are not unduly high. It is the burden of indirect taxation by which the cost of living and of production is heavily increased and the exchangeable value of sugar and tobacco correspondingly reduced that is overwhelming this wonderfully fertile island with ruin. The country is poor and impoverished ; the palaces of the nobles are deserted; there has been an extraordinary shrinkage of real estate valuations ; the treasury is exhausted with extravagant payments for an inefficient and corupt civil service and the interest on the war debt, which is held in Spain; and the municipalities are without means for ordinary public improvements and enforeing sanitary regulations. Havana is capable of becoming what Humboldt found it in his day-one of the most brilliant and imposing capitals of the world. The'old city was well built of enduring stone, which only grows harder With the lapse of time. The Cathedral, churches and public buildings were fashioned at a time



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T22 CtTBA. west from Havana. Another battle took place at Quanajay, eleven leagues from Havana on the north coast. Nothing. but the timely arrival of reinforcements from Count Valmaseda prevented the patriots from capturing Santiago. Havana was soon practically in a state of siege. The telegraph was destroyed and the mails stopped at Trinidad. The Spanish troops on February 7th, burned the town of San Miguel. The Insurgents adopted the method of warfare which they are now again pursuing, namely, to keep moving from one point to another, baffling pursuit and tiring out their enemies. To make the progress of the Spanish armies more difficult they also destroyed bridges and railroads in many places. Tens of thousands of troops were hurried to the island from Spain and the Commander everywhere gave orders that the war should be pursued in the most ruthless manner, no quarter being given and no prisoners taken. Yet the Spanish army was able to do no more than to hold its own. They defended the cities and large towns and fortified camps, but the vast bulk of the country had to be surrendered to the Insurgents. Early in March a considerable battle was fought near Puerto Principe in which the loss of the Insurgents was nearly i,ooo killed and wounded. At this time the entire strength of



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42 CUBA. These storms are sometimes extremely severe and destructive, though not so much so as in other West Indian Islands. Sometimes five or six years pass without a single hurricane. Earthquake shocks are occasionally felt, but are seldom so severe as to be destructive. No serious diseases are known to be indigenou's to the island. Yellow fever, which rages every year on all the coast lands, was imported many years ago by vessels engaged in the slave trade. It is probable that its continuance and annual recurrence has been due to the indescribably foul condition of the harbors, especially that of Havana. This plague causes great loss of life every year, especially among visitors and naturalized residents of the island. It attacks comparatively few of the natives and its ravages are exclusively confined to the lowlands along the coast. Mineral Resources. The mineral resources of the island have not yet been developed nor even explored to any considerable extent. Gold and silver have, undoubtedly, been found on the island in various places, but never in quantities sufficient to pay for the working of mines. The early settlers sent gold to Spain from the island, but they obtained it from the aborigines who had accumulated it for centuries and had probably im-



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BOOK 1. Cuba's Fight For Freedom CHAPTER I. COLUMBUS IN CUBA-THE SECOND VISIT-A CHIEF'S EXHORTATION-SETTLEMENT AND SLAUGHTERLAS CALAS AND HIS WORK-EXTINCTION OF THE NATIVES-DE SOTO-THE BRITISH CONQUESTPROGRESS AND PROSPERITY. HE HISTORY of Cuba begins with the discovery of the western world by Christopher Columbus. It was on September 25, 1492, that Martin Alonzo Pinzon, standing on the high quarter deck of the Admiral's ship, shouted "Land! land! Senor, I claim the reward!" It was on October 12 that land was actully reached. And it was on October 28 that Cuba was discovered. Columbus, as we know, was in quest of the fabled Cipango, the golden land of the East Indies, where Kublai Khan reigned. What he actually first reached was one of the Bahamas, called by the natives Guanahani. Columbus called it San Salvador, and the British have since named it Cat Island. Columbus soon discovered the land he had reached to be a small island, and accordingly set sail for the main land, which he reckoned 2 (2I)



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468 WAR WITH SPAIN. through a mystical ceremony which was greatly enjoyed. In speaking of his trip Captain Clark said: "The Oregon's record-breaking voyage of nearly fourteen thousand miles is an important argument in favor of the early completion of the Nicaragua Canal or some other canal across the Isthmus of Panama. I hope that it will have some influence with Congress, and I believe it will. With such a canal our journey would have been cut in half and a first-class battleship would have been added to Admiral Sampson's fleet." Her Size and Her Armament. The Oregon was begun in 1891 at the Union Iron Works, San Francisco, at a contract price of $3,i8o,ooo, and was launched October 23, 1894. She is registered as a steel coastline battleship of 10,288 tons burden, with engines capable of developing 9,ooo horse-power. Her armament embraces four I 3-inch breech-loading rifles in pairs, placed in two I 5-inch barbette turrets; eight 8-inch and four 6-inch breech-loading rifles in the main battery, and twenty 6-pounder and six I-pounder rapid-fire guns, and four Gatling guns in the secondary battery. The ship is encircled by a steel belt eighteen inches in thickness, and her decks are covered with a layer of three-inch chilled steel. Her coal bunkers will hold 1,640 tons, and her full complement of officers an men is 473



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56 WAR WITH SPAIN. left. It seemed hardly possible for her to achieve her object with the big gun, such a distance and such a tiny target. There was breathless silence among the watching crews. They crowded on the ships' decks, and all eyes were on the tattered rag, bending toward the earth from the top of what once had been a grand old castle. But it was only bending, not yet down. Lieutenant-Commander Delehanty and Lieutenant Blue took their time. The Suwanee changed her position slightly. Then a puff of smoke shot out from her side, up went a spouting cloud of debris from the parapet and down fell the banner of Spain. Such yells from the flagship will probably never be heard again. The Suwanee's last shot had struck right at the base of the flagstaff and had blown it clear of the wreckage which had held it from finishing its fall. Cervera's Startling move. It was supposed that Operations would now be suspended for some days, until General Shafter could get re-enforcements. But two days later, on July 3d, a startling change in the situation occurred. Captain-General Blanco, at Havana, peremptorily ordered Admiral Cervera to break out of Santiago harbor with his fleet, and the latter obeyed, though he knew he was going to certain



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-406 WAR WIT SiPAIN. the boat we sighted inshore.' 'A voice from the Cincinnati replied, 'Very goo d; -w will send a boat to board her.' "All this time the glare of f cruiser's searchlights was on us, and was almost intolerable. Soon afterward a six-oared boat, with Ensign McIntyre in the stern sheets, came alongside. His first order was, Your papers and louy, please.' These were produced and found satisfactory, and more cordial relations were 500i. established. We found that we had transgressed for being within the limits set for vessels, and had had a close shave of being sunk. We informed the Cincinnati's officer that we would cheerfully take back any mail. In ten minutes the boat returned with this message: 'Captain Chester's compliments, and he will be obliged if you will take in this mail. You can go. You had better steam due west when you make your first course, or you may get into more trouble.' These instructions were obeyed literally, and we set off on our return. Before we had gone six miles we again saw the torpedo-boat astern, evidently keeping an eye on us, the Cincinnati's searchlights meanwhile sweeping the horizon. Soon afterwards we heard four shots in quick succession, but as they were not followed by' others, we presumed some other boat had been overhauled."



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i68 CUBA, instructions were sent from the Government at Madrid to await orders from the Home Government before inflicting penalties on the passengers or men of the Virginius," the order was probably received too late to be respected. The four prisoners were shot at the place made famous by previous executions and in the usual manner, kneeling close to the slaughter-house wall. All marched to the spot with firmness. Bembetta and Ryan showed marked courage, although the former was slightly affected toward the last. The two others quite broke down before they were bandaged, but Ryan kept up to the last, never flinched a moment, and died without fear or regret. Bembetta and Ryan were killed at the first discharge. They were in irons when they were marched against the low, square structure of adobe. Fifteen feet abovethem the red tile roof projected. At their feet there was a ditch to catch raindrops. They were made to kneel, facing the wall. The wall above them was pitted deep with the bullets that flew over their heads. As they fell into the ditch the cavalry rode over the warm bodies, and military wagons crunched and slipped on the bodies. Negroes cut off the heads and carried them on spikes through the city, and the mutilated bodies were dumped into a pit of quicklime, and the entire affair was soon forgotten by its perpetrators.



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354 WAR WITH SPAIN. the harbor runs a stream of sea water at a speed of not less than three miles an hour. With these conditions, no contagious diseases, if properly taken care of, could exist; without them, the place would be a veritable plague spot. Besides the town within the walls, there are small portions just outside, called the Marina and Puerta de Tierra, containing two thousand or three thousand inhabitants each. There are also two suburbs, one, San Turce, approached by the only road leading out of the city, and the other, Catano, across the bay, reached by ferry. The Marina and the two suburbs are situated on sandy points or spits, and the latter are surrounded by mangrove swamps. The entire population of the city and suburbs, according to the census of 1887, was twenty-seven thousand. It is now (1896) estimated at thirty thousand. Onehalf of the population consists of negroes and mixed races. The Philippines. The Philippine Islands likewise demand notice, as among the most splendid and most neglected colonial possessions of Spain. On May 21, 1521, the Portuguese Fernando de Magalhaens (Magellan) landed on a little island south of Samar on the eastern coast of the archipelago. Forty-six days later he perished off the east coast of Cebu, or Zebo, one of the cen-



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442 WAR WITH SPAIN. Sick Men Wanted To Be In It. The most characteristic incident of the born. bardment of Matanzas, and one that will go down in history as an instance of Yankee pluck, occurred in the sickbay on the flagship. Sick sailors were lying there, listening to the shots, all eager to get on deck. Suddenly, as if moved by a common impulse, four of them sprang from their cots. One had malaria, two had grip and another a high fever, but their ailments were forgotten as they rushed out to their gun divisions and took their usual stations. Despite their entreaties to be allowed to stay, they were ordered back to the sickbay, to which they sorrowfully returned. It is hardly necessary to say that these four splendid specimens of "the man behind the gun" were not reported for breach of discipline. Blanco's Mule Story. Marshal Blanco sent an amusing report of this affair to the Madrid Government. He said: Three American cruisers fired on the batteries of Fort Morillo, at Matanzas, without doing any damage. We fired fourteen shots, to which the Americans replied with a multitude of mitrailleuse (quick-firing) shots, which did not do any injury. The American squadron also fired fourteen cannon shots at the Sabanilla battery, only one mule being killed. The Spanish battery only replied with four shots, as the squadron was beyond range.



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CHAPTER XIII. THE MURDER OF CANOVAS-SAGASTA IN; WEYLER OUT-MARSHAL BLANCO-Mc KINLEY'S WORDSNO AMERICANS IN ARREST NOW -OFFERS OF AUTONOMY-OBJECTIONS TO THE SCHEME-RUIZ AND ARANGUREN-THE DE LOME INCIDENT DESTRUCTION OF THE MAINE -A SURVIVOR'S STORY-EFFECTS OF THE DISASTER. ITH the accession of President Mc Kinley in March, 1897, the United States Government entered upon a new policy in respect to Cuba. The release of American citizens, imprisoned by Spaniards, was demanded, and it was made plain to the Spanish Government that the barbarities of Weyler's campaigning must be stopped and the war conducted more humanely, or the United States would intervene. Weyler had deliberately set to work to exterminate the people of Cuba, by massacre and starvation, and actually succeeded in killing off 500,000, or onethird of the whole population, before the United States cried Halt!" In May, 1897, the President asked Congress for an appropriation of $50,000ooo, which was at I7 (291)



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CUBA. 20I considering as such the continuance in the field of Maceo, as I was then inclined to do, having heard of the capture of the convoy of Florida, with 12,000 percussion caps, a case of medicines, and some loads of tinned meat, with a loss to us of one officer and twenty-eight soldiers killed and five wounded, and of the defeat of a column of 200 men of the regiments of Madrid and Asturias in Juan Mulato, with the loss, as was then believed, of ioo men, though I know now it was not above fifty, and of the commander, LieutenantColonel Cabezas. "The commissioners returned in the afternoon of the ioth with definite terms, which I accepted, and a copy of which I enclose, and I at once granted the delay, and then to facilitate matters, without their asking it, I ordered the generals in command to suspend offensive hostilities in the whole territory of the war. "The insurgents desire peace so sincerely that the commissioners elected for each state are the most influential and intelligent persons in it: For Cuba, Major-General Maximo Gomez, Brigadier-General Rafael Rodriquez, Major Enrique Callazo; for Bayamo, Major Augustin Castellanos, Ensign Jos6 Badraque ; for Las Villas, the deputies Spoturno and Marcos Garcia, Colonel Enrique Mola and Don Ramon Perez Trujillo" for Tunas and Holguin, Vincente Garcia. 12



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CUBA. 207 and Moron made a great impression on public opinion, which saw in everything, with frightful exaggeration, to be sure, grave and irremediable evils, and the unfortunate carelessness at Victoria de las Tunas came to stamp the position of affairs at the very time when reinforcements and help were expected from the mother country. General J ovellar was the victim of events, and when perhaps he was about to grasp the laurel of his toils the government decided that I should come. "1These, roughly sketched, are in my conception the factso-from 1868 to the end Of 1876. How the End was Rleached. ,,I have come now by slow stages to the question of the day, and perhaps some will ask how I offered the terms which I reported on the 3oth of January, and will add that better might have been obtained. ",At present, I suppose so, but I understand by advantageous terms for the government what contributes to satisfy the desires and aspirations of the people; I proposed the first condition, because I believe they must fulfill it. I wish that the municipal law, the law of provincial assemblies, and representation in the Cortes, should bQ established. For the present we will make use of the laws now in force, and then with the assistance of the deputies, modifications and arrangements can be made to complete them. Technical details



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548 WAR WITH SPAIN. engagement, in which the Spanish suffered heavy loss. More Prize-Taking. Meantime Cuba was not neglected. At the beginning of August operations were pushed for stopping communication between that island and the tributary Isle of Pines. One day the little cruiser Bancroft, accompanied by the converted yacht Eagle, which had been covering the blockading station around the Isle of Pines, sighted a small Spanish schooner in Sigunea Bay. The Bancroft's steam launch, in charge of the Boatswain's Mate Nevis, and one other seaman, each armed with a rifle, was sent in to take the schooner. This was only a task of minutes, and the pretty launch returned with her prize, which proved to be the schooner Nito-little more than a smack, and with no cargo. Her captain was an American, and with him were his Cuban wife and seven children, all vowing loyalty to the Cuban cause. They pleaded poverty, and that the Nito was their only means of livelihood. Commander Clover, of the Bancroft, promised to return here at the proper time. Meanwhile he sent Nsvis in with her to anchor near the wreck of the Spanish transatlantic liner Santo Domingo, which was sunk by the Eagle a few weeks before. The Bancroft and the Eagle cruised off to Maugle Point, where they happened



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l' tot, WE Q Birdls-e e View of Santiago City Harbor and Fortifications.



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CUBA. 53 berries yield fifteen pounds of marketable coffee. Each bag of berries delivered at the "secadero" must contain 200 to 300 pounds, and a good workman can pick three bags per day. Preparing Coffee for Markets The berry is then spread on the "secadero" and exposed to the sun to dry. How long this takes depends wholly on the weather-under ordinary -circumstances, say seventy-two hours. The berries while drying are repeatedly raked or turned over to quicken the process. During this process great watchfulness is required, as the slightest rain would ruin the berry. To prevent this covers are always ready for the "secadero." These are cone-shaped, and when the berries are raked into heaps these covers completely protect them from rain and dew. When the berries are completely dried they are put into the "Molina de pilar," which is a circular trough, usually cemented, in which a heavy wheel made of hard wood, the rim plated with metal, revolves. This wheel crushes the berry and leaves the bean. Ox or mule power is employed. The bean is then put into the blower to remove all particles of the outside shell. When the coffee is clean it is again put into the "tMolina de pilar to receive a polish. If the color is too light a little charcoal is put into the trough with the coffee.



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 347 elder of whom became nominally Queen for a short time. But soon after the widowed Queen, Maria Christina, gave birth to a son, who, under the name of Alfonso XIII. became nominal King of Spain. The Queen mother continued to reign as Queen Regent, and on the whole exercised her authority wisely and well. The influences of the army and the corrupt political rings which controlled the Ministry and Parliament were, however, too much for her to resist. Being of foreign birth she realized. that she must do as the Spanish leaders wished her to do. In consequence ill-government continued to prevail in the few colonies that were left to Spain, and rebellions occurred in Cuba and the Philippine Islands. Porto Rico. Elsewhere we have told the story of Spain's chief colony in the Antilles. That of her second, and only other in late years, is quickly told. Porto Rico was sighted by Columbus on the 16th of November, 1493. Three days later he anchored in the bay, the description of which corresponds to that of Mayagues. In 15 io and 15 11 Ponce de Leon visited the islands and founded a settlement and gave it the name of San Juan Bautista. Landings were effected by the English in 1702 at Arecibo, in 1743 at Ponce, and in 1797 at the capital, but each time



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268 CUBA. A Long Debate. Similar resolutions were, introduced in the House of Representatives, and then a long debate ensued, not only in Congress, but in the public press and throughout the country at large. Sefior Palma, the Cuban Delegate, addressed a long letter on the subject to Secretary Olney, which was communicated to the Senate and formed the basis of its action. Sef-nor Dupuy de Lome, the Spanish Minister at Washington, took a hand in this debate through the newspapers-an unusual thing for a Minister to do. He especially protested against some statements made in the Senate concerning the way in which the Spaniards were conducting the war in Cuba. He said: 11I read with the deepest regret the statements made in the Senate by some of the most influential Senators of the United States, knowing that the facts which were stated by them were incorrect;that their good faith, of which I have no doubt, had been imposed upon, and that it would be very easy for me to prove in a little time that the Senators had been misinformed by persons interested in bringing about a misunderstandin g between the two countries. 11I cannot understand how all rules of war that have been given by all civilized nations are so criminal, so cruel and so tyrannical when they



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192 CUBA. buries the dead, praises their valor, and sends back to us a few wounded, and prisoners who escaped the fury of the combat. "The desire to treat having been excited, and having told Estrada my own opinion concerning the island, and what I believed that of the government to be, judging by the private correspondence which was going on between me and the Minister of Ultramar, I went to Havana to inform General Jovellar, to put myself in accord with him, and to hear his valuable counsels. That officer was, as he had been since the war began, in full agreement with me, and explained to me the embarrassed state of the treasury, the arrears of pay continually increasing, and the difficulties we should find ourselves in if the war was not ended before June. I made a tour of inspection through Las Villas and Sancti Spiritus, to see for myself the execution of my orders, and was'satisfied that nothing more could be asked of the army. Pancho Jimenez had attempted an effective stroke, but as he had not the means, the destruction of part of his band, and the dispersion of the rest were the consequence. Coming to the Point, "I returned to Principe to bring matters to a head, and because I thought there had been time to come to an understanding and to pass from a purely confidential character to a semi-official one,



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444 WAR WITI SPAIN. the hacienda, and just about where the Spanish cavalry stood. Before the hills, growing dim in the evening mist, had ceased echoing and reverberating the other 4-inch gun in the after battery had landed its projectile. A few more shots from this battery were fired. The ground was evidently damp, as no dust arose, and it was hard to tell where the shells struck. They were fired at 3,400 yards range. The Spaniards were not heard from after the first shot. The Cardenas Tragedy. The first loss of life on the American side in the war occurred on May I I, at Cardenas. The gunboat Wilmington, the torpedo-boat Winslow, and the revenue cutter Hudson were taking soundings when a Spanish gunboat was seen near shore. The Winslow started in to capture her. When the Winslow was about 1,500 yards from the shore, a masked battery suddenly opened fire upon her. The plucky little torpedo-boat replied, and pressed on nearer. Then a io-inch shell struck her, wrecking her steam steering gear and rendering her for the time helpless. Despite this unfortunate incident the little vessel replied vigorously with her three guns until one of them was disabled by a fragment of shell. The other guns continued to operate, while the men who were not otherwise engaged gathered to connect the handsteering apparatus.



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424 WAR WITH SPAITNO The Spaniards had fought to their last gasp and now surrendered. They had been announcing that the Americans would kill 'every one in Cavite, and when we landed a long procession of priests and Sisters of Mercy met the boat from the Petrel and begged our men not to injure the wounded in the hospital. As a matter of fact, the Americans rescued some two hundred Spaniards and sent them ashore. Commodore Dewey's orders were to capture or destroy the Spanish fleet, and never were instructions executed in more complete fashion. At the end of seven hours there was nothing left of the Spanish fleet but a few relics. The American commander had most skilfully arranged every detail of the action, and even the apparently insignificant features where carried out with perfect punctuality and in railroad time-table order. At the end of the action Commodore Dewey anchored his fleet in the bay before Manila and sent a message to Governor-General Augusti, announcing the beginningof the blockade and adding that if a shot should be fired against his ships he would destroy every battery about Manila., The position occupied by the Spaniards, the support which their ships received from the land batteries ,and the big guns they had ashore gave them an enormous advantage. Therefore, when



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478 WAR WITH SPAIN. thrown into the streets to decay and fill the air with disease germs. Santiago is the capital of the province and oriental region. There are a number of tobacco factories, but the chief business is the exportation of raw materials and the importation of manufactured goods and provisions. Sugar, iron ore, manganese, mahogany, hides, wax, cedar and tobacco are exported to the United States. IThe entrance to Santiago harbor is only about 200 feet wide, so that vessels must go in and out in single file. The Spaniards had forts, and batteries on each side, and torpedoes inthe channel, so that it would be a perilous thing, for our fleet to try to force an entrance. -The First Attack. Commodore Schley, however, determined. to do some fighting. On May 3' he raised. his flag on, the battleship Massachusetts, and gave the signal for action. The work of ascertaining the position of the Spanish warships was delegated to the protected cruiser Marblehead because of her comparatively light draught and, good speed. Commander McCalla was ordered to enter the mouth of the harbor as -far as possible,_ in. order to get a view of the lower part of the, bay,. The cruiser. started at full speed, and,, passingover the shallows of Morillo Point on the east



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402 WAR WITH SPAIN, blockaded ports were practically sealed against entry or exit. A False Alarm,, The day after the blockade of Havana was established, the monitor Puritan, the cruiser Cincinnati, the gunboats Machias, Nashville, Castine and Newport, and the torpedo-boats Foote and Winslow left the squadron to blockade Matanzas, Mariel and Cardenas. They formed separate divisions. After they had passed out of sight the remainder of the fleet took up regular formation. They drifted fifteen miles from Morro Castle, and a general advance was then made at half speed. Captain Bob Evans, who was not quite certain of the position he was entitled to take with the Iowa, came abreast of the flagship, and shouted through the megaphone, 11 How near may I go? Admiral Sampson, standing on the after-bridge, replied, "As near as you can with-,out drawing the fire of the batteries." 11 All right! Captain Evans shouted back, in tones which expressed the keenest disappointment, The Iowa then went ahead. About half an hour after the squadron was well under way, the cruiser Cincinnati was seen in the eastern horizon, smoke pouring from her funnels. As she had been heading for Matanzas, it was evident that she had turned back to. chase some vessel. The object of the pursuit was soon made out to be a



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212 CUBA. horses killed or captured. Considering that the entire population of the island was only 1, 250,000, the ability of the Spanish at lying was certainly extraordinary. According to their figures more Cubans we re killed, wounded and captured than there were persons of all classes on the island. In curious contrast with this are the Spanish figures of their own losses. According to official records they lost 8i,098 men, of whom only 6488 died in battle or from wounds. In other words, according to their own statements, ninety-two per cent. of the Spanish losses were from fever, cholera and other diseases. There never was a time during the whole ten years when less than fourteen per cent. of the whole Spanish army was in hospitals. These Spanish figures, however, are known to be very much too low, though perhaps not as much too l 'ow as their statements of Cuban losses are too high.



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CUBA. 123 the Insurgent forces under Gen. Quesada was not more than 7,000. The Spanish army was three or four "times as large. But by clever strategy the Patriots were able not only to maintain their position, but actually to take the field aggressively against their foes. Proclamation of Freedom., The patriot government in March, 1869, formally decreed the absolute abolition of slavery. It was arranged that the patriots should be indemnified for the loss of their slaves, while the freedmen might become soldiers or farmers, according to their pleasure. An address was sent on March i st by Cespedes to the President of the United States, explaining the purpose of the insurrection and the causes that led to it and setting forth the reasons why the United States should accord to the Cubans belligerent rights and recognition of their independence. This was an eloquent and impressive document, which strongly appealed to the sympathies of President Grant and of the whole American people. At the same time the magni*tude of the Revolution and the stability of the new Government did not yet appear such as would warrant the recognition asked for. Regular Government Forms. About a month later representatives from all parts of Cuba met and formed a national



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OV 4A 'k .m A 40 Firing Six Pounders,



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CHAPTER XII. LATEST OPERATIONS-THE "COMPETITOR" CASE-WEYLER FORCED TO TAKE THE FIELD-DEATH OF OSGOOD, THE AMERICAN-WEYLER GOES OUT AGAIN-ATTITUDE OF THE WASHINGTON GOVERNMENT-THE DEATH OF MACEO-SPAIN S IMPLACABLE FOE-MACEO'S GREAT RAID-THE HERO S LAST CAMPAIGN-THE FINAL TRAGEDY -THE DEMAND FOR RECOGNITION. SURING THE summer and early fall of 1896 no important changes occurred in the situation of affairs in Cuba. The insurgents fully held their ground, controlling most of the island outside of a score of garrison towns. General Weyler remained in Havana, talking of the great things he would do, but doing nothing. Forty thousand new troops were received from Spain, bringing the total in the island up to about 200,000, or four or five times as many as those of the insurgents. The latter were divided into two principal bands. The larger of them was in the east-central part of the island, 6 (273)



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134 CUBA. Pedro Fardon, another officer, writes on September 22, 1869: "Not a single Cuban will remain in this island, because we shoot all those we find in the fields, on the farms, and in every hovel." And again, on the same day, the same officer sends the following to his father: "We do not leave a creature alive where we pass, be it man or animal." Meagre News in Havana. A shrewd and judicious observer of the war in 1873, says: "We are indebted to the Diaria de la Marina for reminding us that we are in a state of insurrection. There is a civil war raging somewhere in Cuba. This is the depth of winter, a fact which, with the weather glass at 830 in the shade, we are rather apt to forget; it is the only season in the year propitious to military operations. The troops are in full march, and official bulletins reporting th'ir progress are forwarded from headquarters and find their way into the daily papers. Such a commanding officer with certain battalions has come up with an insurgent band far away in some spot above Guantanamo in the district of Santiago de Cuba, in the southeastern extremity of the island. To attack the rebels and completely to rout them was for the heroic Spanish troops one and the same thing. They killed many



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 389 "c," followed by "e" or "i," will consequently be given both ways. Proper and geographical names of Spain itself will be given according to the Castilian form. As a general rule, to which, however, there are many exceptions, the emphasis or accent in the pronunciation of Spanish words falls on the last syllable of those which end in a consonant and on the next to the last syllable of those which end in a vowel. In the names here given, an accent mark will be placed upon the vowel in the syllable which receives the emphasis, but it should be remembered that this mark does not properly belong there, but is used merely to indicate how the word is pronounced. It is always a difficult matter to imitate the pronunciation of foreign words in English letters, and the results cannot, in many cases, exactly reproduce the Spanish sounds. The letter "r" in Spanish is always rolled much more than in English. West Indian Geographical Names. Havana-Ah-vah-na. CardenasCir-dehnas. Cabafias-Cah-bin-yas. Matanzas-Mahtihn-sas, or Mah-tihn-thas. Pinar del Rio-Peenar del Ree-o. Mariel-Mah-ree-1. Santa Clara -Sahn-ta Clhh-ra. Santiago de Cuba-Sahn-teeth-go deh Co6-ba. Puerto Principe-Poo-air-to Prin-see-pay, or Poo-air-to Prin-the-peh. Guanabacoa-Gwahn-ah-bah-c6-ah. Bahia Honda-Bah-



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448 WAR WITH SPAIN. Ensign Worth Bagley,, Ensign Worth Bagley, who was killed in the engagement at Cardenas, was the first man on the American side in the present war who lost his life in action. It is a curious and interesting fact that the first man in the Civil War on the Southern side who was killed in a regular engagement was a North Carolina soldier, named Wyatt, belonging to the I st Regiment of Volunteers from that State. He was shot at the Battle of Big Bethel, on the Peninsula. Ensign Bagley was born in Raleigh, N. C., and was about twenty-six years old. He was the grandson of a fine old North Carolina Quaker, the late Governor Jonathan Worth, and was a collateral descendant of General Worth, of New York. Young Bagley entered the Naval Academy on September I, 1891, having been appointed from the JVth Congress District of North Carolina. He was a good student, and stood well with his classes. He had special distinction in athletic matters. Detached from the academy on graduating, June, 1895, he went to the receiving ship Vermont, whence he was sent to the cruiser Montgomery July 23, and thence to the Texas, on October 8. Thence he was sent to the Maine, on January 20, 1896. He was transferred back to the Texas July 20, 1896, where he remained until the 28th, when he returned to the Naval Academy for final examina-



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CUBA. 97 mientos" in the province of Havana. In that of Guines, with a population of 12,500 Cuban inhabitants, not a single one of the latter was found among its councillors. In the same epoch there were only three Cubans deputies in the Provincial Deputation of Havana; two in that of Matanzas, and three in that of Santa Clara. And these are the most populous regions in the island of Cuba. Carpet-Baggers to the Fore. As, on the other hand, the government of the Metropolis appoints the officials of the colony, all the lucrative, influential and representative officers are secured to the Spaniards from Europe. The Governor-General, the regional and the provincial governors, the "intendentes," comptrollers, auditors, treasurers, chiefs of communications, chiefs of the custom-houses, chiefs of administration, presidents and vice-presidents of the Spanish bank, secretaries of the government, presiding judges of the "Audiencia," presidents of tribunal, magistrates, attorneys-general, archbishops, bishops, canons, pastors of rich parishes, all, with very rare exceptions, are Spaniards from Spain. The Cubans are found only as minor clerks in the government offices, doing all the work and receiving the smallest salaries. From 1878 to this date there have been twenty governors in the province of Matanzas. Eighteen were Spaniards and two Cubans. But



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304 CUBA. moved to the starboard side and sat down there. I was feeling a bit glum, and, in fact, was so quiet that Lieutenant J. Hood came up and asked laughingly if.I were asleep. I said, 'No; I am on watch.' "Scarcely had I spoken when there came a dull sullen roar. Would to God that I could blot out the sound and the scenes that followed! Then came a sharp explosion; some say, numerous detonations. I remember only one. It seemed to me that the sound came from the port side, forward. Then came a perfect rain of missiles of all descriptions, from huge pieces of cement to blocks of wood, steel railings, fragments of gratings and all the debris that would be detachable in an explosion. "I was struck on the head by a piece of cement and knocked down; but I was not hurt and got to my feet in a moment. Lieutenant Hood had run to the poop; and I supposed, as I followed, he was dazed by the shock and about to jump overboard. I hailed him and he answered that he had run to the poop to help lower the boats. When I got there, though scarce a minute could have elasped, I had to wade in water to my knees, and almost instantly the quarter-deck was awash. On the poop I found Captain Sigsbee, as cool as if at a ball, and soon all the officers except Jenkins and Merritt joined us. The poop was above water after the Maine settled to the



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294 CUBA. 'McKinley's Wordss The tone of the President's utterance was calm and temperate, but the purport was unmistakable. He had a fine record of deeds done to report, and he took strong ground concerning future action. He said: ,,That the Government of Sagasta has entered upon a course from which recession with honor is impossible can hardly be questioned; that in the few weeks it has existed it has made earnest of the sincerity of its professions is undeniable. I shall not impugn its sincerity, nor should impatience be suffered to embarrass it in the task it has undertaken. It is honestly due to Spain and to our friendly relations with Spain that she should be given a reasonable chance to realize her expectations, and to prove the asserted efficacy of the new order of things, to which she stands irrevocably committed. She has recalled the commander whose brutal orders inflamed the American mind and shocked the civilized world. She has modified the horrible order of concentration and has undertaken to care for the helpless and permit those who desire to resume the cultivation of their fields to do so, and assures them the protection of the Spanish Government in t heir lawful occupations. She has just released the "Competitor," prisoners, heretofore sentenced to death, and who have been the subject of repeated



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 531 inch shell and one eight-inch had hit her, but it was found that the Spaniards had taken every mean measure to destroy her after they themselves were safe. They had opened every sea valve in the ship and had thrown the caps overboard, They had opened all the ports and smashed the deadlights. They had even thrown the breech plugs of their guns overboard. The Colon floated off at 7 o'clock in the evening and drifted 5oo yards down the beach to the westward, swinging bow out. The New York pushed her back, stern on the beach, but the water was already up to her gun deck. At 1 I O'clock she lurched and turned over on her starboard side, with her port guns pointing straight up to the sky. Admiral Cervera Wounded. The Spanish Admiral, who was wounded in the arm, was taken to the Gloucester, and was received at her gangway by her commander, Lieu tenant-Commander Richard Wainwright. He grasped the hand of the gray-bearded Admiral, and said to him: 11I congratulate you, sir, upon having made as gallant a fight as was ever witnessed on the sea." There was no mistaking the heartbroken expression upon -the old head seaman's face as he took the proffered hand of LieutenantCommander Wainwright and was shown 30



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CUBA. 57 New York. Exception must be made in favor of a handful which I received at a cigar factory as a present. These were very good. The cigars sold over the counter even in the best restaurants are not worth buying. The visitor who wants a fine brand cannot do better than to visit one of the best factories and make his purchases there, throwing himself upon the mercy of the proprietors and paying well for them. "The truth is that the world smokes too much to enjoy any longer the luxury of the pure Havana of *other days. The district where the choicest leaf is produced in the Vuelta de Abajo is of limited area. It is surrounded by belts in which leaf of excellent color, but lacking in delicacy of aroma, is produced. It is soil rather than -climate that regulates the quality of tobacco, and while the plant grows readily throughout Western Cuba, and in certain districts near Matanzas, Cienfuegos and Santiago, it is only from a comparatively small area that the best, leaf can be obtained, and then only when the plants are trimmed after budding. The 'demand for well-known brands is very great, and 'it has to be met in some way. I was told in Santiago and Cienfuegos that much of the tobacco raised there was'sent to Havana and made up as cigars passing under the best names. The depreciation in the quality of Cuban cigars imported into the 4



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 453 When our ships withdrew the forts poured a defiant rain of shells after them, and their guns could be heard blazing away long after our vessels were out of range. The Battle of Santiago de Cuba. At daybreak, on May 18, the St. Louis appeared off Santiago de Cuba, having been sent by the Admiral to cut the cable connecting Santiago and Jamaica. About 6 a.m. the American flag was hoisted at the masthead and allhands were called to quarters. The ship then swung round and steamed across the harbor at a distance of five miles from the forts, firing three shots from one of her forward six-'pounders in the direction of the Morro, with the intention of drawing the fire of the forts to see what guns they had, but the fire was not returned. The ship then steamed back and forth across the harbor, getting gradually closer to the forts. About noon, the ship having reached a position one and a quarter miles from the Morro, the grapnel caught the cable. The Spaniards evidently discovered the mission of the ship about this time, for a battery to the east of the Morro opened fire with a 6-inch gun, the first shot falling about two hundred yards short of the ship. Captain Goodrich now ordered the fire to be returned by the two 6-pounders on the starboard side, the only guns that could be brought to bear on the 26



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232 CUBA. rendered valuable services to the cause. A sincere republican, he has always been highly respected and esteemed for his liberal ideas and his sterling character. Gen. Carlos Roloff, Secretary of War, was born in Poland, but came to Cuba when a mere youth and established himself at Cienfuegos, where he attained quite a distinguished position for his intelligence, industry and integrity. In 1869, at the head of quite a number of young men from the most prominent families of the city, he joined the revolution, and until the end of the war in 1878 occupied the first rank, both for his bravery and his military talents. The Assistant Secretary of War, Mario Menocal, belonged to one of the best families of Matanzas, and is a relative of one of the members of the Corps of Civil Engineers of the United States whose name is so well known in connection with the Nicaragua Canal. Rafael Portuondo y Tamayo, Secretary of Foreign Affairs, was a distinguished member of one of the most prominent families of Santiago de Cuba, both for social rank and wealth, no less than for the talents of some of the individuals belonging to it, who have distinguished themselves in the liberal professions. Fermin Valdes Dominguez, Assistant Secretary of Foreign Affairs, was a, well-known



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CHAPTER XI. THE NEWS IN CUBA-THE NEW COMMANDERWEYLER'S ARRIVAL-FIRST WORDS TO CUBANO NEUTRALITY -NON-COMBATANTS MENACED -CALL FOR SURRENDER-TO END THE WAR IN THIRTY DAYS-THE TELEGRAPH LINES-WEYLER S PROCLAMATIONS-MUST PRAISE SPAINPASSPORTS AND CREDENTIALS-STORES TO BE SEIZED-FATE OF PRISONERS-MORE TROOPS FOR WEYLER-THE MASSACRE OF GUATAO-PRISONERS KILLED-VERY NEAR HAVANA -THE TOWNS DESERTED-WEYLER CALLS A HALTPOWERS OF LIFE AND DEATH-MORE PROCLAMATIONS-FOR EXTERMINATION-FIFTEEN DAYS GRACE-THREATS-OFFER OF AMNESTY-TO REPORT ON THE SUSPECTS-APPEAL FOR RECOGNITION-A LONG DEBATE-ACTION OF CONGRESS. HE NEWS that the Spanish Government had decided to withdraw General Campos from Cuba was announced in a telegram from Madrid, on January I7th, 1896. It said: "Independently of the military action, the Government has authorized Marshal Campos to resign his command to General Marin and return to Spain, in consequence of the conduct of the political parties of Cuba, contrary to the policy of the Commander-in-Chief, asking a change in the system of conducting the war," (240)



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CUBA. 161 living in the Five Towns' grow very eloquent when they relate the exploits of a handsome girl' whom they call I The Maid of Las Tunas.' This fair adventuress used to ride in arms, Amazonlike, as a scout to the insurgents, with all the zeal and intrepidity of Garibaldi's young Countess at Varese. She fell three times into the hands of the Spaniards, to whom she had become well known. Twice did her charms redeem her from the hands of the officers, but in the third instance she came into the power of a less susceptible warrior, who delivered her over to the brutality of his soldiers, after which he doomed her to the fate of Joan of Arc. Atrocities of Camp Followers* "As happens in all wars, and especially civil wars, the combatants on either side are not always answerable for the worst deeds perpetrated in their name. The disturbed districts are overrun by camp followers, Bandoleros, and marauders of the worst description, who, hoisting now one flag, now the other, really make war on their own account, and whose hand is against every man, These, when caught, are with great impartiality immediately shot by both parties but no readiness or act ivity of summary justice seems greatly to effect their number or to check their audacity. It is mainly on account of them that a ride from one to the other of the five towns, and especially from



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41 g"; 1w 80 Palace of the CaptainGeneral, Havana.



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WAR WITH SPAIN, I Q I Spanish Proper Names, Alfonso -Ahl-f6hn-so. Maria Cristina-. Mah-ree-ah Crees-tee-nah. Praxedes Sagasta Prah-heh-dehs, Sah-gahss-tah. Leon y Castillo Leh-O'hn ee Cahss-tee'l-yo. Correa-Cor-reh-ah. Aunon-Ah-oonohn. Romero Giron-Ro-mehro Hee-ro'hn. Lopez Pu4zcerver-Lo-peth Pooeeg-thair-vair. Gamazo-Gah-mah-tho. Capdepon-Cahp-deh-po"hn. .Groizard-Gro-ee-thArd. (The last name, from its spelling, appears to be French, but the above would be the Spanish pro-, enunciation ) Bermejo-Bair-meh-ho. Cervera 0-T"% 11 -V h-rah. Weyler-Way-ee-la'ir. nair e (This again is undoubtedly a German name and is variously pronounced.) Ramon Blanco-Rahm6hn BlaFhn-co. Silvela-Seel-veh-lah. Romero y Robledo-Ro-meh-ro ee Ro-bla*y-do. Names of Spanish Shipse Almirante Oquendo-Ahl-mee-rahn-teh 0kehn-do. Pelayo-Peh-lahyo. Cristobal Colon -Crees-to-bahl Co-l'hn. Pluton -Ploo-to'hn. Terror-Ter-ro'r. Furor-Foo-ro'r. Ciudad de Cadiz-The-oo-dahd deh Cah-deeth. Azor-Ahth6r. Ariete-Ah-ree-e h-teh.



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436 WAR WITH SPAIN. At this stage the guns in the Quintas da Recreo battery were observed to be firing on the flagship. This fort is on the eastward arm of the harbor, 7,000 yards from where the flagship was lying. It is provided with four 8-inch guns. The flagship's fire was at once directed upon it. Other Ships Join In. Up to this period the New York had been firing alone. Captain Harrington on the Puritan, and Captain Chester on the Cincinnati, had drawn up, and were vigorously signalling for permission to fire. When this was reported to Admiral Sampson, he said, "All right; tell them to go ahead." So, while the New York was opening fire on Quintas da Recreo, the Puritan took a position to the eastward and opened on the same point. The Cincinnati went to the westward and pounded a rapid-fire broadside into the earthworks on Punta Gorda. Occasionally shots from Quintas da Recreo could be seen coming in the direction of the New York. All fell very short, and at no time threatened the ship. Only about ten shots are believed to have been fired from this battery during the whole engagement. However, there may have been more. It is possible that its guns were disabled, as two 8-inch shells were distinctly seen to land square in the fort. Its distance from the ship was so great and the smoke, which the



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CUBA. 47 Cuban Scenery., Travelers coming to Cuba for the first time usually see what they have expected to see, and fall temporarily into ecstasies over tropical scenery and semi-saracenic architectural effects. It is imagination fired by overheated books of travel that lends to the view greater enchantment than distance in a foreign land. When the eye becomes accustomed to the contrasts with familiar scenes offered in town and country, disenchantment quickly follows. Then the truth is discerned that the woods, foliage, plants, flowers, landscape effects and suburban drives are incomparably more beautiful in the temperate zone than in the tropics. Raptures over Cuban scenery are transitory vagaries in Havana. The harbor, with a long line of high-bastioned fortifications flanking the low peninsula upon which the city stands, is an imposing pageant, especially under a moonlit sky; but the country about the city is flat and unimpressive. A railway ride across the island from Batabano,' or westward to Matanzas, discloses vistas of undulating levels and moors under poor cultivation, relieved only by sen-tinel palms of the royal guard, or by encampments of palmettos, or by straggling cabins with palm-leaf roofs. The plazas have an ill-nourished and stunted look. The Bishop's Garden in Tulipan was once a lovely retreat, but it is now neglected ground.



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44 CUBA* some places naphtha or petroleum. TIhere are excellent quarries of slate near Havana, the product of which is used for floors and pavements. In many parts of the island of Cuba, and more particularly in the Isle of Pines, marble and jasper, of various colors and fine quality, are found. Iron is believed to exist in considerable quantities, especially among the highest mountain peaks, but because of the difficulty of access, the scarcity of fuel, the want of capital, and perhaps, above all, lack of enterprise and energy, no considerable mining operations have ever been undertaken. Animal Life. The aboriginal animal life of Cuba varied but little from that of other islands. Savage -wild beasts were unknown. The only quadruped peculiar to the island is the hutia. This is an animal somewhat resembling a rat in form, and from twelve to eighteen inches in length, exclusive of the tail. It is pure black in color, lives among trees, and feeds on leaves and fruit. Its flesh is sometimes used as an article of diet. A few deer have been found in various parts of the island, but they are supposed to have been introduced from Florida. Plenty of wild dogs and cats are found in the woods, but' they are merely the degenerate descendants of tame creatures. The chief domestic animals are the ox, the horse, and the pig, and these form a large pro-



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114 CUBA& 1854 numerous small insurrections occurred. These were mostly organized by the slaves, and were more attempts to obtain freedom for the slaves than to obtain independence for the island. A few of these rebellions showed plans of a Nvidespread conspiracy, however, and these were countenanced, if not assisted, by the Southern States of this country. There was for some time among Southern statesmen, a definite project looking to the annexation of Cuba to the Union, and its division into four States. These would, of course, have been slave States and thus would have added greatly to the power of the slave party in Congress. Their eight senators and at least sixteen representatives would have given the balance of power to the South for a long time. The first serious uprising was that of the Black Eagle" bands in 1829, which was really incited by the example of Bolivar and the SouthAmerican republics. It was readily suppressed by the Spanish Government with great severity and cruelty. A considerable insurrection of the slaves occurred in 1844 and the province of Matanzas was placed for a time under purely military rule. Under the ordinary method of 0 0 0 # 0 0 examination no incriminating evidence was obtainable against the prisoners taken. The Court, therefore, went back to the horrible practices of



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 499 heavier. The next night the attack was renewed, and two more Americans were killed, Henry Goode and George Tauman. More than twenty Spaniards were killed. The attack was a picturesque and striking spectacle. The crack of the Spanish rifles, sending tongues of fire from every bush encircling the camp, and the twitter of the long steel bullets overhead, could be heard, while the machine guns down on the water were ripping open the thickets, and the field guns were driving in shot where the fire of the Spaniards was the thickest. Then there was the screech of the Marblehead's shells as she took a hand in the fight, and the sharp, quick flashing of the Colt rapid-firing I-pounder guns from the effectively-p laced ship launches. The Dolphin found the Spanish water-station on the ocean side of the harbor entrance, which supplied the water for the attacking force. The well was situated in a blockhouse windmill, having a small garrison. It was shelled at two thousand yards. The station was wrecked and canister followed the retreating Spaniards up the steep hills. IRaiding a Spanish Camp. A few days later the Americans decided that attack was the best defence, so they set out to take the aggressive and to destroy the camp of



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102 CUBA. it was imposed by necessity. Cuba was not able by far to meet such a monstrous exaction. It was a continuous and threatening deficit that imposed these reductions. In the first of the above-named years the revenue was $8,ooo,ooo short of the budget or appropriations. In the second year the deficit reached the sum of $20,ooo,ooo. In 1883 it was nearly $io,ooo,ooo. In the following years, the deficits averaged nearly $4,500,000. At present the accumulated amount of all these deficits reaches the sum of $ioo,ooo,ooo. The Awful Burden of Debt. As a consequence of such a reckless and senseless financial course, the debt of Cuba has been increased to a fabulous sum. In I868 it owed $25,000,000. When the present war broke out the debt, it was calculated, reached the net sum of $ i9o,ooo,ooo. On the 31st of July, 1895, the Island of Cuba was reckoned to owe $295,707,264 in bulk. Considering its population, the debt of Cuba exceeds that of all the other American countries, including the United States. The interest on this debt imposes a burden of $9.79 on each inhabitant. The French people, the most overburdened in this respect, owe only $6.30 per inhabitant. This enormous debt, contracted and saddled upon the country without its knowledge; this heavy load that grinds it and does not permit its



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370 WAR WITH SPAIN. tween navy yards as transport steamer, 840 tons. Armament-Two 3-pounder and two i-pounder rapid-fire guns. Cushing, Lieutenant Albert Gleaves.)Torpedo-boat, 165 tons; 1,720 horse-power; 22 knots speed. Armament--Three torpedo tubes and two 3-pounder rapid-fire guns. Ericsson, Lieutenant-Commander Nathaniel R. Usher. Torpedo-boat, 120 tons; i,8oo horsepower; 24 knots speed. Armament-Three torpedo tubes and four i-pounder rapid-fire guns. Rodgers, Lieutenant Joseph L. Jayne. Torpedo-boat, 142 tons; 2,000 horse-power; 27 knots speed. Armament-Three torpedo tubes and four I-pounder rapid-fire guns. Winslow--Lieutenant John L. Bernadou.-/, Description same as Rodgers. Foote, Lieutenant William L. Rodgers Description same as Rodgers. Porter, Lieutenant John C. Fremont. Torpedo-boat, 185 tons; 3,500 horse-power; 27 knots speed. Armament--Three torpedo tubes and three i-pounder rapid-fire guns. Dupont, Lieutenant Spencer S. Wood (flagship of torpedo flotilla). Description same as Porter. Flying Squadron. Commodore Winfield Scott Schley, ommanding. Brooklyn, Captain Francis A. Cook (flag-





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CUBA. 281 submit. He held out for several months, and gave much trouble in the Eastern provinces of the island. At last, in August, 1878, he embarked for Kingston, Jamaica. He led afterwards a roving life of refugee and conspirator. He went to Honduras, where he became a General and Governor of Puerto Cortes, until he shared the fall of President Soto. In 1879 he again tried to raise bands in Cuba, but was made a prisoner and sent to Merhon Citadel by General Blanca. He was soon released, and returned to America. Later on, he reappeared several times at Havana, putting up at one of the best hotels. There he was openly visited and welcomed by all the well-known Separatists and by many Autonomists. He made tours in the whole island, and played his cards warily enough to give no pretext for severity at the hands of several Governors-General. He was all the time preparing treason. tie suddenly went to Santiago de Cuba, to start the "small insurrection," Insurreccion chica, in I89I. He was confronted by a stern and able General, Polavieja, the present Governor-General of the Philippine Islands, and successor to Marshal Blanco at Manila, who promptly took such measures as were sufficient to nip the rising in the bud. Maceo fled again to Central America and the States, to prepare more slowly and successfully the present rebellion



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C'UBA.. 275 ers, among them several American citizens, were subjected to a summary military trial, which, although conducted by an Admiralty Court, alleged to be competent, appeared to have lacked the essential safeguards of procedure stipulated by the existing conventions between the United States and Spain. The Government promptly~ intervened to secure for its implicated citizens all the rights to which they were clearly entitled, including appeal from the pronounced sentence of death. Their cases were subsequently carried to the higher tribunal at Madrid, which has set the conviction aside and remanded the cases for retrial. Weyler Forced to take the Field. In the month of October more active operations were resumed. The Spanish Government became dissatisfied with Weyler's dilatory tactics, and peremptorily directed him to take the field in person and strike a decisive blow; otherwise, it was intimated, he would be recalled and another put in his place. The reasons for this urgency were evident. The Sp.anish Treasury was empty, and it was found impossible to raise a loa: in any of the money markets of Europe. The only resort was, then, to appeal to the patriotism of the Spanish people themselves for a domestic loan; and to arouse their patriotic zeal and make the loan a success there must at least be a show of



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 387 Fifth-Volunteers-infantry. This was Weyler's pet force. It is composed chiefly of Spanish residents of Cuba, who hold themselves in readiness for active service when called upon in times of emergency. Its fighting abilities are supposed to be confined to volleys of selected epithets delivered at long range. Sixth-Mobilizados-infantry. This is an irregular force for defensive purposes only. It is composed of both Spaniards and native-born Cubans. It is to all intents and purposes a force of night-watchmen, serving without pay, or with pay, as circumstances provide. Each fortified town is supposed to provide a certain number of mobilizados to do guard duty at the blockhouse forts, guarding the place. The citizens usually take turns at this duty. By obtaining a special permit from the authorities, the owner of a plantation may arm his workmen, or may hire men as guards, to protect his property against bandits. Seventh--Orden Publico-infantry. This is a city guard, similar to the Guardia Civil. It was with men from this force that the United States Consulate-General, in Havana, was guarded. Spanish Pronunciation. For the convenience of those who have not a familiar acquaintance with the Spanish language, the pronunciation of some of the commonest names met with in the story of the war is given.



