Cuba's fight for freedom, and the War with Spain

Material Information

Cuba's fight for freedom, and the War with Spain a ... history of the Spanish kingdom and its latest and fairest colony ; the long struggle of Cuba for freedom and independence; the intervention of the United States and the fierce war with Spain that followed
Beck, Henry Houghton
Place of Publication:
Philadelphia, Pa.
Globe Bible Publishing Co.
Copyright Date:
Physical Description:
1 online resource (559 pages) : illustrations ;


Subjects / Keywords:
1895-1898 ( fast )
Spanish-American War, 1898 ( lcsh )
Guerra hispano-americana, 1898 ( abne )
History -- Cuba ( lcsh )
History -- Cuba -- Revolution, 1895-1898 ( lcsh )
Cuba ( fast )
Historia -- Cuba -- Revolución, 1895-1898 ( qlsp )
Revolution (Cuba : 1895-1898) ( fast )
Spanish-American War (1898) ( fast )
History. ( fast )
Historia ( qlsp )

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University of Florida
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UF Latin American Collections
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036230334 ( ALEPH )
1039096436 ( OCLC )

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Comprehensive, Accurate and Thrilling History of the Spanish
Kingdom and its latest and fairest Colony; the long
Struggle of Cuba for Freedom and Independence;
the Intervention of the United States
and the Fierce War with Spain that followed.
A Record of Oppression and Patriotism, of Cruelty and of Valor,
and above all of the triumph of the
Stars and Stripes.
Henry Houghton Beck,
Author of isFamous Battles,"
"dThe Greco-Turkish War," etc., etc.
,3 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa.

Entered according to the Act of Congress, In the year 1898, By D. B. SHEPP, In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C.
All rights reserved

cH E HISTORY of the world is largely a
history of wars. Whether or not it is true that civilization gets forward upon a powder-cart, it is undeniable that the powder-cart keeps well up with the procession. The present work is a record of two wars, closely associated together, and both making especially direct appeal to the sympathies of the American people.
It was in a wvar that our own freedom and independence were wvon. We cannot, then, regard with indifference the much longer and not less heroic struggles of Cuba for the same great blessings. They have been conducted almost within sight of our own shores, and have materially affected our own interests. They. cannot- be forgotten while liberty is loved or valor appreciated. Neither can the story of them, told as it 1s in this volume, in hot blood, directly from the field of suffering and strife and triumph, be other than fascinating to the student or to the patriot.
It had been the lot of this country to wage three great wars before the present. The first was for independence. The second was for soy(3)

ereign rights in equality with all other nations. The third was for the preservation of the Union. All three were gloriously successful, both in the triumph of our arms and in the establishment of the principles for which they were waged.
The latest of our wars was for a different purpose. It was a missionary war. It was the act of a great nation that, having won for itself the blessings of freedom and popular government and made itself secure, was generous enough and brave enough to take up the gage of battle in behalf of another people struggling to be free. The record of our wars for self-interest is known to all. Here is the story of our championship of the interests of others. It forms a new and novel chapter in our nation's annals and one not less glorious than any earlier one.
This record, made largely by those who saw the 'events narrated and were themselves a large part of them, is likewise to be commended to the reader, whether for study or for entertainment or for the exaltation of patriotic sentiment. It is instructive and inspiring, and fills a worthy place in the literature of "Freedom's battle, oft begun."

Cubas Fight for Freedom.
Map of Cuba and the World, Frontispiece.
i. Panorama of Havana ...... ............. i9
2. Morro Castle, Havana ...... ............. 20
3. Boat Landing, Havana .... ............ ...37
4. Palace of the Captain-General, Havana . 38 5. The Cathedral, Havana .... ............ 55
6. Columbus Memorial Chapel, Havana ... ...... 56 7. The Indian Statue on the Prado, Havana 73 8. Obispo Street, Havana .... ............ ...74
9. Royal Lottery Ticket Seller, Havana ....... 91
io. Bull Fight, Havana .... .............. 92
ii. Avenue of Royal Palms, Havana ... ........ I09
12. Cuban Family at Home ............... .
13. Sugar Plantation, Cuba ... ............ ...127
14. The "Virginius" Outrage-Shooting of the Four
Prominent Cuban Patriots .... ......... 128
15. The Butchery of the Crew of the "Virginius"Scene at the Slaughter-house the Moment before the Execution. Captain Frey bidding his
Companions Farewell ... ........... 145
I6. The "Virginius" Butchery- Spanish Horsemen
Trampling the Dead and the Dying Victims into the Slaughter-house Trench at Santiago de
Cuba .... ................ 146

17. After the Shooting of the Crew of the "Virginius"
Negroes of the Chain-gang Tumbling the Dead
Bodies of the Victims into Mule-carts .... 163 i8. Ex-Captain General D. Valeriano Weyler .1...64 19. Papal Benediction of the Spanish Troops leaving
Vittoria for Cuba .................... 8
20. Spanish Troops leaving Barcelona, Spain ....... 182 21. Captain-General Blanco ..... ............ i99
22. Battalion of Spanish Troops before the GovernorGeneral's Palace, Havana .... .......... 200
23. Maximo Gomez, the Chief of the Insurrection 217 24. General Calixto Garcia ..... ............ 218
25. Cuban Staff Officers .... .............. ...235
26. Cubans Attacking a Spanish Regiment ......236 27. Cubans Burning a Deserted Village ......... 253 28. An Insurgent Attack near Vueltas ..... 254
29. Cubans Fighting from the Tree-tops... . 271 30. Spaniards Surrounded by Cubans .... ........ 272
3 1. Battleship "Maine ................. ...289
32. Destruction of the Battleship "Maine" ..... 290
The War with Spain.
33. Wreck of the Battleship "Maine" .......... 307
34. William McKinley, President of the United States 3o8 35. Queen Regent and Alphonso XIII ...... 325
36. Opening the Spanish Cortez .... .......... 326
37. Puerto de Sol, Madrid, Spain ............. ...343
38. General Fitzhugh Lee ... ............. ..344
39. Betore the Blockade of Havana, Cuba ......... 361 40. Prominent Officers of the United States Army and
Navy ..... ...... ............. 362

41. Rear Admiral Sampson.......... 379
42. Rear Admiral Dewey...............380
43. Commodore Schley .. ................397
44. Captain Sigsbee. .. .............. 398
45. Cruiser "1New York"............415
46. Battleship IIndiana"..............46
47. Battleship "Massachusetts.. .. .. .......433
48. Battleship ".Oregon"..............434
49. Battleship I"IIowa".....................451
50o Dynamite Cruiser IVesuvius"............452
51- Watching the Searchlights at Havana during the
Blockade. .. .......... .....469
52. Firing Six Pounders .. .. ............470
53. Action on a Battleship oo . .. 487 54. Action on a Monitor.... ..... .......488
55 Land Battery-Revolving Gun ...............505
56. Spanish Troops in San Juan, Porto Rico. o 5o6 57. Climbing the Mast to Man the Turret Guns 511 58. Mlap of Manila Bay and Forts ...... ....512
59. Panorama of Manila Harbor .................517
6o. Battle of Manila. .. .......... ...
6 1. United States Troops going to the Front.......523 62. United States Troops in Camp. .. .......524
63. Bird's-eye View of Santiago City, Harbor and
64. Naval Battle off Santiago de Cuba...........530

Cuba's Fight For Freedom.
Columbus in Cuba-The Second Visit-A Chief's Exhortation-Settlement and Slaughter-Las Casas and His Work-Extinction of the Natives-De Soto
-The British Conquest-Progress and Prosperity. 21 CHAPTER II.
General View of the Island-The Lay of the LandThe Climate-Mineral Resources-Animal LifeVegetable Life-Cuban Scenery .... ......... 35
The Industries of Cuba-A Coffee Plantation-Preparing
Coffee for Market-Havana Cigars-A Cigar Factory-Sugar Plantations and Mills-How Sugar is Made-Cathedral and Custom House-The Danse du Ventre in Cuba-The Bull Ring-The Tomb of Columbus-Among the Pawn Shops-A Hard
Bargain-Matanzas-A Wonderful Cave . 48
How the Island is Governed-The Captain-GeneralFreedom of the Press-Local Governments-Electoral Trickery-" No Cubans Need Apply "-The Spanish Senate-Discrimination Against CubansCarpet-Baggers to the Fore-In the Local Offices(9).

Squeezing the Orange-The Awful Burden of Debt -Treatment of Native Industry-Bad Commercial Laws-Cuba Ruined for the Sake of Spain-Salaried Carpet Baggers-Industries Driven to BankruptcyNo Public Instruction-Early Discontent-Lopez
and His Raids-The Killing of Pinto. ........ 81 CHAPTER V.
Outbreak of the Ten Years' War in i868-The Declaration of Independence-The Spanish Reply-War in Earnest-Proclamation of Freedom-Regular Government Formed-Valmaseda's Bloody OrdersAmerican Sympathy Expressed-A Special Message. i 17 CHAPTER VI.
Savage Methods of Spanish Soldiers-Spanish Testimony
-Meagre News in Havana-A Reign of CrueltyCharacter of the War-Safety of Havana-The Spanish Mistake-Strength of the Patriots-Effects of the War upon the Island-Ruined Towns-Little Fighting-Much Destruction--Tactics of the Two Armies-The Spaniards Half-Hearted-Slaughter in the Five Towns- Outrages upon Women-Atrocities
of Camp Followers ...... ............... 132
Arrogant Conduct of the Spanish toward Americans and
English-The "Virginius" Outrage- Shooting Four Cuban Patriots-American Citizens Murdered in Cold Blood-Wild Demonstrations of JoySurrender of the "Virginius "-The Formal Transfer-How an English Captain Prevented a Massacre. 166 CHAPTER VIII.
Close of the Ten-Years' War-General Campos' Own
Story-Communication with the Insurgents-Rebel Dissensions-Suspending Warfare-Progress toward

Peace-Coming to the Point-Campos' MotivesInterview with Garcia-An Anxious Moment-At Zanjon-The Terms Accepted-The End at LastA Review of the Situation-What the War MeantHow the End was Reached-Campos' Appeal for
Justice-The Cost of the War ... .... ...... 185
Beginning of the Revolution of 1895-Where the Plot
Hatched-Famous Men who Organized the Rebellion-Arrival of the Leaders in Cuba-How Gomez Reached Cuba-Callejas' Attempts to Secure Peace by Heroic Measures-The First Skirmishes-Ironical
Gratitude-Spread of the Rebellion ........... 213
The Patriots too much for Campos-Attitude of Other
Countries-The Insurgents Organize-Who the Leaders Were-Battle of Sao del Indio-Battle of
Peralejo-A Spanish Force Wiped Out....... 228
The News in Cuba-The New Commander-Weyler's
Arrival-First Words to Cuba-No NeutralityNon-Combatants Menaced-Call for Surrender-To End the War in Thirty Days-The Telegraph Lines -Weyler's Proclamations-Must Praise SpainPassports and Credentials-Stores to be SeizedFate of Prisoners-More Troops for Weyler-The Massacre of Guatao-Prisoners Killed-Very Near Havana-The Towns Deserted-Weyler Calls a Halt-Powers of Life and Death-More Proclamations-For Extermination-Fifteen Days' GraceThreats-Offer of Amnesty-To Report on the Suspects-Appeal for Recognition-A Long Debate
-Action by Congress .................. 240

