Citation
Forest flora and forest resources of Portuguese East Africa

Material Information

Title:
Forest flora and forest resources of Portuguese East Africa
Creator:
Sim, T. R ( Thomas Robertson ), 1858-1938
Abraham, Donald ( former owner )
Donald Abraham Collection
Taylor & Henderson ( publisher )
Place of Publication:
Aberdeen, Scotland
Publisher:
Taylor & Henderson
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
vi p., 3 l., 166 p., 1 l. c pl. : ; 25 x 33 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Botany -- Mozambique ( lcsh )
Trees -- Mozambique ( lcsh )
Woody plants -- Mozambique ( lcsh )
Imprint -- Scotland -- Aberdeen -- 1909
Genre:
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Rare Book collection copy from the Donald Abraham Collection.
Funding:
Funding from Title VI grant and UFAFRICANA.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Thomas R. Sim.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
UF Special Collections, Rare Books
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact Digital Services (UFDC@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
028071576 ( ALEPH )
13060307 ( OCLC )
agr92000284 ( LCCN )
Classification:
QK419 .S54 1909 ( lcc )

Full Text



uNrv-EXV_MTY of +LOPUDAII
Special COlleCtionS
PAREHOOKS










FOREST FLORA AND FOREST RESOURCES
of
Portuguese East Africa
In connection with the publication of "The Forest Flora and Forest Resources of Portuguese East Africa"
DRIED SPECIMENS
OF THE
TREES OF THE PROVINCE OF MOZAMBIQUE, in so far as available will be supplied at the following rates, viz :.Specimens of kinds described as new Species, 5/- each.lPostage Specimens of other Species 1/- each.) extra.
On application to
THOMAS R. SIM, 168 Burger Street, Maritzburg, Natal.







Forest iora and Porest esourees
of
ortuguese east ffriea
By
THOMAS R. SIM, F.L.S., F.R.H.S.
Lately Conservator of Forests for Natal Natal's Representative to the South African Products Exhibition, London, 1907 Author of
Handbook of Kaffrarian Ferns. The Ferns of South Africa. Sketch and Check List of the Flora of Kaffraria. Botanical Observations on the Forests of Eastern Pondoland.
Tree-planting in Natal. Recent Information concerning South African Ferns, 1906. The Forests and Forest Flora of the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope.
&c., &c., &c.
Illustrated by
100 Plates, drawn by the Author representing 158 Species
Published under the Authority of the Government of the Province of Mozambique
Aberdeen, Scotland TAYLOR & HENDERSON, THE ADELPHI PRESS, LITHOGRAPHERS AND PRINTERS BY ROYAL WARRANTS
TO HIS MAJESTY KING EDWARD VII. AND H.R.H. THE PRINCE OF WALES M cm ix




105?




Preface
N June 1908 the Governor-General of the Province of Mozambique did me the honour to invite me to join a Scientific
Expedition which was then being sent by Government to inspect portions of the Province, with a view to assisting the development of such resources of these localities as are more or less allied to agriculture. Previous familiarity with the forests of other parts of South Africa, and their constitution, rendered such an opportunity to supplement that by a personal knowledge of the more tropical forests along the east coast desirable, so I accepted with pleasure, and spent several months during the winter visiting the various districts of the Province, in so far as time would allow, and making the forests, the botany, the arboriculture and the horticulture special objects of study. The result, in so far as the forests and forest flora are concerned, is embodied in the present work, which, beyond my own observations, records previous collections to the extent of allowing it to be a handbook of the forest flora based on available data, and indicative of the vast forest wealth of the district. It naturally takes at least a whole year's study of every portion of a country to supply the data necessary for a full and complete work of this nature, but that being impracticable in the present instance, a winter's tour has had to do instead, during which the trees were mostly in fruit but few of them in flower, and the few deciduous species were more or less leafless ; it would be surprising therefore if omissions have not occurred, or if the information is not in some cases incomplete, but since the predominant and most important kinds have yielded material sufficient for identification, I feel satisfied that the production of this work, in its present form, serves the purpose intended by Government toward fostering the economic development of the Province, and especially of the districts visited, by aiding identification, by indicating qualities and uses, by reducing the vernacular nomenclature into intelligible order, and by showing in what localities and in what species value lies, and the possible means of converting that potential value into hard cash.
In accordance with a desire expressed, that readers should not be diverted from the main features for identification by the interpolation of full scientific descriptions of organs less essential for that purpose, the descriptions have been purposely made short and pointed, full botanical descriptions being in most cases redundant in view of their having already appeared in the Flora of Tropical Africa," where however the local and economic aspects of my present subject are absent. For synonymy readers are also referred to the same work, which is an invaluable aid to every student of African botany, and in which the following collections from Portuguese East Africa have been dealt with, viz. :-From the Zambesi, Shire, Rovuma and Lake Nyasa, the collections made by Sir John Kirk, Dr. J. Meller, Dr. Peters and Mr. Horace Waller, have been used in all the volumes; while in all, except the first three volumes, there have also been used collections, mostly from Nyasa-land, made by Sir H. H. Johnston, K.C.B. ; Rev. W. P. Johnston, Mr. J. Buchanan, C.M.G.; and Messrs. K. J.
Cameron, J. T. Last, J. McClounie, L. Scott and Joseph Thompson.
I hardly require to repeat the warning given in so many forest works that venacular names alone cannot be relied upon for identification, but they are useful aids if taken along with the botanical description. In the districts visited I found the vernacular names surprisingly constant within a tribe, and every man, woman and child knew that name ; indeed the exact knowledge of the trees and the nature of their music were the two outstanding and surprising features in the sometimes very low type of humanity.




vi Preface.
The reduction of the vernacular names into order has been a most difficult task, since the stem in most names is preceded by one of many prefixes which are used alternatively in accordance with grammar, usage or individual choice, while most of these prefixes begin with indistinct sounds not reducible to English letters, and often not fully pronounced, or lisped more or less from one sound into another ; in such circumstances indexing is very unsatisfactory, either by the prefix or by the stem. The exigencies of Portuguese politics, and the necessity to publish while funds are available, has rendered impossible the collation of specimens with other herbaria than my own, or even with works of reference not immediately at hand ; the specimens and information collected had, therefore, either to be dealt with at once or probably never, and I preferred the former, even though in some cases-such as Ficus and Acacia, it involved describing under a new name species which may possibly have been described before.
My aim has been to allow each of the trees yielding important economic products to be easily identified under some name,-which previously was not the case, through the publication of many names in scattered scientific pamphlets-the reduction of these, where necessary, to the first published name must wait the opportunities of those who have time and data in unlimited quantities.
Meantime the Province must be developed, and a saleable article must have some recognised name. The value of the timber in the Province is enormous, but that material will be gradually burned out to make way for cultivation unless utilized first.
My thanks are due to the Officers of the Government of the Province of Mozambique for kind assistance on every hand, but more particularly to His Excellency the Governor-General Major Frere d' Andrade, Dr. Saldanha and Dr. Sousa Ribeira, who were the prime movers in regard to the Expedition ; to 0. W. Barrett, Esq., Director of Agriculture, who has rendered much valuable assistance ; and to Administratadors Milicia and Alves, who, with extensive personal knowledge of the local products, did everything in their power to assist me. Also to James W. H. Trail, Esq., M.A., M.D., F.R.S., Professor of Botany, University of Aberdeen, whose co-operation has been invaluable, and to Messrs. Taylor & Henderson, The King's Printers, Aberdeen, who, at a distance of many thousand miles from the Author, have placed this work before the public in what I feel sure will be considered excellent form, in so far as they are concerned, within a few months of the completion of the journey which led to its production.
T. R. S IM.
JANUARY, 1909.




Contents
PAGE.
PREFACE V.
PART I. FOREST FLORA AND FOREST RESOURCES
CHAPTER I. Portuguese East Africa: General Description I
II. The Forests: their Constitution and Locality 4
III. Forest Flora: Synoptical and Specific Descriptions 7
IV. The Timbers .'3 V. Miscellaneous Economic Products 134
VI. Recommendations Concerning Utilization 146
INDEX 155
PART II. ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE SPECIES
PLATES (I. to C.) 169







Languages
in which vernacular names are given, indicated in the text by the numbers attached
I. English.
2. Portuguese.
3. Dutch, as used on the Swazi border, i.e. Maputa and Marracuene.
4. Ironga, i.e. Native language at and near Lourenzo Marques.
5. Shengaan, i.e. Native language in Gaza.
6. M'Chopes, i.e. Native language in Zuvalla,
7. Landin, i.e. Native language between Inharreme and Inhambane.
8. Butonga, i.e. Native language at Inhambane.
9. Sofala or Senna, i.e. Native language at Beira and neighbourhood.
Io. Echuabo, i.e. Native language in Quelimane District.
I I. Swahili, i.e. Native language in northern part of Magenja da Costa, and northward.
12. Zulu, as met in Maputa and Zululand.
13. Kafir names used in Cape Colony, Transkei and Natal.
14. Dutch names used in Cape Colony or Transvaal.
15. Swazi names used in the Lebombo range.
16. Native names in Zambesia.
17. Names in use not included above.







PART 1.
Forest Flora and Forest Resources







CHAPTER I.
Portuguese East Africa.
1 ORTUGUESE EAST AFRICA constitutes what is officially known as the Province of Mozambique, and extends along the Indian Ocean from 10 S. to 270 S., being ~ bounded by Natal on the south, Swaziland, Transvaal, Rhodesia and British Central Africa on the west, and German East Africa on the north. The outline is very irregular, the north-eastern portion being about 40'50 E., the south-western 320 E., while an irregular arm extends up the Zambesi as far as Zumbo, 30 E. It thus contains approximately 76o,571 square kilometers (= 3oo,ooo sq. miles), and has a population estimated at 2,650,000.
History. What its ancient history may have been hardly affects our subject, but its more recent history begins with the discovery on its coast in 1498 by Vasco de Gama of several bays and estuaries suitable for commerce, since which date the seaboard has remained under the Portuguese flag. Occupation by the Portuguese of various ports began soon after the above date, and such towns as Mozambique, Quelimane and Inhambane have been in existence for about 400 years. The hold upon the back country, however, was for long of a very nominal nature, and it is only within recent decades and since the adjustment of the borders, that military occupation of the outlying districts has been seriously taken in hand ; indeed there are places still which can hardly be said to be officially occupied, and which are almost unexplored.
Occupation. Official occupation usually begins with the residence of a military Commandant, who exercises powers somewhat similar to those conferred under martial law in British colonies, and is supported by a military force composed almost entirely of natives ; this is superseded as soon as practicable by civil administration under the laws of the Province, the Resident then being Administratador, and supported by only a small police force. In each case the duties of keeping the peace and collecting taxes (hut-tax in sonic places, poll-tax in others) falls upon the officer in charge, who also has to have such roads cut through his district as are necessary for these purposes.
Population. Apart from the few towns and villages, the population is almost entirely native, and except the southern districts the country can hardly be regarded meantime as a white man's country, though the control of all industrial, as well as official, work and also the management of machinery, &c. is, and probably always will be, in European hands, the manual labour devolving upon the native.
In some large districts meantime the few officials form the entire non-native population ; in two districts visited by me the Administratador and his clerk were the only such, except a few Indian traders known as Banyans. The natives are of many tribes, mostly of Bantu origin, but differing in their customs and instincts and speaking different languages, there being about ten distinct native languages used in the Province, besides dialects ; these, together with Portuguese (the official language), English, Dutch, German, Spanish, French, and various Indian and Arab languages, constitute a fair babel, out of which I have had to cull the information contained in this work, in so far as it is not supplied by the trees themselves.
Physical Features. In physical features the Province may be described as a nearly level more or less sandy plain, with isolated kopjes in the north, and rising rather abruptly to a low mountain range on its western boundary, and crossed by numerous rivers, several of which are navigable for many miles, while others, navigable inland, are closed from the sea by a sand bar. The soil in such river valleys as those of the Limpopo and the Zambesi is of the richest alluvial; elsewhere the soil is more or less sandy loam, except on the western hills which are of igneous rock, often fully exposed, and seldom covered with sufficient soil to support full vegetation. The underlying strata from Beira northward are composed of rocks corelated with the Swaziland system of the Transvaal and with the gold-bearing strata of Rhodesia. These rocks probably roughly correspond in age with the pre-cambrian rocks of England. South of Beira the underlying strata consist largely of rocks belonging either to the tertiary or cretaceous systems, in places beds of conglomerate being present and are fringed along the western border by rhyolites. In the north this is divided from the Archaean rocks by a band of igneous rocks, made up of porphory, &c. In popular language the soil may be described as mud on the flats, sand elsewhere, and solid rock on the hills; surface rocks or stones are entirely absent on the flats, while toward the coast lakes and lagoons exist in some places, and considerable areas are more or less under water during summer, which, for cultural purposes, might be rendered fit by deep surface drainage.
Vegetation. The vegetation varies with the district, but in a general way it is an open thorn-veld in the southern districts, a light bush-veld from the Limpopo northward, and a dense and sometimes heavy forest north of the Zambesi. Grass-veld occupies the open valleys, and in the more open thorn and bush-veld grass is abundant as undergrowth, the annual grass fires doing an immense amount of injury to trees ; only those of the thorn group (Acacias, &c.) endure such repeated scorching and consequently continue to exist where other kinds are killed out.
A




2 Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
Native cultivation. The natives usually do enough cultivation to supply their own wants, and in some places grow ground-nuts, mealies, sesame, &c. for export, but the money brought into the Province during recent years from the Transvaal by natives who have gone there to work, has rendered the native population less dependent on its own agricultural industry, and consequently less inclined to grow crops beyond what are required to meet its own immediate wants. With the improvident and thriftless habits of the natives local famines are not uncommon, and are often preceded by the undue consumption of edible products in the form of fermented or distilled liquors. The export of native products has decreased very considerably during recent years, mostly through the export of labour which has not been an unmixed blessing.
Stock and Transport. From various causes, mostly preventable, including rinderpest, fly-borne diseases, and the high prices consequent on these, cattle are scarce everywhere, and through large districts entirely absent; horses are subject to horse-sickness unless stabled at night and otherwise cared for, mules are not immune from the same trouble, and donkeys are too light for the mud and sand, so transport is meantime difficult and expensive, native carriers being in all remote districts the only power available. There are, however, several railway systems, viz. :(i) Caminho Ferro, Lourenzo Marques, crossing the Province from Lourenzo Marques to the Transvaal border where it joins the Central South African Railway and
so connects the Portuguese port with Pretoria, Johannesburg, Barberton, Komati, and the rest of South Africa.
(2) The Swaziland line from Lourenzo Marques, intended eventually to be carried through Swaziland and to form the shortest route to Johannesburg. A small branch
from this line has its terminus at the Umbalusi experiment farm.
(3) The Rhodesian railway crossing the Province from Beira to Rhodesia, connecting with the railways from Cape Colony at Bulawayo, whence extends the line
crossing the Victoria Falls, and which may eventually have termini at Lobito Bay and Cairo.
(4) Narrow-gauge railway from Quelimane northward for about 20 miles to Maqueval, bringing the Macuse and other rivers into touch with Quelimane.
There is also regular steamship communication by large vessels from and to Europe, and calling at all Cape ports, between Lourenzo Marques, Inhambane, Beira, Quelimane and Mozambique, while smaller steamers up to i5oo tons make a regular coastal service along the Province and visiting the above-named ports together with Chaichai, Bazaruto, Bartholomew I)ias, Chinde, Tjungo (Bajon), Angoche and Porto Amelia, and there is occasional service up the Zambesi, as well as to Marracuene and Bella-vista, and up the Maputa River, and elsewhere as required. The harbours are in most cases good; the entrance is in some cases difficult owing to sand-bars. Communication by sea is thus as good in the Province of Mozambique as it is in Portugal, or in England, but the frequency of the voyages depends to some extent on contracts and on the trade of the ports visited.
Beyond the ports mentioned navigation is carried on by boats and barges for a long distance up several of the rivers, as well as up rivers not open to the sea, while even the small streams, so long as they are not too rapid, are used by native dug-out boats, for the transport of produce and passengers.
Apart from the district of Lourenzo Marques there are few wagons, trollies, carts or carriages in the Province ; Lourenzo Marques has a good electric tram service ; the other towns have tram service by native power ; mules and donkeys are the means of getting about where these exist and are fit for the roads ; and, where these are unfit, the Mashila, viz. a hammock slung on a bamboo and carried on the shoulders of four natives is used. This latter contrivance is the only means of passenger transport in Zambesia and northward, and as the bearers keep up a kind of trot 30 to 35 miles a day can be covered, two or three relays of natives taking turn at carrying, but all keeping in company to do so as required.
The native baggage carriers or croquedorras also do a similar distance, carrying from 6o to ioo lbs. each, and walk or trot at a pace exceeding that which a white man can keep up, and they can do so day after day for a week or two, living only on manioc (cassiva) obtained as they go along.
By the above various means most parts of the Province can be travelled without difficulty, but the cost of transport of produce is still the main impediment to the rapid development of many districts, especially where outlying places arc concerned, and several development lines are meantime under consideration, one of which, from Chai-chai to Inhambane, would be of immense value, going through a most productive country, and would also connect the Inharreme river, making it a serviceable water-way for some fifty miles in another direction.
Agriculture cannot be said to have made much progress until within the past decade or two, and even now there is room for improvement. In the neighbourhood of Lourenzo Marques one would have expected the near proximity of the Transvaal markets to have encouraged the culture of tender fruits, winter vegetables and flowers, and the various other products which can be grown on the coast but cannot be grown inland, at least at the same season. But with the exception of Dr. Saldanha's fine farm at the Umbalusi it may be said that nothing of this kind is done, indeed the local market is badly supplied and often has to draw its supplies of produce from Natal or the Transvaal, which could easily be produced locally. It is also exceedingly surprising that the grand alluvial valley of the Limpopo should have remained so long undeveloped, suited as it is for the production of sugar, lucern, grain, &e., as also the ranching and agricultural lands on the Incomati and upper Limpopo.




General Description of the Province. 3
In the neighbourhood of Inhambane sugar and cocoa-nut production are making good progress, a factory is at work making cassiva flour, and ceara cultivation has been attempted, but the export of oil-nuts and grain has been falling off, mostly through the prosperity of the natives in other directions.
Thence northward, a huge tract of country 60,o00oo square miles in extent is in the hands of the Mozambique Company, administered under a Royal Charter granted by His Majesty the King of Portugal in the year i89r. This is said to be the only Chartered Company now extant governing territory which had been under the direct administration of a European Power previous to its charter being granted. The Territories of Manica and Sofala are its area; the city of Beira is its capital and port; both administration and development are being actively carried on ; and in addition to its own efforts it has several subsidiary companies at work, mostly on British capital, producing sugar, sisal fibre, rubber, &c.
In the Districts of Quelimane, Tete and Mozambique the Government retains the administration and has immense areas still in its own hands, but there are also various companies doing most valuable development work in a most thorough manner. According to the "Annuario de Mozambique," 1908, the position of these for 1907 is stated as follows :(i) Companhia de Zambesia, capital 2,025,000ooo000 reis (=400,00oo), with prazos (estates) as follows :-Magenja-alem-Chire, with 2oo00 hectares virigated, to be increased
to 2000; Massingire, with 72,140 coffee trees, 330,000 sisal plants, 3400 cocoa-nut trees, 2oo000 acres of planted rubber, including large trees of castilloa and hevea;
Andone Anguaze, with 149,oo000 bearing cocoa-nut palms, and 225,000 cocoa-nut plants in nursery; and Timbud, for the exploitation of timber only.
(2) Companhia de Boror, capital 54o,o0000oooo reis (= i io,ooo), with prazos at Boror, Tirre, Lycungo, Macusse and Nameduro, containing 401,200 cocoa-nuts in bearing,
250,000 ditto in nursery, 240,000 coffee trees, 350,000 rubber trees, 250,000 sisal plants, i6 hectares cotton and 350 hectares sugar.
(3) Companhia de Luabo, capital 990,000ooo>000ooo reis (=,200,000), with prazos at Luabo and Marral, containing 66,ooo cocoa-nut trees in bearing, 30,000ooo ditto in nursery,
So,coo rubber trees (Castilloa and Ceara), 66o,ooo sisal, 90 hectares cotton, and 1290 hectares sugar grown by the subsidiary Marromeu Company.
(4) Society du Madal, capital 785,oo0ooo reis (= i5o,ooo), with prazos at Madal, Tangalane-Cheringone, and Mahindo, containing 124,970 cocoa-nut trees, and
100,000 in nursery.
(5) Companhia do Assucar de Mozambique, capital 1,35o,ooo000'ooo reis (= 270,00oo0), with prazo at Magenja-aquem-Chire, has 1550 hectares sugar and produced 500ooo
tons sugar last year.
(6) Gavicho de Lacerda, at Carungo has 54,o000oo cocoa-nut palms, and 30,000ooo ditto in nursery.
(7) Soutulho Rodrigues, at Inhassunge has ii,6oo cocoa-nut palms, and 7000 ditto in nursery.
(8) Mariano Nazareth, at Pepino and Quelimane do Sal has 37,000 cocoa-nut palms, and 20,000 in nursery.
(9) Empresa Agricola do Lugella, capital 37,ooo0sooo reis (= 7500), with prazos at Lugella, Lomue, and Milange, has large nurseries of cocoa-nuts.
(io) Messrs. Helliard & Hamburger, at Nhamacurra, produce iooo tons of sugar per annum.
The northern part of the Province, extending from the Indian Ocean to Lake Nyassa, and separated from German East Africa by the Rovuma River, is another huge tract of country in the hands of the Nyassa Company, from which mangrove bark has been exported in some quantity, and in which a railway is projected for 250 miles westward from Port Amelia.
Agricultural encouragement. During 1908, and largely owing to the agricultural activity of Dr. Saldanha and the encouragement of Governor-General
Major Frere d' Andrade, the Government organised an Agricultural Department, under a Director of Agriculture, assisted by a Veterinary Surgeon, an Entomologist, and a small office staff. Restrictions on the movement of cattle, rendered necessary by East Coast Fever, Plant import regulations, the distribution of seeds of high quality, grains, &c., and various other measures, have resulted, and the Department has in hand the arrangement and equipment of an experiment farm at Umbelusi which will probably do more to wake up the Province as to its agricultural potentialities than any other means yet tried. The scientific mission, of which this volume is one result, and in which the various members of the Departmental staff, and others, took part, was one of the first acts of the Department, which, if regularly supported by sufficient funds, will revolutionise the Agriculture of the Province, render the Province self-supplying in practically every article of domestic consumption-as it easily can be-and also bring in a huge revenue from the export of agricultural and forestal products. Meantime that export is very small. In the Mozambique Budget for the year ending June 3oth, 1909, the principal items of revenue estimated are hut-tax 272,000, customs 224,oo000, railways 250,000, and native emigration 57,000 ; while among the items of expenditure are the military service 2 14,oo000, railways and harbour 146,oo000, colonial expenditure in Lisbon 17,200, passages of officials to and from the Province /26,oo000, Agricultural Department /8200, experimental farms 5200, fencing and stock /6ooo, Catembe graving dock 8000ooo, dredging Polana and the wharf wall 40,000, and railway rolling stock 1 7,oo000. These figures speak for themselves as to the position of internal development in the Province.




CHAPTER II.
The Forests.
HE forests of the Province of Mozambique are bounded only by the boundaries of the Province itself, that is to say, the whole Province is one forest, except in so far as
fire and the axe have interfered with it. But its value as forest varies immensely, and it will be necessary to consider the localities separately.
(I) The District of Lourenzo Marques, including the circumscriptions of Maputo, Marracuene, Sabie, Manhica, and Magude, together with the upper portion of Gaza (Guija).Throughout the whole of this area thorn-veld prevails, composed in great part of Leguminous trees scattered far enough apart to allow an abundance of grass to grow underneath and still close enough to maintain an open canopy throughout. The trees are usually of no great height, 30 to 5o feet being the average except along the streams, while in diameter io to 15 inches is the average. As the grass is burned every year, clean unbranched stems prevail, usually straight and without taper for io to 15 feet, but seldom available for technical purposes in 20 feet lengths, and usually with a rounded or more or less bushy crown. Many of these trees are of extreme hardness, and have black or red heartwood; so far as a local demand exists for hardwood, it is easily met with good material of good kinds. A considerable industry formerly existed along the main line of railway in sending poles of several species of Acacia, under the name _A/kai, to Johannesburg, for use in the mines, where the strength and durability gave this a special value ; but the available material within easy distance of the railway has been practically worked out, and now that the Swaziland railway brings other areas within reach, the Government has prohibited the felling of this timber until such time as arrangements are completed for felling on license. Of course here as elsewhere many trees of larger size occur, mixed among these hardwoods, but usually they are exceedingly soft, such as Ficus or Commiphora, and withstand the fire through their sappy nature, but are of low technical value. The number of species of timber trees is very large, the Acacias are more or less gregarious, but other kinds occur in very scattered fashion, and of several species I only saw single specimens. The largest trees are either too soft or too hard to be worth working under present conditions, and no timber industry exists on the flats though valuable timber is there in abundance. In Lourenzo Marques only one
wagon-maker is at work, mostly on repairs, and his demand for local timber is very limited.
The species composing this thorn-veld are mostly different from those which occur in Natal and Zululand, the line of division being where the sandy flats
begin, north of the Umfolozi.
On the Swazi border where an altitude of 2000 feet is reached the tree-flora is very different. Trees are not abundant or large except in the Kloofs, Acacia is
less abundant, Combretum more abundant, and many trees of the Kaffrarian and Natal forests appear, such as Podocarpus, Toddalia, Olea, Ptero-celastrus, &c.
Cussonia, which is absent below, is still scarce, and a Ficus takes its place as the last survivor on dry rock. Curiously enough, I found dense gregarious thickets, including very large trees, of a species (Weihea ? subpeltata) which otherwise I only had from near Mozambique. On the top of the I.ebombo range, at Estatuene, a Dutch wagon-maker, Mr. H. Du-pont, carries on an extensive business, doing most of the wagon work for Swaziland, aU with local material, of which he held a considerable stock, well seasoned, and I considered the information received from him, supported as it was by wagons, timber, furniture and building material in his
possession, to be most valuable, and most of it was corroborated by Mr. Stem, of Swaziland, who happened to be living below the Lebombo when I was there.
On the Transvaal border most of the kinds are common to Gaza and to the Eastern Transvaal. Near the coast a belt of litoral kinds on the dunes and sandy plains corresponds very closely with the flora of similar positions in Natal, while on the muddy shore the more or less cosmopolitan mangroves of similar latitudes abound. Trichilia and Anacardium are common on the sandy flats, as also are two species of
Strychnos and one of Garcinia, together with the rubber-yielding Landolphia, Kirkii, and latex-yielding Ficus species.
Several floras thus meet within the district, which consequently has a very large number of ligneous species, and a large number of kinds yielding valuable
timber, but seldom dense forest or large quantity of one kind, except the Acacias.
(2) The lower portion of Gaza and the district of Inhambane.-History has left its mark here. Closely inhabited by a most industrious agricultural population, who know the value of fresh forest areas for agricultural work, little of the original forest now remains, and present or past cultivation shows everywhere. Large as must be the area which has been cultivated and then abandoned in the ordinary course, there is probably a larger area which relapsed about twelve years ago during and after Gungunhama's raid. Fortunately the bush reasserts itself if given an opportunity, and that abandoned during the raid is now a thriving young dense forest, 12 to 20 feet high and with stems six to nine inches diameter. Most of the area under consideration may be described as a Tzontzo forest (Brachystegia), this tree being the predominant




The Forests: their Constitution and Locality. 5
species in regeneration and probably much more abundant now than before cultivation began. But unlike the majority of assertive weeds, this tree as it increases in quantity increases the value of the forest, alike from the native's point of view and from that of the European utilitarian. This tree is absent from the Lourenzo Marques forests, and is only one factor in a crowd in the Quelimane forests, but in Gaza and M'Chopes there are large areas where there is nothing else, where cultivation has
been practised at some former time.
But the native, in clearing for cultivation gives this no quarter. It is true that he acts on a list of reserved. trees-reserved by native traditional practice, and
likely always to remain so-but the native's choice is exceedingly practical ; if a tree does not yield food or drink it has to go. Trichilia (Mafurreira) and Anacardiurn (Cashew) arc reserved everywhere, Mango and Orange where they occur, several creepers under the names n-kaloga, tinta, shangala, &c. from whose fruits wine is made are allowed to form suberect bushes in the cultivated fields, and pine-apple borders every field-reserved for the sake of the spirit distilled from its fruit rather than for the fruit itself. A Ficus is also reserved, or even cultivated, for the cloth made from its bark, but a timber tree is hardly required in the domestic economy of the native, and consequently is cleared as a weed. Even such a useful tree to him as the Brachystegia is cleared without hesitation, since the uncultivated areas contain it in
abundance.
The general character of the aboriginal forest in this locality is of a dense evergreen nature, rather undergrown as might be expected from the light sandy soil
on which it has to develop, but containing many valuable species not frequent elsewhere. In a few spots, especially coastward, one might have been tempted by the vegetation to believe he was in Natal, Natal species forming the jungle almost to the exclusion of more tropical kinds, but the bare sandy soil, the absence of ferns, lickens or mosses, and the intrusion of Brachystegia and Dracaena were distinctly non-Natalian. In the neighbourhood of certain lakes in Manjacaze and Zavalla, on sour and rather wet sand, Eugenia cordata was the only tree, and an Erica the only shrub. As Inhambane is approached the Baobab (first seen at Inharreme), makes a frequent appearance, and near the rivers cocoa-nut palms become abundant in cultivation, along with fine specimens of the Tamarind and other exotic leguminous trees,
and the Jujube, which, however, was not noticed wild here. Inhambane coffee is a natural product of the forest, and makes an early regrowth after fire.
On the tidal mud cf the estuaries extra-tropical mangroves are abundant, but being mostly Avicennia are of little value. Landolphia Kirkii is abundant in
many parts of the district, and the Banyan traders do a considerable business in buying its rubber from the natives ; rubber or gutta is probably also obtainable from the various other Apocynaccous trees, shrubs and creepers present, as also from a species of Mimusops ; the scented timber of Excaecaria may also form an article of commerce, and the seeds of Trichilia do so at present, for the oil obtained therefrom. An Euphorbiaceous tree seen only along the Inharreme River gave an enormous flow of thin latex, which may be found of value. This district, despite the enormous extent of present and past cultivation, holds a high value of forest products, and only
requires a railway to make these available.
(3) Manica and Sofala, being administered by the Companhia de Mozambique, did not fall within the scope of my investigations, and I only saw the bush immediately surrounding the three ports, Bazaruto Island, Barthelomew Dias, and Beira. I had, however, the good fortune to meet Mr. W. H. Johnson, F.L.S., Director of Agriculture to the Companhia, and who has also the forestry in charge, from whom I learned that except what has been taken up for cultivation, the whole territory is practically open forest, though in many favourable localities it becomes more or less dense. The species present are perhaps in accordance with the soil and rock formation, and also the climate more or less identical with those of Inhambane as far north as Beiia, whence they correspond more with those found on the Zambesi and northward. In the forests the Company is mainly interested in the collection of rubber, of which over 8oo tons have been exported during the past 14 years, some of the forests being worked by private enterprise, and some by the Company itself. The rubber is mostly the product of Landolphia Kirkii, but Landolphia Buchanani, Landolphia florida and Mascarenhasia elastica probably also yield a quota, while Diplorhynchus mossambicensis and a Ficus are also latex-yielders. Dalbergia melanoxylon is said to be one of the best timbers, but was not seen by me. As seen from on board ship the whole coast is composed of sandy dunes, on which Casuarina is the prominent and often the only tree, standing erect and tall even when solitary in the most exposed situations, and making more or less open bush where gregarious. In the estuaries
mangroves abound, including the more tropical kinds, but the industry in mangrove bark is limited, mostly through the scarcity of the better kinds.
Diospyros, Sophora, Suriana, Elaeodendron, &c., constitutes a very distinct litoral bush flora behind the mangroves at Bartholemew Dias, which was not seen
elsewhere.
(4) Quelimane, and northward and westward.-Although the immediate neighbourhood of Quelimane presents little of interest in the nature of natural forest, consisting entirely
of mud flats cleared of the original bush and now under cocoa-nuts, rice or manioc, in accordance with its dryness, the back country consists of unbroken forest of high technical value and of much botanical interest. It is mostly evergreen and broad leaved, dense enough to yield straight clean timber, open and level enough to be
easily worked, and on sufficiently good soil to yield good crops where it is cleared.