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CUBA. 171 ture of the "'Virginius" was due, met with gen-~ eral approval, and these officers were regarded with universal gratitude. On the following morning (Thursday, Nov. 6) the general hilarity was renewed, and toward evening another grand demonstration took place. The palace of the Governor was brilliantly illuminated, the public buildings and private residences were extensively decorated, and flags and banners waved above the volunteers, who paraded the streets in full force. The Captain-General and General of the Marine were the recipients of unusual honors, and the serenades which they received were participated in by hundreds. The city was again given over to general rejoicing, and grand banquets were held in many sections of the city. At that time the enthusiasm was at its height. The outburst of joy occasioned by the reception of the strange tidings was naturally followed by a reaction, and in the few succeeding days the city gradually regained its former composure. The Cuban revolutionists in the city could of course only look on in terror at the demonstrations above described. Many concealed themselves as well as they could, and none dared to express their opinions in public. The North American continent thrilled with indignation in view of this outrage. The press voiced the demand of the people for apology.



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 311 unmistakable manner, that her sympathies were with the United States and that she would probably join forces with the United States if any of the other Powers allied themselves with Spain. The Pope endeavored to bring about an amicable settlement of the controversy but was unable to do so. The Spanish Government greatly exaggerated the part he had taken and thereby brought much reproach upon itself. Both nations spared no labor in preparing for war on land and at sea, but in this the United States had from the outset a vast advantage over Spain. She had plenty of money, while Spain was all but bankrupt; she had fine shipyards and plenty of skilled mechanics and engineers, while Spain had to get her ships built and repaired abroad and had to look abroad for engineers and gunners to manage them. General 11,ee leaves Cuba. Gen. Fitzhugh Lee, the United States Consul-General at Havana, was in a delicate and even perilous position. American ships were sent to Havana daily to guard his welfare and to bring away such Americans as -desired to come. As a matter of fact all Americans wanted to get away, feeling sure that there would soon be war, and every boat leaving Havana was crowded with them. On April 5th, Gen. Lee was told that he might leave Havana and return home at any



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 449 tion. He was promoted to ensign June 30, and ten days later joined the Indiana, whence he was transferred to the Maine, on August 17. He was ordered to the Columbia Iron Works, Baltimore, on November i9, 1897, as inspector, in connection with fitting out the torpedo-boat Winslow, and when that vessel went into commission, on December 28, he became second in command, under Lieutenant Bernadou. Ensign Bagley was with this boat last February, when, in the height of a gale off the Delaware Breakwater, Lieutenant Bernadou, with Bagley's assistance, rescued two poor fellows adrift on a garbage scow. The Gussie's Failure. Down to this time the Government censorship over news was lax, and information often got out that should have been kept secret. It was quickly caught up by Spanish spies and made use of against this country. For example, the steamer Gussie was sent on May 12 to carry a cargo of arms and ammunition to the Cuban Insurgents. The intention to send her was made known, and the Spaniards made preparations accordingly. When she got near shore, instead of finding the Insurgents there to receive the cargo, she found a body of Spanish troops, who fired upon her and prevented the landing of the cargo. So the expedition had to return, an utter failure. That opened the eyes of the Govern-



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CUBA. 25 May 3, Columbus turned thither, but discovered nothing but the Island of Jamaica, and on May 1 8 he returned to Cuba. He arrived at a great cape, to which he gave the name of Cabo de la Cruz 'or Cape of the Cross, by which it is still known. Then he ran into a beautiful archipelago and called it the Queen's Garden. Every day revealed new beauties of land and sea. The delighted voyager believed that he had surely reached "Summer -Isles of Eden, lying in dark purple spheres of sea." League after league he sailed along the coast toward the west, more and more convinced that he had found the land of the Great Khan. He proposed to keep on and circumnavigate the globe, returning by way of Africa. But his ships were out of repair and his crews weary, so at last he had reluctantly to turn back. Before he did so he had every one of his officers and men sign a declaration of their belief that Cuba was the western extremity of the continent of Asia. This was done while the ships lay in the Bay of Cortes, or Bay of Phillipina. If only some one had taken the trouble at that time to climb to the mast-head, he might have seen the open sea to the northward of the island and thus have discovered that Cuba was nothing but an island. Or had Columbus kept on for two or three days more,,,he would have reached the western end of the island and



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Queen Regent and Alphonso XIII.



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338 WAR WITH SPAIN. in which learning and civilization soon advanced to a high pitch. They made several attempts to advance further into Europe but were overwhelm.! ingly defeated at Tours, in 732 by Charles Martel, The dynasty founded by Pelayo, in Asturias, in 7 18, lasted until 1027. Then the kingdom was divided into the two separate kingdoms of Leon and Castile, which were reunited in 1230. The kingdom of Navarre was founded in 885, and united with Castile in 1512. The kingdom of Aragon was founded, in 1035, and united with Castile in 15 516. The county of Barcelona became a part of Aragon in I113 1. The present kingdom of Portugal was originally a province of Castile, but became an independent kingdom in I1140. The first king of all Christian Spain, including Aragon, Navarre, Castile and Leon, was Alfon~io 1, who reigned from 1104 to 1134. Aided by French and English volunteers he waged perpetual -war against the Saracens and greatly impaired their power. His successors continued the conflict, and, little by little, year by year, drove the Saracens back toward Africa. ]Rise of Spanish Power. Cordova was captured in 1236, and then only the Kingdom of Grenada remained to the Saracens. It rerbisted for two hundred and fifty years the attacks of the Spaniards, but finally fell at the end of the fifteenth century. At that time



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CUBA. 293 the Madrid Government. Finally he yielded, and left Cuba in a rage, saying and doing all he could to embitter relations between Spain and America. On getting back to Spain he organized demonstrations against the Government', and publicly declared it had been coerced by the United States; for which conduct the Government presently arrested him and sentenced him to undergo punishment. Marshal Blanco, Sagasta sent Marshal Blanco to Cuba, as Weyler's successor. He had long been one of the most eminent and respected of Spanish officerscL man of great ability and of humane instincts. His first acts were, on arriving at Havana, to countermand Weyler's infamous decrees, and reduce the war to a more humane basis. He also began the consideration of an offer of autonomy .to CubaI in the hope that the island might thus be pacified. Military operations were for a time few and unimportant. Efforts were made to succor the starving, and to revive the industries which had been prostrated by the war. At last, at the end of November, 1897, a scheme of autonomy was promulgated, to go into effect on January i, 1898. Before it was made public, however, Congress met, and President McKinley in his message had some plain words to say on the Cuban question.



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348 WAR WITH SPAIN. they were repulsed by the Spaniards. An attempt of the people to obtain independence after three years of turbulence was frustrated in 1823. As to the Spanish administration of the islands, it differs but little, if at all from that imposed upon Cuba. The island is a parallelogram in general outline, 103 miles from east to west, and from 37 to 43 miles across. San Juan, the principal town, is of considerable strategic importance. It is distant from the Cape Verde Islands, 2,Io miles; from Key West, i,o5o; from Hampton Roads. 1,420. The population in 1887 numbered 798,565, of whom 474,933 were white, 246,647 mulattoes, and 76,905 negroes. Slavery was abolished in 1873; three years after the colony was declared to be a representative province of Spain and divided into seven departments. Character of the Island. The most of the population is located on the lowlands at the sea front of the hill. For lack of roads the interior is accessible only by mule trails or saddle paths, and it is covered with vast forests There are interesting caves in the mountains, those of Aguas Buenas and Ciales being the most notable. Rivers and brooks are numerous, forty-seven very considerable rivers having been enumerated.



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332 WAR WITH SPAIN. ,,In the present war, free, Protestant AngloSaxons are opposed to a Latin nation which is ruled by the clergy. It is a new chapter of a conflict old in history. Who w ill and must be the final victor it is easy to see. It is true that, for the beginning, Spain has in her control, larger and better trained bodies of soldiers than the United States; but the Union can certainly procure these, and possesses, at all events, more endurance, because she is not only superior in population, but is in control of almost inexhaustible resources, whereas Spain is, at the very beginning of the war, almost bankrupt. Important Step in American Politics* The task the United States has undertaken in proceeding to free Cuba from the Spanish yoke is certainly a most important step in the development of the politics of the American hemisphere. The doctrine, "America for the Americans," is made to apply, not only to the continent, but to the islands as well. Cuba is, geographically, the most important, and the misrule of the Spanish on that island has long enough been challenging American interference-. It would be a waste of energy to make too many conjectures as to the possibilities of the war, but one thing is assured, an easy victory would certainly encourage the Americans to continue in this new policy. They would attempt further liberations, and would



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CHAPTER II. GENERAL VIEW OF THE ISLAND-THE LAY OF THE LAND-THE CLIMATE-MINERAL 'RESOURCESANIMAL LIFE-VEGETABLE LIFE-CUBAN SCENERY. SUBA EXTENDS from Cape Maysi, on the east, to Cape St. Antonio, on the west, in a curved line of 790 miles. It lies between I9 and 230 north latitude, and 740 and 850 west longitude. It is I 17 miles wide in the broadest part; from Cape Maternillos point on the north, to the western point of Mota Cove, on the south twenty-one miles east of Cape Cruz-the Cape of the Cross. The narrowest part of the Island is twentytwo miles, from the mouth of Bahia del Mariel, on the north of Cove of Mavana on the south. From Havana to Batabano, it is twenty-eight miles; near the centre of the Island, the breadth north and south is about seventy-five miles. The periphery of the Island, following a line the less tortuous and cutting the bays, parts and coasts at their mouths, is 1,719 miles, of which (35)



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... ....... NO General Fitzhugh 4ee.



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484 WAR WITH SPAIN. plode the torpedoes on the port side, leap overboard, preceded by his crew, and make their escape in a little lifeboat which was towed astern, if possible, and if not to attempt to swim ashore. All the men were heavily armed, ready to make a fierce resistance to capture. Scarcely had the ship disappeared when a flash from Morro's guns proclaimed that she had been discovered. Immediately the other batteries around the harbor opened fire, but the ship went steadily on. A heavy cannon and musketry fire continued -for about a half-hour, and guns were fired at intervals until long after daylight. None of the American ships dared to fire for fear of striking the Merrimac's crew. The Search for the Survivors. Cadet Powell, who had charge of a launch which was to have picked up or assisted Lieutenant Hobson and his crew, after the Merrimac had been sunk, told this story of his experience: ,,Lieutenant Hobson took a short sleep after midnight. At 2 o'clock he came on deck and made a final inspection, giving his last instructions. Then we had a little luncheon, Hobson was as cool as a cucumber. About 2.30 o'clock I took the men who were not going on the trip into the launch, and started for the Texas, the nearest ship, but had to go back for one of the assistant engineers, whom Hobson finally compelled to leave.





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CUBA. 177 advanced and made a courteous salute. The officers then read their respective instructions, and Capt. de la Camera remarked that in obedience to the requirements of the government and in execution of the provisions of the protocol, he had the honor to turn over the steamer 'Virginius' to the American authorities. Capt. Whiting accepted, and learning that a receipt was required, gave one in due form. A word or two more were spoken and the Spaniard stepped over the side, signalled to his oarsmen, and in ten minutes was again upon the deck of his own vessel. Beside the surrendering and receipting officers, I was the only witness of the ceremony. The Formal Transfer. "While the Spanish officer was courtesy itself, we were all impressed with the fact that the ceremony was lacking in dignity and that the Spaniards had purposely made that lack as conspicuous as they dared. It appeared that the 'Virginius' was towed to Havana by the firstclass man-of-war Isabella la Catholica,' the commander of which retired immediately and left the surrender to be made by the commander of the' Favorita,' which had been in the vicinity of Bahia Honda for several months engaged in surveying duty. The surrender should have taken place either at Santiago de Cuba or at Havana, and a Spanish officer of like rank with Cap-



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528 WAR WITH SPAIN. The veterans of the Texas lined up and gave three hearty cheers and a tiger for their old commander-in-chief. Capt. Philip called all hands to the quarter-deck, and, with bared head, thanked God for the almost bloodless victory. "I want to make public acknowledgment here," he said, thatt I believe in God the Father Almighty. I want all you officers and men to lift your hats and from your hearts offer silent thanks to the Almighty." All hats were off. There was a moment or two of absolute silence, and then the overwrought feelings of the ship's company relieved themselves in three hearty cheers for their beloved commander. The Brooklyn, later in the afternoon, started east to chase a report that another Spanish warship had been seen. The vessel turned out to be the Austrian cruiser Maria Teresa. The Resolute came up, and the work ol transferring the prisoners of the Cristobal Colon to her was begun. Five hundred and thirty men were taken off. Eight were missing. Not Likely that the Colon can be Saved. It was hoped that the Cristobal Colon might be saved as a Fourth of July gift to our navy. She was beached bow on, on a sandy shore, and her stern was afloat. She was not materially damaged by the shots that had struck, her. One thirteen-



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CUJBA. 261 teachers shall be under the control of the commandants in whatever jurisdiction they may be assigned. A record of those so attached to each column, encampment or fort will be kept, and their superiors will make a report every fifteen days concerning the conduct of the teachers, and will determine the time at which they will be permitted to reside in whatever place it may be deemed advisable to conduct them, placing them under the supervision of the local authorities, or making any other disposition of them which may be considered proper. In the meantime they will become permanently attached to the military forces, and will give their attention to the dying, and will be entitled to such rations as troops. in the field or traveling. "These directions will not go into effect in the Provinces of Pinar del Rio and Havana until these provinces have extended to them the prevailing law in the case of those who deliver themselves up to the authorities." For ]Extermination* The following proclamation was also issued: "I make known to our harassed troops and to those who attempt to demoralize them as they pursue eastward rebel parties more nu merous than those whom they leave in the Provinces of Pinar del R io and Havana that the time has arrived to pursue with the greatest activity -and



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356 WAR WITH SPAIN. Invaded by Other Nations. In 1602 five Dutch ships appeared in the Philippine Islands to blockade the forts, but were driven off by the Spaniards. Incursions were also made by Chinese pirates at different poin ts. The most celebrated of these was the invasion made by Li Ma Hon, who, with two thousand men landed in Manila in 1572, but was defeated and driven off by the Spaniards and natives under the leadership of Juan de Talcedo. In 1762 the capital was taken by the British, but was restored to Spain two years afterward for a ransom of $5,ooo,ooo which was never collected. Greatly Oppressed and Traxed. The history of these islands during the nineteenth century has been one of oppression, restriction of commerce, and ferocious taxation, in which the ecclesiastics used their influence for the support of the Spanish sovereignty. The last revolt broke out in 1896. The conspiracy was discovered before the day appointed for the rising, and the plans of the insu 'rrectionists were disconcerted. Yet, when the authorities proceeded to arrest those known to be inv olved, the rebels mustered in force amounting to several thousand, but were dispersed when they offered battle in the neighborhood of Manila. The insurgents established themselves in the province of Cavite, on the south shore of Manila Bay,



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CHAPTER X. THE PATRIOTS TOO. MUCH FOR CAMPOS-ATTITUDE OF OTHER COUNTRIES-THE INSURGENTS ORGANIZE-WHO THE LEADERS WERE-BATTLE OF SAO DEL INDIO-BATTLE OF PERALEJO-A SPANISH FORCE WIPED OUT. &ARLY IN MAY, 1895, the insurgent leaders began to feel greatly elated over the progress of the insurrection. More had been accomplished in the one preceding month than in the first five years of the war of I.868. The patriots in Puerto Principe had more men, more arms, more horses and better facilities for obtaining subsistence than they had at any time in the ten years' war. They had forests in their rear, impenetrable to the Spanish troops, and they had mountain retreats where IOO men could hold their own against 1,000. Maceo's plan was not to risk open battle, but to fall on the Spaniards from ambush, or exhaust them with forced marches. All the efforts of the Spaniards to deliver a telling blow at the head of the rebellion here were futile, and the number of insurgents in the field had (228)



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'.R 25 Mt" f KI: Am: All' 2-1 A. qI 4 1* 0 6 x X Am, WWI -1 Papal Benediction of Spanish Troops leaving Vittoria for Cuba,



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76 CUBA. officer employed by the United States authorities to protect the health of Florida. This stern official refused to allow a tall colonial clock, which had been bought at a pawnshop, boxed and carried like a coffin to the ship to be received as private baggage. He remarked sententiously that it was an old clock, and might have germs of yellow fever concealed under its antique dial-plate. A long parley proved ineffectual, and the suspected clock was sent ashore to the medical officer's house to be quarantined. Two days afterwards it was sent to Florida by the next steamer. What precautions had been taken to disinfect the clock, and to render its shipment safe is not known ; but there was a fee of two dollars paid for the quarantine. Private baggage containing fabrics which might more reasonably be supposed to be disease carriers was not overhauled ; but Florida was protected with inflexible purpose against the risks of contagion through an old clock. Matanzas* The decadence of a once prosperous and beautiful city is a melancholy spectacle. Matanzas in its best days was a luxurious centre of wealth and fashion, as well of profitable industry and commerce. Surrounded with sugar, coffee and tobacco plantations, it ranked after Havana as the busiest hive in flowering Cuba. All the indus-



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34 CUBA. as possible the trammels imposed upon it by the old system of monopoly, and also made noble efforts for the emancipation. of the slaves. It was owing to his wise administration that the island remained peaceful during the time of the revolution in Hayti, although the latter was closely watched by the negroes in Cuba and a con-, spiracy for revolt was actually formed among them by French agents. Many of the French who were driven out of Hayti by the negro revolutionists came to Cuba in 179 and settled there. The news that Napoleon had deposed the royal family of Spain reached Cuba in July, i So8. It caused great excitement and aroused much patriotic enthusiasm. All the offcers of the island at once took oath to preserve Cuba for the deposed sovereign and declared war against Napoleon. It was partly from this fact, and partly from the fact that it remained loyal to Spain when, a dozen years later, all the South American colonies revolted, that Cuba received the name of "The Ever Faithful Isle."



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 475 made a proclamation of neutrality, and then the ships had to leave. Whither they went was for a long time in doubt. Conflicting reports abounded. Several times it was officially and positively stated that they had returned to Cadiz, again that they had gone to the Philippines, again that they were off the New England coast, again that they had gone down the Brazilian coast to intercept the Oregon. Seeking the Spaniards, 'Admiral Sampson's fleet set out from Key West on May 3, to cruise about the West Indies in search of the Spanish fleet. It was composed of the battleships Iowa and Indiana, the cruisers New York (flagship), Montgomery and Detroit, the monitors Amphitrite and Terror, the torpedoboat Porter, the collier Niagara and the tug Wampatuck. Leaving Key West on MaY 3, the fleet. sailed in the direction of Havana, then turned eastward, keeping in sight of the lofty coast of Cuba. At night the beacons on the Cuban hills were lighted as usual, but they gave guidance to few vessels besides the enemies of Spain. The fleet carried no lights, but there Was -much signal practice with colored lamps. At daylight on May 12 the fleet bombarded San Juan, the seaport and metropolis of Porto Rico,



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270 CUBA. Action by Congress. Both Houses of Congress finally adopted their resolutions by overwhelming majorities. But the resolutions were not identical. Therefore Conference committees were appointed, and further delay and debate ensued. At last, on March 26, both Houses practically agreed upon identical resolutions, as follows: "Resolved by the Senate, (the House concurring therein), That in the opinion of Congress a condition of public war exists between the Government of Spain and the Government proclaimed and for some time maintained by force of arms by the people of Cuba, and that the United States of America should maintain a strict neutrality between the contending Powers, according to each all the rights of belligerents in the ports and territories of the United States. "Resolved, further, That the friendly offices of the United States should be offered by the President to the Spanish Government for the recognition of the independence of Cuba." These resolutions were ultimately adopted in the midst of great enthusiasm by an overwhelming majority on April 6, and sent to the President for his consideration and action. Being concurrent in form, they were not mandatory upon him, and he was not compelled to do anything at all with them.



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542 WAR WITH SPAIN. fair valuation, and when payment in cash is not possible receipts are to be given." Under such generous and humane conditions the American Government was established in Santiago. The Capture of Nipe. A few days later an American squadron entered the harbor of Nipe, on the northeast coast of the Province of Santiago de Cuba, and captured the place after a furious bombardment. The vessels engaged were the gunboats Topeka, Annapolis, Wasp and Leyden. In the course of an hour they silenced three forts, sank the Spanish gunboat Jorge Juan and scattered bodies of Spanish riflemen who had taken part in the engagement. Guantanamo Surrenders.o The Spanish garrison of Guantanamo, seven thousand strong, surrendered on J uly 25 th. About half as many at Palma, Soriano and San Luis also laid down their arms. At first they refused to credit the statement that Santiago had surrendered, but the presence of a Spanish officer, who accompanied Lieutenant Miley, finally convinced them, and then they displayed great delight at the prospect of returning to Spain. On to Porto Rico. The next important movement was the invasion of Porto Rico. This was effected under



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CUBA. 257 Among the dead was the gravedigger, making it necessary to obtain a negro to dig the graves. The facts above related are verified by persons who went to Punta Brara and Guatao. The Towns Deserted. The towns of Guatao and Punta Brara were soon deserted. The residents fled to Havana in fear of their lives. Of 1,7IO people in the latter town only fourteen remained. The action of the troops so close to Havana created an intense sensation there. The only official notice taken by the government was a telegram of congratulation sent Marquis De Cervera, Alcalde of Mariano. This was in response to his message to Weyler, in which he said: "They have done to-day what your Excellency so gloriously did at Jaina, Santo Domingo, thirty years ago." Weyler Calls a Halt. Arrests of civilians under the sweeping provisions of General Weyler's proclamations of February 16 had been made at such a rate and in many cases with so little evidence of guilt that General Weyler was soon compelled to issue instructions to his officers to be more careful, as he required more proof than verbal denunciation. He issued on March 8th a circular in which he stated that absolute proof must be furnished by



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 539 placed in some warehouses. There was no formal laying of them down, as military convention prescribes. Indeed, everything was done in a quiet, business-like manner that was so characteristically Anglo-Saxon as to astonish the displayloving Spaniards. The lack of gold braid on General Shafter's uniform, the unassuming conduct of his brigadier-generals and colonels, were subjects of interested comment. The commanding general stopped to talk with people on the stairs of the Governor's palace quite as if he were a merchant entering his shop. Spanish wonder knew no bounds. Governing the Captured City* The next day President McKinley issued an order for the government of Santiago, in which he said : The first effect of the military occupation of the enemy's territory is the severance of the former political relations of the inhabitants and the establishment of a new political power. Under this changed condition of things the inhabitants, so long as they perform their duties, are entitled to security in their persons and property, and in all their private rights and relations. It is my desire that the inhabitants of Cuba should -be acquainted with the -purpose of the United States to discharge to the fullest extent its obligations in this regard.



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CHAPTER IX. BEGINNING OF THE REVOLUTION OF I 895-WHERE THE PLOT HATCHED-FAMOUS MEN WHO ORGANIZED THE REBELLION--ARRIVAL OF THE LEADERS IN CUBA-HOW GOMEZ REACHED CUBA-CALLEJAS' ATTEMPTS TO SECURE PEACE BY HEROIC MEASURES--THE FIRST SKIRMISHES-IRONICAL GRATITUDE-SPREAD OF THE REBELLION. SN FEBRUARY 24th, 1895, the flag of the Cuban Republic was raised in the mountains of the province of Santiago in the eastern end of the island. This was the signal for the beginning of the sixth insurrection that has broken out in Cuba in the present century. The ten years' civil war in the island from I868 to 1878 was ended by Marshal Martinez Campos promising a number of reforms. These promises were not kept, and naturally widespread discontent ensued. During the last few years, three parties played important parts in the politics of the island. First, the Conservatives, or party of the Constitutional Union, who professed themselves satis(213)



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CONTENTS. 1 5 CHAPTER XXII. The Seventh Regiment-Two Big Camps-The Second Call-General Shafter-For the Philippines-Preparing to Invade Cuba-The Trip to Cuba-Operations at Guantanamo-Raiding a Spanish CampSpaniards Rush for the Bushes -The Dolphin Throws Shells ................490 CHAPTER XXIII Battle of La Quasina-Captain Capron's Heroic Death -The General Advance-Skill and Valor of Cubans -Work of the Fleet-Spain's Banner Falls-Cervera's Startling Move-Cervera's Ship Opens the Fight-The Texas in the Thick of it.-The Oregon and Iowa to the Front-End of the Destroyers"Don't Cheer; the Poor Devils are Dying"Greatest Chase of Modern Times-Down Came the Colon's Flag-It was Schley's Victory-Not Likely that the Colon can be Saved-Admiral Cervera Wounded-Surrender of Santiago-Discussing Terms -Great Rejoicings ..............503 CHAPTER XXIV. Taking Possession of Santiago-Occupied without Formality-Governing the Captured City-To Enjoy American Freedom-Private Property Rights Respected-The Capture of Nipe-Guantanamo Surrenders-On to Porto Rico-Spaniards Taken by Surprise-Gloucester Shells the Town-Cavalrymen Driven to Hills -Americans Welcomed -More Prize Taking-Thought Prize was RecapturedSurprised Spanish Sailors-On to Havana-In the Philippines-Tested Quality of TroopsNegotiations for Peace-The Terms Offered-Spain Considers the Terms-Coming to the White HouseThe Protocol's Appearance-Judge Day and M. Cambon Sign-Text of the Protocol ... ......537



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WW



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 341 As a compensation for the loss of the Netherlands, however, Philip conquered Portugal and added it to Spain. Then he went to war with England, partly because it had become a Protestant country, partly because it had aided the rebels in the Netherlands, and partly because Queen Elizabeth would not marry him and give him her Kingdom. He fitted out in 1588 the Invincible Armada, the largest fleet the world had ever seen, and sent it against England. Bad weather and the English fleet entirely destroyed it, with the loss of more than 20,000 Spanish lives. At the same time English captains attacked the Spanish colonies and Spanish fleets in America and inflicted great loss upon them. As if to get revenge for the reverses he suffered in foreign wars, Philip inflicted terrible persecutions upon many of his own subjects. There were still in Spain about half a million descendants of the Saracens, who were by far the most business-like and enterprising people in that nation. In i 6og Philip ordered them all to leave Spain within thirty days, under penalty of death. By that mad act he deprived Spain of fivesixths of its wealth and commerce, reduced its revenue to less than half what it had been, and inflicted upon the nation a blow from which it never recovered,



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404 WAR WITH SPAIN. target, the American flag was run up on the war-ship) a puff of smoke issued from her side, and the boom of a gun sounded across the waters. Many on board the flagship still thought the vessel might prove to be an enemy's ship, but the sound of the fifteen guns, with which she saluted the American flag, soon undeceived them. The New York returned the salute, and in her turn flew the Italian flag. The stranger proved to be the Italian cruiser Giovanni Bausan. Without further formalities she continued her course, and entered Havana harbor. An exciting incident thus ended in disappointment, but it served to show the anxiety of all hands for a fight, and to prove the thoroughness of their discipline. Adventures of a Press Boat. Some exciting adventures fell to the lot of the steamer Dauntless, which was in use as a news-boat, accompanying the fleet. It went off towards Matanzas, with the ships that were to blockade that port. "At nine o'clock that night," says one who was aboard the Dauntless, Ithree miles off Matanzas, we were stopped by Ensign McIntyre, of the Cincinnati, while we were steaming quietly toward Matanzas, whose lights were *reflected in the sky. A few miles to the southeastward a large fire ashore was exciting com,. ment aboard our vessel, and wonder was rife as to where the United States blockading fleet was



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70 CUBA. nothing worse than a tumble. Sometimes these banderillas have bombs affixed to them, which explode, under the bull's skin, causing him to feel very ill, and amusing the audience beyond expression. This act, when cleverly executed, calls forth rapturous applause and showers of silver coin and cigars, while some throw their hats into the ring-wearingr old ones there for the purpose. El Toro, who up to this time has been fighting with great courage, is streaming with blood and begins to lose confidence in his rusheses" The people, too, are impatient and clamor for the deathstroke, and at a final signal from the presidential box the matador, carrying a red flag and a long, slender sword, makes a salute and takes his position. The business of the other fighters now is to tease and madden the bull while endeavoring to direct his attention to the matador, The latter waves his red banner, advances, retreats, while the audience yells and the band plays. The poor victim is fairly blind with rage by this time, and steadying himself for a moment for a last mighty effort, makes a dash toward the matador, who, with a deft and vigorous stroke, pierces the heart of the bull and the butchery is finished. A brutal sport, you say? Well, it may be so; yet, as a Cuban friend puts it, how much more refined and elevating is it to see two per-



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68 CUBA. ive and indecent than the Chicago article and infinitely more graceful. "Amid a final discordant crash on the part of the orchestra and howls of delight from the audience, the curtain descends, when the American visitor betakes himself to the caf6 to escape the inevitable encore and to enjoy his cigarette and lemonade in peace., The Bull R9ing, The most famous popular amusement in Havana is, however, bull-fighting, especially on Sundays. As early as 2 o'clock the people begin to gather at the ring, although the sport will not begin until 4. In the meantime a vast quantity of lemonade, water sweetened with panales, cheap wine and cognac, is disposed of by the hot and thirsty crowd. In the palcos (boxes) many senoras are to be seen with fan and mantilla, attended by dandies smoking cigarettes or big black cigars. Everybody is talking, the band plays gay music and occasionally you hear the bulls bellowing in their pens outside the ring. The latter is about eighty feet in diameter and surrounded by a board fence some four feet high, over which the fighters vault when hard pressed by the bull. At -4 o'clock exactly the president enters his palco, signals with his handkerchief for the slaughter to begin, and from the



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112 CUBA. ports, some of the best among them, are filling up. The boasting steamers can hardly pass the bars at the entrance of the ports of Nuevitas, Gibara, Baracoa and Santiago de Cuba. Private parties have sometimes been willing to remedy these evils ; but then the central administration has interfered, and after years of red tape, things have remained worse than before. In the course of twenty-eight years only 139 kilometres of high-roads were built in Cuba ; two first-class light-houses were erected, three second-class, one of the fourth-class, three beacon lights and two port lights; 246 metres of wharf were built, and a few ports were superficially cleaned and their shoals marked. This was all. On the other hand the department of public works consumes unlimited millions in enormous salaries and in repairs. The neglect of public hygiene in Cuba is proverbial. The technical commission sent by the United States to Havana to study the yellow fever, declared that the port of the capital of Cuba, owing to its inconceivable filth, is a permanent source of infection, against which it is necessary to take precautions. There is in Havana, however, a Junta de Puerto"~ (board of portwardens) which collects dues and spends them with the same munificence as the other bureaucratic centres.



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540 WAR WITH SPAIN. Iro UnJoy American ]Freedom. It will, therefore, be the duty of the commander of the army of occupation to announce and proclaim in the most public manner that we come not to make war upon -the inhabitants of Cuba, nor upon any party or faction among them, but to protect them in their homes, in their employments, and in their personal and religious rights. All persons who, either by active aid or by honest submission, co-operate with the' United States in its efforts to give effect to this beneficent purpose will receive the reward of its support and protection. Our occupation should be as free from severity as possible. Though the powers of the military occupant are absolute and supreme, and immediately operate upon the political condition of the inhabitants, the municipal laws of the conquered territory, such as affect private rights of person and property, and provide for the punishment of crime, are considered as continuing in force, so far as they are compatible with the new condition of things, until they are suspended or superseded by the occupying belligerent, and in practice they are not usually abrogated, but are allowed to remain in force and to be administered by the ordinary tribunals, substantially as they were before the occupation. This enlightened practice is, so far as possible, to be adhered to on the present occasion."



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CUBA. 223 sympathizers, exiled in Central America, took passage on the Atlas steamer "Adirondack" for Long Key, on Fortune Island. At Long Key they succeeded through the American consular agent, Mr. Farrington, in buying a small schooner for $1,500. One of the conditions of the purchase was that Mr. Farrington should allow his crew and officers to remain on board, their wages to be the same as those paid by Mr. Farrington. The new owners cleared for Inagua. Instead of allowing the captain to proceed to Inagua, they compelled him to steer for Cuba, and they landed at a point on the Cuban coast near Baracoa. Then they told the captain to return to Inagua, or wherever he cared to go. Calleja's Attempts to Secure Peace by Heroic Measures. When the insurrection began, the Governor of the island was General Calleja, a Spaniard, who had been in Cuba since 1873. He is said to have been in favor of conciliation, but was hopelessly hampered by Spanish officials at Havana. It was originally planned to raise the Cuban flag on the twenty-second of February, the anniversary of Washington's birthday, being deemed a fitting occasion for the actual beginning of the insurrection. Owing to various delays and disappointments, however, the raising of the standard was postponed till February twenty-fourth.



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CUBA. 69 opposite side the bull-fighters enter the enclosure, marching in pairs across to the president, whom they salute before taking their several positions about the arena. The trumpet sounds and as the bull bounds into the ring, a rosette of colored paper fastened to a sharp piece of metal is driven into his shoulder. This is unpleasant for the bull, and, snorting with anger, he charges on an offensive partisan, called a capeador, who gently waves a red cloak before him. Just as the animal reaches him, he steps nimbly aside, escaping by a hair's-breadth. For ten or fifteen minutes the bull is teased in this manner by the gentlemen with gaudy cloaks, when at another signal from the president the trumpet sounds again and a banderillero enters armed with banderilas-short sticks ornamented with colored paper, having wicked-looking barbs or darts in the ends. The banderillero, taking one of these pleasant toys in either hand, approaches his enemy, raising himself on tiptoe and waving his arms up and down. The eyes of the bull have a dangerous gleam, as he faces the fighter, pawing the ground and bellowing with rage. Suddenly he lowers his head and rushes straight at the banderillero, who calmly awaits the onset, until the bull is within three feet of him, when, like lightning, he hurls the darts into the animal's neck and escapes with



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324 WAR WITH SPAIN. to privateering. Spain hesitated a few days and then issued a declaration to about the same effect, with the important exception, that she reserved the right to resort to privateering, and even intimated that she would exercise that right. The Challenge Accepted. Finally, on April 25th, President McKinley sent a special message to Congress recommending not a declaration of war, but that a state of war with Spain be recognized as existing. A bill in accordance with this suggestion was immediately passed by both Houses, without a dissenting vote and was signed by the President. This completed the establishment of a state of war. Actually the war began in the act of the Spanish Government on April 21St, when it withdrew its Minister from Washington ; dismissed the American Minister from Madrid; declared that a state of war existed and announced that its warships were already on their way to fight America. Thus was the full issue joined between the nations, and the United States plunged into a foreign war almost exactly half a century after its last preceding foreign war had been brought to an end.



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554 WAR WITH SPAIN. clusion of a treaty of peace, which shall determine the control, disposition and government of the Philippines. If these are accepted by Spain in their entirety it is stated that commissioners will be named by the United States to meet commissioners on the part of Spain for the purpose of concluding a treaty of peace on the basis above indicated." Spain Considers the Trerms. These terms were generally reckoned to be most generous. Indeed many Americans regarded them as too lenient toward Spain. But Spanish statesmen professed to regard them as harsh and oppressive. Some days were therefore occupied in discussion at Madrid, and in trying, through M. Cambon, to get some. modifications of the terms. But the President would not yield an inch. He gave Spain the choice, either to accept the terms as they were and at once, or to have the war go on with a certainty of ultimately having to yield to far less favorable terms. The result was that Spain yielded. The Madrid Goverment telegraphed to M. Cambon authority to sign the protocol. With simplicity in keeping with Republican institutions, the war which had raged between Spain and the United States for a period of three months and twenty-two days was quietly terminated at 4.23 o'clock on the afternoon of Friday, August 1 2, when Secretary Day,



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252 CUBA. More Troops for Weyler. General Weyler soon began to ask for more troops. His first reinforcements arrived on February 26. He at the same time seized onetenth of all the horses in Havana for the use of his army. The insurgents were not at all frightened by his fierce words, however. At the very time when the new Spanish troops were landing, a band of rebels made a raid on the stores on the outskirts of Cardenas. The storekeepers were mostly volunteers, and as such had been furnished arms and ammunition by the Government. The rebels seized the rifles and cartridges and then decamped. They met with no resistance. The Massacre of Guatao. A dreadful event of the beginning of Weyler's administration was the massacre at Guatao, which occurred on February 22d. It followed immediately upon the retreat of a small body of rebels, certainly not over forty, who had met a considerable Spanish force at Punta Brara, and had retired after some firing, which both sides admit, had no serious results. The insurgents withdrew along the road to Guatao, only a mile away, but separated before they reached that place and disappeared in the surrounding country. The Spaniards, however, following along the road, marched straight ilto G uatao, and, without



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408 WAR WITH SPAIN. ran screaming for shelter from the enemy's guns, and the captain locked himself sullenly in his cabin. Work of a Monitor. Most of the prize-taking was done by the small, swift gunboats, but even the big, heavy, slow monitors joined in it at times. This was done in the case of the Guido, taken on April 27. She was bound for Havana from Liverpool. The gunboat Machias sighted her some twenty-five miles north of Havana and fired the customary shot as a warning for her to stop, but the Guido disregarded it. The monitor Terror had also sighted her from the other side at the same time, and she also fired a shot across her bows. The Guido, however, did not stop, and the monitor then began to fire in a way that impressed on her the need of an immediate halt. She was some two miles' distance, but each of the three 6-pound shots which the Terror sent struck the upperworks of the Guido, as it was intended they should. One stove a big hole in one of the boats and another knocked the compass to smithereens off its stanchions. A splinter just grazed the wrist of Captain Sachiando, whose uplifted hand grasped the signal rope, and drew some blood. Quartermaster Manuel Rivas, who was at the wheel, was struck in the side by a splinter, but was not seriously hurt. Then the Guido surrendered.



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 383 stances whatever. To get one of these "dispensations it is not necessary to be either braver, wiser or better than one's neighbors. But one must have what the Americans call a pull with the authorities. Bullied, ]Ill-treated and Robbed. It is scarcely to be wondered at that the Spanish peasant tries his utmost to evade the conscription; for his treatment, from the moment he dons his country's uniform until the moment he is discharged, is of the vilest. He is bullied by his officers, ill-treated by his "non-corns.," and robbed by all. Nominally his pay is 75 centimos (15 cents) a day. Often, however, for years together he does not handle that much money in a month. The Spanish 'system of 'army stoppages~ is worked upon a sliding scale. The more money "Tommy" "has coming to him" at the end of the month, the greater is the sum kept back for this, that or the other. And he dares not complain, for discipline is enforced with a relentless severity that is neither more nor less than appalling. Desertion is punished by eight years' solitary confinement. For theft the penalties are as follows: If the amount stolen does not exceed 50 cents, imprisonment with hard labor for three years; from 5o cents to $i0.00, ten years' imprisonment; above $10.00,



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4I t 11, qF:= Battalion of Spanish Troops before the Governor. GeneralJ's Pa1lace., Havana.



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546 WAR WITH SPAIN''. Cavalrymen Driven to Hills* Soon afterward white-coated galloping cavalrymen were seen climbing the hills to the westward and the foot soldiers were scurrying along the fences from the town. By 9 45 o'clock, with the exception of a few guerilla shots, the town was won, and the enemy was driven out of its neighborhood. The Red Cross nurses on the Lampasas and a detachment of Regulars were the first to land from the transports. After Lieutenant Huse had captured the place he deployed his small force into the suburbs. He was soon reinforced by the Regulars who were followed by Company G of the 6th Illinois, and then by other troops in quick succession. All the boats of the men-of-war and the transports were used in the work of landing the troops, each steam launch towing four or five boats loaded to the rails with soldiers. Americans Welcome* The invading army soon moved forward to Ponce, the chief town on the south coast of the island, and then northward across the island toward San Juan. Little opposition was encountered. On the contrary, the. people generally welcomed the American troops. The mayors of towns came out to meet them with formal addresses of welcome. There was a -great demand



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492 WAR WITH SPAIN. what it deemed an unjust order, was disbanded by the Governor. These were, however, exceptional incidents. On the whole the work of raising an army went on smoothly and rapidly. Camps of instruction and drill were established at convenient points all over the land, and thither the troops were sent to become disciplined and accustomed to the hardships of army life, T'wo Big Canmpso Besides the state camps which the various states established, there were national camps, the chief of which were at Chickamauga, Georgia, and Tampa, Florida. The former was at the site of the famous battle fought there in our civil war and was chosen because of its available situation. The latter was selected because it was at a convenient place for shipment of the troops to Cuba. Troops began to arrive at Chickamauga on May 15~, the first of the volunteers being the First Ohio Cavalry. Within a week 25,000 men were massed there, and later the number was swelled to 65,000, the largest army in the United. States since the civil war. From Chickamauga the troops were forwarded to Tampa, there to await the time when they would be sent to Cuba*. Trhe Second Call. The first call for troops was soon filled and 125,000 men were under arms. But it was then



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rr, 7 01, ww" "00 4: V 7-1 OW, W11 9k Im W4_ 77777" ZI .. ........ Before the Blockade of Havana, Cuba.



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CUBA. 131 but seems to be confined to an irregular system of hostilities, carried on by small and illy-armed bands of men, roaming without concentration through the woods and the sparsely populated regions of the island, attacking from ambush convoys and small bands of troops, burning plantations and the estates of those not sympathizing with their cause. 11 But, if the insurrection has not gained ground, it is equally true that Spain has not sup.. pressed it. Climate, disease, and the occasional bullet have worked destruction among the soldiers of Spain; and, although the Spanish authorities have possession of every seaport and every town on the island, they have not been able to subdue the hostile feeling which has driven a considerable number of the native inhabitants of the island to armed resistance against Spain, and still leads them to endure the dangers and privations of the roaming life of a guerrilla." Air 0 6 w



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100 CUBA. tendencies, but all seeking a social improvement, has been only a struggle between hostile factions, the conflict between infuriated foes, which precedes an open war. The Spanish resident has always seen a threat in the mos 't timid protes 't of the Cuban-an attack upon the privileged position on which his fortune, his influence and his power are grounded; and he is always willing to stifle it with insult and persecution. Squeezing the Orange. What use the Spanish Government has made of this power i .s apparent in the three-fold spoliation to which it has submitted the island of Cuba. Spain has not, in fact, a colonial policy. In the distant lands she has subdued by force, Spain has sought nothing but immediate riches, and these it has wrung by might from the compulsory labor of the natives. For this reason Spain to-day in Cuba is only a parasite. Spain exploits the island of Cuba through its fiscal regime, through its commercial regime and through its bureatic regime. These are the three forms of official spoliation ; but they are not the onlyforms of spoliation. When the war of 1878 came to an end, twothirds of the island were completely ruined. The other third, the population of which had remained peaceful, was abundantly productive;but it had to face the great economical change involved in



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46 CUBA. bers. They are much used among the poorer people instead of lamps or candles. A dozen or more of them confined in a bottle or even an empty gourd pierced with holes will serve to illuminate a room fairly well. Bees are exceedingly abundant throughout the island. The poisonous insects are the jigger, one species of ant, the mosquito, the sandfly, the scorpion, and spiders. Vegetable Life. A considerable portion of the area of Cuba is covered with forests, some of them being so dense as to be almost impenetrable. It was estimated a few years ago that of nearly 2o, 0OO,ooo acres of land still remaining wild and uncultivated, about I 3,000,000 were covered with uncleared forest. Among the valuable woods are mahogany, ebony, cedar and grandilla. These are valuable for manufactures, cabinet work and ship-building, and form a considerable article of export. The most valuable tree on the island, however, is the palm, which abounds everywhere. The fruits and vegetables of Cuba are such as are found elsewhere in the tropics. Most esteemed of all are the banana and plantain, the pineapple, the orange and the cocoa. The sweetand-bitter cassava, the sweet potato, or yam, and other farinaceous roots are common, and Indian corn and rice are extensively cultivated.



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384 WAR WITH SPAIN. death or hard labor for life. In the Spanish military code of laws there are over eighty crimes many of them of the most trivial nature, which are punishable by death. Nevertheless, organized military revolts, known as "pronuinciamientos," are exceedingly common, and the entire army is said to be honeycombed by secret revolutionary societies. Trhe Army in Cuba. The Spanish army in Cuba was classified at the outbreak of the war as follows: First--Regular infantry. This force is composed exclusively of men born in Spain. One can have only feelings of pity for these poor boys, for most of them are barely twenty years of age. As regiment after regiment goes marching past, one will look at thousands of youthful faces before seeing a grizzled veteran. These boys are cleanlooking, neat and well-behaved. "Toughs" and rowdies among them are almost wholly unknown. They care nothing about Cuba. The island might sink into the sea, and they would merely roll a fresh cigarette and dream of the blue hills of old Spain, so very, very far away. They are dragged from their peaceful, quiet homes to fight for Spain. That is all they know about it, and it is all they care. Poor boys! One could only pity them, as they kept always coming, coming to Havana, and never going back. It would be a pity



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 319 Action of Congress. Congress acted on the President's message with promptness. There was some little question whether the Cuban Insurgents should be recognized as independent or not. The President was opposed to such recognization, and his judgment finally prevailed. The House of Representatives on April I13th adopted a resolution empowering the President to intervene in Cuba for the restoration of peace and to use the army and navy if necessary for the purpose. The Senate made some additions to this and finally on April 18th an agreement of both Houses was reached on the following resolutions: Resolved, By the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America,. in Congress assembled: First-That the people of the island of Cuba are, and of right ought to be, free and independent. Second-That it is the duty of the United States to demand and the Government of the United States does hereby demand, that the Government of Spain at once relinquish its authority and government in the island of Cuba and withdraw its land and naval forces from Cuba and Cuban waters. Third-That the President of the United States be, and he hereby is, directed and empowered to use the entire land and naval forces of the United States, and to call into the actual service of the United States the militia of the several States, to such extent as may be necessary to carry these resolutions into effect.



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 441, faces, and mixing with the gunpowder, made grim streaks of black over their skins. When "Cease firing" sounded disappointment was written visibly on all their faces. But the decks were quickly swept, the shrouds rehooked, the guns cooled and washed, and at dinner when the band played "The Stars and Stripes Forever," there were few signs to show that the flagship New York had been into action for the first time in her career. About three hundred shots were fired during the bombardment, one hundred and four of which were from the New York. The total cost of tl bombardment was about $3,500, expended entirely in ammunition. The cruiser Cincinnati did Wohderfully quick and rapid work with her batteries. The monitor Puritan probably fired fewer shots than the others, apparently not using her rapidfire guns, but taking careful aim with her 12inch monster at Quintas da Recreo. To those on board the flagship who had never before been on a warship when she was firing both batteries at once, and who had never heard the shells whistle through the air, the *experience was not so bad as was anticipated. The noise of the guns deafened some slightly, but a timely application of wool to the ears deadened its effect considerably. Taken all in all, the shock of the broadside was not so great as had been expected.



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 445 In the mean time another io-inch shell struck the Winslow on the port side, wrecking her forward boiler, to which the port engine was attached and which was held in reserve in case of accident to the aft boiler. Dense clouds of steam filled the compartment, driving the men who were at work there to seek the deck for air. Helpless Under Fire. A knot of these men gathered on the forward deck, where Ensign Bagley was stationed to watch the boat's course and carry orders to the engine room. With one engine and boiler disabled and the other engine and boiler not in operation the situation of the Winslow was perilouS, To add to the danger the forward handsteering gear was destroyed by a piece of shell. While the machinists were attempting to rig up the aft steering apparatus the engineers coupled the aft boiler to the starboard engine. The propeller, revolving without the guidance of the rudder, set the little boat moving to and fro like a shuttle, and to the .'men on the other vessels it seemed as though the Winslow was doomed. But she was not to perish without an effort to save her, for as soon as he realized her plight, Lieutenant Newcomb, of, the Hudson, without receiving any orders, steamed straight up to the Winslow to tow her out of harm's way. In doing this the Hudson was exposed to the enemy's fire,



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dJBA. 115 the Inquisition, and tortured the prisoners in a manner worthy of the days of Torquemada. As a result, many wretched prisoners testified falsely and accused innocent persons, in vain hope of thus securing their own release from torment. This hope was soon dispelled. The ruthless judges generally put their witnesses to death after torturing them. In all, nearly two thousand persons were sentenced to death, to banishment, and to imprisonment at hard labor for various terms, against not one of whom was there any real evidence. L1opez and His IRaids. A formidable attack upon Spanish rule was that led by Narcisso Lopez in 1848. He organized a band of 6oo men in the United States, and, evading the neutrality laws, made a landing upon the Cuban coast, where he was joined by a considerable number of Cubans, both white and colored. He was soon driven out of the island by the Spaniards, but returned a second time, and again a third time in 185 1. The last landing proved fatal to him. He was captured by the Spaniards and put to death, with a number of his followers. Another American, Crittenden, who was in league with him, remained on the coast, and, hearing of the capture of Lopez, attempted to escape by taking to the sea in a boat. He, too, was captured, with fifty of his men, and



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Ak. William McKinley, President of the United States.