Latest Operations-The "Competitor" Case-Weyler
Forced to take the Field-Death of Osgood, the American-Weyler goes out again-Attitude of the Washington Government-The Death of MaceoSpain's Implacable Foe-Maceo's Great Raid-The Hero's Last Campaign-The Final Tragedy-The
Demand for Recognition. . . 27)
The Murder o. Canovas-Sagasta in; Weyler outMarshal Blanco-McKinley's Words-No Americans in Arrest Now-Offers of Autonomy-Objections to the Scheme-Ruiz and Aranguren-The De Lome Incident-Destruction of the Maine-A Survivor's
Story-Effects of the Disaster ..... ... 291
The War with Spain.
Beginning of our War with Spain-Appealing to the
Powers-General Lee Leaves Cuba-No European Meddling-A Bogus Armistice-The President's Message-Grounds for Intervention-The Time for Action Come-Action of Congress-Spanish Defiance-General Woodford Leaves Madrid-War and Blockade-The Challenge Accepted-European Views-Causes of the War-A Striking ContrastSpain Reaping what She Sowed-Spain's Low
Estate-Important Step in American Politics .. 309

The Story of Spain-Roman Days in Spain-PelayoRise of Spanish Power-The Modern Tiberius-The Decline of Spain-Ferdinand's Bad Reign-The Carlist Revolt-The Latest Chapter-Porto Rico -Character of the Island-The Capital-An Ancient Walled City-The Philippines-Spanish Settlement in 1565-Invaded by Other Nations-Greatly Oppressed and Taxed-Some Natives UnsubduedNatives Mild and Amiable-Trade of the IslandsForeign Commerce Begins. 334
Resources of the Two Combatants Compared-Armies
and Navies-The Spanish Navy-United States Ships-North Atlantic Squadron-Flying Squadron -Pacific Station-Asiatic Station-UnassignedSpecial Service-Monitors-Training Ships-Auxiliary Fleet-The Spanish Soldier-The Cigarette his Solace-Bullied, Ill-treated and Robbed-The Army in Cuba-Spanish Pronunciation-West Indian Geographical Names-Cuban Proper Names -Spanish Geographical Names-Spanish Proper
Names-Names of Spanish Ships .3...... 360
Blockading Havana-The First Prize-Taking the Pedro
-Shots from Morro Castle-In Havana-More Prizes-A False Alarm-Adventures of a Press Boat-A Smart Capture-Work of a Monitor-A
Privileged French Steamer. ................. 392

The War in the Far East-The Opposing Fleets-Panic
at Manila-Entering Manila Bay-The Battle of Manila-The Spaniards Brave but Beaten-A Halt for Breaktast-Finishing the Job-An Unrivalled Performance-Telling the News-The President Thanks Dewey-Dewey's Record-Taking Possession of the Philippines 41
With the Blockading Fleet-Shelling Matanzas-Other
Ships Join in-Getting Closer to the Mark-" Cease Firing "-Aboard Ship-Scenes on the New York -The Men at the Guns-Sick Men wanted to be in it-Blanco's Mule Story-Cavalry Against Navy -The Admiral Teaches another Lesson-The Cardenas Tragedy-Helpless Under Fire-The Fatal Shot-Damage to the Enemy-Ensign Worth Bagley-The Gussie's Failure-Bombarding San JuanThe Battle of Santiago de Cuba-Spaniards on the
Run-Line Cut off Mole St. Nicolas . 431
The Voyage of the Oregon-No Thought of War-Fine
Work at Sea-In the Straits of Magellan-Good-by to the Slow Vessels-End of the Great Voyage-A Remarkable Speed Record-Her Size and Her
Armament-The Oregon's Commander .. ..... 459
The Spanish Cape Verd Fleet-Seeking the SpaniardsNews at Last-Santiago de Cuba-The First Attack -A Peep into the Harbor-Firing Big GunsResults of the Shooting-"Sealing the Cork"-The Search for the Survivors-Waiting for Hobson's
Return-What Hobson Did. ............. .474

The Seventh Regiment-Two Big Camps-The Second
Call-General Shafter-For the Philippines-Preparing to Invade Cuba-The Trip to Cuba-Operations at Guantanamo-Raiding a Spanish CampSpaniards Rush for the Bushes The Dolphin
Throws Shells 490
Battle of La Quasina-Captain Capron's Heroic Death
-The General Advance-Skill and Valor of Cubans -Work of the Fleet-Spain's Banner Falls-Cervera's Startling Move-Cervera's Ship Opens the Fight-The Texas in the Thick of it.-The Oregon and Iowa to the Front-End of the Destroyers"Don't Cheer; the Poor Devils are Dying"Greatest Chase of Modern Times-Down Came the Colon's Flag-It was Schley's Victory-Not Likely that the Colon can be Saved-Admiral Cervera Wounded-Surrender of Santiago-Discussing Terms
-Great Rejoicings . . . 503
Taking Possession of Santiago-Occupied without Formality-Governing the Captured City-To Enjoy American Freedom-Private Property Rights Respected-The Capture of Nipe-Guantanamo Surrenders-On to Porto Rico-Spaniards Taken by Surprise-Gloucester Shells the Town-Cavalrymen Driven to Hills Americans Welcomed More Prize Taking-Thought Prize was RecapturedSurprised Spanish Sailors-On to Havana-In the Philippines-Tested Quality of Troops- Negotiations for Peace-The Terms Offered-Spain Considers the Terms-Coming to the White HouseThe Protocol's Appearance-Judge Day and M.
Cambon Sign-Text of the Protocol ... ......537

Panorama of Havana.

;wm Wumm .. ..........
Am ..........
NOW! '71
77-77 ,T.
.. ....... .
211-orro Castle, Havana.

Cuba's Fight For Freedom
HE HISTORY of Cuba begins with the
discovery of the western world by Christopher Columbus. It was on September 25, 1492, that Martin Alonzo Pinzon, standing on the high quarter deck of the Admiral's ship, shouted "Land! land! Senor, I claim the reward!" It was on October 12 that land was actully reached. And it was on October 28 that Cuba was discovered. Columbus, as we know, was in quest of the fabled Cipango, the golden land of the East Indies, where Kublai Khan reigned. What he actually first reached was one of the Bahamas, called by the natives Guanahani. Columbus called it San Salvador, and the British have since named it Cat Island.
Columbus soon discovered the land he had reached to be a small island, and accordingly set sail for the main land, which he reckoned
2 (2I)

22 CUBA.
to be somewhere near. He passed many beautiful islands, visiting three of them, and was enraptured with their loveliness. 11 1 know not," he wrote in his diary, ,where first' to go. Neither are my eyes ever weary of gazing upon the beautiful verdure. The song of the birds is so sweet that it seems as if one would never desire to depart hence '. There are flocks of parrots that obscure the sun, and other birds of many kinds, large and small. There are majestic trees of a thousand species, each having its particular fruit, and all of marvelous flavor."
These, however, were mere islands. Nor did he find on them the gold and gems and spices of which he was in quest. But the natives told him of a great land lying to the south, which they called Cuba. It was, they said, rich in gold and pearls and other precious things, and Columbus felt sure it was the country of the Great Khan, of which Marco Polo had written. So he pressed on toward it, and on October 28th came to its shores. On that day he wrote in his diary: "This is the most beautiful land ever beheld- by human eyes,"
Columbus In Cuba,
As he approached the island he believed 'it was the main land. He noted with admiration its lofty mountains, its deep, clear rivers, its fine harbors, and the attractive appearance of all the

CUBA. 23
country. Then he cast anchor in the bay of a river just west of Nuevitas del Principe, and went ashore, taking formal possession of the land in the name of Spain. He spent many days in exploring the coast, landing here and there and visiting the native villages. The inhabitants were a race of Indians of gentle demeanor. They lived in a state of happy tranquillity among themselves, and possessed a religion devoid of rites and ceremonies, but inculcating a belief in the existence of a great and beneficent Deity and in the immortality of the soul.
Columbus went along the coast toward the northwest, until he reached a great headland which he called the Cape of Palms. Beyond this he was told there was a river up which it was only four days' journey to Cubanacan." By this the natives meant merely the interior of the island. But Columbus thought they meant the land of Kublai Khan, and was thus convinced that he was at last on the main land of Asia, near the rich realms of Cathay. He accordingly sent an embassy into the interior, to visit the Prince who ruled over those regions. The embassadors returned to the ship, however, after going inland twelve leagues, and reported that they had found no city and no prince and nothing but Indian villages. Neither did they find any gold. But they observed that the natives practiced a curious

24 CUBA.
habit, of rolling up the dried leaves of a certain herb, setting fire to one end of the roll, putting the other end in their mouths, and alternately inhaling and puffing out the smoke. Such a roll they called a tobacco. The Spaniards were astonished- at this strange practice, but -soon found it pleasant and themselves adopted it, calling the plant from which the rolls were made by the name which the Indians gave to the roll itself.
The explorer was disappointed in not finding the Court of Kublai Khan, and now turned to the east and south, and after some days sailing he reached the end of the island, now known as Cape Maysi. Supposing it to be the extreme end of the Asian continent, he called it Alpha and Omega, the Beginning and the End, and then set sail for Hayti.
The Second Visit.,
Columbus's second voyage was directed to the further exploration of Cuba, which he still believed to be the Asian continent. He reached Cape Maysi on April 29, 1494, and proceeded along the southern coast. Here and there he put in at harbors, and inquired of the natives for the land of gold. They all directed him to the southwest, telling him another great land lay there, rich in gold and gems. Doubtless they meant the South American continent. So, on