6 Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
Rubber abounds, both Landolphia Kirkii and Mascarenhasia elastica being present in quantity, though the amount collected is meantime small. The valuable
imbilo timber (Pterocarpus) is present everywhere, though of special quality in the fine valley known as the Raraga Forest; Magundo (Milicia) is seldom absent and often of enormous size; several hardwoods known rather confusedly as pau-ferro, naquada, and pangira are abundant; Brachystegia, Parkia, Bauhinia and Cordyla are common and of considerable size, while the Tamarind and the Mango (probably introduced long ago) are scattered throughout the forests in what now appears
indigenous growth and of enormous size, and the exotic Eriodendron (Kapok) and Bombax are rapidly taking similar positions.
Several Euphorbiaceous trees under the common name Umtela are common and of timber value, while Combretum and Terminalia species are also valuable
hardwoods of large size.
The scented muconite (Exccecaria) is local but very fine, Mugonha (Adina) makes a fine tree and valuable timber along the streams, Khaya and Sorindeia form
very large trees near water, and the Flat-crown (Albizzia fastigiata), now worked scarce in Natal, is abundant and of fine form, without damage. Anacardium (Canjew) is the most common tree in abandoned land formerly cultivated; Sclerocarya is its frequent companion; the Orange is not uncommon where a kraal has at some time
existed, and lentils (Ervum lens) in a semi-naturalised condition abound.
The forest varies much in density; the valleys along several rivers such as the Raraga and the Lecungo contain very fine material in enormous quantity; the
higher ground is of lighter material, say 22 to 3 decametres diameter and 20 metres height, equally spaced at about 7 metres distance. This latter material is the product of light sandy soil, and would never grow larger under present circumstances; there is no undergrowth and no dead material standing or lying about ; presumably the white ants (Mchai) speedily destroy all soft dead wood, though several of the hardwoods are proof against white ants and have remained intact in buildings for many
years. The absence of Baobab and the scarcity of Trichilia emetica in the forests of Magenja da Costa is notable.
The Companhia de Zambesia (Manager, Capt. S. Munish) is opening up a timber business in its Messingire Forests, which extend north of Mopea and along
the Shire River; the Luaba Co. (Manager, Senhor Bon Souza) is working in the extensive Marral Forests nearer Quelimane and building boats, lighters, &c. ; the Boror
Co. (Manager, Count Stucki) utilises the timber it clears for plantation work, in so far as demand exists, as also does the Madal Co. (Manager, Sr. Bouvay).
Taking this region as a whole, there are many thousands of square miles of actual forest of high quality, still waiting the advent of the lumberman.
The districts of Tete and Mozambique add considerably to the number of species of trees, and consist for the most part of forest similar to that in Quelimane, but in the tidal mud near the coast the amount of workable mangrove is considerably greater. The Northern district, worked by the Companhia do Nyassa, extending as it does from the Indian Ocean to Lake Nyassa, naturally introduces many additional species, of which only those along the Rovuma River on the northern boundary are well known. According to the "Annuario de Mozambique," 1908, the products of the district are :-Earthnuts, sesame, caou and chouc (Ficus and Euphorbiaceae), copal, gum, ebony, cocoanut, wax, vegetable wax (Myristica ocuba), "arroz," mapira (Kafir-corn), mealies, anil, sugar, pimento, ricinus (castor-oil), tobacco, coffee, cloves (= cravo), baobab, &c., as also these timbers :-Sandal, Teak, Pau-ferro, Mogno (Khaya), Caju (Anacardium), &c.
My own mission did not include the Nyassa Company's area nor the districts of Mozambique and Tete, but a considerable amount of information has been obtained which is included here in regard to the species concerned.




CHAPTER III.
Forest Flora.
Localities are separated into Tropical, including all north of Inhambane, and Ex/ra-7Tropical, including all south of Inhambane. The numbers representing languages are explained on pageiv. Characters given refer only to the local ligneous flora so far as known, and may not apply to herbaceous or foreign species belonging to the same order or genus.
Synoptical and Specific Descriptions.
CLASS I.-DICOTYLEDONES.
Embryo with 2 cotyledons. Primary root fully developed. Wood in concentric circles formed by successive additions under the bark. Leaves usually with netted venation. Flowers usually 4 or 5-merous, or some multiple of these, seldom 3-merous.
With the exception of the Palms, Bamboos, dendroid Liliacem, and Pandanus, this class includes all trees dealt with in this Flora.
SERIES I.-THALAMIFLOR.E.
Calyx and corolla usually both present. Calyx free from the ovary. Petals free (i.e., not united among themselves). Petals and stamens hypogynous (i.e., springing directly from the receptacle). Receptacle flat, or variously raised or depressed. Ovary superior. (The fewv exceptions to these characters vill/ be noted in connection with the plants concerned. Series I. and I. mege gradually and indistinguishably into one another.)
THALAMIFLOR2E. GROUP I.
Petals and stamens rising directly from the receptacle, close to the pistil. Leaves simple, or in Sterculiacem sometimes digitate, and in Capparideae sometimes 3-foliate. (Exceptions :-Scolopia, I)ovyalis.)
FAMILY I.-ANONACEiE.
Flowers hermaphrodite. Sepals 3; petals 3 or 6; stamens numerous, indefinite; carpels several, separate. Seeds with ruminated albumen. Leaves simple, alternate, exstipulate. A tropical or sub-tropical family, including trees, shrubs, climbers and herbs, several yielding edible fruits. There are 14 African genera.
i. ANONA. Sepals 3, valvate in aestivation. Petals 3; stamens indefinite; carpels indefinite; ovaries connate into a cordate many-seeded fruit, each ovary having i
solitary erect ovule. Trees with simple alternate exstipulate leaves, common in cultivation as fruit trees in tropical and sub-tropical countries, the Custard-apple, the Cherimoya, the Sweet-sop and the Sour-sop being among the fruits produced. These fruits, under the general Portuguese name Ata, were seen in all the towns of
the Province and in such outlying localities as Inharreme and Arenga (Magenja da Costa).
A. senegalensis, Pers. Vernacular names-i, 2, Anona; 4, 5, 6, Trofa or Rofa; io, ii, Moebe or Wiabe. A shrub, large shrub or small tree, frequent in the sandy
soils throughout the Province wherever the bush is not dense, most frequent in open spaces, and almost absent from alluvial mud soils and from dense forest.
Leaves elliptic from a cordate or rounded base 1o-15 c.m. long, 3-io c.m. wide, entire, rounded at the apex, sub-coriaceous, green and pubescent on the upper, lighter and densely pubescent on the under surface, where the numerous side veins and connecting veinlets are in relief. Petiole 2 c.m. long, pubescent as also is the young wood. Flowers axillary, solitary, on peduncles 1-3 c.m. long. Fruit pendent, obliquely cordate, warted, greenish yellow, 3-6 c.m. long, 3-5 c.m. wide,
eaten by the natives but not equal to the cultivated kinds mentioned above. Occurs throughout Tropical Africa and here extends beyond the tropic.
PLATE I. A. I, Leaf branch; 2, Fruit; 3, Seed,




8 Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
It is mentioned in "Flora of Tropical Africa" that Dr. Kirk sent specimens in fruit from the Rovuma and Zambesi districts of what may prove a new species of Anona. Beyond larger size from growing in more tropical forest I found no difference between the northern and southern specimens, nor did I see any other
wild species.
2. POPOWIA. Scandent shrubs having:--Sepals 3, valvate; petals 6, in 2 rows, valvate, very small. Stamens extrorse, in 3 bundles of about 5 each, the bundles alternating
with the inner petals. Carpels many, unconnected; ovule solitary, erect. Berries many from each flower, stalked, indehiscent. The only species represented is P. caffra, Harv. & Sond., a straggling woody creeper having oblong or obovate leaves io c.m. long, 3 c.m. wide, glaucous on the under surface, and about io oval red edible berries i-I'5 c.m. long on each receptacle. See "Forests and Forest Flora of Cape Colony," Plate XVI. fig 4. Noted but not frequent in the extra-tropical forests around Lourenzo Marques, and brought to me in the Tropical Magenja da Costa Forest by a native doctor, under the name Viriga (ro), as a medicine; see
Chap. V. It occurs also in the eastern part of Cape Colony and Natal.
3. UVARIA. Scandent shrubs having :--Sepals 3: valvate; petals 6 in 2 rows, imbricate in aestivation; stamens and carpels numerous, separate; ovules several; fruit carpels
several or many, several-seeded or i-seeded by abortion, more or less edible. Stem-sap not milky. To this and the other scandent genera of this family belong the several species which are known indiscriminately to the natives throughout the Province under these vernacular names, viz. :-4 to 8, Tete, Tinta, Shangala, Lo-komela, in-chin-chaio; io, n-kaloga ; 13, Mazwenda; 15, Shin-tin-lan, and from the fruits of which a liquor is brewed, for which purpose these plants are protected where they occur in cultivated fields, where when left without support they form sub-erect bushes with trailing shoots. The leaves are simple, widely lanceolate to oval-oblong, 7 to io c.m. long, and the fruits purplish or yellowish, 2-3 c.m. long, somewhat oblique, and from 3 to io on i receptacle, which is usually
opposite a leaf. The natives consider the fruits of all edible. Pubescence, where present, is mostly stellate. The species are
U. caffra, E. M. Young parts pubescent; leaves widely lanceolate to oblong-pointed, glabrous and shining on both surfaces, 5-o10 c.m. long; peduncles s-flowered
fruit-carpels stalked, nearly globose, 2 c.m. long. Abundant in extra-tropical districts, at Lourenzo Marques, Chai-chai, Zavalla, and Inhambane. This or a similar
species also occurs in the tropical forests at Arenga, Bajon, Nhamacurre, &c. See "Natal Plants," Plate 241.
U. acuminata, Oliv. Young parts pubescent; leaves oval-oblong from a sub-cordate base, pale and stellate-pubescent below, 5-io c.m. long. Sepals connate below;
fruit-carpels nearly globose, 15 c.m. long, stalked. Rovuma River, Dr. Kirk, and Madagascar,
4. CLEISTOCHLAMYS. Sepals connate in bud; petals 6, the 3 inner rather smaller, and imbricate in aestivation. Stamens many ; carpels 6-8, free; ovules solitary
erect. Carpels oblong, stalked. Monotypic.
C. Kirkii, Oliv. A glabrous shrub, having shortly petioled oblong leaves 4-O10 c.m. long; small axillary sessile flowers; and black, edible, i-seeded oblong fruit-carpels
2 c.m. long, i c.m. diam. ; found near Tette and Senna by Dr. Kirk.
5. ATRABOTRYS. Sepals 3, free; petals 6, valvate in aestivation; stamens numerous ; carpels indefinite; ovules in pairs, erect, fruit-carpels longer than wide, 1-2 seeded,
edible.
A. brachypetala, Benth. A scandent shrub, pubescent on its young parts, glabrescent afterwards. Leaves oval to obovate, 6-io c.m. long; peduncles flattened,
woody, sharply recurved, 3 c.m. long, 6-io flowered. Fruit-carpels purple, edible, used to make liquor. Common throughout the Province. For vernacular names
see under Uvaria.
6. UNONA. Sepals 3, free, valvate; petals 6, the inner 3 shorter, valvate in aestivation ; stamens and carpels numerous, free; ovules 2 or more ; fruit-carpels stalked, more
or less constricted between the seeds. There are 6 or more Tropical African species.
U. obovata, Benth. A small tree found near Moramballa, Zambesia, by Dr. Kirk, having obovate leaves 6-12 c.m. long with sub-cordate base and short petiole,
s-flowered peduncles opposite leaves, and several 1-3 seeded fruit-carpels, glabrous and shortly stalked.
7. MONODORA. Sepals 3 petals 6, valvate, wavy, connate at the base, the 3 inner smaller; stamens indefinite; ovary syncarpous, r-celled, with numerous parietal ovules.
Fruit large, globose, many-seeded. A Tropical African genus of about 6 species of trees, having flowers 5-io c.m. across and globose or ovoid fruits o10-15 cm. long.
M. stenophylla, Oliv. A shrub or small tree from the neighbourhood of Shire and Lake Nyassa, having yellow flowers, the outer petals 4-5 c.m. long ; obovate leaves
and ovoid fruits.




Synoptical and Specific Descriptions. 9
FAMILY II.-MENISPERMACEE.
Flowers dicecious; sepals 6, in 2 series; petals 6; stamens in male flower 6, opposite the petals; carpels in female flower 3, free; ovules solitary; fruit carpels drupaceous. Climbing shrubs, with alternate exstipulate lobed or entire leaves and minute flowers in racemes or panicles. This Family is introduced here on account of the genus JATEORHIZA, the roots of J. Columba, Miers, yielding the Columba root of commerce, which has tonic properties and of which samples from the Companhia de Mozambique fetched a price of 22/- per 50 kilos in Europe. The plant is a hispid creeper, with 3-5 lobed leaves 15-20 c.m. across or larger, and flowers in racemes or racemose panicles 6-12 inches long, and avoid drupes 1"5 to 2 c.m. long in clusters.
FAMILY III.-CAPPARIDACE}E.
Hermaphrodite. Sepals 4; petals 4 or o. Torus sometimes with an appendix. Stamens 8 or many; ovary usually on a long gynophore, 1-celled or spuriously several-celled; ovules many, parietal. Fruit various, usually baccate and stalked by the gynophore, usually indehiscent and several or many-seeded. Trees, shrubs, or scandent. Leaves alternate, simple or 3-foliate with entire leaflets. Inflorescence various; stamens usually conspicuous.
8. THYLACHIUM. Calyx opening by transverse dehiscence, the top falling away. Petals absent; stamens numerous, free, on a short torus. Ovary i-celled or spuriously
several-celled on a long gynophore; placentas several; ovules many, seeds many.
T. Africanum, Lour. A bush or small tree from the Shire River, having simple or 3-foliate leaves, the leaflets 3-10 c.m. long, few-flowered corymbs of flowers about an
inch in diameter, and the ovary spuriously 5-celled with parietal ovules.
9. M)ERUA. Sepals 4, connate below in a tube, the lobes deciduous; petals 4, very small or absent; stamens many, on a columnar torus; ovary on a long gynophore,
i-celled or spuriously 2-celled, ovules numerous; fruit various; leaves simple or 3-foliate; inflorescence various. Trees and shrubs, distributed over Africa and
southern Asia; none of the local species reach timber size except very occasionally.
N. caffra, Sim. ("Forest Flora of Cape Colony," 122, Plate IX. fig. i.) Vern. name-4, Shidwandwane. Shrub or small tree, evergreen; leaves mostly 3-foliate,
leaflets oblong-obovate, 3-5 c.m. long; flowers in corymbs of 5-10, terminal or terminal on short side branches; calyx-tube 1"5 to 2 c.m. long, sepals 2-3 c.m. long,
green; petals absent; stamens about 30 conspicuous, with white filaments 4 c.m. long, folded in bud, and rising from a torus as long as the calyx-tube. Gynophore 4 c.m. long; stigma discoid; berry oblong-ovoid 4 c.m. long, leathery. Frequent at Umbelusi and throughout Lourenzo Marques district. Occurs also in Cape
Colony.
M. nervosa, Oliv. (See "Natal Plants," Plate 260.) Vern. name-6, Ibula. Shrub or small tree similar to M. caffra, but with more numerous and smaller flowers
and with small greenish petals inserted at the summit of the calyx-tube. Fruit 1i5 c.m. long on a gynophore 2 to 3 c.m. long. Tropical Zambesia. Extratropical Lourenzo Marques and Inhambane. Occurs also in Natal.
M. acuminata, Oliv. Leaves 3-foliate, or the upper simple; leaflets ovate or ovate-lanceolate, glabrous, mucronate central leaflet 5-7 c.m. long, others shorter, all on
slender petiolules 40-50 m.m. long. Flowers in axillary corymbose racemes. Petals absent; ovary oval, i-celled, with 2 placentas each with about io ovules in 2
rows. Rovuma River.
I have a specimen from Lourenzo Marques which differs only in having petals and smaller leaves; a slender shrub.
M. racemosa. (New species), Shrub, glabrous throughout. Leaves 3-foliate, on petioles 5 c.m. long; leaflets widely lanceolate 5 c.m. long, on short petiolules.
Inflorescence axillary, racemose, the racemes 15-20 c.m. long many-flowered, peduncles I15 c.m. long, slender, jointed at the base, solitary from the axil ofa short acute bract. Calyx-tube 2-5 m.m. long; sepals 5 m.m. long, petals 3 m.m. long, obovate, clawed. Torus as long as the calyx-tube, stamens about 16, i c.m. long,
gynophore 2 c.m. long ; fruit coriaceous, 2 c.m. long, globose at the middle, slender at each end. Lourenzo Marques. Sim 6388.
Maerua racemosa. (Nov. sp.) Frutex glaber, foliis trifoliatis, petiolis 5 c.m. longis; foliolis late lanceolatis, 5 c.m. longis, petiolo brevi; inflorescentiis axillaribus, multifloris, racemosis, 10-20 c.m. longis; pedunculis I"5 c.m. longis tenuibus, ad basim articulatis, bractea brevi acuta; calycis tubo 2-5 m.m. longo; sepalis 5 m.m. longis; petalis 3 m.m. longis, obovatis, unguiculatis; toro calycis tubo equilongo; staminibus circa 16, I c.m. longis; gynophorio 2 c.m. longo; fructu coriaceo, 2 c.m. longo, medio globoso. Lourenzo Marques. Sim 6388.
B




10 Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
M. floribunda. (New species.)' Shrub or small tree, glabrous throughout. Leaves 3-foliate on petioles 2 c.m. long; leaflets lanceolate, 5 c.m. long, shortly petiolulate.
Inflorescence terminal and on upper branchlets forming together a many-flowered panicle 15 c.m. long. Calyx-tube 2 m.m. long, slender; sepals 5 m.m. long, very concave, acute, with ciliate margins; petals minute, wide, pointed; torus as long as the calyx-tube; stamens included; filaments 2 m.m. long, anthers as long;
pistil not exceeding the stamens. Fruit unknown. Lourenzo Marques. Sim 5044.
M. angolensis, D. C. Shrub or small tree. Leaves simple, lanceolate to ovate, glabrous, 3-6 c.m. long; petioles 2-3 c.m. long. Flowers in leafy corymbose racemes
or axillary. Calyx-tube shorter than the lobes; corona toothed; petals absent; torus as long as the calyx-tube; ovary linear; fruit beaded, 5-15 c.m. long, stalked.
Occurs occasionally from Shire to Natal, also in Abyssinia and West Africa.
M. pedunculosa, Sim. (" Forest Flora of Cape Colony," 122.) Vern. name-I3, Umpunziso. Shrub or small tree. Leaves simple, lanceolate to ovate, very variable,
5-6 c.m. long. Flowers in axillary racemes, sometimes forming together a terminal panicle. Calyx-tube 25 m.m. long, not toothed, sepals i c.m. long, 4 or 5 ; petals absent; stamens numerous, I'5 c.m. long; ovary ovoid, stalked rather exceeding the stamens, i-celled, with 4-5 parietal ovules on i side. Lebombo
Range, also in Cape Colony, Natal and Transvaal. In Cape Colony the large roots are eaten by the natives when food is scarce.
io. COURBONIA. Sepals 3, valvate, very shortly tubular at the base with a toothed disc-margin. Petals absent. Stamens numerous on a short torus; ovary slender,
tapering to each end; ovules 2 on each placenta; ovary globose I-few seeded. A Tropical African genus of 2 species.
C. decumbens, A. Brongn. A glabrous, glaucous shrub from Zambesia and Abyssinia. Leaves ovate or elliptical 2-4 c.m. long, shortly petiolate. Flowers axilliary,
solitary. Fruit globose, 2-3 c.m. diameter on a gynophore 2-3 c.m, long.
Ii. EUADENIA. Sepals 4. Petals 4, clawed, 2 longer than the others. Stamens 5-7 attached to the lower part of the gynophore; appendix of 5 segments from base of
gynophore; ovary I-celled; ovules numerous, parietal. Glabrous shrubs with trifoliate leaves, one from West Africa and the following species :
E. Kirkii, Oliv. Vern. name-io, Morima. A small tree 6-1io metres high. Leaves 3-foliate, leaflets widely lanceolate to oval-acute, 7'p1o c.m. long, coriaceous.
Fruit coriaceous, gourd-like, i-celled 15 c.m. long, globose above, 8-io c.m. diameter, abruptly narrowed into the sub-cylindrical lower half. Seeds numerous, imbedded in pulp, i c.m. diameter, globose reniform. Found by Sir J. Kirk at Lupata, found by me in several localities in the Magenja da Costa Forests and also
cultivated or at least protected at kraals for the medicinal virtues of its roots. Sim 6o0oi.
12. BOSCIA. Sepals 4, free to the base, with an annular disc. Petals absent. Stamens 6-20 without torus; gynophore short; ovary i-celled with a short style; ovules few.
Fruit globose, i or few-seeded. Shrubs or small trees with simple entire leaves. 5 Tropical. African species.
B. angustifolia, Rich. A glabrous shrub or tree; leaves from oval to lanceolate, 3-5 c.m. long, often clustered, shortly petiolate. Flowers greenish, in axillary corymbs
or together forming a terminal panicle. Fruit globose, 1-2 c.m. long, 1-few seeded. Zambesia, Nile-land and West Africa.
B. salicifolia, Oliv. A large shrub; leaves linear to lanceolate, 5-1o c.m. long; flowers on short axillary racemes. Shire River. "Dr. Kirk states that the knotty root
is boiled and eaten on the Shire."
13. CAPPARIS. Sepals 4, free or more or less connate, but not forming a tube; petals 4; stamens 8 or numerous, upon a torus; ovary on a long gynophore, i-celled, ovules
many; fruit long stipitate. A widely distributed genus of trees, shrubs or stragglers with simple leaves, and with or without stipular spines. Capers are the pickled
flower-buds of several Mediterranean species.
C. albitrunca, Burch. Vern. names-13, Witgatboom; 15, Goning. A medium sized round-headed tree, with a clean white stem 20-40 c.m. diameter and seldom more
than 3 metres long. Leaves oblong or cuneate-oblong, coriaceous, acute, 2-5 c.m. long, with short petioles and minute setaceous stipules but no prickles. Flowers in few-flowered short racemes, or sometimes singly and axillary, small, yellowish, sweetly scented. Stamens 8. Berry globose i'5 c.m. diameter usually i-seeded, with a 1-2 c.m. pedicel. Timber not much used. For medicinal and other properties see "Forest Flora of Cape Colony," 123 and Plate X. fig. i. Frequent in
Lourenzo Marques district, Umbelusi and Lebombo. Also seen in M'Chopes, and it occurs more freely in Cape Colony and Natal.
Mzerua floribunda. (Nov. sp.) Frutex glaber aut arbor parva, foliis trifoliatis, petiolis 5 c.m. longis; foliolis lanceolatis 5 c mn. longis, petiolis brevibus; inflorescentia apicali, multiflora, paniculata, 15 c.m. longa; calycis tubo 2 m.m. longo, angusto ; sepalis 5 m.m. longis profunde concavis, acutis, marginibus ciliatis; petalis minutis, latis, acutis; toro calycis tubo equilongo ; staminibus inclusis, filamentis a m.m. longis antheris equilongis; pistillo staminibus non longiore ; fructibus haud visis. Lourenzo Marques. Sim 5044.




Synoptical and Specific Descriptions. I
My Portuguese specimens all have the calyx pubescent on both sides and are without petals, and with stamens 4-8. If this be constant and not due to the caducous nature of these organs, the tree is an undescribed Boscia, but it appears identical otherwise with the Cape plant.
PLATE III. I, Flowering branch ; 2, Flower, x 2; 3, Fruit; 5 Tree, general aspect.
C. albitrunca, Burch. var. parvifolia. (New var.)' Vern. name-4, Janjaton. Shrub 1-3 metres high, much branched. Leaves cuneate, pointed, coriaceous, 1-2 c.m.
long, numerous, fascicled or on short axillary branchlets, and with slender petiole 2'5 m.m. long. Flower not seen. Fruit globose, densely pubescent, 7 m.m. diameter with gynophore 2-5 m.m. long and penduncle 5 m.m. long, solitary, axillary. Abundant on the Polana, Lourenzo Marques, not seen elsewhere. A pretty evergreen
shrub, glabrous except the young branches. Sim 5157.
PLATE III. A. fig. 4C. Kirkii, Oliv. An unarmed shrub; leaves coriaceous, ovate-oblong, pubescent on under surface, 8-io c.m. long, 3-5 c.m. wide, with a very short petiole. Flowers in
terminal umbels or umbellate corymbs. Stamens indefinite. Gynophore 2'5 c.m. long. Lake Nyassa and upper Shire River.
Various other species of Capparis occur hardly worth mention here, among which are C. rosea, Oliv., an unarmed shrub with petaloid inner sepals, from Lake Nyassa and Zambesia (= Petersia rosea, K1. in Peters' Mossamb. Bot. 168, t. 30) ; C. corymbifera, a prickly sub-scandent shrub with terminal corymbs of rather conspicuous flowers and globose fruits 3 c.m. in diameter, abundant in extra-tropical districts, vern. name-4, Mtongashende; C. Gueinzii, Sond. scandent and prickly, frequent in Lourenzo Marques and M'Chopes districts, vern. names-4, Chipingo; 6, Chivaca; while other scandent Capparidaceous plants are known in Lourenzo Marques district under the vern. names, 4, Kindabamis and Dwanedwane.
FAMILY IV.-VIOLARIE)E.
Flowers in our only ligneous genus hermaphrodite, regular; sepals 5 ; petals 5 ; filaments connate ; anthers with a connective produced beyond the cells. Capsule 3-valved, opening loculicidally, few seeded. A widely distributed Family, of which the Pansy and Violet are well-known examples.
14. RINOREA. (=Alsodeia, Thouars.) Characters as stated for the Family.
R. elliptica. (= Alsodeia elliptica, Oliv. "Flora of Tropical Africa" I. io8.) A glabrous shrub from the Rovuma River. Leaves elliptical from an obtuse or subcordate base, minutely serrulate, 6-9 c.m. long. Flowers in axillary fascicles or very short pubescent racemes; petals not recurved; anthers not exserted.
R. ardisiaeflora, Sim. (" Forest Flora of Cape Colony," 125, Plate XV. fig r.) A tree 3-7 metres high, with hardwood stem 15 c.m. diam. Leaves elliptical, 3-5 c.m.
long, serrulate, at first thinly pubescent below. Flowers white I c.m. wide, in open axillary racemes. Petals recurved over the sepals; anthers exserted. On the
Lebombo Mountains and occurs also in Natal (abundant) and Pondoland, as well as in Angola.
FAMILY V.-BIXINE}E.
Flowers regular, usually incomplete or imperfect, often dicecious. Receptacle often a cushion-like disc more or less attached to the calyx, but without torus. Petals present or absent. Stamens hypogynous or sub-perigynous, 9-1o or indefinite. Ovary free, sessile, i-celled, with 2-5 parietal placente, and I to many ovules on each. Seeds albuminous; cotyledons large. Leaves simple alternate, usually exstipulate. A large Family of trees and shrubs; several are valuable timber trees, others have edible fruits, and the colouring substance Annotto is from the seed-covering of Bixa.
15. BIXA. Flowers hermaphrodite. Sepals 5, much imbricated; petals 5, large, imbricate; stamens numerous; ovary i-celled, with 2 parietal placentas and many ovules.
Capsule sub-cordate, bristly, ultimately dehiscent; the seeds coated with red pulp. Monotypic.
B. Orellana, Linn. Vern, names-i, Annotto; Io, Sofaro. A large shrub or small tree. Leaves alternate, sub-cordate, pointed, entire, 10-15 c.m. long, 3-5 nerved at
the base, and with slender petioles 5 c.m. long. Inflorescence terminal, paniculate. Fruit ovoid or sub-cordate, coriaceous, bladdery, pointed, 3-4 c.m. long, covered with stiff spreading bristles and hairs. Said to be indigenous only in Tropical America, but now naturalised freely in the forests of Quelimane and present
also in M'Chopes (extra-tropical), in both of which localities it is used by the natives for colouring curry; used elsewhere for colouring cheese, &c.
PLATE II. A. I, Fruiting branch; 2, Horizontal section of young fruit; 3, Vertical section of same. Capparis albitrunca, Burch. var parvifolia (var nov.) Frutex 1-3 met. altus ramosissimus, glaber nisi ramis junioribus, sempervirens; foliis cuneatis, acutis, coriaceis, 1-2 c.m. longis, plurimis, fasciculatis aut e ramis brevibus axillaribus ortis, petiolis tenuibus 2"5 m.m. longis; floribus baud visis; fructibus globosis, pubescentia densa tectis, 7 m.m. diam., gynophorio 2'5 m.m., longo, pedunculo 5 m.m. longo, solitario, axillari. Abundat in Polana et Lourenzo Marques. Tab. III. fig. 4. Sim 5157.