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400 WAR WITH SPAIN. the passions of the Spaniards to the extremest pitch. At length one night, a little before midnigrht, a fleet of warships was discovered by searchlights approaching Havana. Instantly the whole town was filled with animation. Alarm guns were fired from the forts, the troops were beat to quarters, and in a few minutes every man was at his post. The 'United States squadron approached at quarter speed. They flashed out their searchlights as soon as the alarm guns were fired. ILand and water became almost as bright as at noonday. Hundreds of people rushed to the waterside. Others, believing a bombardment was about to commence, sought concealment in directions out of the line of the forts. The scene w as inspiring. The drums beat in the batteries and the soldiers hurried from point to point as directed. But beyond all was the awe-inspiring sight of that phantom-like fleet gliding majestically, silently, and slowly through the quiet waters, making no sign of its deadly mission, and giving no sign of life to those on shore, but the continuous searching of the waters and the shore with their powerful searchlights. The vessels did not make direct for Havana. They directed their course towards Lacharrena, about two miles to the west.



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184 CUBA. interview with the Spanish commander and told him the butchery must stop. But, Senor," protested the Spaniard, "what affair is it of yours ? There are no countrymen of yours among them. They are all dogs of Americans." That was a lie. There were Englishmen among them, though Sir Lambton Lorraine did not know it. But that made no difference to the gallant British captain. "I don't know whether there are any Englishmen among them or not," he said, and I don't care. I forbid you to put another one of them to death." "But, Senor," returned the Spaniard, "permit me to observe that I take my orders from the Captain-General, and not from you. "Very good," replied the Britisher; "permit me also to observe, and to beg you to observe, that the 'Niobe' is lying in this harbor, with her guns double-shotted, and I am her commander. And, so help me God! if you so much as harm a hair on the head of one of those prisoners, I will lay your town in ruins !" That was his ultimatum, and he went back to his ship. The Spaniard looked at the "Niobe," and saw the big black muzzles of her guns trained squarely upon the city, and-there were no more prisoners massacred in Santiago.



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I ls Z I 1,4 All ME W, wA 61 7 "IMIN O 1!5 04



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 483 was done in one of the bravest bits of work ever recorded in naval history. Lieutenant Richmond P. Hobson, with seven men, volunteeredto take an old coal steamer, the Merrimac, into the narrowest part of the channel and sink her, effectively blocking the way. Hundreds of men and officers wanted to join in the perilous enterprise, but these eight were enough. All day the preparations proceeded, and by nightfall the craft was in readiness. A row of torpedoes had been arranged outside the hull, so that Lieutenant Hobson could explode them from the bridge of the vessel and thus insure her rapid sinking. At nightfall the various ships of the fleet passed the doomed Merrimac, cheering her lustily. By io o I clock all but the men who were going on the dangerous errand had been taken from the Merrimac, and the collier took a position near the New York to await the appointed hour. It was an impressive night among the men of the fleet, for few expected that the members of the little crew would see another sunrise. The night was cloudy, with. fitful lightning flashing behind the dark lines of the shore, now and then showing the battlements. Soon after 3 o'clock the Merrimac began to drift-slowly toward the land, and in half an hour was lost to sight. It was Lieutenant Hobson's plan to steam past Morro, swing crosswise the channel, drop his anchors, open the valves, ex-



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..... ...... -XX :W. -x. ..... ..... J: :K x Nx. N. Is ix: X. 6w, Commodore Schley,



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246 CUM*' should not fail to provide guides for the army, and to give news of the enemy when they are in the vicinity. 11 The case should not be repeated that the enemy be better informed than ourselves. The enemy and the vigor which they employ should serve as an example to show us the line of conduct which we must follow in all circumstances. Non-Combatants Menaced* You will detain and put at my disposal, or submit to -the tribunals, those who, in any way I have described, show help or sympathy for the rebels. I promise myself that you, by fulfilling these instructions, will give valuable help to the good of the Spanish cause." Call for Surrender* In the proclamation to the inhabitants of Cuba Gen. Weyler said: "I take charge with the confidence which never abandons the cause of preserving the island for Spain. I shall be always generous with those who surrender, but will have the decision and energy to punish rigorously those who in any way help the enemy. ,, Without having in mind any political mission, I would not oppose the government of his Majesty when in its wisdom, having peace in Cuba, it should think it convenient to give this country reforms with the same spirit of



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120 CUBA. in arms. Early in November the insurgents defeated a Spanish force which had been sent against them from Santiago, and soon after this most of the Spanish American Republics of South America recognized the Cubans as belligerents. The Marquis of Santa Lucia, the present President of the provisional government, quickly identified himself with the patriot cause and brought it many recruits. In December, General Quesada landed in Cuba with an expedition from Nassau, bringing a considerable consignment of arms and ammunition. So rapidly did the cause prosper that by April ioth, 1869, it was possible to organize a regular government with an elected House of Assembly. Cespedes was President of the government, and General Quesada was made Commander-in-Chief of the army. The Spanish Reply. The Spanish Captain-General at Havana realized the seriousness of the situation, and strove to stem the tide of patriotic enthusiasm by issuing a proclamation to the people of Cuba, promising all sorts of things if they would only remain loyal to Spain. He said: "I will brave every danger, accept every responsibility for your welfare. The Revolution has swept away the Bourbon dynasty, tearing ip the roots, a plant so poisonous that it putrefied the air we breathed. To the citizen shall be



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CUBA. 195 came to see me, with seven other leaders and some of his officers, at Chorrilla. He presented himself in a very proper way, and I received him kindly, Generals Prendergast and Cassola being present at the conversation, which lasted seven hours. Those who took part in it manifested their desire for, peace; they agreed that though they might prolong the war it would be the ruin of the country (Cuba); that in their present condition they could not conquer; that the happiness of Cuba was possible under the government of Spain; that the terms were not ample enough; and, above all, that the oath they had taken not to treat except on the basis of independence rendered all agreement null; that there was no provision in their constitution for such a case, and it was necessary to appeal to the people. All our arguments were unable to convince them. "Vincente Garcia told me that, in order to facilitate a prompt pacification, he had that day come and taken the oath of office. The result was that I answered them that I did not make the terms more liberal because they had already received the sanction of the government; that I could not extend the period without receiving at least a moral guarantee that, in case those of the East and of Villas did not agree, the majority of Camaguey would accept; and we parted with the greatest courtesy.



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/ UNIV. OF FLORIDA 3 1262 04277 4363 AVA FLORIDA UI UM"0TEO CtRCLATION



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.......... Dynamite Cruiser Vesuvius.



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386 WAR WITH SPAIN. in cities and other places where an intelligent, well-behaved force is required. The men are not mounted. They are of Spanish birth, and they take pride in the good name of their corps. Fourth -Guerillas -cavalry. From the name, this force is supposed by most Americans to be composed of lawless bands of ruffians, roaming about, without method or discipline, in search of throats to cut and henroosts to rob. This is an error. The guerillas are regularly enlisted men, properly officered, and subjected to army discipline. The detestation in which they are held arises from two circumstances: First, they are mostly native-born Cubans, fighting for pay against the freedom of their own country; second, in their capacity of scouts and rural patrol, they come in conflict with the Insurgents more frequently than any other Spanish force. When captured by Insurgents a guerilla receives no quarter. He is either hacked to death with a machete or hanged to the nearest tree. By reason of his intimate knowledge of the country, the guerilla is more feared and hated than all the rest of the Spanish troops combined. When captured by Insurgents, the Spanish-born soldier is treated humanely, and put to work raising vegetables for the use of his captors. The captured guerilla, however, is killed like a wild beast.



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388 WAR WITH SPAIN. It will be 'well to mention a few of the important peculiarities in the sounds of the Spanish consonants. The letter Ij in Spanish has its nearest English equivalent in 11h," although it is harsher than that letter, and is like the German guttural "9ch." It can be obtained approximately by breathing strongly in the throat, trying at the same time to pronounce the English "Ih." The letter 9, when followed by 11 e '' or 'i, ~'is pronounced in the same way; but in all other cases is pronounced like "1g in "tgo." The Spanish h" is not sounded at all. "Ll" is pronounced like lli '' in '' billion," and n"i' like "' ni "' in ''pinion." In the pure Castilian, which is the language of the Court and of the most highly educated classes in Spain, the letter "c," when followed by Ie or (Ii" and the letter "z" always are pronounced like th in thickck" As these consonants occur frequently, they give this purest form of Spanish a peculiarly soft and melodious sound. But in many parts of Spain, this I"Ith" sound is never heard, the letters "c" and "g" being both pronounced like the English "1s." The latter custom also prevails throughout Cuba and Porto Rico, an! in all the countries of South and Central America, where Spanish is the general language. In the table below the pronunciation of all the names of places in the West Indies or of Cuban leaders which contain the letter "z,"Y or the letter



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 327 European Views. European opinion upon the war varied. British opinion was chiefly favorable, and Continental opinion largely unfavorable to the United States. There were, however, in the Continont some sane and friendly expressions, from among which the following, from the Frankfort Zeilung, may profitably be quoted: "Hostilities have begun between Spain and the United States without a formal declaration of war. This fact is perplexing both to the idealist and the realist. That Spain should be at war is not strange-one is accustomed to this in the case of a European monarchy;but that the great American Republic, which in the 120 years of its existence, has taken to arms but twice, and then only under compulsion, -should, as -it were, force a war, is truly remarkable. Spain justly enjoys little sympathy, and can expect no material aid. The most she can expect is a more or less sincere expression of pity which is added to the explanation of the absolute justice of her cause. The United States, on the other hand, is accused of the most flagrant offence against international law, and upon her is turned the wrath of a great many eager defenders of justice-of men who have forgotten that the political and social development of Europe has been an uninterrupted chain of intcoonational law-breaking, and '9



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426 WAR WITH SPAIN. Marquis de Duero, Cano, Velasco, Isla de Min' danao, a transport, and water battery at Cavite. The squadron is uninjured, and only a few men are slightly wounded. Only means of telegraphing is to American Consul at Hong Kong. I shall communicate with him. DEWEY." Following is the second message: "Cavite, May 4.-I have taken possession of naval station at Cavite, on Philippine Islands. Have destroyed the fortifications at bay entrance, paroling the garrison. I control bay completely and can take city at any time. The squadron is in excellent health and spirits. Spanish loss not fully known, but very heavy. One hundred and fifty killed, including captain of Reina Cristina. I am assisting in protecting Spanish sick and wounded; 250 sick and wounded in hospital within our lines. Much excitement at Manila. Will protect foreign residents. DEWEY." The President Thanks Dewey. By direction of the President, Secretary Long sent this dispatch to Commodore Dewey: DEWEY, Manila. Washington, May 7, 1898. "The President, in the name of the American people, thanks you and your officers and men for your splendid achievement and overwhelming victory. In recognization he has appointed you Acting Admiral, and will recommend a vote of thanks to you by Congress. LONG."



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CUBA. 27 expedition, consisting of more than three hundred men, under Diego Velasquez, who had accompanied his father on his second voyage. Their first settlement was Baracoa, and in I514 they founded Santiago and Trinidad. In July, 1515, was planted a town called San Cristoval de la Havana, which was in I519 named Batabano, and its original title transferred to the present capital of the island. The island itself, by the way, was first named by Columbus Juana, in honor of Prince John, son of Ferdinand and Isabella. After Ferdinand's death it was re-named Fernandina. Next it was designated Santiago, for the patron saint of Spain. Still later it was called Ave Maria, in honor of the Holy Virgin. Finally it was called Cuba, that being the name by which it was known among the natives at the time of its discovery. Settlement and Slaughter. As we have said the conquest of the island was seriously undertaken in I II. The expedition was organized in San Domingo, under the command of Diego Velasquez and numbered more than three hundred men. Among them was Hernando Cortez, the future conqueror of Mexico. There also was the celebrated Bartolome Las Casas, known as the Apostle to the Indies. The harsh and brutal treatment imposed by the Spaniards upon the Indians in San Domingo





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WAR WITH SPAIN. 371 ship). Steel armored cruiser, 11,296 tons; 1,000 horse-power; 16 knots speed. Armament-Four I12-inch breech-loading rifles, eight 8-inch and six 4-inch breech-loading rifles, twenty 6-pounder and six i-pounder rapid-fire guns and four Gatlings. Massachusetts, Captain Francis J. Higginson. Steel coast-line battleship, o10,288 tons; 9,000 horse-power ; 15 knots speed. Armament -Four 13-inch breech-loading rifles, eight 8-inch breech-loading rifles, four 6-inch breech-loading rifles, twenty 6-pounder and six i-pounder rapidfire guns and four Gatlings. Columbia, Captain James H. Sands. Protected cruiser, 7,350 tons ; 21,000 horse-power; 21 knots speed. Armament-One 8-inch breechloading rifle, two 6-inch and eight 4-inch rapid-fire guns, twelve 6-pounder, four I-pounder and four Gatlings. Minneapolis, Captain Theodore F. Jewell.X Description same as Columbia. Texas, Captain John W. Phillip. Steel armored battleship, 6,300oo tons; 8,ooo horse-power; 17 knots speed. Armament-Two 12-inch breechloading rifles, six 6-inch breech-loading rifles, twelve 6-pounder, two 3-pounder, four 37mm. Hotchkiss revolving cannon and two Gatlings. Katahdin, Commander G. F. F. Wilde. Steel



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262 CUBA. rigor the little bands, more of outlaws than insurgents, who have remained in the said provinces, and to adopt whatever, measures are necessary forthe proper and immediate carrying out of that intention. I hereby order: "1(i)-That the troops be divided into columns to operate in both provinces and that the guardia civil be re-established on the lines of that now existing in Pinar del Rio and in a part of Puerto Principe, and that in Havana and a part of the Province of Santiago de Cuba they occupy only the places remote from the present pacified or tranquilized districts until they are able to occupy the positions which they held before (in the districts now in revolt). "(2)-The commander of each zone, or the corresponding official who may be otherwise characterized in each place, shall be the commander of the native army*. "(3-Each 'community seeking to do so, and, applying to the general staff of the army, may arm a section of volunteers or guerrillas of thirty men, equipped as infantry soldiers, which force will defend the country and in every case operate under orders of the military authorities of the locality. "(4-Those who are in possession of arms must be placed in a state of complete defense and enabled to avoid a surprise.



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284 CUBA. ish forces to get to close quarters with him. Latterly, after many manceuvres and countermanceuvres, General Weyler began a systematic advance of the Spanish forces from Havana into the province of Pinar del Rio, driving every one before him and devastating the country, without, however, meeting traces of Maceo and the main body of the insurgents, until he heard that the bands had reappeared in Las Lomas, and close to the Trocha of Mariel Artemisa. The Hero's Last Campaign. Maceo had been requested, it appears, by the Revolutionary Junta in New York to do something startling about the time when the American Congress would meet at Washington. He was led to believe that the rebel bands in the provinces of Havana and Matanzas were numerous enough to be of use for a bold raid. He was even induced to expect that Maximo Gomez, the Generalissimo, had enough organized forces to advance by the provinces of Santa Clara and Matanzas to co-operate in some striking, if not successful, demonstration whilst Weyler was hundreds of miles off seeking for him in. Pinar del Rio. Maceo was always ready to attempt daring attacks, and on this occasion he was bent upon again riding at the head of his cavalry to the villages in sight of Havana. Taking with him some of his black troopers, he made for the Trocha at



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462 WAR WITH SPAIN. could be stored to their full capacity, the ship was headed about and steered into the open sea. Captain Clark had the story of the Maine's report and its reception by the American people to communicate to his men, beside the route of their excursion around the cape. Officers and crew exercised the greatest precaution when war with Spain promised to become the sequel of the Maine disaster. The ship was given a coat of iron gray and her searchlight swept the horizon for hostile sails. An extra force of lookouts was maintained day and night, and no boat was permitted to approach the warship. The progress of the vessel southward, after leaving Callao, was no summer cruise. It seemed as if the elements had allied themselves with the Spaniards. The heavy vessel rode the waves beautifully and surprised even those who had expected most of her. She was, it may be observed, the first modern American battleship to cross the equator or to pass through the Straits of Magellan. 1[n the Straits of Magellan. On April 1 7 the Oregon entered the Straits of Magellan. The weather was cold and the sea' rough, but the big ironclad rushed through the turbulent waters at a rate of thirteen knots an hour, and the following day made Punta Arenas, where more coal was taken on. The men suffered



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TWO GREAT BOOKS IN ONE VOLUME. Comprehensive, Accurate and Thrilling History of the Spanish Kingdom and its latest and fairest Colony; the long Struggle of Cuba for Freedom and Independence; the Intervention of the United States and the Fierce War with Spain that followed. A Record of Oppression and Patriotism, of Cruelty and of Valor, and above all of the triumph of the Stars and Stripes. PROFUSELY ILLUSTRATED. WRITTEN AND EDITED BY Henry Houghton Beck, Author of isFamous Battles," "dThe Greco-Turkish War," etc., etc. PUBLISHED BY GLOBE BIBLE PUBLISH ING''Co: ,3 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa.



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CUBA.,5 and give the plant insufficient moisture, whereas on the mountain side in the altitude mentioned the dews are always heavier, and the morning fogs settle longer and give the soil time to absorb the moisture it needs to sustain the plant during the hot hours of the day. For these reasons, and also to avoid the direct rays of the noonday sun, steep hillsides are chosen, facing east and west, as said above, if possible. As a general thing the planter, never having studied the chemical properties of coffee-producing land, looks for ground where lance-wood, redwood and olive-wood grow as a never failing proof that the land is adapted for the cultivation of coffee. The land must be virgin soil. On this the planter puts his laborers to the work of clearing. The larger trees are burned out and the smaller trees and brush chopped down with ax and machete. The cost of clearing the land is about $500, Spanish, per caballeria (thirty-three and one-third acres). The land is lined out., the lines running from the top to the bottom of the hill, four feet apart. In these lines five or six coffee berries, three and one-half feet from each other and two inches from the surface, are planted. In other words, one cabellenia contains, where the whole space can be utilized, ioo0,ooo plants. The coffee is planted during the rainy season-in March or September. In thirty-five or fortyr days the seeds begin to sprout.



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CUBA. 211 The Cost of the War. What the ten years of war cost the island and cost Spain can never be fully reckoned. In a debate on Cuban affairs in the Spanish Cortes in November, 1 876, it was officially stated that in eight years Spain had sent to Cuba 145,000 soldiers under the command of her ablest generals. The war is known to have cost Cuba more than 45,000 lives. A considerable proportion of these were lost on the field of battle, but the majority of them were murdered in cold blood in prison. More than 13,ooo estates belonging to Cubans were confiscated by the Spanish Government. Of these about iooo belonged to women, whose only crime was that they sympathized with their struggling countrymen. The cost of the war in money has been estimated at nearly $I,OOO,000,000. During the entire war a professor of languages in Havana, who was an American of Cuban birth, systematically kept a record of the Cuban losses reported in the authorized publications in Havana. He made it in great detail, giving the place and date of each engagement, the number of men on each side, and the Cuban losses in killed, wounded, prisoners, and horses. At the end of the war his totals were as follows: Cuban losses, 395,856 killed, 726,490 wounded, 451, 100 prisoners, and a little more than 8oo,ooo



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58 CUBA. New York market during recent years is undoubtedly to be accounted for by the artificial widening of the Vuelta de Abajo preserves so as to include various "hot" tobaccos, similar in color, but inferior in aroma. Heavy fertilizing, moreover, while increasing the productiveness of the land, injures the quality of the leaf. A Cigar Factory. "No visitor ought to neglect to visit at least one of the many large cigar factories of the city. I saw at the Corona works a force of 8oo men,women and children employed in the various processes of grouping wrappers according to color, making cigars by hand, putting paper labels on them, sorting cigars and manufacturing cigarettes. This force is increased to 2000 in busy times. This factory produces many millions of cigars in the course of a year, and about 2,000, 000 cigarettes every forty-eight hours. The expense of cigarettemaking is greatly reduced by ingenious machinery for filling and packing the paper-holders with tobacco, closing them at both ends and finally emptying the trays in which the shells were placed before the delicate mechanism was brought to bear upon them. This machinery enables six men to do the work of 3oo, and turns out 6oo,ooo cigarettes a day. Apparently there is some apprehension felt lest this intricate mechanism may be reproduced in detail in the United States, for



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CUI3A. 193 and having had an interview at Chorrillo with Messrs. Lauces and Roa, commissioned from the so-called commander-in-chief of the Centre, Goyo Benitez, to General Cassola, who by my orders had announced to him the renewal of hostilities on the 20th, I was able to satisfy myself of the well-nigh general desire to come to a definite result, and of the impossibility of it by reason of the dispersion of the bands, and above all because it was not yet known whether Vincente Garcia would accept the presidency, nor what his aspirations and projects were. Believing in their good faith, I appointed the ioth of February as the day before which terms must be proposed, and permitted a commissioner to start for Sancti Spiritus and another in search of Vincente Garcia, but I reduced the neutralized territory to about eight leagues square on the banks of the Sevilla, setting a cordon of posts and sentinels all around it. "In fixing on the ioth of February, I was thinking of the meeting of the Cortes on the i5th, and wished to give definite news to the government of His Majesty, so that they could in the royal message parry the attacks of the opposition, and if they did not approve of my conduct they could remove me from command, since I had neither consulted them nor given an account of the steps I had taken.



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WAR WITH SPAIN.50 and Private Walker, of Company D, had to limp to the rear with a slight wound in his ankle. The easy victory put the command in high spirits. The little Cuban warriors waved their machetes andhowled curses at the Spanish in savage fashion. Their firing had been wild throughout; but they all displayed the utmost contempt for the Spanish bullets, apparently being absolutely without fear. The Dolphin Trhrows Shellis. As the enemy began breaking from the camp, the Dolphin, which lay out at sea, was signalled and began pitching shells toward the thicket for which the Spaniards were making. Meanwhile Lieutenant Magill was seen coming with forty men as reinforcements, and Captain Mahoney was on the way with a hundred more. But before either could reach the scene the trouble was all over. As the Spanish retreated the Americans moved slowly forward, firing as they went; and by the time camp was reached the enemy had all got away, taking their wounded, and probably many of their (lead. Fifteen bodies were found scattered through the brush; but the Americans were unable to examine the spot where their firing hadbeen most deadly. No time was lost in burning the buildings and filling the well with earth and stones.



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 421 to fire faster, knowing exactly our distance, while we had to guess theirs. It was very evident that Admiral Montojo had not expected the enemy so soon, but having recovered from the first surprise of the attack, he directed the operations of his fleet with great bravery and considerable skill. Early in the battle he steamed towards the enemy as though challenging the American Admiral to single combat. A terrible fire was brought to bear upon the Reina Cristina, inthe face of which she was compelled to retire in a sinking condition. She directed her course as well as she could towards the harbor of Cavite, steaming slowly. Then a big shell struck her, burst between decks, and set her on fire. She foundered before reaching the harbor, and many men went down with her. A Halt for Breakfast. When eight o'clock struck, Commodore Dewey signalled for all hands to stop firing and retire out of range for breakfast. The men had been hard at work for more than two hours, on nothing but a cup of coffee. Yet they were reluctant to quit fighting, even for an hour. Some of them became almost mutinous when ordered to stop firing. Their feeling was well expressed by one gunner, who turned to Commander Lam-



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 423 and not a living man remained upon the .upper deck. But the guns on the lower decks still shot out defiance at the enemy. Finally the cruiser's hull was riddled like sieve, water poured through the numerous rents,and with her flag flying and her lower guns firing to the last, the Don Antonio de Ulloa foundered. with all hands. The Spaniards hauled down their flag at a. quarter-past twelve, after a hard-fought fight of seven hours. An Unrivalled Performance. So ended this battle, one of the most note-, worthy ever fought in all the world. The American, fleet had engaged a fleet numerically its superior, and an array of land batteries at the same time. It had done so in strange waters, the home waters, of the enemy. It had destroyed every'Spanish ship and silenced every battery. And it had done so without the loss of a single ship, nor even serious, injury to one, and without the loss of a single iIfe., There was nothing like that on record before. There was an act of treachery on the part of a Spanish warship, which lowered her flag and then. fired at a boat's crew sent to take possession of her.. She did not hit the boat, but our guns were turned on her and tore her to pieces. She went to the, bottom with all on board. Several vessels closeinshore behaved in the same way and shared her fate.,



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CUBA. 159 querors even grudge their powder and shot, and the victims are usually despatched with machetes, a kind of long chopping-knife or cutlass peculiar to a cane-growing country, and to be almost invariably seen at the side of every combatant as well as in every laborer's hand. Some of the soldiers and Volunteers have acquired such skill in the use of this weapon that they cut off a man's head with all the mastery of a professional executioner. These men march in the rear of their detachments ; and upon any suspected person being apprehended, the officer in command, after a brief examination, orders the prisoner 'to the rear,' where he is immediately hacked to pieces by the inexorable Macheleros. As a rule also the bodies of the slain are left unburied on the'spot where they fall. The turkey-buzzards swarming everywhere in the island, and whose life is protected by law on account of their usefulness as public scavengers, fatten on the rotting human carcasses ; and it is not without a shudder that one sees these foul birds hovering everywhere in the air, and poising themselves on their wings above the forests where the remnants of their hideous feasts in every stage of decomposition still attract them. Outrages Upon Women. Women fare as badly in the hands of the combatants as men; unless their personal attractions



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446 WAR WITH SPAIN. Apparently, however, the Spanish commander had gone mad on the subject of destroying the torpedo-boat, for he did not deign to fire at the Hudson, but continued to hurl shells at the hapless Winslow. The guns of the latter barked back at the foe viciously. As the Hudson approached the Winslow, Ensign Bagley cried out: "Pass us a line' quickly! This is too hot!" The ]Fatal Shot. The Hudson's crew threw the line, and it was made fast. just as the hawser drew taut a 10inch shell fell and exploded in the middle of the group of men who had been working at it on the Winslow. Every man in the party was thrown backward, all dead or mortally wounded. The. plucky ensign, who had been in an exposed position during the entire conflict, was instantly killed, as were two of his 'companions. Two more, Meek and Tunnell, were so grievously injured that they died a short time later. When the Hudson's men saw the mutilated bodies of the men on the Winslow, they became frantic, and cursed and yelled, and it seemed as though they could not load and fire quick enough. They fired 1~35 rounds in thirty-three minutes. The guns became so hot that the gunners could not touch them with their hands, and manipulated them with their elbows. The men loaded so



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 463 severely from the sudden change in the temperature, but not a single one manifested any disposition to shirk, and the officers had no trouble with them. After a three days' stop at Punta Arenas, the Oregon turned her nose northward. All this time the officers and crew were almost entirely ignorant of the trend of events except for the small amount of information they could glean in the places at which they stopped. This was sufficient to show them that the situation was a grave one, however, and before the Straits were cleared Captain Clark ordered the ship to be made ready for action and in other ways made preparations to meet any emergency that might arise. The gunboat Marietta was picked up at Punta Arenas and both vessels were soon covered with the grim paint of war. From Punta Arenas to Rio, which was reached on April 30, the progress of the Oregon was greatly impeded by the Marietta, no less than five full days being lost in waiting for her. At Rio the first news of the declaration of war was brought to the Oregon. The information was instantly communicated to the men, who received it with cheers, intermingled with cries of "'Avenge the Maine." Orders were also received for the Oregon to pick up the Brazilian cruiser Nictheroy and proceed at all -possible speed to the United States.



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CUBA. 75 American customer with gold'in hand leave the shop. A Hard Bargain. It may be well to warn American travelers against venturing into this quarter until the sights of the town have been "done," the drives taken, and the excursions made; for otherwise they may leave Havana without seeing anything except the railway station, their hotel, and the pawn-shops. A New Yorker and his charming wife got into the pawn-shops soon after their arrival, and they remained there almost continuously until the Tampa steamer was ready to sail. The husband started out early each morning for Compostela Street; in the afternoon his wife accompanied him to temper his ardor, and in the evening he returned alone to clinch the bargains. Sunday brought with it some scruples of conscience, and the wife succeeded in carrying him off to high Mass at the Cathedral ; but after the noon-breakfast he was overpowered by the fatal fascination and crept back to the pawn-shops for more bargains, returning with a guilty conscience, but laden with booty. On the following day the interpreter was fairly compelled to drive him out of the pawn-shops in order to get him on board the steamer before the sailing hour. Retribution for Sabbath-breaking met him on deck in the person of the medical 5





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140 CUBA. on the northern coast, with Villa Clara in the centre and with Batabano and Cienfuegos on the southern coast. Havana has also a regular weekly steam-packet intercourse on the north with Matanzas, Cardenas, Sagua, Caibarien, Nuevitas, Jibara, and Baracoa; and, on the south with Batabano, Cienfuegos, Trinidad, Las Tunas, Santa Cruz, Manzanillo, Santiago, and Guantanamo. But away from the wastes, and beyond the lines of railway, there is a vast debatable ground in which the insurrection can run riot, threatening now one, now another district, shifting its quarters according as it can hope to find means of subsistence, avoiding encounters, and escaping pursuit by withdrawing to its recesses of impervious forests or inaccessible mountains. "The war which the troops attempt to wage against the insurgent bands, owing to the extreme heat and unhealthiness of the climate, is only practicable in the winter months, between November and May. Even in the immediate neighborhood of the cities, say half a mile from Havana itself, the roads are abominable-mere tracks with deep ruts and holes, without the least attempt at macadamization; such highways as hardly any country in Europe, the Spanish Peninsula alone excepted, can any longer show. The troops at the opening of the campaign are conveyed either by land or by sea to the localities



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CHAPTER XXI. THE SPANISH CAPE VERD FLEET-SEEKING THE SPANIARDS-NEWS AT LAST-SANTIAGO DE CUBA -THE FIRST ATTACK-A PEEP INTO THE HARBOR -FIRING BIG GUNS-RESULTS OF THE SHOOTING -"SEALING THE CORK) )THE SEARCH FOR THE SURVIVORS-WAITING FOR HOBSON'S RETURNWHAT HOBSON DID. SEFORE WAR was actually declared a small but powerful Spanish fleet was sent from Cadiz to the Cape Verd Islands, presumably thence to make a quick dash across the Atlantic. This fleet was under the command of Admiral Cervera, one of the ablest officers in the Spanish navy. It consisted of four swift and heavily armed and armored cruisers, or second-class battleships, and three torpedo-boat destroyers. The former were the Cristobal Colon, the Vizcaya, the Almirante Oquendo, and the Maria Teresa; the latter, the Furor, Terror, and Pluton. The fleet remained at the Cape Verd Islands for some time, even after war was openly declared. At last, however, Portugal 474



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276 CUBA. action in Cuba. So Weyler, with 6oooo troops, marched out of Havana toward the hills where lay Maceo with less than 20,000. Next day the loan was asked for, and the Spanish people, in an outburst of enthusiasm, subscribed not only the $50,000,ooo asked for, but more than twice that sum. Death of Osgood, the American. Weyler did not succeed in striking the blow he had boasted. He did not himself come anywhere near the enemy. But a brigade of his advance guard, pressing forward, came into conflict with the insurgents. A sharp engagement followed, in which the Spanish were defeated and driven back with great slaughter. The Cubans suffered little loss, except in the death of one man. This was Winchester Dana Osgood, a young American officer. He had had a brilliant career as a scholar at Cornell University and the University of Pennsylvania, and was also a noted athlete, -being one of the ablest foot-ball players of the day. He had gone to Cuba to assist the insurgents through pure love of liberty, and had done them valuable service as an artillery officer. In his last engagement he was personally directing the working of a field-gun with admirable effect. The Spaniards were retreating, and the victory was won. Suddenly he was struck squarely in the centre of the forehead with a



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26 CUBA. thus have learned what it really was. Instead, he returned to Spain still cherishing his delusion. A Chiefs Exhortation. His last landing was made in Cuba on July 7. At the mouth of a fine river he set up a cross and had the service of the Mass performed. Among the Indians who looked on at this ceremony in mute amazement was one venerable chief who at the end of the ceremony said to Columbus: "I am told that you have come to this country with a mighty force and have subdued many lands, spreading great fear among the people. But do not therefore be vainglorious. Remember that, according to our belief, the souls of men have two journeys to perform after they have departed from the body. One is to a place that is dismal, foul, and covered with darkness, prepared for those who have been unjust and cruel to their fellow-men. The other is to a place full of delight and beauty, for those who have promoted peace on earth. Therefore if you are mortal and expect to die, see to it that you hurt no man wrongfully nor do harm to those who have done no harm to you." A third short visit was made by Columbus to the southern shores of Cuba at the end of May, I5o3, and that concluded his adventures in that island. In 1511 his son, Diego Columbus, for the purpose of colonizing the island, fitted out an



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 349 The principal minerals found in Porto Rico are gold, carbonates and sulphides of copper, magnetic oxide of iron in large quantities. Lignite is found at Lituado and Moca, and also yellow amber. A large variety of marbles, limestones and other building stones are deposited on the island, but these resources are very -undeveloped. There are salt works at Guanica and Salinac, on the south coast, and at Cape Rojo, on the west, and this constitutes the principal mineral industry in Porto Rico. Hot springs and mineral waters are found at Juan Diaz, San Sebastian, San Lorenzo and Ponce, but the most famous is at Coamo, near the town of Santa Isabel. The climate is hot, but much alleviated by the prevailing northeast winds. A temperature as high as I 17 degrees Fahrenheit has been recorded, but it seldom exceeds 97 degrees Fahrenheit. The rainy season lasts from, August to December, and the rainfall is at times so copious north of the mountains as to inundate cultivated fields and produce swamps. The rainfall for 1878 was 81 inches. Its mean annual average is 6434 inches. The prevailing diseases are yellow fever, elephantiasis, tetanus, marsh fever and dysentery. Porto Rico is unusually fertile, and its dominant industries are agricultural and lumbering. In elevated regions the vegetation of the temperate zone is not unknown. There are more than



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78 CUBA. Country seats which were conspicuous for elegance and social festivity are now bare, silent and fallen to decay. The seaside villas are shabby and tenantless. The famous San Carlos drive is a neglected and unfrequented road. Matanzas is a centre of unremunerative, laborious and unsatisfactory commerce, a city haunted with memories of its former prosperity. All is changed save the beauty of the landscape setting of the city and the unrivalled splendor of the marine views from hillside and headland. No grander prospect can be had in Cuba than that which opens from the Chapel of Monserrate back of the town. The Yumuri flows through a gorge four miles in length, which is walled off to the right and left by abrupt and picturesque hillsides. There is a wide-reaching vista beyond with plantations of sugar, coffee and tobacco, groves of palmettos, pineapples, cocoanuts and orange trees, thickets of almond trees and limes, fields of corn and patches of potatoes, and here and there a stately royal palm. From one of the highest coigns of vantage near the city may be seen plantations and farms on which every fruit and product known in Cuba is under cultivation; and the landscape is fringed with dense woods, wherein ebony, mahogany, cedar and even rosewood, flourish. From Monserrate it is a short drive to the Plaza de Armas, with its



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1 40, _w" o" PR": AS Panorama of Manila Harbor.



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CHAPTER XIX. WITH THE BLOCKADING FLEET-SHELLING MATANZAS-OTHER SHIPS JOIN IN-GETTING CLOSER TO THE MARK-" CEASE FIRING! "-ABOARD SHIP -SCENES ON THE NEW YORK-THE MEN AT THE GUNS-SICK MEN WANTED TO BE IN ITBLANCO'S MULE STORY-CAVALRY AGAINST NAVY -THE ADMIRAL TEACHES ANOTHER LESSONTHE CARDENAS TRAGEDY-HELPLESS UNDER FIRE-THE FATAL SHOT-DAMAGE TO THE ENEMY-ENSIGN WORTH BAGLEY-THE GUSSIE'S FAILURE-BOMBARDING SAN JUAN-THE BATTLE OF SANTIAGO DE CUBA-SPANIARDS ON THE RUN-LINE CUT OFF MOLE ST. NICHOLAS. HERE WAS plenty of work and excitement for the blockading fleet without merely capturing prizes. After the firing by Morro Castle, as told in a former chapter, the temptation to throw a few shells into Havana was very strong, but was resisted. However, a chance to try the guns soon came, not at Havana, but at Matanzas. The trouble there began on April 24. We have already told how part of the fleet went thither. The torpedo-boat Foote went in to about three hundred yards from shore to take soundings, and was thus engaged, when sud. (43')



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364 WAR WITH SPAIN. men on a peace footing, and 480,000 men on a war footing, besides a colonial army of 236,ooo. Against this the United States had only 26,000 men. The Spanish navy was also much the larger. It contained 126 steam vessels and 22,000 men, while our navy contained only 5vessels and 13,000 men. But our ships were, on the whole, better than Spain's, and we were able to add to their number, by building and by purchase, incomparably more rapidly than she. Indeed she was scarcely able to get any new ships, while those added to our navy were counted by the dozen. The Spanish Navy. As the war was evidently, from the beginning, destined to be chiefly naval, interest centred most upon the rival navies. That of Spain, including ships building, but excluding transports, training ships, and other non-effective vessels, was as follows: Launched Building Battleship, ist class ..... i.... i Port Defence Ships .i Cruisers, Ist class, a .. ..... 6 .3... ib .. b .....2 ... 2d class .6 ... 3d class a ...... 28 .... 3 t C b ..... 71 .... Torpedo Craft, ist class .36 .... 2dclass 2. ..



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390 WAR WITH SPAIN, ee-ah Ohn-dah. Corrientes-Cor-ree-ehn-.tehs. Conchas-CO'hn-chahss. Sagua la Grande-Sa'howah lah Grahn-deh. Cienfuegos-See-ehn-fooeh-gos, or The-ehn-foo-eh-gos. Moron-Mo0r 'hn. Nuevitas-Nooeh-vi-tahss. Cubitas-Coo'bi-tahss. Holquin-Ohl-ghee'n. Santa CruzSahn-tah Croo'ss, or Sahn-tah Croo"th. Manzanillo -Mahn-sah-nee'l-yo, or Mahn-thah-neel-yo. Mayaguez-Mah-yah-gaiss, or Mah-yah-gaith. San Juan-Sa hn Hooahn. Are cibo-Ah-reh-s e6-bo, or Ah-reh-the'-bo. Ponce-P'hn-seh,, or Pohntheh. jucaro-Hoo-cah-ro. Esperanza-Ehspeh-rahn-sah, or Ehs-peh-rahn-thah. Cuban Proper Names* Maximo Gomez-Mahks-i-mo Go'-mes, or Mahks-i-mo G'-meth. Calixto Garcia-Cah-leeksto Gar-see ah, or Cah-leeks-to Gar-the-ah. (The is x in Calixto is pronounced like the guttural Ili previously mentioned.) Perez-Peh-res, or Peh-reth. Alvarez-Ahl-vah-res, or Ahl-vah-reth. Masso-Mahss-o. Capote-Cah-po-teh. Spanish Geographical Namea, Espa fia (Spain) -Es-pahn-yah, MadridMah-dree'd. Cadiz -Cah-deeth. Barcelona Bar-theh-lo-nah. Vale n cia-Vah-le'n-the-ah. Vizcaya (Biscay) -Veeth-cah-yah. Sevilla (Seville) Seh-vee'l-yah. Cartagena-Car-tah-heh-nah. Cavite'-Cah-vee-tay. Castilla-Cahs-tee'l-yah. Aragi-4n-Ah-rah-go'hn. Ceuta-Thay-oo-tah,



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486 WAR WITH SPAIN. Wating for Hobson's Rteturn. "Until daylight we waited just outside the breakers, half a mile westward of Mor ro., keeping a bright lookout for the boat or for swimmers, but sawnothing. Hobson had arranged to meet us at that point, but thinking that some one' might have drifted out, we crossed in front of Morro and the mouth of the harbor to the eastward. "About 5 o'clock we crossed the harbor again within a quarter of a mile, and stood to the westward. In passing we saw one spar of the Merrimac sticking out of the water. We hugged the shore just outside of the breakers for a mile, and then turned toward the Texas, when the batteries saw us and opened fire. "It was then broad daylight. The first shot fired dropped thirty yards astern, but the other shots went wild. ,,I drove the launch for all she was worth, finally making the New York. The men behaved splendidly." What Hobson Did. What was done by Hobson and his men is briefly to be told. There was none of the dash and excitement of battle in the -job, no blazing and thundering of big guns and darting of torpedoes. At least there -was none on Hobson's side. He and his men and their -defenceless Ship sailed slowly into the awful trap without a stroke



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 493 realized that a still larger force would be needed, and so, on May 25, the President issued a second call, for 75,000 more, ma king 200,000 in all. This call was answered with equal promptness and the entire roster was made up. There was considerable delay in equipping the troops. Clothing had to be manufactured in vast quantities. Even the regular army, which had been well equipped, had to have all its clothes new, for a tropical land was to be invaded, and thinner and lighter clothes were more necessary than the men had been used to here. General Shafter. The General commanding the whole army was General Nelson A. Miles. To command the expedition to Cuba General William R. Shafter was selected. He was a veteran of the civil war, having first entered the military service on the 21St Of August, 186 I, when hie was mustered into the volunteers as First Lieutenant of the Seventh Michi gan Infantry, being honorably mustered out just a year later. He at once re-entered the service as Major of the Nineteenth Michigan, becoming LieutenantColonel in 1863, and Colonel of the Seventeenth United States Colored Infantry April 19, 1864. He was commissioned a Brevet Brigadier-General of Volunteerson March 13, 1865, for gallant and meritorious services during the war, and was also brevetted Colonel in the regular army March2,



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CUBA. 189 head, a natural result of assertions disproved by our pursuit. "This was the state of things when, on the 21St of December, I talked with Duque de Estrada, and not trusting in the method, although I bad no private or official letter to authorize my conduct, and even feared that another assassination would make the negotiations abortive, I ordered operations to be suspended between the sea, the river Sevilla, and the roads from Santa Cruz tox Hato Petrero, and from that point to Brazo ; that is a seventh part of the Center. This was a serious measure. I was conscious of the objections to it; nothing positive authorized me to give assurances that this neutrality would be respected. I knew that it would give an opportunity for attacks (on me) by many; but if I wished to arrive at an understanding it was necessary to run the risk; and I believe that, holding such a position and command as mine, it behooves not to consider the personal annoyances which may result from failure, but the benefit which may redound to our country from success. The loss would be all my own; all the advantage, my country's. Suspending Warfare. "Concert and meeting and consequently agreement were impossible if our troops continued operations. I fixed no period, but limited



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 447 rapidly that it was a wonder that some of them did not have their hands cut off by the rapidly closing breech-locks. The guns became so heated that many of them expanded, and in some cases the shells went off prematurely, but fortunately not until the breech-locks had been closed. The men worked like beavers, and hesitated to desist when ordered to cease firing. Then the Hudson, with the Winslow in tow, moved slowly out of range. Damage to the Enemy. The engagement lasted from 1.30 to 2.35. While the Winslow was the target at which the Spaniards were aiming, the other two vessels kept up a heavy fire, the Hudson using the sixpound guns which she mounts and the Wilmington using every weapon with sufficient power. One of the Wilmington's shells exploded in a Spanish gunboat, and others fell in the town, setting it on fire and doing great damage to the warehouses and shipping along the water-front. The shore battery did not fire another shot after the Winslow was towed away by the Hudson. On account of the smoke and the masking of the battery, the officers who participated in the engagement are unable to say what the Spanish loss in killed and wounded was, though it must have been heavy. The battery is believed to have been composed of heavy field guns, for it 'was frequently moved -during the conflict.



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460 WAR WITH SPAIN, least through the Straits of Magellan. This was a trip Of 13,000 miles, ranging from tropic heat to polar frost. And it was to be made not by a cruiser intended for, ocean voyaging, but by a heavy battleship intended for coast defence. We shall see how the arduous task, was performed. No Thought of War. The thought of a possible war with Spain had little place in the minds of the officers and men of the Oregon on March 6, when she left the drydock in Puget Sound, where she had been undergoing repairs, for several weeks. At that time the relations between the two countries were somewhat strained, but belief was general th 'at war would be avoided through diplomatic means. The Maine had been destroyed anid theNavy Department had decided to replace her in the North Atlantic Squadron by a vessel which was more than her equal. By none was the move considered a warlike one, but it was deemed desirable that the strength of the squadron should not remain depleted. The change from the Pa 'cific to the Atlantic was not a pleasant one to the officers and crew of the vessel, for long service in the West had made them many friends, and the voyage through the tempestuous straits and a double passage through the tropics was not the most desirable prospect in the world.



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S", FIT United States Troops in Camp.



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CUBA. 147 self can boast. But an enterprise of that nature would require heroic, gigantic and, above all, sustained and unremitting exertions. It could not be achieved by fits and starts-not by a five or six months' campaign, nor by any series of them. As to, any possibility of starving, or wearying or disheartening the insurgents, that seems out of the question. They appear to be well supplied with arms and money; they live on the wild fruits of the earth, on the yams, bananas, cocoanuts, and other productions which they, or their families, or the many free negroes enlisted in their ranks, cultivate the small patches of the uninvaded districts. They have also abundance of game, and they feast especially on a wild rat of a peculiar kind, as large as a cat and as tender as a kid, the flavor of which they prefer to that of any other meat'. "They rely for recruits, or anything else they may want, on the sympathies of the Creole or niative population throughout the island, and in Havana itself; and where the goodwill of their friends fails, the greed and avarice of their enemies come to their aid; for there are men in Havana and other cities-Spaniards and others-who, where there is anything to be gained, are as little scrupulous about dealing with the one as with the other belligerent, and who, while supplying the, soldiers, would sell their very souls to the insur9



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494 WAR WITH SPAIN. 1867, for gallantry at the battle "of Fair Oaks, Virginia. In July, 1866, while still in the volunteer service, Gen. Shafter was appointed LieutenantColonel of the Forty-first Regular Infantry, from which he was transferred to the Twenty-fourth Infantry in 1869 on the reduction of the army to a peace footing. He became Colonel of the First Infantry March 4, 1879, which position he held until he was made Brigadier-General, May 26, 1897. During this long period as a regimental commander, Gen. Shafter won a high reputation, his regiment having an enviable name throughout the entire army for its efficiency, drill, and discipline, it having been often said that it was "the best regiment in the army." An officer who returned from Germany in 1892, after a year spent in observation of the army of that country, said that Shafter's First Infantry was the only American regiment which reached the German standard. F~or the Philippines. The first great victory of the war was Admiral Dewey's at Manila, and it made evident the necessity of sending an army thither to take possession of the Philippine Islands and set up a government over them.. For this task General Wesley Merritt was selected as leader. He was one of the 'Most distinguished surviving veterans of the civil war, and was second in command in the whole



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,522 WAR WITH SPAIN. and were boldly heading west down the coast. All small guns on the torpedo boats! was the order on the Texas, and in an instant a hail of shot was pouring all about them. A six-pounder from the starboard battery of the Texas, under Ensign Gise, struck the foremost torpedo boat fairly in the boiler. Und of the Destroyers. A rending sound was heard above the roar of battle. A great spout of black smoke shot up from that destroyer and she was out of commission. The Iowa, which was coming up fast, threw a few complimentary shots at the second torpedo boat destroyer and passed on. The little Gloucester, formerly J. Pierpont Morgan's yacht Corsair, then sailed in and finished the second boat. Gun for gun and shot for shot the running fight was kept up between the Spanish cruisers and the four American vessels. At 10-30 o'clock the Infanta Maria Teresa and Vizcaya were almost on the beach, and were evidently in distress. As the Texas was firing at them a white flag was run up on the one nearest her. 11 Cease firing!" called Captain Philip, and a moment later both the Spaniards were beached. Clouds of black smoke arose from each, and bright flashes of flame could be seen 'shining through the smoke. Boats were visible putting



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I0 CONTENTS. Squeezing the Orange-The Awful Burden of Debt -Treatment of Native Industry-Bad Commercial Laws-Cuba Ruined for the Sake of Spain-Salaried Carpet Baggers-Industries Driven to BankruptcyNo Public Instruction-Early Discontent-Lopez and His Raids-The Killing of Pinto. ........ 81 CHAPTER V. Outbreak of the Ten Years' War in i868-The Declaration of Independence-The Spanish Reply-War in Earnest-Proclamation of Freedom-Regular Government Formed-Valmaseda's Bloody OrdersAmerican Sympathy Expressed-A Special Message. i 17 CHAPTER VI. Savage Methods of Spanish Soldiers-Spanish Testimony -Meagre News in Havana-A Reign of CrueltyCharacter of the War-Safety of Havana-The Spanish Mistake-Strength of the Patriots-Effects of the War upon the Island-Ruined Towns-Little Fighting-Much Destruction--Tactics of the Two Armies-The Spaniards Half-Hearted-Slaughter in the Five TownsOutrages upon Women-Atrocities of Camp Followers ...... ............... 132 CHAPTER VII. Arrogant Conduct of the Spanish toward Americans and English-The "Virginius" OutrageShooting Four Cuban Patriots-American Citizens Murdered in Cold Blood-Wild Demonstrations of JoySurrender of the "Virginius "-The Formal Transfer-How an English Captain Prevented a Massacre. 166 CHAPTER VIII. Close of the Ten-Years' War-General Campos' Own Story-Communication with the Insurgents-Rebel Dissensions-Suspending Warfare-Progress toward



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CUBA. 237 but one, and wounded six of the men. The party at once formed up on foot and opened a return fire, the main body of the troops meanwhile moving up with all speed. After desultory firing for some time, a light field-gun was, brought into action and threw twenty-four shells into the insurgent encampment, creating considerable confusion. Captain Garrido then moved forward and assaulted the positions held by the insurgents to the left and rear of the camp, and after severe resistance forced the rebels to retreat., While this was going on the insurgent cavalry made a detour, and charged the Spanish rear-guard, approaching within twenty yards of the troops, but were driven back by the heavy musketry fire. Seeing the enemy dislodged from their positions to the left and rear of the camp, Colonel Canellas ordered the centre to fix bayonets and charge up to the camp. This was successfully carried, but an officer and several men were killed by the explosion of a mine before the camp was reached. The insurgents then retreated, leaving thirty-six men dead on the field, whilst Colonel Canellas reported they carried away not less than eighty wounded. The losses on the Spanish side were severe. They were officially returned as one lieutenant and eleven men killed, and four captains, four lieutenants, and thirty-nine non-conmmi.isiWned officers and 14



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94 CUBA. Spanish Parliament has been made up of only three deputies, and in the most favorable epochs the number of Cuban representatives has not exceeded six. Three deputies in a body of 430 members! The genuine representation of Cuba has not reached sometimes 0.96 per cent. of the total number of members of the Spanish Congress. The great majority of the Cuban deputation has always consisted of Spanish Peninsulars. In this manner, the ministers of "Ultramar" (ministers of the Colonies), whenever they have thought necessary to give an honest or decent appearance to their legislative acts by an alleged majority of Cuban votes, could always command the latter, that is, the Peninsulars. The Spanish Senate, As regards the representation in the Senate, the operation has been more simple still. The qualifications required to be a Senator have proved to be an almost absolute prohibition to the Cubans. In fact, to take a seat in the higher house, it is necessary to have been president of that body or of Congress, or a minister of the crown, or a bishop, or a grandee of Spain, a lieutenant-general, a viceadmiral, ambassador, minister plenipotentiary, counsellor of State, judge or attorney-general of the Supreme Court, of the Court of Accounts, etc. No Cuban has ever filled any of the above positions, and scarcely two or three are grandees.