CUBA. 25
May 3, Columbus turned thither, but discovered nothing but the Island of Jamaica, and on May 1 8 he returned to Cuba. He arrived at a great cape, to which he gave the name of Cabo de la Cruz 'or Cape of the Cross, by which it is still known. Then he ran into a beautiful archipelago and called it the Queen's Garden. Every day revealed new beauties of land and sea. The delighted voyager believed that he had surely reached "Summer -Isles of Eden, lying in dark purple spheres of sea."
League after league he sailed along the coast toward the west, more and more convinced that he had found the land of the Great Khan. He proposed to keep on and circumnavigate the globe, returning by way of Africa. But his ships were out of repair and his crews weary, so at last he had reluctantly to turn back. Before he did so he had every one of his officers and men sign a declaration of their belief that Cuba was the western extremity of the continent of Asia. This was done while the ships lay in the Bay of Cortes, or Bay of Phillipina. If only some one had taken the trouble at that time to climb to the mast-head, he might have seen the open sea to the northward of the island and thus have discovered that Cuba was nothing but an island. Or had Columbus kept on for two or three days more,,,he would have reached the western end of the island and

26 CUBA.
thus have learned what it really was. Instead, he returned to Spain still cherishing his delusion.
A Chiefs Exhortation.
His last landing was made in Cuba on July 7. At the mouth of a fine river he set up a cross and had the service of the Mass performed. Among the Indians who looked on at this ceremony in mute amazement was one venerable chief who at the end of the ceremony said to Columbus: "I am told that you have come to this country with a mighty force and have subdued many lands, spreading great fear among the people. But do not therefore be vainglorious. Remember that, according to our belief, the souls of men have two journeys to perform after they have departed from the body. One is to a place that is dismal, foul, and covered with darkness, prepared for those who have been unjust and cruel to their fellow-men. The other is to a place full of delight and beauty, for those who have promoted peace on earth. Therefore if you are mortal and expect to die, see to it that you hurt no man wrongfully nor do harm to those who have done no harm to you."
A third short visit was made by Columbus to the southern shores of Cuba at the end of May, I5o3, and that concluded his adventures in that island. In 1511 his son, Diego Columbus, for the purpose of colonizing the island, fitted out an

CUBA. 27
expedition, consisting of more than three hundred men, under Diego Velasquez, who had accompanied his father on his second voyage. Their first settlement was Baracoa, and in I514 they founded Santiago and Trinidad. In July, 1515, was planted a town called San Cristoval de la Havana, which was in I519 named Batabano, and its original title transferred to the present capital of the island. The island itself, by the way, was first named by Columbus Juana, in honor of Prince John, son of Ferdinand and Isabella. After Ferdinand's death it was re-named Fernandina. Next it was designated Santiago, for the patron saint of Spain. Still later it was called Ave Maria, in honor of the Holy Virgin. Finally it was called Cuba, that being the name by which it was known among the natives at the time of its discovery.
Settlement and Slaughter.
As we have said the conquest of the island was seriously undertaken in I II. The expedition was organized in San Domingo, under the command of Diego Velasquez and numbered more than three hundred men. Among them was Hernando Cortez, the future conqueror of Mexico. There also was the celebrated Bartolome Las Casas, known as the Apostle to the Indies.
The harsh and brutal treatment imposed by the Spaniards upon the Indians in San Domingo

28 CUBA.
had caused many of the latter to cross over -to Cuba, where they expected to live in security and peace. Among these was the famous chief, Hatuey, whose name stands upon the pages of history as a monument of courage and patriotism in the face of Spanish ferocity and cruelty. As soon as he learned that the Spaniards had landed, in Cuba, Hatuey collected his warriors and proceeded to oppose the invaders. But the struggle was a useless one and 'hopeless from the outset. The weapons of the Indians consisted of arrows pointed with fishbones and of clubs, the ends of which -were hardened by fire, while the Spaniards, besides protecting their bodies with heavy clothing which the weak points of the Indian arrows could scarcely penetrate, were provided with excellent swords, powerful cross-bows, some firearms and a few horses. After several encounters Hatuey fell into the hands of the Spaniards and was condemned by Velasquez to be burned at the stake. When he was already tied to the stake, and the fagots were about to be lighted, the chief was approached by a priest who began to pray that, his soul might be taken to heaven. Hearing this, Hatuey asked to which of the two places the Spaniards would go when they died' He was told that they would all certainly go to heaven. IThen," he exclaimed, resolutely, "let me-go to hell !"

CUBA. 29
Las Casas and Is Work.
Las Casas, whom we have already mentioned, was the son of one of the companions of Columbus on his first voyage of discovery to the new world. In 1498 he accompanied his father in an expedition under Columbus to the West Indies, and in 1502 he went to Hayti, where he was admitted to priestly orders, being the first person to receive such consecration in the new world. In 15 11, the conquest of Cuba having been resolved on, he went to that island to take part in the work of populationn and pacification." He witnessed and vainly tried to check the terrible massacres of Indians which Velasquez soon perpetrated. A year or two later there was assigned to him a large village in the neighborhood of Xagua, inhabited by many Indians, as his share of the new colony. Here, -like the rest of his countrymen, hie sought to make the most of his opportunity of growing rich, though he continued occasionally to preach and celebrate Mass. Soon, however, having become deeply convinced of the injustice and other moral evils of the system of rule adopted by the Spaniards, he began to preach against it, at 'the same time giving up his own slaves. Then he went to Spain to speak in behalf of the oppressed natives, and the result of his representations was that in 15 16 Cardinal J imenez sent over a commission for the reform

30 CUBA.
of abuses-Las Casas himself, with a salary and the title of "1Protector of the Indians," being appointed a member of it. He soon found, however, that the other members of the commission were altogether indifferent to the cause which he had so much at heart and he accordingly returned to Spain where he developed his scheme for the complete liberation of the Indians. This scheme not only included facilities for emigration from Spain, but was intended to give to each Spanish resident in the colonies the right of importing twelve negro slaves. The emigration movement proved a failure, and Las Casas lived long enough to express his sorrow and shame for having been so slow to perceive that the African negyroes were as much entitled to the rights of man as were the American Indians.
Extinction of the Natives.
Velasquez was thus the founder of Indian slavery, and Las Casas of negro slavery, in America. The Indians who were not distributed among the Spaniards as slaves were compelled to pay a tribute in gold dust, and as gold never abounded in Cuba this was a difficult thing to do. 'Although the Indians were physically well developed, they were not accustomed to continuous and hard labor. The tasks imposed upon them by their ruthless Spanish masters caused so great a mortality that in about half a century the whole native

CUBA. 31
population of the island had disappeared. Some of the estimates placed the number of inhabitants of the country originally at 8oo,ooo. Others place it at no more than 400,ooo. But even taking the latter figure as correct, what a frightful destruction of human life there was in a few years!
The discovery and conquest of Mexico and Peru, with their immense wealth, caused the Spanish to look upon Cuba with indifference, and for nearly 3oo years it was almost forgotten. Nothing but the geographical position of Havana saved the island from utter neglect and oblivion in Spain. It was a convenient stopping-place for ships plying between Spain and the American continent, but so little was known in Spain about Cuba that not infrequently, even as late as the latter part of the last century, official dispatches were addressed to the Island of Havana. Even after the country was yielding to the Spanish treasury millions of dollars of revenue every year, the Spaniards remained so ignorant about Cuban matters that in the laws enacted for Cuba at Madrid in 1856 a reward was offered for the killing of "foxes, ferrets, wolves and other wild beasts of prey." Of such animals not a trace had ever been discovered in the island. The only wolves and other wild beasts of prey known to the Cubans have been the Spanish office-holders.

32 CUBA.
De Soto*
Havana was frequently attacked by the ships of powers hostile to Spain. In 1538 it was almost entirely destroyed by a French privateer. To prevent a similar disaster in future the Castillo de la Fuerza, a fortress which s till exists, was built by Fernando de Soto, who was then Governor of Cuba. This was the same de Soto who afterward became famous for his explorations in the southern and western regions of the United States and for the discovery of the Mississippi River. When he went on his last expedition to North America, on which he lost his life, he left his wife and family behind him at Havana, where his wife died of a broken heart three days after receiving news of his death.
Trhe British Conquest.
Despite this fortress, in 1554, the French again attacked and partly destroyed Havana. The early settlers of Cuba devoted themselves chiefly to the rearing of cattle, but about I 58o the cultivation of tobacco and the sugar cane was commenced, and this led to a vast development of the system of negro slavery. Previous to i 6oo two more forts were built for the defence of Havana. These were the Punta and the Morro Castle, which are still in existence. For a century and a half after this date the island was kept in a state of almost perpetual fear of invasion from the

CUBA. 33
French, English, Dutch, and other raiders. It also suffered much from the pirates and freebooters who infested those seas. About 1665 the building of strong walls around the city was commenced. In 1762 Havana was captured after a desperate struggle by an English fleet and army under Lord Albemarle. The fleet consisted of more than two hundred vessels of all classes manned by more than fourteen thousand men, while the Spanish army of defense numbered more than twenty-seven thousand. The assault began on June 6th. On July 3oth Morro Castle was surrendered, and on August 14th the city itself capitulated. The spoil divided among the conquerors amounted to more than $3,600o,000. By a treaty concluded at Paris in the following year Cuba was restored to the Spaniards and thereafter its progress was rapid. Indeed, that was the beginning of the island's real importance and prosperity.
Progress and Prosperity.
Another Las Casas arrived in 1 790 as Captain-General of the island and his administration was a brilliant time in the history of Cuba. He promoted with indefatigable perseverance a great and useful series of public works. He also introducect the culture of indigo, which became an important industry. He extended the commercial importance of the island by removing as far

34 CUBA.
as possible the trammels imposed upon it by the old system of monopoly, and also made noble efforts for the emancipation. of the slaves. It was owing to his wise administration that the island remained peaceful during the time of the revolution in Hayti, although the latter was closely watched by the negroes in Cuba and a con-, spiracy for revolt was actually formed among them by French agents. Many of the French who were driven out of Hayti by the negro revolutionists came to Cuba in 179 and settled there.
The news that Napoleon had deposed the royal family of Spain reached Cuba in July, i So8. It caused great excitement and aroused much patriotic enthusiasm. All the offcers of the island at once took oath to preserve Cuba for the deposed sovereign and declared war against Napoleon. It was partly from this fact, and partly from the fact that it remained loyal to Spain when, a dozen years later, all the South American colonies revolted, that Cuba received the name of "The Ever Faithful Isle."

SUBA EXTENDS from Cape Maysi, on
the east, to Cape St. Antonio, on the west, in a curved line of 790 miles. It lies between I9 and 230 north latitude, and 740 and 850 west longitude. It is I 17 miles wide in the broadest part; from Cape Maternillos point on the north, to the western point of Mota Cove, on the south twenty-one miles east of Cape Cruz-the Cape of the Cross.
The narrowest part of the Island is twentytwo miles, from the mouth of Bahia del Mariel, on the north of Cove of Mavana on the south. From Havana to Batabano, it is twenty-eight miles; near the centre of the Island, the breadth north and south is about seventy-five miles. The periphery of the Island, following a line the less tortuous and cutting the bays, parts and coasts at their mouths, is 1,719 miles, of which

wwJ 4otLnig aaa

41 g"; 1w 80
Palace of the Captain- General, Havana.