1 2 Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
16. ONCOBA. Flowers more or less polygamous; sepals 3-4, free or coherent below; petals 5-10 or more, often large and showy; stamens numerous, free; ovary i-celled;
ovules numerous on 2-10 parietal placentae. Fruit dehiscent on indehiscent, i-celled or spuriously several-celled, many seeded. Trees or shrubs with alternate
simple leaves.
O. spinosa, Forsk. Vern. names-4, 5, 6, Tongwaan and Enchowana. Shrub or tree; sometimes 12 metres high with stem 50 c.m. diam.; more frequently much
branched shrub. Branches warty, often bearing axillary spines 3-5 c.m. long; leaves alternate, widely lanceolate, acute, crenate or dentate, somewhat rounded below, and with slender petioles 1-2 c.m. long. Flowers solitary or few, terminal on short side branches. Calyx deeply 4-fid; petals irregular in number, 3 c.m.
long; stigma peltate; style 1 c.m. long; fruit globose or slightly depressed, 3-5 c.m. in diameter retaining the pistil which increases to 2"5 c.m. in length. The native name has reference to the practice of ricksha boys using the hard shells as rattles on their ankles, as also do others at dances. Tropical Shire River, Zambesia and
Quelimane; extra-tropical Inhambane, M'Chopes and Lourenzo Marques, nowhere plentiful; occurs also in Natal, Nile-land and West Africa.
PLATE II. B. I, Fruiting Branch; 2, Flower.
O. Kraussiana, Planch. Vern. names-5, Setchelo; 13, um-namnami. A small unarmed tree or shrub with large white flowers. Leaves oblong, obtuse, entire,
glabrous, 5-12 c.m. long. Flowers solitary or 2 or 3 together on short branchlets. Sepals 3; petals 10-12, 5 c.m. long; stamens many, filaments white; fruit
globose 2"5 c.m. diameter, stalked. Flowers either staminal or perfect. See "Natal Plants," Plate 72. Lourenzo Marques and M'Chopes; occurs also in Natal.
0. Petersiana, Oliv. Vern. names-4, 5, 6, Gutani or Magutani. A softly pubescent shrub, 2-8 feet high; leaves obovate or oblong, 8-12 c.m. long; penducles terminal
or axillary. Lobes of the stigma subulate. Fruit ovoid, nearly terete, at first pubescent, and separating into numerous narrow valves when ripe; seeds scarlet not
bedded in pulp. Tropical Zambesia; extra-tropical Lourenzo Marques and M'Chopes.
O. tettensis, Oliv. Vern. name-io, Makakara. A pubescent shrub with obovate or oblong undulate leaves 3-5 c.m. long; flowers axillary; calyx 3-partite; lobes of
the stigma minute; fruit ovoid-globose, shortly tomentose, with numerous longitudinal furrows. Fete district, and at Arenga, Magenja da Costa.
0. Kirkii, Oliv. A glabrous shrub from Rovuma Bay, with obovate leaves, 7-15 c.m. long; flowers axillary; fruit ovoid, terete, glabrous, shortly pointed.
O. sulcata. (New species.), Vern. name-o, Nyamo-nyambea. Large shrub, rusty pubescent on young growth. Leaves ovate, oblong or oblong-lanceolate 7-12 c.m.
long, 2-5 c.m. wide, acute, usually rounded below, thin, roughly and irregularly toothed, 3-nerved at the base, glabrous or glabrescent except on the veins below; petioles 1-2 c.m. long. Flowers 1-3 together, terminal, the bud in the upper axil continuing the growth. Flowers not seen, but said to yellowish-green. Fruit lanceolate, 6-8 c.m. long, 2 c.m. diameter, deeply furrowed with about 16 ridges meeting in pairs at top and bottom. Seeds round, smooth, brown, 2 m.m.
diameter, bedded in pith so apparently in separate cells. Arenga, Magenja da Costa. Sim 5900.
PLATE III. B. I, Fruiting branch; 2, Section of fruit.
The native name M-kau-kau is given in Magenja to a shrubby Oncoba 2-3 metres high, the flowers of which are eaten in times of scarcity, and which has also a medicinal use, but my specimens insufficient to admit of specific identification.
17. RAWSONIA. Flowers hermaphrodite or occasionally polygamous; flowers in short axillary racemes or crowded; sepals, petals and petaloid staminodia all concave,
scarious, yellowish, bract-like, somewhat similar, and not indistinct whorls, about 15 in all; the outer ciliate, the inner longer. Stamens about 16, the inner
hypogynous, the outer perigynous, opening edgeways. Ovary sessile with a sessile 4-5 lobed stigma; ovules numerous on 4-5 parietal placenta. Fruit not seen.
R. lucida, Harv. & Sond. Vern. names-5, Nanga; 13, Umnnqai masendi. Small tree. Leaves alternate, coriaceous, glabrous, shining 10-20 c.m. long, 3-4 c.m. wide,
oblong-lanceolate, pointed with wavy margins, and sharply serrate, the prickle teeth pointing forward; petiole 15 c.m. long, stipules caducous. Racemes 2 c.m.
long, about 6-flowered. Whole tree glabrous except the minutely downy sepals. M'Chopes district (extra-tropical); grows also in Natal and Pondoland. See
"Forest Flora of Cape Colony," Plate CXLIII.
Oncoba sulcata (Sp. nov.). Frutex magnus, partibus junioribus ferrugineo-pubescentibus; foliis ovatis, oblongis aut oblongo-lanceolatis, 7-12 c.m. longis, 2-5 c.m. latis, acutis, tenuibus, irregulariter
dentatis, 3-nerviis, glabris aut glabrescentibus nisi nervis paginae inferioris; petiolis 1-2 c.m. longis; inflorescentiis apicalibus, cymosis, I-3-floris; floribus baud visis; fructibus lanceolatis, 6-8 c.m. longis, 2 c.m.
diam., inter costas circa 16 apicem et basim versus binatim junctas profunde sulcatis; seminibus rotundis, levibus, fuscis, 2 m.m. diam. Arenga, Magenja da Costa. Sim 59oo. Tab. III. B.




Synoptical and Specific Descriptions. 13
18. SCOLOPIA. Flowers hermaphrodite. Disc expanded, filling the calyx-tube; sepals 5, often unequal and with or without minute intermediate teeth representing petals.
Stamens indefinite, often numerous, sub-perigynous. Ovary i-cell, with 2-4 parietal placentae, and few ovules; style single, 2-3 fid at the apex. Berry coriaceous,
few-seeded. Leaves alternate, exstipulate.
S. Zeyheri, Sim. ("Forest Flora of Cape Colony," 126, Plate II.) Vern. names-i, Thorn Pear; 3, Doomrn Peer; 4, Hlongoma; 13, Iqumza elinameva. Varying
from a coast shrublet to a large timber tree; leaves shortly petiolate, varying exceedingly from nearly round to bluntly lanceolate, and from entire to crenate or dentate, usually blunt, glabrous, and from 5-8 c.m. long, mostly similar on I tree, and often bright pink when young. Usually some branches are transformed into spreading, simple or branched, axillary or terminal spines 5-10 c.m. long, which are either leafless or with a few small leaves, and sometimes bearing flowers.
Racemes axillary, 1-4 c.m. long, 8-12 flowered. Stamens yellow, forming a rather conspicuous flower. Berry i-I'-5 c.m. diameter, globose, 2-3 seeded. Within the
Province I have only seen it either without spines or with simple slender spine 3-5 c.m. long (through which it is easily confused with Flacourtia and Dovyalis), but in Cape Colony large branched spines often occur. Abundant on the sea-dunes in the extra-tropical part of the Province, but usually of small size; more scarce but larger in the Lebombo and M'Chopes; present also within the tropic at Bazaruto and Bartholemew Dias, and in the Magenja da Costa forests. In Cape Colony it is used as wagon-wood; its extreme hardness renders it difficult to saw but fits it for teeth for mill wheels, and it takes a good polish and is of a dark colour in the
heartwood.
PLATE I. B. I, Fruiting branch; 2, Leaf branch with spines; 3, Fruit; 4, Inflorescence.
19. FLACOURTIA. Flowers dio cious, in short, few-flowered terminal racemes, or terminating short lateral shoots; fertile flowers usually solitary. Calyx 4-5 partite, the
lobes imbricate and sometimes unequal. Petals absent. Stamens many in male flower, absent in the female. Ovary absent in the male flower; in the female flower 4-8 celled with 2 ovules in each cell; styles 4-8 ; fruit a berry, the cells in 2 series, one above the other, each with a bony endocarp enclosing a solitary seed.
F. Ramrnontchi, L'Her. Vern. namies-i, Batoko Plum; io, Metabira. A glabrous shrub, often armed with shary axillary spines 2-5 c.m. long. Leaves crenate, 5-8
c.m. long, shortly petiolate, varying from obovate to oblong-elliptical. Fruit a roundish, pulpy, edible berry, 1-2'5 c.m. long with about io seeds. Zambesi from
'Fete downward; Quelimane, and Magenja da Costa.
F. hirtinscula, Oliv. Vern. name-io, Togoma. A shrub or small tree, densely pubescent on all younger parts, ultimately glabrescent on the upper surface of the
leaves, and armed with stout axillary spines 1-2 c.m. long. Leaves roundish, crenate-serrate, 3 c.m. long. Fruit 2 c.m. long, edible. Zambesia and Magenja
da Costa.
20. DOVYALIS. Flowers dicecious axillary, tufted, or the female flowers solitary. Sepals 5-6, attached to the cushion-like disc, scarcely imbricate in bud. Petals absent.
Stamens o10-2o in male flower, none in female; ovary absent in male flower, in the female flower sessile on the raised disc, i-celled, with intruding placentae which make it appear 2-6 celled; placenta with 1-2 pendulous ovules near the summit; styles as many as the placentae. Berry pulpy, 1-6 seeded, edible. Leaves
alternate, exstipulate, simple 3-veined. Axillary spines (abortive branches) are often present.
D. celastroides, Sond. (= rotundifo/io, Thun. &- Harv.). Vern. names-4, Tinyan-gan-zumbe and Mdinique (also Hlongoma in confusion with Scolopia); 12 and 13,
Umkokolo; 14, Zuurbesje. A small glabrous, evergreen tree, having sharp axillary spines; obovate, entire, coriaceous, leaves 4 c.m. long, round at the apex and narrowed to the base; small greenish flowers, and ovate-pointed, 2-seeded, scarlet edible fruits i c.m. long. Common near the coast and on the sand dunes in extra-tropical districts; it occurs also in Cape Colony, Natal and Transvaal. The fruit is plesantly acidulous, edible either as dessert or as preserves, or as acid jelly for use with meats. The timber is close grained and hard, but seldom of size enough for technical work. See "Forest Flora of Cape Colony," 132, Plate VII.
fig. I.
PLATE XVII. B. I, Branch of male tree ; 2, Male flower, x 3 ; 3, Branch of female tree; 4, Mature fruit; 5, Female flower, x 3; Tree, general aspect (much reduced).
D. caffra, Sim. ("Forest Flora of Cape Colony," 129, Plate V.) Vern. names-i, Kei-apple and Dingaan Apricot; 12 and 13, Umkokolo; 15, L'umbanbane. A small
glabrous evergreen tree, having sharp axillary spines; obovate, entire, coriaceous, leaves 4-6 c.m. long, cuneate at the base, rounded or even cordate at the apex; yellowish green axillary flowers, pubescent calyces, and globose yellow fruits 3 c.m. diameter, which are more or less edible, but too high flavoured for most tastes.
They are used in preserves, usually mixed with apples to reduce the flavour. The tree is often cultivated as a hedge plant and makes a splendid impenetrable hedge in districts not subject to hard frost. The timber is close-grained and very hard, but seldom of timber size. Occurs on the Lebombo Mountains, as also in Natal
and Cape Colony.
Other species of Dovyalis, natives of Natal and Cape Colony, probably also occur in Maputa and Lourenzo Marques district, but were not observed.




14 Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
FAMILY VI.--POLYGALE1E.
Flowers irregular, hermaphrodite. Sepals 5, sometimes very unequal. Petals 3, declinate, the lower being the larger and often with a crested lip. Stamens 8, the filaments connected into a tube split along the top and more or less adherent to the petals at the base. Ovary 1-2 celled, with i pendulous ovule in each cell. Fruit a capsule or samara. Leaves exstipulate, simple. A considerable Family of herbs and shrubs with a few trees; the flowers usually have a general resemblance to those of Papilionacece. 21. SECURIDACA. Sepals 5, unequal, 2 larger, petaloid and wing-like; petals 3, the carina galeate. Stamens 8, the split sheath adherent to the base of the petals.
Ovary i-celled with i ovule. Fruit a samara. Leaves alternate, entire.
S. longipedunculata, Fres. Vern. names-4, Tsatsi or Tehatchi; io, Nakeia; i i, Matungu-nungu. An erect tree io metres high and 30-50 c.m. diameter or sometimes
a sub-scandent or sub-erect shrub. Leaves alternate, oblong to lanceolate 5-6 c.m. long, 1-2 c.m. wide, usually acute and with slender petiole i c.m. long; those on
young trees and coppice shoots 10o-15 c.m. long, 1-2 c.m. wide, linear lanceolate, tapering from below the middle to both ends. Flowers in short terminal racemes, purple, violet or allied colours; fruit a winged i-seeded samara 5 c.m. long, 2 c.m. wide. Frequent in the tropical forest at Magenja da Costa, Nhamacurra and Quelimane, usually upon ant heaps, recorded also from Rovuma and Manganya Hills; less frequent in extra-tropical districts but present in Lourenzo Marques, Maputa (Lebomrbo), and M'Chopes. Grows also in Nile-land and West Africa. Used for timber in Magenja. The bark yields the Buaze fibre of Zambesia,
and the natives use a decoction of the fruit as an eye lotion.
PLATE V. A. I, Flowering branch; 2, Part of coppice shoot.
S. spinosa. (New species.), Vern. name-4, Tsatsi. Rigid shrub 2-3 metres high. Branchlets reduced to spines which bear leaves and racemes. Leaves oval, 1-2
c.m. long, i c.m. wide, rounded at both ends. Racemes 2 c.m. long, many flowered. Flowers purple, on pedicels i c.m. long, highly ornamental. Samaras as in
S. longipedunculata. Lourenzo Marques, Machava, &c. Sim 6389. Apparently this is the plant from Batoka, Zambesia, referred to in Flora of Tropical
Africa," p. 134.
PLATE V. B. In bud.
FAMILY VII.-HYPERICINEE.
Flowers regular, hermaphrodite. Sepals 5 3; petals 5 ; stamens numerous, more or less connate at the base into several groups; ovary 1-3-5 celled. Mostly herbs or shrubs with exstipulate usually opposite leaves in which translucent glands are immersed in some cases. Flowers usually yellow. 22. HYPERICUM. Stamens free or nearly so. Ovules numerous; fruit a capsule. Herbs or shrubs.
H. lanceolatum, Lam. A shrub or tree 7-o10 metres high, with numerous narrowly oval or linear-oval dotted leaves 1-2"5 c.m. long, 4 m.m. wide. Flowers terminal on
branchlets, solitary, 3 c.m. across. Stamens slightly connate into 5 bundles. Styles 5 ; seeds very numerous. Manganya Hills, Dr. Aeller; also from Nile-land
and West Africa
23. PSOROSPERMUM. Stamens in 5 bundles with scales between each. Ovary 5-celled, styles distinct, ovules solitary or occasionally in pairs; fruit a berry. An
African genus of shrubs.
P. febrifugum, Spach. A shrub or small tree, with opposite or ternate bluntly elliptical, almost sub-sessile leaves 25-o10 c.m. long, 2-5 c.m. wide; flowers in small
terminal cymes or corymbose. Stamens 5-io in each bundle. Manganya Hills, Zambesia.
24. HARONGIA. Stamens in 5 bundles, opposite to the petals, with scales between each. Ovary 5-celled with 2-4 ovules in each. Drupe small, globose, each carpel with
a bony endocarp, containing 2-4 seeds. Monotypic.
H. madagascariensis, Chois. A shrub or small tree 10o-15 metres in height, more or less tomentose on young parts. Leaves opposite, entire, ovate-oblong, 7-15 c.m.
long, 4-8 c.m. wide, connected by a prominent interpetiolar ridge, and glabrescent above and more or less pale and pubescent below. Flowers small in manyflowered corymbose cymes. Berries small. Mozambique, Zambesia, West Africa, Madagascar and Mauritius.
'Securidaca spinosa. (Nov. sp.) Frutex rigidus, 2-3 met. altus ; ramulis spinosis folia racemosque gerentibus ; foliis ovalibus, 1-2 c.m. longis, I c.m. latis, racemis 2 c.m. longis, multifloris, floribus
purpureis, pulcherrimis, pedicellis I c.m. longis; samarisiis S. longipedunculate similibus. Lourenzo Marques et Machava. Sim 6389. Tab. V. B.




Synoptical and Specific Descriptions. 15
FAMILY VIII.-GUTTIFER)E.
Flowers regular, dicecious; in the only local tree in the Family the characters are :-Sepals 4, 2 larger than the other 2 ; petals 5, greenish, usually reflexed. Male flower-stamens many inserted separately in the raised disc, pistil rudimentary or absent, anthers peltate. Female flower-staminodia many, free, inserted in a circle at the base of the raised disc, ovary sessile, crowned by the sessile stigma, 2-celled, I ovule in each cell; fruit a berry. A large Family of tropical trees and shrubs, often yielding yellow or greenish acrid resinous purgative juice.
25. GARCINIA. Characters as defined above. The various kinds of gamboge are products of Asiatic species of Garcinia, and other species have edible fruits, such as the
Mangosteen, &c.
G. Livingstonei, T. And. Vern. names-i, Wild Plum; 4, Pembe or Pama; 5, Imbe; io, Imavet; 16, Motsauri or Mokonongo. Either a branched bush, an erect
tree or a bushy tree, in each case the stems set with numerous firm, little, more or less evergreen, decussate branches, which give them pyramidal habit, and suit well for native kraal fences. Leaves usually in threes or opposite, entire or irregularly crenate, oval, elliptical or broadly elliptical, rounded at the base, rounded or bluntly pointed at the apex, 5-10 c.m. long, 4-6 c.m. wide, firmly coriaceous, distinctly veined, and with stout petiole 2 m.m. to I c.m. long. They vary immensely
in size and form with age and condition of tree, soil and exposure. Peduncles 1-5 c.m. long, i-flowered, produced in clusters on axillary warts on old wood. Fruit 2'5 to 5 c.m. long, oblong, edible, yellow at first, red when ripe, 2-seeded, and used by the natives to make a fermented liquor. Abundant in sandy soil in open bush country near Delagoa Bay; occurs also in the Umbelusi Valley and up to the Lebombo Mountains; at Chai-chai and through the M'Chopes country to Inhambane; and within the tropics on the Zambesi, Quelimane and Magenja da Costa. Not itself a dessert fruit but propably fit for use.as a stock for grafting the
Mangosteen and other species upon. For its timber see Chapter IV.
PLATE IV. A. I, Branch with male flowers; 2, Branch showing young leaves; 3, Mature leaf ; 4, Male flower, x 3; 5, Fertile flower, x 3 ; 6, Stamen, x 5; 7, Fruit (small); 8, Section of ovary, x 5 ; 9, Tree, characteristic habits (much reduced).
FAMILY IX.-MALVACE}E.
Flowers regular, hermaphrodite. Calyx 5-fid, valvate in aestivation with or without involucel at the base; petals 5, hypogynous, convolute in aestivation; stamens numerous, monadelphous, the anthers i-celled, extrorse, and the column connected at the base with the petals. Carpels 5, more or less combined inside the staminal column into an ovary of as many cells. Ovules numerous. Seeds reinform or roundish. Leaves alternate, stipulate, simple. Pubescence usually stellate. A large Family, mostly herbaceous or soft-wooded. The whole Family yields fibre from its inner bark; many species have mucilaginous properties in the leaves and roots; cotton of commerce is the hairs of the seeds of species of Gossypium; several are garden favourites on account of their showy flowers, such as the Hollyhock, Malva, Hibiscus, Abutilon, &c., and the Baobab and a few others have more or less edible fruits.
26. HIBISCUS. Calyx 5-fid subtented by an involucel; staminal column shortly 5-toothed at apex; ovary 5-celled with or without a spurious dissepiment in each. Style
with 5 branches; capsule 5-celled or with each cell partly divided, loculicidally dehiscent. A large genus, mostly herbaceous, in which many species have liberyielding fibre of commercial value where the cultivation and harvesting can be done cheaply enough.
H. tiliaceus, Linn. Vern. namnes-4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12, Umlolwa, or Nolo ; 12, 16, M'lolo. Small tree, evergreen or nearly so, canescent or pubescent in all parts except
the upper surface of the leaf. Leaves cordate, 8-12 c.m. long and wide, the base lobes overlapping, the point acute, the under side white, the upper surface glabrous and shining; petioles 3-12 c.m. long, stout, and like the stipules pubescent with stellate hairs. Stipules 1-3 c.m. long, i c.m. wide, at first connate on the outer edge, set with stellate hairs. Peduncles axillary, i or several-flowered, the flowers 5 c.m. long and wide. Involucel saucer-shaped, of about 8 short triangular teeth; calyx of 5 large lobes and short cup. Petals 5 c.m. long, oblique, wavy at the margin, at first yellow, afterwards brown, and with a dark spot at the base. Column 3 c.m. long, bearing anthers on short filaments along its whole length, and surmounted by the 5-fid stigma. Capsule oblong, 2"5 c.m. long, hispid with stout yellow hairs and opening by the netted dissepiments into 5 double valves. Frequent close to the coast throughout the Province and occurs on most tropical and subtropical coasts. Used satisfactorily as a shade-tree in the streets of Durban, planted as pole-cuttings, and recently planted in some of the streets of Lourenzo Marques and Inhambane. See "Forest Flora of Cape Colony," 143 and Plate XIV. Fibre from its bark is used in India for rough ropes, and in Formosa for
caulking purposes, and is one of several fibres used by the natives of Zambesia under the name M-lolo. The timber is seldom used.
PLATE IX. I, Fruiting branch ; 2, Young branch, showing stipules ; 3, Flower; 4, Section of ovary; 5, Seed ; 6, Tree, general aspect (reduced) ; 7, Stellate hairs on stipule, x 20,




16 Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
27. THESPESIA. Calyx cup-shaped, truncate, with 5 very small teeth ; involucel of 5 caducous segments; petals and staminal column as in Hibiscus; pistil with a clubshaped, twisted, 5-toothed stigma; ovary 5-celled, each cell several seeded in 2 rows, the seeds reflexed from the end of the dissepiment. Fruit not properly
dehiscent.
T. populnea, Cay. A small evergreen tree, shining green throughout, with hard woody slender twigs; glabrous, except for minute peltate scales dark at the centre and
white outside which cover all exposed parts when young, and remain on the under side of the leaf and on the inflorescence. Leaves alternate, broadly cordate from a wide base, pointed, shining above, green below, 8-12 c.m. long and wide, on 5-10 c.m. slender petioles. Stipules 1-7 m.m. long, somewhat terete, covered with peltate scales, caducous; peduncle solitary, axillary, i-flowered as long as the petiole, slender, terminated by 2-5 raised projections the scars of the caducous involucel bracts. Calyx i c.m. wide and deep; petals 7 c.m. long, connected at the base only, oblique, imbricating, with wavy margin, yellowish with a dark spot at the base of each, and with peltate scales on the outer surface. Column 2-5 c.m. long. Fruit shortly conical from a wide base, thickly leathery, glabrous, 4 c.m. diameter, 2"5 c.m. deep, the outer portion containing in abundance a yellow fluid, and drying off eventually in 5 valves, leaving the seeds encased in the fibrous cell-walls. Seeds 7 m.m. long, irregularly shaped in accordance with pressure. Not unlike Hibiscus tiliaceus and found with it in the tidal mud at Luabo and Quelimane, and on
dry rocky banks near the sea at Bartholemai Dias. Useful for coast protection.
PLATE X. I, Flowering branch; 2, Stipules; 3, Petal; 4, Column; 5, Peltate scale, x 5; 6, Anther, x 10O; 7, Fruit; 8, same, open; 9, Section of same; io, Seed; II, Tree, general aspect (reduced).
T. Lampas, Benth. An Indian tree, having palmately 3-lobed leaves 7-o10 c.m. wide, downy on the under surface, is recorded from Zambesia and Rovuma by Drs.
Kirk and Meller, but was not seen by me.
28. ADANSONIA. Calyx cup-shaped, leathery, with 5 large segments; involucel none; petals 5, very large; staminal column divided above into many filaments and
surmounted by the several-lobed stigma. Ovary 5-io celled, cells many-ovuled. Fruit an indehiscent, woody pod, containing many seeds and filled with pulp.
Seeds reniform. Leaves digitate.
A. digitata, Linn. Vern. names-i, Baobab; 6-7, Chiwooia. A deciduous tree 15-25 metres high with an enormous bole, up to io metres diameter, cylindrical or conical
below and suddenly reduced into comparatively small horizontal branches, on which the twigs are 1-2 c.m. diameter up to the abrupt point and hairy at the apex.
petiole 12-16 c.m. long; leaf digitate, about 8-foliate; leaflets 1o-15 c.m. long, widely lanceolate or oblong-acuminate, entire, wavy, somewhat pubescent below, tapering to a petiolule at the base. Peduncles axillary, i-flowered; calyx-lobes 5 c.m. long, leathery, hairy inside; petals 2-3 times as long in large flowers, rounded, plaited; column 4 c.m. long, bearing in the upper part many filaments bearing i-celled anthers. Flowers produced before the leaves. Fruits oblong, 8-16 c.m.
long, 7-9 c.m. diameter, containing acidulous refreshing pulp among the seeds. Scattered over most of Tropical Africa and Asia, but not present everywhere. It is not uncommon in the neighbourhood of Inhambane, extending south to Inharreme (extra-tropical), but though Peters gives "along the whole coast" as its habitat in Mozambique district, I did not see a tree of it in Quelimane, Magenja da Costa or Nhamacurra. It occurs, however, further up the Zambesia in the Tete
district.
PLATE XI. I, Branch and leaf; 2, Small flower; 3, Small petal ; 4, Column; 5, Small fruit; 6, Seed ; 7, Tree, general aspect (reduced).
29 BOMBAX. Calyx tubular, truncate; corolla of 5 petals connected with the base of the column; staminal tube slender, 2 c.m. long, then divided into 5 lobes, each of
which divides in pinnate manner into about 20 stamens with long slender scarlet filaments, and 2-celled or occasionally 3-celled anthers; ovary 5-celled with many ovules in each cell, soon i-celled with 5 rows of ovules (about 5 in each row) set on a central axis; capsule coriaceous, dehiscent, containing numerous seeds
embedded in wool.
B. Buonopozense, Beauv. Vern. names-2, Simonia; o10, M-kungo. A large or very large, nearly deciduous, glabrous tree, with more or less whorled and horizontal
branches, ascending branchlets, and decorticating glaucous bark. Leaves petiolate, alternate, digitate, with about 6 leaflets, each 3-10 c.m. long, I'5-3 c.m. wide, obovate, pointed, and shortly petiolulate. Flowers numerous in axillary clusters of 2 to 1o, either on separate 1-3 c.m. pedicels jointed near the base or 2-3 together on a very short common peduncle. Calyx-tube 1'5 c m. long, i c.m. wide, with 5 very short teeth and minutely pubescent; petals 5, scarlet, 5-7 c.m. long, I c.m. wide, usually the upper 3 together and the other 2 separate; stamens as long as the petals; pistil longer or shorter than the stamens; style slender, hairy below the stigma, somewhat arched, scarlet. Capsule o10-15 c.m. long, many seeded, the seeds set in red wool. A tree evidently introduced long ago to Quelimane, now more or less naturalised for a long distance round but also planted as a street tree. One specimen at Arenga is 4 metres diameter, io metres bole, and 20 metres




Synoptical and Specific Descriptions. 17
height. It occurs also in West Africa. This and Eriodendron are hardly differentiated by the public; they have similar habit, bark, leaves and pods, and are given the same names and used for the same purposes, principally for use as dug-out boats. A tree of rapid growth and soft timber; the colour of its wool is against that
being favoured as a commercial commodity.
PLATE XII. i, Tree, general appearance (reduced); 2, Flowering branch ; 3, Leaf; 4, Staminal column ; 5, Same, spread out ; 6, Section of ovary, x 3; 7, Anthers, normal and abnormal; 8, Section of calyx and ovary, x 4 ; 9, Stigma and upper part of style, x 5.
3o. ERIODENDRON. Calyx cup-shaped, shortly 5-lobed; petals connate at the base and with the staminal column, which is for the greater part divided into 5 bundles
each of 3 sessile twisted anthers ; ovary 5-celled, or soon i-cellcd with the ovules numerous in 3 lines on each of 5 axile placenta separated by the remains of the
papery dissepiments. Fruit a coriaceous dehiscent capsule io-15 c.m. long, the seeds bedded in cottony wool. Leaves digitate.
E. anfractuosum, D. C. Vern. names-I, Kapok ; 2, Simoma or Somba-umba; io, M-Kungo. A large erect tree 20-30 metres high, with stout straight trunk,
horizontal more or less whorled branches, ascending branchlets, and decorticating glaucous green bark, occasionally with a few stout prickles toward the base which disappear from old trees. Not regularly deciduous but mostly so; perhaps deciduous in all cases sometime during the year. Leaves irregularly alternate, 1"5-3 c.m.
apart on stem, digitate, 5-7 foliate, glabrous, green above, pale under; the petioles 15-20 c.m. long, adhering to the branch after the leaflets disarticulate. Leaflets shortly petioled, widely lanceolate, pointed, 7-15 c.m. long, 2-4 c.m. wide, variable in form on different trees but alike on one. Flowers profusely produced on the previous year's wood, short warts in the axils producing 2-1o flowers each on terete s-flowered peduncles 2'5-5 c.m. long. Calyx green i'5 c.m. long, i c.m. wide, secreting nectar as it matures and nearly truncate, with 5 rounded lobes. Petals 5, 2-5-4 c.m. long, concave, rounded or bluntly pointed, yellowish-white spreading, canescent outside. Style swollen at the base on i side and connected by a constriction to the ovary, decumbent as also are the staminal bundles more or less, these looking like 5 stamens. Seeds numerous, bedded in white cottony wool which is an article of commerce elsewhere for packing fruit, filling pillows, &c.
Imported long ago to Quelimane, now spontaneous in many parts of that district. It occurs also in West Africa and in East and West Indies, and is planted
throughout the tropics. The greenish smooth bark of this and Bombax as well as of several species of Sterculia and Cola is a marked character.
PLATE XIII. I, Tree, general aspect (reduced); 2, Flowering branch ; 3, Leaf; 4, Pod; 5, Staminal bundles; 6, Anthers, x 2; 7, Pistil; 8, Base of style, x 2; 9, Stigma, x4; io, Transverse section of ovary ; iI, Section of ovary; 12, Seed.
Among other local economic plants belonging to Malvaceae may be mentioned:Sida, several species; small semi-herbaceous plants containing strong fibres which are fit for ropemaking and textile purposes. They are scattered through the Province but not utilised, and even in other countries their cultivation is seldom seriously taken in hand.
Abutilon, several species of perennial undershrubs, sometimes 8-io feet high and always having useful fibre in the bark. One species is used for cordage in the M'Chopes under the name Nytebasian, and the same or a similar species is similarly used in Lourenzo Marques district under the name Nuce, but neither has
been cultivated.
Urena lobata, Linn. A virgate undershrub, widely distributed over the warmer parts of the world, is frequent in the cultivated lands from the Limpopo northward, apparently as an introduced weed. It has, however, a valuable fibre, which is used undressed for cordage, and the plant is known in M'Chopes as
Sosowa. Probably its cultivation for fibre may be worth taking up.
Hibiscus, several species produce useful fibres, particularly H. cannabinus (2, Ambar), which is frequent in cultivated lands throughout the Province, and has probably been introduced from India where its fibre is a considerable article of commerce. H. Subdariffa is also frequent as a cultivated or escaped plant and
used for various culinary purposes, this being the Roselle of India, and the source of the beautiful Sorrel Jelly of Natal.
Gossypium, the Cotton plant, occurs frequently, in a more or less naturalised condition, but is probably not originally indigenous, or at least the only species which may be claimed to be so is a form of G. herbaceum having short brown cotton which is not uncommon in the forest glades of Magenja da Costa, where it is known as Iganfoge, while the long-stapled white cotton found near the kraals is known as Mftodye there, and as Bushale at Lourenzo Marques. Cotton is cultivated to a small extent by the Companies near Beira and Quelimane, but it can hardly be called a local industry so far, while among the natives its cultivation
is as a curiosity rather than for its fibre.
'Applied also to Bombax.
C




18 Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
The "Wild Cotton" common throughout the Province as a creeper does not belong to this Family, but is Ipomaea albivenia, which has not yet been turned to account for textile purposes.
FAMILY X.-STERCULIACEeE.
Flowers regular, hermaphrodite or unisexual. Calyx gamosepalous, 5-lobed or 5-fid; petals absent, or 5, free, contorted in aestivation, more or less attached to the base of the staminal column. Stamens with filaments united into a column or connate at the base, either with or without staminodia. Ovary free, 2-5 celled or of 2-5 more or less free carpels; cells several-ovuled. Fruit various. Leaves usually alternate and stipulate; pubescence often stellate; inflorescence usually axillary, either solitary, racemose or paniculate. A large Family, widely distributed. The larger trees have usually soft, white timber; cocoa, chocolate, cola and gum tragacanth are products; several yield valuable fibre barks, and in horticulture Brachychiton, Sterculia, Dombeya, Hermannia, and others are floral favourites.
31. STERCULIA. Flowers unisexual; calyx cup-shaped, 5-fid or 5-lobed; petals absent; staminal column bearing many extrorse anthers, crowded without arrangement;
ovary of 5 partly coherent carpels, with several ovules in each; ripe carpels separate, coriaceous, dehiscent, i or several seeded; seeds albuminous, albumen adherent to the cotyledons, so liable to be overlooked. Leaves alternate, simple or lobed or digitate; inflorescence in axillary or terminal panicles. A large
tropical and sub-tropical genus of trees and shrubs, usually with glaucous bark.
S. Triphaca, R. Br. A large tree with roundish or 3-lobed cordate petiolate leaves, 10-13 c.m. long, nearly glabrous on both su faces, and with the lobes acuminate and
entire, the central lobe largest. Inflorescence a much-branched axillary panicle, 5-6 c.m. long with the flowers on short jointed pedicels. Calyx i c.m. long, 5-lobed, canescent outside, pink and glabrous within. Column shorter than the calyx; follicles 3-5 spreading, ovate-acuminate, downy. Seeds arillate on a villose
placenta. Zambesi (Dr. Kirk), Senna (Peters).
S. tomentosa, Guill. Vern. name-io, M'lola, which name is applied to several fibre-producing trees. A medium-sized tree with smooth glaucous bark. Leaf 7-lo
c.m. wide, nearly as long, cordate at the base, palmately 5-7 veined, and wiih 3 wounded lobes and 5 c.m. petiole; both surfaces tomnentase with stellate hairs, or the upper surface ultimately glabrescent or rough; the lower surface closely reticulated. Flowers and fruit not seen by me, but described as being in much-branched axillary panicles; calyx 1-5 c.m. long, cup-shaped, 5-fid, downy; carpels 3-5, sessile, densely tomentose, with numerous purplish seeds and yellow horny arils.
This species occurs in other parts of Tropical Africa but is not previously recorded from here, and I am not sure that my specimens, which are from large trees in the forests of Magenja da Costa, belong to it, which has the lobes described as acuminate; if not they appear to be an undescribed species, but as they are leafspecimens only, the material is too imperfect for further description. Sim 5978.
PLATE VII. B. I, Leaf; 2, Stellate pubescence.
S. quinqueloba. (New species.), Vern. name-io, Gampheba. A large tree with smooth glaucous or nearly white decorticating bark, which is red when cut. Leaves
z7-3o c.m. wide and long, 5-lobed from a cordate base, 5-veined from the base, softly pubescent or at length glabrescent above, the under side densely set with permanent soft whitish stellate pubescence mixed on the veins with longer hairs; lobes acute; petiole 15-45 c.m. long, hairy. Leaves more or less crowded toward the end of the branch, with inflorescence in axillary panicles in the upper axils. Panicles o10-2o c.m. long, often much branched, main rachis hairy, pedicels buds and flowers pubescent; calyx bell-shaped 5 m.m. long, 5-lobed; anthers about 15 crowded on top of the column; carpels about 5, 8 c.m. long, spreading, oblanceolate, acute, opening at maturity, densely grey-velvety outside, and with white pubescence inside. Seeds i c.m. long, purplish-black. I think this is not Cola quinqueloba, Garcke; at least this is a Sterculia with crowded stamens and albuminous seeds. Differs from S. tomentosa and S. cinerea as described in size and
outline of leaf, size of flower, &c. Frequent in alluvial soil in Magenja da Costa and Nhamacurra (Tropical). Timber white, hard, not used. Sim 998.
PLATE VI. I, Small leaf and inflorescence ; 2, Flower, x 5 ; 3, Same, perianth opened out, x 5 ; 4, Carpels ; 5, Tree (reduced).
'Sterculia quinqueloba. (Sp. nov.) Arbor magna, cortice levi glauco aut albido; foliis 17-30 c.m. longis et latis, cordato 5-lobis, 5-nerviis, pagina superiore pubescentia molli tecta vel denique glabrescente, pagina inferiore pubescentia albida molli stellata dense vestita supra venas pills longioribus intermixtis, lobis acutis ; petiolo 15-45 c.m. longo, hirsuto; inflorescentiis paniculatis in axillis foliorum superiorum, O10-20 c.m. longis, saepe ramosissimis, rachi hiruto ; pedicellis, gemmis et floribus pubescentibus; calyce campanulato, 5 c.m. longo, 5-lobo, columna staminea apice antheras circa 15 congestas gerente ; carpellis circa 5, 8 c.m. longis, patulis, oblanceolatis, acutis, maturis dehiscentibus, extus pubescentia cana velutina densa, intus pubescentia alba vestitis ; seminibus I c.m. longis atro-purpureis, albuminosis. Frequens in Magenja da Costa, et Nhamacurra. Sim 998. Tab. VI.