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342 WAR WITH SPAIN. Vhe Decline of Spain* Thereafter the decline of Spain was steady and rapid. France seized all the provinces north of the Pyrenees. The last hold upon Germany was broken. Portugal regained its independence. Dissensions and rebellions arose in Spain its-elf. And by the year 1700 the kingdom was practically a wreck. Its Sovereign was dependent upon foreign powers for his title to the throne. Again and again Spain was invaded by the Portuguese, Dutch and English. In 1704 the English seized the great fortress of Gibraltar, which they have ever since held. In the latter part of that century England took possession of a number of the West Indian Islands. Then the Napoleonic wars came on. At first Spain sided with France against England and a disastrous war ensued. The Spanish fleet was destroyed in the battle of Cape St. Vincent in 1797 and the Island of Trinidad was taken by the English. I to give the Then Spain was compelled in 1803, great American province of Louisiana to France. Two years later the new Spanish fleet was destroyed by Nelson at Trafalgar. In i8o8 Napoleon deposed the, Spanish King, Ferdinand, and put his own broth er, Joseph Bonaparte, on the throne. This caused war between France and Spain. English troops came to the assistance of Spain, and the gigantic struggle



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322 WAR WITH SPAIN. and prepared to leave the country. On the evening of April 2oth, he and his suite entered a railroad train at Washington and departed for Canada. There was no public demonstration at his departure, and no unpleasant incidents whatever. At the same time the President's note was transmitted by cable to Gen. Woodford, the United States Minister at Madrid, for him to present to the Prime Minister of Spain. The latter refused to receive it and sent Gen. Woodford his passport. The General thereupon departed from Madrid for France as speedily as possible. A great crowd surrounded the railroad station, shouting all sorts of unfriendly utterances at the departing minister. As the train traversed Spanish territory, it was frequently attacked and stoned, windows were broken and the police had to protect it from the mob with drawn swords. At one point Gen. Woodford's car was invaded by detectives who proposed to arrest the General's Secretary on the ground that he was a Spaniard. Gen. Woodford personally resisted their attempts and finally succeeded in getting away and in taking his Secretary with him to safety. War and Blockade,, Simultaneously with the dismissal of the American Minister, the Spanish Government



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 323 issued a note declaring that it considered war to have been declared between the United States and Spain. The next day, April 22nd, the President issued a proclamation announcing a blockade of five of the principal ports of Cuba. To carry out his order, a powerful fleet was at once sent to Cuban waters and the ports of Havana, Matanzas, Cardenas and Bahia Hunda on the north coast, and Cienfuegos on the south coast were closed against entrance or exit of any vessels. At the same time the American Asiatic squadron at Hong Kong, under the command of Commodore Dewey, sailed for Manila with instructions to destroy the Spanish fleet there and to take possession of the Philippine Islands in the name of the United States. The first prize ship of the war was captured on April 22nd, This was the Spanish merchant steamer "Buena. Ventura" which was captured by the Gunboat "Nashville off Key West. Thereafter the capture of Spanish vessels by the American Blockading Fleet was a matter of daily occurrence. The United States promptly made an unequivocal declaration that in this war the rights of neutrals were to be respected; that free ships would make free goods, and that neutral goods were to be exempt from seizure, even on the enemy's ships and that there would be no resort



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 359 Foreign Commerce Begins. With the close of the eighteenth century a certain amount of liberty began to be conceded to foreign vessels. The first English commercial house was established in Manila in I8o9, and in 1834 the monopoly of the Royal Company expired. Manila remained the only port for foreign trade till 1842, when Cebu was also opened. Jamboanga (Mindanao), Iloilo (Pansay), Sual (Luzon), Legazpi or Albany (Luzon), and Tacloban (Leyte), are now in the same category, but only Manila, Iloilo and Cebu have proved of real importance, as they are the only ports where foreign bound vessels have hitherto loaded.



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372 WAR WITH SPAIN. harbor-defence ram, 2,183 tons; 4,800 horsepower, 15 knots speed. Deck armament-Four 6-pounder rapid-fire guns. Pacific Station. Rear-Admiral Joseph N. Miller, Commanding. Oregon, Captain Charles E. Clark. Steel coast-line battleship, 10,288 tons, 9,oo000 horsepower; 15 knots speed. Armament-Four I3-inch breech-loading rifles, eight 8-inch and four 6-inch breech-loading rifles, twenty 6-pounder and six I-pounder rapid-fire guns and four Gatlings. Monterey, captain not assigned. Steel, lowfreeboard coast-defence monitor, 4,00ooo tons; 5,cco horse-power; 13 knots speed. Armament--Two I3-inch and two io-inch breech-loading rifles, six 6-pounder and four I-pounder and two Gatlings. Monadnock, Captain William H. Whiting. Iron low-freeboard coast-defence monitor, 3,900oo tons, 3,oo000 horse-power; 14 knots speed. Armament-Four I o-inch breech-loading rifles, two 4-inch rapid fire guns, two 6-pounder and two 3pounder and two 37mm. Hotchkiss revolving cannon. Bennington, Commander Henry E. Nichols. Cruiser, 1,750 tons; 3,500oo horse-power; 17 knots speed. Armament-Six 6-inch breech-loading rifles, two 6-pounder, two 3-pounder and one I-pounder rapid-fire guns, two 37mm. Hotchkiss cannon and two Gatlings.



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256 CUBA. found by Red Cross physicians who wont to Guatao, make eighteen altogether. There were no wounded, all who did not escape to the woods being made sure of. Of three cigar-makers of Havana, named Chaves, who ran down to Guatao that afternoon to see their mother, one was 'killed and the others made prisoners. Every one of the dead in Guatao is recognized as a peaceful non-combatant. It is credibly asserted that when the troops went back to Mariano, whence reinforcements had been sent, bringing their prisoners with them, the soldiers were drunk. Examination of the houses in Guatao proves that the assertion of the authorities that the insurgent troops took refuge in them and fired on the Spaniards is untrue. Very Near Havana. These terrible scenes took place within a dozen miles from Havana, and the ignorance which Gen. Weyler professed of the actual facts was manifestly not to be believed. Troops brought the bodies of the dead from the houses and fields and placed them on the ground in front of the main store. The prisoners who were captured in houses and fields without arms were pinioned and compelled to walk to Mariano. They were bruised and ill-treated on the way, and required medical attendance upon their arrival,



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 549 to be put -in communication with the insurgent camp. Two hours later they returned. For a time nothing could be seen of the launch or the prize. Thought Prize was Rtecaptured. Suddenly Commander Clover, who was scanning the waters with his glass, shouted to Captain Sutherland, of the Eagle: "By heavens, they have recaptured my prize! The little schooner lay near the wrecked steamer, but the Spanish flag was flying from her mast, and, instead of only Nev 'is and his companion, she was apparently filled with men. Meanwhile the gunboat Maple had dra 'wn up and Commander Clover ordered her in to the work of rescue. With guns ready, she steamed toward the schooner, but the sight that greeted her was not what was expected. Nevis and his companion sat at one end of the boat, attempting to navigate her out of the harbor. Each had his rifle across his knee, and was keeping a wary eye on a party of half a dozen Spaniards huddled in the other end of the boat. The Maple asked for information, and offered Nevis a tow, but he declined the proffered assistance. Then it developed that in going in to anchor he had observed two other small Spanish boats near the wreck of the Santo Domingo, and had resolved to capture them, too. He knew it. was.



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 357 eight miles southwest of the port of Manila, and held it until the arrival of twenty-five thousand reinforcements from Spain and a considerable naval fleet enabled the Government to suppress them. Some Natives tUnsubdued. In the inaccessible mountainous parts of the island there are still unsubdued savages. In the last census returns the number of natives not subject to the civil government and paying no tribute, is given as 602,853, while the number of natives paying tribute is returned as 5,501,356. The climate of the Philippines varies little from that of other mountainous and tropical countries. The range of the thermometer during the year is from a little over 6o degrees to about 90. The year may be divided into three seasons: the first, cold and dry, begins in November; the scnwarm, but still dry, begins in March, the greatest heat being experienced from April first to the end of May; and the third, which is excessively wet, continues from June to the middle of November. Natives Mild and Amiable* Generally 'speaking, the natives are mild and amiable, predisposed to religious observances, extremely superstitious, and very hospitable. Those of Batangas, Cagayan and Southern Ilocos, are better and more industrious laborers than



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520 WAR WITH SPAI N. Cervera's Ship Opens the Fight. Almost before the leading ship was clear of the shadow of Morro Castle the fight had begun. Admiral Cervera started it by a shell from the Almirante Oquendo, to which he had transferred his flag. It struck none of the American vessels. In a twinkling the big guns of the Texas belched forth their thunder, which was followed immediately by a heavy fire from our other ships. The Spaniards turned to the westward under full steam, pouring a constant fire on our ships, and evidently hoping to get away by their superior speed. The Brooklyn turned her course parallel with that of the Spaniards, and, after getting in good range, began a running fight. The Texas in the Thick of it. The Texas, still heading in shore, kept up a hot exchange of shots with the foremost ships, which gradually drew away to the westward under the shadow of the hills. The third of the Spanish vessels, the Vizcaya or Infanta Maria Teresa, was caught by the Texas in good fighting range, and it was she that engaged the chief attention of the first battleship commissioned in the American Navy-the old hoodoo, but now the old hero. The Texas steamed west with her adversary, and as she could not catch her with speed she did with her shells. Captain John W. Philip directed operations from the bridge until



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96 CUBA* many cases they have been entirely excluded from them. When, despite the legalized obstacles and the partiality of those in power, they have obtained some temporary majority, the Government has always endeavored and succeeded in making their triumph null and void. Only o "nce did the home-rule party obtain a majority in the Provincial deputation of Havana, and then the Governor-General appointed from among the Spaniards a majority of the members of the Permanent Commission. Until that time this Commission has been of the same political complexion as the majority of the Deputation. By such proceedings have the Cubans been gradually expelled, even from the municipal bodies. Suffice it to say that the lawv provides that the derramas (assessments) be-excluded from the computation of the tributary quotas, notwithstanding that they constitute the heaviest burden upon the municipal taxpayer. And the majorities, consisting of Spaniards, take good care to make this burden fall with heavier weight upon the Cuban proprietor. Thus the latter has to bear a heavier taxation with less representation. This is the reason why the scandalous case has occurred lately of not a single Cuban having a seat in the "Ayuntamiento (Board of Aldermen) of Havana. In 1891 the Spaniards predominated in thirty-one out of thirty-six "Ayunta-



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CUBA. 167 steamer, flying the American flag, commanded by Capt. Frey, of New Orleans, an American citizen and a veteran of our civil war, and manned in part by American and British sailors. The "Virginius slipped in and out of Cuban harbors with wonderful success, carrying arms and re-enforcements to the patriot army. At last, on October 31, 1873, she was captured with all on board by the Spanish gunboat "Tornado." She had 170 passengers and crew, who with the vessel and cargo were taken to Santiago de Cuba. The "Tornado," which had been searching for the "Virginius" since her attempted landing on the south coast of Cuba, came in sight of her at 2.30 p. m. on the 31 st, and immediately gave chase. The filibuster put on all steam and made for Jamaica, hoping to find refuge in British waters. In her flight she threw overboard several horses, and used a portion of her cargo for fuel. But the "Tornado" caught up with her at io p. m. near the Jamaica coast, and she surrendered with all on board, not one of whom escaped. Shooting Four Cuban Patriots. Among the prisoners were Bernabe Varona, alias Bembetta, Pedro Cespedes, Jesus del Sol, and Gen. Ryan. The tribunal at Santiago de Cuba, before which the prisoners were taken, condemned "these four to death. Although



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CUBA. 169 American Citizens Murdered in Cold Blood. On November 7, the captain of the "Virginius" and thirty-six of the crew were put to death in the same fashion, and on the next day twelve more of the Cuban volunteers on the vessel were shot. Franchi Alfaro, who was among the latter number, offered the Spanish authorities $i,ooo,ooo if they would spare his life. Captain Frey and thirty-six of his men were taken ashore on the morning of the 7th, and taken to the prison, to remain there until their execution, which was ordered for that afternoon. Capt. Frey, a noble-looking old man, fully a head taller than the rest of the crew, when he met his mei on the wharf, previous to the march to the prison, saluted them all. The salute was returned with affection. At 4.45 p. m. they were publicly shot, despite the protest of all the competent foreign authorities. The marines were seven minutes killing the wretched prisoners. It seemed as though they would never finish. At last the sailors marched off, and the troops filed past the long row of corpses. Then the dead carts were hurried up and loaded indiscriminately with the mangled remains. The American Consul did all that could have been done to prevent the massacre. Indeed it was threatened that his exequalu would be withdrawn for his exertions in behalf of the prisoners. In an interview with



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Iva LA. Battleship Massachusetts.



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264 CUBA. Threats. "(8)-Rebels, who may not be responsible for any other crime, who, within the term of fifteen days, present themselves to the nearest military authority in both provinces and who will assist in the apprehension of any one guilty of the foregoing offenses, will not be molested, but will be placed at my disposal. Those who have presented themselves at an earlier time will be pardoned; those who may have committed any other crimes, or who obstructed any public cargo proceeding to its destination will be judged according to the antecedents, and their case will be withheld for final determination. He who presents himself and surrenders arms, and, in a greater degree, if there be a collective presentation, will have his case determined by me. All who present themselves after the time mentioned in this warning will be placed at my disposal. "(9)-All the authorities or civil functionaries, of whatsoever kind, and who do not hold a license for attendance upon the sick, and who are not found at their posts, after the end of eight days, in both provinces will be named to the Governor-General as ceasing to act for the local authorities. "(Io)--The planters, manufacturers and other persons who, within the territory of the provinces warned, shall periodically facilitate, or



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I f 7 'i\$K\ i Maximo Gomez, the Chief of the Insurrection,



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Igo CUBA. myself to declaring that the termination (of the armistice) should be announced three days beforehand. I reserved to myself the right of' lengthening or shortening it, because to keep fixing periods and then extending them is, in my opinion, discreditable and a kind of haggling unworthy of soldiers. I will not deny that I then expected that at the end of a few days they would tell me that they wished to treat on inadmissible terms. I labored at that time 'under two mistakes I believed their number smaller -and their presumption greater than it was. I bad studied the Iro and the con, as is commonly said. I was not neutralizing more than a small part of the war (three-hundredths), and it was accordingly prosecuted with the greatest activity when the matter began to improve, and the soldiers to come out of the hospitals. In the neutralized territory the contract of the insurgents with our soldiers was most advantageous for us, because the meeting of the weak with the strong, of the hungry with him who has resources, of the naked with the clothed, of him who has no place of shelter, with him who has camps and sutlers' shops, cannot but weaken the resolution of the former. The courteous treatment which had been ordered was sure to underline the officers the news of the suspension of hostilities where the congress was,



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306 CUBA. whole Naval and Military establishment of the nation was put upon a war footing. Congress on March 9, by a unanimous vote, appropriated $5o,ooo,ooo, to be used by the President according to his discretion for purposes of national defense. The Court of Inquiry met promptly, and began a careful investigation. A wrecking company was set to work to recover the bodies of the dead. Within two days 130 bodies were recovered, and buried in a cemetery in Havana, with all the honors of war. A few days after the destruction of the Maine the Spanish warship Viscaya reached New York and was hospitably received. After a few days' stay there she departed and went her way in peace and safety. The report of the Court of Inquiry on the Maine disaster was laid before Congress on March 28. It was to the effect that the ship was destroyed by the external explosion of a torpedo or sub-marine mine, the responsibility for which could not be determined. The President on the same day sent to Congress a message on the subject, expressing his full confidence that the Spanish Government would pursue in the matter "a course of action suggested by honor and the friendly relations of the two Governments."p



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330 WAR WITH SPAIN. Spain Reaping What She Sowed. "Spain is reaping what she has sowed. A chapter of the history of the world is now going on which has been inevitable. The Spaniard could conquer, but not colonize. Even the very Spaniards who discovered America, filled the world with indignation at their brutalities. They destroyed an ancient civilization and sacked peaceful, flourishing kingdoms; is the same spirit of bloodthirst and greed for gold did they roast the King of the Aztecs, Montezuma, and Ihis people for the sake of forcing more gold from them. The history of Spanish America is a continuous tale of murder and rapine. As soon as the American inhabitants became conscious of their position, rebellion and separation began. In this way Spain has gradually lost all her possessions on the American continent, and in this way will she now lose Cuba, the Pearl of the Antilles. "1Long enough has she had the opportunity of quieting the rising storm by making Cuba freeand happy, but she has not availed herself of it. That system which at home persecuted Jews and Moors, opposed -every free sentiment, reduced almost the entire population to beggary, and, even now makes uie of instruments of torture, could not be a system of freedom, enlightenment and public welfare in Cuba. In. the waters of Cuba two entirely mutually opposed stages of



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CHAPTER XXIV. TAKING POSSESSION OF SANTIAGO-OCCUPIED WITHOUT FORMALITY-GOVERNING THE CAPTURED CITYTO ENJOY AMERICAN FREEDOM-PRIVATE PROPERTY RIGHTS RESPECTED-THE CAPTURE OF NIPE-GUANTANAMO SURRENDERS-ON TO PORTO RICO-SPANIARDS TAKEN BY SURPRISE-GLOUCESTER SHELLS THE TOWN-CAVALRYMEN DRIVEN TO HILLS-AMERICANS WELCOMED-MORE PRIZE TAKING-THOUGHT PRIZE WAS RECAPTURED SURPRISED SPANISH SAILORS-ON TO HAVANAIN THE PHILIPPINES-TESTED QUALITY OF TROOPS-NEGOTIATIONS FOR PEACE-THE TERMS OFFERED--SPAIN CONSIDERS THE TERMSCOMING TO THE WHITE HOUSE-THE PROTOCOL'S APPEARANCE-JUDGE DAY AND M. CAMBON SIGN -TEXT OF THE PROTOCOL. '* HE American flag was formally raised in token of sovereignty over the city of Santiago de Cuba, at noon of Sunday, July 17, 1898. The terms of surrender had been so arranged as to hurt Spanish pride as little as possible. At 9 o'clock General Shafter and his chief officers, with a small escort of cavalry, met General Toral, his staff and a detachment of infantry under a tree between the American and Spanish lines. Pleasant greetings exchanged, (537)



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ITS CUBA. followed him faithfully through many battlesThe chief leader of the Cuban armies at that time and during the years that followed was Maximo Gomez, who is now Commander-in-Chief of the Revolutionary army. The Declaration of Iindependence., The patriots who thus took up arms for Cuba were proud to call themselves laboring men. They were, in fact, known as the "1Junta of the Laborers." The following is the proclamation which they made to the public: "1The laborers, animated by the love for their native land, aspi *re to the hope of seeing Cuba happy and prosperous by virtue of its own power, and demand the inviolability of individuals, their homes, their families, and the fruits of their labor, which it will have guaranteed by the liberty of conscience, of speech, of the press, by peaceful meetings; in fact, they demand a Government of the country for and by the country, free from an army of parasites and soldiers that only serve to consume it and oppress it. And, as nothing of that kind can be obtained from Spain, they intend to fight it with all available means, and drive and uproot its dominion on the face of Cuba. Respecting above all and before all the dignity of man, the association declares that it will not accept slavery as a forced inheritance of the past; however, instead of abolishing it as an arm by



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.. ..... ..... ... NX, 13 4 A rfflbl; 11 "h low -i "',A4 ........ .. IPjj 1ilj111!jj IN I Naval Battle Off Santiago de Cuba.



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ox, xx An Insurgent attack near Vueltas,



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CUBA. 219 returned to Cuba and was p ermitted to remain there for a time. The Spanish authorities presently suspected him, however, of arousing the patriotic spirit of the Cubans, and accordingly sent him back to Spain. Again he escaped from the country and came to Newv York, where he attempted to organize, with Calixto Garcia, another revolt in 1879. That attempt was also a failure, but it did not discourage him. Since that time he has worked unceasingly for the cause. He was an author, a poet, and a newspaper man of high attainments. In 1891 he served as the representative of Uruguay at the International Monetary Conference at Washington. He also served as Consul at New York for various South American countries, but when Spain complained that he was using his position to promote disaffection in Cuba, he resigned his office and devoted himself more exclusively to the Cuban cause. The treasurer of the Revolutionary party was Benjamin Guerra, a cigar manufacturer, who had been a Cuban patriot ever since his childhood. SThe secretary was Gonzales de Quesada, who had lived in New York since he was sixteen years old, and was a graduate of Columbia College. Maximo Gomez, of whom we shall hear much more, had been the commander of, the eastern wing of the Cuban army in the revolution of 18680 113



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 409 A Privileged French Steamer. An untoward incident of the blockade was the capture, and immediate release of the French steamer Lafayette. She had been exempted from capture by a special order of the Washington Government, at the request of the French Government, But the order was not conveyed to the fleet quite in time. On May 5, while the gunboat Annapolis was cruising off Havana she noticed ~the Lafayette making for the blockaded port at all speed, with the evident intention of entering the harbor. Commander Hunker, of the gunboat, immediately gave chase and a few minutes later was within hailing distance. Signals ordering the steamer to heave to were run up, but they were disregarded, and the more persuasive argument of a blank shot was used with instant effect. The warship's whaleboat, with an officer, was sent out to the Frenchman, whose manifest was inspected, and the results were sent to Commander Hunker. The latter ordered the -boarding officer to warn the captain of the Frenchman that Havana was in a state of blockade, and that he would have to make for his ultimate destination, Vera Cruz, Mexico, without touching at any port in Cuba. Captain De Chapelaine, the commander of the French vessel, agreed to do this, and the boarding officer and his crew returned to the Annapolis.



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242 CUB3A* temporary charge of the civil and military branches of the Government were known to believe in policy that would give no mercy to those who were in arms against the King, and it was expected that vigorous measures would be taken to suppress the insurrection. VIhe New Commnandler., The successor of General Campos chosen by the Spanish Government was General Weyler, who had been known in the Ten Years' War as "'Valmaceda's assistant butcher." He had a reputation for the utmost cruelty and ferocity, and his appointment was interpreted as meaning that a reign of terror would forthwith be established in Cuba. "Most men," says Mr. Rappleye, a newspaper correspondent who met him in Havana, resemblee their reputations, and if a life famously spent is in the mind of one who visits a character of world-wide repute, he quite naturally discovers peculiarities of facial expression and physique which appear to account for the individuality of the man-fighter, philosopher, criminal, reformer or whatever he may be. All this is true of Gen. Weyler. He is one of those men who create a first impression, the first sight of whom never can be effaced from the mind, by whose presence the most careless observer is impressed instantly, and yet, taken altogether, he is a man in whom the elements of greatness are concealed under a



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50 CUBA. within five years has iron-mining begun in earnest. The forest areas are unexplored. There are vast tracts of unreclaimed lands available for future industry. There are broad savannas, now abandoned to tropical thickets, where sugar, tobacco and corn could be cultivated. If there are now 1500o sugar plantations,, large and small, on the island, there could be 15~,ooo. If there are 1 5,000 tobacco-planters of every degree, the number might be multiplied. If coffee-farming has declined and is now restricted mainly to the mountain slopes of Guantanamo, it could be restored to its old-time efficiency and prosperity. A transformation of administration and economic conditions are needed in order that there may be a new and reinvigorated Cuba. Spanish rule has been like the wild Indian fig of the island that winds about the monarch trees of the forest and paralyzes and kills them with its serpentine embrace. The de.--s troy ing fig must first be uprooted before the tree can have soil, light, air and moisture needed for its normal growth. A Coffee Plantation., Any person desiring to make a coffee estate chooses for his plaza, or plantation, high and steep ground, if possible facing east and west; altitude above sea-level from i,ooo to 3,000 feet. Experience has proven that ground lower than i,ooo feet is too apt in the dry season to parch



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CUBA, 119 which to sink the island into barbarity, as threatened by the Government of Spain, they view abolition as a means of improving the moral and material condition of the workingman, and thereby to place property and wealth in a more just and safe position. "1Sons of their times, baptized in the vivid stream of civilization and therefore above preoccupation of nationality, the laborers will respect the neutrality of Spaniards, but among Cubans will distinguish only friends and foes, those that are with them or against them. To the former they offer peace, fraternity, and concord ; to the latter, hostility and war-war and hostility that will be more implacable to the traitors in Cuba where they first saw the day, who turn their arms against them, or offer any asylum or refuge to their tyrants. We, the laborers, ignore the value of nationality, but at the present moment consider it of secondary moment. Before nationality stands liberty, the indisputable condition of existence. We must be a people before becoming a nation. When the Cubans constitute a free people they will receive the nationality that becomes them. Now they have none." The Declaration of Independence was made on October ioth. Eight days later the town of Bayamo was captured by the insurgents, and ten days after that the whole district of Holguin rose



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 405 to be found,' when suddenly our look-out reported Torpedo-boat astern, coming up 'fast.' A moment later, by hei lights and a rocket which she sent up, the torpedo-boat Dupont was made out. We. then discovered that we had -come unawares within three miles of the Cuban shore, and far inside the prescribed limits.' What followed was short, sharp and warlike. From the torpedo-boat, which had come alongside, we were 'riled with the query, 'What boat is .that?' ',.fore we could answer, the order came through temegaphone, 'Keep out of this; keep outside the six-mile line, or you will get a shot through you.' "Some further colloquy'-of a more friendly character ensued. -When the officer of -the Dupont learned the peaceful nature of our misSion, we were directed to proceed slowly towards the Cincinnati, in whose neighborhood, also,' we were advised to use great caution, as otherwise trouble would be in store for us. We proceeded slowly, but it seems not slowly enough, and very soon we were blinded by the glare of the Cincinnati's searchlights. The first intimation 'we received that we were in too close proximity to the warship was conveyed by the report of a sixpounder, which was immediately followed by a quick hail. Presently the Dupont -stole up again, and quietly reported to the Cincinnati, 'This is



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170 CUBIA* Gen. Burriel, that officer yelled at him and other. wise treated him disrespectfully. The British Consul also made an ineffectual protest against the execution. Sixteen of the victims were British subjects. Of the crew who were not killed by the Spaniards at Santiago de Cuba, four were condemned to the chain-gang for life, three to eight years) imprisonment, eight to four years'P imprisonment, and three were set at liberty. Wild Demonstrations of joy,, On Wednesday, Nov. 5, the tidings of the execution of Gen. Varona, Pedro Cespedes, Jesus del Sol and Gen. Ryan reached Havana, and the inhabitants immediately relinquished all business pursuits and gave themselves up to the wildest demonstrations of joy. Bonfires were kindled, public and private buildings were illuminated, the larger streets were festooned with Chinese lanterns and even the less important localities were not exempt from the manifestations of joy. Later in the evening the whole population seemed to pour out into the streets and the volunteers paraded through the city. Torchlight processions were numerous, and bands of music inspired new enthusiasm in the breasts of the impulsive Spaniards. The project of raising subscriptions and presenting some testimonial to the officers of the "Tornado," to whom the cap-.



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196 CUBA, An Anxious Moment. cannot express the anxiety in which I was left. My presumption was that they were to be trusted ; that the reserve they had shown was due to the character of the natives of this country, and to their want of confidence in Spain, which cannot easily be effaced; at the same time recognizing as one cause the oath they had taken, and the desire not to be accused of treachery by their companions, who still stood to their arms. 11 But these were nothing more than my presumptions; nothing more than my knowledge of the unfortunate state in which they were. There was the conviction that hatred of Spain was rapidly disappearing; there was the certainty that the favorable movement came from below upwards with a terrible pressure ; but after all there was nothing but conviction and faith in myself; there was not a proof nor a material fact to confirm these; and when I entered on this line of thought doubt took possession of my mind. The question was most serious. Should they persist in their choice of a new government by popular election, and I in not conceding a longer delay, then the pacification would be postponed, the war continued with the fury of despair, and I become an accomplice in the failure of peace. If, in virtue of my convictions, I conceded what they asked, a change of ideas



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CUBA. 33 French, English, Dutch, and other raiders. It also suffered much from the pirates and freebooters who infested those seas. About 1665 the building of strong walls around the city was commenced. In 1762 Havana was captured after a desperate struggle by an English fleet and army under Lord Albemarle. The fleet consisted of more than two hundred vessels of all classes manned by more than fourteen thousand men, while the Spanish army of defense numbered more than twenty-seven thousand. The assault began on June 6th. On July 3oth Morro Castle was surrendered, and on August 14th the city itself capitulated. The spoil divided among the conquerors amounted to more than $3,600o,000. By a treaty concluded at Paris in the following year Cuba was restored to the Spaniards and thereafter its progress was rapid. Indeed, that was the beginning of the island's real importance and prosperity. Progress and Prosperity. Another Las Casas arrived in 1 790 as Captain-General of the island and his administration was a brilliant time in the history of Cuba. He promoted with indefatigable perseverance a great and useful series of public works. He also introducect the culture of indigo, which became an important industry. He extended the commercial importance of the island by removing as far



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CONTENTS. I I Peace-Coming to the Point-Campos' MotivesInterview with Garcia-An Anxious Moment-At Zanjon-The Terms Accepted-The End at LastA Review of the Situation-What the War MeantHow the End was Reached-Campos' Appeal for Justice-The Cost of the War ... .... ...... 185 CHAPTER IX. Beginning of the Revolution of 1895-Where the Plot Hatched-Famous Men who Organized the Rebellion-Arrival of the Leaders in Cuba-How Gomez Reached Cuba-Callejas' Attempts to Secure Peace by Heroic Measures-The First Skirmishes-Ironical Gratitude-Spread of the Rebellion ........... 213 CHAPTER X. The Patriots too much for Campos-Attitude of Other Countries-The Insurgents Organize-Who the Leaders Were-Battle of Sao del Indio-Battle of Peralejo-A Spanish Force Wiped Out....... 228 CHAPTER XI. The News in Cuba-The New Commander-Weyler's Arrival-First Words to Cuba-No NeutralityNon-Combatants Menaced-Call for Surrender-To End the War in Thirty Days-The Telegraph Lines -Weyler's Proclamations-Must Praise SpainPassports and Credentials-Stores to be SeizedFate of Prisoners-More Troops for Weyler-The Massacre of Guatao-Prisoners Killed-Very Near Havana-The Towns Deserted-Weyler Calls a Halt-Powers of Life and Death-More Proclamations-For Extermination-Fifteen Days' GraceThreats-Offer of Amnesty-To Report on the Suspects-Appeal for Recognition-A Long Debate -Action by Congress .................. 240



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CHAPTER XXII. THE SEVENTH REGIMENT-TWO BIG CAMPS-THE SECOND CALL-GENERAL SHAFTER-FOR THE PHILIPPINES-PREPARING TO INVADE CUBATHE TRIP TO CUBA-OPERATIONS AT GUANTANAMO-RAIDING A SPANISH CAMP-SPANIARDS RUSH FOR THE BUSHES-THE DOLPHIN THROWS SHELLS. NE of the first things to be done after war was declared was to raise an army. Evidently it was not going to be altogether a war at sea. Troops would be needed for the invasion of Cuba and Porto Rico, and also for occupying the distant Philippines. For such purposes the standing army of less than 30,000 men was absurdly inadequate. Volunteers must be called for. Some debate ensued in Congress as to the number the President was to be empowered to ask for, but at last the matter was left to a large extent to his discretion. On Saturday, April 23, the President issued a call for I 25,000 men. Requisitions were made upon the various state governments to furnish each of them its quota, according to its size. Many of the militia regiments were ordered by 490



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 425 it is considered that the Spaniards lost over six hundred men in killed and wounded, that all their ships, probably fourteen, were destroyed and that the naval arsenal at Cavite was also destroyed, with its defenses, it will become apparent that the victory of the American Commodore was one of the most complete and wonderful achievements in the history of naval warfare. Telling the News.* The first news of the battle came through Spanish channels, the cable from Manila to Hong Kong being in Spanish hands. It was stated that a great victory had been won for Spain. The Madrid Government was jubilant, its people wild with delight. A few hours later the truth was told, and then martial law had to be established in Madrid and throughout Spain, to repress the fury of the enraged populace. It was six days later when full reports came to hand. They had been sent by steamer from Manila to Hong Kong, and thence by cable to Washington. The American commander's dispatches were brief and modest. This was the first: "Manila, May 1.-Squadron arrived at Manila at daybreak this morning. Immediately engaged the enemy, and destroyed the following Spanish vessels: Reina Cristina, Castilla, Don Antonio de Ulloa, Isla de Luzon, Isla de Cuba, General Lezo,



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186 CUBA. in that officer and their belief that his promises would be fulfilled. General Campos' own account of the manner in which the negotiations were conducted and brought to a successful termination may be found in the official report which he made to the King of Spain, from which the following passages are taken: General Campos' Own Story. "Finding myself on the i8th of December in the Sierra Maestra of Cuba, inspecting the encampments there, which have been so fatal to the fourth brigade of that division, on account of its hygienic conditions, I received a telegram from General D. Manuel Cassola, in which he informed me that the prisoner D. Esteban Duque de Estrada, some time ago liberated, had manifested to him the desire of some important leaders, and some members of the congress, to enter into negotiations with a view to peace. "Although at some distance from Cuba, I embarked that very night for Santa Cruz in order to speak with Estrada, to communicate with Cassola, to decide on the spot and for myself what would be proper. "I have reported the doings of Mr. Pope in the month of May, the distrust with which he inspired me, and my persuasion that he was an unprincipled adventurer. In spite of this I permitted him to go to the enemy's camp, because I



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WAR WITH4 SPAIN.33 civilization are constantly brought into contact with each other. In the north is the free American, with his sentiments of equality and independence, his striving for education and activity; opposed to him is the Spaniard, who has learned nothing, and can be of no advantage to mankind. Spain's ]Low Estate. "The Spanish Kingdom proudly calls itself a Catholic monarchy, and has ever striven to act as the defender of religion-the servant -of the clergy. In Spain the clerical ideal has materialized; the clergy is all-powerful, the Government her humble servant. The rest is in the same plan-the ruling classes unscrupulously seeking selfish ends, the people impoverished, coarse and ignorant. Out Of 17,000,000 inhabitants, barely Poo,ooo can read and write. To those few schoolmasters that Spain does possess, neither the State nor the community pays a sum large enough to keep them from starving. At the same time 32,000 monks and 15,000 nuns are living most splendidly; they have everything whenever and how they wish it. Spain may have artists and orators, but she has no mental energy and no power, because she lacks freedom of mind. A people who can only mumble prayers and finds pleasure in bullfights can never found civilization and public welfare,



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376 WAR WITH SPAIN. Pensacola, Captain Henry Glass. Wooden frigate, 3,000 tons, 68o horse-power, 9 knots speed. Monitors. Catskill, Lieutenant M. E. Hall. Low-freeboard, single turret monitor, 1,875 tons, 340 horse-power, 5 knots speed. Armament-Two 15-inch smooth-bore guns. Montauk, Commander Edward T. Strong. Description same as Catskill. Passaic, Lieutenant Francis H. Sherman. Description same as Catskill. Jason, Lieutenant F. H. Fickbohm. Description similar to Catskill. Lehigh, Lieutenant Robert G. Peck. Description same as Jason. Nahant, Lieutenant Clayton S. Richman. Description similar to Catskill. Canonicus, commander not appointed. Description same as Nahant. Mahopac, Commander not appointed. Description similar to Catskill. Manhattan, commander not appointed. Description same as Mahopac. Nantucket, commander not appointed. Description similar to Catskill. Training Ships. Constellation, Commander John McGowan. Ship, Ii86 tons; sail power. Armament--Eight



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30 CUBA. of abuses-Las Casas himself, with a salary and the title of "1Protector of the Indians," being appointed a member of it. He soon found, however, that the other members of the commission were altogether indifferent to the cause which he had so much at heart and he accordingly returned to Spain where he developed his scheme for the complete liberation of the Indians. This scheme not only included facilities for emigration from Spain, but was intended to give to each Spanish resident in the colonies the right of importing twelve negro slaves. The emigration movement proved a failure, and Las Casas lived long enough to express his sorrow and shame for having been so slow to perceive that the African negyroes were as much entitled to the rights of man as were the American Indians. Extinction of the Natives. Velasquez was thus the founder of Indian slavery, and Las Casas of negro slavery, in America. The Indians who were not distributed among the Spaniards as slaves were compelled to pay a tribute in gold dust, and as gold never abounded in Cuba this was a difficult thing to do. 'Although the Indians were physically well developed, they were not accustomed to continuous and hard labor. The tasks imposed upon them by their ruthless Spanish masters caused so great a mortality that in about half a century the whole native



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 407 A Smart Capture. A smart bit of work was the capture of the Spanish steamer Panama, by the Mangrove, on the evening of April 25. The Mangrove had been before the war merely a lighthouse tender, but was now fitted with two six-pounder guns and rated as an auxiliary cruiser of the United States navy. The Mangrove was prowling off Havana that evening, when she sighted the Panama heading for that port. Chase was given at once, and when the Mangrove got within range she fired a shot at the Spaniard. The latter did not stop, however, but kept on at top speed. Meanwhile, the Mangrove outmanceuvred the Panama, getting between her and the Cuban shore, but even then the Panama would not stop, and the Mangrove had to fire three more shots, at decreasing range, before the plucky Spaniard reversed his engines and hauled'down his flag in token of surrender. The Panama's passengers were mainly Spanish refugees fleeing from New York and other places in the United States to Havana. Captain Quevedo was grief-stricken and greatly humiliated because of the capture. The passengers declared they knew nothing of the blockade, and when they saw the searchlight of the Mangrove they thought it the light of a Spanish man-of-war. The first shot changed their joy to apprehension, the second and third created a panic. The women



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244 CUBA. music played. The weather was delightful and the populace delighted-apparently. It is a great day--for Weyler. The prospect for the new commander-in-chief of the Spanish army in Cuba fulfilling the destiny which had been manufactured for him in Spain was, however, worse than at any time since the war for independence began. The fiasco of the Captain-General pro tern, in his ten days' expedition undertaken with the avowed object of running down Gomez was complete and abject. Gen. Marin got back to Havana the day before Weyler landed. His little campaign had been a complete failure. It had, indeed, been marked by more disasters than the Spanish army had suffered during an equal number of days since the war began. ]First Words to Cuba. On landing Weyler made a brief address to the soldiers about him, saying significantly, "You know me, and my record. Well, I propose to live up to my record." The next day he issued a formal address to the Spanish army in Cuba, in which he said the following: "The addresses which I made, at the moment of my disembarking, to the volunteers and men of the army and navy, will give you an idea of the spirit and policy animating your Governor-General, and similarly the direction of



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CUBA. 267 to recognize the Cubans as belligerents and extend to them belligerent rights. Some sincere friends of Cuba doubted the wisdom of this course, but a vast majority of the American people seemed to favor it. On January 29th the Senate committee on Foreign Relations decided to take some definite action. Two sentiments had divided the committee from the beginning. On the one hand there had been a general desire to grant the recognition which the revolutionists desired, and thus put an end at once to the highly annoying and embarrassing conditions under which intercourse between the Unite d States and Cuba had been maintained for the last ten months. With a recognition of the Cuban Revolution ry Government as a belligerent Power, it had yeen assumed that the annoyances of the neutrality policy would be to a great extent removed, or at least insensibly diminished. On the other hand, there had been an unmistakable feeling that the United States could not with propriety and justice proclaim the belligerency of the insurgent forces on the military showing so far made by them. The precedent set by Secretary Fish in the last Cuban rebellion was felt to have bound this country to a policy of extreme caution in dealing with the present uprising against the Spanish Government.



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382 WAR WITH SPAIN., cigarette. The number of these an average Spanish "Tommy" will consume in the course of the day is appalling .H e rolls them himself, using a yellow, dry, dusty-looking tobacco, which possesses no more flavor to an American smoker's palate than would so much chopped straw. In theory, every Spaniard must serve his twelve years in the army; but there is a wide difference, in this case at all events, between theory and practice. To begin with, any citizen can discharge his liability to serve by the payment, in a lump sum, Of 1, 200 pesetas. This sounds a good lot of money. But it takes five pesetas to equal an American dollar, so that he really has to disburse only about $240. Enornious numbers, even of the peasant class, have taken to availing themselves of this privilege. There has even sprung up in many of the provinces a special class of village usurers, who lend the smart money "-at a ruinous rate Of interest, of course -to young men who have been "drawn." Benefit clubs, having the same object in view, are also rife in the agricultural districts. This has the effect of increasing the Spanish. revenues; but from a military point of view it is deplorable. Besides those who honorably purchase their exemption, large numbers of young men obtain what are known as dispensations," absolving them from serving their time under any circum-



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CUBA. T65 perished, the troops achieved a thorough devas-. tation of the country, burning the crops, slaughtering the cattle, gutting the houses, hoping thus, as their commander said in his order of the day, 'to starve out the rebellion.' "By such means a great portion of the Central Department has been brought into subjection, and 'order' reigns there. It is not impossible that the application of the same remedy may effect the cure of rebellion in the Eastern districts ; though it must be observed that the region of the Five Towns, from Matanzas to Cienfuegos and Villa Clara, and all along the southern coast, is almost a dead level, where a few sugar plantations are scattered like vast islands on a surface still encumbered with unfilled savannas and scrubby forests, or, as the natives call them Montes. But beyond Trinidad and throughout the territory of Puerto Principe and Santiago are real Montanas-hilly ridges covered with thick -woods, where the insurgents may offer an obstinate resistance, and where, in the opinion of most men, the Civil War may be perpetuated. But even in the districts where every spark of the insurrection has been trodden down, that hatred which prompted it is far from subsiding; it smoulders, on the contrary, more sullenly than ever, and it finds vent in passionate outbursts and in strong appeals to the stranger, 10



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 437 wind took in its direction, so thick, that it was hard to judge the effect of the fire, and still harder to get good aim. For about five minutes Quin tas da Recreo got the full benefit of the port broadsides of the New York and the Puritan, Getting Closer to the Mark* What its ultimate fate would have been is hard to tell had not attention been diverted from it by a shell from Punta Gorda that whizzed over the New York and fell a little short of the Cincinnati. Leaving Quintas da Recreo to the tender mercies of the Puritan, which was still merrily banging away, Captain Chadwick put his helm to starboard, until the port battery once more bore on the Punta Gorda earthworks. Another shell came from shore, whizzing along over the flagship. IToo high, but a better shot than I thought they could make," said an officer. Then the Cincinnati and the New York poured shot into the yellow earthworks and the surrounding land, until the smoke hid everything from view. Only one more shot from Punta Gorda was noticed. It fell short of the New York by about two hundred yards. It was believed to have come, not from the earthworks, but from a field battery on the brow of a slight hill about half a mile further inland than the earthworks. In fact, it is doubtful whether any shots were fired from. the earthworks after the two or three broadsides had been poured into them.



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CUBA. 93 the district, but the "Audiencias" are almost entirely made up of European magistrates; they are subject to the authority of the GovernorGeneral, being mere political tools in his hands. As a conclusive instance of the manner in which those tribunals do justice to the claims of Cuban electors, it will be sufficient to cite a case which occurred in Santa Clara in 1892, where i,ooo fully qualified liberal electors were excluded at one time, for the simple omission to state their names at the end of the act presented by the elector who headed the claim. In more than one case has the same "Audiencia" applied two different criteria to identical cases. The "Audiencia" of Havana, in 1887, ignoring the explicit provisions of the law, excused the employees from the condition of residence, a condition that the same tribunal exacted before. The same "Audiencia" in i885 declared that the contributions to the State and to the Municipality were accumulative, and in 1887 decided the opposite. This inconsistency had for its object to sponge from the lists hundreds of Cuban electors. In this way the Spanish Government and tribunals have endeavored to teach respect for the law and for the practice of wholesome electoral customs to the Cuban colonists! It will be easily understood now why on some occasions the Cuban representation in the 6



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234 CUBA. successively promoted for his bravery and remarkable military abilities from a common soldier to a Major-General. As a proof of the former he can show in his body twenty-one wounds by bullet and by sword, while in support of the latter he can refer to the many times that he has routed the Spanish troops, even under the command of Gen. Martinez Campos himself, and to the testimony of this latter and of Gen. Mella, who have been compelled to acknowledge the merit of Maceo as a tactician. Battle of Sao del Indio. Thus about this time came accounts of an important action which had taken place in August at a place known as Sao del Indio, half way between Santiago and Guantanamo. Colonel Canellas, with a force of 850 men, attacked the camp of Jose Maceo, where the latter had been stationed with about 200 insurgents for the past two months. Approaching the insurgent camp, Colonel Canellas sent forward a reconnoitering party of twenty-four cavalry. The centre was under the charge of the commanding officer-Captain Garrido, with 300 men, being detailed to attack the enemy's position-whilst the command of the rear guard was in the hands of LieutenantColonel Segura. The reconnoitering party came suddenly on the insurgent outposts, and a well-directed volley from the rebels killed all the horses



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CUBA. 87 tricts, except that no province shall elect more than twenty or less than twelve representatives. As soon as the provincial representatives are elected they meet and nominate by ballot three candidates from among themselves, one of whom is chosen president by the Captain-General, who may, in accordance to the same law, discard their candidate and choose another to preside over it. The Provincial Governor selects five Assemblymen as members of the Provincial Cbmmittee and submits their names to. the Captain -General for ratification. This committee serves as arbiter or counsellor when called on in reference to any municipal election, and performs various duties during the recess. The vice-president of this committee is appointed from among the members by the Captain-General, at the suggestion of the Provincial Governor, who, when it suits him, may preside over any sitting, with the right to vote. Local Governments. Provincial representatives are elected for four years, but one-half are replaced every two years by new ones. Their biennial election occurs during the first fortnight of September. The assemblies meet at the capital ot their provinces on the first working day of the fifth and tenth months of the fiscal year. If during that period anything should happen to render discussions or debates dangerous, the Provincial Gov-'



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508 WAR WITH SPAIN. opened on them from the thicket. In addition to a rapid rifle fire Hotchkiss guns were also heard. Hardly two minutes later the Mausers commenced to crack in the thicket, and bullets whistled over the heads of the rough riders, cutting the leaves of the trees and sending chips flying from the fence-posts by the side of the track. The Spaniards poured a heavy fire, which soon began to tell with disastrous effects. The troopers stood their ground well, while the bullets continued whizzing, around them on every side. Sergeant Fish was the first to fall. He was shot through the heart. The Spaniards were not more than two hundred yards away, but only occasional glimpses of them could be obtained. The troopers poured volley after volley into the brush in the direction indicated by the rattle of Spanish musketry, but the enemy's fire became more frequent, and seemed to be getting into closer range. Colonel Wood walked along the lines with the utmost coolness, and ordered the troops to deploy into the thicket, at the same time sending another detachment into the open space on the left. LieutenantColonel Roosevelt led the former, urging his men onwards as they forced their way through the brush. Every moment shots came thicker and faster from the enemy, and the air seemed to be filled with the singing



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X-P& Avenue of Royal.1"a Im s, Havana



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WAR WITH, SPAIN. 335 seems tottering and hastening to its utter fall. There was a time when Spain dominated the whole of Europe, with the exception of the British Isles. She claimed half of Africa, a great share of Asia and all of America .To-day she is scarcely a thirdclass power in Europe, the least of all foreign land-holders in Africa, and sees the last of her Asian and American possessions slipping from her palsied grasp. No empire ever began its course with higher promise than Spain. The Iberian Peninsula is singularly favored by nature. Its climate is genial, its soil well watered and fertile, and abounding in useful and precious minerals. Its geographical position gives it command of entrance to and exit from the Mediterranean Sea, and ample frontage on that sea, and on the Atlantic Ocean, ready access to all the lands of Southern Europe, and close connection with Africa. Nor were the people formerly unworthy of their environment and opportunities. Who the original inhabitants of the country were is not exactly known. Probably they were identical with ,those fragments of forgotten peoples" who occupy the Northwest corner of the peninsula and whom we call the Basques. The Basques are solitary and unique among the nations of the world. They seem to belong to the children of neither Ham, Shem, nor japheth.Their language



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CHAPTER V111. CLOSE OF THE TEN-YEARS' WAR-GENERAL CAMPOS OWN STORY-COMMUNICATION WIT14 THE INSURGENTS -REBEL DISSENSIONS -SUSPENDING WARFARE-PROGRESS TOWARD PEACE-COMING TO THE POINT-CAMPOS MOTIVES-INTERVIEW WITH GARCIA-AN ANXIOUS MOMENT-AT ZANJON-THE TERMS ACCEPTED -THE END AT LAST-A REVIEW OF THE SITUATION-WHAT THE WAR MEANT-HOW THE END WAS REACHED CAMPOS APPEAL FOR JUSTICE-THE COST OF THE WAR. EN years of fighting practically exhausted the Cubans. When General Martinez de Campos, a humane and merciful man and a man of integrity and honor, came to them with offers of peace, amnesty and reform, they attentively listened to and finally decided to accept his terms. A treaty was signed, by which certain liberties were granted by Spain to the Cubans, reforms in their administration promised, and the freedom recognized of all the slaves who had fought in the Cuban army. This treaty was concluded by General Campos himself after considerable negotiations, and was undoubtedly effected because of the faith the Cubans had (1185)



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Destruction of the Battleship Maine,



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Columbus Memorial Chapel, Havana Columbus Memorial Chapel, Havana.