CUBA. 39
Domingo's key, thirty-four miles. From Punto del Ingles, on the South of Cuba, to the nearest point of the northern coast of Jamaica, the distance is seventy-five miles.
Cuba contains the following ports on the North, viz.: Guardiana, Bahia Honda, Cabana, Mariel, Havana, Matanzas, Cardenas, Sagua la Grande, San Juan de los Remedios, Guanaja, Nuevitas, Nuevas Grandes, Manati Puerto del Padre, Puerto del Mangle, Jibara, Jururu, Bariai, Vita, Naranjo, Salma Banes, Nipe, Leviza Cabonico, Tanamo, Cebollas, Zaquaneque, Zaragua, Taco, Cuyaguaneque Navas, Maravi, Baracoa and Manta-thirty-seven in all. On the South, Batiqueri, Puerto Escondido, Guantanamo, Santiago de Cuba, Mota, Manzanillo, Santa Cruz, Vertientes, Masio, Casilda, Jagua, Ensenada de Cortez and Ensenada de Cochinos-thirteen in all.
The Lay of the Land.
Low as the coast lands are, the island is plentifully supplied with hills and mountains. The highest part of the island is in the southeast portion, the loftiest peaks here reaching a height of more than 7,600 feet. From these mountains a ridge of somewhat less general elevation follows closely to the central line of the island westward, rising to a height of 2,530 feet at the extreme west. A considerable group of hills also rises immediately behind the harbor of Trinidad, near

40 CUBA.
the centre of the southern coast. The summits of the mountains are mostly rocky and naked, though occasionally smooth and covered with soil and vegetation. The internal structures of the mountains consist of chalk, limestone, sandstone, and gypsum. There are also numerous masses of serpentine and syenitic rocks. In some places petroleum is found in considerable quantities among the serpentine, and abundant springs of the same oil are also found in the eastern part of the island.
The rivers of Cuba are necessarily short, and their course is generally toward the north or south. The largest is the Cauto, which is about 150 miles long, and navigable for sixty miles. Several others are navigable for from five to fifteen" miles each. At the northeast of Guantanamo is the hill of Moa, in which is a huge cavern, and in that cavern the river Moa descends in a superb cascade more than 300o feet high.
The Climate.
Cuba lies near the northern edge of the tropical zone and its, climate is therefore largely torrid. On the high ground of the interior, however, it is fairly temperate. As in other tropical and semi-tropical countries, the year is divided into two seasons, known as the wet and the dry, the former being the hotter of the two. The wet season extends from May to October, although

CUBA, 41
rain falls in every month of the year. Spring begins in May, and thenceforward thunder storms are of almost daily occurrence until fall. Almost every day is exceedingly warm except on the mountain-tops. From November to April is the dry season, when the temperature is somewhat more moderate. The average rainfall at Havana in the wet season is about 27 8-10 inches and in the dry season 12 7-10 inches, making a total of 40 5-10 inches for the year. At Havana in July and August the average temperature is 820 Fahrenheit, varying between a maximum of 880 and a minimum Of 760. In December and January the maximum is 780 and the minimum 580, the
*average being 720. The average temperature at Havana the year round is 770. In the interior of the Island, at elevations more than 300 feet above the sea, the mercury occasionally falls to the freezing point -in winter. Light frosts are not uncommon and thin ice is sometimes formed. Snow, however, is never known to fall in the Island, The prevailing wind is from the east, but from November to February the north wind occasionally blows for not more than two days at a time, especially in the western part of the island. As a rule the hottest hours in the day are from ten o'clock to noon. In the afternoon a refreshing breeze almost always sets in from the sea. From August to October is the hurricane season.

42 CUBA.
These storms are sometimes extremely severe and destructive, though not so much so as in other West Indian Islands. Sometimes five or six years pass without a single hurricane. Earthquake shocks are occasionally felt, but are seldom so severe as to be destructive.
No serious diseases are known to be indigenou's to the island. Yellow fever, which rages every year on all the coast lands, was imported many years ago by vessels engaged in the slave trade. It is probable that its continuance and annual recurrence has been due to the indescribably foul condition of the harbors, especially that of Havana. This plague causes great loss of life every year, especially among visitors and naturalized residents of the island. It attacks comparatively few of the natives and its ravages are exclusively confined to the lowlands along the coast.
Mineral Resources.
The mineral resources of the island have not yet been developed nor even explored to any considerable extent. Gold and silver have, undoubtedly, been found on the island in various places, but never in quantities sufficient to pay for the working of mines. The early settlers sent gold to Spain from the island, but they obtained it from the aborigines who had accumulated it for centuries and had probably im-

CUBA. 43
ported it from other islands and from Mexico and the South American continent. Traces of goldbearing sand are found in several of the rivers, and attempts have been made at two or three places to secure the metal in paying quantities, but without success. Early in the present century silver and copper were discovered in the Province of Villa Clara, and some of the first ores found yielded no less than seven ounces of pure silver to the quintal, a quintal being 107Y4 pounds. The mines have never been properly worked, however, and thus have been regarded as unprofitable. Near Santiago, in the eastern part of the island, are some copper mines of great extent and richness. A considerable town has grown up about them and a railroad has been built to carry their product to the sea. More than fifty topis of very rich ore have been taken out daily, the best of it being shipped direct to Europe for reduction. The poorer part of it is retained and smelted on the island. These mines were worked with considerable success during the seventeenth century, but during the eighteenth century were entirely neglected.
Coal is found in almost inexhaustible quantities. It is of a highly bituminous character, giving out much heat, and leaving very little ashes or cinders, In, some places it degenerates into semi-liquid form, resembling asphaltum, and in

44 CUBA*
some places naphtha or petroleum. TIhere are excellent quarries of slate near Havana, the product of which is used for floors and pavements. In many parts of the island of Cuba, and more particularly in the Isle of Pines, marble and jasper, of various colors and fine quality, are found. Iron is believed to exist in considerable quantities, especially among the highest mountain peaks, but because of the difficulty of access, the scarcity of fuel, the want of capital, and perhaps, above all, lack of enterprise and energy, no considerable mining operations have ever been undertaken.
Animal Life.
The aboriginal animal life of Cuba varied but little from that of other islands. Savage -wild beasts were unknown. The only quadruped peculiar to the island is the hutia. This is an animal somewhat resembling a rat in form, and from twelve to eighteen inches in length, exclusive of the tail. It is pure black in color, lives among trees, and feeds on leaves and fruit. Its flesh is sometimes used as an article of diet. A few deer have been found in various parts of the island, but they are supposed to have been introduced from Florida. Plenty of wild dogs and cats are found in the woods, but' they are merely the degenerate descendants of tame creatures.
The chief domestic animals are the ox, the horse, and the pig, and these form a large pro-

portion of the wealth of the island. Sheep, goats and mules are less numerous. The manatee is found along the coasts, but no attempt has ever been made to domesticate it. Domestic fowls include geese, turkeys, peacocks and pigeons. The wild birds are notable for the beauty of their plumage, and more than 200 different species are found on the island. There are very few birds of prey. The principal ones are the vulture and the turkey buzzard, and these are protected from destruction by law, on account of their services as scavengers. The waters in and about the island are plentifully supplied with fish. Oysters and other shell fish also abound, but are of inferior quality. Numerous turtles are found on the coast and reefs, some of them attaining enormous size. They *and their eggs form an important article of diet. Crocodiles and enormous lizards are common. Land-crabs are frequently seen. in large numbers. These cross the island from north to south every spring, at the beginning of the rainy season. There are comparatively few snakes. The largest is the maja, which attains a length of twelve or fourteen feet, but is quite harmless. The most venomous snake is the juba, which grows to a length of about six feet.
Among the insect life of Cuba the most notable creature is the firefly. These flies are very large and luminous and exist in enormous num-

46 CUBA.
bers. They are much used among the poorer people instead of lamps or candles. A dozen or more of them confined in a bottle or even an empty gourd pierced with holes will serve to illuminate a room fairly well. Bees are exceedingly abundant throughout the island. The poisonous insects are the jigger, one species of ant, the mosquito, the sandfly, the scorpion, and spiders.
Vegetable Life.
A considerable portion of the area of Cuba is covered with forests, some of them being so dense as to be almost impenetrable. It was estimated a few years ago that of nearly 2o, 0OO,ooo acres of land still remaining wild and uncultivated, about I 3,000,000 were covered with uncleared forest. Among the valuable woods are mahogany, ebony, cedar and grandilla. These are valuable for manufactures, cabinet work and ship-building, and form a considerable article of export. The most valuable tree on the island, however, is the palm, which abounds everywhere.
The fruits and vegetables of Cuba are such as are found elsewhere in the tropics. Most esteemed of all are the banana and plantain, the pineapple, the orange and the cocoa. The sweetand-bitter cassava, the sweet potato, or yam, and other farinaceous roots are common, and Indian corn and rice are extensively cultivated.

CUBA. 47
Cuban Scenery.,
Travelers coming to Cuba for the first time usually see what they have expected to see, and fall temporarily into ecstasies over tropical scenery and semi-saracenic architectural effects. It is imagination fired by overheated books of travel that lends to the view greater enchantment than distance in a foreign land. When the eye becomes accustomed to the contrasts with familiar scenes offered in town and country, disenchantment quickly follows. Then the truth is discerned that the woods, foliage, plants, flowers, landscape effects and suburban drives are incomparably more beautiful in the temperate zone than in the tropics. Raptures over Cuban scenery are transitory vagaries in Havana. The harbor, with a long line of high-bastioned fortifications flanking the low peninsula upon which the city stands, is an imposing pageant, especially under a moonlit sky; but the country about the city is flat and unimpressive. A railway ride across the island from Batabano,' or westward to Matanzas, discloses vistas of undulating levels and moors under poor cultivation, relieved only by sen-tinel palms of the royal guard, or by encampments of palmettos, or by straggling cabins with palm-leaf roofs. The plazas have an ill-nourished and stunted look. The Bishop's Garden in Tulipan was once a lovely retreat, but it is now neglected ground.

HE PRINCIPAL agricultural products
of Cuba are sugar, coffee and tobacco.
In former years indigo was extensively cultivated, but that industry has greatly declined. The sugar industry has also been injured by the development of beet sugar production in various other countries. Still, the sugar plantations and mills, which include both refineries and distilleries for the production of rum, are the most important industrial establishments of the island. The bulk of the sugar is shipped to the United States. Next in importance is the coffee industry, which was established in 1748, the seeds having been brought from San Domingo. Tobacco is indigenous to Cuba, and is famous over the world for its fine quality. Hundreds of millions of cigars are exported every year, beside many million pounds of leaf tobacco.