Synoptical and Specific Descriptions. 19
A species of Sterculia (Sim 6277 and 6328) known as (4, 15) Mforkonwan, is frequent in the Lebombo range as a shrub 2-4 metres high with a stem 30-60 c.m. diameter at the ground, but immediately divides into many spreading glaucous branches. No mature leaves were seen; the very young leaves were nearly glabrous, and more or less cordate, the flowers produced in sessile clusters of 3 to 5, each flower on a pedicel 5-o10 m.m. long; calyx cup-shaped, 5-lobed, I"5 c.m. wide, with white stellate pubescence outside as well as toward the points of the purplish striated lobes inside; column i c.m. long with about 15 crowded anthers; carpels 2-4, densely tomentose, rostrate when young, ultimately firm, 3 c.m. long, 4-5 seeded, and with stellate pubescence outside and inside. Young wood warty, old bark smooth and glaucous. This is apparently an undescribed species, but in the absence of leaves must remain unnamed for the present. Other 2 unnamed species are mentioned in the "Flora of Tropical Africa" from the Rovuma, concerning which I can add nothing.
An introduced Sterculia forming a large straight tree with digitate leaves occurs in and around Quelimane, hardly naturalised as yet, though likely to be so soon, which in general appearance and habit resembles Bombax and Eriodendron. It is known by the Portuguese name Pinko.
32. COLA. Flowers unisexual or polygamous, in axillary clusters. Calyx 5-lobed; petals absent; column bearing a single row of anthers, with or without ovary above them;
ovary 5-o10 celled, ovules numerous; carpels 4-5, free, leathery, dehiscent, with 3-6 exalbuminous seeds. Leaves simple. An African genus, of which I species C. acuminata is an important factor in the commerce of Tropical West Africa, as its seeds are the Kola-nuts, used as a nutritive stimulant and in the preparation of
an aerated water, &c. i species occurs in Natal.
C. cordifolia. (New species) = Sterculia cordifolia, Guill. & Perr., Fl. Seneg. I. 79, t. r5. Vern. name-io, Impeba. A large tree. Leaves alternate, cordate, acute,
or sometimes 2-3 pointed, 5-7 nerved from the base, finely stellate pubescent on both surfaces, 7-1o c.m. long and wide, with a pubescent petiole 5-8 c.m. long.
Flowers in small few-flowered panicles from the old wood; calyx I'5-2 c.m. across, brown inside, pubescent outside and inside, cut more than halfway into 5 lobes, the column i c.m. long, the anthers parallel in I circle close under the hairy usually abortive ovary, which is 3-lobed and terminates in a subulate point. Carpels i or several, 5-7 c.m. long, obliquely pear-shaped, coriaceous, dehiscent. Seed not seen. Bark used for cordage. Forests of Magenja da Costa at Arenga, Maquebella, Bajon, &c. (Sim 5655). Known also from Senegambia.
PLATE VII. A. I, Flowering branch; 2, Carpel; 3, Staminal column with abortive ovary, x 3. C. clavata, Mast. Collected by Drs. Meller and Kirk at Shamo, is unknown to me but is described as a tree of considerable size with simple, sub-coriaceous, glabrous,
i-nerved, oblong-obtuse or elliptical leaves, 5-7 c.m. long, 4-5 c.m. wide, and axillary solitary or clustered 1-2 c.m. pedicels bearing club-shaped i-seeded
indehiscent fruits 3-4 c.m. long, with yellow oblong seeds.
C. quinqueloba, Garcke. May or may not be what is here described as Sterculia quinqueloba. It is said to be a tree 70 feet in height with leaves roundish, subcoriaceous, glabrous, 20-24 c.m. long, cordate, palmately 3-7 lobed, on petioles 20-25 c.m. long; lobes rounded or acuminate. Inflorescence terminal, much branched, paniculate. Flowers small, villose. Calyx 5-fid. Carpels 3-5, rusty-tomentose, downy inside. Ovules numerous. It is recorded from Macanga (Peters)
and Zambesi (Dr. Kirk).
33. HERITIERA. Flowers unisexual; calyx bell-shaped 4-5 fid; petals absent; in the male flowers the slender column bears 4-5 anthers in a circle; anther cells parallel.
Ovary 5-celled, stigmas 5; fruit-carpels woody, boat-shaped, indehiscent; seeds exalbuminous. A Mangrove, with valuable timber, simple coriaceous, stipulate
leaves, and axillary panicles of small white flowers.
H. littoralis, Dryand. Vern. namles-2, Luabo; io, Muolobo or Mologo; i I, Ide. A much-branched tree 6-io metres high, with stem 40-60 c.m. diameter, frequent in
tidal mud or just above tide mark, from Inhambane northward, and recorded as far inland as Tete by Sir John Kirk. Leaves alternate, 7-15 c.m. long, 4-5 c.m.
wide, oblong-lanceolate from a cordate base, covered with yellow peltate scales on the under surface, and also at first on the upper surface. Stipules 6 m.m. long, set with peltate scales, caducous. Panicle rising from the old wood, 8-io c.m. long, set with stellate hairs; flowers numerous, 4 m.m. wide; perianth bell-shaped, 4-5 fid, hairy outside and inside. Fruits single or 2-4 together, woody, boat-shaped, 5 c.m. long, 3-4 c.m. wide, with a decided keel, i-seeded, the radicle ultimately
starting through a split. Sim 5544.
PLATE XIV. I, Leaf-branch; 2, Panicle; 3, Flower, x 6; 4, Perianth opened, x 6; 5, Column, x 20; 6, Top view of same, x 20; 7, Fruit; 8, Do., germinating; 9, Stipule, showing peltate scales, x io; i I, Part of leaf, showing peltate scales; 12, Stellate hair of inflorescence; I3, Tree, general aspect (reduced).




2o Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
34. DOMBEYA. Flowers hermaphrodite, usually subtended on i side by a 2-3 leaved deciduous involucre. Inflorescence cymose. Calyx 5-parted; petals 5, convolute in bud, persistent; stamens 10io-15, connate at the base, alternating in 2's or 3's with 5 longer staminodia; filaments free above and the anthers extrorse. Ovary 3-5 celled; style single with as many tips; ovules several in each cell, usually 4 in 2 superimposed pairs. Capsule leathery, 3-5 celled, dehiscent; cells 1-2 seeded.
Seeds albuminous. Leaves alternate, stipulate, usually cordate-lobed.
D. multiflora, Planch. Vern. name-15, Beobandle. A rigid and more or less deciduous shrub, frequent on rocky ridges of the Lebombo range. Leaves 3-5 c.m.
long and wide, widely cordate, irregularly toothed, acute, very firm, 3-5 veined, reticulate, roughly stellate, pubescent on both sides, and with pubescent petiole 1-2 c.m. long. Inflorescence shortly racemose from leafless old wood; racemes 1-3 c.m. long, numerous; flowers small, i-5 c.m. across, white; calyx reflexed. Sim 6318.
PLATE VIII. C.
D. spectabilis, Bojer. Vern. name-io, Mlolo, which name is also applied to several other fibre-bearing trees. Evergreen tree 6-io metres high, 30 c.m. diameter of
stem. Leaves io c.m. long and wide, or larger, cordate, hard, finely toothed, rather rough, with fine stellate pubescence above, and more dense below, 5-7 veined at the base, and with numerous cross-veins in relief. Petiole 5 c.m. long, minutely pubescent. Inflorescence axillary, abundant, cymose pubescent; cymes many flowered, 7-15 c.m. long, flowers 2 c.m. wide, sepals lanceolate. Frequent between Arenga and Maquebella, Magenja da Costa, where the fibre of the bark is used
for rough cordage. Sim 5966.
PLATE VIII. A.
D. Kirkii, Mast. A shrub or small tree unknown to me but described as having the younger parts covered with dense stelliform tomentum. Leaves petiolate,
cordate-ovate, acuminate often more or less 3-lobed, the lobes acute or acuminate, coarsely and irregularly crenate-serrate. Peduncles axillary and terminal, longer than the leaf stalks; pedicels slender 2"5-5 c.m. long with spreading villi. Flowers small, sepals oblong lanceolate; petals obliquely cuneate, retuse, double the
length of the calyx. Filaments free nearly to the base; ovary downy; stigmas 2-5, included. Lat. 160 S., Dr. Miller; Lupata, Sir John Kirk.
D. Burgessiae, Gerr. Vern. name-io, Nyakowe. A hairy shrub 3-4 metres high, with numerous more or less virgate branches. Inflorescence axillary, very profuse
towards the point of the branch, forming collectively a large leafy panicle, the leaves of which are cordate, 5-10 c.m. long and wide, while the lower leaves are 10-20 c.m. long and wide and 3-5 lobed, all palmately 3-5-7 veined, and softly tomentose on both surfaces. Umbels bracted, 5-1o flowered, on peduncles 5-15 c.m. long; pedicels 2"5-5 c.m. long, pubescent; flowers 3 c.m. across, pinkish white; sepals pubescent, lanceolate; fruit very hairy, tipped by the 5-rayed pistil. Occurs in Natal, and occasionally throughout the Province; it is used by the natives for the production of fire by friction; its fibre is occasionally used, and it is well worth
cultivation for its flowers. Sim 5726.
PLATE VIII. B.
Another species of Dombeya, perhaps D. Natalensis, Sond. occurs at Delagoa Bay and is known as Sicara, but only incomplete material was obtainable.
FAMILY XI.-TILIACEE.
Flowers hermaphrodite; sepals 4-5; petals 4-5; stamens many, filaments free, hypogynous or rising from a torus; anthers 2-celled, introrse. Ovary 2-4 celled, 2-manyovuled; style single; stigmas as many as the ovary cells. Seeds albuminous. Leaves simple alternate, stipulate. The bark usually contains a tough fibre, Russian Mats and Jute being commercial products of the Family.
35. GREWIA. Stamens and pistil on a columnar torus 2-5 m.m. long, from the base of which the sepals and petals arise. Sepals 5, deciduous, petaloid on the inner surface.
Petals 5, each with a gland at its inner base. Stamens numerous, free, ovary 2-4 celled with a simple style; drupe 1-4 lobed, each lobe containing one 1-2 seeded stone. Cymes axillary, 1-4 flowered. A genus of straggling or subscandent shrubs of no practical utility of which 17 species are recorded from Mozambique Province and io from South Africa, 3 only being common to both. See "Forest Flora of Cape Colony," Plates XV. and XVIII., for G. lasiocarpa; G. occidentalis and G.
flava, and "Natal Plants," Plate 42, for G. caffra, all of which belong to our district. The natives use the branches in the construction of fish-kraals, and occasionally eat the fruits, though there is little quality in them. The species are not well distinguished either by natives or botanists, but the following vern. names are in use in the group:-4-5-6, Suiss and Mbodwa; 7-8, Tchapande; io, Impara; ii, Maitomatorulo. The name (4) Shamunyamanyan is also used for this and other
similar shrubs.




Synoptical and Specific Descriptions. 21
36. GLYPHIEA. Sepals 5, distinct; petals 5, without glands; anthers linear, adnate, opening by terminal pores; ovary 8-io celled; ovules numerous in each cell; fruit
oblong, fusiform, sulcate, indc/ i cent, with fibrous mesocarp and endocarp pitted to receive the numerous albuminous seeds. Leaves oblong, finely toothed; cymes
terminal or lateral; flowers conspicuous, yellow. Unknown to me.
G. tomentosa, Mast. Is a shrub having slightly oblique, oblong, acuminate, irregularly dentate, 3-costate leaves, villose above, stellate-tomentose below, 5-O1 c.m. long,
25-5 c.m. wide; large showy flowers in terminal many-flowered cymes, and fusiform deeply sulcate fruit 5-7 c.m. long, 2 c.m. diameter, from Zambesia.
37. CARPODIPTERA. Unknown to me but described as having "Calyx bell-shaped, 5-fid. Petals 5, glandless at the base. Stamens indefinite, free or slightly coherent
at the base; torus not prolonged. Staminodia o ; anthers roundish; ovary 2-celled (4-celled ?); ovules solitary and pendulous from the upper and inner angle of each cell of the ovary; stigmas distinct, sessile, large, sub-petaloid. Capsule sub-globose, 2-valved, each valve extended into 2 long, unequal, obtuse, foliaceous
wings. Seeds solitary in each cell, pendulous. Albumen fleshy. Trees with entire or cordate leaves. Flowers small, in axillary cymes."
This genus was founded on a Cuban plant, the following species from the Rovuma was added in the "Flora of Tropical Africa," and now with considerable hesitation and in the absence of flowers I have added a third species.
C. africana, Mast. A tree from the Rovuma River having oblong, acute, sometimes obscurely lobed, i-nerved, long-petioled, pilose leaves 10o-15 c.m. long, and extraaxillary peduncles 5-7 c.m. long, dividing into 5-6 cymose pedicels each about 2'5 c.m. long. "Capsule sub-globose, 2-valved, i-celled, each valve provided with 2
unequal, obtuse, foliaceous wings i or 2 inches in length, J-1 inch in breadth. Seed solitary, pendulous, villose."
C. minor. (New species.), Vern. name-4, Incalago. A glabrous shrub or small tree 3-4 metres high, frequent on the Polana, Lourenzo Marques, having alternate,
obovate, shortly petioled leaves 3-5 c.m. long, 2 c.m. wide, and supra-axillary i-flowered solitary peduncles 1-I15 c.m. long. Flowers not seen; fruit 2-celled,
consisting of 2 compressed samara-like carpels, attached to a central placenta, from near the top of which the seeds are pendulous. Carpels 2 c.m. long, each i-seeded, and with an oblique membranous dorsal wing 2'5 c.m. long, 2 c.m. wide. Seed compressed, pendulous obovate, albuminous. The raw juice of the
leaves and stem is used by the natives instead of soap. Sim 5555.
PLATE III. C.
FAMILY XII.--LINEE.
Flowers hermaphrodite, regular. Sepals 5 ; petals 5; stamens about io, the filaments united at the base into a cup; ovary free, 3-celled, cells i-ovuled. Leaves entire, alternate. Mostly herbs in temperate regions, but with a few trees and shrubs within the tropics; widely dispersed.
38. ERYTHROXYLON. Flowers axillary, solitary or fascicled. Petals imbricating, deciduous, white, each furnished near the base on the inner surface with a 2-lobed
scale, each lobe scarious and emarginate. Filaments connate J of their length. Ovary free, 3-celled with solitary ovules. Styles more or less connate. Drupe of 3 cells, but only f of them fertile, i-seeded. Seed albuminous. Glabrous tropical trees. The name, meaning redwood, is derived from the colour of the wood
in some exotic species; the colour of the wood in local species is not known, but possibly this furnishes i of the beautiful red unidentified timbers.
E. monogynum, Roxb. A small tree, with stem up to 45 c.m. diameter, often a much-branched shrub. Twigs compressed and somewhat distichous, older branches
terete. Leaves obovate, coriaceous, entire, glabrous, pale or glaucous on the under surface, 2-5-7 c.m. long, 1-3 c.m. wide, rounded at the apex and rounded or tapering to the 5-7 m.m. petiole. Stipule axillary, scale-like, caducous, keeled. Peduncles axillary 1-2 c.m. long. Fruit i c.m. long, oblong, red or purplish, of 3
equal cells but only i fertile and I seeded. Present but not common throughout the Province, as also in Natal, Eastern Cape Colony, Transvaal, West Africa, India, &c. A variety with smaller and more cuneate leaves, pale under, and longer peduncles, found in Gaza and Transvaal, may be specifically distinct. Included here are E. caffrum, Sond.; E. pictum, E. Mey.; E. emarginatum, Sch. & Th. (" Flora of Tropical Africa," I. 274), and Sethia indica, D.C. See "Forest Flora of Cape
Colony," 15o, Plate XVII. fig. i. In Magenja da Costa this was named na-ire, but I doubt the correctness of that name, which is used as synonymous with
Pau-ferro.
SCarpodiptera minor. (Nov. sp.) Frutex glaber, aut arbor parva 3-4 met. alta; foliis alternis, obovatis, 3-5 c.m. longis, 2 c.m. latis, petiolis brevibus; pedunculis supra-axillaribus, solitariis, I-i'5
c.m. longis, unifloris; floribus haud visis; fructu biloculari; samaris 2, monospermis, 2 c.m. longis, ala obliqua membranacea dorsali 2.5 c.m. longa, 2 c.m. lata, praeditis; placenta axillari; semine pendulo, obovato, compresso, albuminoso. Frequens in Lourenzo Marques. Sim 5555. Tab. III. C.




22 Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
FAMILY XIII.--MALPIGHIACE2E.
Flowers hermaphrodite, somewhat irregular; calyx 5-fid; petals 5, unequal; stamens io, all perfect; anthers introrse ; ovary 3-celled; cells i-ovuled. Fruit carpels samaroid, each cell i-seeded. Leaves simple; inflorescence various. A large tropical Family of trees, shrubs and climbers.
39. ACRIDOCARPUS. Flowers in terminal or sub-terminal racemes, yellow. Stamens io, filaments free. Ovary 3-celled, each cell dorsally winged; styles 2, long,
spreading. Fruit of 1-3 connate i-seeded samaras, each with a dorsal wing only. Leaves alternate, exstipulate. Shrubs or climbers.
A. natalitius, Juss. Vern. names-5, Nyameluru; 6, Mabote. A scandent or sub-scandent shrub, having glabrous obovate entire leaves 6-io c.m. long, 1-3 c.m. wide,
and terminal rusty-pubescent racemes 4-15 c.m. long; each flower on a pedicel 3 c.m. long. Petals yellow, clawed, somewhat fimbricated at the margin, unequal, the lower with longer claws than the others. Open flowers 2"5 c.m. across. Samaras 4 c.m. long and I c.m. wide. Frequent in Gaza and M'Chopes; in Gaza the roots are used in medicine to make the natives brave to fight, in M'Chopes that is not done but it is used to purify after friends have died. See "Forest Flora of
Cape Colony," i50, Plate XVII. fig. 2.
A. chloropterus, Oliv. From the shire, Zambesia, is unknown to me but is said to have larger oval-oblong leaves with matted deciduous tomentum, at length glabrate
at least above, racemose flowers, triangular lanceolate bracts, and pale green samara-wings 2-5-3 c.m. long.
40. TRIASPIS. Flowers umbellate in terminal panicles; calyx without glands; petals fimbriate below; stamens 1o; filaments free or nearly so; ovary 3-celled, styles 3,
elongate. Fruit carpels winged leaves opposite or sub-opposite, with or without stipules.
T. mozambica, A. Juss. A shrub with opposite elliptical glabrous leaves 5 c.m. long, 3 c.m. wide and terminal panicles of umbellate flowers. "Dorsal wing of the
nuts deeply 2-fid above, 1-i inch long and broad, with radiating anastomosing nervures." Mozambique. Forbes.
FAMILY XIV.-ILICINEiE.
Flowers regular, perfect, 5-6 merous, without disc, axillary in fascicles or clustered cymes. Calyx 5-6 fid, small, persistent; corolla monopetalous, rotate, 5-parted, the segments connate at the base only, imbricate in aestivation. Stamens 5, alternate with the petals, not connate, but attached to the base of the corolla. Filaments subulate, anthers short, cordate, introrse, 2-celled, opening by longitudinal slits. Ovary sessile, free, 4-6 celled, cells 1-2 ovuled, ovules pendulous, stigmas sessile. Drupe somewhat fleshy, pyrenes 4-6, bony, 3-seeded. Seeds albuminous. Leaves alternate, simple.
41. ILEX. Characters of the Family as described above. A widely-distributed genus of trees and shrubs, several of which are used in cabinet work, the leaves of some species
are used as tea, and the bark of others as a febrifuge. The European Holly is Ilex aquifolium.
I. capensis, Harv. & Sond. Vern. names-i, Water-tree; 4, Secamafusa; 13, Uniduma; 14, Waterboom. A tree 6-20 metres high, 30-60 c.m. diameter of stem,
usually found near running water and having alternate, widely lanceolate, nearly or quite entire, coriaceous, undulated, shining, shortly petioled leaves 8-io c.m.
long, 2-3 c.m. wide, numerous axillary clustered small flowers on pedicels 1-2 c.m. long, and globose red drupes 5 m.m. diameter. Nuts 4-6, very hard. Scattered
through the Marraquene and Maputa districts, also in Natal and Cape Colony. Timber useful soft white wood, but seldom available here of size. See "Forest
Flora of Cape Colony," 151, Plate XX.
THALAMIFLOR.,ZE. GROUP II.
Flowers having a more or less evident disc, outside which the sepals and petals are free or nearly so. Stamens inserted under, on or inside the disc. Ovary free upon or partly immersed in the disc.
THALAMIFLOR2E. GROUP II. SECTION I.
Disc a torus or ring within the stamens; ovules 1-2 in each cell, pendulous, flowers regular.




Synoptical and Specific Descriptions. 23
FAMILY XV.-RUTACEE.
Flowers regular, perfect or unisexual. Calyx 4-5 parted or of 4-5 sepals, imbricate in aestivation. Petals 4-5. Stamens destitute of scale at the base, as many as the petals or twice as many, in which case those opposite the petals are more or less impotent, or staminodia. Disc a ring, or cushion-like. Ovary sessile or stalked, of 3-5 carpels which are free or coherent, or rarely of one carpel. Ovules 2 or i ; styles connate. Fruit capsular, berried, or of 3-5 cocci. Leaves simple, exstipulate, gland-dotted. The gland-dotted leaves are usually strongly and often disagreeably scented, and the leaves and bark are often bitter. The Buchu teas of Cape Colony and the various citrus fruits are products. Trees, shrubs and herbs.
42. CALODENDRON. Flowers in terminal many-flowered panicles, hermaphrodite, very showy; the peduncles several times trichotomously branched, the central one in
each case terminal and i-flowered. Sepals 5, small, green, ovate-acute, separate almost to the base. Petals 5, pinkish-white, widely lanceolate, 2-3 c.m. long, 5 m.m.
wide, undulated, more or less woolly with stellate pubescence on both surfaces, especially on the back, and occasionally dotted with purple spots. Staminodia 5, petaloid, 3 c.m. long, 2-4 m.m. wide, pinkish-white spotted with purple glands, especially on the margin. Perfect stamens 5, as long as the petals; filaments slender, gland-dotted; anthers sagittate, glandular. Disc a small ring inside the stamens, and with a central gynophore. Ovary raised on the gynophore 5-lobed, 5-celled, cells 2-ovuled, style filiform, single, from between the lobes. Fruit a short-stalked, dry, woody, 5-celled somewhat angular capsule, 3 c.m. long and wide, with a much tubercled surface; dehiscence septicidal from below, the 5 valves remaining attached to the top of a central column and containing 2 superimposed seeds
each. Seeds angular, black, 10-12 m.m. diameter.
C. capense, Thunb. Vern. names-i, Wild Chestnut; 13, Umbaba; 14, Wilde Kastanje. A large umbrageous tree with opposite, decussate, exstipulate, simple, ovate
or ovate elliptical, glabrous leaves 8-12 c.m. long, 3-8 c.m. wide, and inflorescence as described above. I did not see this tree in the Province, nor is it included in the Flora of Tropical Africa," but it is included here on the strength of Dr. Bolus' statement (Oficial Handbook of the Cape, 1893, page zo3) that it has been met with on the Zambesi and even on the Kilimanjaro Mountain, a few degrees south of the equator; it is, however, not included in Miss Gibb's list of plants of Southern Rhodesia nor in Mr. D. E. Hutchin's Report on the Forests of Kenia, and I now think it probable that my own statement that "experiments are being made in East Africa to collect the seeds commercially for the expression of oil" is founded on mistaken identity, and should have referred to Trichilia. See "Forest Flora of
Cape Colony," 153, and Plate XXI.
43. CLAUSENA. Flowers hermaphrodite, panicles axillary. Sepals and petals 4. Stamens 7-8, free, hypogynous, almost or quite equal; filaments free, subulate, anthers
sagittate, opening by longitudinal slits. Ovary on a cylindrical torus, 3-celled; cells 2-ovuled; ovules collateral; style short, single, deciduous; stigma 3-lobed.
Berry fleshy, i-seeded. Leaves unequally pinnate.
C. inaequalis, Benth. Vern. names-4, Tchicandechaiwonde; 13, Um-nukambile; 15, Hlahlambit and Pehlaquati. A small tree, frequent throughout the Province,
having alternate, imparipinnate leaves 7-12 c.m. long, fetid when bruised, with 5-15 unequal-sided leaflets alternate or sub-opposite on the rachis; o10-15 flowered panicles 5-7 c.m. long, with 1-3 flowered panicle branches, and small black i-seeded berries. Seldom of timber size. See "Forest Flora of Cape Colony," page 152
and Plate XXVI. fig. 3.
44. XANTHOXYLUM. Flowers unisexual, dicecious, paniculate. Sepals and petals 4, spreading. Male flower-stamens 4; hypogynous; filaments slender, as long as the
petals and alternate to them, erect; ovary rudimentary, pointed. Female flower-stamens absent, carpel solitary, oblique, 2-ovuled, with a short curved style and capitate stigma. Fruit dry, i-celled, i-seeded, tubercled with glands, dehiscent in 2 valves, retaining the shining black round pendent seed attached to the inner
coat of the capsule and fully exposed or projected for some time after dehiscence. Seeds bony, albuminous. Leaves pinnate, alternate.
X. capense, Sim ("Forest Flora of Cape Colony," 155 and Plate XXIV.). Vern. names- i, Knobwood; 4, Um-hlungwaan; 5, 6, 7, 8, Nungwane; 13, Um-nungumabele; 14, Paardepram. An exceedingly variable tree, frequent throughout South Africa, and also throughout the Province of Mozambique. In Cape Colony it forms a large and valuable timber tree with leaves 30 c.m. long, bearing 6-8 pairs of leaflets, and stems so set with large prickle-pointed corky knobs as to earn its name Knobwood, and this form was seen in Gaza, but smaller forms occur merging gradually into these. What were seen elsewhere in the Province had leaves about 5-foliate, 15 c.m. long; pinnules 5 cm. long, widely lanceolate, crenate, bluntly pointed, tapering to the i c.m. petiolules, with or without prickles on the