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 533 ment was finally reached between General Toral on the Spanish side and General Shafter on the American. The act of surrender was signed at four o'clock on the afternoon of July 15. It provided for the surrender of the city of Santiago and all of the province of Santiago lying east of a line drawn from Aserradero to Sagua de Tanamo, and of all the Spanish troops therein, the latter to be sent home to Spain by the United States Government. The terms of the surrender involved the following points: The 20,000 refugees at El Caney and Siboney to be turned back to the city. An American infantry patrol to be posted on the roads surrounding the city and in the country between it and the American cavalry. Our hospital corps to give attention as far as possible to the sick and wounded Spanish soldiers in Santiago. All the Spanish troops in the province except io,ooo men at Holguin, under command ot Gen. Luque, to come into the city and surrender. The guns and defences of the city to be turned over to the Americans in good condition. The Americans to have full use of the Juragua Railroad. The Spaniards to surrender their arms. All the Spaniards to be conveyed to Spain on board of American transports with the least



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318 WAR WITH SPAIN. civilization, in behalf of endangered American interests which give us the right and tbe duty to speak and to act, the war in Cuba must stop. In view of these facts and of these considerations, I ask the Congress to authorize and empower the President to take measures to secure a full and final termination of hostilities between the Government of Spain and the people of Cuba, and secure in the island the establishment of a stable Government capable of maintaining order and observing its international obligations, insuring peace and tranquillity and the security of its citizens as well as our own, and to use the military and naval forces of the United States, as may be necessary, for these purposes." In conclusion he said, "1The issue is now with Congress. It is a solemn responsibility. I have exhausted every effort to relieve the 'intolerable condition of affairs which is at our doors. Prepared to exact every obligation imposed upon me by the Constitution and the Law, I await your action." This message was accompanied by many extracts from the reports of the various United States Councils in Cuba showing the horrible extent to which starvation, disease and death had been caused by General Weyler's inhuman order and all agreeing that autonomy for Cuba as proposed by Spain was an impossibility.



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CUBA. 103 people to capitalize their income, to foster its improvements, or even to entertain its industries, constitutes one of the most iniquitous forms of spoliation the island has to bear. In it are included a debt of Spain to the United States ; the expenses incurred by Spain when she occupied San Domingo; those for the invasion of Mexico in alliance with France and England; the expenditures for her hostilities against Peru ; the money advanced to the Spanish Treasury during its recent Carlist wars ; and all that Spain has spent to uphold its domination in Cuba and to cover the lavish expenditures of its administration since 1868. Not a cent of this enormous sum has been spent in Cuba to advance the work of improvement and civilization. It has not contributed to build a single kilometre of highway or of railroad, nor to erect a single light-house, or deepen a single port ; it has not built one asylum or opened one public school. Such a heavy burden has been left to the future generations, without a single compensation or benefit. Treatment of Native Industry. Let us see now what Spain has done to permit at least the development of natural wealth and the industry of a country impoverished by this fiscal regime, the work of cupidity, incompetency and immorality. Let us see whether that nation has left at least some vitality to Cuba, in



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 369 6-pounder and two I-pounder rapid-fire guns and two Gatlings. Helena, Commander William T. Swinburne. Cruiser, 1,392 tons; i,6oo horse-power; 13 knots speed. Armament-Same as Wilmington. Nashville, Commander Washburn Maynard. Cruiser, 1,37 1 tons; I,790 horse-power; 14 knots speed. Armament-Eight 4-inch, four 6-pounder and two I-pounder rapid-fire guns and two Gatlings. Castine, Commander Robert M. Berry. Gunboat, 1, 177 tons, 2,186 horse-power; 16 knots speed. Armament--Eight 4-inch, four 6-pounder and two I-pounder rapid-fire guns and two Gatlings. Machias, Commander John F. Merry. Description same as Castine. Vicksburg, Commander A. B. H. Lillie. Gunboat, i,ooo tons; 850 horse-power; 12 knots speed. Armament-Six 4-inch, four 6-pounder, two I-pounder and one 3-pounder rapid-fire guns. Newport, Commander Benjamin F. Tilley. Description same as Vicksburg. Vesuvius, Lieutenant-Commander John E. Pillsbury. Dynamite cruiser, 930 tons; 3,794 horse-power; 22 knots speed. ArmamentThree 1 5-inch dynamite guns and three 3-pounder rapid-fire guns. Fern, Lieutenant-Commander William F. Cowles. Dispatch-boat, formerly in service be-



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 403 warship, standing well in towards the coast. The flagship New York, the cruiser Marblehead, and the gunboat Wilmington immediately turned out of their course to head the warship off, the remainder of the squadron proceeding westward. It was impossible to establish the stranger's identity, but she was thought to be theViscaya or Oquenda, heading for Havana. The most intense excitement prevailed on board the New York and on the other vessels of the squadron. The men at the guns shouted with glee, while the stokers, off duty below, cheered vociferously, and begged to be allowed to go on deck to help to shoot at the first armed enemy. The officers crowded the quarter-deck, as elated as the men, though under better control. The bugler blew to general quarters, and all hands flew to their posts. Admiral Sampson, standing on the bridge, said deliberately to Captain Chadwick, "1Yes, it is the Oquenda or Viscaya ; adding, I should like to bag them both." It was then seen that the chase was flying the Italian flag. This was no proof that behind her still invisible guns Spaniards were not concealed, ready to shoot, under false colors, and the guns on the port side of the New York, and in the forward and after turrets, were trained on the stranger. A few minutes later, when about 1,500 yards. separated the New York from her



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01 The Cathedral, Ilavana,



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CUBA. 39 Domingo's key, thirty-four miles. From Punto del Ingles, on the South of Cuba, to the nearest point of the northern coast of Jamaica, the distance is seventy-five miles. Cuba contains the following ports on the North, viz.: Guardiana, Bahia Honda, Cabana, Mariel, Havana, Matanzas, Cardenas, Sagua la Grande, San Juan de los Remedios, Guanaja, Nuevitas, Nuevas Grandes, Manati Puerto del Padre, Puerto del Mangle, Jibara, Jururu, Bariai, Vita, Naranjo, Salma Banes, Nipe, Leviza Cabonico, Tanamo, Cebollas, Zaquaneque, Zaragua, Taco, Cuyaguaneque Navas, Maravi, Baracoa and Manta-thirty-seven in all. On the South, Batiqueri, Puerto Escondido, Guantanamo, Santiago de Cuba, Mota, Manzanillo, Santa Cruz, Vertientes, Masio, Casilda, Jagua, Ensenada de Cortez and Ensenada de Cochinos-thirteen in all. The Lay of the Land. Low as the coast lands are, the island is plentifully supplied with hills and mountains. The highest part of the island is in the southeast portion, the loftiest peaks here reaching a height of more than 7,600 feet. From these mountains a ridge of somewhat less general elevation follows closely to the central line of the island westward, rising to a height of 2,530 feet at the extreme west. A considerable group of hills also rises immediately behind the harbor of Trinidad, near 3



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 545 Gloucester Shells the Town. Almost immediately after the Spaniards fired on the Americans the Gloucester opened fire on the enemy with all her 3-pounders and 6-pounders which could be brought to bear, shelling the town and also dropping shells into the hills, where a number of Spanish cavalry were to be seen hastening toward where the Americans had landed. Lieutenant Huse then threw up a little fort, which he named Fort Wainwright, and laid barbed wire in the street in front of it in order to repel the expected cavalry attack. The lieutenant also mounted the Colt gun and signalled for reinforcements, which were sent from the Gloucester. While the Mausers were peppering all around Lieutenant-Commander Wainwright said to the Associated Press correspondent: "They fired on us after their flag was down and ours was up, and after I had spared the town for the sake of the women and children. The next town I strike I will blow up." Presently a few of the Spanish cavalry joined those who were fighting in the streets of Guanica, but the Colt barked to a purpose, killing four of them. By that time the Gloucester had the range of the. town and of the blockhouse, and all her guns were spitting fire, the doctor and the paymaster helping to serve the guns,



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IN 4 Q-Waniards Surrounded bv Cubans. *01F -W



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CUIBA. 79 fine display 'of tropical flowers, to the Government buildings and club houses and the water front; but it is on a moonlit evening that the bay roads offer superior scenic attractions. The vivid sunlight lays bare mercilessly the faded glories of the town and the ravages of commercial ruin. By moonlight, one needs to be told of the neglected condition of these once famous drives and promenades; and the pathos of faded grandeur and exhausted fortunes makes only a transitory impression upon a sympathetic mind. San Severino Castle and the ruined fortifications are enveloped with silvery radiance. The San Juan River, with its dingy lines of crumbling warehouses, is softened and transfigured. The broad bay, with its sparkling shipping lights and the ocean beyond, foaming upon a coral ledge, are s ilhouettes to be seen, and never forgotten. A Wonderful Cave. The visitor has also at Matanzas a natural phenomenon which cannot be rivalled in Cuba. This is the subterranean passage through a formation of carbonate of lime, known as the caves of Bellamar. The road follows the shore of the bay'and then over the rocky hillside for a distance of five miles. The old-fashioned volante, a vehicle which has been displaced in Havana by the Victoria, is here required. It has two great wheels, on which rest the thills, with seats for



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CUBA. 297 revenues, without limitation of any kind, and to set apart the revenues to meet the Cuban share of the national budget, which latter will be voted by the national Cortes, with the assistance of Cuban Senators and Deputies ; fourth, to initiate or take part in the negotiations of the national Government for commercial treaties which may affect Cuban interests; fifth, to accept or reject commercial treaties which the national Government may have concluded without the participation of the Cuban Government; sixth, to frame the colonial tariff, acting in accord with the Peninsular Government in scheduling articles of mutual commerce between the mother country and the colonies. Before introducing or voting upon a bill, the Cuban Government or the chambers will lay the project before the central Government and hear its opinion thereon, all the correspondence in such regard being made public. Finally, all conflicts of jurisdiction arising between the different municipal, provincial and insular assemblies, or between the latter and the insular executive power, and which from their nature may not be referable to the central Government for decision, shall be submitted to the courts. Objections to the Scheme. This scheme of autonomy contains some good features and some bad ones. It is a vast improvement upon the present system in Cuba, and upon



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280 CUBA. Rupert, the legendary chief, of two Cuban insurrections, and had played an even more conspicuous part in the present war than in the ten years' struggle of 1868-i878, in which he rose from the rank of volunteer to that of a commander second only to Cespedes, Maximo Gomez, Calixte Garcia, and other veterans, though he was only thirty years of age in 1878. He was born at Guantanamo, in the Province of Santiago de .Cuba, in 1848. In his early youth he earned his living on the wharves, helping to load and unload cargoes. He was an illiterate mulatto workman when the insurrection broke out in 1868, and he immediately joined one of the first bands under Donato Marmal. During the war he found time to learn to read and write. He soon distinguished himself, and became popular, especially among the colored inhabitants, who have ever since looked up to him as their favorite leader. He drew his old father and four brothers into the rebellion, and his youngest brother, Jose, who became a famous chief, was killed in the present rising whilst conducting an attack upon the Spanish post of Santa Cruz, in the district of Santiago. Spain's Implacable Foe. When the great rebellion came to an end, and Marshal Campos induced most of the remaining rebel leaders to sign the Peace Treaty of Zanjon, on February io, 1878, Maceo refused to



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482 WAR WITH SPAIN. after the vessels were beyond the reach of their guns. In the' thirty-three minutes that the actual engagement lasted the three American warships passed twice before the entrance of the harbor within easy range of the Spanish guns of Morro Castle, four masked batteries and the Cristobal Colon, yet not a single Spanish shell struck any one of Commodore Schley's vessels. Three projectiles struck the water near the New Orleans, one other shell exploded within fifty feet of the bow of the Massachusetts, and several other shots passed over the Iowa close enough to lead the gunners on the American vessels to believe that other than Spanish artillerymen manned. the modern rifles in the Santiago batteries, 0 Save for these few shots the marksmanship of the Spaniards was little, better than has been shown in the other engagements of the war and its character was tersely described by Fighting Bob Evans, who, as he stood beaming on the bridge of the Iowa after the firing had ceased, shouted: "The Spaniards didn'thit a, thing but the water, and that wasn't a great difficulty." 41 Sealing the corlk.tt Finally, in the early morning of June 3, the harbor was closed against entrance or. exit. This



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I08 CUBA. Industries Driven to Bankruptcy. Despite the prodigious efforts made by pri. vate individuals to extend the cultivation of the sugar cane and to raise the sugar-making industry to the plane it has reached, both the colonists and the proprietors of the sugar plantations and the sugar mills (centrales) are on the brink of bankruptcy and ruin. In selling the output they knew that they would not get sufficient means to cover the cost of keeping and repairing their colonies and sugar mills. There is not a single agricultural bank in Cuba. The "hacendado" (planter, land-owner) had to recur to usurious loans and to pay eighteen -and twenty per cent. for the sums which they borrowed. Not long ago there existed in Havana the Spanish Bank, the Bank of Commerce, the Industrial Bank, the Bank of St. Joseph, the Bank of the Alliance, the Bank of Maritime Insurances and the Savings Bank. Of these there remain to-day only the Spanish Bank, which has been converted into a vast State office, and the Bank of Commerce, which owes its existence to the railways and warehouses it possesses. None of these gives any aid to the sugar industry. The cigar-making industry, which was in such flourishing condition a short time ago, has fallen so low that fears are entertained that it may emigrate entirely from Cuba. The weekly "El Tobacco" came to the conclusion that the



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.......... 4"X 11 12 12 1 8 ::i Royal 4ottery Ticket Seller, -Havana.



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CHAPTER XVI. RESOURCES OF THE TWO COMBATANTS COMPAREDARMIES AND NAVIES-THE SPANISH NAVY UNITED STATES SHIPS-NORTH ATLANTIC SQUADRON-FLYING SQUADRON-PACIFIC STATIONASIATIC STATION-UNASSIGNED-SPECIAL SERVICE-MONITORS-TRAINING SHIPS-AUXILIARY FLEET-THE SPANISH SOLDIER-THE CIGARETTE HIS SOLACE-BULLIED, ILL-TREATED AND ROBBED -THE ARMY IN CUBA-SPANISH PRONUNCIATION -WEST INDIAN GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES-CUBAN PROPER NAMES-SPANISH GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES -SPANISH PROPER NAMES-NAMES OF SPANISH SHIPS. SNEQUALLY matched, in many respects, were the two combatants which thus joined issue for the dread arbitrament of war. In age, in size, in wealth, in intelligence, the contrast was great. Spain dated back, as a civilized Power, to before the Christian Era, while the United States was scarcely a century and a quarter old. Spain numbered I8,OOO,OOO; the United States 70,000,000. Spain was all but bankrupt, and her people ignorant; the United States overflowing with wealth and her people among the most intelligent in the world. (360)



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 329 The reports about the terrible results of the plan of extermination of General Weyler called forth in America a storm of indignation which cannot be appeased by protests or diplomatic expression, but calls for immediate action. I These conditions must be ended,' has long been the sentiment which has now finally materialized. A Striking Contrast,, If one compares with this the way in which, two years ago, Europe permitted the coldblooded murder of iooooo Armenians by the Sultan, with whom she is even now on the best terms, one cannot but rejoice that there is yet in the world a people among whom humanity is not an empty term, and who, in their just indignation at a committed outrage, can take to the sword. The Americans have never paid much attention to diplomatic forms and quibbles. Independently they conceive their own opinions, independently they create their own politics and diplomatic code. They have the material and the power for this, mentally and physically. They proceed in the direction in which they consider it their duty to proceed, and pay little attention to the approval or disapproval of Europe. The Americans want the Cuban outrages stopped in one way or the other. If words are of no avail, force will be used. What becomes of Spain in the course of events is no one I s business but her own.



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CUBA. 269 are applied in Cuba. I have before my eyes a summary of charges of inhumanity in connection with the war of the rebellion in the United States against both sides, taken from American history. I am sure that many of them are false, most of them exaggerated, some of them necessary and others unavoidable, but, taking only as an illustration and for the sake of argument what I see in that list, I cannot understand how people who are familiar with those necessary evils of war have been able to use such harsh, unjust and offensive language against Spain. Nothing is now done in Cuba that has not been done and has not been deemed necessary in other countries when at war. It would be possible and easy for me to quote many facts not different from those which now arouse public sentiment against Spain. I will only ask persons wanting an impartial and honest opinion to read what the commanders-in-chief of the American armies of both sides and what the armies of France and Germany have deemed necessary for the protection of their soldiers and the carrying out of war." To this a vig-orous reply was made by some of the Senators, and also by Senor Quesada, of the Cuban legation, who made a damning revelation of the numerous atrocities and horrors of Spanish warfare.



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 385 to mow down these inoffensive lads with machine guns and steel-jacketed bullets. Second-Regular cavalry. This is practically little more than mounted infantry. The men are of Spanish birth. If one did not know that their horses came chiefly from Texas, the inference would be irresistible that the cavalry mounts were the direct descendants of Rosinante of blessed memory. The average cavalry horse of the Spanish forces in Cuba recalls the old story of the man who was driving along a village street somewhere in Connecticut with a horse that was apparently saved from total disintegration only by the harness. ",Hello! said a friend on the sidewalk. "Going to have a new horse? ",What d'ye mean?" demanded the other. "Why, I thought you were going to have a new horse. I see you have the frame up! When the Spanish cavalry horse becomes too weak and decrepit for active service he is sold to the bull-fighters, who prop him up while the bull gores him to death. ThirdGuardia Civil-infantry. This is really an admirable body of men. It is the pick of the Spanish troops in Cuba. To be eligible for service with this corps a man must be of good character and some education. As the name implies, it is a civil guard, detailed chiefly for service



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:"77 Fm 4'r 7 e ,1111 Pill -'T Talp"11-v Climbin-4 the Mast to Man the Turret Guns.



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 543 the leadership of General Nelson A. Miles, the Major-General in command of the United States army. A strong military and naval expedition left Guantanamo Bay on July 21st, and landed successfully at Guanica, on the south coast of Porto Rico, four days later, after a skirmish between a detachment of Spanish troops and a crew of thirty from the launch of the United States auxiliary gunboat Gloucester. Four of the Spaniards were killed and no Americans were hurt. Guanica was chosen as the landing place at the last moment, partly because it was well suited to the purpose and partly because the Spaniards were not expecting the landing to be made in that part of the island. Early in the morning the Gloucester, in charge of Lieutenant-Commander Wainwright, formerly of the Maine and one of the heroes of the naval battle off Santiago de Cuba, steamed into Guanica Harbor in order to reconnoitre the place. With the fleet waiting Outside, the gallant little fighting yacht Gloucester braved the mines which were supposed to be in this harbor, and upon sounding, found that there were five fathoms of water close in shore. Spaniards Taken by Surprise. Guanica Bay is a quiet place, surrounded by cultivated lands. In the rear are high mountains, and close to the beach nestles a village of about twenty houses,



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162 CUBA. Villa Clara to Trinidad or San Juan de los Remedios, cannot be safely undertaken without an escort. To what extent war and its consequences have ravaged these districts may be inferred from the fact already mentioned, that the population of the Central Department, embracing a whole third of the island, is, according to the official statistics, reduced to 75,000 souls, whites and blacks included. Besides massacres, proscriptions and banishments, mere administrative stupidity con. tributed to turn the country into a desert. By a decree of Cabellero de Rodas, in July, 1869, the whole population of the rural districts was concentrated-that is, huddled together-in the little town of St. Espiritu, with a view to having it under strict guard and control, where, owing to want of proper accommodation and wholesome food, and indeed of air to breathe, they were soon invaded by cholera, small pox and other deseases, to which, in some cases, one to ten, and in other cases, one to three, rapidly succumbed, the ravage soon extending to the soldiers and volunteers set to watch over them. I have known families belonging to St. Espiritu who were on that occasion driven from the town by that awful mortality, and whom nothing in the world would now induce to go back to their homes, unable as they are to overcome the bare recollection of the sufferings they have witnessed. While the population thus



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 417 States on the shield over the door were taken down and kicked into splinters. Only one American ship was left in the harbor, the Great Admiral, which was loading hemp for New York. Captain Stirling's papers were not accurate, and he feared to sail lest some Spanish cruiser would seize him because of defective papers. Consul Williams went away on the steamer Esmeralda. The Chinese, who feared their property, would be looted, offered large sums for passage on the steamer. One hundred and fifty dollars bonus was offered above the ordinary fare of $5o, and some paid as high as $250 merely for deck passage. The steamer is allowed to taketwo hundred deck passengers, but this number was largely increased. When Consul Williams reached Hong Kong he made his headquarters with Consul-General Rounseville Wildman, He brought complete maps of the harbor and plans of all the fortifications. With Wildman he went down to the fleet at Mires Bay and held a conference with Admiral Dewey, at which the plan of attack was perfected. It was decided that Dewey should attack the Spanish fleet *wherever he found it, as it was recognized it would be more important to destroy or cripple the fleet 'than to capture Manila, as then American merchant vessels would be safe. 24



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CUBA. 205 of Bayamo was not deadened by the heroic resist tance of the garrisons of Tunas and Holguin; the army was very small, and they believed victory easy. Many Spaniards believed that autonomy should be granted; and who knows what might have followed if those masses had been well led, and had not quarreled with the natives of the Peninsula? "1The certainty of triun'iph blinded them. In its turn public sentiment and patriotism were awakened in us, and the country was divided into two irreconcilable bands, extreme from the first, confiding the triumph of their cause to extermination and the torch; and although in these nine years there have been attempts at more humane systems, they have been of short duration. Public opinion was too strong for governments of whatever politics. Hardly was a governor-general appointed when they weakened his authority by allowing the press to speak of his dismissal;and these officers, not feeling themselves sustained by the government, tried to find some su pport in a public opinion continually more and more overexcited, and there were times when the war was on the point of being victoriously ended, when a change of commander came to undo all that had been gained to make the insurgents understand that their constancy would save them; and a serious succession of feats of arms raised their spirits,



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41 oo J iO I'w J, I w, 4 "Al 44 -4 j IT S, lool w j loo Cuban Staff Offleerse



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CUBA. 249 he published three of them. The first defined the offenders who were made subject to military jurisdiction and trial by court martial as follows: First-Those who invent or circulate by any means whatever news or information directly or indirectly favorable to the rebellion will be considered guilty of acts against the security of the country, as defined by Article 223 of the military code, as they thereby facilitate the operations of the enemy. Second-T-hose who destroy or damage railroads, telegraphs or telephones, or interrupt the operations of the same. Third-Those who are guilty of arson. Fourth-Those who sell, carry or deliver arms or ammunition to the enemy or in any other way facilitate their introduction through the custorn houses. Parties failing to cause the seizure of such arms or ammunition will incur criminal responsibility. Fifth-Telegraph operators delivering war messages to other persons than the proper officials. Must Praise Spain, Sixth-Those who by word of mouth, through the medium of the press or in any other manner, shall belittle the prestige of Spain, the army, volunteers, firemen, or any other forces operating with the army,



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300 CUBA. agree to have Cuba made, in brief, at once the pack-mule and the milch-cow of the Peninsula is scarcely to be expected. Ruiz and Aranguren. The insurgent leaders in the field instantly refused even to consider this offer of autonomy, and would not consent to hold a conference with the Spanish authorities. Several efforts to secure such conferences were made, with disastrous results. The most tragic was the effort made by Colonel Ruiz, a gallant young Spanish officer. He visited the Cuban camp of General Aranguren, an old, personal friend of his, on a peaceful errand, to discuss terms of peace. He was hospitably received at first, but as soon as he broached the purport of his mission he was seized by Aranguren's orders, hurried through a courtmartial and put to death. This incident profoundly shocked the civilized world, and was generally regarded as a piece of uncalled-for inhumanity. A few weeks later Aranguren met his death at the hands of avenging Spaniards. No further attempts at negotiations were made in the field, though the talk of a meeting between General Gomez, the insurgent chief, and Marshal Blanco, was now and then heard. The DeLome Incident. Near the end of January, 1898, the United States Government sent its war-ship Maine on a



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So CUBA. three above them suspended by straps. The pony between the thills is accompanied and partly preceded by another, which the driver rides like a postilion. It is a hard, jolting drive to the caves, and a laborious descent by steps, bridges, and cavernous passages underground. Guides are in advance with long bees-wax tapers, which light up here and there recesses and corners of the high -vaulted chambers. The ceiling is hung with crystals, and the sides are buttressed with stalactites and stalagmites of bewildering beauty and lustre. The passage underground is many hundred feet in length and offers a succession of spectral lace-work combinations of crystal architecture in amber, pink, and gray. The largest of the chambers is fancifully named the Gothic Temple, and is provided with a jeweled altar, near which hangs the Virgin's cloak, embroidered with resplendent lace, and heavy with glistening pendants. The garrulous guides see all these wonders if the visitors do not, and photographs are available at the entrance, if doubts are to be removed. The tapers furnish streaks of light that are utterly inadequate to illumine these wonderful caves.



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CUBA. 85 Next in rank to the Captain-General is the General of Marine or Admiral of the Port, who occupies a handsome palace, also provided by the Government, and who has carriages, horses and attendants from the same source. Then follows the Segundo Cabo, who is CaptainGeneral pro lem, during the absence of that functionary from the capital. The Civil-Governor has charge of the civil administration of Havana. The generals of artillery, cavalry, engineers, infantry and gendarmes are also provided with quarters suitable to their ranks. The Commandant of the Navy Yard is next in rank to the Admiral of the Port, and he has a handsome residence at his post. From twelve to twenty men-of-war are stationed in the waters of Cuba, and the standing army on the island usually numbers 22,866 officers and men. Besides these military rulers there are the Governor of the Morro, of La Cabana, El Principe and other strongholds. The chief of police of Havana is an officer of the regular army, and the divisions and subdivisions under his control consist of commissaries, aladores, constables and sergeants, who are civilians; the police force of Havana numbers 767 men, taken from the ranks of the regular army, soldiers of orden public (public order) and guardia civiles (gendarmes).



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358 WAR WITH SPAIN. those of the other provinces. During their youth they work with energy and a certain mental vigor, but on reaching a more advanced age lapse into indolence, which is one of their greatest defects. The women are averse to idleness, have a spirit of enterprise, and often engage in various trades with success. They are economical, and sacrifice themselves cheerfully for those to whom they are attached. Trrade of the I1ands. Before the days of Spanish rule there was considerable commercial intercourse between the Philippines and China and Japan, but this, which would naturally have developed enormously if the Spanish trade between Manila and America had been left free, was interrupted, and at times almost completely stopped, by absurd restrictions, devised to secure to Spain a monopoly of the American trade. For a long period only a single galleon, and that under Government supervision, was allowed to proceed yearly from Manila to Acapulco, the value of the cargo each way being restricted within a prescribed sum. Direct trade with Europe, via the Cape of Good Hope, began in 1764; but, as if the exclusion from it of all but Spanish ships was not sufficient, in 1785 a monopoly of this commerce was bestowed on the Royal Company of the Philippines.



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CUBA. 95 The only natives of Cuba who can be Senators are those who have been deputies in three different Congresses, or who are professors and have held for four years a university chair, provided that they have an income Of PJ5oo ; or those who have a title of nobility, or have deputies, provincial deputies, or mayors in towns of over 20,000 inhabitants, if they have in addition an income of $4000, or pay a direct contribution of $8oo to the treasury. This will increase to one or two dozen the number of Cubans qualified to be Senators. In this manner has legislative work, as far as Cuba is concerned, turned out to be a farce. The various governments have legislated for the island as they pleased. The representatives of the peninsular provinces did not even take the trouble of attending the sessions of the Cortes, when Cuban affairs were to be dealt with; and there was an instance when the estimates (budget) for the Great Antilles were discussed in the presence of less than thirty deputies, and a single one of the ministers, the minister of "Ultramar," (session of April 3, 188o). Discrimination Against Cubans. Through the contrivance of the law, as well as through the irregularities committed and consented in its application, have the Cubans been deprived also of representation in the local corporations to which they were entitled, and in



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98 CUBA. one of these, Brigadier-General Acosta, was an army officer in the service of Spain, who had fought against his countrymen; and the other Sefior Gonziles Munoz, is a bureaucrat. During the same period there has been only one native Cuban acting as governor in the province of Havana, Sefior Rodriguez Batisa, who spent all his life in Spain, where he made his administrative career. In the other provinces there has never probably been a single governor born in the country. In 1887 there was created a council or board of Ultramar under the Minister of the Colonies. Not a single Cuban has ever been found among its members. On the other hand, such men as Generals Arminan and Pando have held positions in it. In the Local Offices. The predominance of the government goes further still. It weighs with all its might upon the local corporations. There are deputations in the provinces, and not only are their powers restricted and their resources scanty, but the Governor-General appoints their presidents and all the members of the permanent commissions. There are "Ayuntamientos" elected in accordance with the reactionary law of 1877, restricted and curtailed as applied to Cuba by Senor Canovas. But the Governor-General appoints the



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The Indian Statue on the Prado, Havana.



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 525 out from the cruisers to the shore. The Iowa waited to see that the two warships were really out of the fight, and it did not take her long to determine that they would never fight again. The Iowa herself had suffered some very hard knocks. The Brooklyn, Oregon and Texas pushed ahead after the Colon and Almirante Oquendo, which were now running the race of their lives along the coast. At 10.50 o'clock, when Admiral Cervera's flagship, the Almirante Oquendo, suddenly headed in shore, she had the Brooklyn and Oregon abeam and the Texas astern. The Brooklyn and Oregon pushed on after the Cristobal Colon, which was making fine time and which looked as if she might escape, leaving the Texas to finish the Almirante Oquendo. This work did not take long. The Spanish ship was already burning. At 11.o5 down came the yellow and red flag at her stern. Just as the Texas got abeam of her she was shaken by a mighty explosion. "Don't Cheer; the Poor Devils are Dying.", The crew of the Texas started to cheer. "Don't cheer, because the poor devils are dying," called Capt. Philip, and the Texas left the Almirante Oquendo to her fate to join in the chase of the Cristobal Colon.



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^o X I., Battle of Manil-R.



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440 WVAR WITH SPAIN, the ship, equally calm, and giving orders continuously regarding the direction of the fire and the handling of the ship. Lieutenant Stanton, assistant chief of staff; Lieu tenantCommande r Potter, executive officer of the ship, and Lieutenant J. Roller, the navigator, all were on the bridge, and as busy as they could be. Three men were at 'the wheel, and the usual staff of lookouts and signal boys were in their places. The conning tower, with its heavily protected sides, was without an occupant. The whistling of a few shells could not drive the men who direct the fighting squadron from their unprotected place of vantage. Directly beneath the bridge on the superstructure, just aft and slightly above the forward turret, stood Chaplain Royce. The chaplain and the three doctors were the only persons on board' who sincerely hoped they would have no work to do. All others were at their regular stations, directing the gun crews, rushing up ammunition from below or standing patiently in the' engxineroom, waiting to back or go ahead, as, the telegraph signalled. The Men at the Guns. The way the "jackies "worked at their guns was splendid. Many of tbem were stripped to the waist. The muscles stood out on their bare, tattooed arms. The perspiration ran down their



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Al Opening the Spanish Cortez,



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CUBA. 153 rare occurrence. The insurgents, if we are to believe the military authorities here, do not muster more than 3,000 effective combatants. But by the estimate of impartial men their number is estimated at 8,ooo, most of them well armed. Can it be conceived that so strong a force, divided into almost ubiquitous bands, and favored by high mountains anddense forests, should find it so difficult either to stop the railway traffic or to prevent telegraphic intercourse ? A few mounted men with half the spirit of the Prussian Uhlans, or a picked band with some of the dash and determination of Garibaldi's 'thousand, would long ago have burned half the towers of the Spanish soldiers and overpowered their feeble garrisons; they would have beaten up the quarters of the volunteers of the town by a coup de main; at all events they would have distinguished themselves by exploits more heroic than the mere attack on some lonely plantation and the plunder of its contents. To fight, however, even with the odds on their side, to take. the initiative against the troops, or even to await their attacks, seems not, at least for the present, -to enter 'into the plans of the insurgents. On the other hand the troops, whenever they come to any knowledge of the position of the insurgents, have to plunge in single file into the thick of pathless forests; they grope up blindly till warned by a few random shots of the presence of the insurgents, and they



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26o CUBA. such obstacles in the way of correspondents that it is impossible to visit the localities and establish the facts. In a dozen cases refugees from towns where fights have occurred state that after the rebels were driven away citizens who took no part were shot down, and counted in the official reports as dead insurgents. The government officials deny these stories, and while 'it is common talk in Havana that certain affairs were butcheries, the correspondents are in most cases obliged to accept the Government version." More Proclamations* Among the various manifestos published by Weyler on March 8, were the following: 11 1 have promulgated an order that the teachers of divinity of the Provinces of Matanzas, Santa Clara, Puerto Principe and Santiago de Cuba, who, confessedly, have taken part in the movements of the rebels, shall be pardoned on making their submission, surrendering their arms and placing themselves under the surveillance of the lawful authority, provided they have not committed other crimes since the issuance of my last proclamation. I I The teachers of divinity who, without arms, shall come in under the same circumstances will be immediately transferred to the encampments, forts and towns, where they may be underthe immediate vigilance of the troops, and all the



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CUBA. 15T stead, district after district, and eventually a large portion of the island will be dying off, surely and not slowly ; and already the United States, the Spanish Republics of Central America and the British colonies swarm with Cuban fugitives. There is a 'Little Cuba' in Jamaica. From 1,500Wt 2,000 exiles have sought a shelter, and many of them have made themselves at home there. Some have brought capital, with whatever they were able to scrape together out of the wreck of their fortunes. They have purchased land-one of them an estate worth $7,000, and have become naturalized British -subjects, although the law in Jamaica allows aliens to possess real estate. They are now pursuing their former vocations as sugar, tobacco and coffee planters with a success which not only bids fair to retrieve their losses, but which has even the effect of stirring the somewhat dormant energies of the British Creoles in Jamaica, and thereby contributing to the general improvement of that unfortunate island, of which cheering symptoms have been apparent for the last seven or eight years. It is not without great astonishment that these new Cuban settlers become familiar with some of the peculiarities of English law in their new home. One of them was lately involved in a law-suit about the title deeds of an estate he had purchased, against no less a person than the



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CHAPTER XXIII. BATTLE OF LA QUASINA-CAPTAIN CAPRON'S HEROIC DEATH-TIHE GENERAL ADVANCE-WORK OF THE FLEET -SPAIN S BANNER FALLS -CERVERA'S STARTLING MOVE-CERVERA S SHIP OPENS THE FIGHT-THE TEXAS IN THE THICK OF IT-END OF THE DESTROYERS-"DON'T CHEER; THE POOR DEVILS ARE DYING"-GREATEST CHASE OF MODERN TIMES-DOWN CAME THE COLON'S FLAGIT WAS SCHLEY S VICTORY-NOT LIKELY THAT THE COLON CAN BE SAVED-ADMIRAL CERVERA WOUNDED-SURRENDER OF SANTIAGO-DISCUSSING TERMS-GREAT REJOICINGS. SENERAL SHAFTER'S army, after landing at Baiquiri, moved swiftly forward against the city of Santiago, which was strongly garrisoned and soon re-enforced by General Pando. The Spanish garrison was fully as large as the combined forces of the Americans and their Cuban allies, and had the enormous advantage of fighting on the defensive from behind fortifications. It had, moreover, the powerful aid of Admiral Cervera's fleet, which lay in the harbor close to the city, while the American fleet, outside, was out of range. 503



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480 WAR WVITHI SPAIN. learn that beyond all question Cervera' s warships were confined in a position where their speed capabilities would be of little avail. This much being known, Commodore Schley was still in doubt regarding the strength of the fortifications of old Morro and La Sacopa and the masked batteries which were known to be hidden in the woods that skirt the shore of the bay below the forts. Schley's attack was planned solely for the purpose of locating the masked batteries and determining the strength of Cervera's protecting forts. The Commodore transferred his flag from the Brooklyn to the Massachusetts at 12 o'clock noon, and from the battleship signalled to the Iowa and the New Orleans to take part in the attack, with the converted yacht Vixen as a despatch boat. *The other vessels of the fleet, Including the battleship Texas, were left in the offing coaling and attending to ordinary routine work. As the attacking vessels steamed rapidly toward Morro the Cristobal Colon was seen to be the nearest vessel of the Spanish fleet. She was lying with her port broadside toward the American warships. Behind her were the other Spanish vessels and the battery on Churruca Point. The Massachusetts led in the attack, with the New Orleans following, and the Iowa behind the former Brazilan cruiser.



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CUIBA. 65 ings is the only fuel used in the works. It is carried by moving conductors to the furnaces and dumped automatically, being dried by the intense heat and consumed as rapidly as it is fed. Wood was used as fuel when the steam engine was introduced in sugar works, and subsequently bagasse, or refuse cane, was put with it. Boilers have been invented to facilitate the employment of bagasse as fuel. Those used here are the Porcupine boilers of the Stillwater pattern. Ordinarily, when the furnaces are fed with bagasse, a force of eighty laborers is constantly occupied in transferring it from the mills to the boiler-house. At Soledad two men do the work of eighty ; or, to speak more accurately, the automatic action of the mechanical conductors dispenses with the labor of seventy-eight men. Indeed, a close approach is made here to the solution of the old problem of perpetual motion., The cane, when fed to the conductors, serves to keep all the complex machinery of the works in operation; the broken and crushed fragments, of bagasse are carried to the furnaces and furnish the power by which not only the grinding, but also the pumping and boiling are done; all that is not juice, but sheer waste, goes into the production of force by which the mills are kept grinding and the liquor clarified, boiled and crystallized into sugar.



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Battleship Iowa.



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CUBA. 139 the wreck of their estates, have migrated to the United States, to Jamaica or other British possessions; others have sold their slaves and cattle to the planters of the western or Havana department; and even in those districts from which, out of sheer exhaustion, the scourge of war has been removed, agriculture and industry find it difficult to revive, owing to the want of public confidence, as well as to the utter absence of capital and labor. Safety of Havana. "The Western Department has remained untouched throughout the struggle. Havana has little reason to distress itself about Cuban insurrection. This prosperous, pleasure-loving city can afford to make itself as easy about Cespedes and his rebels as New York ever was as to the skirmishes with the Modoc or other Red Indians on the borders of the remotest territories, or Milan with respect to Pallavicini's attacks on the brigand fastnesses in the Basilicate. Indeed, as I have before hinted, the Havana people have had not only nothing to lose, but simply too much to gain from the calamities by which two-thirds of the island have been laid desolate. Havana is the centre of an extensive net of railwaysabout Iooo miles as I learn from the Guide"opening an easy and tolerably safe communication with Matanzas, Cardenas, and Sagua ]a Grande



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464 WAR WITH SPAIN. Good-by to the Slow Vessels. On May 3 the Oregon, in company with the little Marietta and the Nictheroy, left Rio. With two such slow vessels as consorts, the Oregon was greatly hampered, and after two days of steaming at nine knots, Captain Clark hoisted the good-by signal and started off with a rush for Bahia, 745 miles distant. On the run to Bahia the Oregon made 375 miles in twenty-four hours, a record that surpasses any other ever made by a battleship of any class. Bahia was reached on May 8, and, after a twelve hours' stay, the voyage northward was resumed. All the speed that could be crowded out of the vessel was made at this juncture for two reasons. The first was the anxiety of officers and men to reach their journey's end in time to engage in the conflict with Cervera, and the other to afford relief from the excessive heat, which was telling on the men in the fireroom. Barbadoes, the next point of touch, is 2,578 miles from Bahia, and this distance was covered in nine days, another record-breaking run. Captain Clark expected to find Admiral Sampson near Barbadoes, but instead he learned that the American fleet was at Porto Rico, and that Cervera was at the Canary Islands. The former report was correct, but the latter was misleading, for at that time the Spanish Admiral was either at Cura-



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420 WAR WITH SPAIN. guns. The watchword was caught up in the tur, rets and fire-rooms, until, wherever seaman or fireman stood at his 'post, "Remember the Maine!" had rung out for defiance and revenge, The utterance seemed unpremeditated, but it was evidently in every man's mind, and now that the moment had come to make an adequate reply to the murder of the Maine's crew, every man shouted what was in his heart. The Olympia was now ready to begin the fight. Commodore Dewey, his chief of staff, Commander Lamberton, and several other offi. cers were on the forward bridge. Captain Grid, ley was at his station in the conning tower. It was just 5.40 by the clock. The Olympia was about 5,600 yards from the foe. Turning quietly, and with the coolest and calmest of man, ners, Commodore Dewey said: "You may fire whenever you are ready, Captain Gridley." Captain Gridley was ready. Within a minute one of his 8-inch guns roared answer, and the battle was on. The Spaniards Brave, but Beaten. The other ships at once began firing and the conflict became general. Our fire was directed chiefly, at first, at the Spanish ships Reina Cris. tina and Castilla. The range was too great for accuracy, and the Spaniards seemed encouraged



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476 W AR WITH SPAIN. News at Last. Then came the long awaited news. The Spanish fleet was authoritatively announced to have reached Martinique, a French island in the West Indies, some distance south of Porto Rico. The Spanish Admiral had intended to touch at Martinique, and then proceed to Porto Rico. But finding that Admiral Sampson'ts fleet had already bombarded the capital of the latter island, he was compelled to change his plans. The neutrality laws compelled him to leave Martinique in twenty-four hours. He did so, leaving behind the torpedo-boat destroyer Terror, which had become disabled. Then he went southwest, to Curacoa, a Dutch island near the coast of Venezuela, where he got a few tons of coal and other supplies. Then again he was lost to sight, and there was much speculation as to his whereabouts. Admiral Sampson's fleet searched for him and guarded the passage at one end of Cuba, while Commodore Schley with his fleet hastened down from Hampton Roads and joined in the hunt. On May 15, the Spanish fleet disappeared from Curacoa. There were rumors that it had gone to Port Limon, to Havana, and back to Spain. All was uncertainty for five days, and then it was learned that it had got into the harbor of Santiago de Cuba, near the southeastern end of that island. Over that news Spain was exul-



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526 WAR WITH SPAIN. That ship in desperation was ploughing the waters at a rate that caused the fast Brooklyn trouble. The Oregon made great speed for a battleship, and the Texas made the effort of her life. Never since her trial trip had she made such time. The Brooklyn might have proved a match to the Cristobal Colon in speed, but she was not supposed to be her match in strength. Greatest Chase of Modern Times. It would never do to allow even one of the Spanish ships to get away. Straight into the west the greatest chase of modern times took place. The Brooklyn headed the pursuers. She stood well out from the shore in order to try to cut off the Cristobal Colon 'at a point jutting out into the -sea far ahead. The Oregon kept a middle course about a mile from the cruiser. The desperate Don ran close along the shore, and now and then he threw a shell of defiance. The old Texas kept well up in the chase under forced draught for over two hours. The fleet Spaniard led the Americans a merry chase, but she had no 'chance. The Brooklyn gradually forged ahead, so that the escape Of the, Cristobal Colon was cut off at the point above mentioned. The Oregon was abeam of the Colon then, and the gallant Don gave it up.



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T T6 CU3A. they were all put to death in Havana in a most brutal manner. The Killing of Pinto. Thereafter the island was quiet for a few years, but, in 1854, Pinto, a Spaniard of revolutionist tendencies, again raised the standard of revolt. He was soon captured and put to death. After Pinto came Estrampes and Aguero, who aimed both at freeing the slaves and throwing off the Spanish yoke. They were both captured after a brief struggle and put to death. After them, there were no more serious uprisings until the great war in 1868.



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 47 7 tant, declaring Cervera had outwitted the American commanders, and the Madrid government cabled him a message of thanks and congratulation. On the other hand it was thought in this country that Cervera had made it more fatal for himself for he had got into a trap from which he could not escape. The latter view was soon shown to be correct. Commodore Schley hastened to Santiago with his powerful fleet, and blockaded the narrow entrance to the harbor, making it impossible for 'the Spaniards to get out without fighting a vastly superior force. As was said on all hands, Cervera. was bottled up, and Schley had put the cork in the bottle. Santiago de Cuba. Santiago de Cuba, the second city in size on the island, is probably the oldest city of any size on this hemisphere, having been founded by Velasquez in 1514. It fronts on a beautiful bay, six miles long and two miles wide, on the southeastern coast of Cuba, one hundred miles west of Cape Maysi. The population in 1895 was 59,614. The mean temperature in summer is 88 degrees; in winter, 82 degrees. It is regarded as very unhealthy, yellow fever being prevalent throughout the year and smallpox epidemic at certain times. These conditions are due to the lack of sanitary and hygienic measures; all refuse matter, as well as dead dogs, cats, chickens, etc., being



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CUBA* 13 13 infamous, as the "Black Brigade," this name being given to it not merely on account of the color of the men's faces, but still more because of the horrible nature of their deeds. Humanity and common decency forbid anything like a detailed account of the crimes committed by Valmaseda and his chief assistant, XWeyler, the present leader of the 'Spanish forces in Cuba. Spanish Testimony. Let us take the testimony of the Spanish officers themselves, as given in their letters. One of them, Jesus Rivocoba, wrote on September 4, 1869: "We captured seventeen, thirteen of whom were shot outright: on dying they shouted, Hurrah for free Cuba! hurrah for independence!' A mulatto said, 'Hurrah for Cespedes!' On the following .day we killed a Cuban officer and another man. Among the thirteen that we shot the first day were found three sons and their father; the father witnessed the execution of his sons without even changing color, and when his turn came he said he died for the independence of his country. On coming back we brought along with us three carts filled with women and children, the families of those we had shot; and they asked us to shoot them, because they would rather die than live among Spaniards."



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210 CUJBA. "I desire the peace of Spain, and tnis will not be firm while there is war or disturbance in the richest jewel of her crown. Perhaps the insurgents would have accepted promises less liberal and more vague than those set forth in this condition ; but even had this been done, it would have been but a brief postponement, because those liberties are destined to come for the reasons already given, with the difference that Spain now shows herself generous and magnanimous, satisfying just aspirations which she might deny, and a little later, probably very soon, would have been obliged to grant them, compelled by the force of ideas and of the age. "1Moreover, she has promised over and over again to enter on the path of assimilation, and if the promise were more vague, even though the fulfillment of this promise were begun, these people would have the right to doubt our good faith '*and to show a distrust unfortunately warranted by the failings of human nature itself. "The not adding another ioo,ooo to the ioo,ooo families that mourn their sons slain in this pitiless war, and the cry of peace that will resound in the hearts of the 8o,ooo mothers who have sons in Cuba, or liable to conscription, would be a full equivalent for the payment of a debt of justice."



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CUBA, 41 rain falls in every month of the year. Spring begins in May, and thenceforward thunder storms are of almost daily occurrence until fall. Almost every day is exceedingly warm except on the mountain-tops. From November to April is the dry season, when the temperature is somewhat more moderate. The average rainfall at Havana in the wet season is about 27 8-10 inches and in the dry season 12 7-10 inches, making a total of 40 5-10 inches for the year. At Havana in July and August the average temperature is 820 Fahrenheit, varying between a maximum of 880 and a minimum Of 760. In December and January the maximum is 780 and the minimum 580, the *average being 720. The average temperature at Havana the year round is 770. In the interior of the Island, at elevations more than 300 feet above the sea, the mercury occasionally falls to the freezing point -in winter. Light frosts are not uncommon and thin ice is sometimes formed. Snow, however, is never known to fall in the Island, The prevailing wind is from the east, but from November to February the north wind occasionally blows for not more than two days at a time, especially in the western part of the island. As a rule the hottest hours in the day are from ten o'clock to noon. In the afternoon a refreshing breeze almost always sets in from the sea. From August to October is the hurricane season.



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328 WAR WITH SPAIN. who no longer remember how many of these in, justices they themselves have defended. Truly, the hypocrisy of which the Americans are accused has a number of representatives even in Europe. Causes of the Ware When the United States begins a war we may rest assured that it is not begun in the frivolous way in which it has been, time and again, begun by European monarchs, to whom war has often been but the satisfaction of a whim or a mere pastime. The Spanish-American war has more profound causes-causes of which the intelligent students of history are not ignorant. It is true that the decision of the United States has been influenced by material interests, and that politics and financial speculations have played a part, but these, however skilfully they may have been able to take advantage of the existing conditions, could never have forced the entire American people into a policy of arms. The American people who, in a large majority, support its representatives and Government, and who now unanimously advocate determined action, were actuated by the conviction that a stop must be put to the .horrible state of affairs brought about by Spanish misrule in Cuba, at the very gates of the country, and by which many American citizens were constantly being injured,



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 559 days after the signature of this protocol other commissioners, who shall meet at San Juan de Porto Rico within thirty days after the signature of this protocol to agree upon the details of the evacuation of Porto Rico and other islands now under Spanish sovereignty in the Antilles. ARTICLE 5. Spain and the United States shall appoint to treat for peace five commissioners at the most for either country. The commissioners shall meet in Paris on October I, at the latest, to proceed to negotiations and to the con clusion of a treaty of peace. This treaty shall be ratified in conformity with the Constitutional laws of each of the two countries. ARTICLE 6. Once this protocol is concluded and signed hostilities shall be suspended, and to that effect in the two countries orders shall be given by either Government to the commanders of its land and sea forces as speedily as possible. Done in duplicate at Washington, read in French and in English by the undersigned, who affix at the foot of the document their signatures and seals, August 12, 1898. JULES CAMBON, WILLIAM R. DAY."