CUBA. 49
The other industries of Cuba comprise cattle farms, cotton plantations, fruit and vegetable farms, chocolate plantations, and bee farms, devoted to the. production of honey and wax. Generally speaking, 'it may be said that these industries have been conducted in a rather slipshod manner. The best establishments are now those conducted by Americans, largely with Chinese labor. At the same time, contact with American progress has considerably improved the character and disposition of the natives, and under a proper government the 'Industrial condition of the island would be vastly improved, and would contain a considerable measure of that prosperity for which nature evidently designed it. The saying that if you tickle the earth with a hoe it laughs with a harvest" is to no country more applicable than to Cuba.
Four centuries have been nearly rounded out since the discoveries of Columbus, yet Cuba to-day is, with the single exception of Brazil, the leastdeveloped country in the New World. Out of a total 'area Of 43,000 square. miles barely more than one-tenth is under cultivation. At the western end of the island there is a population exceeding i oooooo, but the remaining districts, of which Puerto Principe and Santiago are the capitals, are practically unsettled, having between them less than 5ooooo whites, negroes and Chinese. Only

50 CUBA.
within five years has iron-mining begun in earnest. The forest areas are unexplored. There are vast tracts of unreclaimed lands available for future industry. There are broad savannas, now abandoned to tropical thickets, where sugar, tobacco and corn could be cultivated. If there are now 1500o sugar plantations,, large and small, on the island, there could be 15~,ooo. If there are 1 5,000 tobacco-planters of every degree, the number might be multiplied. If coffee-farming has declined and is now restricted mainly to the mountain slopes of Guantanamo, it could be restored to its old-time efficiency and prosperity. A transformation of administration and economic conditions are needed in order that there may be a new and reinvigorated Cuba. Spanish rule has been like the wild Indian fig of the island that winds about the monarch trees of the forest and paralyzes and kills them with its serpentine embrace. The de.--s troy ing fig must first be uprooted before the tree can have soil, light, air and moisture needed for its normal growth.
A Coffee Plantation.,
Any person desiring to make a coffee estate chooses for his plaza, or plantation, high and steep ground, if possible facing east and west; altitude above sea-level from i,ooo to 3,000 feet. Experience has proven that ground lower than i,ooo feet is too apt in the dry season to parch

and give the plant insufficient moisture, whereas on the mountain side in the altitude mentioned the dews are always heavier, and the morning fogs settle longer and give the soil time to absorb the moisture it needs to sustain the plant during the hot hours of the day. For these reasons, and also to avoid the direct rays of the noonday sun, steep hillsides are chosen, facing east and west, as said above, if possible. As a general thing the planter, never having studied the chemical properties of coffee-producing land, looks for ground where lance-wood, redwood and olive-wood grow as a never failing proof that the land is adapted for the cultivation of coffee. The land must be virgin soil. On this the planter puts his laborers to the work of clearing. The larger trees are burned out and the smaller trees and brush chopped down with ax and machete. The cost of clearing the land is about $500, Spanish, per caballeria (thirty-three and one-third acres).
The land is lined out., the lines running from the top to the bottom of the hill, four feet apart. In these lines five or six coffee berries, three and one-half feet from each other and two inches from the surface, are planted. In other words, one cabellenia contains, where the whole space can be utilized, ioo0,ooo plants. The coffee is planted during the rainy season-in March or September. In thirty-five or fortyr days the seeds begin to sprout.

52 CUBA.
These sprouts are allowed to grow for six months, after which the healthiest alone are left, the others being pulled out. The remaining sprout is left growing for eighteen or twenty months. In the meanwhile the planter, desiring that his land shall yield something, plants corn, plantains, and all kinds of vegetables ; also, at intervals between the rows, cacao, which, however, does not yield a full crop until the coffee plant is exhausted, say, in ten or twelve years. As soon as the coffee plant reaches a height of four feet it is stunted and trimmed, all young sprouts thereon being killed off in order to force all the strength into the fruit. For the first two years the plant produces nothing ; the third year it yields a half crop; on the fourth year a full crop, which runs from io,ooo to 6o,ooo pounds of coffee, ready for the market, according to the condition of the soil, per cabelleria of thirty-three and one-third acres. This production continues for ten or more years, and the planter can gather his crop of cacao, planted as above.
The coffee plant blooms in January to April, then the berry forms and is ripe for pi-cking- from August to December. The negro is paid for picking and delivering the berry at the "1secadero (a large platform, made of stone, covered and smoothed with cement) fifty cents per bag. It is calculated that one hundred pounds of

CUBA. 53
berries yield fifteen pounds of marketable coffee. Each bag of berries delivered at the "secadero" must contain 200 to 300 pounds, and a good workman can pick three bags per day.
Preparing Coffee for Markets
The berry is then spread on the "secadero" and exposed to the sun to dry. How long this takes depends wholly on the weather-under ordinary -circumstances, say seventy-two hours. The berries while drying are repeatedly raked or turned over to quicken the process. During this process great watchfulness is required, as the slightest rain would ruin the berry. To prevent this covers are always ready for the "secadero." These are cone-shaped, and when the berries are raked into heaps these covers completely protect them from rain and dew.
When the berries are completely dried they are put into the "Molina de pilar," which is a circular trough, usually cemented, in which a heavy wheel made of hard wood, the rim plated with metal, revolves. This wheel crushes the berry and leaves the bean. Ox or mule power is employed. The bean is then put into the blower to remove all particles of the outside shell. When the coffee is clean it is again put into the "tMolina de pilar to receive a polish. If the color is too light a little charcoal is put into the trough with the coffee.

54 CUBA*
The coffee, after this process, is ready to be put into bags and conveyed to market, which is done on mule-back.
Another process, not so much in use now, owing tthfact that the coffee is exported, 'is washing. The berry, as it comes from the playa, is put into a crusher to press out the bean. The bean falling into a stone basin is left therein over night to rid it of the gum adhering to it. The next morning the basin is filled with water and the bean washed. This process is repeated two or three times, when the coffee is spread out on the "secadero to dry.
The coffee is conveyed to market on 'Muleback, in bags of about 102 pounds each, a mule carrying two bags and traveling ten leagues per day. The cost of carrying to market in this manner runs from 75 cents to $i per load.
Havana Cigars.
There is a popular theory that since the choicest cigars come from Cuba, Havana is the best place in -the world to buy them. American visitors when they come here expect to revel in the luxury of smoking the mos 't delicate brands and of paying very little for them. Cigars are cheap, but not so good, in Havana. "I have sampled all brands in various stores," says an American traveler, "1and have not found anything better than an ordinary Key West cigar that is sold in

The Cathedral, Ilavana,

Columbus Memorial Chapel, Havana Columbus Memorial Chapel, Havana.

CUBA. 57
New York. Exception must be made in favor of a handful which I received at a cigar factory as a present. These were very good. The cigars sold over the counter even in the best restaurants are not worth buying. The visitor who wants a fine brand cannot do better than to visit one of the best factories and make his purchases there, throwing himself upon the mercy of the proprietors and paying well for them.
"The truth is that the world smokes too much to enjoy any longer the luxury of the pure Havana of *other days. The district where the choicest leaf is produced in the Vuelta de Abajo is of limited area. It is surrounded by belts in which leaf of excellent color, but lacking in delicacy of aroma, is produced. It is soil rather than -climate that regulates the quality of tobacco, and while the plant grows readily throughout Western Cuba, and in certain districts near Matanzas, Cienfuegos and Santiago, it is only from a comparatively small area that the best, leaf can be obtained, and then only when the plants are trimmed after budding. The 'demand for well-known brands is very great, and 'it has to be met in some way. I was told in Santiago and Cienfuegos that much of the tobacco raised there was'sent to Havana and made up as cigars passing under the best names. The depreciation in the quality of Cuban cigars imported into the

58 CUBA.
New York market during recent years is undoubtedly to be accounted for by the artificial widening of the Vuelta de Abajo preserves so as to include various "hot" tobaccos, similar in color, but inferior in aroma. Heavy fertilizing, moreover, while increasing the productiveness of the land, injures the quality of the leaf.
A Cigar Factory.
"No visitor ought to neglect to visit at least one of the many large cigar factories of the city. I saw at the Corona works a force of 8oo men,women and children employed in the various processes of grouping wrappers according to color, making cigars by hand, putting paper labels on them, sorting cigars and manufacturing cigarettes. This force is increased to 2000 in busy times. This factory produces many millions of cigars in the course of a year, and about 2,000, 000 cigarettes every forty-eight hours. The expense of cigarettemaking is greatly reduced by ingenious machinery for filling and packing the paper-holders with tobacco, closing them at both ends and finally emptying the trays in which the shells were placed before the delicate mechanism was brought to bear upon them. This machinery enables six men to do the work of 3oo, and turns out 6oo,ooo cigarettes a day. Apparently there is some apprehension felt lest this intricate mechanism may be reproduced in detail in the United States, for

CUBA. 59
the inventor, whose rights are controlled by the Corona, will not allow any visitor with a camera to enter the room. Wonderful as the improvement in machinery for tobacco-working has been, it has not emancipated children from this unhealthy and laborious employment.
",In one of the departments I saw groups of sallow-faced children under ten years making cheroots and leaf-cigarettes. One was a little thing, with a pale, wizened face, bending over the table, with strained eyes, and working nervously with her tiny fingers as rapidly as the two strong women between whom she was sitting. Rarely have I seen a more pathetic figure than this child, so preoccupied with her work that she could not spend time to look at the visitors pausing before her with pitying eyes. I asked her age. She was barely six years old, and could make 3000 of these cheroots a day-almost as many as her mother. American visitors will do well to avoid that corner of the Corona. Cigars may never have the same flavor for them again if they see a child of six bending and -straining over a work-table in order to make them for the pleasure of the grand caballeros of the gay world."
Sugar. Plantations and MlYlls.
Matanzas is one of the largest sugar-producing- centres in Cuba. Last year it exported about i 6o,ooo tons to the United States and 6o,ooo