24 Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
rachis which is usually subtended by one prickle or a pair of prickles. Panicle 5-8 c.m. long, many-flowered, flowers 4-merous; fruit 2-valved, dehiscent, obovate,
acute, i-seeded, scarlet in coast specimens which are also firmly succulent. Stem set with sharp hooked prickles.
PLATE XVI1. A. I, Fruiting branch; 2, Panicle; 3, Male flower; 4, Tree, general aspect (much reduced). For uses see "Forest Flora of Cape Colony."
45. TODDALIA. Flowers unisexual; calyx small, 4-lobed; petals 4, free. Male flower-stamens 8, with slender filaments inserted round the short gynophore bearing the
abortive 4-angled pistil. Female flower-stamens small and abortive or absent; ovary shortly stalked, 4-celled; cells 2-ovuled, stigma sessile, discoid. Fruit
leathery, indehiscent, 1-4 seeded, seeds albuminous. Leaves alternate, 3-foliate, exstipulate. Trees and shrubs.
T. Lanceolata, Lam. Vern. names-i, White Ironwood; 4, 15, Mbotane; 5, 6, 7, 8, Mooia and Moowele; 13, Umzani. A glabrous tree, sometimes of large size and
yielding valuable timber, concerning which see "Forest Flora of Cape Colony," page 157 and Plate XXII. Leaves digitately 3-foliate, or near the panicle I-2 foliate; leaflets lanceolate, undulate, entire, 5-8 c.m. long, 1-3 c.m. wide, almost sessile, and jointed to the petiole. Flowers small, greenish, in much branched terminal panicles. Fruit 4-celled, when dry 4-lobed, 5 m.m. wide, usually 4-seeded. Frequent in the extra-tropical parts of the Province, though seldom so large
as in Cape Colony and Natal; present also throughout the tropical districts of the Province.
PLATE XXV. C. I, Fruiting branch; 2, Flower, x 7; 3, Cross section of ovary.
FAMILY XVI.-SIMARUBEA.
Flowers hermaphrodite or polygamous, regular; calyx 4-5 partite; petals as many; stamens as many or twice as many, filaments free; ovary syncarpous or lobed or of free carpels, inserted upon a fleshy thickened disc; ovules solitary or germinate. Leaves alternate, simple, 2-foliate or pinnate. Inflorescence various.
46. KIRKIA. Flowers hermaphrodite or polygamous, 4-merous; stamens 4, alternate with the petals; ovary small, 4-lobed, 4-celled; styles free; ovules solitary. Fruit dry,
oblong, tetraquetrous, separating at length into four i-seeded indehiscent cocci suspended by the apex from a central carpophore. Seeds exalbuminous.
K. acuminata, Oliv. A glabrous tree with alternate, exstipulate, multifoliate leaves 15-30 c.m. long, the leaflets 13-19, sub-opposite or alternate, obliquely lanceolate,
pointed, serrulate, glabrous, 5-8 c.m. long, I'5-2"5 c.m. wide, on short petioles. Flowers in numerous, pedunculate, cymose corymbs from the axils of the upper
leaves, forming a broad leafy panicle. Fruit 1'5 c.m. long, 5-7 m.m. wide. Hook. Icon. P1. 1036. Zambesia, at Lupata, and near Senna (Sir John Kirk).
47. SURIANA. Flowers hermaphrodite, 5-merous, yellow. Stamens 5, free, with hairy filaments, and 5 shorter, outer, without anthers. Carpels 5, free, each an indehiscent
i-seeded nut with a separate lateral style. Ovules geminate. Monotypic.
S. maritima, Linn. A much-branched pubescent shrub 2-4 metres high, with simple rather crowded oblanceolate, shortly petioled leaves 2-3 c.m. long, 3-4 m.m. wide,
and few-flowered corymbs almost or quite terminal. Calyx 5 lobed, lobes acute. Petals rather longer, obovate with a short claw; open corolla 2 c.m. wide. Styles 5, io m.m. long. Abundant at Bartholomew Dias, where it forms a large proportion of the litoral scrub, but keeps beyond the tidal mud, growing on sand and
rock alike. Also found at Mozambique and northward, near the sea.
PLATE XXV. B. I, Flowering branch; 2, Flower, x 2; 3, Petal, x 2; 4, Stamens and pistil, x 4; 5, Stamen, x 6; 6, Pistil, x 3.
48. IRVINGIA. "Flowers hermaphrodite. Calyx 5-partite; petals 5; stamens io inserted under a thick fleshy hypogynous disc; filaments filiform. Ovary ovoid, compressed, glabrous, inserted upon a broad disc; style simple; stigma simple; ovules solitary; fruit rather large, drupaceous I-seeded; (?T.R.S.) pericarp woody or with fleshy epicarp. Glabrous trees. Leaves alternate, simple, entire, petiolate, with narrow, early deciduous, convolute stipules, leaving annular scars. Flowers
yellowish, pedicellate, in terminal or axillary paniculate or fascicled racemes, ebracteate."
A Tropical African genus consisting of 2 West African species to which with some hesitation-especially in the absence of flowers-I add another, which differs from the generic description in having a 2-celled stone with a seed in each cell,




Synoptical and Specific Descriptions. 25
I. (?) mossambicensis. (New species.)' Vern. names--o, II, Tube and Tumbe. A large tree with leaves ovate-elliptical, 5-8 c.m. long, 2-3 c.m. wide, firm, broadly
pointed, rounded at the base, entire, glabrous when mature, with prominent midrib and numerous nearly parallel side veins. Coppice shoots have leaves o-15 c.m.
long, 4-5 c.m. wide, more cordate at the base, finely white-tomentose on the under surface, brown-woolly on the upper surface, but this wears off with age; probably on the trees this is so also, but the long bare stems render foliage almost inaccessible. Coppice shoots also show stipules 2 c.m. long, which, like the petioles and young growth, are covered with brown pubescence, and the leaves in bud have the margins rolled outward. Older wood and fruit covered with white lenticels. Fruit terminal, showing no vestige of style or calyx, oblong, 3-4 c.m. long, 2-3 c.m. diameter, having a firmly fleshy edible epicarp and a hard bony 2-celled stone, each cell lined with an abundant silky wool, and containing i erect oily-albuminous seed. Flowers and inflorescence not seen ; in the absence of these the generic position of this tree remains uncertain. Tree 20-30 metres high with clean straight valuable timber stem ; fruiting very abundantly; the fruits readily eaten by the monkeys, and when they fall by the natives, rather sweet, not quite a table fruit but acceptable to the weary traveller. See Chap. IV. Frequent in the forests of Quelimane,
Magenja da Costa and Nhamacurra, usually of timber size; young trees scarce. Sim 5622.
PLATE XXX. A.
Mention is made in Flora of Tropical Africa of a climbing shrub from the Rovuma River, represented at Kew by an incomplete specimen, but which is taken to belong to Balanites, a genus belonging to this Family, and which has axillary or supra-axillary spines, 2-foliate leaves, axillary fasciculate or cymose inflorescence, hermaphrodite flowers, 5 sepals, 5 petals, io stamens, a 5-celled ovary with solitary ovules and a i-seeded drupe with bony putamen.
FAMILY XVII.-MELIACE .
Flowers regular, imperfect or perfect, polygamo-dicecious. Calyx small, 5-fid, imbricate; petals 5, free. Stamens hypogynous, 8-Io, the filaments more or less connate, anthers dehiscing longitudinally. Ovary free, 3-12 celled ; ovules 2, collateral, or more; style single; stigma capitate. Fruit a capsule or berry. Leaves alternate, exstipulate, simple or variously pinnate ; flowers in axillary clusters or panicles. A large Family, common to the warmer regions of both hemispheres.
49. TURRiEA. Flowers perfect, terminal on short branches or axillary, white or yellowish. Calyx cup-shaped, 5-toothed; petals 5, free, club-shaped; staminal tube
cylindrical, usually slender; anthers io, sessile. Disc none. Ovary oblong, 5 or more-celled; style rather longer than the staminal tube, filiform; stigma oblong, wider than the style. Ovules 2, collateral. Capsule leathery, wider than long, 5-lobed, 5-celled, io-seeded; dehiscence septicidal, the bright red compressed reniform seeds remaining attached to a central column. Seeds albuminous. Leaves alternate, exstipulate, simple, entire or lobed. Trees and shrubs, mostly
tropical.
T. nilotica, Kotschy & Peyr. Vern. names-6, Sungrukur; io, Morothe. A shrub or small tree having leaves widely lanceolate, elliptic or oblong-acute, tapering to
both ends lo-18 c.m. long, 5-8 c.m. wide, tomentose under, and with petiole 1-2 c.m. long. Pedicels 1"5-3 c.m. long, in axillary umbels of 6-12, on a 5-7 m.m.
peduncle; flowers 2 c.m. across; petals oblong, 2 c.m. long; staminal tube i'5 c.m. long, densely hairy in the throat ; stamens at first exserted and erect, afterwards bent back, starlike, within the lobes which are blunt and bifid when young. Style 2-5 c.m. long, ovary about io-celled. Mature fruit not seen, young fruit globose,
finely pubescent. Not common, but seen in M'Chopes (extra-tropical), Magenja da Costa and Nhamacurra.
PLATE XVIII. A. I, Flowering branch; 2, Portion of top of staminal tube, x 2 ; 3, Stamen, x 4; 4, Lobes of staminal tube, x 4; 5, Stigma, x lo. T. cylindrica. (New species).2 Vern. names-6, Duinyoka or Duitcha-nuka. Tree so metres high with stem up to 30 c.m. in diameter. Leaves widely lanceolate,
tapering to both ends, 5-8 c.m. long, 2'5-3 c.m. wide, glabrous except for tufts of hairs in the axils of the veins on the under surface. Flowers in very short
Irvingia (?) mossambicensis. (Nov. sp.) Arbor magna ; foliis ovato-ellipticis, 5-8 c.m. longis 2-3 c.m. latis, rigidis, late mucronatis, basi rotundatis, integris, maturis glabris, costa prominente, venis multis subparallelis, ramorum virgultorum foliis 10-15 c.m. longis 4-5 c.m. latis, basi subcordatis, marginibus in germine revolutis, subtus albotomentosis supra fusco-lanosis demum glabris; stipulis 2 c.m. longis, fusco-pubescentibus. Ramis vetustioribus et fructibus lenticellis albis notatis. Inflorescentia floribusque haud visis. Fructibus apicalibus, nec stylo nec calyce praeditis, oblongis 3-4 c.m. longis 2-3 c.m. latis, mesocarpio carnoso esculento, endocarpio osseo biloculari semina duo erecta continente, albumine oleoso. In silvis frequens; Quelimane, Magenja da Costa, Nhamacurra. Tab. XXX. A.
I Turrea cylindrica. (Nov. sp.) Arbor Io m. alta, caule 30 c.m. diam. Foliis late lanceolatis, 5-8 c.m. longis 2-5-3 c.m. latis, glabris nisi venarum axillis in facie inferiore pilosis. Racemis florum
bracteatis perbrevibus axillaribus; pedicellis 2-3 c.m. longis; petalis ligulatis 4-5 c.m. longis, flavis; tubo staminali 4-5 c.m. longo, lobo subulato post antheram quamque; stylo tubo longiore; ovario circa io-loculari ; fructu oblongo, I'5 c.m. longo, subacuto, carinato. HIaud frequens; M'Chopes, Inhambane, Beira, Quelimane, Magenja da Costa, Nhamacurra. Tab. XVIII. 13.
D




26 Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
axilliary and bracteated racemes; pedicels 2-3 c.m. long; calyx 3 m.m. long; petals strap-shaped, 4-5 c.m. long, yellow; staminal tube 4-5 c.m. long, with a
subulate lobe behind each anther; style longer than the tube; ovary about io-celled; fruit i'5 c.m. long, oblong, shortly pointed, ribbed. Present but not common
in M'Chopes and Inhambane (extra-trop.) and at Beira, Quelimane, Magenja da Costa and Nhamacurra. Sirm 373.
PLATE XVIII. B.
5o. MELIA. An exotic genus of which the one species here included is now naturalised in almost all tropical and sub-tropical localities. Calyx 6-partite; petals 6; stamens
o10-12, monadelphous; ovary 3-6 celled, ovules 2 in each cell, superposed. Fruit drupaceous, with a 1-5 celled bony putamen. Leaves alternate, 2-3 pinnate.
Flowers in large panicles.
M. Azedarach, Linn. Vern. name-i, Syringa. A tree 10-20 metres high, up to 60 c.m. diameter of stem, with useful half-hard white clean timber of rapid growth.
Leaves deciduous or nearly so, 2-pinnate, with incised leaflets. Panicles abundant, flowers scented, lilac; berries very abundant, whole tree said to be poisonous.
Naturalised throughout the Province, but less prosperous at Quelimane and northward than in the south.
51. EKEBERGIA, Inflorescence paniculate; panicles numerous, placed singly in the axils of the new season's leaves, and thus crowded at the ends of the branches.
Flowers polygamous or apparently hermaphrodite, jointed to the pedicels. Calyx irregularly 5-fid; petals 5, imbricate in bud, slightly adnate at the base to the staminal tube; stamens ro, their filaments united into a tube, on the margin of which stand the anthers; ovary sessile, surrounded by a ring, 2-5 celled; cells 2-ovuled; style short; stigma discoid or somewhat 2-lobed. Berry fleshy inde/ziscent, 2-5 seeded. Seeds pendulous, without arillus, exalbuminous, with superior
radicle. Leaves alternate, imparipinnate.
E. Meyeri, Pr. Vern. names-i, Cape Ash, and Dog Plum; 4, Nyanuja; 13, Umgwenya-uizinja. An evergreen tree, often forming a large and useful timber tree in
the mountain forests of Natal, but seen only as a low flat tree 3-5 metres high in this Province. Leaves 20-30 c.m. long, with 4-5 pairs of leaflets and terminal one; leaflets 7-10o c.m. long. 2-5-4 c.m. wide, acute, glabrous, entire, unequal at the base, the upper side the larger; petiole 5-15 m.m. long; panicle 15-20 c.m. long,
many flowered. Corolla both sides, and staminal tube pubescent; tube undivided, with io anthers on its margin. In fertile flowers the ovary is short and stout with 2 sessile stigmas; in barren flowers the ovary is abortive, style slender and stigma capitate. Ovary 5-celled, fruit 2-5 seeded, fleshy indehiscent 1-2 c.m.
diameter, seeds pendulous, i c.m. long. This species is too near E. capensis, Sparm., of Cape Colony, and Oliver considers the Abyssinian E. Rippeliana, Rich., as
doubtfully distinct.
PLATE XX. I, Leaf and panicle; 2, Flower, x 7; 3, Flower, petals removed, x 5 ; 4, Stamen, x iO ; 5, Disc and calyx and abortive pistil, x 5 ; 6, Calyx, with fertile pistil, x 7 ; 7, Fruit; 8, Section of ovary; 9, Seed ; io, Tree, general appearance.
52. TRICHILIA. Inflorescence shortly paniculate in the upper axils; flowers sometimes imperfect dicecious. Calyx 5-toothed; petals 5, free, imbricate in aestivation
stamens 8-io; filaments united half way; anthers introrse; ovary usually 3-celled; cells 2-ovuled, stigma capitate; capsule 3-celled, woody, dehiscent, 6-seeded.
Leaves alternate, imparipinnate in our species. Seed exalbuminous; radicle upward.
T. emetica, Vabhl. Vern. names-i, Cape Mahogany; 2, Mafurreira; 4 to 8, the Portuguese name Alfaurreira, or various alterations of the Kaffir name (13) Umkukul,
such as Nkusu, Tunhlu, Umcuch6, Kuhlu, &c. ; io, Muteri and Moreka; ri, Mutumbe ; 14, Esschenhout. The fruit is known to most natives by the Portuguese name Mafura. A large, evergreen, umbrageous tree; leaves imparipinnate of 3-5 pairs of leaflets and a terminal one, 15-30 c.m. long, 15-22 c.m. wide; the leaflets opposite, lanceolate-oblong or oblong, acute or obtuse, entire, glabrous, shining, dark green above, green or pubescent below, 8-T2 c.m. long, 4-5 c.m. wide, on short swollen petiolules. Flowers numerous on short clustered axillary panicles, forming together a large much-branched or clustered terminal leafy panicle. Flowers scented, usually (or always) imperfectly dicecious, some trees having only potent stamens and others only potent pistils in flowers which appear hermaphrodite, the result being a heavy crop of fruit annually on the fertile trees and never any on the others. Flower 2 c.m. across, 1-5 c.m. deep, staminal tube cylindrical, hairy upward, shortly io-toothed, each tooth bearing an extrorse anther set in hairs. Pistil approximately the same length as the staminal tube, but varying in length, possibly in connection with potency. Fruit leathery, globose or nearly so, 2-2'5 c.m. diameter, 3-valved, 6-seeded or fewer. Seeds black, 1"5 c.m. long with scarlet arillus, from which, as also from the seed, oil is obtained in quantity, making this one of the most useful trees in the Province. The Portuguese name of the fruit, Mafura, means oil, and one of the synonyms of this tree is Mafureira oleifera (Bert. Misc. Bot. IX. 6, t. 2). Distributed abundantly throughout the Province south of Inhambane, both on the sandy ground and on the alluvial river flats, present also in the tropical parts of the Province, though less abundant and hardly used




Synoptical and Specific Descriptions. 27
there for its oil product. It occurs also on the Upper Zambesi, White Nile, Abyssinia, Sierra Leone, Senegambia, &c., as also in Natal and Eastern Cape Colony.
For its timber see Chap. IV., for its oil see Chap. V., and for further information see "Forest Flora of Cape Colony," page 6o and Plate XXVII. Its bark is
stated to be poisonous, but the natives of this Province do not appear to be aware that it is so.
P'LATE XV. i, Leaf ; 2, Flowering branch; 3, Flower; 4, Pistil, x 2; 5, Staminal tube, opened out, X 2; 6, One anther, in si/t, x 5 ; 7, Fruit, open; 8, Seed; 9, Tree, general aspect (reduced).
T. capitata, Klotzsch (in Peters' Mossamb. Bot. 120). "Extremities pubescent. Leaves 9-15 foliate, 9-12 in. long, pubescent or at length nearly glabrous at least above;
leaflets alternate or sub-opposite ovate or ovate lanceolate, acute or acuminate, base rounded, sometimes broadly, more rarely cuneate, obscurely undulate-crenate or sub-entire, l -3 in. long or the lower about i in., J-2 in. broad; petiolules i line more or less. Flowers 1i-2 lines, in pedunculate axillary corymbose or sub-capitate cymnes, with the peduncle (when elongate usually unbranched below) 1-4 in long. Calyx 5-fid. Petals imbricate. Filaments united about deeply 2-fid at the apex, the subulate teeth rather shorter than the anthers. Disc free. Ovary probably 3-celled with geminate ovules. Fruit globose, 1-in. or less in diameter, dehiscing in 3 or 2 valves. Seeds 6 or fewer. Zambesi and Shire, l)rs. Kirk and Meller! Peters!" Unknown to me, but several trees more or less answering the above leaf description were seen without flowers or fruit and it may have been one of them as it is included also in the list of plants found in Gaza, in Gaza" (by Capt. Gomnes da Costa, 1897-1898, Lisboa). One of these known as (4 and 6) Shimbunkanye, found abundantly along the Umbelusi, Lourenzo Marques, and seen also in M'Chopes, has a most extraordinary development of brown wool upon the roots underground, and is on that account credited by the natives with marvellous
powers of preventing snake-bite, goat-sickness, &c., but in the absence of flowers or fruit it was impossible to identify it.
53. CARAPA. Glabrous trees with pinnate leaves, small flowers in cymose axillary panicles, and very large fruits. Calyx 4-lobed; petals 4; stamens monadelphous;
anthers S ; ovary about 4-celled, with several ovules in each cell. Capsule large, woody, opening in 4 valves. Seeds large, angled by pressure.
C. moluccensis, l.am. 19rn. name--io, Mutanameda. A glabrous evergreen tree, abundant in tidal mud in all the rivers at and north of Quelimane. Leaves alternate, 1-2-3 jugate; leaflets elliptical, rounded at the apex, shortly petiolate, the rachis having a point beyond the upper pair. Raceme few-flowered, 5-o10 c.m. long.
Calyx tubular, with 4 rounded teeth ; petals oblong ; staminal tube white, bell-shaped, widest below, 3-5 m.m. long, with 8 2-fid teeth and with an anther inside at each sinus. Ovary conical, surrounded by an attached disc, about 4-celled and with several ovules in each cell. Fruit 4-celled, ultimately dehiscent, when the angled woody seeds 5 c.m. long, 3-4 c.m. deep, and of irregular shape, escape and float till landed. Leaves and stem of seedling plant have peltate scales; these
are not present on the mature plant.
I'LATE XVI. I, Leaf branch ; 2, Inflorescence ; 3, Flower, X 2; 4, Calyx, x 2 ; 5, Petals, x 2 ; 6, Staminal tube, x 8 ; 7, same, opened, x 5 ; 8, Anther, x 5 ; 9, Pistil, x 5 ; io, Section of same, showing ovary; Ii, Transverse section of ovary; 12, Young fruit ; 13, Transverse section of same ; 14, Seed ; 15, Cotyledons as found in seed ; 16, Tree, general aspect (reduced).
PLATE LXXXIX. Fig. I, Seedling plant.
54. KHAYA. Sepals 4; petals 4; stamens 8, monadelphous; tube with 8 rounded lobes; anthers included. Ovary 4-celled, surrounded by an annular disc; ovules about
12 in each cell. Capsule woody, dehiscent; seeds albuminous, about I2 in each cell, flat, shaped by compression. Leaves abruptly pinnate.
K. senegalensis, A. Juss. Vern. names-2, Mogno (=Mahogany); so, Monondwe and Mbowa. A very large glabrous, evergreen tree, present but not common
throughout all the forests north of the Zambesi, and stated to occur also in the tropical forests south of the Zambesi ; usually growing near a stream. Owing to its long clean stems I failed to obtain normal leaves; that drawn is from a coppice shoot. Leaves abruptly pinnate, 4-1o foliate, 15-30 c.m. long or longer; with no terminal leaflet though the upper one sometimes appears so; leaflets opposite, sub-opposite or alternate, elliptic or elliptic lanceolate, acute, rounded or tapering at the somewhat oblique base; petiole 7-14 m.m. long. "Panicles shorter than or nearly equalling the leaves, with ascending or spreading lateral branches decreasing in length from below. Flowers cymose, usually in 3's, or peduncles trichotomous. Pedicels shorter than the flower. Bracts minute, ovate-deltoid." Fruit 5 c.m.
long, 4 c.m. diameter, the 4 woody valves splitting apart round the central woody 4-winged axis, each cell having about 12 seeds in 2 rows. Sim 5547. Occurs also
in West Africa and on the White Nile.
PLATE XXI. I, Part of leaf; 2, Open fruit, 2 valves and seeds removed ; 3, Seed.
FAMILY XVIII.-OCHNACE.E.
As represented in the Province answers the description of the only local genus.
55. OCHNA. Flowers yellow, shortly peduncled, single, or clustered, or in racemes, mostly on short lateral branchlets. Sepals 5, yellowish, persistent, imbricate; petals 5,
free, caducous. Disc cushion-like, enlarged after flowering. Stamens many, with slender filaments and oblong anthers dehiscing either by terminal pores or




28 Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
longitudinally. Style single, central on the disc, the 4-6 ovary-lobes arranged around its base, each i-celled, i-ovuled, and after fertilization appearing as 4-6 separate black drupes resting apart upon the red enlarged torus, and the calyx often turns red also. Seeds albuminous. Leaves alternate, simple, stipulate; stipules deciduous. Owing to variable characters the species are difficult to separate. A large tree from Magenja da Costa known as Nakrokwe, seen only with immature
flowers, may belong here or to Uvaria.
O. arborea, Burch. Vern. names-i, Redwood and Cape Plane; 4, Mzenzan and Shukwa; 13, Umtensema, Umhlezane and Umtelele; 14, Roodehout; 15,
Shimushwan. A small tree 4-12 metres high, usually having a small crown and a clean unbranched stem 15-30 c.m. diameter with a thin white or brownish smooth bark, from which scales flake off. Leaves oblong, entire or few-toothed, coriaceous, 5-7 c.m. long, 1-2 c.m. wide, usually obtuse, very shortly petiolate; flowers produced abundantly, singly or in racemules or clusters, often from abortive branchlets. Anthers dehiscing by terminal pores. Frequent in the extra-tropical districts ; yields a dense, close-grained, light red, durable timber in Cape Colony and Natal, where it is used for various purposes. Cone-like galls often occur instead
of buds. Leaves generally more serrate than in Natal.
PLATE IV. B. I, Fruiting branch; 2, Flower, x 2 ; 3, Stamens and pistil (magnified) ; 4, Fruit; 5, Gall. O. mossambicensis, Klotzsch. Vern. name-io, Na-noa. A shrub, having obovate, finely serrulate, shortly petiolate leaves 12-17 c.m. long, 5-8 c.m. wide, and the
flowers in lateral pedunculate corymbose racemes. Anthers opening by pores. Throughout the Province.
O. atropurpurea, D. C. var Natilitia. Vern. name-iS5, Mtuse. A tree with lanceolate, undulate, sharply serrulate leaves 5-7 c.m. long, 1-2 c.m. wide. Flowers in
short lateral racemes, anthers opening by pores. Delagoa Bay, M'Chopes and Inharreme.
O. Kirkii, Oliv. Vern. names-io, Ka-mulugaim; ii, Nequaka. A large glabrous tree in the forests of Magenja da Costa. Bark very rough. Leaves obovate-elliptical
to oblanceolate-oblong, 5-7 c.m. long, 1-2 c.m. wide, sometimes cordate at the base, finely serrulate, prominently and irregularly veined above, pale below. Resting buds abundant. Flowers not seen; said to be in terminal or lateral pedunculate, umbellate corymbs, and with anthers dehiscing by short slits. Recorded also
from Rovuma.
O. macrocalyx, Oliv. A small shrub from Zambesia and northward having serrulate, oblanceolate-oval, sub-acute leaves 7-10 c.m. long, 2-3 c.m. wide; short axillary
3-7 flowered racemes; flowers large; pedicels 2"5 c.m. long, fruit sepals 2-2-5 c.m. long. Anthers dehiscing by pore-like slits.
FAMILY XIX.-BURSERACE1E.
Flowers hermaphrodite or polygamo-diecious; calyx 3-4-5 lobed or partite, petals 3-5 ; stamens 6-8-io, inserted on the margin or on the outside of a fleshy disc more or less attached to the calyx tube; ovary free, 2-5 celled ; ovules geminate; fruit drupaceous or capsular; seeds exalbuminous. Trees and shrubs with alternate, exstipulate, 3-foliate or imparipinnate leaves and small axillary paniculate, racemose of fascicled inflorescence. To this Family belong several of the resin-bearing trees of Somaliland, and I think it probable that several large deciduous pinnate-leaved trees having more or less flaky bark, and found by me in Zambesia without flowers or fruit and almost without leaves may also belong here. Canarium, a West African edible fruit, is mentioned in Gaza" as found there, but I have no other information that it is so.
56. COMMIPHORA. Flowers polygamous. Calyx companulate or deeply 4-toothed, persistent. Disc almost absent or adnate to the calyx and more or less cup-shaped,
bearing the 4 perigynous valvate petals and 8 stamens on its margin. Filaments slender, free, alternate stamens slightly shorter. Pistil rudimentary in most flowers.
"Ovary 2-3 celled, narrowed into a short thick style stigma obtuse, undivided, or margins lobulate. Ovules geminate, collateral, pendulous." Drupe ovoid or sub-globose, usually i-seeded, the leathery or somewhat succulent mesocarp dehiscent in 2 valves, exposing the black bony putamen, the lower half of which is girt by a bright red aril-like tissue; seeds exalbuminous. Cotyledons plicate. Leaves 1-3 foliate or pinnate, deciduous, usually the first leaves on new shoots are i-foliate, the number of leaflets increasing up the stem. 5-merous flowers are occasionally intermixed in the same inflorescence among the normal 4-merous flowers.
Timber very light, white; bark usually separable in horizontal flakes, leaving a shining green surface. A difficult group to limit in regard to species, and the natives confuse the species considerably in the use of the common names. In the absence of literature on the Commiphore I do not feel justified in naming the species which are new to me, and consequently refer to them by numbers. Possibly the Shumbunkanye" referred to under Trichilia Capitata belongs here-(6) O-deba
or Diva. All the species strike by stump-cuttings and are planted for hedges, shelter, &c.
C. africana= Balsamodendron africanum Arn. in Ann. Nat. Hist. III. (1839) 87. Flowers in axillary fascicles, mostly on short leafy spine-branches. Leaves 1-3 foliate,
leaflets 2-3 c.m. long, 1-2 c.m. wide, nearly sessile, obovate or oblanceolate, cuneate at the base, blunt or acute, crenate or nearly entire. Fruit globose or obovoid,




Synoptical and Specific Descriptions. 29
almost sessile, i c.m. long, red, with a marked aril. Said to be the source of the gum known as African Bdelium. There are at least 2 varieties, viz.:(a) Normalis. Vern. name-io, Na-loa. More or less pubescent; leaves obtuse, crenate-serrate.
(b) Alyssinica. Vern. names-4, Chessengue; 15, Imbendong. Glabrous ; leaves more narrow and acute, not deeply crenate, 1-3-5 foliate. Var. norma/lis is frequent as a shrub or small tree north of the Zambesi, and var, abyssinica is abundant throughout the southern half of the Province, and is
often planted as an exceedingly rough spinose hedge. The fruit is eaten in Magenja da Costa as a stomach medicine. Trees seen at Umbelusi (Sim 6225), and which had the same fasciculate inflorescence were rather large trees, abundantly spinescent, with leaves 1-3-5 foliate, and were named Chessenque-nkomo by the
natives.
C. mossambicensis, = Protium (?) mossambicense, Oliv. ("Flora of Tropical Africa," I. 329). "Leaves 3-foliate, rarely sub 5-foliate, at length glabrescent ; leaflets
broadly ovate-rotundate, broadly pointed, sub-acute or obtuse, entire or faintly undulate; median 3-31 in. long, i-3 in. broad, on a petiolule of j-1 in., lateral i1-2 in. long and broad, on petiolules of 1_1 in. Fruits racemose from the axils of fallen leaves, broadly ellipsoidal or sub-globose, about in. in length; epicarp
4 20
tardily 2-valved." Described by Prof. Oliver from specimens sent from the Zambesi by Sir John Kirk, in fruit only; it is unknown to me but is included in the list
of Gaza plants in Capt. Gomes da Costa's Gaza."
C. caryaefolia. Oliv. Iern. names-i, Corkwood; 4, Shumbu-n-kanye; io, M-tula'; 13, Hlunguti. Flowers sessile in lax spikes 6-1o c.m. long, axillary to the lower
leaves on young branches, or below them. Leaves deciduous, 20-45 c.m. long, imparipinnate, 7-9 foliate (or up to 21 -foliate ?); leaflets oblong-lanceolate, rounded at the base, acute, 7-12 c.m. long, 2-2"5 c.m. wide, crenate serrate, villose and stellate canescent when quite young, afterwards glabrous, coriaceous, and turning yellow before they fall. Resting bud set with acute scales; spikes produced from among these scales, often before the leaves appear, or axillary to the lower leaves.
Calyx cut less than half way, lobes acute, disc attached to its cup ; petals perigynous, short, acute ; stamens short, perigynous ; ovary usually rudimentary. 1)rupe 2 c.m. long, i c.m. diameter, green, dehiscent showing a red pseudo-aril. A very large tree with rough bark and timber light enough to be used for floats in fishing, and as brake-blocks, &c. See Forest Flora of Cape Colony," page 158 and Plate XXV. Frequent throughout the Province. At Arenga (Magenja da Costa) the leaves are used as a poultice on sores. It is possible that the multifoliate tropical form is a separate species, and another form with entire leaflets may also be
specifically distinct.
C. Harveyi, Engl. Vern. names-i, Corkwood; 4, Chessengue-m-kanye; 6, Diva, Mumbu, Tchaikanyakanyan; 7, Chirol or Chival; io, N'Illovo; 12, Shrituana; 13,
Hlunguti; 15, Mkonyakon. A glabrous tree, sometimes of large size, more often squat and branched from a huge base. Leaves deciduous, 7-15 c.m. long, 5-7-9 foliate; leaflets widely lanceolate, 5-8 c.m. long, I1-3 c.m. wide, tapering to the point, crenate-serrate, of thin texture, and turning yellow before they fall in autumn ; resting bud set with acute scales. Panicles axillary on the young wood, diffuse, io c.m. long, 3 c.m. wide, its branches 1-2 c.m. long, each subtended by a leafy bract. Flowers shortly petioled, 5 m.m. long and wide; calyx deeply 4-lobed, the segments lanceolate; disc almost absent; petals perigynous, oblong, acute, whitish, expanded; stamens 8, the alternate slightly shorter. Ovary usually rudimentary; perfect ovary not seen. Drupe 10-15 m.m. long, io m.m. diameter, green, dehiscent showing a red pseudo-aril. Old bark very smooth, green, peeling off in thin paper-like sections. Frequent throughout the Province, as also in Natal and Eastern Cape Colony. See Forest Flora of Cape Colony," page 158, Plate XXV. fig. 4, where, however, the panicle is congested, whereas the most common form in this
Province has a very lax panicle.
Commiphora species, No. I. (Sim 6395.) A medium-sized glabrous tree, found in the forests of Quisica, as also at Lourenzo Marques, having flaky green bark, soft
limber, alternate 5-7 foliate leaves with sessile, finely crenate, thin, obovate acute leaflets 3-5 c.m. long, i-I"5 c.m. wide, and axillary panicles 6-io c.m. long, branched at the top only; flowers not seen; fruits abundant, rostrate, 15 c.m. long, 8 m.m. diameter, greenish, I-seeded, dehiscent with 4-nate calyx remaining; seed black,
without evident aril.
Commiphora species, No. 2. (Sim 5915.) Vernz. names-io, Mamnatula and N'illovo. A medium sized pubescent tree found near Arenga, Magenja da Costa,
having I -15 foliate leaves with sessile, crenate, firm, elliptical, pubescent leaflets 3 c.m. long, i c.m. wide, and axillary wooly panicles in the upper axils, the panicles
lo c.m. long and branched at the top only; fruit almost sessile, globose, I c.m. long, with 4-nate calyx remaining. Axillary spines often present.
Commiphora species, No. 3. (Sim 5996.) Vern. name-lo, Periveri. A small glabrous tree with 1I1-13 foliate leaves about 45 c.mn. long, the leaflets sub-opposite
or alternate, shortly petiolate, obliquely lanceolate, acute, undulate, entire, 15-20 c.m. long, 3-4 c.m. wide and abundant axillary panicles 45 c.m. long, much
branched, many flowered. Flowers not seen; fruit oblong, i c.m. long, almost sessile (dehiscent ?). Found near Maquebella, Magenja da Costa.
SThe name M-tula is used for Sclerscarya caffra, and it is possible that it was given to Commiphora through mistaken identity, as the leaves are somewhat similar.