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CUMA. 101 the impending abolition of slavery. Slavery had received its death-blow at the hands of the insurrection, and Cuban insurrectionists succeeded at the close of the war in securing its eventful abolition. Evidently it would have been a provident policy to lighten the fiscal burdens of a country in such a condition. Spain was only bent on making Cuba pay the cost of the way. The Metropolis overwhelmed the colony with enormous budgets, reaching as high a figure as $46,000,000, and this only to, cover the obligations of the State ; or, rather, to fill up the unfathomable gulf left by the wastefulness and plunder of the civil and military administration during the years of wvar, and to meet the expenses of the military occupation of the country. Here follow a few figures: The budget for the fiscal year of 1878 to 1879 amounted to $46,594,000; that of 1879 to i88o to an equal sum ; that of 1882 to 1883, to $35,860,000; that of 1883 to 1884, to 34, 180,000; that of 1884 to 1885 to the same sum ; that of 1885 to 1886, to $34169,000. For the remaining years, to the present time, the amount of the budget has been about $26,000,000, this being the figure for 1893 to 1894, and to be the same by prorogation for the current fiscal year. The gradual reduction that may be noted was not the result of a desire to reduce the overwhelming burdens that weigh upon the country;



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62 CUBA, process involves the necessity of using coal, and the duty materially increases the cost of production. This is an apt illustration of the burdens imposed upon Cuba by a tariff system which does not protect any of its industrial and productive interests. How Sugar Is H~aO e. Soledad has the reputation of being the best managed sugar plantation in Cuba. It produced last year 12,000,000 pounds of sugar, and this year it will probably send to market 1 4,000,000 pounds. Other plantations largely exceed it in cultivated area and mechanical resources, Constancia having a product Of 40,000,000 pounds, but Soledad is conducted on scientific principles and with American thoroughness, system, and organization, so that there is the greatest saving in the cost of production and the largest margin for profit on the investment. All the improved machinery is here'; every time-saving and labordispensing device is employed, and the maximum amount of sugar is obtained from the cane at the lowest possible cost. Soledad is largely owned by Americans. Soledad lies near a picturesque little river flowing into the bay of Cienfuegos. It is reached from the town after a delightful sail on a steam yacht across the bay and up the river, and a short railway ride from the wharf to the sugar works



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CU4A, 125 abroad, and secure the safe transport of his troops to any point on the long coast line that might be chosen as a base of operations. With all these advantages it might have been expected that with even io,ooo regulars he would have been able to deal with an insurrection in one corner of the island. But he failed to crush, or, rather, hunt down the bands in the Santiago province, and early in March he reported to Madrid that he could not hold his own unless both the army and navy were largely reinforced. The First Skirmishes. The first encounter between the Spanish army and the Cuban forces took place in the Province of Santiago, at Los Negros. The Cubans were led by Jesus Rabi, now a BrigadierGeneral. In this battle the Cubans, although very poorly armed, routed the Spanish forces. The second encounter was at El Guanabano, the Spaniards being commanded by Santocildes and the Cubans by Gen. Masso. The Spaniards were again routed, with the loss of 206 men. The Cuban loss was thirty-five. The next important move made by the Cubans was the simultaneous attacks on the villages El Cristo and El Caney and on a railroad train carrying arms and ammunition. Both villages were captured by the Cubans and the barracks were destroyed. The train was also captured, together with 20 rifles



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558 WAR WITH SPAIN. enumerated below, and of which the object is the establishment of peace between the two countries, namely: ARTICLE I. Spain 'will renounce all claim to all sovereignty over and all her rights over the Island of Cuba. ARTICLE 2. Spain will cede to the United States the Island of Porto Rico and the other islands which are at present under the sovereignty of Spain in the Antilles, as well as an island in Ladrone Archipelago, to be chosen by the United States. ARTICLE 3. The United States will occupy and retain the City and Bay of Manila and the port of Manila pending the conclusion of a treaty of peace which shall determine the control and form of government of the Philippines. ARTICLE 4. Spain will immediately evacuate Cuba, Porto Rico and the other islands now under Spanish sovereignty in the Antilles. To this effect each Of the two Governments will appoint commissioners within ten days after the signing of this protocol, and those commissioners shall meet at Havana within thirty days after the signing of this protocol, with the object of coming to an agreement regarding the carrying out of the details of the aforesaid evacuation of Cuba and other adjacent Spanish Islands; each of the two Governments shall likewise appoint within % ten



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CUBA. 209 It was on the other hand impossible, according to my judgment and conscience, not to grant the first condition ; not to do it was to postpone n i definitely the fulfilment of a promise made in our present constitution. It was not possible that this island, richer, more populous, and more advanced morally and materially than her sister, Porto Rico, should remain without the advantages and liberties long ago planted in the latter with good results, and the spirit of the age, and the decision of the country gradually to assimilate the colonies to, the Peninsula, made it necessary to grant the promised reforms, which would have been already established and surely more amply if the abnormal state of things had not concentrated all the attention of government on the extirpation of the evil which was devouring this rich province. I did not make the last constitution; I had no part in the discussion of it. It is now the law, and as such I respect it, and as such endeavor to apply it. But there was in it something conditional, which I think a danger, a motive of distrust, and I have wished that it might disappear. Nothing assures me that the present ministry, will continue in power; and I do not know whether that which replaces it would believe the fit moment to have arrived for fulfilling the precept of the constitution,



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504 WAR WITH SPAIN. Battle of La Quasina. The first serious fighting occurred at La Quasina on Friday, June 24th, and the brunt of it was borne, with heavy loss, by the "Rough Riders" led by Colonel Wood and LieutenantColonel Roosevelt. The expedition started from Juragua, which is marked on some Cuban maps as Altares. The Cubans had brought information to the American army headquarters, on Thursday, that a Spanish force had assembled at La Quasina for the purpose of blocking the march to Santiago. The troops left Juragua at daybreak. The first part of the journey for the rough riders was over a series of steep hills, several hundred feet high. The men carried 200 rounds of ammunition and their heavy camping equipment. Although the march was accomplished easily enough in the early morning, the weather became intensely hot, and the sun beat fiercely upon the cowboys and Eastern athletes as they toiled up the hillsides with their heavy packs. Frequent rests were necessary, and the trail was so narrow for the greater part of the way that the men had to proceed in single file. Prickly cactus lined both sides of the path, and the underbrush was so thick that it was impossible to see ten feet on either side. All the conditions, therefore, were favorable for a murderous ambuscade, but the troopers kept a close



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432 WAR WITH SPAIN. denly a masked battery at the entrance to Matanzas harbor opened fire upon her. Three discharges were made in quick succession. They all went wide of the mark, and the shot struck the water a quarter of a mile away. The officers and men on the torpedo-boat Foote were momentarily startled by the volley, then observations -were taken. The cruiser Cincinnati, which was standing off, was hailed by the torpedo-boat, and Lieutenant Rodgers made his report through the megaphone. "I have to report," he said, "that we are sounding within the 20-fathom line." Then he added: "We seem to have drawn the enemy')s fire from shore. We have been fired at three times." The 'orders of Captain Chester, in command of the cruiser Cincinnati, did not permit shelling Matanzas, so the fire from the masked battery was not returned. Shelling Matanzas* But the response to the Spanish shots was merely postponed. On April 27 it was noticed that the Spaniards were building new fortifications at Matanzas, and Admiral Sampson thought it would be a good plan to stop them, and at the same time to give his gunners a little practical target pactice. So he turned in toward the harbor with his flagship, the New York, the big monitor Puritan, and the cruiser Cincinnati. Then itGen-.



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... ..... ip, Rear Admiral Samnson,



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 489 in their own defence. 'A literal hail of shot and shell swept down upon them. The chances were they would be riddled, or blown to atoms. But calmly and steadily the ship was moved forward until the narrowest part of the channel was reached. Then anchor was cast out at the bow. In instant peril of death they waited patiently, as inch by inch the tide swung the great hulk around. At last she lay right across the channel, her length reaching almost from shore to shore, Then they dropped another anchor at the stern, to hold her fast in that position. Then as Grenville said after his immortal fight, the word was given, 11 Sink me the ship, Master Gunner! Sink her! Split her in twain!" And by the hands of her own crew, the ship was sunk, effectually barring the harbor against exit or entrance. The work was done. Then, seeing there was no escape in their open skiff through the storm of shot and shell that fell about them, Hobson and his seven men calmly rowed straight to the nearest Spanish ship, whose guns were belching out death against them, and gave themselves up as prisoners of war. The Spaniards appreciated their valor, cheered them to the echo, received them more as honored guests than prisoners, and at once sent, an envoy to theAmerican fleet to negotiate for their release 'in return for the release of Spaniards held as prisoners in the United States, 28



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1 0 WAR WITH SPAIN, five hundred varieties of trees found in the forests, and the plains are full of palms, orange and other trees. The principal crops are sugar, coffee, tobacco, cotton and maize, but bananas, rice, pineapples and many other fruits are 'important. Railways are in their infancy, and cart roads are deficient. Telegraphic lines connect the principal towns, while submarine cables run from San Juan to St. Thomas and Jamaica. Vhe Capitalp San Juan is situated on a long and narrow island, separated from the main island at one end by a shallow arm of the sea, over which is'a bridge connecting it with the mainland, which runs out at this point in a long sand spit, some nine miles in length, apparently to meet the smaller island ; at the other end the island ends in a rugged bluff, or promontory, some hundred feet high, and threefourths of a mile distant from the main island. This promontory is crowned by Morro Castle, the principal fortification of the town. At, this end of the island is the entrance to the harbor, with a narrow channel and rocky bottom, so close under the headland that one can almost leap ashore from a passing vessel. The water here is some thirty feet deep. To a mariner unacquainted with the locality, or, when a norther is blowing, this entrance is one of difficulty and danger,



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 313 No European Meddling. In order to settle at once all talk about European intervention or even mediation, the President on April 7 arranged for a meeting at the White House with the representatives of the six Great Powers. On arriving there, the Ambassadors delivered to him a mild and courteous note, expressing, in the names of their respective governments, an earnest hope that further negotiations, might lead to an agreement between the United States and Spain, which, while securing the maintenance of peace, would afford all necessary guarantees for the re-establishment of order in Cuba. To this the President responded with all possible courtesy, but with decided firmness. He said that he appreciated the good will of the Powers and shared with them the hope that peace might be maintained and justice established at the same time, but he gave them to understand that this was a matter in which the United States must act according to its own interests, and in which no foreign interference could be tolerated. That served notice to all the world that this nation was going to settle with Spain on its own account. A Bogus Armistice. The next important move was made by Spain. Ony April 9th the Cabinet decided to grant an armistice to the Insurgents in Cuba.



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 467 Oregon's officers believe that they were those of the vessels of Cervera' s fleet. In the morning no trace of these ships could be seen, nor could any word of them be obtained from fishing smacks in the vicinity. At Punta Arenas it was reported to Captain Clark that the Temerario, the Spanish torpedo-boat destroyer, was cruising along the Brazilian coast, and he was warned to keep a a sharp lookout for it. Every night extra guards were mounted, and every precaution was taken to repel an attack by the fast little Spanish vessel., All this trouble was taken in vain, however, as at Rio Janeiro it was learned that the Temerario was in drydock. The real heroes of the voyage were Chief Engineer Robert W. Milligen and the seventy men in his division. Despite the intense tropical heat, these brave fellows worked like demons, and their labors have added lustre to the name of the American Navy and a page to naval history. During the voyage the terms of enlistment of many of the seamen expired, but the majority of them re-enlisted on board ship, and most of those who failed to do so protested that they intended to re-enter the service as soon as they obtained a few days' rest. The fact that the Oregon is the first United States battleship to cross the equator is worthy of note. When the line was crossed the officers held high carnival, and went



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N, Cubans Fighting Zrom the Tree-Tops.



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266 CUBA. be assigned to detachments in towns or forts or elsewhere, where they may be subjected to the vigilance of troops. A record of all such persons shall be kept by the commander of arms of the jurisdiction to which they belong, and he shall note upon such record the names of those persons assigned to each column, detachment or fort. Tro IReport on the Suspects. "The chiefs of such detachments or fort's will then give a fortnightly report of the behavior of such surrendered persons as are under their charge, and acting upon these reports I will determine the localities where they may be permitted to reside, or whether they shall be conducted elsewhere to be left under the surveillance of the local authorities, or to be disposed of as I may deem proper. While such persons remain with the troops they shall be served with daily rations, which the chief to whom they are detailed will note in his statement. These conditions shall be void in any province as soon as the special edict made applicable to the provinces of Havana and Pinar del Rio governing the surrender of rebels shall also be made similarly applicable to it." Appeal for Rtecognition. Efforts were made during the winter of 1895-6 to induce the United States Government



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418 WAR WITH SPAIN. Entering Manila Bay. Despite the boasts of the Spanish commander, the. Spanish fleet' did not go out to meet the American,' but remained in harbor, under the guns of the forts of Manila and Cavite. Dewey reached Subig Bay, thirty miles north of Manila, on Saturday, April 30, and having as yet seen nothing of the enemy, sent two of his ships, the Baltimore and the Concord, forward to reconnoitre. They -went as far as the entrance to Manila Bay, and found no" Spanish ships. So Dewey decided to go ahead and enter the harbor. .It was midnight, that night, when the fleet arrived at the dark gateway that led into the capital of the Philippines. There were forts on both sides, and on the two islands which lay in the 'narrow channel, and torpedoes and submarine mines were supposed to be abundant. But the gallant Vermonter, who hadfought with Farragut, never hesitated a moment. The "1wee, small hours" of Sunday morning, May Day, were beginning to grow toward sunrise when the fleet passed the forts of Corregidor Island. The flagship had passed more than a mile. beyond them, and the others were swiftly. following, with the prospect of all getting in with-~ out discovery or the firing of a shot, when a few -sparks flew up from the smokestack of the McCulloch. They gave the alarm to the Spanish



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CUBA. 241 This news aroused much interest both in this country and in Cuba. At Havana a meeting of generals was immediately held at the palace of the Captain-General, at which Marshal Campos announced that he had telegraphed to the government at Madrid stating the result of his conference with the leaders of the political parties, and signifying his intention to abide loyally by any decision the Cabinet might make in the matter. To this dispatch, he said, he had received a reply advising him, in view of the conditions existing, to turn over the civil and military government of the island to Generals Manin and Pando. This he had done so far as was possible, General Pando being in Santiago de Cuba. General Manin had taken over the government temporarily, and his responsibility would be shared by General Pando shortly. The News In Cuba., The news that Marshal Cam pos had practically been relieved of his command caused little excitement in the city. The matter was discussed in the cafes, restaurants and hotel lobbies, where people gather at night, but there were no signs of alarm displayed. There were many Spaniards who believed that General Campos had been altogether too lenient in his treatment of the rebels, and they clamored for a more vigorous policy. The men who were to have



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 439 Aboard Ship. This bombardment also gave an excellent, though -at the same time a frightful illustration of a warship's death-dealing powers. Tremendous broadsides poured without cessation on the little streak of earthworks. Had a single ship been in the place where the shells fell it seems as if she would have been blown to bits before she could have returned the fire. When a ioooo-ton ship, usually as steady as a rock, shakes and trembles like a frightened child; when firmly fitted bolts start from their sockets and window-panes and wood-work are shattered; when the roar peals up from port and starboard, and you feel your feet leaving the deck and your glasses jumping around your forehead, while a blinding, blackening smoke hides everything from sight, then it is that you first realize the terrible power of a modern warship's batteries. Scenes on the New Vorkv Scenes of intense human interest occurred on the flagship's deck during the bombardment. The centre of attraction, naturally, was the forward bridge, where Admiral Sampson paced up and down, his long glass in hand, pausing now and then to watch the effect of the shots, impassive as if at sub-calibre target practice off the Dry Tortugas. Captain Chadwick was at his side, in the dual capacity of chief of staff and captain of



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 395 great crowds gathered and cheered wildly at the sight of the Stars and Stripes fl ying from the masts of the captured Spaniard. The Cuban residents got up a special demonstration of their own, and paraded the streets with Cuban flags. The Nashville's performance was a very smart one. Taking the Pedro. The next prize was the merchant ship Pedro. She was unloading a cargo at Havana when the blockade was proclaimed, and she made all haste to get away, but succeeded in merely running into the American fleet. She put out of the harbor and headed for the east, intending to run around that end of the island and get to Santiago de Cuba. She had the honor of being espied by the lookout on no less a vessel than the flagship of the fleet, the New York. Instantly the old cry, dear to a fighting seaman'ts heart, was heard "A chase! A chase!" The officers and crew gathered in groups, and eagerly watched the flying vessel. The New' York increased her speed to eighteen knots, and gained rapidly, Admiral Sampson meanwhile pacing the forward bridge. Great delight was, expressed when it became evident that the stranger was cut off from escape. The crew were now all at their stations and the guns loaded and trained. The echo of the warning* shot had hardly died



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 521 the fire got so hot that he ordered the ship to be run from the conning tower, and the bridge contingent moved down to the passage surrounding the tower. This was a providential move, for a moment later a shell from one of the Spanish cruisers tore through the pilot house. It would have killed the wheelman and perhaps everybody on the bridge had they remained there. 'The Oregon and the Iowa to the Front. Meanwhile the Oregon had come in on the run. She passed the Texas and chased after Commodore Schley, on the' Brooklyn, to head oft the foremost of the Spanish ships. The Iowa also turned her course westward, and kept up a hot fire on the running enemy. At 10.10 o'clock the third of the Spanish ships, the one that had been exchanging compliments with the Texas, was seen to be on fire and a mighty cheer went up from our ships. The Spaniard headed for the shore and the Texas turned her attention to the one following. The Brooklyn and Oregon, after a few parting shots, also left her contemptuously and made all steam and shell after the foremost two of the Spanish ships, the Almirante Oquendo and the Cristobal Colon. Just then the two torpedo boat destroyers Pluton and Furor were discovered. They had come out after the cruisers without being seen,



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104 CUBA. order to continue exploiting it with. some profit. This economical organization of Cuba is of the simplest kind. It produces to export, and imports almost everything it consumes. In view of this It is evident that all that Cuba required from the State was that it should not hamper its work with excessive burdens, nor hinder its commercial relations ; so that it could buy cheap where it suited her and sell her products with profit. Spain has done all the contrary. She has treated tobacco as an enemy. She has loaded sugar with excessive imposts ; she has shackled with excessive and abusive exciseduties the cattle-raising industry; and, with her legislative doings and undoings, she has thrown obstacles in the way of the mining industry. And to cap the climax, she has tightly bound Cuba in the network of a monstrous tariff and a commercial legislation which subjects the colony, at the end of the nineteenth century, to the ruinous monopoly of the producers and merchants of certain regions of Spain, as in the halcyon days of the colonial compact. The district which produces the best tobacco in the world, the famous Vuelta Abajo, lacks every means of transportation afforded by civilization, to foster and increase the value of its products. No roads, no bridges, or even ports are found there. The State in Cuba collects the taxes, but does not invest them for the benefit of



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CHAPTER IV. HOW THE ISLAND IS GOVERNED-THE CAPTAINGENERAL-FREEDOM OF THE PRESS-LOCAL GOVERNMENTS -ELECTORAL TRICKERY -"NO CUBANS NEED APPLY "--TIE SPANISH SENATEDISCRIMINATION AGAINST CUBAN S-CARPET-BAGGERS TO THE FORE-IN THE LOCAL OFFICES SQUEEZING THE ORANGE -THE AWFUL BURDEN OF DEBT-TREATMENT OF NATIVE INDUSTRY BAD COMMERCIAL LAWS-CUBA RUINED FOR TIlE SAKE OF SPAIN-SALAPLIED CARPET-BAGGERSINDUSTRIES DRIVEN TO BANKRUPTY-NO PUBLIC INSTRUCTION-EARLY DISCONTENT-LOPEZ AND HIS RAIDS-THE KILLING OF PINTO. ORRUPT and incapable administration has always been a Spanish characteristic. Cuba has been reduced to its present extremities largely through the rapacity of the governing class in former years. If there has been a marked improvement during recent years so that the Captain-General now expects to return to Spain only with what he has saved from his salary, and the burden of direct taxation has been decreased rather than increased, it is because the industrial resources of the island have (8I)



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 365 The single battleship credited to Spain in the above table was the Pelayo, launched in 1887, described as follows: Displacement, 9,9oo tons; length, 330 ft.; breadth of beam, 66 ft.; draught, 24 ft. 9 in.; engines, 6,8oo horse-power; speed, 15.8 knots; principal armament, 2 12Y, in., 2 II in., I 6'8 in., and 12 434 in. breech-loaders with 6 quick-firing guns; protection, steel belt, 18 in. maximum thickness, and I I in. on the barbettes. All the first-class cruisers a were new vessels, and nearly all still in the hands of the constructors, three not yet being launched. Six of them were well protected by 12 in. steel belts, and the heavy gun emplacements had 8 in. steel armoring. These-the Infanta Maria Teresa, Vizcaya, Almirante, Oquendo, Cataluna, Cardinal, Cisneros, and Princesa de Asturias, were of 7,000 tons, 364 feet in length, 65 feet beam, 13,000 horse-power and 2o knots speed. The first named, built at Bilbao, made 18.48 knots at her official natural-draught trials, during 8 hours, steaming at sea, thus slightly exceeding the contract. In these cruisers, two I I in. guns were mounted singly on barbette turrets fore and aft, and there were five 5Y, in. guns on each broadside, the pairs severally nearest to the bows and the stern being sponsoned out, so as to fire severally in those directions, and have a wide firing arc on the beam,



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 457 into the mouth of the harbor, dropped a grapnel in eight fathoms of water, and proceeded to drag across the mouth of the harbor for the cable. About one hundred and fifty fathoms of line was run out, and soon the cable was hooked in about fifty fathoms of water. About this time the lookout reported a Spanish gunboat coming down the harbor, and a signal was sent to the St. Louis, half a mile outside, but she already had discovered it, and immediately opened fire with the two port 6-pounders. The Wampatuck then began firing with her one 3-pounder. The gunboat, however, was out of range of these small guns, and the shells all fell short. The gunboat now opened fire with 4-inch guns, and every shot went whistling over the little Wampatuck and struck the water between her and the St. Louis. Being well out of the range of the 6-pounders, the gunboat was perfectly safe, and she steamed back and forth, firing her larger guns. For about forty minutes the tug worked on the cable, while the shells were striking all around her, but she seemed to bear a charmed life. Captain Goodrich, seeing that he could not get the gunboat within reach of the small guns while that vessel could easily reach both the St. Louis and the Wampatuck with her heavier battery, signalled the tug to withdraw; the line was cut and both vessels steamed out to sea, leaving the cable un-



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 547 for American flags. Even the Spanish soldiers laid down their arms without a blow, and many asked to be enlisted in the United States army. Colonel San Martin, commanding the garrison at Ponce, evacuated that place without resistance, knowing resistance would be useless. For so doing he was tried by court-martial by the Spanish commander at San Juan, and shot to death, while Lieutenant-Colonel Puiz, who was next in command, committed suicide to escape the same fate. From Ponce the advance was made to Coamo, on the road to San Juan. A delegation of the citzens of Coamo came out to welcome the army and to tender to its commander the freedom of their town. On August 5 General Hains's brigade took Guayama after a slight skirmish in which one Spaniard was killed and two Spaniards and three Americans were wounded. Guayama lies about five miles inland from the southern coast of Porto Rico, forty-nine miles from San Juan, and almost directly south of that city. It is the chief town of the judicial district of Guayama, with a population of 4,500, and jurisdiction over 12,884 people. The town has telephone and telegraph stations, and a post-office. It was founded in 1736. Six days later Mayaguez, the third city in importance on the island, was taken after a sharp



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CUBA. 157 officials, have been for centuries, and still are, sent to this unfortunate colony only to make money; and as they hate both the land and the people, and are over-anxious to accomplish their abject and beoff, they go to work with a boldness and recklessness that know no limits, and which have thoroughly vitiated every rank of the rulers, as well as every class of the subjects. "Robamos todos "-we are all thieves-is the motto. Slaughter In the "Five Towns."1 "In the region of the Five Towns the Spaniards went to work upon the principle that 'prevention is better than cure.' They took the disaffection for granted and determined that it should never ripen into open rebellion. Not only did they shoot all the insurgents whom they caught with arms in their hands, but they slew without mercy many of the unarmed fugitives whom terror of their approach had driven into the woods, and they doomed to the same fate others who had remained d quietly at home, but who were suspected of sympathy with the rebel cause. One of tbe first men who fell into their hands was my Creole host; the gentleman, who as I said, had incurred their displeasure by pre-, suming to employ none but free laborers in his plantations; the Volunteers of the petty towns in the neighborhood invaded and ravaged his es-



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United States Troops going to the Front.



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CUBA. 247 love in which a mother gives all things to her children. "1Inhabitants of the island of Cuba, lend me your help. So you will defend your interests, which are the interests of the country," T1o End the War in T1hirty Days. General Weyler announced, and perhaps expected, that he would end the war in thirty days. On February 15, he told a delegation of sugarplanters who called upon him that by March i f he would have order and peace restored, so that the planters could begin grinding cane in safety. If successful, thirty days' grinding would be possible, and with the improved machinery generally in use all the cane standing could be saved. As the rebels had burned 20 per cent. of the crop, General Weyler's promise was practically that $45,000,000 worth of sugar was to be saved, and that prosperity was to return to Cuba at the end of one more month. Gomez and Maceo meantime announced their intention -of remaining in the vicinity of Havana all summer. The wet season had no terrors for them. The other provinces outside of Havana were entirely under control, and the new government was established everywhere except in the few cities held by the Spanish. The seat of operations naturally was near Havana, a nd the insurgent forces were so near the city that one



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WRECK IN HAVANA HARBOR Wreck of the Battleship Maine.



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CUBA. 113 No Public Instruction. Does the government favor Cuba more in the matter of education ? It wil suffice to state that only $i28,ooo are assigned to public instruction in the budget. And it may be proved that the University of Havana is a source of pecuniary profit to the State. On the other hand, this institution is without laboratories, instruments and even without water to carry on experiments. All the countries of America, excepting Bolivia, all of them, including Hayti, Jamaica, Trinidad, and Guadalupe, where the colored race predominates, spend a great deal more than the Cuban government for the education of the people. Early Discontent. In the early part of the present century Cuba began to grow restless under the rule of Spain. Simon Bolivar, the liberator of South America, aimed to include Cuba, also, in his work, and make it independent. The project met with little encouragement, however, and Cubans say that its failure was due to the opposition, open or secret, of the United States Government at that time. That Government made it plain to Bolivar that it would not be pleased if he extended his operations north of Panama. The fire of insurrection broke out fiercely about twenty years afterward, and from i848 to



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172 CUBA. indemnity, revenge, and the recognition of the Cubans, unorganized as they were, as belligerents. The government seemed to share the popular feeling to a considerable degree. War between Spain and the United States seemed to be imminent and unavoidable. Our poor little navy, consisting of wooden vessels of antiquated models and of iron-clads dusty from disuse, was patched up as quickly as possible and ordered to rendezvous at Key West, whence it might descend upon Cuba in a night. But a half bluff is worse than no bluff at all. It was soon apparent that the government at Washington did not mean business any further than requiring the surrender of the "Virginius," and of the surviving members of her crew, and an indemnity, trivial in amount, for the blood of those American citizens whose nationality could be proved beyond peradventure. The State Department did not share the belligerent disposition of the Navy Department. Secretary Fish was able, patriotic and incorruptible, but somehow or other the legal representatives of the Spanish Government managed to block the way, and Spanish diplomacy, then as now, was plausible and resourceful. Whatever the cause, the naval display at Key West was feeble and ineffective. Our flagship, at least, like the British flagship, should have



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296 CUBA. humanity to intervene with force, it shall be with,out fault on our part, and only because the necessity for such action will be so clear as to command the support and approval of the civilized world." Offers of Autonomy. Soon afterward the full text of the autonomy scheme, dated November 25, was made public in this country. It creates a Cuban parliament, which, with the insular executive, can consider and vote upon all subjects affecting local order and interests, possessing unlimited powers save as to matters of State, war and the navy, as to which the Governor-General acts by his own authority as the delegate of the central government. This parliament receives the oath of the Governol-General to preserve faithfully the liberties and privileges of the colony, and to it the colonial secretaries are responsible. It has the right to propose to the central government, through the Governor-General, modifications of the national charter, and to invite new projects of law or executive measures in the interest of the colony. Besides its local powers, it is competent, first, to regulate electoral registration and procedure and prescribe the qualifications of electors and the manner of exercising suffrage; second, to organize courts of justice with native judges from members of the local bar; third, to frame the insular budget, both as to expenditures and



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CUBA. 59 the inventor, whose rights are controlled by the Corona, will not allow any visitor with a camera to enter the room. Wonderful as the improvement in machinery for tobacco-working has been, it has not emancipated children from this unhealthy and laborious employment. ",In one of the departments I saw groups of sallow-faced children under ten years making cheroots and leaf-cigarettes. One was a little thing, with a pale, wizened face, bending over the table, with strained eyes, and working nervously with her tiny fingers as rapidly as the two strong women between whom she was sitting. Rarely have I seen a more pathetic figure than this child, so preoccupied with her work that she could not spend time to look at the visitors pausing before her with pitying eyes. I asked her age. She was barely six years old, and could make 3000 of these cheroots a day-almost as many as her mother. American visitors will do well to avoid that corner of the Corona. Cigars may never have the same flavor for them again if they see a child of six bending and -straining over a work-table in order to make them for the pleasure of the grand caballeros of the gay world." Sugar. Plantations and MlYlls. Matanzas is one of the largest sugar-producingcentres in Cuba. Last year it exported about i 6o,ooo tons to the United States and 6o,ooo



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458 WAR WITH SPAIN. cut, As the tug started out it was noticed that riflemen on shore were firing on her. Lieutenant Catlin then opened up with the Gatling gun mounted aft, and the Spaniards on shore could be seen scattering and running for shelter. The French cable was cut next morning off Mole St. Nicolas, well outside of the three-mile limit. The St. Louis and the Wampatuck steamed away in company, leaving the Spaniards looking, after them in amazement at their audacity.



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I ______________ Jr) 1/~ I ill ~~Iii'IiI1Il i -ItThe "Virginius" Outragde. Shooting of Four Prominent Cuban Patriots.



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498 WAR WITH SPAIN. in the work, and at once joined forces with the American army, for a joint forward movement against the Spaniards and the city of Santiago. Operations at Guantanamo. In the mean time while the army of invasion was being prepared and conveyed to Cuba, a preliminary invasion was made by the navy, by landing a force of marines near Guantanamo, about forty miles east of Santiago. A part of the American fleet arrived at the entrance to the Bay of Guantanamo on June 7 and bombarded the fortifications and the suburban village of Caimanera. Three days later a force of eight hundred marines landed on Fisherman's Point, raised the Stars and Stripes for the first time on Cuban soil, and established a camp which they called Camp McCalla. The landing was made from the troopship Panther, protected by the fire of th-e battleship Oregon and the gunboats Marblehead, Vixen, and Dolphin. The next day a fierce attack was made upon the camp by Spaniards, firing from the cover of the dense woods, and it was maintained without cessation for thirteen hours. Four Americans were killed, the first to lose their lives on Cuban soil. They were John Blair Gibbs, a surgeon; Charles H. Smith, a sergeant; and William Dunphy and Jame 's McColgan, privates. The Spanish loss was not ascertained, but was much



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 363 Let us cite a few statistics. Spain has an area of 197,670 square miles, or about twice that of the single State of North Carolina; while the United States has something more than 3,000,000, or more than fifteen times as much. The population of the United States was nearly four times as great as that of Spain. The annual revenue of Spain was only $137,000,ooo, and that of the United States more than $500,000,000. Yet Spain's public debt was $1,232,912,500, while that of the United States was only $1,045,000,000. The foreign trade of Spain was only $26o,ooo,ooo a year, while that of the United States was $1,645,000,000. In Spain more than 68 per cent. of the people could neither read nor write, while in the United States only 14 per cent. were illiterate. In Spain there were few skilled mechanics or engineers, and no shipyards in which first-class warships could be built, while in the United States were millions of trained artisans and some of the best shipyards in the world. Armies and Navies. In army and navy, however, Spain was, at least on paper, no mean antagonist. Of course the greater population of the United States made her military resources by far the greater. But Spain's actual standing army was much larger than ours. It consisted of no less than 120,00 21



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126 CUBA. Spanish domination in America. We have to combat with the assassins of women and children, with the mutilators of the dead, with the idolaters of gold. If you wouid save your honor and that of your families, if you would conquer forever your liberty-be soldiers." Valmaseda's Bloody Orders. The proclamation of Valmaseda, referred to by General Quesada, was indeed a most infamous document. It was issued by him on April 4th, 1869, and reads as follows: "Inhabitants of the country! The reinforcements of troops that I have been waiting for have arrived; with them I shall give protection to the good, and punish promptly those that still remain in rebellion against the government of the metropolis. "You know that I have pardoned those who have fought us with arms; that your wives, mothers, and sisters have found in me the unexpected protection that you have refused them. You know, also, that many of those we have pardoned have turned against us again. "Before such ingratitude, such villany, it is not possible for me to be the man that I have been; there is no longer a place for a falsified neutrality; he that is not for me is against me; and that my soldiers may know how to distinguish, you hear the order they carry:



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CUBA. 197 might take place in the mass (of insurgents), and I should have lost a month and a half of operations in the best season of the year, equivalent to more than three months in the rainy season, to 3;0O soldiers killed, to $6,ooo,ooo more spent, and to another effort on the part of Spain. At Zanjon. "On the morning of the 9th I removed to Zanjon, the point nearest the enemy's camp, and at twelve next day Messrs. Rosa and Lauces presented themselves with a letter from Vincente Garcia accrediting them in their mission. These gentlemen stated to me that the executive and congress having met, had informed themselves of the result of the interview we had held on the 7th, and after a long discussion had agreed on the impolicy of continuing the war, and on the impossibility of treating in which they found themselves, because they were not empowered to do so, and it would be illegal ; that they were bound to give an account of the whole to the people; but that, considering the pressure of circumstances, they would resign and appeal to the people and troops gathered there; that this took place, and that a committee of seven persons (five of them irreconcilables) was chosen by popular election in order that negotiations might go on. The committee discussed and modified my terms, and submitted the result to the people, who



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CUBA. 227 At the same time, Calleja was ordered to return home on the first steamer sailing from Havana after General Martinez Campos' arrival there. The abruptness of his recall caused much comment. It was understood that the Government held him to blame for allowing the insurgents to organize so effectively, but they did not choose to admit publicly that he had weakened their position by his incompetency, hence the dispatch of thanks, which presented so forcible a contradiction to the natural inferences drawn from his hasty recall. While these events were taking place in governmental circles, news of fresh insurgent victories were being received daily. Spread of the Rebellion. On April I4th there was a large uprising in the province of Puerto Principe. Laborers, sugarfield hands and others took up arms for the cause. But a month earlier than this two important battles had been fought, one at Bayamo and one at Holguin. Colonel Santacildes was in command of the Spanish forces, and Masso of the Cuban, at the former place; and at the latter, Garrich was in command of the Spanish, and Mario of the Cuban force. The insurgents were successful, and had not reinforcements arrived, the Spanish leader and his troops would have fallen into their hands.



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CUBA. 221 brother Jose, with twenty-two others, landed at Duaba, near Baracoa, and as soon as they were able to join others already in arms, and the news of their arrival reached Santiago and other cities, the aspect of things began to change, and men who until then had hesitated to support the movement began to join the little army. On April i i General Maximo Gomez and Jose Marti with two friends landed at the southeastern extremity of Cuba, and having joined Maceo, a general plan was arranged whereby General Maceo was to remain in the Province of Santiago, and General Gomez was to proceed to Camaguey as General-in-Chief of the army. Before the landing of Generals Maceo and Gomez, the majority of those in arms were negroes, but immediately after the proportion of whites began to increase, and although in the Province of Santiago the negro element always preponderated in the rank and file, tlhe great majority of the officers were whites, while in Camaguey, on the contrary, the army under Gomez, from the beginning, was composed chiefly of white men. How Gomez Reached Cuba. Captain Ronald Lamont, of the steamship "Indianapolis," from Central American waters, brought the first authentic account of the landing Qf General Gomez and party on the Cuban coast



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224 CUBA, As 'soon as news of the uprising reached Governor-General Calleja, he issued a proclamation suspending constitutional guarantees. He also put in effect the "1Public Order Law," a law which provides for the immediate punishment of anybody taken in a seditious act. At a special cabinet meeting, called to consider Cuban affairs, on the evening of February twenty-fifth, in Madrid, Senor Abarzuza, Spain's Minister of Colonies, authorized Calleja to proclaim martial law in Cuba. The forces at Calleja's disposal were six regiments of infantry, three of cavalry, two battalions of garrison artillery, and a mountain battery. These numbered nearly 2 0, 000 men, besides some 1 4,000 local militia, or over 30,000 men in all. But it is only fair to Calleja to add that when he returned to Madrid in May he declared that half the regular -forces existed only on paper, and that the militia were not reliable., He was weak in artillery, but that did not so much matter, as the insurgents had none. He had the great advantage of holding all the large coast towns, with the help of forts, some of them dating from early Spanish days, but all of them strong enough to resist an irregular attack. He had also a squadron of five cruisers and six gunboats with which to further protect the coast towns, cut off supplies coming to the rebels from



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138 CUBA. Department, out of the 75,725 inhabitants 30,585 live in the capital, Puerto Principe. If we allow only a few thousands for each of the towns of the department-Trinidad, Sagua la Grande, Villa Clara, San Juan de los Remedios, etc.-we must conclude that its rural districts are a mere desert, a large portion of the territory consisting of savannas which are deemed irreclaimable, and of dense forests or mere brushwood which is also looked upon as doomed to unmitigated barrenness. Of whatever was available and brought into cultivation, not a little has succumbed to the havoc of the civil war. On the eastern side, which boasted the oldest colonies, Santiago, Baracoa, Bayamo, Guantanamo, etc., the valleys up to a certain height had been made fruitful, and the mountains were covered with flourishing coffee estates, but not a little of the interior was left in a state of nature, and the vast tracts are marked, even in recent maps, as 'waste and uninhabited mountains,' or 'uncultivated and unexplored regions.' (A/onles desierlos e incudlos; errenos in/habilados e incullos.) The Sierra Maestra, or main chain, running along the whole southern coast from Cabo Cruz to Punta de Mayzi, rises to a height of 8ooo feet, i. e., on a level with the loftiest Apennines. What culture there was in this region is rapidly disappearing. Many of the land-owners, with such wealth as they were able to save from



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CUBA. 277 heavy rifle-bullet. He staggered back, exclaimed Well!" and fell dead. Weyler Goes Out Again. A few days later Weyler returned to Havana, without having fought one serious battle. But the Spanish Government quickly ordered him out again. This time it was for the sake of political effect in the United States. Congress was about to meet, and the President would send in his annual message. American sympathy with the insurgents was known to be strong, and it was feared by Spain that the United States Government would recognize the independence of the Cubans, and perhaps intervene in their behalf. The best way to prevent this, the Spani',h thought, was to make a show of action, as if to prove Spain's ability to crush the rebellion. So Weyler went out and encamped at a safe distance from Maceo, and by a judicious manipultion of all news sent out from the island made it: appear that he was at last subduing the insurgents. As a matter of fact, he carefully avoided battle, while the Cubans were constantly on the aggressive. A detachment of the Cuban army crossed the trocha, passed clear around Weyler's entire army, and stormed and burned a town in the outskirts of Havana. The firing was heard and the flames were seen in the very heart of the city, and the greatest alarm prevailed. And



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3 5 2 WAk WITH SPAIN. An Ancient Walled City. San Juan is a perfect specimen of a walled town, with portcullis, moat, gates and battlements. Built over two hundred and fifty years ago, it is still in good condition and repair. The walls are picturesque, and represent a stupendous work and cost in themselves. Inside the walls, the city is laid off in regular square-s, six parallel streets running in the direction of the length of the island and seven at right angles. The houses are closely and compactly built of brick, usually of two stories, stuccoed on the outside and painted in a variety of colors. The upper floors are occupied by the more respectable people, while the ground floors, almost without exception, are given up to negroes and the poorer classes, who crowd one upon the other in the most appalling manner. The population within the walls is estimated at twenty thousand, and most of it lives on the ground floors. In one small room with a flimsy partition a whole family will reside. The ground floors of the whole town reek with filth, and conditions are most unsanitary. In a tropical country, where disease readily prevails, the consequence of such herding may be easily inferred. There is no running water in the town. The entire population depends on rainwater caught on the flat roofs of the buildings



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gypanish Troops in San Juan, Porto Rico*



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Wtching the Searchlighits at Havana daring4 the Blockare.



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214 CUBA. fled with the existing state of things; secondly, the Autonomists, or Liberal Reform party, having a Home Rule program; and thirdly, the Republicans, or Separatists. Both the Conservatives and Home Rulers had been anxious to maintain the Spanish connection, fearing that Cuban independence would have one of two results, either that the island would be exploited by American adventurers, or that, if left to itself, it would run the risk of becoming another Hayti, coming under the rule of the'negroes, halfbreeds and mulattoes, who form a large part of Cuba's population. So strong was this feeling, that had the Spanish Government kept its promises and had it made some concessions in the direction of home rule, it is highly probable that the revolution of 1895 would never have taken place. But the local authorities, by imprisoning Autonomist leaders, drove many of the party into more or less active sympathy with insurgent patriots. Cuba's earlier revolutions were properly termed insurrections, for in many cases they were without the sympathy of the masses, and hencehopeless from the start. But, in 1895, the native Cubans allied themselves with the Liberal wing of the Spanish residents to make common cause agaainst the domination of the Spanish monarchy.



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222 CUBA. From authorities at the island of Inagua the Captain learned that Gomez and three other insurgent leaders reached Cuba from this country by a round-about course, by way of Inagua, Jamaica and Hayti. At Inagua they purchased a fourteen-foot, four-oared keel boat, and, embarking on the German steamer "Nostrand," slung their boat from the davits. Just at daybreak on April io, when the steamer was two miles off Cape Maysi, General Gomez and the others of his party dropped their boat into the water and quietly landed on the Cuban coast. Thence they made their way through the bush to the interior, where they reached the main body of insurgents. It was known at Inagua that General Gomez had with him fully $5O,OOO in American gold. The insurgents knew the time and place of Maximo Gomez's landing, and Perequito Perez, at the head of 6oo Cubans, met him soon after disembarkation at Rio Sabana la Mar, about thirty miles east of Guantanamo, on the south coast. The "Conde de Venadito" failed to intercept the insurgents on the sea, and i,ooo Spanish troops failed to head them off on the land. Particulars about the sinking of a British schooner off the coast of Cuba by the Spanish warship "Conde de Venadito" were also gathered by Captain Lamont from the Inaguan authorities. It appears that twenty-five Cuban insurgent



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IM Af Cruiser New York,



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312 WAR WITH SPAIN, time that his own safety demanded. He determined, however, to remain a little longer, until all other Americans could get away. On April 9th) he decided to leave with the last of his fellow countrymen. As a matter of courtesy he called at the office of the Spanish Governor General to bid him good-bye, but that officer rudely refused to see him. Then Gen. Lee, with various other United States Officers and a number of private citizens, went aboard the steamship Fern." When all was ready, he signaled for all other American vessels to leave the harbor first and then late in the afternoon headed the 11 Fern for home. As the steamer passed by the wharves of the city she was made a target for shouts and abuse from the crowds of Spaniards that thronged the water front. Gen. Lee was recognized by the mob and many insulting shouts were directed at him. Vice-Consul Springer who had been 'in the Island 30 years, was standing by Gen. Lee's side. He waved his hand in ironical adieu to the mob and shouted back at them, "Wait, my friends, we will all be back pretty soon." There was one pretty incident. A British vessel was unloading her cargo atone of the wharves. As the 11 Fern" passed her, she saluted with her flag, while her crew gave three hearty cheers. Thus Gen. Lee returned home and American relations with Cuba were closed,"



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CUB3A, 301 friendly visit to the harbor of Havana. No United States Naval vessel had gone thither before, since the outbreak of the war, but it was now deemed well to send one, to show that relations between America and Spain were no longer strained but were on a normal footing. At the same time Spain prepared to return the courtesy by sending one of her cruisers to New York. Unfortunately, this exchange of courtesies was marred by the indiscretion of the Spanish Minister at Washington, Senor Dupuy DeLome. He wrote a letter to a friend in Cuba, abusing the United States in a most insulting fashion, and referring to President McKinley, personally, in the most opprobrious terms. This missive was stolen from the mails, or from the desk of its recipient, by the Cubans, and made public on February 9th. It created a profound impression, and aroused bitter resentment throughout the United States. The President acted with rare dignity and forbearance, giving the offender a chance to resign his place without being ignominiously kicked out of the country. DeLome promptly took advantage of the opportunity. He cabled his resignation to Madrid. It was accepted within an hour, and a few days later DeLome left the country whose hospitality he had so grossly abused. The Spanish" Government then made a formal disclaimer of his offensive



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i 6o CUBA* recommend them to a temporary reprieve and put off their execution till they have endured all conceivable outrages. Houses where scores of young women were hiding have been entered by a licentious soldiery with officers at their head, by whom every woman was first violated, then killed-. The Havana and Madrid authorities have before them evidence of some of the most shocking cases of this description in which the crime was both proved and punished; but how many more might be mentioned, in which it was impossible to bring the offenders to justice! There have been frequent instances of wives whose husbands were either killed before their very eyes or driven to the bush in sheer despair, and who presently made friends with the officer who had widowed them, consenting to live with them on any terms. Of this fact I was equally assured by my Creole host and by the Spanish officer who sat with us at the same hospitable board; with tl is difference, however, that the latter quoted it as evidence of the innate baseness and depravity of the. Creole women, while the former contended that these women, in consenting to live with their captors, did so from a vindictive design to deal with them after the manner of Delilahs-a design which was often carried into execution, the women acting as spies on the movements of their new lovers and leading them into insurgent ambushes. People



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292 CUBA. once voted, for bringing home from Cuba all destitute American citizens. Then the rainy season came on, and operations in the field in Cuba were perforce suspended until fall. The Murder of Canovas. The next important incident was in Spain itself. Canovas del Castillo, the Prime Minister, was murdered on August 8 by an Anarchist, in revenge for the punishment the Government had inflicted upon various Anarchist criminals. It was evident that this tragedy would have strong bearing upon Cuba, for Canovas had been the patron of Weyler, and the chief exponent of the policy of repression. Canovas was succeeded for a time by General Azcarraga, who had been Minister of War, and the policy toward Cuba remained unchanged. It was evident, however, that this was only a temporary arrangement. Sagasta In-Weyler Out. The revolution came at the beginning of October. The Azcarraga Ministry resigned, and the Queen-Regent called Senor Sagasta, the leader of the Spanish Liberals, to form another. Sagasta did so, making up a Liberal Ministry, and deciding upon an immediate reversal of policy in Cuba. The first thing was to recall Weyler. That was done promptly. Weyler at first refused to obey the order, and talked of rebelling against



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66 CUBA. Cathedral and Custom House* Some 300 years ago, when Spain held dominion over the greater part of the New World, and the city of Havana was rising up as a central station and key to these possessions, a magnificent cathedral was erected, fronting the sea, inside of the beautiful bay which now f6rms the harbor, and Just about the centre of the front of the walled city. This cathedral was said to be the finest in the New World, and was held in great veneration. When Havana was captured by the British in 1762, a considerable force was landed to garrison the place, a part of which was cavalry with little regard for the sacredness of the edifice, the conquerors used the cathedral as a stable for their horses. A year later the city was restored to Spain by the treaty of peace signed at Paris, and the cathedral was restored to its rightful owners. In consideration of the use to which it had been put by the British, it was declared to be defiled and desecrated and entrance to it was strictly forbidden. For a period of ioo years the stately building was condemned to be closely shut up in darkness. When that period had elapsed, the building was reopened but never again was used as a place of worship. It was converted into a custom house and devoted to the secular purposes of the Government,



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230 CUBA. A revolutionary government was organized and the fundamental laws of the republic of Cuba were formally proclaimed. The government was constituted in the following manner: President, Salvador Cisneros Betancourt, of Puerto Principe; Vice-President, Bartolome Maso, of Manzanillo; Secretary of War, Carlos Roloff, of Santa Clara; Vice-Secretary of War, Mario Menocal, of Matanzas; Secretary of Foreign Relations, Rafael Portuondo y Tamayo, of Santiago de Cuba; Vice-Secretary of Foreign Relations, Fermin Valdis Dominguez, of Havana; Secretary of Finance, Severo Pina, of Sancti Spiritus; Vice-Secretary of Finance, Joaquin Castillo Duany, of Santiago de Cuba; Secretary of the Interior, Santiago Canizares, of Remedios; Vice-Secretary of the Interior, Carlos SDu Bois, of Baracoa; General-in-Chief, Maximo Gomez; Lieutenant-General, Antonio Maceo. Jos6 Maceo, Maso, Capote, Serafin Sanchez and Rodrigues were appointed majors-general. Jose Maceo to lead the operations in Baracoa, Guantanamo, Mayari and Santiago de Cuba; Maso in Manzanillo, Bayamo and Holguin; Sanchez in the Villas, and Rodriguez in Camaguey. The headquarters of the new government were established in Puerto Principe province, and a systematic government was to be maintained.