6o CUBA.
tons of molasses. More molasses is made here than in Cienfuegos, but. there is never anything wasted by the Cuban planters anywhere by any process of the manufacture of sugar. The centrifugating machines separate the syrup into sugar and molasses, each of the first grade. This molasses is then worked over a second time with more syrup, and the centrifugators divide the combination into sugar and molasses, each of the second grade. This second grade of molasses is carried through a distillery and converted into rum of various, grades. In these hard times sugar-planters cannot afford to lose anything at all sweetish that comes from the cane. They sell their sugar, molasses and prime rum in New York, and their worst rum is worked off in the Mexican trade. The refuse cane makes the engines go.
The processes and machinery employed here closely resemble those found elsewhere. There is one plantation, owned by the Count de Ybanex, which is operated differently. The cane instead of being ground by milling machinery is cut up into small sections and the sugar is worked out of it by water, by a process of diffusion similar to that employed in the manufacture of beet sugar. This method has been tested with satisfactory results during the last year at this plantation, and has been adopted tentatively at one ,other

CUBA. 61
Cuban factory. More labor is required and coal is necessary, but it is asserted that the increased expense is more than made up by the larger percentage of sugar obtained from the cane. One of the most prominent planters here has furnished me with a table showing the percentage obtained by seven processes of diffusion by water, the aggregate result being the extraction of over 992 parts of the thousand. The proportion is twelve to ten in favor of the diffusion against the ordinary milling process. About 143 tons a day are produced by diffusion on the plantation to which I have referred, and this is done with machinery which has not been perfected.
It would be a singular result if the diffusion process by which the cultivation of European beet sugar has been largely developed and enabled to crowd out cane sugar were adopted generally in Cuba as a means of cheapening and enlarging the product. One manufacturer, who has made sugar by the grinding method for many years, believes that this will happen. He admits that the change of method will involve the abandonment of an extensive plant and the substitution of much new machinery; but he contends that a revolution in the current processes of making cane sugar is impending. The Spanish Government now blocks the way by imposing a duty of one to two dollars a ton on coal. The diffusion

62 CUBA,
process involves the necessity of using coal, and the duty materially increases the cost of production. This is an apt illustration of the burdens imposed upon Cuba by a tariff system which does not protect any of its industrial and productive interests.
How Sugar Is H~aO e.
Soledad has the reputation of being the best managed sugar plantation in Cuba. It produced last year 12,000,000 pounds of sugar, and this year it will probably send to market 1 4,000,000 pounds. Other plantations largely exceed it in cultivated area and mechanical resources, Constancia having a product Of 40,000,000 pounds, but Soledad is conducted on scientific principles and with American thoroughness, system, and organization, so that there is the greatest saving in the cost of production and the largest margin for profit on the investment. All the improved machinery is here'; every time-saving and labordispensing device is employed, and the maximum amount of sugar is obtained from the cane at the lowest possible cost. Soledad is largely owned by Americans.
Soledad lies near a picturesque little river flowing into the bay of Cienfuegos. It is reached from the town after a delightful sail on a steam yacht across the bay and up the river, and a short railway ride from the wharf to the sugar works

CUBA. 63
and plantation house. When the train draws up before the door the manager is at hand with genial smile and graceful hospitality to welcome his guests, and to conduct them personally over the works. With his explanations the intricate processes of converting cane into sugar are speedily revealed. Then follows a plantation breakfast served in the airy dining-room of his house with lavish hospitality and refinement of courtesy. The dining-room adjoins the parlor or reception room, which is furnished in characteristic Cuban style with cane settees and rocking- chairs-a spacious, high-studded room on the second floor, with windows overlooking the sugar works, and a lovely plantation garden. The floors are bare, carpets never being used on the island, but no Yankee housewife with a mania for sweeping, dusting, and polishing can have a more scrupulously neat parlor than what the manager facetiously describes as the bachelor's hall of Soledad. An afternoon passed in a planter's house is something to be treasured in memory as one of the delightful experiences of a lifetime.
The first sugar plantation in Cuba was established about a hundred years after the discovery of the island. For three centuries the chief industry of the island has been the cultivation of cane and its conversion into sugar. For a long period the processes of manufacture were

64 CUB3A.
crude, inexpensive and wasteful, oxen 'being employed in gri nding cane, and the machinery being of the roughest and simplest design. It is no longer either practicable or profitable to raise cane, and make sugar on a small scale. Steam has taken the place of the ox and mule, not only in the grinding mills, but to a large extent in the fields. At Soledad the cane is carried to the works by long trains running on narrow-gauge railways through the estate. It is unloaded from the cars by negroes and thrown upon a broad carrier traveling up a long incline to the rollers of the first mill. As many as fifteen men are employed in handling this moving mass of cane. When it reaches the first mill it is grou nd by rollers weighing fifteen tons and set close together. The cane is broken up and about sixty per cent. of the liquor which it contains is drawn off underneath the mill. Under the old process there was only one grinding and much of the liquor was wasted. Now the cane is ground twice and an additional fifteen per cent. of the juice is obtained. Streams of liquor from the vats of the two mills unite and pass through a strainer, one workman being employed in raking off floating refuse and preventing obstructions. The liquor is then ready to be pumped into the boiling works.
The refuse of the cane after the two grind.

ings is the only fuel used in the works. It is carried by moving conductors to the furnaces and dumped automatically, being dried by the intense heat and consumed as rapidly as it is fed. Wood was used as fuel when the steam engine was introduced in sugar works, and subsequently bagasse, or refuse cane, was put with it. Boilers have been invented to facilitate the employment of bagasse as fuel. Those used here are the Porcupine boilers of the Stillwater pattern. Ordinarily, when the furnaces are fed with bagasse, a force of eighty laborers is constantly occupied in transferring it from the mills to the boiler-house. At Soledad two men do the work of eighty ; or, to speak more accurately, the automatic action of the mechanical conductors dispenses with the labor of seventy-eight men. Indeed, a close approach is made here to the solution of the old problem of perpetual motion., The cane, when fed to the conductors, serves to keep all the complex machinery of the works in operation; the broken and crushed fragments, of bagasse are carried to the furnaces and furnish the power by which not only the grinding, but also the pumping and boiling are done; all that is not juice, but sheer waste, goes into the production of force by which the mills are kept grinding and the liquor clarified, boiled and crystallized into sugar.

66 CUBA.
Cathedral and Custom House*
Some 300 years ago, when Spain held dominion over the greater part of the New World, and the city of Havana was rising up as a central station and key to these possessions, a magnificent cathedral was erected, fronting the sea, inside of the beautiful bay which now f6rms the harbor, and Just about the centre of the front of the walled city. This cathedral was said to be the finest in the New World, and was held in great veneration. When Havana was captured by the British in 1762, a considerable force was landed to garrison the place, a part of which was cavalry with little regard for the sacredness of the edifice, the conquerors used the cathedral as a stable for their horses. A year later the city was restored to Spain by the treaty of peace signed at Paris, and the cathedral was restored to its rightful owners. In consideration of the use to which it had been put by the British, it was declared to be defiled and desecrated and entrance to it was strictly forbidden. For a period of ioo years the stately building was condemned to be closely shut up in darkness. When that period had elapsed, the building was reopened but never again was used as a place of worship. It was converted into a custom house and devoted to the secular purposes of the Government,

CUBA. 67
The Danse du Ventre in Cuba.
"I attended," says a recent visitor, "a dramatic performance at the Alhambra one night. Three zarzuelas, or short one-act plays, are presented, and after each one a bale, or dance resembling the Cancan, is performed (in this instance) by three women and three men. The dancers are very graceful, and although the femo of the music is disconcerting to my ear, they manage to keep perfect time, which is perhaps the most remarkable feature of it.
"But the dance of the evening is given by a slender and rather pretty Spanish girl, very modestly costumed and accompanied by soft, voluptuous music. She is assisted by a nimble male dancer, who circles about her with simple, yet graceful steps, advancing wildly toward her at intervals as if about to embrace her; she escapes him, however, and he himself seems to think better of it on reflection, retiring discreetly to the back of the stage where he gesticulates madly to some mysterious personage in the flies, appearing to give up the whole business as a bad job. The dance of la senorita has so far been similar to that given by Carmencita, but now her movements become nothing more than a series of wriggles and contortions of the abdomen and hips-it is, in fact, the danse du ventre exactly as seen in the Midway Plaisance, only more suggest-

68 CUBA.
ive and indecent than the Chicago article and infinitely more graceful.
"Amid a final discordant crash on the part of
the orchestra and howls of delight from the audience, the curtain descends, when the American visitor betakes himself to the caf6 to escape the inevitable encore and to enjoy his cigarette and lemonade in peace.,
The Bull R9ing,
The most famous popular amusement in Havana is, however, bull-fighting, especially on Sundays.
As early as 2 o'clock the people begin to gather at the ring, although the sport will not begin until 4. In the meantime a vast quantity of lemonade, water sweetened with panales, cheap wine and cognac, is disposed of by the hot and thirsty crowd. In the palcos (boxes) many senoras are to be seen with fan and mantilla, attended by dandies smoking cigarettes or big black cigars.
Everybody is talking, the band plays gay music and occasionally you hear the bulls bellowing in their pens outside the ring.
The latter is about eighty feet in diameter and surrounded by a board fence some four feet high, over which the fighters vault when hard pressed by the bull. At -4 o'clock exactly the president enters his palco, signals with his handkerchief for the slaughter to begin, and from the

CUBA. 69
opposite side the bull-fighters enter the enclosure, marching in pairs across to the president, whom they salute before taking their several positions about the arena.
The trumpet sounds and as the bull bounds into the ring, a rosette of colored paper fastened to a sharp piece of metal is driven into his shoulder. This is unpleasant for the bull, and, snorting with anger, he charges on an offensive partisan, called a capeador, who gently waves a red cloak before him. Just as the animal reaches him, he steps nimbly aside, escaping by a hair's-breadth.
For ten or fifteen minutes the bull is teased in this manner by the gentlemen with gaudy cloaks, when at another signal from the president the trumpet sounds again and a banderillero enters armed with banderilas-short sticks ornamented with colored paper, having wicked-looking barbs or darts in the ends.
The banderillero, taking one of these pleasant toys in either hand, approaches his enemy, raising himself on tiptoe and waving his arms up and down. The eyes of the bull have a dangerous gleam, as he faces the fighter, pawing the ground and bellowing with rage. Suddenly he lowers his head and rushes straight at the banderillero, who calmly awaits the onset, until the bull is within three feet of him, when, like lightning, he hurls the darts into the animal's neck and escapes with