30 Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
THALAMIFLOR}E. GRouP II. SECTION 2.
Disc various. Ovules 1-2 in each cell, ascending; flowers often irregular, unisexual or polygamous.
FAMILY XX.-CHAILLETIACEYE.
Flowers usually hermaphrodite. Calyx 5-partite; petals 5, free, clawed, 2-fid. Stamens 5; hypogynous glands 5, opposite to the petals. Ovary free, 3-2 celled; style simple, apex shortly 3-2 fid. Fruit drupaceous, 1-3 celled, 1-3 seeded. Small trees or shrubs with alternate, entire, petiolate or sub-sessile leaves and deciduous subulate stipules. Flowers small, white, in axillary cymes or glomerules.
57. CHAILLETIA. Characters as given for the Family.
C. mossambicensis, Klotzsch (in Peters' Mossamb. Bot. io8, t. 19). Leaves obovate-elliptical or oblong, cordate at the base, mucronate, with scattered hairs on the
upper surface and pubescent under surface, 7-15 c.m. long, 4-6 c.m. wide. Cymes pedunculate. Ovary villous, 3-celled. Northern districts.
C. reflexa, Klotzsch (in Peters' Mossamb. Bot. o109, t. 20). Shrub, at first tomentose, becoming glabrescent with age. Leaves elliptic-oblong acute, rounded at the base,
4-6 c.m. long, 2-3 c.m. wide. Cymes almost sessile. Ovary 2-celled. Fruit oblique, pubescent, i-celled, i-seeded. Northern districts.
FAMILY XXI.-OLACINE1E.
Flowers regular. Calyx 4-5 lobed; petals 5, more or less connate at the base or free; stamens 5, alternate to the petals and more or less adnate to their tube. Disc cup-shaped, rarely unilateral or absent. Ovary free, i-celled with geminate ovules, or spuriously 3-5 celled, with I ovule in each cell. Fruit i-celled, i-seeded, dry or drupaceous, indehiscent. Seeds albuminous. Trees or shrubs with alternate, entire, exstipulate leaves and small flowers. 58. XIMENIA. Calyx free, unchanged in fruit. Petals 4, free, hairy within, valvate in aestivation. Stamens 8-io, free, hypogynous. Drupe fleshy, with a bony I-seeded nut.
X. caffra, Sond. Vern. name-4, Tondcluka. A shrub or small tree, with tomentose divaricate branches, and axillary branchlets ending in spines. Leaves elliptical,
obtuse, at length glabrous, 3-4 c.m. long; peduncles axillary, i-flowered; petals very hairy inside; fruit oval, glabrous, 1-2 c.m. long, red, edible. Abundant on the
Lebombo range, and not uncommon through Lourenzo Marques district.
X, americana, Linn. Vern. name-4-15, Kolotchan. A glabrous shrub with short spinose axillary branchlets. Leaves oval-oblong, obtuse, 2-5 c.m. long1, 2-3 c.m.
wide. Flowers in few-flowered cymes. Petals hairy inside; fruit 2-3 c.m. long, scarlet, edible. Frequent throughout the Province, as also in other parts
of Tropical Africa.
59. OLAX. Calyx accrescent. Petals 5-6. Stamens 8, of which 3 are without anthers. Ovary free, 3-celled below, i-celled above; ovules i in each cell. Glabrous shrubs or
small trees, with alternate entire leaves and axillary or racemose inflorescence.
O. dissitiflora. Oliv. A glabrous shrub with lanceolate, coriaceous, shortly-petioled leaves, 2-3 c.m. long, 1-2 c.mn. -wide. Flowers in short axillary racemes or axillary in
the lower part of leafy ramuli. Fertile stamens opposite the petals. Stigma 3-capitate, 3-lobulate. Zambesia.
6o. OPILIA. Petals 4-5, hypogynous; stamens as many as the petals and opposite to them ; Ovary i-celled, i-ovuled ; racemes at first catkins ; fruit drupaceous. Leaves
coriaceous, alternate, entire.
O. amentacea, Roxb. An almost glabrous shrub or small tree, with oval-oblong, or lanceolate, somewhat cuneate, entire, shortly-petiolate leaves; catkins 1-2 c.m. long,
i or several together, expanding to racemes; fruit 1-2 c.m. long oblong. Frequent at Lourenzo Marques, and found occasionally throughout the Province. A
probable second species is mentioned in "Flora of Tropical Africa."
6r. APODITES. Calyx 4-5 toothed ; petals 5, glabrous, valvate, free or slightly connate at the base. Ovary free, obovate, with an oblique style, the ovules on the same side
of the ovary as the style, but on opposite sides of the placenta. Drupe i-celled, i-seeded, usually fleshy near the coast, leathery inland, horizontally elliptical, compressed, very oblique, and with a callous heel resembling an abortive second cell. Leaves alternate.




Synoptical and Specific Descriptions. 31
A. dimidiata. Vern. nams-i, White Pear; 3, Witte Peer; 4, Tremati; 13, Um-dekana; 15, Umbontan. A valuable, almost glabrous, evergreen timber tree, widely
dispersed over Africa, reaching its best development in the mountain forests of Cape Colony, and here usually a small coast tree. Leaves shortly petioled, ovate or elliptical, rounded or bluntly pointed at the apex, entire, glabrous, shining above, 3-4 c.m. long, 1-3 c.m. wide. Flowers profusely borne, mostly in terminal panicles, white, sweetly scented, nearly sessile, about 5 m.m. wide when full open, the petals being afterwards recurved, and dehiscing together by a horizontal slit just below their point of connection. Drupe I c.m. long, 7 m.m. diameter, very oblique, black and somewhat fleshy, with a red heel when fresh, grey and ribbed when dry.
For timber qualities and illustration see "Forest Flora of Cape Colony," page 135, Plate XI. Frequent in the sand dunes along the coast, frequent on the
Lebombos though seldom of large size, and present in all forests throughout the Province.
FAMILY XXII.-SAPINDACEE.
Flowers often irregular, unisexual or polygamous. Sepals 4-5, free or more or less connate, often unequal, imbricate. Petals 4-5 or absent, free, equal or unequal, imbricate in aestivation. Disc usually present, often unilateral. Stamens 4-8, usually free, sometimes unilateral, straight or declined. Ovary centrical or eccentric, 2-6 celled, ovules 1-2 in each cell, ascending. Fruit capsular or indehiscent, very various, simple or more or less deeply lobed. Seeds round, compressed or winged, with or without aril, albuminous or exalbuminous. Leaves usually alternate and exstipulate, simple, 3-foliate, or pinnate ; embryo usually curved. A bitter or acrid principle is often present in the Family ; some species are poisonous, others have edible fruits, some yield valuable timber, and from the covering of the seeds in some species of Sapindus soap is obtained. Rather a heterogenous group. An erect shrub with pinnate leaves and 15-21 sub-opposite or alternate oblong leaflets 2-3 c.m. long, known as Mbrunya at Arenga, Magenja da Costa, probably belongs to this Family, but no flowers or fruit were seen. A decoction of its ground fresh leaves is used to wash fishing lines, and is said to kill the fish if put into the water in some quantity.
62. PAULLINIA. Flowers irregular, with a unilateral disc, polygamo-dioecious. Sepals 5, the upper 2 larger and connate; petals 4, unequal, and a scale; disc annular,
with 2 larger and 2 smaller glands; stamens 8, eccentric; ovary eccentric, 3-celled; style 3-fid; capsule 3-gonous or 3-winged above; seeds shortly arillate.
Climbing shrubs.
P. pinnata, Linn. A climbing shrub, with imparipinnate 5-foliate leaves, the leaflets sessile, obovate-oblong, toothed, the terminal one the larger, 7-15 c.m. long, 3-6
c.m. wide, the others shorter; flowers numerous in narrow racemes 7-o10 c.m. long, with a spiral tendril at the base. Capsule 2-3 c.m. long, pear-shaped, 3-valved.
Zambesi-land; also West Africa.
63. SCHMIDELIA. Flowers polygamo-dicecious. Sepals 4, irregular, imbricated, the inner 2 often larger than the others, Petals 4, ciliated, bearded on the inner face.
Disc lobed, eccentric. Stamens and pistil on a more or less distinct torus. Male flower-stamens 8, more or less eccentric and often declinate, the disc occupying the other side of the flower; ovary rudimentary. Fertile flower-stamens 8, surrounding the ovary, and more or less perfect; pistil somewhat eccentric on one side of the disc; ovary 2-celled; cells x-ovuled, the ovule ascending from the base; style single, with 2 spreading branches stigmatic on their upper surfaces. Fruit of 2 cocci, almost or quite separate, and with the style between them, or by abortion of only i, with the style at its base. Seeds arillate, embryo curved, cotyledons folded. Leaves simple or 3-foliate, alternate, glabrous or glabrescent, often bearded in the axils of the veins. Shrubs, seldom of timber size, and only worth brief
description here.
S. monophylla, Presl. A large shrub or small tree with simple leaves 7-15 c.m. long, 4-7 c.m. wide, and flowers in lax racemes 5-15 c.m. long. Fruit pubescent till near
maturity. Scarce but present throughout the Province; also present in Cape Colony, Natal, Madagascar, Zanzibar, &c. See "Forest Flora of Cape Colony,"
page 170, Plate XXXII.
S. africana. A 3-foliate shrub or small tree; inflorescence copiously paniculate; leaflets petiolate, oval-acuminate, dentate; central leaflet io-i5 c.m. long. Lourenzo
Marques; also Abyssinia and West Africa. See "Forest Flora of Cape Colony," page 170, Plate XXXIII
S. alnifolia, Baker. Leaves 3-foliate, glabrous; leaflets obovate, blunt, sub-entire. Flowers in lax slender simple racemes. Mozambique.
S. repanda, Baker. Leaves 3-foliate, glabrous; leaflets oblong-cuneate, conspicuously inciso-repand. Flowers in lax slender simple or slightly branched racemes.
Northern districts,




32 Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
S. rubifolia, Hochst. A small tree with 3-foliate leaves, leaflets obovate-cuneate, irregularly inciso-repand upward, under surface canescent; flowers in simple or slightly
branched racemes, nearly sessile. Zambesi-land.
64. BLIGHIA. Flowers polygamo-dicecious, regular, 5 m.m. long, in short axillary racemes; calyx 4-5 lobed; petals 4-5, each with a scale on the inner surface; stamens 7-10,
inserted beneath the disc, centrical; ovary sub-stipitate, 3-angled, 3 celled; style terminal, the stigma 3-toothed. Ovule solitary in each cell, rising from the centre
of the axis. Capsule roundish, fleshy, 3-celled; seeds arillate. Large trees.
B. sapida, Koenig. Vern. name-4-6, Morentima or Shimorentima (also in use for Bersama? mossambicensis). A large tree, though often found as a bush in or
around cultivated lands. Leaves pinnate, without terminal leaflet ; leaflets in 2-4 pairs, the upper the larger ; o10-15 c.m. long, 5 c.m. wide, the lower almost at the base of the rachis and often much smaller, all elliptic-lanceolate or elliptic oblong, acute, and tapering more or less to the very short petiole ; glabrous when mature, but at first the growth-buds, stems and leaves are somewhat rusty-pubescent, and tufts of this pubescence sometimes remain in the axils of the veins. Raceme 5 c.m. long, axillary. Flowers not seen and fruit seen only immature, but as seen I-5 c.m. long, pear shaped, pubescent, 3-4 celled, with i erect arillate axile seed near the base of each cell; the capsule leathery, with loculicidal dehiscence, each valve terminated by a style, though the styles are united before dehiscence.
Mature capsule described as "roundish in general outline, about 4 in. long, bluntly 3-gonous, fleshy, glabrous, at first yellowish, finally red, with 3 cells, with a single hard black seed in each as large as a cherry, with a prominent white arillus enveloping the lower half or two-thirds. Flowers fragrant and fruit edible and the distilled water of the flowers used as a cosmetic." Abundant in the lower Gaza and M'Chopes districts, present also though less abundant in the Lourenzo Marques
and Inhambane districts, and also in the tropical forests north of the Zambesi. Sim 5206.
PLATE XXII.
B. zambesica, Baker. A tree from near Lake Nyassa, agrees in most characters with the above, but has the calyx cleft only about half-way down, with deltoid divisions
not at all imbricate in bud, whereas in B. sapida the calyx is deeply cleft, with oblong sepals slightly imbricated in bud.
65. LECANIODISCUS. "Flowers regular, polygamo-dicecious. Sepals 5, much imbricated. Petals none. Disc complete, with io obscure crenations. Stamens io.
centrical, the filaments filiform, glabrous. Ovary centrical, villose, ovoid, 3-celled; stigma thick, reflexed, 3-lobed. Ovules solitary in the cells, ascending, affixed
to the axis at the base. Capsule, ovoid, tomentose, pointed, i-celled, dry, crustaceous, i-seeded. Seed erect, ovoid, arillus gelatinus. Trees."
L. fraxinifolia, Baker. A shrub from the Zambesi and Shire, with abruptly pinnate leaves, having 5-7 sessile, sub-opposite pairs of entire, glabrous leaflets 5-7 c.m. long,
2-3 c.m. wide, "flowers fascicled, in nearly sessile axillary racemes 3-5 c.m. long, . capsule broad-oblong, pointed 1i5 c.m. deep, the outer shell hard, nearly
black, with a thin grey-downy bloom."
66. SAPINDUS. Flowers polygamous or dioecious, regular, in axillary or terminal panicles. Sepals 5, imbricate ; petals 5, hypogynous, bearded on the face. Male flowerstamens about 15, with woolly filaments surrounding a hairy rudimentary pistil and girt by a glabrous yellow corona. Female flower-stamens imperfect, pistil raised on a disc, stigmas 3, style central, single, surrounded by the 3 pubescent almost separate ovary lobes. Fruit of 1-2-3 indehiscent berry-like cocci. Leaves
alternate, pinnate, exstipulate.
S. oblongifolius, Sond. Vern. name-io, Ntalala. A shrub or tree, varying from 30 c.m. to 6 metres in height, and from a shrublet to a straggling tree without timber
value. Leaves from 20-40 c.m. long, with io-i5 oblong, obtuse, almost sessile leaflets 8-12 c.m. long, 2-4 c.m. wide. Panicle terminal and axillary, 15-30 c.m.
long, rufous-pubescent when young. Fruit consists of 3 fleshy cocci, separate almost or quite to the base, and appearing like 3 separate fruits, each 1'5 c.m. diameter, globose, and containing one brown seed coated entirely with a white soapy material which produces a lather with water. Abundant near the coast in the extratropical districts, as also in Natal and Cape Colony. See "Forest Flora of Cape Colony," page 173 and Plate XXXV.
S. xanthocarpus, Klotzsch in Peters' Mossamb. Bot., 19. Vern names-4, Tezansema; 6, Kangelanquoa. Appears to me to differ from S. oblongifolius only in being
smaller in all its parts except the panicle. It is from the Zambesi and Shire.
67. PAPPEA. Moncecious or polygamo-dicecious. Flowers small, regular, trimorphous; the male paniculate, the female racemose. Calyx saucer-shaped, with 5 short subequal lobes ; petals 5, spathulate, obovate, clawed, woolly on the inner surface. Male flower-stamens 8-1o, all perfect, on exserted filaments, surrounding a flat




Synoptical and Specific Descriptions. 33
disc, with or without a minute abortive ovary. Fertile flower-stamens 8-io, either short and abortive or longer and more or less perfect; the filaments being more woolly the less perfect the anthers are. Ovary compressed, reniform, 2-celled (occasionally 3-celled), pubescent, with a cylindrical undivided style. Fruit didymous, of 2 partly connate carpels, or more usually by abortion consisting of i fertile carpel only. Carpels globose, pubescent, foveolate, with a distinctly marked line by which it tardily dehisces. Ovule solitary in each carpel, at first sitting in a green saucer-shaped aril which afterwards develops semi-transparent, fleshy,
irregular lobes, these imbricate and completely enclose the seed when half-mature and become red at maturity. Leaves alternate, simple, exstipulate.
P. capensis, Eckl. Vern. names-4, Jetroqua; 13, Ilitye. A shrub or small tree, found in the Lourenzo Marques and M'Chopes districts and in Natal and Cape
Colony. It has leaves simple, 3-8 c.m. long, 1-2 c.m. wide; obovate, rounded at both ends, glabrous, lighter on the under side, almost entire, and shortly petioled; those from coppice shoots larger and more distinctly serrate. Male flowers in many-flowered panicles o10 c.m. long; fertile flowers in 5-20 flowered racemes; sometimes dicecious, sometimes moncecious on separate branches, and occasionally more or less mixed, all the fertile flowers on i tree being of I form, but the
stamens varying much on different trees. See "Forest Flora of Cape Colony," page 171 and Plate XXXIII. fig. 3.
68. DIACARPA. (New genus.)' Floral characters unknown. Inflorescence a terminal panicle; fruit of 2 i-seeded samaras; seeds pendulous from the placenta connecting the 2 samaras; leaves abruptly pinnate; leaflets alternate or sub-opposite. In the absence of flowers its place cannot be definitely decided, but its relation
seems to be with Pterocarpus.
D. alata. (New species.), Vern. name-15, Hlanhlatz. Panicle 8-15 c.m. long, terminal. Leaves 15 c.m. long, the slender rachis terminating in a short point; leaflets
alternate or sub-opposite, obliquely oblong-falcate, 5-7 c.m. long, 1-2 c.m. wide, rounded at the apex; the midrib near the lower margin which is entire or with I or 2 teeth, the upper portion much wider than the lower and toothed along its margin. Samaras 2, each 3-4 c.m. long, I"5 c.m. wide, the wing gradually wider, the hard brown slightly compressed seed pendulous in each from the placenta connecting the 2 samaras. Axillary buds covered with velvety-brown pubescens. Only Street seen, in the kloof between Mr. Stem's house and his river dam, below Estatuene, Maputa district-a spreading tree io metres high, 30 c.m. diameter, with a nearly white warty bark and numerous twigs; but the fact that several natives separately gave it the same name indicates that other specimens occur in the district.
Sim 6307.
PLATE V. C.
69. DODON)EA. Flowers unisexual, polygamous, in short axillary or terminal panicles. Sepals 4-5, more or less connate. Petals absent. Male flower-stamens 8-io,
hypogynous, oblong, longer than their filaments, without disc or ovary, or surrounding a rudimentary ovary. Fertile flower-stamens reduced in size, imperfect; ovary on an almost obsolete disc, shortly stalked, glandular dotted, 3-angled, 3-celled, cells 2-ovuled; style single, cylindrical, 3-fid. Capsule membranous, usually
3-celled, the cells each with a membranous reticulated dorsal wing. Resinous shrubs or trees, with alternate, simple, exstipulate leaves.
D. viscosa, Linn. Vern. name-6, Seka-seka. A shrub 2-5 metres high, with obovate entire leaves 8-1o c.m. long, cuneate at the base, viscid when young. Flowers in
lax viscid racemes; fruits 2-3 winged, i-i'5 c.m. long. Never of timber size but used for hut-wattles, &c. Frequent throughout the Province, especially on light
sandy soils.
Another shrub or small tree (6, Injangoti; io, Nasipolela and i-pungwa) having elliptic-oblong, pointed petiolate, entire leaves 3 c.m. long and not viscid; few-flowered racemes, and 2-3 winged white fruits i c.m. long and wide, appears to belong to Dodonaea but was not seen in flower. It is abundant through the whole Province. Another shrub (6, Kangeleru) having similar leaves but constantly 2-winged crimson fruits is probably another species, and is common in the
sandy districts.
DIACARPA. (Gen. nov.) Inflorescentia apicali paniculata; floribus haud visis ; fructu samaris duobus monospermis; semine pendulo e placenta axillari; foliis paripinnatis, foliolis alternis vel sub-oppositis. Pterocarpo affinis videtur.
SD. alata. (Sp. nov.) Arbor patula to m. alta, cauli 30 c.m. diam. ; cortice paene alba, verrucosa; ramis crebris. Foliis 15 c.m. longis; petiolo gracili in mucronem brevem producto; foliolis
oblique oblongo-falcatis, 5-7 c.m. longis, 1-2 c.m. latis, apice rotundatis, inacquilateris, lateris inferioris angusti margine integra, lateris superioris multo latioris margine dentata. Panicula apicali, 8-15 c.m. longa.
Samara 3-4 c.m. longa, I'5 c.m. lata, ala sursum patescente. Semine duro, fusco, subcompresso. Gemmis axillaribus pubescentia fusca velutina vestitis. Tab. V. C.
E




34 Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
7o. BERSAMA. Racemes axillary or terminal on short side branches. Flowers apparently hermaphrodite. Sepals 5, nearly equal, the lower pair connate, imbricate.
Petals 5, unequal, irregular in form. Disc raised, unilateral; stamens 4-5, centrical, inserted within the disc, more or less connate. Ovary 4-5 celled, ovule solitary (?) erect. Capsule ligneous, globose, 3-5 celled, tubercled externally, dehiscence loculicidal; seeds arillate, albumrninous. Trees or shrubs with alternate,
imparipinnate leaves, mostly deciduous.
Several of the deciduous, pinnate leaved trees seen without leaf, flower or fruit, probably belong to this African genus. The following evergreen tree is included in it with great hesitation :Bersama (?) mossambicensis. (New species.) Vern. names-5, Tsukuhlumumbu; 6, Maritshima; 4 and 6, Morentima or Shimorentima (these names shared with
Blighia). Leaves pinnate, exstipulate, the pinnules sub opposite or alternate, elliptical or oblong-elliptical, pointed, usually oblique and tapering shortly at the base.
Inflorescence axillary to the upper leaves, about 3-flowered on a 1-2 c.m. peduncle; flowers almost sessile, 3 m.m. long, bracted; calyx with 5 triangular teeth; petals 5, imbricate; stamens io-i 2, outside a flat ring-disc, the filaments free and apparently equal (though no fully mature flowers were available for examination); anthers hairy; ovary pubescent, 4-5 celled, with almost sessile stigma. Fruit woody, tubercled outside, dehiscent, 4-5 celled, each cell containing 2 black seeds pendulous from a red aril rising from the base. I hesitate to make a new genus of this tree, but it does not appear to me to fit any described genus well. It has much resemblance to Trichilia, from which the free stamens and 4-5 celled ovary distinguish it ; from normal Bersama the 2-ovulled cells and the more numerous
stamens differ. Frequent throughout the Province, often as a shrub but sometimes as a very large tree. Sim 5204.
PLATE XXIII.
SERIES II.-CALYCIFLORE.
Ovules formed in closed ovaries. Calyx and corolla usually both present. Calyx-tube either free from, or adnate to, the ovary. Petals free; petals and stamens springing from the calyx-tube, either perigynous or epigynous.
CALYCIFLORIE. GROUP I.
Flowers having a more or less discoid receptacle adnate to the calyx-tube, the petals and stamens rising from its edge or from inside it. (See Commiphora, included in Thalamiflore.)
CALYCIFLORE. GROUP I. SECTION I.
Flowers usually hermaphrodite; ovary 2 or more-celled; ovules 1-2 in each cell; leaves simple (except Vitis). Stamens isomerous.
FAMILY XXIII.-AMPELIDEE.
Shrubs or climbers, often tindril-bearing. Flowers regular, apparently perfect. Calyx cup-shaped, entire or lobed. Petals 4-5, free except their points, which usually cohere, deciduous by each petal dehiscing at its base, the cap-like united points falling off together. Stamens opposite the petals, 4-5, free, hypogynous, inserted outside the disc which surrounds the ovary. Ovary ovoid, pointed, 2-celled; style short or absent; cells 2-ovuled. Berry fleshy, globose, 1-2 seeded, edible or astringent.
71. VITIS. Shrubs or climbers; leaves simple or digitately compound, branches herbaceous or ligneous, tindrils usually present. About So tropical African species are
described, neither of which have any forestal value, and many are forest weeds of the nature of monkey-ropes. A 3-foliate shrubby species (4, Ingwanhela; 6, Ruta) common in extra-tropical districts is used for making sieves from the bark; and the succulent stems of V. quadrangularis (4, Clemafin) when heated are applied to
cuts, &c.
SBersama (?) mossambicensis. (Sp. nov.) Plerumque frutex, sed aliquando arbor grandis. Foliis exstipulatis, pinnatis; foliolis sub-oppositis vel alternis, ellipticis vel oblongo-ellipticis, acutis, plerumque obliquis et basi abrupte contractis. Inflorescentiis in axillis foliorum superiorum, circiter trifloris, pedunculo 1-2 c.mn. ; floribus fere sessilibus, bracteatis, 3 m.m. longis; calycis dentibus 5 triangularibus; petalis 5 imbricatis; staminibus o10-12, filamentis liberis et (vix maturis) aequilongis; antheris hirsutis; disco annulari piano inter stamina et ovarium ; ovario pubescente, 4-5 loculari ; stigmate sub-sessili. Fructu ligneo, extus tuberculato, dehiscente; loculis 4-5, omnibus 2-spermis; semine atro pendulo ex arillo rubro. Trichili simnilis est, sed differt staminibus liberis et ovario 4-5 loculari. A Bersama vera differt loculis 2-spermis et staminibus pluribus. Tab. XXIII.




Synoptical and Specific Descriptions. 35
FAMILY XXIV.-RHAMNE.E.
Flowers small, regular, hermaphrodite. Inflorescence various, often cymose. Calyx 5-lobed, its tube filled or lined by the disc, the segments valvate in bud. Petals 5, small, hooded, perigynous, frequently absent. Stamens 5, opposite the petals. Ovary sessile, superior or more or less inferior 2-3-4 celled; cells i-ovuled, ovules erect. Styles short, connate below. Fruit fleshy or capsular; seeds usually albuminous. Leaves simple, alternate; stipules minute or absent, or spinose. Trees, shrubs and climbers; few are of much importance.
72. ZIZYPHUS. Flowers in axillary cymes, small, greenish, with a prominent flat 5-sided disc. Calyx-segments triangular, keeled within. Petals ovate, clawed, yellowish,
hooded. Stamens opposite to and longer than the petals. Ovary 2-celled, somewhat sunk into the disc and connate with it. Styles recurved. Drupe fleshy, 1-2
seeded. A small genus, widely dispersed.
Z. mucronata, Willd. Vein. names-i, Buffalo Thorn; 4, Pasa-mali; 6, im-pasa-mali; io, Numatunga; 4, 12, 13, Umi-pafa; 15, Mhlalu-bantu. A tree 5-1o metres
high, 30-45 c.m. diameter, frequent throughout the Province, as also in Cape Colony, Natal, Transvaal, Abyssinia and West Africa. Branches usually armed with stipular spines, I hooked downward and i straight upward. Leaves oblique at the base, ovate or ovate-cordate, crenate-serrate, 3-veined, usually obtuse, 4-5 c.m.
long, 3 c.m. wide, glabrous or almost so, petiolate. Cymes axillary 1-3 c.m. long, many-flowered; fruits numerous, globose, i c.m. diameter, fleshy, dark red, not edible, and having the scar of the fallen calyx-segments evident as a small disc around the base. Usually a spreading tree in open scrub, and in Magenja da Costa
it seems to have a partiality for ant heaps. See "Forest Flora of Cape Colony," 177, Plate XXXVI. fig. i.
PLATE XXIV. B. I, Fruiting cyme; 2, Flower, x 3; 3, Petal and stamen, x 6.
Z. jujuba, Lam. Veirn. names-i, Jujube; 2, Masonje; io, Masawa; and var. nemoralis is included with Z. mucronata under the name, io, Numatunga. A very
variable small tree, with the branches usually armed with stipular spines, i hooked downward and i straight upward. Leaves more or less oblique at the base, ovate, finely serrulate, 3-nerved, glabrous above, white tomentose below, as also is the young wood and inflorescence. Cymes short, many-flowered. Fruit 2-3 c.m.
long, i'5 c.m. diameter, oblong, with a large disc. Common in semi-cultivation or naturalised in the tropical districts, with rounded almost entire leaves and edible
fruits.
PLATE XXIV. A. i.
Var. nemora/is, the usual forest form, has sharper, more oblique, and more serrated leaves, and fruits which are not edible. Frequent in the tropical forests, often as a low trailing bush very different in appearance, but without specific distinction. Not seen south of Inhambane.
Two other specimens from Zambesia are mentioned in "Flora of Tropical Africa," from insufficient material; of these I know nothing further.
73. BERCHEMIA. Calyx tube short, 5-lobed; petals 5, hooded ; stamens 5 ; disc clothing the calyx tube, margin free. Ovary immersed in the disc, free, ovoid, 2-celled,
attenuated into a 2-fid style. Drupe oblong, 2-celled. Leaves simple, deciduous.
B. discolor, Helmsl. (=Scutia discolor, Klotzsch in Peters' Mossamb. Bot. 110, t. 21.) A small tree with alternate or sub-opposite ovate or lanceolate, almost entire
leaves 3-6 c.m. long, glaucous on the under surface. Cymes axillary, few-flowered. Drupe large, yellow, fleshy, 2 c.m. long, 2-seeded, edible. Zambesia.
74. SCUTIA. Flowers small, greenish, in few-flowered, shortly peduncled, axillary umbels or fascicles. Calyx cup-shaped, its tube longer than its triangular margined segments.
Petals flat, and with the stamens perigynous. Disc surrounding but not connate to the globose 2-celled ovary. Style short, stigmas 2-3. Fruit leathery or fleshy, globose, sitting on or in the somewhat flattened cup of the calyx-tube, and containing 2 separable stones with flat adjacent faces. Trees or ramblers. Leaves simple,
alternate or approaching in pairs; stipules minute, caducous; a sharp intra-axillary hooked prickle (reduced branch) often present.
S. indica, Brogn. Vern. name-1i3, isi-pinga. Sometimes a bush or small tree; sometimes a widely rambling "Monkey-rope." Leaves oblong or elliptical, very variable.
Fruits black, 6-io m.m. diameter, very astringent, but eaten by children. A useless weed, common in Lourenzo Marques and present in M'Chopes and Inhambane.
See Forest Flora of Cape Colony," 178, Plate XXXVI. fig. 2.
75. RHAMNUS. Flowers small, green axillary, i or more in an axil. Calyx urc small, cuculate and emarginate. Stamens 5, minute, opposite the petals, and often included in the hood. Ovary free, ovoid, 3-celled; styles 3, short, connate below. Fruit fleshy, girt at the base by the calyx-tube and containing 2-3 bony stones. Seeds albuminous. Leaves simple, petiolate, stipulate. R. prinoides,
frequent in the Cape Colony and Natal, and in Abyssinia, was not noticed during my journey.