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 399 whether he had not better discontinue signaling. (,No," Captain Chadwick replied, with the ut0 most coolness, "there is no necessity for stopping. Go ahead." A little later Captain Chadwick went on the forward bridge and watched the flames shooting out from, Morro Castle as each shot was fired, but after a few minutes he turned his back, remarking that it was perfectly certain the Spaniards could do no damage at five miles, our present approximate distance from the fort. He then returned to bed. The other officers, commenting upon the firing, laughingly remarked that the Spaniards evidently couldn't sleep without some fireworks, one of them adding, "They can't hit -anything, anyway. During this futile attempt to bombard the fleet there was no excitement whatever on board ship. In fact, many of the men were unconcernedly asleep, though Spain's first gun in the war was being fired, and the ship they were in was the target. In Havana* Meantime in the city of Havana there was no such tranquillity as Captain Chadwick showed. The opening days of the war were marked with intense excitement and many alarms. The longexpected war-cloud had burst, and had roused 23



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WAR WITH SPAIN.35 tral islands. This exploit made the country known to Europe. It was not until the close of the sixteenth century that the archipelago passed under Spanish domination, during the reign of Philip II. Spanish Settlement in 1565. About the middle of the century an expedition sailed from Mexico in five ships, but accomplished little. In 1565 Don Miguel Lopez de Legazpi reached the islands and founded a Spanish settlement at the town of Cebu, and it is in his correspondence that the name of Philippine Islands is first recorded. It was given in honor of his sovereign. Under this monarch an ecclesiastical organization, principally of monastic orders, was established. As H. A. Webster says, "1The subjugation of the islands, thanks to the exertions of the Roman Catholic missionaries and the large powers placed in their hands by Philip, was effected, not of course, without fighting and bloodshed, but without those appalling massacres and depopulation which characterized the conquest of South America. Contests with frontier rebellious tribes, attacks by pirates and reprisals on the part of the Spaniards combined with volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and tornadoes to break the comparative monotony of the subsequent history."~



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CUBA. 233 physician of Havana, who, when the students of the university of that city, his companions, were butchered by the volunteers, was sent to the penal colony of Ceuta, and was set at liberty after the peace. Severo Pina, Secretary of the Treasury, was a prominent citizen of Sancti Spiritus. He belonged to an old and wealthy family. Joaquin Castillo Duany, Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, was a gentleman not unknown in this country, having been one of the physicians who took part in the Jeannette Relief Expedition to the North Pole. No names stand higher in Santiago de Cuba for wealth and respectability than those of Duany and Castillo. Santiago Canizares, Secretary of the Interior, was a prominent citizen of Remedios. The General-in-Chief, Maximo Gomez, although born in Santo Domingo, was as much a Cuban in feelings, ideas, and aspirations as the best of them. As to his military talents we need say nothing, for they are too well known. Antonio Maceo, the Lieutenant-General, was a colored man; a perfect gentleman, and a man of more than common attainments, which he owed to his own efforts. He was in the fullest sense of the term a self-made man of uncommon intellectual powers and of most sterling character. He fought during the ten years' war, and was



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r-lr JIM IN A Cubans Attacking a Spanish Regiment,



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CUBA. 143 it has sent, not unfrequently, volunteer battalions from the cities, raw and unseasoned recruits-in a recent instance i,000 Carlist prisoners, mere undisciplined and ill-conditioned bandits-and it has limited its efforts to guerrilla operations; a wayward and desultory mode of warfare in which its opponents were fully able to meet it with equal weapons. Of late the Government has had recourse to a strategy of Trochas, or military cordons, intended not to suppress the insurrection, but only to hem it in if possible within certain limits. A line of that description has, as I said, been drawn from Moron all across the country to the southern coast; thereby acknowledging the impotence of the troops to occupy and thoroughly subdue the interior of at least one-half of the island. Upon this footing it is reckoned the war has already led to the destruction of 150,ooo human lives; though the men actually slain in battle may perhaps be counted by hundreds, while thousands on the part of the insurgents have fallen victims to executions after capture, and on the part of the soldiers to fever and cholera, the consequence of prolonged hardships, bad and scanty food, unsheltered quarters, and the insalubrity of the climate. Competent military authorities have no great opinion of the tactics by which the Spanish generals now hope to shut in and en-



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CUBA. 279 Cienfuegos reach some $12,ooo,000; in the Province of Matanzas, some $9,ooo,ooo; in Sagua, for estates and crops alone, not less than $9,229,000, while in Santiago the investments in mining operations probably exceed $15,OOO,OOO. For Pinar del Rio, Santa Clara, and other interior districts tabulated statements are wanting, and so also with regard to commercial and manufacturing establishments, railway enterprises, and the like. A gross estimate of $50,000,000 would be more likely to fall under than over the mark. A large proportion of these investments is now exposed to the exceptional vicissitudes of the war. Estates have been desolated and crops destroyed by the insurgents and Spaniards alike. Upon those not actually ravaged, operations have been compulsorily suspended, owing to the warnings served by the revolutionists or the withdrawal of protection by the Spanish authorities. The Death of Maceo. Following closely upon this came the heaviest blow the patriot cause had yet suffered, in the death of the Lieutenant-General, Antonio Maceo. He was betrayed by a traitor in his own camp, into falling into an ambush at Punta Brava, on Dec. 7, and was massacred with nearly all his staff, the treacherous physician who had led him to his death going over to the Spaniards in safety, and receiving his reward. Antonio Maceo had been quite the Prince



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438 WAR WITH SPAIN. What became of the soldiers seen on Punta Gorda is not known, Some declared they saw them running to the brow of the hill where the field battery was thought to be stationed. But this, as well as the estimate of the enemy's number, which ranged from four hundred to four thousand, was purely supposition, distance and smoke preventing accurate knowledge. Cease ]Firing v, At I 15 P.m., when the bombardment was at its height, and after it had been in progress for nineteen minutes, Admiral Sampson ordered 11 Cease firing 1. to be sounded. A few shots rang out from the Cincinnati and the Puritan before they caught the signal. On shore all was quiet. Not a soul could be seen there, and there was no more firing. The earthworks a quarter-hour before had presented a fairly regular outline, but now they had a Jagged appearance. Big gaps were plainly visible at Quintas da Recreo, There was not a sign of life there. Admiral Sampson had effectually stopped the work at Punta Gorda. He had drawn the fire of the enemy, and had discovered exactly the quality and location of their batteries, besides affording three ships good target practice. Incidentally he "had put the fear of American guns into Spanish hearts,



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 381 spiring picture! Far from it! Nevertheless, that the Spaniard can fight, and fight well, too, on occasions, has been proved on many a bloodstained field. At Igualada, one of the fiercest battles of the late Carlist war, an entire battalion had to choose between annihilation and surrender, and selected the former. Despite his shuffling gait, too, he marches well and u ncomplainingly. In fact, the Spanish Tommy never seems to tire,) and he is seldom out of temper. Two meals a day, served at 9 a. m. and 5 p. in., constitute the regular commissariat allowances, but, in addition, he is served in some corps with coffee and soup in the early morning. Bread, and bread only, at the rate of a pound and a half per -man per day, constitutes the Government ration. Any additional food he has to buy from the regimental canteen. This is kept by a civilian, but the scale of prices is regulated by a regimental committee. Very little meat enters into the Spanish soldier's dietary. Perhaps this is the reason his wounds heal so rapidly and easily. A chunk of dry, black bread, a little oil, and a clove of garlic suffice him for the day. lThe Cigarette His Solace. If to this he is able to add half a pint of wine that looks like red ink and tastes like vinegar and water, he is in clover. One thing, however, he will never consent to do without, and that is his



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71 Pq Up 4 4 Land Battery-Revolving Gun.



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24 CUBA. habit, of rolling up the dried leaves of a certain herb, setting fire to one end of the roll, putting the other end in their mouths, and alternately inhaling and puffing out the smoke. Such a roll they called a tobacco. The Spaniards were astonishedat this strange practice, but -soon found it pleasant and themselves adopted it, calling the plant from which the rolls were made by the name which the Indians gave to the roll itself. The explorer was disappointed in not finding the Court of Kublai Khan, and now turned to the east and south, and after some days sailing he reached the end of the island, now known as Cape Maysi. Supposing it to be the extreme end of the Asian continent, he called it Alpha and Omega, the Beginning and the End, and then set sail for Hayti. The Second Visit., Columbus's second voyage was directed to the further exploration of Cuba, which he still believed to be the Asian continent. He reached Cape Maysi on April 29, 1494, and proceeded along the southern coast. Here and there he put in at harbors, and inquired of the natives for the land of gold. They all directed him to the southwest, telling him another great land lay there, rich in gold and gems. Doubtless they meant the South American continent. So, on



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6 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 17. After the Shooting of the Crew of the "Virginius" Negroes of the Chain-gang Tumbling the Dead Bodies of the Victims into Mule-carts .... 163 i8. Ex-Captain General D. Valeriano Weyler .1...64 19. Papal Benediction of the Spanish Troops leaving Vittoria for Cuba .................... 8 20. Spanish Troops leaving Barcelona, Spain ....... 182 21. Captain-General Blanco ..... ............ i99 22. Battalion of Spanish Troops before the GovernorGeneral's Palace, Havana .... .......... 200 23. Maximo Gomez, the Chief of the Insurrection .217 24. General Calixto Garcia ..... ............ 218 25. Cuban Staff Officers .... .............. ...235 26. Cubans Attacking a Spanish Regiment ......236 27. Cubans Burning a Deserted Village ......... 253 28. An Insurgent Attack near Vueltas ..... .254 29. Cubans Fighting from the Tree-tops... ....271 30. Spaniards Surrounded by Cubans .... ........ 272 3 1. Battleship "Maine ................. ...289 32. Destruction of the Battleship "Maine" ..... 290 BOOK II. The War with Spain. 33. Wreck of the Battleship "Maine" .......... 307 34. William McKinley, President of the United States .3o8 35. Queen Regent and Alphonso XIII ...... 325 36. Opening the Spanish Cortez .... .......... 326 37. Puerto de Sol, Madrid, Spain ............. ...343 38. General Fitzhugh Lee ... ............. ..344 39. Betore the Blockade of Havana, Cuba ......... 361 40. Prominent Officers of the United States Army and Navy ..... ...... ............. 362



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220 CUBA. Arrival of the Leaders in Cuba. During the first month of the rebellion of 1895, the success of the movement was by no means assured. In fact, its continuance was due solely to the firmness, resolution and courage of the leaders in the field, notably Bartolome Masso and William Moncada. Although these men saw that the people did not respond to the call to arms as quickly as it had been thought they would, none of them would listen to any propositions favoring the abandonment of revolutionary plans. At the beginning of the war Moncada had charge of the forces in the eastern section of the island, including Guantanamo. Major-General Julio Sanguilly was in command of the insurgent forces at Matanzas, near Ybarra, about sixty-six miles east of Havana, on the west end of the island. Soon after the first dispatches were received from Cuba announcing an uprising in Ybarra. other despatches arrived telling of trouble in Guantanamo. The fact that simultaneous insurgent action occurred in parts of the island so widely separated as are these two points, proved conclusively tc all thoughtful people that Cuba was on the brink of another revolution. Still there were many who doubted the success of the movement.. On March 31st Gen. Antonio Maceo and his



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84 CUBA, 7he Captain-Generale The chief of the Cuban Government is a Captain-General, the representative of the Crown, appointed by the home Government and accountable only to that body. Bya royal edict issued June 9th, 1878, his prerogatives are defined as follows: He is the commander of the army and navy, as well as the highest authority in Cuba, and is empowered to overrule any decision at a meeting of the superior authorities, including the courts of judicature under his presidency, and' also to withhold the execution of any order, resolution or law issued by the home Government whenever he deems it advisable to do so. Practically, he has the powers of life and death in his hands and is as absolute as a Czar. As a rule, this office is hizhlv coveted by Spaniards, and, generally speaking, after a short rule, which rarely exceeds a term of three or four years, the majority of its incumbents return home to enjoy the fruits of the harvest, as the emoluments are considerable. The Captain-General has a salary Of $50,ooo a year, a winter palace and a country-seat, horses, carriages, attendants, a retinue of servants, and almost everything, provided for him at the expense of the Government. It is a military office, usually filled by distinguished generals, who have won their laurels in the Spanish army,



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WAR WITH SIPAIN. 491 the state governors to hold themselves in readiness for service, and recruiting offices were opened here and there, to secure new men. Many men of means and prominence interested themselves in the movement in one way or another. Theodore Roosevelt, Assistant Secretary of the Navy, resigned his office in order to raise and lead a regiment of "Rougrh Riders" recruited partly from cow-boys of the West and partly from athletic young men of fashionable society. These fighters were variously called "Roosevelt's Rougrh Riders," "Roosevelt's Rustlers," and "tTeddy's Terrors." John Jacob Astor organized and equipped a fine battery, which was sent to Manila. 'The Seventh Regiment., There was a general uprising of enthusiastic response to the President's call. But there were some hitches and misunderstanding. The -New York Seventh Regiment, one of the finest and most famous. militia organizations in the country, was quick to volunteer. In accord with its splendid history, the regiment wvas filled with patriotism. But when it was found that the regiment would be broken up and lose its identity, the men naturally demurred and voted not to surrender their regimental organization. So they were left behind. The Thirteenth Regiment of Brooklyn, through a stupid blunder, was placed in ,a still more unfortunate position, and for not yielding to



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208 CUBA. will be considered which are beyond my competence. The law of labor is to be settled, the question of labor supply, the necessary changes of property ar-e to be studied, the fearful and unsustainable problem of slavery is to be studied before foreign nations impose a solution of it upon us, the penal code is to be studied and the province of the courts defined, the form of contributions and assessment of taxes determined, and some attention paid to schools and public works. All these problems whose solution concerns the people must be solved after hearing their representatives, not by the reports 'of juntas, chosen through favoritism or for political reasons. They cannot be left to the will of the captain-general, the head of a department, or the colonial minister, who generally, however competent, does not know the country. Campos' Appeal for Justice. "I do not wish to make a momentary peace. I desire that this peace be the beginning of a bond of common interests between Spain and her Cuban provinces, and that this bond be drawn continually closer by the identity of aspirations, and the good faith of both. "Let not the Cubans be considered as pariahs or minors, but put on an equality with other Spaniards in everything not inconsistent with their present condition.



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340 WAR WITH SPAIN. scheme to make his sway over the Holy Roman Empire hereditary, he resigned his crown. That was in in 1556. He gave the Empire to his brother Ferdinand, and his hereditary dominions, Spain, Italy, the Low Countries, and America, to his son Philip. Then he retired to a monastery and died two years later. His son, Philip 11, became the most powerful monarch in Europe. Trhe Modern Triberiu8. But his reign was marked with excessive cruelty. He was despotic and selfish to an extreme degree and has been well called the Tiberius of modern history. He aimed to add the British Isles to his dominion by his marriage with Queen Mary of England, but was disappointed in that ambition. He resolved to destroy Protestantism in his realm, and to that end established the Inquisition in full force, not only in Spain but also in Italy and the Netherlands. In the latter country he was stubbornly resisted by William the Silent. After a bloody war in which the Spanish Commander, the Duke of Alva, was guilty of such cruelties as the world had not seen since the time of Nero, the independence of the Netherlands was gained. That was a serious blow to Spain. It so enraged Philip that he murdered his own son, Charles, for the fault of expressing sympathy with the rebels.



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216 CUBA. America and with the revolutionists in the island itself, had long been preparing for the events which resulted in the now celebrated flag-raising. Famous Men who Organized the IRLebellion, The names of Marti and Gomez are indissolubly connected with the beginning of the revolution. Jose Marti, who was made president of the party, was then about forty years old. His life history reads like that of some hero in fiction. At the time of the breaking out of the Ten Years' War, although he was then merely a boy of fifteen, he was sent to Spain for conspiring against the government. There he was kept confined in a dungeon.' until he was at the point of death, and was finally set free only on con. edition that he would remain in Spain for the rest of his life. He studied at Saragossa, and by the time he was twenty-one years old had received the highest degrees the University could bestow. When the Spanish Republic was proclaimed he left the country by the way of France and returned to the United States. The Cuban war was then nearly over. Nevertheless he went to Mexico and there prepared an expedition to aid his countrymen. It was a failure, but he escaped the clutches. of the Spaniards and went to Central America as a University professor. After the restoration of peace in 1878 be,



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CHAPTER XV. THE STORY OF SPAIN-ROMAN DAYS IN SPAIN-PELAYO -RISE OF SPANISH POWER-THE MODERN TIBERIUS-THE DECLINE OF SPAIN-FERDINAND'S BAD REIGN-THE CARLIST REVOLT-THE LATEST CHAPTER-PORTO RICO-CHARACTER OF THE ISLAND-THE CAPITAL-AN ANCIENT WALLED CITY-THE PHILIPPINES-SPANISH SETTLEMENTS IN 1565-INVADED BY OTHER NATIONSGREATLY OPPRESSED AND TAXED-SOME NATIVES UNSUBDUED-NATIVES MILD AND AMIABLETRADE OF THE ISLANDS-FOREIGN COMMERCE BEGINS. T IS a common complaint made by every gen. eration, that we have fallen upon dull and uneventful times. There are no great things happening nowadays, such as those of which we read of in history. But the complaint is, at least in our day, without foundation. We speak of the fall of the Roman Empire as a colossal event, and so it was. But to-day we are witnessing the fall of an empire which once was in its way as great as that of Rome. The Spanish Empire, which was founded upon the ruins of Rome, and which was once fully comparable with Rome in all its glory, has passed through the various stages of decline and now (334)



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12 CONTENTS. CHAPTER XII. Latest Operations-The "Competitor" Case-Weyler Forced to take the Field-Death of Osgood, the American-Weyler goes out again-Attitude of the Washington Government-The Death of MaceoSpain's Implacable Foe-Maceo's Great Raid-The Hero's Last Campaign-The Final Tragedy-The Demand for Recognition. ........27) CHAPTER XIII. The Murder o. Canovas-Sagasta in; Weyler outMarshal Blanco-McKinley's Words-No Americans in Arrest Now-Offers of Autonomy-Objections to the Scheme-Ruiz and Aranguren-The De Lome Incident-Destruction of the Maine-A Survivor's Story-Effects of the Disaster ..... ... 291 BOOK IHo The War with Spain. CHAPTER XIV. Beginning of our War with Spain-Appealing to the Powers-General Lee Leaves Cuba-No European Meddling-A Bogus Armistice-The President's Message-Grounds for Intervention-The Time for Action Come-Action of Congress-Spanish Defiance-General Woodford Leaves Madrid-War and Blockade-The Challenge Accepted-European Views-Causes of the War-A Striking ContrastSpain Reaping what She Sowed-Spain's Low Estate-Important Step in American Politics .. .309



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86 CUBA. Freedom of the Press. At the close of the rebellion, or so-called Cuban insurrection in 1878, freedom of the pre izs was established, as well as freedom of speech, but in I88I this freedom was modified by an edict requiring every editor or manager of a newspaper to send, duly signed, two copies to Government headquarters and submit two others to the District-Attorney as soon as printed,' who shall determine whether they contain any objectionable matter. By the press law the royal family and the form of government under the Spanish Constitution are tabooed subjects. Editors are often fined and the publications of their journals is suspended for going beyond the cilrcumscribed limits. By a royal edict issued June 9, 1878, Cuba is entitled to elect to the Spanish Cortes one representative for every 40,000 white and colored inhabitants. By another decree, issued shortly after, the island was divided into six provinces. Still another, issued June 21, 1878, provided municipal laws, supplemented with requisite election laws. In each province the administration of affairs is committed to an Assembly, elected by the people, and a Governor sent out from Spain, the incumbent being an officer of the Spanish army. The province is entitled to three representatives for every one of its judicial diSO



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CUBA. 61 Cuban factory. More labor is required and coal is necessary, but it is asserted that the increased expense is more than made up by the larger percentage of sugar obtained from the cane. One of the most prominent planters here has furnished me with a table showing the percentage obtained by seven processes of diffusion by water, the aggregate result being the extraction of over 992 parts of the thousand. The proportion is twelve to ten in favor of the diffusion against the ordinary milling process. About 143 tons a day are produced by diffusion on the plantation to which I have referred, and this is done with machinery which has not been perfected. It would be a singular result if the diffusion process by which the cultivation of European beet sugar has been largely developed and enabled to crowd out cane sugar were adopted generally in Cuba as a means of cheapening and enlarging the product. One manufacturer, who has made sugar by the grinding method for many years, believes that this will happen. He admits that the change of method will involve the abandonment of an extensive plant and the substitution of much new machinery; but he contends that a revolution in the current processes of making cane sugar is impending. The Spanish Government now blocks the way by imposing a duty of one to two dollars a ton on coal. The diffusion



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CHAPTER VI. SAVAGE METHODS OF SPANISH SOLDIERS-SPANISIH TESTIMONY-MEAGRE NEWS IN HAVANA-A REIGN OF CRUELTY-CHARACTER OF THIE WAR -SAFETY OF HAVANA-THE SPANISH MISTAKESTRENGTH OF THE PATRIOTS--EFFECTS OF THE WAR UPON THIE ISLAND-RUINED TOWNS-LITTLE FIGHTING-MUCH DESTRUCTION-TACTICS OF THE TWO ARMIES-TIHE SPANIARDS HALFHEARTED-SLAUGHTE R IN THE FIVE TOWNSOUTRAGES UPON WOMEN-ATROCITIES OF CAMP FOLLOWERS. HE LETTER and spirit of Valmaseda's proclamation, which we quoted in the preceding chapter, wore more than fulfilled. There is in all history no chapter more horrible than that which records the doings of that inhuman monster and his subordinates in Cuba during the Ten Years' War. Neither sex nor age was respected. The honor and lives of the popu lation were at the mercy of the Spanish soldiery, and that soldiery included thousands of the vilest criminals that could be recruited from the prisons of the Old Country. One brigade of the Spanish army consisted exclusively of negroes of the most brutal character, and became famous, or rather (132)



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CUBA. 203 months. T have not always been right, but I have tried to correct my mistakes the moment I became aware of them. A IReview of the Situation. "Since the year 1869, when I landed on this island with the first reinforcements, I was preoccupied with the idea that the insurrection here, though acknowledging as its cause the hatred of Spain, yet that this hatred was due to the causes that have separated our colonies from the mother' country, augmented in the present case by the promises made to the Antilles at different times (1812-'37 and '45), promises which not only have not been fulfilled, but, as I understand, have not been permitted to be so by the Cortes when at different times their execution had been begun. "While the island had no great development, its aspirations were confined by love of nationality and respect for authority; but when one day after another passed without hopes being satisfied, but, on the contrary, the greater freedom permitted now and then by a governor were more than cancelled by his successor; when they were convinced that the colony went on in the same way; when bad officials and a worse administration of justice more and more aggrav ated difficulties; when the provincial governorships, continually growing worse, fell at last into the hands of men without training or education, petty tyrants who



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CUBA. 129 "I St. Every man, from the age of fifteen years upward, found away from his habitation (finca), and who does not prove a justified motive therefor, will be shot. "2d. Every habitation unoccupied will be burned by the troops. "3d. Every habitation from which does not float a white flag, as a signal that its occupants desire peace, will be reduced to ashes. "Women that are not living at their own homes, or at the houses of their relatives, will collect in the town of Jiguani, or Bayamo, where maintenance will be provided. Those who do not present themselves will be conducted forcibly. "The foregoing determinations will commence to take effect on the I4th of the present month." In what manner this order was executed, we shall presently see. American Sympathy Expressed. Numerous expeditions of men and cargoes of arms and ammunition were soon conveyed to Cuba from the United States, and many American citizens did admirable work in the patriot army. A number of severe battles were fought during 1869, in which the patriots generally were victorious. In October there was an epidemic of cholera which, in a few days, carried off thousands of the Spanish troops, while the Cubans, who 8



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72 CUBA. only are allowed for the redemption of the goods. Long ago the time expired and noweverything is at the disposal of the Yankee purt chasers eager to obtain curios or anything tha is very old and at the same time very cheap. Among the Pawn-Shops. There is no more unerring sign of the exhaustion of Cuban resource s than the revelations of these pawn-shops, which monopolize the trade of foreign visitors. In these shops are to be found heirlooms that were handed down from one generation to another; medals of honor for bravery in the field; engagement rings', necklaces, diamonds, antique lace that has been worn by heiresses, and costly fans behind which have shone the dark eyes of the belles of Havana furniture of the colonial period, of which the New' England stock was long ago exhausted by the demands of curiosity-hunters, and silver and china of antiquated patterns, which would be marked up to the highest figures in fashionable New York stores. The pressure of hard times caused by the losses of the patriotic war and by the stupendous folly and supreme selfishness of Spanish economic law have brought all this wealth of bric-a-brac into the cheapest of cheap markets. The pawnbroker nines his price, and it is a low one ; but if he b e offered one-half or one-third as much, he will 'drive a bargain rather than see art



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 413 which, claiming to be civilized and cultivated, have exterminated the unhappy natives of North America, instead of bringing to them the light of civilization and of progress." The Opposing Fleets. The United States fleet, under Commodore Dewey, consisted of the following ships: The flagship Olympia, one of the best cruisers afloat, Captain C. V. Gridley. The cruiser Baltimore, Captain N. M. Dyer. The cruiser Boston, Captain Frank Wildiez. The cruiser Concord, Commander Asa Walker. The cruiser Raleigh, Captain J. B. Coghlan. The gunboat Petrel, Commander E. P. Wood. The dispatch-boat Hugh McCulloch. The steamer Nanshan, storeship. The steamer Zafiro, collier. Opposed to it was the following fleet, commanded by Admiral Montojo: The cruiser Reina Cristina. The cruiser Castilla, The cruiser Velasco. The cruiser Don Juan de Austria. The gunboat Paraguay. The gunboat Ulloa. The gunboat El Cano. The gunboat General Lezo. The gunboat Marquez del Duero.



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CUBA. 179 displayed by that antiquated apology for a fortification, and there was no salute for the American flag, either from the fort or the surrendering sloop of war. "We had a hard time that night-those of us who were aboard the 'Virginius.' It seemed hardly possible that we could keep afloat until morning. During the night the navy tug 'Fortune,' from Key West, met us and remained with the convoy. At noon the next day, when we were about thirty miles south-southeast of Dry Tortugas, the vessels separated, the 'Virginius' and 'Despatch' going to Tortugas and the 'Fortune' returning, with me as a solitary passenger, to Key West, whence I had the honor of reporting the news to the Admiral and of sending an exclusive report of the surrender. "It was the general opinion among the naval officers that the 'Sania' had endeavored to belittle the whole proceeding by smuggling the 'Virginius' out of Havana, by selecting an obscure harbor not a port of entry as the place of surrender and by turning the duty of surrender over to a surveying sloop, while the 'Tornado,' which made the capture, lay in the harbor of Havana and the 'Isabella la Catholica,' which had been selected as convoy, steamed back to Havana under cover of the night. The American officers and American residents in Cuba and Key West



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CUBA. 243 cloak of impenetrable obscurity, Inferior physically, unsoldierly in bearing, exhibiting no trace of refined sensibilities nor pleasure in the gentle associations that others live for, or at least seek as diversions, he is nevertheless the embodiment of mental acuteness, crafty, unscrupulous, fearless and of indomitable perseverance. Weyler's Arrival. Weyler arrived at Havana on February io, 1896. The Spanish cruiser Alfonso XIII. arrived off Morro Castle at 9 that morning, and at io entered the harbor. She was saluted by the Morro guns, and by thunders of artillery from the Cabanas fortress, and the flags of the ships in the harbor dipped a welcome. With the new Captain-General came Gens. Barges, Arolas and the Marquis de Ahumada, who had been designated second in command. When Weyler disembarked about noon, the civil and military officials escorted him to the palace through streets lined with people and the city was decorated with flags, flowers and red blankets. Gen. XVeyler went on foot to the palace. He took the oath of office, and then he received the leading citizens, some grandees of Spain, heads of commercial bodies, leaders of political parties and the foreign consuls. The Plaza de Armas, near the palace, was packed with men, women and children, who shouted, while bands of



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CUBA. 23 country. Then he cast anchor in the bay of a river just west of Nuevitas del Principe, and went ashore, taking formal possession of the land in the name of Spain. He spent many days in exploring the coast, landing here and there and visiting the native villages. The inhabitants were a race of Indians of gentle demeanor. They lived in a state of happy tranquillity among themselves, and possessed a religion devoid of rites and ceremonies, but inculcating a belief in the existence of a great and beneficent Deity and in the immortality of the soul. Columbus went along the coast toward the northwest, until he reached a great headland which he called the Cape of Palms. Beyond this he was told there was a river up which it was only four days' journey to Cubanacan." By this the natives meant merely the interior of the island. But Columbus thought they meant the land of Kublai Khan, and was thus convinced that he was at last on the main land of Asia, near the rich realms of Cathay. He accordingly sent an embassy into the interior, to visit the Prince who ruled over those regions. The embassadors returned to the ship, however, after going inland twelve leagues, and reported that they had found no city and no prince and nothing but Indian villages. Neither did they find any gold. But they observed that the natives practiced a curious



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CUBA. 303 the earliest to reach that spot. So soon as I recognized the officers, I ordered the high explosives to be flooded, and I then directed that the boats available be lowered to rescue the wounded or drowning. "Discipline in a perfect measure prevailed. There was no more confusion than a call to general quarters would produce, if as much. I soon saw, by the light of the flames, that all my officers and crew left alive and on board surrounded me. I cannot form any idea of the time, but it seemed five minutes from the time I reached the poop until I left, the last man it was possible to reach having been saved. It must have been three-quarters of an hour or more, however, from the amount of work done." Ak Survivor's Story. A graphic and detailed account of the disaster is given by Lieutenant Blandin, one of the officers of the Maine. H e says: "I was on watch, and when the men had been piped below I looked down the main hatches and over the side of the ship. Everything was absolutely normal. I walked aft to the quarter-deck, behind the rear turret, as is allowed after 8 o'clock in the evening, and sat down on the port side, where I remained for a few minutes. Then, for some reason I cannot explain to myself nlow,I



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 317 "Fourth-And which is of the utmost importance. The present condition of affairs in Cuba is a constant menace to our peace, and entails upon this Government an enormous expense. With such a conflict waged for years in an island so near us and with which our people have such trade and business relations-when the lives and liberty of our citizens are in constant danger and their property destroyed and themselves ruined-where our trading vessels are liable to seizure and are seized at our very door by warships of a foreign nation, the expeditions of filibustering that we are powerless altogether to prevent, and the irritating questions and entanglements thus arising-all these and others that I need not mention, with the resulting strained relations, are a constant menace to our peace and compel us to keep on a semi-war footing with a war nation with which we are at peace. The Time for Action Come. "The long trial has proved that the object for which Spain has waged the war cannot be attained. The fire of insurrection may flame or may smoulder with varying seasons, but it has not been and it is plain that it cannot be extinguished by present methods. The only hope of relief and repose from a condition which can no longer be endured, is the enforced pacification of Cuba. In the name of humanity, in the name of



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248 CUBA. morning a detachment of twenty took a position on the main road leading into Havana from the west, only three miles from the city, and held up the milkmen coming in. They were carrying "food and comfort to the Spanish," as the insurgent leader expressed it as he dumped the cargoes into the ditch. The victims were perhaps fortunate to escape with their lives, as the penalty for supplying food to a town held by the Spanish was the destruction of the farmer's property, or, if he had had several warnings previously, he was likely to be shot. The significance of this occurrence was that it was only three miles from Havana. General Weyler's thirty days' war, therefore would have to begin close to the gates of the city and comprise the subjugation of the island in that time. The Telegraph Lines. Every telegraph line between Havana and the rest of the island was cut off on February I4th. A line to Rincon, ten miles out, was the extent of communication with the rest of Cuba. The rebels controlled absolutely the telegraph lines of the whole island, and all efforts of the Spanish to preserve communication with the interior were unavailing. Weyler's Proclamations. Instead of going out to fight, General Weyler began issuing proclamations. On February i6th



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410 WAR WITH SPAIN. Some hours later, or just after dark, the Lafayette was again detected trying to slip through the line of the blockading squadron, and the Annapolis again gave chase. The Wilmington, the Vicksburg and two of the tugs joined in the hunt, and, after another gun was fired across the Frenchman's bows, she again hove to. This time a permanent boarding crew under Ensign Segamond, of the Wilmington, was placed aboard, and, escorted by the latter vessel, the prize was headed for Key West, where she arrived early next morning. Her arrival there caused considerable sensation, as it was said that she had left Corunna after the bloekade had been declared, and that she carried among her 161 passengers a number of officers of the Spanish army, besides arms, ammunition, medicine and other contraband of war. Early in the day the prize commission went out to the Lafayette and made a critical examination of her manifest. While this work was in progress a note was received from Commodore Watson, who had just taken command of the squadron, saying that he had received orders from Washington requiring him to release the Lafayette and have her convoyed to Havana by a man-of-war. The ship's papers were at once returned to her commander and he was informed that he was free to go to Havana.



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430, WAR WITH SPAIN. was promoted to a captaincy in September, 1884, commanding the Dolphin in the same year. He was next transferred to the Pensacola, on the European station. In 1889 he was summoned to Washington, to Ibecome for four years the chief of the Bureau of Equipment and Recruiting, and that service was succeeded by another detail to the Lighthouse Board. From this duty he was relieved to accept the presidency of the important Board of Inspection and Review, which he held, until, as a commodore, he was sent in November, 1897, to command the Asiatic station. Taking Possession of the Philippines. A few days after the victory at Manila, the Washington Government took steps toward the complete and permanent occupation of the Philippine Islands. The great warships Monterey and Monadnock and the cruiser Charleston were sent thither to reinforce Dewey')s fleet, and MajorGeneral Merritt, with an army Of 20,000 men, was sent out to assume control as Military Governor. His commission clothed him with greater discretionary powers than had ever up to that time been granted to an agent of this Government. Except in his relations with foreign Powers growing out of possible complications in the East, which are to be referred to Washington for negotiation', General Merritt's control of affairs will be practically supreme.



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CHAPTER V. OUTBREAK OF THE TEN YEARS' WAR IN 1868THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE -THE SPANISH REPLY-WAR IN EARNEST-PROCLAMATION OF FREEDOM-REGULAR GOVERNMENT FORMED -VALMASEDA'S BLOODY ORDERS AMERICAN SYMPATHY EXPRESSED-A SPECIAL MESSAGE. \HAT APPEARED to be at last the dawn of deliverance for Cuba came in 1868. On October ioth of that year the illustrious patriot Cespedes raised the five-barred and single-starred flag of Cuba at Yara in the District of Bayamo and, with his associates, made public a declaration of independence. The advance party in Cuba at once cast in their lot with him, and the insurrection quickly assumed formidable dimensions in the Eastern portion of the island. Cespedes was a native Cuban of distinguished ancestry and high culture. He was a lawyer by profession, but owned a considerable estate. He began his work for Cuba by giving his two hundred slaves their liberty, whereupon to a man they enlisted under the banner of the Cuban Republic and (117)



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 471 Her builders were justified in expecting great things from the Oregon, because of her remarkable performance on May 14, 1896, when, after months of preparation and many trials, she made her official trial run out of the harbor of San Francisco. At that time she not only fulfilled the promises made by her builders, but exceeded the required speed to such an extent that the Union Iron Works received a bonus of $175,000. She carried i 6o pounds of steam, and, although her engines were not crowded to their utmost capacity, she made 16.78 knots an hour. The prize was $25,000 for every one-fourth knot developed over the required speed of fifteen knots an hour. The performance of the Oregon was telegraphed all over the world, the builders were elated over their success, and the city of Portland showed its appreciation by presenting a silver service, valued at $20,000 to the ship. The Oregon's Commander. Captain Charles Edgar Clark, the commander of the Oregon, was born in Vermont, and was appointed to the Naval Academy, from that state in i86o. In 1863 he was promoted to ensign and assigned to the steam sloop Ossipee, of the Western Gulf blockading squadron. He was with his vessel in the battle of Mobile Bay, and took part in the bombardment of Fort Morgan. From I865 to 1867 he was with Vanderbilt on the Pacific 27



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 473 the point of view of those who go down to sea in ships, the voyage is none the less noteworthy because of its length, its freedom from accident, and the speed which the good ship maintained throughout. From the point of view of the patriot, it is a most satisfactory evidence that American brains can build a ship that can stand such a trip, and that American sailors can pilot such a ship through the perilous sea that beats on the South American coast, especially when a murderous foe is hovering near to destroy her.



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156 CUBA. solitary, through which smugglers of every description can thread their way with perfect impunity, dodging the coastguards from islet to islet, and choosing their own time and spot to land their cargo. The Spanish cruisers might as well hope to scoop out the Gulf of Mexico with a teaspoon as to put any check upon the Cuban contraband of war. The Spaniards Half-Hlearted. "But in reality both the land and sea forces of Spain are only half-hearted in the work; the soldiers especially are so ill paid, so ill-fed and exposed to such sufferings from the climate that desertions to the enemy are becoming of frequent occurrence, even among the non-com missioned officers, some of whom are to be heard of now among the most skillful and adventurous insurgent leaders. For their own part, the Spanish commanding officers, anxious to fill vacancies in the ranks, enlist adventurers of every description, and even the despised Chinese coolies are occasionally to be seen clad in Spanish uniforms; but in the 'ranks immediately below the supreme commanders there are men, as I have said, to whom the war insures comparatively easy work with exceptionally speedy promotion; these find their advantag-e in the indefinite prolongation of hostilities and have means to prolong them at their own 'discretion. Military men, like other



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544 WAR WITH SPAIN. The Spaniards were completely taken by surprise. Almost the first they knew of the approach of the army of invasion was in the announcement contained in the firing of a gun from the Gloucester, saucily demanding that the Spaniards haul down tbe flagr of Spain which was floating from a flagstaff in front of a blockhouse standing to the east of the village. The first couple Of 3-pounders were fired into the hills right, and left of the bay in order to scare the enemy. The fighting yacht purposely avoided firing into the town, lest her projectiles hurt the women and children. The Gloucester then hove to within about six hundred yards of the shore and lowered a launch, having on board a Colt rapid-fire gun and thirty men, under the command of Lieutenant Huse. She was sent ashore without encountering any opposition. Quartermaster Bock thereupon told Yeoman Lacy to haul down the Spanish flag, which was done, and they then raised on the flagstaff the first United States flag to float over Porto Rican soil. Suddenly about thirty Spaniards opened fire with Mauser rifles on 'the American party. Lieutenant Huse and his men responded with great gallantry, the Colt gun doing effective work.



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422 WAR WITH SPAINo berton with tears in his eyes, and cried, "For G od's sake, Captain, don't stop now; let's finish )em up right off. To hell with breakfast." Old Purdy, a privileged petty officer because he had served in the navy or army nearly fifty years, was greeted by the Commodore on Saturday, when the old man shifted his quid and said, "I hope you won't fight on the third of May, Commodore.," "Why not?" asked the Commodore. "Well, you see, I got licked the last time I fought on that date," he answered. Purdy had been with Hooker at Chancellorsville, and he did not like that anniversary. ]Finishing the Jobe Dewey took his time. He told the men to eat a good breakfast, and get well rested. Then, a little before ten o'clock, action was resumed. The ships now paid special attention to the shore batteries. A tremendous fire was rained upon them, and beforelong their fire slackened, and ultimately all were silenced. Meantime the Spanish warships had not been neglected, and a transport had been sent to the bottom. About ten o'clock occurred one of the most stirring scenes of a stirring day. The Spanish cruiser Don Antonio de Ulloa had made a h eroic fight. The great guns of the powerful American cruisers had swept her decks of every structure,



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500 WAR WITH SPAIN. the Spaniards. A small party of marines, with some Cuban allies, marched five miles across the hills under a scorching tropical sun. At two hundred yards' distance from the Spanish camp the fight began. Very few Spaniards were in sight. Theywere lying behind the huts and in the brush, but puffs of smoke revealed their positions and enabled the Americans to do effective work. For twenty minutes both sides maintained a terrific fire. The Spanish shots were generally wild and spasmodic, while the Americans coolly fired away, aiming carefully and shooting to kill. For the most part our firing was done individually, but at times the officers could direct firing by squads, always with telling effect. Spaniards ltush for the Bushes. It was beginning to look as though a bayonet charge down the slope would be necessary to dislodge the enemy, when suddenly the latter began to break for a thicket a hundred yards further on. Little groups could be seen fleeing from the camp, separating, darting through the brush and zigzagging to escape the bullets. It was then the American fire became most deadly. Man after man could be seen to fall in a vain rush for shelter, and the fire from the Spanish became scattering and almost ceased. Two Cubans lay dead and four wounded;



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320 WAR WITH SPAIN. Fourth-That the United States hereby disclaims any disposition. or intention to exercise sovereignty, jurisdiction or control over said island, except for the pacification thereof, and asserts its determination when that is -accomplished to loave-the government and control of the island to its people. This meant business. The President promptly signed the intervention act and sent a note to Spain requesting her to withdraw from Cuba and let the United States restore order. At the same time, United States warships began to gather in the Gulf of Mexico and the United States army was gradually moved eastward and southward toward Florida. Spanish Defiance. Spain met all this with defiance. On April 19th the Prime Minister made a bellicose speech to his supporters in the Cortes in which he railed at and maligned the United States, declaring the intervention act to be the most infamous insult ever offered to a nation, and declaring that Spain would fight to the bitter end before she would yield an inch to the United States. The next day the Cortes met. The Queen came in person to deliver her speech, reading it, seated upon the throne, with the boy King standing at her right hand. Her speech followed the lines of the Prime Minister of the 'day before, accusing the United States of insult and aggression and urging the Spanish Government to



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CUBA. 77 tries of the island were carried on with success on the verdant hillsides and undulating plains encircling its spacious and picturesque harbor. The Yumuri Valley was dotted with country seats, where rich planters entertained their guests with prodigal hospitality. Their massive town houses were miniature palaces built with showy colonnades and stone verandas, and furnished with lavish expense. On the coast were their summer cottages, where their families could enjoy the refreshing northern sea-breeze in seasons of inclement heat. The San Carlos Paseo was blocked with carriages in the afternoon, and the evenings were filled with gayety and sumptuous entertainment. All is now changed. Emancipation and the insurrection impoverished the rich planters. Many of the finest estates passed into the hands of Spanish immigrants and adventurers, who have been condemned to maintain an exhausting and ruinous struggle against a system grounded upon violations of economic law. Planters who have escaped confiscation and conformed to the conditions of free labor have witnessed the gradual shrinkage of the profits of their industries and the collapse of their fortunes. Costly residences which were once valued at $50,OOO are now offered, without purchasers, at $25,ooo. Depreciation of values is even greater here than in Havana.



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CUBA. 107 international treaty, it has done so reluctantly and in the anxious expectation of an opportunity to nullify its own promises. This explains the accidental history of the Reciprocity Treaty with the United States, which was received with joy by Cuba, obstructed by the Spanish administration and prematurely abolished by the Spanish Government as soon as it saw an opportunity. The injury done to Cuba, and the evil effects produced by this commercial legislation are beyond calculation; its effects have been material losses, which have engendered profound discontent. The "Circulo de Hacendados y Agricultores," the wealthiest corporation of the island, in 1894 passed judgment on these commercial laws in the following severe terms: "It would be impossible to explain, should the attempt be made, what is the signification of the present commercial laws, as regards any economical or political plan or system; because, economically, they aim at the destruction of public wealth, and politically they are the cause of inexlinguisale discontent, and contain the germs af grave dissensions." Salaried Carpet-Baggers. But Spain has not taken heed of this; her only care has been to keep the producers and merchants of such rebellious provinces as Catalonia contented.



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226 CUBA. and 40,000 cartridges. These operations were directed by Gen. Maceo. Next came" the attack on and capture of the fort of Ramon de las Yaguas, where the Cubans took possession of 15o rifles and 30,000 cartridges. Shortly after they attacked and captured the small port of Campechuela, which they held for two or three days. On March 27, the Queen Regent of Spain received the resignation of General Calleja. A Cabinet meeting was called to consider the situation; the Queen Regent presided. Martinez Campos was selected as Calleja's successor and he accepted the commission to go to Cuba at the head of reinforcements. He declared that as soon as he landed on the island he would proceed with operations designed to put down the revolt at once. Subsequent events proved that his intentions were better than his powers of fulfilment. Ironical Gratitude. On April 15 the former Governor-General of Cuba, General Calleja, received from Madrid an official dispatch in which the Queen Regent and her Government tendered him their thanks for "the activity, zeal and ability with which he had directed military operations." Warm thanks were also extended for the bravery displayed by the army, the navy and the volunteers.



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 513 six hundred yards of the blockhouse the Spaniards abandoned it. They scattered among the brush up another hill in the direction of Santiago, and the battle ended. T'he General Advance. just a week later, on July I, a general advance was made and a tremendous battle was fought in the very outskirts of Santiago, fully 15,000 men being engaged on our side and fully as many more on the Spanish side. The first shot in it was fired from a battery by Captain Capron, father of the Captain Capron who met his death so bravely at La Quasina. Many dramatic incidents occurred during the day, with numerous evidences of splendid personal bravery of the American officers and men in their work of continuous and intense physical strain, owing to the hills and swamps and the fierce tropical sun which beat down upon them the greater part of the day. Skill and Valor of Cubans. The Cubans behaved with skill and valor, and rendered valuable aid. General Garcia and other Cuban generals led the troops in person, and showed great coolness in tight places. The Spaniards fought stubbornly throughout, and their retreat, though steady, was slowly and coolly conducted. They contested every inch of the way, and fought with unexpected skill, their



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 419 garrison, and in an instant several shells were sent screaming over the water, toward the ships. They fell wide of the mark, however, and the fleet swept on uninjured. But it was not 'in Yankee blood to be shot at without reply. In the uncertain light the gunners of the Raleigh, Concord and Boston fired back, without a moment checking the progress of the ships. Their shells went straight to the mark, and the forts ashore were quickly silenced. Then Dewey gave orders for the men to lie down and sleep for an hour or two before the day's work began. 1rhe Battle of Manila*, It was a calm and lovely Sunday morning, when the American fleet came sweeping slowly up the sparkling waters of Manila Bay. All was serene and peaceful. The Spanish ships were lying close to the shore, under the guns of the forts at Cavite, at the south side of the bay. Some of the ffi were behind its great stone breakwater. The Olympia led the advance with not a sign of life about her, nor any. sound nor motion save the measured throbbing of her mighty engines. The Spanish began firing first, their shells dropping all around the Olympia, but doing her bo harm. Then, as a shell burst directly over her, a hoarse cry came from the boatswain's mate at the after 5-inch gun, and 11 Remember the Maine! arose from the five hundred men at the



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176 CUBA. Capt. Whiting. After an exchange of courteous salutations, Commander de la Camera remarked that he had received a copy of the protocol providing for the surrender of the 'Virginius,' and that the surrender might now be considered to have taken place. Captain Whiting replied that under his instructions the following day was named for the surrender, and that he could not receive it until that time. Meanwhile he would thank the Spanish officer to continue inpossession. Nine o'clock on Tuesday morning was then agreed upon as the hour, and after informing the American officer that there was coal enough on board of the Virginius to last six days, salutes were exchanged and the Spanish officer retired. "The next morning, half an hour ahead of time, the gig of the Favorita' came over to the 'Virginius.' It contained oarsmen and a single officer. As the latter stepped on deck a petty officer and a half dozen men, who had stood watch on the 'Virginius' during the night, went over the side and remained in a dingy awaiting orders. At 9 precisely by the bells the American flag again flew to the flagstaff of the 'Virginius,' and at the same moment a boat containing Capt. Whiting and Lieut. Marix put away from the 'Despatch.' As they ascended the accommodation ladder of the 'Virginius' the single man on deck, who proved to be Senor de la Camera,



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 557 tocol binding was administered by Assistant Secretary Cridler, in charge of the chancery work, who attached the seal of the United States. Throughout the ceremony all but the two signers remained standing. M. Cambon, in signing for Spain, occupied the seat which Secretary Long, now away on a vacation, usually occupied. The President stood at the left-hand corner, at the head of the great Cabinet table Secretary Day, M. Thiebaut and M. Cambon, in the order named, on the left side of the table. The rest of the party were standing in other parts of the room. Word was immediately sent to all commanders of the army and navy, informing them that the protocol was signed and instructing them to suspend at once all hostile operations. Text of the Protocol. The full text of the protocol, which thus ended the war, was as follows: His Excellency M. Cambon, Ambassador Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the French Republic at Washington, and Mr. Wm. R. Day, Secretary of State of the United States, having received respectively to that effect plenary powers from the Spanish Government and the Government of the United States, have established and signed the following articles, which define the terms on which the two Governments have agreed with regard to the questions



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 435 eral quarters! was sounded, and the men rushed eagerly to the guns. When the New York was about 4,000 yards from Punta Gorda, the order to begin firing was given. Cadet Boone, in charge of an 8-inch gun amidships on the port side, fired the first shot. This was at 12.56 p. m. Fifty pairs of glasses were levelled from the flagship at the shore. It seemed minutes before the yellow smoke -cleared away, but in reality it was less than five seconds. Then a little cloud of dust was seen to rise at the right of the earthworks. For the first attempt at 4,000 yards it was by no means a bad shot. Without the aid of glasses the objective point could be clearly defined. With a deafening roar the 8-inch gun in the forward turret let fly its iron missile. It landed high. The after turret came next with the same sized projectile. A shout of delight went up from the flagship as a dense cloud rose slowly from the very centre of the earthworks, showing how true had been the aim. Then from the entire port side a fearful fusillade was poured on the shore, the four turret guns firing almost simultaneously and the 4-inch guns adding their smaller hail. When the smoke blew away Punta Gorda was dotted with dust clouds that looked like miniature geysers springing suddenly from the earth. Each showed where a shot had struck. 25



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CUBA, 135 of them, wounded many more and took fourteen horses and one rifle." In another report we hear there were "three rebels killed, seven prisoners, one of these latter wounded; three muskets were taken, and fifteen small arms;two able-bodied men surrendered." In another encounter the trophies were "1six prisoners and a mule." And again, two prisoners and three fire-arms, with the surrender of forty between women and children _Persornas defarnilia. These monotonous and somewhat *meagre accounts constitute the annals of the war. The bulletins are almost stereotyped, one seemingly a transcript of the other. By the people here they are read with a sneer and a shrug of the shoulders. Not that the reports need be altogether disbelieved, or that more credit should be given to the counter-statements circulating in whispers among the disaffected, by which the alleged encounters are celebrated as rebel victories. To hear these, the rebels' horses cannot have been taken in open fight, as the insurgents have no horses, but from the inoffensive and defenceless peasantry upon whom the troops wreak the vengeance of their defeats. As to the killed and wounded, the prisoners, the women and children who surrendered, they are the illfated owners of the horses, who are treated as rebels if they venture to raise any complaint about the loss of their property. It little matters



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CUBA. 105 any industry. On the other hand, those foreign countries, desirous of acquiring the rich tobaccoraising industry, have closed their markets to this privileged product, by imposing upon it excessive import duties while the Spanish government burdens its exportation from Cuban ports with a duty of $i.8o on every thousand cigars. Is this not a stroke of actual insanity ? Bad Commercial ii4awso Everybody is aware of the tremendous crisis through which the sugar industry has been passino for some years, owing to the rapid development of the production of this article everywhere. Every government has hastened to protect its own by more or less empirical measures. This is not the place to judge them. What is important is to recall the fact that they have endeavored to place the threatened industry in the best condition to withstand the competition. What has Spain done in order, if not to maintain the strong position held before by Cuba, at least to enable the Colony to carry on the competition with its every day more formidable rivals ? Spain pays bounties to the sugar produced within its own territory, and closes its markets to the Cuban sugar, by imposing upon it an import duty of $6.20 per hundred kilograms. It has been calculated that a hundredweight of Cuban sugar is overburdened when reaching the Barcelona market with 143 per



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----------Battleship Oregon.