70 CUBA.
nothing worse than a tumble. Sometimes these banderillas have bombs affixed to them, which explode, under the bull's skin, causing him to feel very ill, and amusing the audience beyond expression. This act, when cleverly executed, calls forth rapturous applause and showers of silver coin and cigars, while some throw their hats into the ring-wearingr old ones there for the purpose.
El Toro, who up to this time has been fighting with great courage, is streaming with blood and begins to lose confidence in his rusheses" The people, too, are impatient and clamor for the deathstroke, and at a final signal from the presidential box the matador, carrying a red flag and a long, slender sword, makes a salute and takes his position. The business of the other fighters now is to tease and madden the bull while endeavoring to direct his attention to the matador, The latter waves his red banner, advances, retreats, while the audience yells and the band plays. The poor victim is fairly blind with rage by this time, and steadying himself for a moment for a last mighty effort, makes a dash toward the matador, who, with a deft and vigorous stroke, pierces the heart of the bull and the butchery is finished.
A brutal sport, you say? Well, it may be so; yet, as a Cuban friend puts it, how much more refined and elevating is it to see two per-

CUBA. 71
feetly developed human animals beat each other's heads to a jelly with two-ounce gloves ?
Trhe Tromb of Columbus.
One of the first conventional duties which an American visitor feels called upon to perform is to pay his tribute to the discoverer of America by visiting the Cathedral and reading the Spanish doggerel inscription near an altar with porphyry pillars. If he be uncertain whether it was the great Christopher 'who was really buried there, and not Brother Diego, who was disinterred in Santo Domingo and brought over by mistake, he needs to hasten back to the hotel and not to make a short detour in order to glance at the wr-etched little Columbus Chapel erected where the discoverer is reputed to have attended the first Mass ever celebrated in Havana-one of the most bare-faced fictions ever repeated by priest or layman. Before going more than three blocks he will be in the centre of one of the most interesting trading-places of Havana. In Compostela and adjoining streets he will be among the pawnshops, where the best bargains in the West Indies are to be made. These shops are stocked with old furniture, plate, china, jewelry, clocks, watches, firearms, fans, laces, medals and ornaments, with everything of value 'on which bankrupt or spendthrift planters, soldiers and gamblers have been able to borrow money. Three months

72 CUBA.
only are allowed for the redemption of the goods. Long ago the time expired and noweverything is at the disposal of the Yankee purt
chasers eager to obtain curios or anything tha is very old and at the same time very cheap.
Among the Pawn-Shops.
There is no more unerring sign of the exhaustion of Cuban resource s than the revelations of these pawn-shops, which monopolize the trade of foreign visitors. In these shops are to be found heirlooms that were handed down from one generation to another; medals of honor for bravery in the field; engagement rings', necklaces, diamonds, antique lace that has been worn by heiresses, and costly fans behind which have shone the dark eyes of the belles of Havana furniture of the colonial period, of which the New' England stock was long ago exhausted by the demands of curiosity-hunters, and silver and china of antiquated patterns, which would be marked up to the highest figures in fashionable New York stores. The pressure of hard times caused by the losses of the patriotic war and by the stupendous folly and supreme selfishness of Spanish economic law have brought all this wealth of bric-a-brac into the cheapest of cheap markets. The pawnbroker nines his price, and it is a low one ; but if he b e offered one-half or one-third as much, he will 'drive a bargain rather than see art

The Indian Statue on the Prado, Havana.

3u A,,J j
Obispo Street, Havanao

CUBA. 75
American customer with gold'in hand leave the shop.
A Hard Bargain.
It may be well to warn American travelers against venturing into this quarter until the sights of the town have been "done," the drives taken, and the excursions made; for otherwise they may leave Havana without seeing anything except the railway station, their hotel, and the pawn-shops. A New Yorker and his charming wife got into the pawn-shops soon after their arrival, and they remained there almost continuously until the Tampa steamer was ready to sail. The husband started out early each morning for Compostela Street; in the afternoon his wife accompanied him to temper his ardor, and in the evening he returned alone to clinch the bargains. Sunday brought with it some scruples of conscience, and the wife succeeded in carrying him off to high Mass at the Cathedral ; but after the noon-breakfast he was overpowered by the fatal fascination and crept back to the pawn-shops for more bargains, returning with a guilty conscience, but laden with booty.
On the following day the interpreter was fairly compelled to drive him out of the pawn-shops in order to get him on board the steamer before the sailing hour. Retribution for Sabbath-breaking met him on deck in the person of the medical

76 CUBA.
officer employed by the United States authorities to protect the health of Florida.
This stern official refused to allow a tall colonial clock, which had been bought at a pawnshop, boxed and carried like a coffin to the ship to be received as private baggage. He remarked sententiously that it was an old clock, and might have germs of yellow fever concealed under its antique dial-plate. A long parley proved ineffectual, and the suspected clock was sent ashore to the medical officer's house to be quarantined. Two days afterwards it was sent to Florida by the next steamer. What precautions had been taken to disinfect the clock, and to render its shipment safe is not known ; but there was a fee of two dollars paid for the quarantine. Private baggage containing fabrics which might more reasonably be supposed to be disease carriers was not overhauled ; but Florida was protected with inflexible purpose against the risks of contagion through an old clock.
The decadence of a once prosperous and beautiful city is a melancholy spectacle. Matanzas in its best days was a luxurious centre of wealth and fashion, as well of profitable industry and commerce. Surrounded with sugar, coffee and tobacco plantations, it ranked after Havana as the busiest hive in flowering Cuba. All the indus-

CUBA. 77
tries of the island were carried on with success on the verdant hillsides and undulating plains encircling its spacious and picturesque harbor. The Yumuri Valley was dotted with country seats, where rich planters entertained their guests with prodigal hospitality. Their massive town houses were miniature palaces built with showy colonnades and stone verandas, and furnished with lavish expense. On the coast were their summer cottages, where their families could enjoy the refreshing northern sea-breeze in seasons of inclement heat. The San Carlos Paseo was blocked with carriages in the afternoon, and the evenings were filled with gayety and sumptuous entertainment. All is now changed. Emancipation and the insurrection impoverished the rich planters. Many of the finest estates passed into the hands of Spanish immigrants and adventurers, who have been condemned to maintain an exhausting and ruinous struggle against a system grounded upon violations of economic law. Planters who have escaped confiscation and conformed to the conditions of free labor have witnessed the gradual shrinkage of the profits of their industries and the collapse of their fortunes. Costly residences which were once valued at $50,OOO are now offered, without purchasers, at $25,ooo. Depreciation of values is even greater here than in Havana.

78 CUBA.
Country seats which were conspicuous for elegance and social festivity are now bare, silent and fallen to decay. The seaside villas are shabby and tenantless. The famous San Carlos drive is a neglected and unfrequented road. Matanzas is a centre of unremunerative, laborious and unsatisfactory commerce, a city haunted with memories of its former prosperity.
All is changed save the beauty of the landscape setting of the city and the unrivalled splendor of the marine views from hillside and headland. No grander prospect can be had in Cuba than that which opens from the Chapel of Monserrate back of the town. The Yumuri flows through a gorge four miles in length, which is walled off to the right and left by abrupt and picturesque hillsides. There is a wide-reaching vista beyond with plantations of sugar, coffee and tobacco, groves of palmettos, pineapples, cocoanuts and orange trees, thickets of almond trees and limes, fields of corn and patches of potatoes, and here and there a stately royal palm. From one of the highest coigns of vantage near the city may be seen plantations and farms on which every fruit and product known in Cuba is under cultivation; and the landscape is fringed with dense woods, wherein ebony, mahogany, cedar and even rosewood, flourish. From Monserrate it is a short drive to the Plaza de Armas, with its

fine display 'of tropical flowers, to the Government buildings and club houses and the water front; but it is on a moonlit evening that the bay roads offer superior scenic attractions. The vivid sunlight lays bare mercilessly the faded glories of the town and the ravages of commercial ruin. By moonlight, one needs to be told of the neglected condition of these once famous drives and promenades; and the pathos of faded grandeur and exhausted fortunes makes only a transitory impression upon a sympathetic mind. San Severino Castle and the ruined fortifications are enveloped with silvery radiance. The San Juan River, with its dingy lines of crumbling warehouses, is softened and transfigured. The broad bay, with its sparkling shipping lights and the ocean beyond, foaming upon a coral ledge, are s ilhouettes to be seen, and never forgotten.
A Wonderful Cave.
The visitor has also at Matanzas a natural phenomenon which cannot be rivalled in Cuba. This is the subterranean passage through a formation of carbonate of lime, known as the caves of Bellamar. The road follows the shore of the bay'and then over the rocky hillside for a distance of five miles. The old-fashioned volante, a vehicle which has been displaced in Havana by the Victoria, is here required. It has two great wheels, on which rest the thills, with seats for

three above them suspended by straps. The pony between the thills is accompanied and partly preceded by another, which the driver rides like a postilion. It is a hard, jolting drive to the caves, and a laborious descent by steps, bridges, and cavernous passages underground. Guides are in advance with long bees-wax tapers, which light up here and there recesses and corners of the high -vaulted chambers. The ceiling is hung with crystals, and the sides are buttressed with stalactites and stalagmites of bewildering beauty and lustre. The passage underground is many hundred feet in length and offers a succession of spectral lace-work combinations of crystal architecture in amber, pink, and gray. The largest of the chambers is fancifully named the Gothic Temple, and is provided with a jeweled altar, near which hangs the Virgin's cloak, embroidered with resplendent lace, and heavy with glistening pendants. The garrulous guides see all these wonders if the visitors do not, and photographs are available at the entrance, if doubts are to be removed. The tapers furnish streaks of light that are utterly inadequate to illumine these wonderful caves.

ORRUPT and incapable administration
has always been a Spanish characteristic. Cuba has been reduced to its present extremities largely through the rapacity of the governing class in former years. If there has been a marked improvement during recent years so that the Captain-General now expects to return to Spain only with what he has saved from his salary, and the burden of direct taxation has been decreased rather than increased, it is because the industrial resources of the island have

82 CUBA.
been exhausted through old-time methods of plundering the population and systematic violation of the economic laws of exchange. The orange has been pressed dry; even Spanish administration does not attempt to squeeze the seeds remaining on the spongy pulp. For this reason sugar planters and tobacco farmers are now frank in admitting that the direct taxes on their land and industries are not unduly high. It is the burden of indirect taxation by which the cost of living and of production is heavily increased and the exchangeable value of sugar and tobacco correspondingly reduced that is overwhelming this wonderfully fertile island with ruin.
The country is poor and impoverished ; the palaces of the nobles are deserted; there has been an extraordinary shrinkage of real estate valuations ; the treasury is exhausted with extravagant payments for an inefficient and corupt civil service and the interest on the war debt, which is held in Spain; and the municipalities are without means for ordinary public improvements and enforeing sanitary regulations. Havana is capable of becoming what Humboldt found it in his day-one of the most brilliant and imposing capitals of the world. The'old city was well built of enduring stone, which only grows harder With the lapse of time. The Cathedral, churches and public buildings were fashioned at a time

CUBA, 83
when severe and simple architecture without meretricious ornamentation was in vogue in Spain. Even the great prison, which is the most prominent object from the harbor, is not without good lines. The newer portions of the town are well laid out with broad shaded avenues, frequent squares and breathing places, a spacious alameda and a fine botanical garden adjoining the Captain-General's country seat. Even in its ruined estate, where public grounds are neglected, street pavements in great need of repair, and the whole town fairly perishing for lack of fresh paint, poor, faded Havana has an air of distinction and even grandeur.
With good administration the city could be transformed in a decade. A canal constructed so as to let the tides into the back bay would flush out a harbor that is now a cesspool and restore the healthfulness of the town. Moderate expenditures could restore the crumbling plaster of the public buildings, replace the broken lines of shade trees in the avenues, and restore the brightness and glory of the Cuban capital. Havana now awaits, like a queen in tattered, patched and soiled robes, the turn of the wheel which shall reinvest her with the dignity of her prosperous days of power and wealth. So long as Spanish administration and a ruinous economic policy continue in force, it is a lottery with blanks.