36 Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
R. Zeyheri, Sond. Vern. names--i, Red Ivory; 2, Pau-rosa(?); 4, Nukarane; 13, Um-nini; 15, Mnai. A small or medium-sized unarmed glabrous tree with numerous
twiggy branches, mostly in opposite pairs. Leaves opposite 2-4 c.m. long, 1-2 c.m. wide, shortly petiolate, elliptical, obtuse, entire, pale below, and usually with undulate or reflexed margin. Veins pinnate, numerous, often red, with fine secondary venation. Stipules short, acute. Pedicels axillary, i-flowered, I c.m. long; flowers small, greenish; fruits i-I'5 c.m. long, 3 m.m. diameter, nearly cylindrical, tipped by the style, and seated on the flat disc. Frequent in the Lebombo Range, less common in other extra-tropical localities; occurs also in Natal and Transvaal. This is probably the source of the beautiful 'Pau-rosa' timber of
Magude and neighbouring districts.
PLATE XXV.
76. COLUMBRINA. Calyx lobes 5 ; petals 5, hooded, clawed; stamens 5, enclosed in the petal-hoods. Disc fleshy, filling the calyx-tube. Ovary immersed in the disc,
3-celled; style 3-lobed. Drupe dry, separating septicidally into 3 cocci, and girt I its length by the calyx-tube. Leaves alternate, 3-nerved below, stipulate.
C. asiatica, Brongn. A glabrous shrub or small tree with ovate or cordate, crenate-serrate, petiolate leaves 5-8 c.m. long ; flowers in short axillary cymes; fruit i c.m.
diameter. Scattered throughout the Province.
FAMILY XXV.-CELASTRINEE.
Flowers small, regular, white or greenish, usually hermaphrodite. Inflorescence mostly axillary and cymose, occasionally paniculate. Calyx 4-5 lobed, with imbricate aestivation, its tube saucer-shaped, filled with the flat cushion-like 4-5 lobed disc, from under the margin of which the petals and stamens arise. Petals 4-5, imbricate in aestivation. Stamens 4-5, alternate with the petals or 3. Ovary superior, free or almost so, 2-5 celled; ovules 2 or i in each cell, anatropous, usually erect. Fruit various, often 3-celled sometimes samaroid, dehiscent or indehiscent. Seeds often arillate, sometimes winged, albuminous or exalbuminous. Leaves opposite or alternate, simple. Stipules caducous if present.
77. GYMNOSPORIA (=Celastrus Linn.). Trees or shrubs, often spinous, with alternate simple leaves, axillary, clustered, cymose or panicled, small 5-merous white or
yellowish flowers, usually 3-celled ovary somewhat sunk into and confluent with the disc; cells 2-ovuled, i-seeded ; capsules 1-3 celled, coriaceous or dry, dehiscent
or bursting more or less, and 1-3 seeded without a stone. Seeds albuminous, often arillate. Leaves alternate, exstipulate.
A considerable genus of trees and shrubs; of those found in this Province all are small shrubs of no forestal importance and several are undescribed. Among vern. names noted as belonging to this group are-4, She-hlwangwa, improcane and mantome; 6, Intsaru or Tsaru; 8, Cheringa; io, Na-peach and
Sangiera (small tree); 15, Hlangwe.
78. PTEROCELASTRUS. Glabrous trees without spines, having alternate entire coriaceous leaves, axillary-cymoid inflorescence, 5-merous small white flowers, 3-celled
half-inferior ovary; ovules erect, 2 in each cell; stamens between the lobes of the disc; very short style, 3-lobed stigma, and 3-celled woody ultimately dehiscent
capsules containing 1-3 albuminous seeds, each enclosed in a thin aril. Capsules with 3 or more irregular wings.
P. variabilis, Sond. Vern. name-13, i-twyina. A spreading tree, usually not tall, having lanceolate to obovate, shortly petiolate, entire leaves, 5-6 c.m. long, 1'5-4 c.m.
wide, axillary cymes, and abundant yellow 3-winged fruits by which it is easily identified. Seen sparingly and only in the Lebombo Range in Maputa district; it occurs plentifully in Cape Colony and Natal and is used for timber purposes and for the extraction of tannin from its leaves. See "Forest Flora of Cape Colony,"
page 187 and Plate XLII.
79. ELEODENDRON. Unarmed trees or shrubs with opposite or alternate simple leaves, cymoid paniculate or umbellate axillary inflorescence, and greenish, 4-5 merous,
hermaphrodite or polygamous flowers. Ovary partly immersed in the thick 4-5 lobed flat disc 2-3 celled; cells with 2 erect ovules each. Style very short. Fruit indehiscent, with a dry or fleshy epicarp and a more or less ligneous endocarp, often a decided stone, with 1-3 usually i-seeded cells. Seeds albuminous, exarillate.
Stipules when present minute, caducous.
E. Ethiopicum, Oliv. Vern. name-4, Jetroqua (which it shares with Pappea). A small tree, abundant on the sandy shores and sand dunes in the southern parts of
the Province, as also in Natal, Cape Colony and West Africa. Leaves alternate, 3-4 c.m. long, 1-2 c.m. wide, coriaceous, oblong or elliptic-oblong, obtuse, shortlypetioled, crenate-denticulate, usually glabrous above and more or less pubescent below, but sometimes all young parts densely pubescent. Flowers in dense shortly pedunculate axillary umbels, very small, greenish. Fruit ovoid, shortly-pointed, I c.m. long, somewhat fleshy, i-seeded. See "Forest Flora of Cape Colony," 191,
Plate XLIV.




Synoptical and Specific Descriptions. 37
E. sphaerophyllum, Presl. Vern. name-4-I5, Inkonguluti. A small tree, closely allied to E. oethiopicum, from which it differs in having wider, more coriaceous,
crenate serrulate leaves glabrous on both sides, and larger, globose, red, more or less edible fruit. Lebombo Range, not common, and not of economic importance
as usually small.
Another species with axillary 5-10 flowered corymbs, 5-merous large flowers 2 c.m. across, oblong fruits 3-4 c.m. long, and obovate, firmly coriaceous, shortly pedunculate, glabrous leaves 6-7 c.m. long, 4-5 c.m. wide was found as a small tree among the coast scrub at Bartholemew Dias, and is apparently an unnamed
species.
80. HIPPOCRATEA. Flowers small, hermaphrodite, in axillary cymes. Sepals 5 ; petals 5 ; stamens 3; anthers extrorse; ovary surrounded by or raised upon a disc,
3-celled; ovules 2 or more in each cell 2-seriate. Fruit carpels 3, distinct, flat, dehiscing along the median line. Seed compressed, on top of a wing. Trees or
climbing shrubs with opposite leaves.
H. indica, Willd. A glabrous climber with elliptical, finely serrulate or nearly entire, petiolate leaves 5-8 c.m. long, 2-5 c.m. wide. Flowers very numerous, small.
Ovules 2 in each cell. Carpels oblong 3-4 c.m. long, i"5 c.m. wide. Rovuma River, West Africa, India, &c.
H. Kirkii, Oliv. Young parts pubescent. Leaves elliptical, obscurely serrulate, 2-3 c.m. long, 1-2 c.m. wide. Cymes short, pubescent. Ovules 2 in each cell; carpels
obovate oblong. Zambesi.
H. longipetiolata, Oliv. Glabrous. Leaves widely lanceolate, serrulate, 3-7 c.m. long, 1-3 cm. wide, with petiole 1-2 c.m. long. Carpels obovate, 5-6 c.m. long, 2-3
c.m. wide, with several ovules in each cell. Zamnbesi.
H. delagoensis. (New species.)' Vern. namel-4, Umboti. A glabrous sub-scandent shrub having branches opposite, divaricate, leaves opposite, 2-3 c.m. long, very
variable from obovate to lanceolate, with several teeth, and there are also among them specimens with entire elliptical leaves 4-5 c.m. long. Carpels 3, divaricate, flat, obovate, coriaccous, splitting down the middle, and with 4 seeds in each. Seeds brown, i c.m. long on top of a winged petiole 2'5 c.m. long, i c.m. wide.
Common in the neighbourhood of Delagoa Bay, present also at M'Chopes and Inhambane. Sim 6390.
PLATE XXX. 13.
81. SALACIA. Flowers hermaphrodite. Sepals 5 ; petals 5 ; stamens 3 ; ovary 3-celled; ovules 2 or more in each cell. Fruit baccate, undivided, 1-3 celled, t or several
seeded. Trees or shrubs with glabrous opposite or sub-opposite, nearly entire leaves, and small flowers in axillary fascicles.
S. pyriformis. A glabrous shrub or small tree with oblong-elliptical, entire, coriaceous, shortly petiolate leaves 8-20 c.m. long, 4-12 c.m. wide. Fascicles sessile; fruit
pear-shaped, obtusely 3-sided. Zambesi.
CALYCIFLORIE. GROUP I. SECTION 2.
Flowers usually unisexual or polygamous, ovary i-celled, ovules solitary, pendulous.
FAMILY XXVI.-ANACARDIACE}E.
'Frees or shrubs, with alternate exstipulate simple or compound leaves, axillary or terminal paniculate or racemose inflorescence; hermaphrodite, polygamous or dioecious small flowers having a cushioned annular disc, under the edge of which the stamens are inserted. Calyx-segments and petals 4-6; stamens as many or twice as many or more (i only in Mangifera). Ovary free, i-celled or 2-5 celled, cells with i pendulous ovule each, styles 1-3, short; drupe dry or fleshy, indehiscent, and sometimes having a large woody stone. Seeds exalbuminous. Juice usually acrid, sometimes poisonous. The bark of various Rhus species is used in tanning, and varnishes are obtained from this and other genera. The Mango and Kaffir Plum are edible fruits, the Cashew-nut and Pistacio-nut are products; Rhus cotinus yields a dye-wood, and several kinds yield useful timbers.
82. RHUS. Shrubs or trees, having alternate simple or 3-foliate leaves (in local species), and axillary or terminal panicles of numerous small or minute, greenish, usually
polygamous flowers. Calyx-segments and petals usually 5 ; stamens usually 5, inserted round the disc, those of the male flower abortive. Ovary sessile, i-celled,
Ilippocratea delagoensis. (Sp. nov.) Frutex glabra, subscandens; ramis oppositis divaricatis; foliis oppositis, plerumque 2-3 c.m. longis, forma maxime varia, obovatis vel lanceolatis, margine dentata vel ellipticis, 4-5 c.m. longis, margine integra. Carpellis 3, divaricatis, compressis, obovatis, coriaceis, quoque fissura media rumpente, 4-spermo. Semrnine fusco, I c.m. longo. Frequens prope Delagoa Bay, M'Chopes, et Inhambane. Tab. XXX. B.




Synoptical and Specific Descriptions. 39
85. ANACARDIUM. Flowers polygamous in large terminal panicles. Calyx-segments 5 ; petals 5; stamens about io, not all equal; ovary a free, sessile, i-seeded nut, with
an oblique style, changing to reniform as it advances. Fruit reniform, attached by one end to the much-enlarged, succulent, edible, oblong pedicel.
A. occidentale, Linn. Vern. names-i, Cashew; 2, Caju or Cajueiros; 4 to ii, Canjew. A spreading evergreen tree, originally introduced long ago from America;
widely distributed and protected by the natives; and now the most frequent tree in the Province in or near where cultivation is, or has been, practised. Many large areas of abandoned lands are almost pure open forests of this tree, and the natives never cut it down as it supplies both food and drink. Flowers polygamous; either pistillate only, with a somewhat reniform ovary and lateral style from the sinus; staminate only with about io stamens, of which one is long; or having both pistil and stamens, of which the former is conical subulate and abortive, and the latter all short except one. The so-called "fruit" is a swollen pedicel, 4-6 c.m. long, 4 c.m. diameter, forming the well-known succulent and edible article; the true fruit is the upper reniform portion usually known as the Cashew-nut, eaten roasted, and distilled into a strong spirit. Leaves obovate, rounded at the apex, narrowed below, petiolate, glabrous o10-15 c.m. long, 5-7 c.m. wide, prominently veined
below. Timber useful.
PLATE XXVIII. I, Tree, general aspect (reduced); 2, Panicle and leaves ; 3, Flower (slightly enlarged) ; 4, Flower, with abortive pistil, I long and several short stamens (petals removed), x 3 5, Flower with stamens only (petals removed), x 3 ; 6, Flower with fertile pistil only (petals removed), x 3 ; 7, Fruit and so-called fruit."
86. SCLEROCARYA. Flowers dicecious or polygamous. Sepals 4-5; petals 4-5. Male flower-stamens 14-18, inserted round a small fleshy disc, pistil rudimentary.
Female flower-stamens impotent, ovary 2-3 pointed, 2-3 celled, with i ovule in each cell. Drupe with a 2-3 celled stone, I seed in each cell. Seeds exalbuminous.
Leaves imparipinnate, alternate, glabrous.
S. caffra, Sond. Vern. names-2, Ocanheiras; 4, Okania and Helinga-maash; 5, 6, 7, 8, Tsula; so, Mtula or Motula; 13, Um-gamo; i6, Morula. A rounded, muchbranched, low, deciduous, dicecious tree, usually found in open grass or thorn country rather than in dense forest. Leaves 12-30 c.m. long, io0-i2 c.m. wide, simply pinnate ; leaflets about 4 pairs and a terminal one, all ovate, acute, oblique at the base, 3-5 c.m. long, 2-3 c.m. wide, with a 2 c.m. slender petiole. Male inflorescence in many-flowered racemes 6-9 c.m. long, clustered under the new leaves, mostly with 4 petals, 14-18 stamens and rudimentary pistil; female flowers 1-3 on peduncles 2-3 c.m. long, also clustered below the new leaves, and with 5 petals, impotent stamens, and ovary 2-3 pointed, 3-celled, with i ovule in each cell. Fruit elliptical, 3-4 c.m. long, containing one 3-pointed 2-3 celled bony nut, with I seed in each cell, the seed growing through an opening at the top of the cell, and the empty nut afterwards showing 2-3 holes at its apex like a palm seed. The thick oily cotyledons are edible and the fruit is used for the production of an intoxicating liquor.
The bark is used for water-buckets, for drums for peanuts, &c., and for boats.
PLATE XXIX. I, Leaf ; 2, Male inflorescence ; 3, Pistillate inflorescence; 4, Do. after fertilization; 5, Pistillate flower; x 5; 6, Male flower, x 5; 7, Section of ovary, x 5; 8, Fruit; 9, Seed; o, Tree, general aspect (much reduced).
87. HITZERIA. Unknown to me; described by Prof. Oliver as follows:-" Flowers moncecious. Calyx 4 (5)-lobed; segments oval, valvate and exceeding the petals in
bud. Petals 4 (5), inserted on the calyx, slightly imbricate. Stamens (of male flowers) 8, alternately shorter, inserted on the calyx; anthers oval-oblong; mucronate, versatile; ovary o. Female flower 5-merous. Stamens io, rudimentary; ovary 3-celled; style short; stigma peltate, 3-lobulate. Drupe tomentose, I-celled, s-seeded. Seed ascending with a minute inferior radicle and thick, fleshy, piano-convex cotyledons. Tree. Leaves clustered at the extremities, unequally pinnate,
5-7 foliate, scabrid-pubescent. Flowers small, in spicate racemes, buds oblong. Drupes edible. Monotypic.
"H. edulis, Klotzsch in Peters' Mossamb. Bot. 89. Leaflets oval or ovate oblong, acute or obtuse, rounded at the base, the lateral opposite, sub-sessile, shortly hispid or
scabrid-pubescent at least when young, not exceeding 21 in. in our specimens. Mozambique, Dr. Peters, (?) Tette, Zambesia, Kirk, but leafless and fragmentary."
CALYCIFLOR2E. GROUP II.
Sepals connate at the base. Calyx-tube without distinguishable disc, but bearing the petals and stamens near its edge or on the base of its lobes.
CALYCIFLOR.AE. GROUP II. SECTION I.
Ovary superior, carpels I or more, free or partly connate. Stamens alternate with the petals when isomerous, usually more numerous,




38 Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
with solitary ovule pendulous from a basal funicle. Styles 3, free or connate below; ovary of male flower abortive or absent. Drupe usually dry, with a coriaceous or ligneous putamen, i-seeded, exalbuminous. Many species, of which nearly half are South African, and of these a good few extend into the-southern forests of this Province. These are 3-foliate useless shrubs or shrublets, for which see Flora Capensis," I. 506, and Forest Flora of Cape Colony," page 192. Among the vern. names for these I noted the following, viz. :--4, Hlaba-kunkune; 6, Gandasendua; io, Anamaka and Siwawe; 15, Hlongoshan, Umhlanyoni and Pembet.
Of the i-foliate species which constitute the sub-genus Anaphrenium, the following occur :R. longifolia, Sond. A large tree found throughout the Province, as also in Cape Colony and Natal. Leaves alternate, oblong or elliptical, tapering to each end,
undulate, o10-15 c.m. long, 3-4 c.m. wide, petioled, glabrous, green above, pale below. Panicles terminal on main and side branches, large or small, canescent.
Drupe oblique, I-I'5 c.m. long, almost black. This and the 2 following species are not separated in native opinion, and the following names are used for the 3,
viz. :-4, isi-nungu-mafe; 5, 6, Sassa, Satsa or Intsatsa; io, Na-kadi, Mkakambi, or Mikatanguo; 12, isi-fuce or isi-fika; 13, Umkomiso; 15, Siete.
R. insignis, Delile. A smaller tree than the last, often only 3-5 metres high; leaves 9-o0 c.m. long, 2 c.m. wide, glabrous above, silvery below, usually ternate. Panicles
pubescent. Abundant Maputa to M'Chopes, present but less frequent on the Zambesi and northward. Too near R. mucronifolia, Sond.
R. Salicina, Sond. Small tree 3-5 metres high; leaves oblong, mucronate, hairy on the upper surface, pubescent and somewhat silvery below, alternate, sub-opposite and
ternate. On the top of the Lebombos near Estatuene.
In the forests of Magenja da Costa coppice shoots were found where the roads had been cut, which had elliptical leaves 12-15 c.m. long, 4-6 c.m. wide, green and softly pubescent on both surfaces, which surroundings indicated to be coppices of Rhus longifolia. If so, the 3 species here mentioned should be regarded as
forms rather than species.
83. SORINDEIA. Flowers small, polygamous or dicecious, in terminal or axillary panicles. Leaves pinnate. "Petals valvate or sub-valvate. Ovule suspended near middle
of cell." As the only species found in the Province is included in the genus with doubt by Prof. Oliver in "Flora of Tropical Africa," and differs generically from the other species, further characters are here omitted and given only for that species, of which my material is insufficient to constitute the new genus which will be
required when complete material is obtainable.
S. (?) trimera, Oliv. Vern. name-io, Msamba. A very large glabrous tree, growing near streams in Magenja da Costa and Nhamacurra. Leaves alternate, 22-30 c.m.
long, imparipinnate; leaflets about 4 opposite pairs and terminal one; 5-io c.m. long, 5 c.m. wide, elliptical, bluntly pointed, entire, firm, glabrous, with stout petiole 5-10io m.m. long and pronounced midrib. Panicle terminal 8-20 c.m. long, many-flowered, seen by me in fruit only. Fruit 3 c.m. long, 2 c.m. diameter, ovate,
green, seated in the persistent 3-lobed calyx, within which and under the fruit 3 oblong petals and 6 filaments often remain under a membranous disc-ring. The filaments do not show whether all are stamens or 3 staminodia. Fruit with hard bony putamen, 3-celled, usually only i cell fertile, i-seeded, the seed nearly flat, pendulous from near the top of the axile placenta, exalbuminous. Juice of the fruit resinous, exceedingly viscid, and smells strongly of turpentine. Juice of stem watery or somewhat milky, flowing freely and drying to a gum used for caulking boats. Formerly recorded only from West Africa. This will probably prove a valuable timber tree, and is often 10ioo to 150 c.m. diameter. The 3-celled fruit, 3-merous flowers and opposite leaflets all indicate that this tree is out of place in
this genus.
PLATE XIX. I, Leaf and fruiting panicle, I fruit removed showing 3 sepals, 3 petals and 6 filaments; 2, Transverse section of fruit ; 3, Vertical section of fruit ; 4, Seed.
84. MANGIFERA. Flowers polygamous or dicecious. Calyx 5-lobed; petals 5, imbricate in aestivation; stamens by abortion usually i ; ovary free, sessile, i-celled; drupe
i-seeded, more or less edible, with a fibrous fleshy mesocarp and a large bony putamen. Leaves simple, entire, alternate.
M. indica, Linn. Vern. names-i, Mango; 2, Manguiera. A large glabrous tree, having many more or less permanent varieties differing among themselves in foliage
and fruit; leaves oblong-lanceolate or wider, 12-24 c.m. long, 3-6 c.m. wide, acute, petioled. Panicle terminal, many-flowered, 10-30 c.m. long. Fruit obliquely
oblong, ovoid, or curved 8-i6 c.m. long, 4-8 c.m. wide, somewhat compressed, and variable in regard to colour, flavour, and amount of fibre, but including varieties which are first-rate dessert fruits. Male flower-calyx-segments 5 ; petals 5 ; stamen i among incurved glands. Female flower-no stamens; ovary 5-lobed, with central subulate style. Probably originally introduced from Asia, but now widely dispersed throughout the tropical forests, and usually the largest trees in these
forests, often up to i metres diameter, and used to make the largest dug-out boats (Mandea).
PLATE XXVII. I, Panicle; 2, Tree, general aspect (reduced) ; 3, Staminate flower, x o10; 4, Pistillate flower, x to ; 5, Calyx and Corolla, x 5 ; 6, Fruit.




40 Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
FAMILY XXVII.--CONNARIACEiE.
Flowers hermaphrodite, regular. Calyx 5-partite; petals 5 ; stamens 5 or io, perigynous; carpels free, 3-5, i-celled; ovules 2, collateral, ascending from the base of the inner angle of the cell, orthotropus. Capsule usually solitary, follicular, i-seeded; seed arillate, exalbuminous. Trees or shrubs, leaves alternate, exstipulate, 3-foliate or pinnate (in our species); leaflets entire; flowers small, in cymes or panicles.
88. BRYSOCARPUS. Shrubs with pinnate leaves, cymose inflorescence; stamens io, sub-equal, or 5 longer and 5 shorter; carpels 5; capsule dehiscing by a dorsal suture;
seeds red, fleshy and arilliform below the middle.
B. orientalis, Baker. A small tree from the northern districts with pinnate leaves 15-24 c.m. long, and 21-25 leaflets in nearly opposite pairs, each 2-3 c.m. long, i-i'5
c.m. wide, elliptical, rounded at both ends and glabrous. Pod 1-2 c.m. long, slightly curved.
B. ovatifolius, Baker. Leaves pinnate, 6-8 c.m. long, with 7-9 ovate acute leaflets 2 c.m. long, glabrous and shortly petiolate. Pod oblong-cylindrical, sessile, glabrous,
1'5 c.m. long, 7 m.m. diameter. Nyasaland.
B. maximus, Baker. A small tree with pinnate leaves 10io-12 c.m. long, and 7-9 obovate acute glabrous leaflets 3-4 c.m. long, 2-25 c.m. wide. Pod oblong-cylindrical,
sessile, 2 c.m. long, 7 m.m. diameter, curved. Rovuma.
89. AGEL.EA. Leaves petiolate, 3-foliate. Stamens 5 (in our species), free, included; carpels 3-5, hairy; capsules 1-2, velvety; seed erect, fleshy and arilliform from the
base above the middle.
A. Lamarkii, Planch. A climbing shrub. Leaves 3-foliate, the terminal one obovate, 7-1o c.m. long, 5-7 c.m. wide on a 3 c.m. petiole, the lateral ones sessile, unequal
sided, all glabrous above and nearly glabrous below. Flowers small, in profuse panicles. Pod oblong, velvety. Zambesia.
FAMILY XXVIII.-LEGUMINOS/E.
Flowers regular or irregular, often papilionaceous, hermaphrodite or polygamous. Calyx lobes 5, or 4 if 2 connate. Petals usually 5, sometimes fewer or absent. Stamens usually io, sometimes fewer or many, hypogynous or perigynous, free or variously connate. Pistil superior, consisting of one i-celled carpel, usually flattened, with I or more axile ovules attached to its ventral suture. Style terminal. Fruit usually a legume, i or several-seeded; seeds exalbuminous. Leaves usually pinnate or 1-3 foliate, usually alternate, and stipulate. A vast Family and including trees, shrubs and herbs, and represented almost everywhere, usually taking a high place with regard to the number of species in any flora. The trees are mostly tropical or sub-tropical, and the tree-flora of this Province may be described as a Leguminous one, these trees taking a prominent place everywhere, and forming in places large almost pure forests of Acacias in the south, of Brachystegia in the M'Chopes, and of Pterocarpus in the north. Of its 400 genera 83 are South African and 141 Tropical African, 48 of these being common to both, only a few of these, however, being arborescent. The Family includes such a variety of useful plants that only the more important can be enumerated here. Among food materials for man or stock are Peas, Beans, Lentils, Carobs, Tamarinds, Clover, Lucerne, 'Fares, &c. Senna and others are medicinal; the bark of many species of Acacia is used in tanning; gums are yielded by Acacia and several other genera; Indigo, Camwood and Logwood are important dyes, and the number of active poisons is very considerable. Valuable timbers, usually with black or dark heartwood, occur in most warm countries, and this Province is well provided with such.
The Family divides more or less naturally into 3 Sub-Families, viz. :i. Papilionaceas. Stamens lo (many in Swartzia and Cordyla). Corolla irregular, papilionaceous; petals imbricate, the upper exterior.
2. Casalpinia. Stamens io or fewer. Corolla sub-regular, imbricate, not papilionaceous, the upper petal within the others.
3. Mimoseae. Flowers minute in dense heads or spikes. Corolla regular, valvate in aestivation. Stamens io or many. Leaves 2-pinnate.
SUB-FAMILY I.-PAPILIONACE}E.
Stamens io (many in Swartzia and Cordyla), free or variously connate. Corolla irregular, usually papilionaceous; petals 5, free or somewhat adnate to the staminal tube, usually arranged as i standard, outside in bud, 2 wzing-petals, and 2 lower petals, frequently coherent by their lower edges and forming the keel. Leaves simple, 3-foliate or imparipinnate (in our trees).