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 4,65 coa or onh his 'way" thither. Ca ptain Clark did not Permit his ignorance of the position of his foes to worry him, however, .and on the dayiof his arrival he again set sail, this time for his own land. His course was almost a semi-circular one, swinging around to the eastward of the Windward Isles and avoiding the tortuous channels of the Bahamas until the Florida coast was reached. Jupiter Light was -sighted. about 8 o'clock on the evening of May 24, and volunteers were called for to man a boat and carry dispatches ashore. End of the Great Voyage. The dispatches of the Navy Department from Captain Clark -were characteristic of the man. They simply related that hehad arrived and asked -for orders. Immediately there came this reply: "If you are ready' for service, go to Key West. If you need repairs go to Norfolk. LONG." Without an hour's delay, the Oregon was headed for Key West, which was reached at 6 O'clock next morning, the trip from Jupiter Light being made at an average speed of 13 knots an hour. This is the tale of the long, historic and remarkable voyage. It needs no embellishment. When asked what incidents marked the voyage, Captain. Clark said:



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, 011 -2 E n, U11 ............ IR" it ... ..... General D. Valeriano Weyler, ZxCaptain -General and Spanish Commander-in -Chief in Cuba.



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136 CUBA. to which of the conflicting versions we listen, for in point of "imaginative" powers there is not a doit to choose between Creoles and Peninsulars. The phenomenon is that such skirmishing should go on from day to day for four years without more decisive results, and that, while both parties are at the trouble of inventing, they should task our credulity to no greater lengths. A Reign of Cruelty. "All allowance being made for gross exaggeration on both sides, there can be little doubt about the ruthless character of these Cuban hostilities. So long as I only read printed reports I might be loth to believe that "women and children have been murdered after nameless outrages; whole families hacked to pieces, prisoners invariably killed after horrible tortures-roasted alive, or their bodies mutilated with grotesque indecency;" but a closer approach to the scene of action has made me somewhat less skeptic, and at all events there can be no doubt that there is a vast deal of shooting in cold blood, as is freely' admitted, not without much boasting, on either side. And property fares no better than human life in belligerents' hands. I know from the very best authority that in the district of Trinidad de Cuba, one of the oldest settlements in the central department of the island, about two-thirds of the sugar and coffee estates, and of the polreros, or



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454 WAR WITH SPAIN. shore battery. This was speedily done, Ensign Payne firing the forward gun, and Lieutenant Catlin the after one, and their shots began to fall thick and fast on shore. Another shot was fired from the gun on shore, and the shell whistled over the stern of the ship and struck the water a few yards beyond. Spaniards on the Run. 'That was the last shot from that gun, as one of the 6-pound shells struck the gun and disabled it, and the Spaniards around could be seen flying to the old Morro for shelter. A mortar battery then opened fire from the brow of a hill on Caspar Point,, well back in the bay, and the shells began to fall around the ship dangerously near, some falling a little short of the ship, while others passed close overhead, with an unearthly scream, which seemed to say, "Where are you? and then plunged in the water just beyond the ship. This battery was out of range of the small guns of the St. Louis. The little tug Wampatuck, commanded by Lieutenant Karl Jungen, then came up just ahead of the ship and opened fire with her one little 3-pounder, Quartermaster Reynolds, one of the famous Jamison raiders, firing the gun, and did excellent work. Another battery to the west of the entrance opened fire, but it was silenced after it had fired a few shots, and the gunners engaged in a foot-race similar



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 429 the batteries of Port Hudson on March 21, 1863, grounded and heeled to port. In spite of the desperate efforts of the crew, she could not be saved. The enemy, getting the range, poured, shell after shell into her hull, and Captain Smith ordered her fired, and the crew escaped in their boats. After the destruction of the Mississippi, Lieutenant Dewey was assigned to the steamboat AgYawam, of the North Atlantic blockading fleet, and assisted in two attacks on Fort Fisher-one in December, 1864, and the other in January, 1865. On March 3, 1865, he was commissioned lieutenant-com man der, and served on the old Kearsarge. At the close of the war he went aboard the Colorado, the flagship of the European squadron, and remained on her until 1867. For two years thereafter he did shore duty, being assigned to the Naval Academy. He was next placed in command of the Narragansett, in special service, in 18 7o and I87 1, and was again assigned to shore duty a year later at the Torpedo Station. He was made a commander on April 13, 1873, and was in charge of the Narragansett on the Pacific survey until 1875, when he was appointed lighthouse inspector for two years. He then became secretary of the Board, and retained that post until 1882. In command of the Juniata, of the Asiatic squadron, from 1882 to 1883, he



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202 CUBA. "These elections are guarantees of good faith. Concerning Sancti Spiritus and Villas, with the exception of the thirty men of Cecilio Gonzalez, I harbor no doubt, only an outlaw or two and the runaway negroes will be left in the field, isolated, without flag and without arms; in Principe, possibly, a gathering or so of what are called planleados, who obey no one, and whom the very insurgents have almost exterminated. The End at Last. "In Bayamo the leaders who remain have given assurances that they will consult with the commissioners and are calling in their scattered followers. In Tunas and Holguin, Vincente Garcia has every kind of influence. In Cuba, Maceo respects only Maximo Gomez, and all affirm that he will obey the dispositions of his government. I am not confident but he will be left reduced to the last extremity without the bands of Edwardo Marinol, Limbano Sanchez, Martinez Freire, and Leite Vidal, and only a part of the people of his brother Antonio Maceo, Guellermon, and Crombet will follow him. In any event parties of banditti will remain in those mountains. "This is, in conclusion, a loose narrative of what has happened and of my present impressions and hopes. It only remains to set before you a sketch of the motives of my policy, and the reasons on which I have based my conduct in these sixteen



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550 WAR, WIT11 SPAIN. hazardous work, but blufff carried him through. He took the Spanish -colors of the schooner, ran them up and boldly sailed in. Surprised Spanish Sailors.* There were six men on the two other boats and they watched the approach of their supposed compatriots with calmness that speedily changed to consternation when Nevis and the other 'jackie" suddenly whipped their rifles to their shoulders. and demanded an immediate surrender. The scared Spanish seamen lost no time in complying and had the unique experience of surrendering to their own flag. Then scorning all aid, Nevis took them out to his boat and in the most matter-of-fact manner reported his adventure to his astonished commander. The capture was no mean one, for the prisoners gave important information to the American ship. On to Havana. A definite movement against Havana, by way of the south coast, was begun on August 10. On that day an expedition of the Marine Corps set out for the Isle of Pines, the source from which Havana was drawing most of its supplies. The plan was to take possession of that island and thus cut off supplies, and at the same time secure a -fine base of operation for an advance across the narrowest part of Cuba to take Havana in the rear.



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 541 Private Property Rights Respected. "Private property, whether belonging to individuals or corporations, is to be respected, and can be confiscated only as hereafter indicated. Means of transportation, such as telegraph lines and cables, railways and boats may, although they belong to private individuals or corporations, be seized by the military occupant, but, unless destroyed under military necessity, are not to be retained. "W1-le it is held to be the right of the conqueror to levy contributions upon the enemy in their seaports, towns or provinces which may be in his military possession by conquest, and to apply the proceeds to defray the expenses of the war, this right is to be exercised within such limitations that it may not savor of confiscation. As the result of military occupation the taxes and duties payable by the inhabitants to the former Government become payable to the military occupant, unless he sees fit to substitute for them other rates or modes of contribution to the expenses of the Government. The moneys so collected are to be used for the purpose of paying the expenses of government under the military occupation, such as the salaries of the judges and the police, and for the payment of the-expenses of the army. "Private property taken for the use of the army is to be paid for when possible in cash at a



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310 WAR WITH SPAIN. governments, and also that a peaceful adjustment of affairs in Cuba on a basis of honor and equity, would be secured. Day by day the chances of such settlement grew more remote. Day by day the urgency of intervention by the United States in Cuba became more apparent. The demand for it grew more urgent. But the President waited. He knew that intervention meant war and he knew that the country was not prepared for war, nor indeed had the resources of diplomacy been so thoroughly exhausted as to justify intervention and war in the eyes of the world. He therefore kept on trying every peaceful and diplomatic means to settle the controversy with Spain, in the meantime pushing military and naval preparations for work quietly but as expeditiously as possible. Congress became impatient, -but he resisted its appeals for haste, promising to remit the whole case to it as soon as all diplomatic measures had been tried. Appealing to the Powerso Spain made desperate appeals to the, European powers for aid. Some of them were inclined to intervene in her behalf against the United States, but it was out of the question to do so, unless the six Great Powers could agree to act in concert. This could not be done, because Great Britain positively refused to take any part in such action, and even let it be understood, in the most



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CUBA. 239 Gomez to plan an important movement toward the west. He announced that by Christmas he would be with his army near Matanzas and Havana. At the same time he issued an order to all the planters of Santa Clara, Matanzas and Havana that they must-not grind sugar-cane this year. General Martinez Campos replied that the sugar crop would certainly be harvested this year, and that he would see to it, promising that by December there would not be a single rebel left in Santa Clara province. A Spanish Force Wiped Out. A terrible combat took place on December 9th, at Minas, in Puerto Principe, between eighty Spanish troops, under Gruesa, and a party of rebels numbering 500 men commanded by Lopez Recio and Rodriguez. The struggle was a sanguinary one, the rebels using machetes with terrible effect. The superior force of the enemy rendered a victory for the troops impossible. Of the Spanish force twenty-three were killed, eight wounded, eighteen were taken prisoners and fourteen missing. Among the rebels killed were Oscar Primelles, Eugenio Recio and Angel Espinosa. Commandante Caballeros was wounded. After the combat Lopez Recio sent the mounted troops to the Senado plantation. On the day following the fight the Spanish prisoners were set at liberty by their captors.



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 535 s ide retained a copy. Before the Spanish Commissioners signed it Captain-General Blanco sent his approval of the agreement, but added that he must still consult the Government at Madrid. He therefore wanted the matter postponed until he received an answer from Madrid. The Americans refused this, but agreed that the signatures should be conditional. The ratification of the terms by the Madrid Government soon came, and the surrender was completed. Great lRejoicings. The news of this triumph was received with great rejoicing in the United States, and the following messages were promptly sent: WASHINGTON, D. C., July 16. "General Skaf/er, Commanding Front, near Santiago, Playa: "The President of the United States sends to you and your brave army the profound thanks of the American people for the brilliant achievements at Santiago, resulting in the surrender of the city and all of the Spanish troops and territory, under General Toral. "1Your splendid command has endured not only the hardships and sacrifices incident to campaign and battle, but in stress of heat and weather has triumphed over obstacles which would have overcome men less brave and determined.



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CUBA. 231 Who the Leaders Were. The Spanish Government had taken great pains to convince the world, and especially the people of this country, that the Cuban revolutionary forces consisted only of some ignorant negroes, a few white people of the lowest class of society, some bandits and a few foreign adventurers. That such was not the case, that it was not a movement in which only the lower classes of the Cuban people were taking an active part, but an uprising supported by the whole Cuban population, a few facts will show. The President was the ex-Marquis of Santa Lucia of Puerto Principe, a member of one of the most distinguished families of the island for social rank, wealth and talents. During the last seventyfive years you will find more than one Cisneros and more than one Betancourt who has attained distinction as lawyer, journalist, civil engineer, botanist and also in other departments of science and art. The ex-Marquis of Santa Lucia, now President of the Republic, formally renounced his title of nobility when he joined the revolution in 1868, and lost his estates, which were then confiscated by the Spanish Government. An insignificant part of them was turned over to him after the peace of 1878. Bartolome Mas6, the vice-president, a native of Manzanillo, was a tried patriot, who has



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WAR WITH SPAIN, 507 watch, and made as little noise as possible. They entered into the spirit of the affair with the greatest enthusiasm. It was their first opportunity,, and every man was eager for the fight. The weather grew more and more swelteringly hot. One by one men threw away their blankets, tent rolls, and their emptied canteens. The first intimation they received of the presence of the enemy -was when they were three or four miles back from the coast. Then the low cuckoo-like calls used by the Spaniards began to be heard. Inthe bush it was difficult to make out the exact points from which these sounds proceeded. The men were ordered to speak in whispers, and frequent halts were made. About eight o'clock a place was reached where the trail opened out into a space covered with high grass. On the right side of the trail the ground was thickest, being covered with a kind of bramble underbrush. On the other side a barbed wire. fence also ran along the path. The dead body of a Cuban was found lying on the roadside. A few seconds later the heads of several Spaniards were seen among the bushes, but only for a moment. Not till then were the men permitted to load their carbines. just as they did so the sound of firing was heard a mile or two to the right, apparently from the hills beyond the thicket. This was understood to be the regulars' reply to the Spaniards, who had 29



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316 WAR WITH SPAIN. large dictates of humanity and following many historical precedents where neighboring States have interfered to check the hopeless sacrifices of life by internecine conflicts beyond their borders, is justifiable on rational grounds It involves, however, hostile constraint upon both the parties to the contest, as well to enforce a truce as to guide the eventual settlement Grounds for Intervention. "The 'grounds for such intervention may be briefly summarized as follows "First-In the cause of humanity and to put an end to the barbarities, bloodshed, starvation and horrible miseries now existing there, and which the parties to the conflict are either unable or unwilling to stop or mitigate. It is no answer to say this is all in another country, belonging to another nation, and is therefore none of our business. It is specially our duty, for it is right at our door. "fSecond-We owe it to our citizens in Cuba to afford them that protection and indemnity for life and property which no government there can or will afford, and to that end to terminate the conditions that deprive them of legal protection. "Third-The right to intervene may be justified by the very serious injury to the commerce, trade and business of our people, and by the wanton destruction of property and devastation of the island.



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WAR WITH SPAI.N. 353 and conducted o the cistern, which occupies. the greater part of the courtyard that is an essential part of Spanish houses the world over, but that here, on account of the crowded conditions, is small. There is no sewerage, except for surface water and sinks, while vaults are in every house and occupy whatever remaining space there may be in the patios not taken up by the cisterns. The risk of contaminating the. water is great, and in dry seasons the supply is entirely exhausted. Epidemics are frequent, and the town is alive with vermin, fleas, cockroaches, mosquitoes and dogs. The streets are wider than in the older part of Havana, and will admit two carriages abreast. The sidewalks are narrow, and in places will accommodate only one person. The pavements are of a composition manufactured in England from slag, pleasant and even and durable when no heavy strain is brought to bear upon them, but easily broken and unfit for heavy traffic. The streets are swept once a day by hand and, strange to say, are kept very clean. From its tropical situation the town should be healthy, but it is not. The soil under the city is clay mixed with lime, so hard as to be almost like rock. It is consequently impervious to water and furnishes a good natural drainage. The trade wind blows strong and fresh, and through



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iiiiiiiii~i !!i i i i • .. ..... .... Sugar Plantation, Cuba.





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428 WAR WITH SPAIN. practically given notice that he would at once advance the commander of the Asiatic squadron. A sword of honor was also voted to Dewey, and commemorative medals to all his men. Dewey's Record. Admiral Dewey, the hero of Manila, had had a long and creditable career of service. He entered the Naval Academy from Vermont in September, 1854. Being graduated in 1858, he was assigned to the frigate Wabash, of the European squadron, and remained in Mediterranean waters until the outbreak of the war. Returning to this country in 1861, he was detailed to the Mississippi, one of the vessels in the West Gulf squadron, serving in her until she was destroyed in 1863. It was during this time that the squadron was engaged in the capture of New Orleans. Commodore Dewey was then a lieutenant. The Mississippi was under command of Captain Melancthon Smith, and just as the end of the battle of New Orleans appeared to be in sight the Confederate ram Manasses came down the river at full speed to attack the Union fleet. Admiral Farragut directed the Mississippi to turn and run her down. She obeyed, but when within a few yards of the enemy the Manasses turned and ran ashore. The Mississippi poured two broadsides into her and sent her to the bottom of the river a total wreck. The Mississippi while trying to run



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298 CUBA:., any Spain has ever granted to any colony. It falls far short of the Canadian system, and far short, too, of the reasonable expectations not merely of the insurgents, but of the constitutional Autonomists of Cuba. There are three major objections to it. One is the dictatorial power reserved to the GovernorGeneral, appointed by the Crown. He represents the sovereign, and it is the Spanish theory that in Cuba, at any rate, the sovereign is to rule as well as reign. So the Governor-General is to have power to appoint arbitrarily seventeen of the thirty-five members of the Cuban Senate. The election of one other member favorable to him will therefore give him entire control of that body, and, of course, of all legislation. His Ministers, too, though nominally responsible to the Legislature, are really to be appointed or removed by him without regard to the will of the Legislature. Finally, he is to have power not only to suspend or dissolve the Leg"islature at will, but to suspend the constitution itself, or the vital clauses of it and to govern the island with the personal absolutism of a czar. A second objection is that all the judges of all the courts are to be appointed by the MadridGovernment, without regard to the wishes of the Cubans. Since the judges areto interpret the constitution and the laws, and to decide all



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88 CUBA, ernor is obliged to prorogue the Assembly and advise the Captain-General of that fact immediately. He is likewise authorized to suspend any Provincial Assembly in a body when the preservation of public order may so require. According to the municipal law, the smallest number of inhabitants entitled to self-government is 500, who may elect five Aldermen, at every meeting of whom the Provincial Governor is entitled to preside. The board levies municipal taxes. Cuba possesses two judicial divisions, those of Puerto Principe, with jurisdiction over the adjoining province of Santiago de Cuba, and of Havana, with jurisdiction over the remainder. First comes the high court, called Tribunal Supremo; then provincial courts, "Audiencias Territoriales"; country magistrates, "Tribunales de Partido"; court of first instance, "Juggado de Instruccion"; municipal courts, Tribunales Municipales, and justices of the peace, "Jueces de Paz." By a decree issued in January, 1891, the civil and criminal courts are incorporated into one, and this measure has been highly displeasing to Cubans. Electoral Trickery. In order to render the native Cuban powerless in his own country, Spain, legislating for Cuba without restriction, as it does, and only to





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54 CUBA* The coffee, after this process, is ready to be put into bags and conveyed to market, which is done on mule-back. Another process, not so much in use now, owing tthfact that the coffee is exported, 'is washing. The berry, as it comes from the playa, is put into a crusher to press out the bean. The bean falling into a stone basin is left therein over night to rid it of the gum adhering to it. The next morning the basin is filled with water and the bean washed. This process is repeated two or three times, when the coffee is spread out on the "secadero to dry. The coffee is conveyed to market on 'Muleback, in bags of about 102 pounds each, a mule carrying two bags and traveling ten leagues per day. The cost of carrying to market in this manner runs from 75 cents to $i per load. Havana Cigars. There is a popular theory that since the choicest cigars come from Cuba, Havana is the best place in -the world to buy them. American visitors when they come here expect to revel in the luxury of smoking the mos 't delicate brands and of paying very little for them. Cigars are cheap, but not so good, in Havana. "I have sampled all brands in various stores," says an American traveler, "1and have not found anything better than an ordinary Key West cigar that is sold in



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 351 After rounding the bluff one finds a broad and beautiful bay, landlocked, and with a good depth of water, which is being increased by dredging. It is by far the best harbor in Porto Rico, and probably as good a one as can be found in the West Indies. However, it has its drawbacks. Sailing vessels are frequently detained by the northerly winds during the winter months, and even steamers with a draught of over twenty feet are sometimes delayed, but these occasions are rare. When they do occur, the boca," or entrance to the harbor, 'is a mass of seething, foaming water, and presents an imposing spectacle. To see steamers of sixteen to eighteen feet draught enter in a severe norther, is a sight to be remembered, as the great waves lift them up and seem about to hurl them forward to destruction. At such times there is need of a staunch vessel, steady nerves, and a captain well acquainted with the channel, as no pilot will venture out. The island upon which the city stands is shaped much like an arm and a hand; it is about two and one-quarter miles long, and averages less than one-quarter of a mile in width. The greatestt width is a little over half a mile in the portion representing the hand, which also contains the major part of the city,



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NO N rominent Officers of the United States Army and Navy*



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CUBA. 285 the end of November, and a night attack upon Artemisa proved to him that General Arolas was on his guard, and not likely to let him pass without fierce resistance. He explored the whole length of the lines across the island, thirty-one miles from Artemisa to Mariel. Everywhere he found the Spaniards on the alert, and he hid in the nearest Lomas on the Mariel side, near the coast, keenly disappointed to find that he could not dash across with his veterans. He seems to have felt for the first time misgivings and some hesitation ; but his instructions were clear, and he had sent word to Brigadier Aguirre and other Cuban leaders to gather on the Havana side of the Trocha. On a dark night a boat was used to carry by sea the Cuban chief and about forty of his officers and orderlies, including a doctor and the young son of Maximo Gomez. They found guides to take them to the Havana bands. Maceo had not taken into account that the Spanish generals had much improved their Intelligence Service, and had begun to find more support lately among the rural population. In this way they had been informed of the approach of Maceo and of the gathering of the rebels. General Ahumada instantly sent out the picked troops he had in Havana-cavalry, artillery, and battalions seasoned by more than a year's stay in Cuba. Three columns went forward, exploring



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A .10 Rear Admiral Dewey,



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CHAPTER VII. ARROGANT CONDUCT OF THE SPANISH TOWARD AMERICANS AND ENGLISH-THE VIRGINIUS" OUTRAGE-SHOOTING FOUR CUBAN PATRIOTSAMERICAN CITIZENS MURDERED IN COLD BLOOD -WILD DEMONSTRATIONS OF JOY-SURRENDER OF THE VIRGINIUS "--THE FORMAL TRANSFER -HOW AN ENGLISH CAPTAIN PREVENTED ONE MASSACRE. A LL THROUGH the Ten Years' War the Spanish authorities acted in a particularly arrogant manner toward Americans and Englishmen, and indeed toward all foreigners who were suspected of sympathy with the insurgents. Ships were stopped by Spanish cruisers and searched in the most arbitrary fashion. If anything in the nature of arms or ammunition were found aboard it was confiscated, and the captain of the ship was lucky if he was not hanged at his own yard-arm. The "Virginius" Outrage. These outrages culminated in the famous "Virginius" affair, which came very near to causing war between the United States and Spain. The "Virginius" was a small side-wheel (166)



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536 WAR WITH SPAIN. "One and all have displayed the most conspicuous gallantry and earned the gratitude of the nation. "The hearts of the people turn with tender sympathy to the sick and wounded. "May the Father of Mercies protect and comfort them. WILLIAM McKINLEY." Also the following: "MajorGeneral, Froizi, near Santiago, Playa: "I cannot express in words my gratitude to you and your heroic men. Your work has been done. God bless you all. R. A. ALGER, Secretary of War."



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450 WAR WITH SPAIN. ment to the necessity of keeping its plans secret, and thereafter the censorship was far more strict. Bombarding San Juan. Another important bombardment occurred on May 12. Admiral Sampson went with part of his fleet to San Juan, the capital of Porto Rico, and battered down some of its fortifications. On his ships two men were, killed and seven wounded, while the Spanish loss was much heavier. The battle was fought in the early light of day, and during the first hour a haze overhung the shore. Before the firing began one could just see the hills and an indistinct line of forts. The mastheads of the ships, with the Stars and Stripes waving from them, stood out more clearly, and through the smoke flashed gun after gun. Spanish shot kept falling all about the ships, sending up great columns of water. Big rings of smoke rolling along overhead showed where shells burst in the air. The fortified hilltop, too, was veiled in smoke., At quick intervals heavy .,.puffs and flashes indicated the location of the guns. The Spaniards fought bravely. The rapidfire guns of our squadron kept pouring a steady hail at every gun, and time and again drove the Spaniards to shelter. As soon as there was a lull, back the Dons would come and begin firing away as Wildly as ever.



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ME;: iiow 4-1 Captain Sigsbee.



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556 WAR WITH SPAIN. time occurred, and Assistant Secretary of State Cridler on the part of the United States and Secretary Thiebaut, on the part of Spain, retired to a window, where there was a critical formal examination of the protocol. The Protocol's Appearance. This inspection had all the outward formalities due a document of this importance. It was prepared in duplicate at the State Department, one copy to be retained by the United States Government and the other to become the property of Spain. The text was handsomely engrossed in a running Old English script. Each copy of the protocol was arranged in double column, French and English standing alongside for easy comparison as to the exactness of the translation. The two copies were alike, except that the one held by this Government had the English text in the first column and the signature of Secretary Day ahead of that of M. Cambon, while the copy transmitted to Spain had French in the first column and the signature of M. Cambon ahead of that of Secretary Day. Judge Day and M. Cambon Sign. The examination of the protocol was satisfactory, and the document was handed to M. Cambon first and then to Secretary Day, who affixed their signatures to each side of the two copies. Then the last detail in making the pro-



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CUBA.*4 portion of the wealth of the island. Sheep, goats and mules are less numerous. The manatee is found along the coasts, but no attempt has ever been made to domesticate it. Domestic fowls include geese, turkeys, peacocks and pigeons. The wild birds are notable for the beauty of their plumage, and more than 200 different species are found on the island. There are very few birds of prey. The principal ones are the vulture and the turkey buzzard, and these are protected from destruction by law, on account of their services as scavengers. The waters in and about the island are plentifully supplied with fish. Oysters and other shell fish also abound, but are of inferior quality. Numerous turtles are found on the coast and reefs, some of them attaining enormous size. They *and their eggs form an important article of diet. Crocodiles and enormous lizards are common. Land-crabs are frequently seen. in large numbers. These cross the island from north to south every spring, at the beginning of the rainy season. There are comparatively few snakes. The largest is the maja, which attains a length of twelve or fourteen feet, but is quite harmless. The most venomous snake is the juba, which grows to a length of about six feet. Among the insect life of Cuba the most notable creature is the firefly. These flies are very large and luminous and exist in enormous num-



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CaptainGeneral Blanco,



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CUBA. 295 diplomatic correspondence during both this and the preceding Administration. No Americans in Arrest Now. "Not a single American citizen is now in arrest or confinement in Cuba of whom this Government has any knowledge. The near future will demonstrate whether the indispensable condition of a righteous peace, just alike to the Cubans and to Spain, as well as equitable to all our interests so intimately involved in the welfare of Cuba, is likely to be attained. If not, the exigency of further and other action by the United States'will remain to be taken. When that time comes that action will be determined in the line of indisputable right and duty. It will be faced without mnisgiving or hesitancy in the light of the obligation this Government owes to itself to the people who have confided to it the protection of their interests and honor and to humanity. "Sure of the right, keeping free from all offence ourselves, actuated only by upright and patriotic considerations, 'Moved neither by passion nor selfishness, the Government will continue its watchful care over the rights and property of American citizens, and will abate none of its efforts to bring about by peaceful agencies a peace which shall be honorable and enduring. If it shall hereafter appear to be a duty imposed by our obligations to ourselves, to civilization and



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WAR WITH SPAIN, 345 known as the Peninsular War began. The British troops in Spain were led by the Duke of Wellington, and in several hard fought campaigns they defeated Napoleon's ablest generals and best troops. Ferdinand's Bad Reign, In 1814 Ferdinand was restored to this throne. He soon showed himself one of the worst Kings the country ever had. He abolished Parliament and made himself an absolute despot. He re-established the Inquisition. His tyranny drove all the Spanish colonies in Mexico, Central America and South America to revolt. In the course of a dozen years, these latter won their independence. Florida was surrendered to the United States. And then, in all the hemisphere that once was hers, Spain had nothing left but the islands of Cuba and Porto Rico. So bad was the King's government that a large part of the Spanish people wished to depose him and put his brother, Don Carlos, on the throne. The Carliqt Revolt. In I833 the King died and by his will left his throne to his infant daughter, Isabella. Then the followers of Don Carlos openly revolted and the first Carlist war began. The whole reign of Isabella was marked with shameful mis-government, with frequent outbreaks of the Carlists and with various attempts at revolution. Several times the 20



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CUB3A. 265 even for a single time shall give money of any kind soever to the insurgents, save and except in the case of their being obliged to yield to superior force, a circumstance which will have to be examined in a most searching manner, will. be regarded as disloyal through helping the rebellion. (t i)-For the repair of roads, railways, telegraphs, etc., the personal co-operation of the inhabitants of the villages will be required, and in the case of the destruction of any kind of property, the occupants of convenient habitations will be held responsible if they do not immediately inform the nearest authority of such occurrences." Offer of Amnesty., He also issued this proclamation, offering amnesty to rebels: I have deemed it proper to direct that persons presenting themselves in the provinces of Matanzas, Santa Clara, Puerto Principe, and Santiago de Cuba, and who confessedly have been with the rebels will be pardoned, provided they surrender themselves with their arms, and have been guilty of no other crimes. In such cases, however, they will remain under the surveillance of the authorities until further orders from me. Should they surrender themselves in considerable bodies that fact will recommend them to greater consideration. Those who present themselves under similar conditions, but without arms, will



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 495 army only to General Miles. It was arranged to send him out to Manila with practically supreme authority, to be a Military Governor, or practically a Dictator. He was to have twenty thousand troops, and every effort was made to get these together and send them at the earliest possible moment. A lot of passenger steamers were secured for troopships, and supplies of clothing, food, and munitions of war were collected on a gigantic scale. First the U. S. warship Charleston was sent off with ammunition for Dewey, on May 2 2, sailing, of course, from San Francisco. On May 25 the three steamers City of Peking-, City of Sydney, and Australia, sailed from that port with the first detachment of the army, consisting of 2,500 men. This expedition reached Honolulu on June i, and sailed thence for Manila on June 4. The Hawaiian Government decided not to observe neutrality in the war, but to act as an ally of the United States, although Spain vigorously protested and threatened to hold it responsible for the consequences. So our troops were welcomed there in fine style and entertained most hospitably. On June 6 the warship Mohican left San Francisco for Manila, and five days later the formidable monitor Monterey followed. The second military expedition set out on June 15, consisting Of 3,500 troops, in four steamships. The monitor Monadnock went on June 23d, and at the end of



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378 WAR WITH SPAIN. ser, 11,629 tons; 21 knots speed. Armament not decided on. St. Louis, Captain Caspar F. Goodrich. Description same as St. Paul. Panther, Commander George C. Reiter. Cruiser, 2,843 tons; 16 knots speed. Armament not decided on. Badger, Captain Albert S. Snow. Resolute, Commander Joseph C. Eaton. Beside these there were many revenue cutters fitted up for service as dispatch boats and torpedo gunboats, a number of swift yachts for like service, tugs, colliers, etc.I The Spanish Soldier. The United States soldier is a familiar figure to every American, and there is probably no finer type of fighting man in the world. Far different is the Spanish soldier, in appearance one of the most unsoldierly of men. Watch him as he slouches along; his tunic faded, torn, and probably minus a button or two; his red trousers frayed and threadbare; his feet cased in the clumsy hempen sandals of the country; and his hands muffled in huge green woolen gloves, between the top of which and the sleeve of his tunic is usually to be seen two or three inches of bare, brown, sinewy arm. He carries his rifle anyhow-at the trail, at the slope, muzzle foremost, slung at his back. Not an in-



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ec,



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142 CUBA. of them, Villa Clara, Cienfuegos, etc., by turns; but routed at many points, it again shifted its ground to the eastern department, to that region of 'Montes Desiertos e Terrenos Incultos,' where the troops can make no headway against it. Once only, in the whole course of four years, did the insurrection show any disposition to abandon its defensive attitude, and this was when, by a coup de main, it swooped down upon Holquin, an inland town above Jibara. But even then the insurgents only held the town for a few hours, and withdrew without awaiting an encounter with the troops, after plundering the helpless inhabitants. From other towns the volunteers have hitherto at all times been sufficiently strong to ward off rebel attacks. The Spanish Mistake. "It is the opinion of competent persons that had the Madrid Government been able and willing to send a force of 3o,ooo or 40,000 men, choosing its best troops, and at once setting them to carve wide military roads through the bush, sweeping the whole rebel region as if by a grand battle on a well-laid and comprehensive plan, the disturbance would long since have been at an end; for the fighting powers of the insurgents are absolutely below contempt. But the Spanish Government has always sent its forces by mere driblets-at the utmost 4,000 or 5,000 at a time;



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CUBA, l exportation of cigars from Cuba would cease entirely within six years. From 1889 to 1894 the exportation from the port of Havana had decreased by 1 16,200,000 cigars. City real estate has fallen to one-half and in some cases to one-third the value it had before 1884. A building in Havana which was erected at a cost of $6oo,ooo was sold for $I20,000. Stocks and bonds tell the same story. Almost all of them are quoted in Havana with heavy discounts. At the outbreak of the present war, Spain found that, although the appropriations since 1878 amounted to nearly $500,000,000, not a single military road had been built, no fortifications, no hospitals, and there was no -material of war. The State has not provided even for its own defence. In view of this fact nobody will be surprised to hear that a country 670 kilometres long, with an area of I 18,83 3 square kilometres, has only 246y, lineal kilometres of high-roads, and these almost exclusively in the Province of Havana. In that of Santiago de Cuba there are 9 kilometres; in Puerto Principe and Las Villas not a single one. Cuba has 3,506 kilometres of sea-shore and fifty four ports; only fifteen of those are open to commerce. In the labyrinth of keys, sand-banks and breakers adjacent to our coasts there are only nineteen lighthouses of all classes. Many of our 7



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mgl IV Action on a Battleship.



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WAR WITH SPAIN, 427 Then the President and the two houses of Congress hastened to express, the country's gratitude for the brilliant victory won by Commodore Dewey's squadron off Manila, and to reward in time-honored fashion the gallantry of the officers and men whose triumph had shed fresh lustre on American discipline and valor. Fulfilling the promise of his cable dispatch of congratulation to Commodore Dewey, the President, in a felicitous message, reciting the achievement of the Asiatic squadron, suggested to Congress that the Nation's thanks be given to the fleet commander and to the officers and men who had helped him to crush the Spanish forces in the Philippines. Both houses accordingly passed by a unanimous vote a resolution voicing the gratitude felt by the American people for the "highly distinguished conduct in conflict with the enemy" shown by Commodore Dewey and by all his subordinates, and directing the President to convey this expression of thanks to the officers and men of the fleet at Manila. But the action of the two houses did not stop with the single compliment of a vote of thanks exceptional and highly prized as that distinction is, .Both branches passed without opposition a bill increasing the number of rear-admirals in the Navy from six to seven, thus creating a vacancy in that grade, to which the President had



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CV2JIAV 137 grazing farms, were either destroyed or abandoned, and thrown out of cultivation before the end Of 187 1. That magnificent valley was turned into a state of desolation from which it is now with difficulty struggling to recover. The same has been the fate of many of these old settlements in the central districts. Of late the movement has taken an easterly direction; the insurgent bands are more frequently heard of in the neigh, borhood of Puerto Principe, Santiago, and Guantanamo, beyond the Trocha or military cordon, which the Spanish troops have established at Moron. Character of the War., "The nature of this war was determined partly by the conditions of the country and partly by the nature of the combatants. The island of Cuba is divided into three main departments, the Western, of which Havana is the capital, and which, so far as we can depend on the results of the census, had, in 1872, 1,034,616 inhabitants; the Central, capital Puerto Principe, with only. 75,725 inhabitants; the Eastern, capital Santiago de Cuba, with 249,096. The Western Department is the smallest, mostly level, and narrowest from sea to sea; it is in a great measure settled and prosperous, and here are the large sugar factories and the tobacco plantations which constitute the enormous wealth of the island. In the Central



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22 CUBA. to be somewhere near. He passed many beautiful islands, visiting three of them, and was enraptured with their loveliness. 11 1 know not," he wrote in his diary, ,where first' to go. Neither are my eyes ever weary of gazing upon the beautiful verdure. The song of the birds is so sweet that it seems as if one would never desire to depart hence '. There are flocks of parrots that obscure the sun, and other birds of many kinds, large and small. There are majestic trees of a thousand species, each having its particular fruit, and all of marvelous flavor." These, however, were mere islands. Nor did he find on them the gold and gems and spices of which he was in quest. But the natives told him of a great land lying to the south, which they called Cuba. It was, they said, rich in gold and pearls and other precious things, and Columbus felt sure it was the country of the Great Khan, of which Marco Polo had written. So he pressed on toward it, and on October 28th came to its shores. On that day he wrote in his diary: "This is the most beautiful land ever beheldby human eyes," Columbus In Cuba, As he approached the island he believed 'it was the main land. He noted with admiration its lofty mountains, its deep, clear rivers, its fine harbors, and the attractive appearance of all the



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538 WAR WITH SPAIN. the two cavalcades moved into the city. Meanwhile, all the American troops had been drawn up in line along their intrenchments, their colors fluttering in the breeze. At noon the second part of the ceremony took place in the Plaza de la Reina. When the cathedral chimes struck 12, Captain McKittrick, of General Shafter's staff, hoisted the Stars and Stripes over the Governor-General's palace, and the 9th Infantry band played "The Star Spangled Banner." The troops had again been drawn up along their intrenchments. Except at the extreme right, the staff of the palace could not be seen. A signal, however, was given, and Captain Capron's battery fired a salute from the rifle-pits, where the 7 1st New York was stationed. A cheer had risen from the troops north of the city. Each regiment took it up in turn to the left, until it had travelled the entire length of the American fortifications. There was no shouting or yelling, but only three measured cheers, with a tiger, in unison. The voices were deep and strong, and the stateliness of it all will long be remembered by those who heard and saw. Occupied without Formality.. Only one regiment, the 9th Infantry, was sent into the city. Half the Spaniards were sent out on the hills a mile from the city. The rest remained in their barracks. Their arms were



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CUBA, 191 and the negotiations with it,, must have a decided influence in other departments. I rogress toward Peace. "What was lost, in case these conferences were broken off ? On the part of the country nothing, and this is proved by the great number of surrenders which took place at this time. Much was gained for the future by dividing them; the three tendencies of the hostile, camp, peace, autonomy and independence, defined themselves; for in moments of danger the most opposite wishes unite, and if a respite is given, they reappear again in greater strength. "1So it happened here. In Sancti Spiritus some begged that the decision of the congress might be waited for, and I granted them a place of meeting, where I furnished them with supplies, and in that encampment cheers were given for peace and for Spain, and they embraced our officers. In Bayamo whole bands surrendered together; in Holguin and in Tunas they avoided any fighting; and in Cuba, Maceo made superhuman efforts to raise their spirits, summoning all to the last soldier, and attacking with an energy and success worthy of a better cause; but even in the midst of this desperate effort he did not wish to shut the door of the future, arid, what he had not done for ten years, after a bloody advantage in which he kept possession of the field, he



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CUBA. 215 This union of the Autonomists and Republi-_ cans was an association of two powerful parties, whose one aim was to free Cuba from the tyranny of a government that had made that unhappy country the fairest of promises and had broken those promises without the slightest regard for truth or honor. The united parties desired to make Cuba a Liberal Republic, which should make its own laws and treaties to suit its economic conditions, and to establish a government "of the people, by the people and for the people." Where the Plot was Hatched. While the Autonomist and Republican forces in Cuba were being drawn together and amalgamated by the power of a common wrong and a common spirit of patriotism, friends of Cuba Libre, in New York, were planning the initial steps of organized rebellion. Meetings were held, funds were raised and plans of campaign formulated in various cities of the United States, but it was in New York that the leaders of the revolution most often met, it was in New York that the Cuban junta had its headquarters, and the order which led to the raising of the five-barred patriot flag in the mountains of Santiago was sent from New York. Cuban leaders -in the United States, in league with sympathizers in Mexico and South



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I lee owK loaftiTop laigBaelu, San



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CUBA. 29 Las Casas and Is Work. Las Casas, whom we have already mentioned, was the son of one of the companions of Columbus on his first voyage of discovery to the new world. In 1498 he accompanied his father in an expedition under Columbus to the West Indies, and in 1502 he went to Hayti, where he was admitted to priestly orders, being the first person to receive such consecration in the new world. In 15 11, the conquest of Cuba having been resolved on, he went to that island to take part in the work of populationn and pacification." He witnessed and vainly tried to check the terrible massacres of Indians which Velasquez soon perpetrated. A year or two later there was assigned to him a large village in the neighborhood of Xagua, inhabited by many Indians, as his share of the new colony. Here, -like the rest of his countrymen, hie sought to make the most of his opportunity of growing rich, though he continued occasionally to preach and celebrate Mass. Soon, however, having become deeply convinced of the injustice and other moral evils of the system of rule adopted by the Spaniards, he began to preach against it, at 'the same time giving up his own slaves. Then he went to Spain to speak in behalf of the oppressed natives, and the result of his representations was that in 15 16 Cardinal J imenez sent over a commission for the reform



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CUBA. 49 The other industries of Cuba comprise cattle farms, cotton plantations, fruit and vegetable farms, chocolate plantations, and bee farms, devoted to the. production of honey and wax. Generally speaking, 'it may be said that these industries have been conducted in a rather slipshod manner. The best establishments are now those conducted by Americans, largely with Chinese labor. At the same time, contact with American progress has considerably improved the character and disposition of the natives, and under a proper government the 'Industrial condition of the island would be vastly improved, and would contain a considerable measure of that prosperity for which nature evidently designed it. The saying that if you tickle the earth with a hoe it laughs with a harvest" is to no country more applicable than to Cuba. Four centuries have been nearly rounded out since the discoveries of Columbus, yet Cuba to-day is, with the single exception of Brazil, the leastdeveloped country in the New World. Out of a total 'area Of 43,000 square. miles barely more than one-tenth is under cultivation. At the western end of the island there is a population exceeding i oooooo, but the remaining districts, of which Puerto Principe and Santiago are the capitals, are practically unsettled, having between them less than 5ooooo whites, negroes and Chinese. Only



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CUBA. 1 2 1 returned his rights, to man his dignity. You will receive all the reforms which you require. Cubans and Spaniards are all brothers. From this day Cuba will be considered as a province of Spain. Freedom of the press, the right of meeting in public, and representation in the national Cortes, the three fundamental principles of true liberty, are granted you. "Cubans and Spaniards! Speaking in the name of our mother, Spain, I adjure you to forget the past, hope for the future, and establish union and fraternity." This proclamation had no effect whatever upon the Cubans except to excite their contempt and derision for its bombastic hypocrisy, and to make them all the more resolved to set their country free from the Spanish yoke. War in Earnest. Seeing that the patriots were resolute, the Captain-General called for troops from Spain and they were quickly sent in large numbers. The freedom of the press throughout the island was summarily abolished and martial law was proclaimed everywhere. The citizens of Havana were ordered to contribute the sum of $25,ooo,ooo for the use of the Government. By February, 1869, heavy fighting began. The first important victory for the patriots occurred at San Cristoval, twenty-two leagues



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52 CUBA. These sprouts are allowed to grow for six months, after which the healthiest alone are left, the others being pulled out. The remaining sprout is left growing for eighteen or twenty months. In the meanwhile the planter, desiring that his land shall yield something, plants corn, plantains, and all kinds of vegetables ; also, at intervals between the rows, cacao, which, however, does not yield a full crop until the coffee plant is exhausted, say, in ten or twelve years. As soon as the coffee plant reaches a height of four feet it is stunted and trimmed, all young sprouts thereon being killed off in order to force all the strength into the fruit. For the first two years the plant produces nothing ; the third year it yields a half crop; on the fourth year a full crop, which runs from io,ooo to 6o,ooo pounds of coffee, ready for the market, according to the condition of the soil, per cabelleria of thirty-three and one-third acres. This production continues for ten or more years, and the planter can gather his crop of cacao, planted as above. The coffee plant blooms in January to April, then the berry forms and is ripe for pi-ckingfrom August to December. The negro is paid for picking and delivering the berry at the "1secadero (a large platform, made of stone, covered and smoothed with cement) fifty cents per bag. It is calculated that one hundred pounds of



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CUBA, 83 when severe and simple architecture without meretricious ornamentation was in vogue in Spain. Even the great prison, which is the most prominent object from the harbor, is not without good lines. The newer portions of the town are well laid out with broad shaded avenues, frequent squares and breathing places, a spacious alameda and a fine botanical garden adjoining the Captain-General's country seat. Even in its ruined estate, where public grounds are neglected, street pavements in great need of repair, and the whole town fairly perishing for lack of fresh paint, poor, faded Havana has an air of distinction and even grandeur. With good administration the city could be transformed in a decade. A canal constructed so as to let the tides into the back bay would flush out a harbor that is now a cesspool and restore the healthfulness of the town. Moderate expenditures could restore the crumbling plaster of the public buildings, replace the broken lines of shade trees in the avenues, and restore the brightness and glory of the Cuban capital. Havana now awaits, like a queen in tattered, patched and soiled robes, the turn of the wheel which shall reinvest her with the dignity of her prosperous days of power and wealth. So long as Spanish administration and a ruinous economic policy continue in force, it is a lottery with blanks.



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152 CUBA* Queen of England, as owner of the Crown domains in her good island of Jamaica. The Cuban, with great misgiving, brought his action into Court at the earnest suggestion of his lawyer. The case was tried, and the Cubanwon the suit! Think of the Government ever allowing itself to be beaten by a private subject, and he an alien, in Spain or in her colonies! Little Fighting, Much Destruction. "It is painful to think what a mere I'ha'p'orth' of fighting goes to all this intolerable deal' of ravage and destruction. I traveled from Santiago -to San Luis, a distance of thirty-two kilometres, by rail. The line is cut through a deep gorge of the Sierra Maestra, and is flanked all along by little wooden towers, mere huts guarded by detachments of regular Spanish troops, each little garrison from five to fifty men strong. All along 'the railway line, and beyond it, all the way to Puerto Principe, the headquarters of the Central Department, and to Havana, there are telegraph wires which run across the island throughout the whole insurgent district. These wires are also under the protection of detached military posts; and so utterly incapable or powerless are the insurgent chiefs, Cespedes, Agramonte, the brothers Garcia, Modesto Diaz, Maximo Gomez, and the rest, that any interruption, either to railway trains or telegraphic messages, is an extremely



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198 CUBA, accepted it unanimously under condition that the States of the East and Center should be heard. The people being asked if they were for peace, answered almost unanimously in the affirmative. Asked afterward if the war should be continued in case Oriente or Villars would not accept peace, three-quarters were in favor of peace even then, and the other fourth for war. "In view of this I1 went on to discuss the questions, and, there being no difficulty except about the first, I consulted General Jovellar by telegraph, in the presence of the commissioners, and had the satisfaction of letting them see the identity of opinion of the two authorities. There remained the question of time to be allowed, which I. proposed to leave to the government of. his Majesty, and they returned to their camp to submit the modifications, The Terms Accepted. "While they were absent I reflected maturely, and resolved on my part to concede a delay until the end of the month. The considerations which moved me to this were my not wishing to compromise General Jovellar, because if, contrary to all appearances, there were a change, he would remain disposable to relieve me in con-mand if the government disapproved of my conduct, or the opposition and public opinion pronounced against me in case of failure. I am not,



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466 WAR WITH SPAIN. "No trip of its kind and length was more uneventful. The ship behaved perfectly. The men acted finely, and we had not the slightest bit of trouble in any way. Having proved the Oregon's seaworthiness, we now want to prove her ability in battle, and our cup will be full." A Remarkable Speed Record. All told, the time consumed in the Oregon's voyage was sixty-eight days from San Francisco to Key West. The average speed throughout was between eleven and twelve knots, including the time lost in waiting for the Marietta and Nictheroy. For two hours in the trip from Bahia to Barbadoes the vessel made fifteen knots an hour, her contract speed, and that was after she had been out over a month. In all the voyage the Oregon never sighted a Spanish war vessel, though at several places it was reported that Cervera's fleet was near at hand. From the Straits until she arrived at Key West, her lights were "doused" at night, and so cautious was Captain Clark that he issued an order that no one should smoke a cigar on deck after dark, for fear it might give the enemy a line on the vessel's position. Off Cape St. Roque, the easternmost point of Brazil, on the night of May i2, lights of several strange vessels were discerned, and many of the



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CUBA. 173 gone to Havana. As a matter of fact, Admiral Scott had to make an excuse and get express authority to send over a dispatch boat, and was dependent upon the newspaper correspondents, or one of them, for news of what was going on in his immediate front. Weeks of diplomatic negotiation and naval bluster ensued,' and at last the Spanish Government agreed to surrender the "1Virginius to the United States authorities, and to salute the American flag. How ungraciously this was done has been well told by Major Handy, the well known correspondent. Surrender of the Virginius."P "The race between the correspondents for news was very hot. Every man as the representative of his newspaper was on his mettle and enterprise was at a premium. McGahan had the advantage of being ward-room guest on a manof-war. Fox was paymaster's yeoman on the Pinta,' the fastest boat in the navy. When we learned that the Virginius' was to be surrendered we all realized that that event would end the campaign. The point then was to be in at the death and to obtain the best if not the exclusive story of the ceremony and attendant circumstances. The lips of the government officials were sealed as to the time and place appointed. In fact the -programme was arranged at Washing,



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WAR WITH SPAIN. 337 or Caesar Augusta, Pampeluna, or Pompeiopolis, and Merida, or Emerita Augusta. After the Romans came the conquerors of Rome, the Goths and Vandals, who established there the most lasting of all the Gothic kingdoms. The name of the Vandals is preserved in that of the province of Andalusia. And finally there was an influx of Moors from Africa, thus completing the complex mixture of Spanish blood, and well entitling the Spaniard of to-day to call himself a Hidalgo, which means, the son of somebody. Pelayo. It was in the year 409, that the Goths and Vandals entered Spain and set up there the Kingdom of the Visigoths. They established a dynasty which remained unbroken until the invasion of the Saracens. Among the monarchs of this line, were Theodoric, who conquered Attila at Chalons, and Recared, who, about the year 6oo, reunited the Goths with the Roman Catholic Church. In the seventh century the Saracens landed at Gibraltar, and, in the course of a few years, conquered the country. They slew Roderic, the Gothic King, and drove the remnant of his people into the mountains of Asturias, where, under the famous Pelayo, in 718 to 737, were laid the foundations of a kingdom which was destined one day to expel its conquerors. The Saracens established two kingdoms, Cordova and Grenada,