84 CUBA,
7he Captain-Generale
The chief of the Cuban Government is a Captain-General, the representative of the Crown, appointed by the home Government and accountable only to that body. Bya royal edict issued June 9th, 1878, his prerogatives are defined as follows: He is the commander of the army and navy, as well as the highest authority in Cuba, and is empowered to overrule any decision at a meeting of the superior authorities, including the courts of judicature under his presidency, and' also to withhold the execution of any order, resolution or law issued by the home Government whenever he deems it advisable to do so. Practically, he has the powers of life and death in his hands and is as absolute as a Czar.
As a rule, this office is hizhlv coveted by Spaniards, and, generally speaking, after a short rule, which rarely exceeds a term of three or four years, the majority of its incumbents return home to enjoy the fruits of the harvest, as the emoluments are considerable. The Captain-General has a salary Of $50,ooo a year, a winter palace and a country-seat, horses, carriages, attendants, a retinue of servants, and almost everything, provided for him at the expense of the Government. It is a military office, usually filled by distinguished generals, who have won their laurels in the Spanish army,

CUBA. 85
Next in rank to the Captain-General is the General of Marine or Admiral of the Port, who occupies a handsome palace, also provided by the Government, and who has carriages, horses and attendants from the same source. Then follows the Segundo Cabo, who is CaptainGeneral pro lem, during the absence of that functionary from the capital. The Civil-Governor has charge of the civil administration of Havana. The generals of artillery, cavalry, engineers, infantry and gendarmes are also provided with quarters suitable to their ranks.
The Commandant of the Navy Yard is next in rank to the Admiral of the Port, and he has a handsome residence at his post. From twelve to twenty men-of-war are stationed in the waters of Cuba, and the standing army on the island usually numbers 22,866 officers and men. Besides these military rulers there are the Governor of the Morro, of La Cabana, El Principe and other strongholds.
The chief of police of Havana is an officer of the regular army, and the divisions and subdivisions under his control consist of commissaries, aladores, constables and sergeants, who are civilians; the police force of Havana numbers 767 men, taken from the ranks of the regular army, soldiers of orden public (public order) and guardia civiles (gendarmes).

86 CUBA.
Freedom of the Press.
At the close of the rebellion, or so-called Cuban insurrection in 1878, freedom of the pre izs was established, as well as freedom of speech, but in I88I this freedom was modified by an edict requiring every editor or manager of a newspaper to send, duly signed, two copies to Government headquarters and submit two others to the District-Attorney as soon as printed,' who shall determine whether they contain any objectionable matter. By the press law the royal family and the form of government under the Spanish Constitution are tabooed subjects. Editors are often fined and the publications of their journals is suspended for going beyond the cilrcumscribed limits.
By a royal edict issued June 9, 1878, Cuba is entitled to elect to the Spanish Cortes one representative for every 40,000 white and colored inhabitants. By another decree, issued shortly after, the island was divided into six provinces. Still another, issued June 21, 1878, provided municipal laws, supplemented with requisite election laws. In each province the administration of affairs is committed to an Assembly, elected by the people, and a Governor sent out from Spain, the incumbent being an officer of the Spanish army. The province is entitled to three representatives for every one of its judicial diSO

CUBA. 87
tricts, except that no province shall elect more than twenty or less than twelve representatives. As soon as the provincial representatives are elected they meet and nominate by ballot three candidates from among themselves, one of whom is chosen president by the Captain-General, who may, in accordance to the same law, discard their candidate and choose another to preside over it. The Provincial Governor selects five Assemblymen as members of the Provincial Cbmmittee and submits their names to. the Captain -General for ratification. This committee serves as arbiter or counsellor when called on in reference to any municipal election, and performs various duties during the recess. The vice-president of this committee is appointed from among the members by the Captain-General, at the suggestion of the Provincial Governor, who, when it suits him, may preside over any sitting, with the right to vote.
Local Governments.
Provincial representatives are elected for four years, but one-half are replaced every two years by new ones. Their biennial election occurs during the first fortnight of September. The assemblies meet at the capital ot their provinces on the first working day of the fifth and tenth months of the fiscal year. If during that period anything should happen to render discussions or debates dangerous, the Provincial Gov-'

88 CUBA,
ernor is obliged to prorogue the Assembly and advise the Captain-General of that fact immediately. He is likewise authorized to suspend any Provincial Assembly in a body when the preservation of public order may so require.
According to the municipal law, the smallest number of inhabitants entitled to self-government is 500, who may elect five Aldermen, at every meeting of whom the Provincial Governor is entitled to preside. The board levies municipal taxes.
Cuba possesses two judicial divisions, those of Puerto Principe, with jurisdiction over the adjoining province of Santiago de Cuba, and of Havana, with jurisdiction over the remainder. First comes the high court, called Tribunal Supremo; then provincial courts, "Audiencias Territoriales"; country magistrates, "Tribunales de Partido"; court of first instance, "Juggado de Instruccion"; municipal courts, Tribunales Municipales, and justices of the peace, "Jueces de Paz." By a decree issued in January, 1891, the civil and criminal courts are incorporated into one, and this measure has been highly displeasing to Cubans.
Electoral Trickery.
In order to render the native Cuban powerless in his own country, Spain, legislating for Cuba without restriction, as it does, and only to

CUBA., 89
give him an electoral law so artfully framed as to accomplish two objects: First, to reduce the number of voters; second, to give always a majority to the Spaniards, that is, to the European colonists, notwithstanding that the latter represent only nine and three-tenths per cent. of the total population of Cuba. To this effect it made the electoral right dependent on the payment of a very high poll tax, which proved the more burdensome as the war had ruined the larger number of Cuban proprietors. In this way it succeeded in restricting the right of suffrage to only 53,000 inhabitants in an island which has a population of i,6oo,ooo ; that is to say, to the derisive proportion of three per cent. of the total number of inhabitants.
In order to give a decided preponderance to the Span ish-Eu ropean element, the electoral law has ignored the practice generally observed in those countries where the right to vote depends on the payment of a poll tax, and has afforded all the facilities to acquire the electoral privilege to industry, commerce, and public officials, to the detriment of the territorial property (the ownership of real estate). To accomplish this, while the rate of the territorial tax is reduced to two per cent., an indispensable measure, in view of the ruinous condition of the land-owners, the exorbitant contribution of $25 is required from those

90 CUBA*
who would be electors as freeholders. The law has, moreover, thrown the doors wide open for the perpetration of fraud by providing that the simple declaration of the head of a commercial house is sufficient to consider all its employees as partners, having, therefore, the right to vote. This has given us firms with thirty or more partners. By this simple scheme almost all the Spaniards reSiding in Cuba are turned into electors, despite the explicit provisions of the law. Thus it comes to pass that the municipal district of Guines, with a population Of 13,000 inhabitants, only 5oo Of which are Spaniards and Canary Islanders, shows on its electoral list the names of thirty-two native Cubans and of four hundred Spaniards-only 0.25 per cent. of the Cuban to 8o per cent. of the Spanish population.
No Cubans Need Apply,,
But, as if this were not enough, a so-called Permanent Commission of Provincial Deputations decides every controversy that may arise as- to who is to be included in or excluded from the list of electors, and the members of this Comm ission are appointed by the Governor-General. It is unnecessary to say that its majority has always been devoted to the government. In case any elector considers himself wronged by the decision of the Permanent Commission, he can appeal to the "Audiencia" (higher court) of

11 12 12 1 8 ::i
Royal 4ottery Ticket Seller, -Havana.

Bull Fight, Havana.

CUBA. 93
the district, but the "Audiencias" are almost entirely made up of European magistrates; they are subject to the authority of the GovernorGeneral, being mere political tools in his hands. As a conclusive instance of the manner in which those tribunals do justice to the claims of Cuban electors, it will be sufficient to cite a case which occurred in Santa Clara in 1892, where i,ooo fully qualified liberal electors were excluded at one time, for the simple omission to state their names at the end of the act presented by the elector who headed the claim. In more than one case has the same "Audiencia" applied two different criteria to identical cases. The "Audiencia" of Havana, in 1887, ignoring the explicit provisions of the law, excused the employees from the condition of residence, a condition that the same tribunal exacted before. The same "Audiencia" in i885 declared that the contributions to the State and to the Municipality were accumulative, and in 1887 decided the opposite. This inconsistency had for its object to sponge from the lists hundreds of Cuban electors. In this way the Spanish Government and tribunals have endeavored to teach respect for the law and for the practice of wholesome electoral customs to the Cuban colonists!
It will be easily understood now why on
some occasions the Cuban representation in the

94 CUBA.
Spanish Parliament has been made up of only three deputies, and in the most favorable epochs the number of Cuban representatives has not exceeded six. Three deputies in a body of 430 members! The genuine representation of Cuba has not reached sometimes 0.96 per cent. of the total number of members of the Spanish Congress. The great majority of the Cuban deputation has always consisted of Spanish Peninsulars. In this manner, the ministers of "Ultramar" (ministers of the Colonies), whenever they have thought necessary to give an honest or decent appearance to their legislative acts by an alleged majority of Cuban votes, could always command the latter, that is, the Peninsulars.
The Spanish Senate,
As regards the representation in the Senate, the operation has been more simple still. The qualifications required to be a Senator have proved to be an almost absolute prohibition to the Cubans. In fact, to take a seat in the higher house, it is necessary to have been president of that body or of Congress, or a minister of the crown, or a bishop, or a grandee of Spain, a lieutenant-general, a viceadmiral, ambassador, minister plenipotentiary, counsellor of State, judge or attorney-general of the Supreme Court, of the Court of Accounts, etc. No Cuban has ever filled any of the above positions, and scarcely two or three are grandees.

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