Synoptical and Specific Descriptions. 4I
90. INDIGOFERA. Shrubs or shrublets having usually imparipinnate but sometimes 3-foliate or i-foliate leaves, and axillary few or many-flowered racemes or clusters of white, rosy, or purple flowers. Calyx small, green, 5-toothed. Standard roundish, reflexed; wings narrow, partly adherent to the keel, which has a wart or spur on each side near the base; upper stamen free, the other 9 connate; connective with a glandular point. Ovary sessile, usually many-ovuled, sometimes 2 or fewovuled. Pod usually linear, terete or more or less flattened, dehiscent, the seeds often separated by septa. Pubescence often strigose. A large tropical and subtropical genus of herbaceous or woody undershrubs, never of timber size, but of interest as the source of indigo, which is obtained from the macerated leaves of several (or many) species. Among those which yield commercial indigo are I. tinctoria, I. anil, I. hirsuta, I. endecaphylla, and I. arrecta, all of which occur in the Province, but the presence of colour is not known to the natives, who have no use for these plants. In the "Flora of Tropical Africa" the two first-mentioned above are spoken of as cultivated; this does not apply here however, for I did not see a single plant of any Indigofera under cultivation. The native names appear to be more or less generic, and are, 6, Nkaromeba; io, Sa-wayo. There has of late been a demand from India for seed of colour-yielding Indigoferae, and the culture of plants for seed may be worth attention even though the cost of labour may prevent actual indigo extraction locally. See Forest Flora of Cape Colony,"
199, Plate LIV. fig. 3.
91. DALBERGIA. Trees, shrubs or climbers, often spine-bearing, and having alternate imparipinnate leaves with alternate or sub-opposite leaflets, and corymbose axillary or terminal panicles of small white or yellow flowers. Calyx 5-toothed, the teeth unequal, the lower one longest. Petals clawed, the side ones narrow ; the keel petals connate at the point, enclosed in the standard. Stamens io, connate, the tube having i or 2 slits, or i stamen absent. Ovary stalked, 1-3 ovuled. Pod compressed, oblong, usually i-seeded, not winged, indehiscent. Many tropical species, mostly climbing forest weeds, but various Indian and Brazilian species yield valuable timbers, usually having black or purple heartwood; the best known is the Sissoo tree (D. Sissoo, Rox.), now extensively cultivated in India. Of the 5 species recorded from this Province 4 are climbing shrubs, often monkey ropes, but in the absence of support forming semi-erect shrubs, to which the names, 6, Tiriane; io, Sambelemu, are given. A similar rambling shrub is D. obovata, E. Mey, common in Lourenzo Marques and M'Chopes. See Forest Flora of Cape Colony,"
199, Plate LI. fig. 2. An erect unarmed shrub 3-5 metres high in the northern forests, and constantly bearing fruit-like galls, but not seen in flower or fruit, is
believed to be a Dalbergia, and is known as, to, Munyenye.
D. melanoxylon, Guill. & Perr., has the reputation of being one of the valuable timbers of this Province, and is known as, i, Ebony; 2, Grenadilha; but though
constantly looked for I found nothing to answer its description, and doubt its presence in any quantity. It is thus described in "Flora of Tropical Africa" :-"A copiously branched bush or small tree, 15-20 feet high, with stout woody glabrous branches and long sharp woody spines. Petioles under -in., glabrous; leaflets 9-13, short stalked, oblong or obovate, in. long, both ends rounded, often emarginate, sub-coriaceous, both sides glabrous, veins beneath raised. Flowers in copious terminal and axillary panicles, the latter equalling or shorter than the leaves. Pedicels a line long, slender, glabrous, bracteolate. Calyx 2 lines deep, glabrous, upper teeth deltoid, the lowest lanceolate. Corolla yellow, slightly exceeding the calyx. Pod --2 in. long, -in. broad, blunt or sub-acute, with a long pedicel, the valves glabrous and membranous. Seeds 1-4. Mozambique, Dr. Peters; Zambesi-land, Dr. Kirk! Dr. Meller," and also recorded from Senegambia,
Nubia and Abyssinia.
92. MILLETTIA. Trees having imparipinnate leaves, usually opposite stipellate leaflets, and terminal panicles of purple flowers. Calyx companulate, with broad lobes.
Standard large, roundish, reflexed; wings smaller; keel still smaller, incurved. Stamens monadelphous, the upper stamen free at the base but not above. Ovary
many-ovuled, style inflexed. Pod compressed, several-seeded, ligneous, tardily dehiscent. Stipules small.
M. caffra, Meisn. Verin. names-5, Umsia; 6, 7, 8, Songa; 13, Umzimbiti, or Umzimbeet. Usually a small gnarled tree preferring shallow shale soils; occasionally a
large tree on alluvial. Leaves 15 c.m. long, 10-12 c.m. wide, the leaflets in about 5 pairs, oblong-acute, glabrous above, silky below, shortly petioled on a pubescent rachis. Panicles foxy-pubescent, terminal, 8-12 c.m. long. Flowers purple; calyx and vexillum silky, calyx-lobes acute. Pods 15 c.m. long, 3 c.m. wide, severalseeded, woody, dark-velvety, the valves twisting much on dehiscence. Seeds 2 c.m. long, oblong, flat. Cut roots make new plants. Used largely in Natal for wagon spokes, &c. See "Forest Flora of Cape Colony," page 203 and Plate LV. Present but not common in Lourenzo Marques district, Lower Gaza, M'Chopes
and Inhambane, usually as a bush or small tree.
93. SALDANIA.' (New genus.)2 Flowers not seen ; peduncle i-flowered, bracted near the middle; calyx 5-fid, segments acute; legume flat, dehiscent, several-seeded (3-5),
set with short spines or strong hairs. Leaves abruptly pinnate. An unarmed tree.
Named after Dr. Saldanha, through whose influence the development of the Province has been actively taken in hand, and on whose fine farm at Umbelusi this tree grows.
SSALDANIA. (Gen. nov.) Arbor inermis. Pedunculo unifloro, ad medium bracteato. Calycis 5-fidi segmentis acutis. Legumine debiscente plano, aculeis brevibus val setis vestito, 3-5spermo. Foliis abrupte pinnatis. Floris structura non cognita.
F




42 Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
S. acanthocarpa. (New species.)' Vern. names-4, Palase; 15, Hlandhlovu. A small unarmed tree 3-6 metres high, with stem diameter up to I5 c.m., and rough
corky bark. Leaves abruptly pinnate, 4-5 c.m. long, 2 c.m. wide; leaflets in 5-7 pairs, mostly equal, obliquely elliptical or trapeziform, rounded or sub-acute; stipules lanceolate, permanent ; peduncle 1-2 c.m. long, 2-bracted near the middle, i-flowered. Legume 4-5 c.m. long, 7-10 m.m. wide, straight or falcate, 3-5
seeded, bristly. Frequent in the Umbelasi Valley and thence to the Lebombo Range (extra-tropical). Flowers not seen, but it belongs to Papilionaceae, though
the general appearance is that of an Acacia. Sim 6222.
PLATE XXXIII. A. I, Fruiting branch; 2, Legume, open.
94. SESBANIA. Calyx campanulate, with short; petals clawed, standard large, rounded, wings oblong, keel blunt. Stamens diadelphous. Pod linear, narrow, terete,
15-30 c.m. or more long, dehiscent, many-seeded. Leaves imparipinnate, with many leaflets. Mostly herbaceous plants, annuals or undershrubs growing in or
near water.
S. egyptiaca, Pers. A small glaucous tree 3-6 metres high and sometimes 30 c.m. diameter, growing on the moist alluvial banks of the Umbelusi River. Leaves 8-io
c.m. long, with opposite, sub-opposite, or alternate glabrous oblong mucronate leaflets 2 c.m. long, and pubescent rachis, petiolules and stem. Peduncle 8 c.m. long, pedicels 1-2 c.m. long; legume 15-20 c.m. long, glabrous, narrow-linear, acute. A soft-wooded perishable tree usually growing where it is under water during flood.
95. HERMINIERA. A monotypic Tropical African genus, unknown to me but described as:-" Calyx deeply divided into 2 sub-entire lips. Standard orbicular, deeply
unguiculate; wings obliquely obovate, broad, about equaling the standard ; keel broad, obtuse or obliquely sub-rostrate, its petals easily separating. Stamens in 2 bundles of 5 each; anthers uniform. Ovary stalked, multi-ovulate ; style filiform ; stigma terminal, minute. Pod broad, linear, nearly flat, spirally curved, the
square articulations finally separating."
H. Elaphroxylon, Guill. & Perr. An erect shrub 37 c.m. high with spinose woody branches densely clothed with weak spreading yellowish bristles. Thorns 36 mm.
long, principally in pairs at the base of the leaves, horny, yellowish, sub-conical. Leaves pinnate, with bristly rachis 8-1io c.m. long, and o10 20 pairs of linear-oblong leaflets 1-2 c.m. long, 4-6 m.m. wide; flowers 1-3, sub-corymbose. Pod 5 c.m. long or more, i c.m. wide, 12-15 articulated, once or more spiral, flat, pubescent.
Grows in or near water. Very ornamental from its large bright-coloured flowers. Timber very light. Recorded from Zambesi-land; also from West Africa and
White Nile.
Abrus precatorius, Linn. The ZLucky Bean, with bright scarlet seeds 3 mn.m. diameter, is abundant throughout the Province as a climbing shrub. The seeds are often set in jewellery abroad.
96. BAPHIA. Easily separated from all its local congeners by its simple leaves. Stamens io, free; pod obliquely linear lanceolate with the lower edge straight; pointed,
woody, compressed, dehiscent. Trees or shrubs.
B. ovata. (New species.)2 Vern. namne-6, Chivari or Chevira. A medium to large glabrous tree. Leaves 2'5-5 c.m. long, widely ovate, not tapering at the base.
Flowers not seen. Inflorescence a short terminal panicle. Pods shortly stalked, io c.m. long, 2 c.m. wide in the upper portion, less below, sharp pointed, 1-2 seeded, woody, tardily dehiscent. Seeds 1i5 m.m. long, oblong, compressed. Timber valuable. Quisica and occasionally through M'Chopes, usually near water.
Sim 5279.
PLATE XLIX. A.
B. racemosa, Hochst. Vern. name-13, Isifiti. A small tree or more frequently a shrub; leaves 5-9 c.m. long, lanceolate to ovate, tapering below to a 1-2 c.m. petiole.
Flowers in few-flowered terminal and axillary racemes, white with a yellow spot at the base of the standard, and strongly violet scented. Pod similar to that ofB. ovata.
S. acanthocarpa. (Sp. nov.) Arbor parva, 3-6 mn. alta, cauli 15 c.m. diam.; cortice aspera, suberea; foliis paripinnatis, 4-5 c.m. longis 2 c.m. latis; foliolis 5-7-jugis, sub-equalibus, oblique
ellipticis vel trapeziformibus, obtusis vel subacutis; stipulis lanceolatis, persistentibus; pedunculo 1-2 c.m. longo; legumine 4-5 c.m. longo, 7-o m.m. lato, recto vel falcato, setoso. Frequens; a valle Umbelasi ad Montes Lebombo.
Baphia ovata. (Sp. nov.) Arbor media vel magna, glabra; foliis 2'5-5 c.m. longis, lato-ovatis; floribus haud visis; inflorescentia apicali paniculata, brevi ; fructibus breviter pedunculatis, io c.m. longis, sursum latioribus (2 c.m.), acutis, 1-2 spermis, ligneis, serius dehiscentibus; seminibus oblongis, I'5 m.m. longis, compressis, Juxta aquam ; Quisica et IM'Chopes, passim. Tab. XLIX. A.




Synoptical and Specific Descriptions. 43
The wood is highly spoken of by Wood (" Natal Plants," tab. 19), and the timber of B. nitida is the Camwood of Sierra Leone. B. racemosa occurs in Natal Coast
districts and is reported from the Batoka country. Harv. Thes. tab. 20; "Forest Flora of Cape Colony," 200, Plate CXXXVII. fig. 8; "Natal Pants," Plate 19.
B. Kirkii, Baker. A shrub with spathaccous calyx and densely tomentose branches is described from Zanzibar specimens and may extend into this Province, though I
am not aware that it has been found.
97. ERYTHRINA. Trees or shrubs, often prickly, having usually soft timber, or in some cases large pithy subterranean stems, with more slender leafy branches above
ground. Leaves pinnately 3-foliate, usually deciduous, with a gland at the bare of each leaflet. Stipules small, free. Flowers in stalked, many-flowered racemes, very showy, scarlet, red, yellow, or white, often produced before the leaves. Calyx entire or split; with or without 2 or more lobes. Standard large, flat and reflexed, or infolded and elongated, much larger than the narrow wings or the shorter connate or free keel petals. Stamens connate below only, with a split tube and having the upper one partly or quite free. Ovary stalked, ovules numerous. Pod stalked, narrowed at both ends and between the seeds, dehiscent. Seeds
oval, red, with a black hilum. A widely dispersed, usually tropical order.
E. tomentosa, R. Br. Vern. names-i3, Umsinsi (Pondoland), Um-kwaba-kwaba (Natal). A tree of stiff habit, seldom over 7 metres high, and with stem diameter up
to 45 c.m. Stem bare, rugged, with leaves at the top only. Leaves very large, the terminal symmetrical, 6-9 inches wide, 4-6 inches long, the lateral oblique and rather smaller. Spike many-flowered, short ; flowers dull crimson, not showy. Calyx split down one side, and having 5 slender segments. Pod 6 inches long, not prickly. Whole plant more or less tomentose. It is not easily killed by fire and consequently stands where most other kinds have been burned out, but it is never
found in dense bush. Timber soft, light, useless except for brake-blocks. Recorded from Zambesi-land. "Natal Plants," 384, 385.
E. Humeana, Spreng. lrn. namcs--4, Indlebe-monte; 6, Insika. A shrub seldom over 3 metres high, and having the stem development mostly in the ground, with
only soft branches above. Leaflets broadly ovate, or, in this Province, more frequently hastate, 6-:8 c.m. long and wide, glabrous, more or less acute, with the petioles and nerves armed with hooked prickles. Racemes 10o-20 c.m. long, on longer peduncles, many-flowered. Standard scarlet, infolded, 7-8 c.m. long, 1-5 c.m. wide;
pod 12-15 c.m. long, i c.m. diameter, beaded at each seed. Used for the production of fire by friction.
E. mossambicensis. (New species.)' Vc'rn. name-io, i r, Nenungo or Inungwa. Small tree 5-8 metres high, with rigid habit, very rough corky bark and stiff thick
branches, the younger with prickles r-i'5 c.m. long scattered on them. Petioles 5-12 c.m. long with scattered strong short hooked prickles; leaves densely rusty pubescent when young, soon glabrescent on both surfaces, the terminal leaflet on a 2 c.m. petiole is 8 c.m. long and as wide at the middle, tapering to the rounded point and shortly to the base ; the side leaflets rather smaller, on 5 m.m. petioles, the lower side largest, all the leaflets 3-veined at the base. Stipules 5 m.m. long, or less, pubescent. Inflorescence lateral, pubescent in 3-5 c.m. racemes or spikes on a 7-10o c.m. pubescent peduncle. Calyx-tube 1I5 c.m. long, bracted at the
base, cylindrical, densely grey-pubescent outside, glabrous inside, with 5 short oblong spreading scarlet lobes. Standard scarlet, i'5 c.m. long, protruding only a little from the calyx-tube, and in such manner that 4 sepals spread from it, giving the general appearance of an orchid flower. Ovary pubescent. Pods numerous, moniliform, 1'5 c.m. diameter, not flattened, bursting along one side. Seeds 7 m.m. long, scarlet. Good light timber for marimbas (Native pianos) and used for
making fire. Frequent from Quelimane northward. Sinm 5833.
PLATE LIV. I, Leaf; 2, Inflorescence; 3, Calyx; 4, Petals, x 3; 5, Ovary, x 3 ; 6, Pods.
E. Livingstoniana, Baker. Vln. names-6, 7, 8, Lidocoda and I-chonti. Sometimes an enormous tree 20-25 metres high, 3 metres diameter with clean shining
greenish bark, set with occasional large thorns 2-3 c.m. wide and deep, consisting of successive corky lairs with a sharp point. Prickles either nearly absent or more or less numerous on the younger branches and rachis. Stipules 1'5 c.m. long, lanceolate; petiole 8-20 c.m. long, swollen at the base, and with 2 glands below the pair of side leaflets and at the base of the upper one, which is 5 c.m. above the others. Upper leaflet 12-18 c.m. wide, 10-12 c.m. long, more or less 5-lobed, oblong, with a conical blunt upper lobe. Side leaflets obliquely 3-4 lobed, 10-12 c.m. wide and long, shortly petiolate. Raceme when in fruit 60 c.m. long, with swollen
Erythrina Mossambicensis. (Sp. nov.) Arbor parva, 5-8 min. alta, rigida ; cortice asperrima, suberea; ramis rigidis crassis, junioribus aculeis 1-1-5 c.m. longis sparsis armatis; petiolis 5-I2 C.m.
longis, aculeis brevibus aduncis armatis; foliis junioribus pubescentia ferruginea densa vestitis, mox in utraque pagina glabrescentibus ; foliolia picalis 8 c.m. longi et lati ovato-orbicularis petiolo 2 C.m. longo ; foliolorumn ceterorum paullo minorum inicequilateralinum petiolis 5 m.m. longis ; foliolis omnibus 3-veniis; stipulis 5 m.m. longis vel brevioribus, pubescentibus; inflorescentia laterali, pubescente, racemi vel spicae 3-5 c.m. longi pedunculo 7-10 c.m. longo; floribus bracteatis; calycis tubo 1-5 c.m. longo, cylindrico, extus pubescentia densa cana vestito, intus glabro ; calycis lobis 5 brevibus, oblongis, patentibus, coccineis; vexillo coccineo, I '5 c.m. longo, e tubo calycis breviter protruso ; petalis caeteris divergentibus in forma floris orchidis ; ovario pubescente ; fructibus multis, moniliformibus, I'5 c.m. latis, non compressis, uno latere dehiscentibus; semine 7 m.m. longo, coccineo. Frequens a Quelimane septentrionem versus. Tab. LIV.




44 Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
nodes and several pods; pod 2-valved, dehiscent, 10-30 c.m. long, consisting of 1-6 globose cells separated by narrow constrictions, and having a 5-o10 c.m. barren portion at the base, and a 3 c.m. acute point. Seed scarlet, 2 c.m. long, 12-14 m.m. wide. Present but scarce in the M'Chopes and Inhambane districts (extratropical); also in Quelimane, Magenja da Costa, Nhamacurra, and in the Zambesi and Shire Valleys.
PLATE XLVIII. I, Leaf; 2, Fruiting raceme and pod; 3, Scarlet seed; 4, Thorn ; 5, Tree, general aspect.
98. CAJANUS. Two upper calyx-teeth connate. Standard round, reflexed. Upper stamen free, others connate. Ovules many. Style glabrous. Pod linear, compressed,
2-valved, dehiscent, with transverse constrictions. Leaves 3-foliate.
C. indicus, Spreng. Vern. names-4, Kolokoto; 6, Ndoti io, Boere. A shrub 3-4 metres high, frequent in cultivation and often naturalised where cultivation has been
abandoned. Leaflets oblong, 5-8 c.m. long, pointed, glabrous above, canescent below. Racemes few-flowered; standard brownish yellow. Legume 8 c.m. long, I'5 c.m. wide, pointed, 3-6 seeded, pubescent. Seeds used in native cookery, like lentils. Never timber size, but its wood is used further north for the production
of fire by friction. It occurs throughout the Province and is cultivated by Indians in Natal.
99. PTEROCARPUS. Unarmed trees, having imparipinnate (or simple) leaves, with alternate side-leaflets; terminal or axillary racemes or panicles of yellow flowers; and
distinctive usually i-seeded pods having a wide and nearly circular membranaceous wing surrounding each. Calyx turbinate, the upper 2 teeth somewhat connate. Corolla yellow; standard rounded, keel petals nearly free; stamens connate in a slit tube or with i stamen more or less free. Ovary with several ovules; seed i (or sometimes 2) seeded. Pod indehiscent, somewhat compressed, sometimes bristly, with a wide thin wing all round, and the style lateral or even
near the stalk.
P. erinaceus, Poir. Vein. names-4, Thondo; ro, Imbilo; it, Moqombire-bire; 15, Shuiaan. A more or less deciduous tree 15-20 metres high, with straight bole
30-45 c.m. diameter spreading crown, and pubescent branchlets. Leaves unequally pinnate; rachis slender, 20-30 c.m. long; leaflets 9-13, sub-opposite or alternate, 4-8 c.m. long, elliptical-lanceolate to obovate, glabrous above and ultimately glabrous below. Flowers in terminal panicles with racemose branches. Pods often several together, each with a firmly membranaceous wing an inch wide all round, nearly circular, 10 c.m. wide (including wing); the stigma near the stalk; the central seed-bearing portion 12 m.m. diameter and densely echinate with bristles 10-12 m.m. long; smaller bristles or hairs are on the inner part of the wing and
towards the stalk and stigma; other portions of the wing are glabrous and more or less reticulated.
In the "Flora of Tropical Africa P. angolensis is included as a synonym, and concerning this Miss L. S. Gibbs says :' "P. angolensis A.D.C. which has often been quoted as a synonym of P. erinaceus, Lam., is easily distinguished by the larger flowers and much larger fruit, which has more bristles in the centre and a broader wing." All the trees seen throughout Mozambique Province appeared to be alike, and with less variation than most species. Present though not abundant throughout the extra-tropical parts of the Province, abundant through the tropical districts and in some places as in the Robe Forest, near Arenga, Magenja da Costa forming almost pure forest. A valuable and durable timber, found in great abundance, and certainly the most valuable asset the Province has in its tropical forests. It extends into Natal, Swaziland, the Transvaal, and to the West Coast, and (including P. angolensis) from the coast to the Matopos.
"Produces the African gum Kino and the wood is much used. See R. Brown's remarks on Oudney's Travels, p. 29, and Hooker in Gray's Travels in West Africa,
p. 395.'"'
PLATE LIX. I, Leaves; 2, Pod.
P. lucens, Guill. & Perr. A small tree with glabrous branches and glaucous leaves 10-15 c.m. long, having 3-7 oblong leaflets 4-5 c.m. long, glabrous above and at first
canescent under. Flowers numerous in short racemes. Pod nearly round, 3-4 c.m. long; wing 6-8 m.m. wide, glabrous; style slightly oblique. Senna, Dr. Kirk!
o100. BOLUSANTHUS. Monotypic, founded on the following tree:B. speciosus, (Bolus), Harms, Rep. Nov. Spec. Reg. Veg. II. p. 15. Vern. names-i, Rhodesian Wistaria (Miss Gibbs); 3, Loed hout, Oliphants hout; 4, Goshwan;
15, Mohoshle. A small deciduous tree, 6-io metres high, usually with a straight bole 20-30 c.m. diameter and spreading at the top only. Flowers and leaves appear together in spring; leaves 15-20 c.m. long, imparipinnate; leaflets 9-17, lanceolate, petiolate, acute, 5 c.m. long, 1'5 c.m. wide; stipules pubescent. Racemes 15-20 c.m. long, many-flowered, drooping, resembling Wistaria; pedicels 2-2'5 c.m. long; flowers without scent; calyx with 2 upper, and 3 smaller lower teeth. Corolla
Botany of Southern Rhodesia, Linn. Soc. Jour.; But. XXXVII. Nov. 1906. Flora of Tropical Africa," II., 240.




Synoptical and Specific Descriptions. 45
violet coloured; standard obovate; side petals with an auricle on each side at the base, that on the upper side somewhat hooked; lower petals free, auricled at the base. Stamens all free, one standing separate. Ovary pubescent with about 6 ovules. Pod dehiscent, 5-7 c.m. long, flat, several-seeded., Never large, but a valuable timber and in demand. Frequent in Maputa and Marracuene; especially toward the Lebombos, less common near Lourenzo Marques, and not noticed
north of the Limpopo, though being deciduous and leafless while I was there it may have been overlooked. Occurs also in the Transvaal and Rhodesia.
PILATE L. A. I, Flowering branch with partly developed leaves; 2, Flower; 3, Section of pistil; 4, Stamens; 5, Upper pair of petals; 6, Lower pair of petals; 7, Pistil; 8, Flower, petals removed 9, Stamen, x 2; o, Stipule, x 5.
Loi. LONCHOCARP US. Trees and woody climbers with imparipinnate leaves; opposite stipellate leaflets; pendent racemose or paniculate inflorescence; and indehiscent
or tardily dehiscent woody pods. Calyx campanulate ; standard rounded ; keel petals slightly coherent. Stamens monadelphous, the upper stamen free at the base.
Ovary somewhat stalked, with several ovules. Pod woody, several-seeded, sometimes wide on the upper side.
L. laxiflorus, Guill. & Perr. Vern. name-4 and s15, Panda. A small tree 5-so metres high, with straight stem 30-45 c.m. diameter, grey bark, and glaucous more
or less deciduous foliage. Leaves pinnate, 1-3-5 foliate, with peduncle 2-5 c.m. long, rachis 2-stipellate below the upper leaflet and at each pair of leaflets ; leaflets varying much with age and position front widely lanceolate, acute, 3-5 c.m. long, to ovate or obovate, rounded or bluntly pointed, 8-15 c.m. long, 4-8 c.m. wide, glabrous and finally subcoriaceous. Panicles terminal, o10-15 c.m. long, spreading, many flowered; flowers light blue, sweetly scented; side and lower petals eared; stamens connate I their length, upper one partly free. Pod flat, 5-1o c.m. long, 2 cm. wide, with a thick upper suture, 1-3 seeded; seeds reniform, flat, 1-5 c.m.
long. This looks a promising tree, but is practically a forest weed since it has no value. The timber is useless and not durable, and will not burn ; the tree reproduces itself freely from seed, and also every cut root grows and stumps are difficult to kill. Although the flowers are rather pretty, Wistaria-like, this is a tree which it is well to be rid of. Abundant in Lourenzo Marques, Maputa and Marracuene; not noticed north of the Limpopo, but probably present and deciduous during my visit, as it is recorded from Zambesi-land, Kirk! Mozambique, Peters! as well as from Abyssinia and West Africa. Capassa violacea, Klotzsch in
Peters' Mossamb. Bot., 28, t. 5 ; L. Philenoptera, Benth.
P'LATE L. B. I, Panicle and young leaves; 2, Old leaf; 3, Side petal; 4, Lower petals; 5, Stamens; 6, Pod ; 7, Seed.
L. mossambicensis. (New species.)2 Vern. names-6, Chicuswa; io, i i, Pangira, Mpangeli. A valuable timber tree 20-30 metres high, with straight nearly white stem
20-40 c.m. diameter. Leaves 30-45 c.m. long, imparipinnate, with 3-5 pairs of leaflets and an obovate terminal one, which is often 15 c.m. or more long, others oblong, obovate or elliptical, shortly petioled, 8-io c.m. long, 5-8 c.m. wide, glabrous above, silky below, and with 2 stipellae on the rachis at each pair of leaflets and below the terminal one. Inflorescence on a rachis 5 c.m. long, many flowered, described to me as like Wistaria; Pod 20-35 c.m. long, 2'5-5 c.m. wide, flat, hard, woody, indehiscent (or tardily dehiscent), tapering to the base, and rounded with a short point at the apex, 4-8 seeded, densely rufous-velvety when young, warted and glabrescent when mature; 4-5 m.m. diameter, or rather more at the seeds. Seeds 2-2'5 c.m. long, 2 c.m. wide, compressed, brown, glabrous,
exalbuminous; pod finely silky in the cell around the seed, adnate if not connected between the seeds. Mentioned in "Flora of Tropical Africa," II., 243, under L. macrostachys, Hook. Planted from stem cuttings along the roads as a shade tree at Quisico; frequent in M'Chopes and Inhambane (extra-tropical), and abundant in the forests of Quelimane, Magenja da Costa and Nhamacurra (tropical). This and various other trees have the name Pao-ferro (= ironwood) applied to their
timber on account of its hardness. Sim 5382.
PLATE LIII. I, Leaf and fruit; 2, Seed.
102. DERRIS. Shrubs or climbing shrubs, with imparipinnate leaves, axillary and terminal panicles of white or rose-coloured flowers, and oblique, flat, oblong, somewhat
winged, indehiscent pods, containing one or few seeds.
In the January, 1907, number of the "Transvaal Agricultural Journal" there is a coloured plate with a short description of the tree.
SLonchocarpus Mossambicensis. (Sp. nov.) Arbor 20-30 m. alta, cauli erecto paene albo, 20-40 c.m. diam. ; foliis imparipinnatis, 30-45 c.m. longis; foliolis 3-5 jugis, foliolo apicali obovato 15 c.m.
longo, caeteris oblongis, ellipticis, breviter petiolatis, 8-io c.m. longis, 5-8 c.m. latis, in pagina superiore glabris, inferiore sericeis, stipellatis ; inflorescentia eae Wistariae simili ; legumine 20-35 e.m. longo, 2"5-5 c.m. lato, plano, duro, ligneo, non vel serius dehiscente, basi angustiore, apice, subacuto, 4-8 spermo, juveni pubescentia densa rufa velutina vestito, mnaturo verrucoso et subglabro; semine 2-2"5 c.m. longo, 2 c.m. lato, compresso, fusco, glabro ; albumine nullo. M'Chopes et Inhambane (extra trop.), Quelimane Magenja da Costa et Nhamacurra (trop.) ; frequens in sylvis; prope Quisico ad vias posita. Tab. LIII.




46 Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
D. uliginosa, Benth. A wide-climbing shrub with glabrous leaves having 3-5-7 oblong, pointed, shortly petiolate leaflets 5-10 c.m. long, 3-5 c.m. wide, rounded or cordate
at the base. Panicles 10-20 c.m. long, narrow, with shortly pedicelled rose-coloured flowers. Pod 3 c.m. long, 2-5 c.m. wide, compressed, glabrous; the upper
suture straight and narrowly winged, the lower rounded and not winged. Seeds 2. "Zambesi-land, banks of the Luabo, and in the Zambesi delta, Kirk. Stems
used when beaten as a fish poison acting rapidly and effectively." Asia, Australia, and Madagascar.
103. SOPHORA. Represented in Mozambique Province by only one species.
S. tomentosa, Linn. A maritime shrub 3-5 metres high silvery-white throughout except the bright yellow petals and dark pods. Leaves 15 c.m. long, io c.m. wide, with
6-8 pairs of oblong, nearly sessile, silvery pubescent leaflets, and terminal one. Inflorescence a many-flowered terminal raceme io-15 c.m. long. Stamens io, free.
Pods 7-12 c.m. long, 2-6 seeded; each pod constricted between the seeds, with a stalk 2 c.m. long and a point I'5 c.m. long. S. inhambanensis, Klotzsch, Bazaruto,
Bartholemew Dias, Sofala and Zambesia. A most effective plant for horticultural work where it will grow.
PLATE LI. I, Flowering raceme; 2, Fruiting branch.
104. SWARTZIA. An American genus with only one African species.
S. madagascariensis, Desv. Vern. name-io, Naquada. A tree 10-20 metres high, with erect, nearly white stem, 20-40 c.m. diameter; imparipinnate leaves, few
flowered racemes, and long terete pods which easily identify the tree. Leaves alternate, 16-20 c.m. long, io c.m. wide, with 9-I 1-13 leaflets; the terminal one 5-7 c.m. long, 2'5-4 c.m. wide, obovate; the others elliptical, minutely mucronate, 4-5 c.m. long, 2'5 c.m. wide, with petioles 3 m.m. long. Youngest wood, rachis,
petioles and veins densely but finely silky-pubescent; under surface of leaf sparingly so. Pod 15-30 c.m. long, indehiscent, terete or very bluntly 4-sided, 15-20 m.m. diameter, rounded and mucronate at the point, with the seeds in a central cell, having an empty cell on each side and a glabrous brown leathery coat, somewhat fleshy inside.
This and several other trees yield very hard dark timber known as Pau-ferro, (=iron-wood) and probably on this account I found natives confuse this and the dissimilar Lonchocarpus mossambicensis, some giving the names Pangira and Naquada to either. The Portuguese name Scopira belongs to one or both of
these. Abundant in most of the forests north of the Zambesi; not seen in the extra-tropical districts. Recorded from most other parts of Tropical Africa.
PLATE LII.
105. CORDYLA. Monotypic, on the following Tropical African tree.
C. africana, Lour. Ve,-n. names-4, Boboti; 6, Moanjwa; io, Moroanda. A very large tree, 20-30 metres high, with an enormous spread of branches, and sometimes
i metres diameter of stem. Leaves alternate, simply pinnate with 10-12 or more pairs of elliptical leaflets and a terminal one, all 4 c.m. long, 12-20 m.m. wide, shortly petioled, and either rounded, bluntly pointed, or slightly emarginate at the apex. Racemes axillary near the points of the branches, 2-20 flowered, secund, the flowers all showing upward. Calyx widely cup-shaped with 4 deltoid segments. Petals absent. Stamens numerous ; filaments i c.m. long, golden yellow, making the flowers conspicuous. Ovary obliquely pointed, stalked, 8-io ovuled; fruit globose or somewhat elliptical, 3-4 c.m. long, 2-5 c.m. diameter on a 3 c.m.
peduncle, leathery indehiscent, 1-8 seeded, the seeds lying across the fruit, and varying very much in size and form. The timber which is light and soft is that used for the construction of native pianos (6, Marimba, to, Mangwela) and also for native drums. Nowhere abundant, but not uncommon throughout the Province
present also in Nile-land and Senegambia.
PLATE XLVI. I, Leaf; 2, Racemrne ; 3, Flower, cut open, X 2; 4, Flower, slightly enlarged; 5, Fruit; 6, Section of same ; 7, Large seed; 8, Tree, general aspect (reduced).
io6. ANDRADIA. (New genus.), Calyx-tube saucer-shaped, discoid; segments 5 (or occasionally 6-7), free to the disc, petaloid, much imibricate in aestivation, at length
spreading. Petals absent. Stamens io (or occasionally fewer), equal, free, rising from the margin of the disc; filaments filiform ; anthers basifixed, cordate-oblong, with a short projecting connective, and opening by terminal lateral slits. Ovary shortly stipitate, with short bent style, 1-3 ovuled. Fruit ovoid, shortly stalked,
ANDRADIA. (Gen. nov.) Calycis tubo patelliformi discoideo, segmentis 5 (6-7) petaloideis, aestivatione late imnbricatis, demum patentibus petalis nullis; stamninibus io (interdumr paucioribus) aequis, filamentis liberis filiformibus e margine disci ortis ; antheris innatis, cordato-oblongis, in connectivam brevem products, fissura laterali apicem versus dehiscentibus ; ovario breviter stipitato, ovulis 1-3; stylo brevi curvato ; fruetu ovoideo breviter stipitato, vix comnpresso, non dehiscente, chartaceo ; semininibus 1-2, in tegmine acidulo fusco inclusis, ovatis, sub-comnpressis, canis, glabris, duris; cotyledonibus planis viridibus ; albumine copioso corneo. Foliis imparipinnatis, foliolis oppositis vel alternis.




Synoptical and Specific Descriptions. 47
hardly compressed, indehiscent, firmly papery, with r-2 seeds bedded in an acidulous brown covering. Seeds ovate, somewhat compressed (or where 2 irregular in
form), grey, glabrous, hard, with flat green cotyledons and abundant horny albumen. Leaves unequally pinnate, the leaflets opposite, sub-opposite and alternate.,
A. arborea. (New species.)2 Vern. names-4, Mneba and Treba; 5, 6, Ziba or Inziba. A large timber tree, frequent throughout the Province, especially in the south.
Leaves alternate, imparipinnate, 7-1o c.m. long, 4-5 c.m. wide, at first rusty, afterwards glabrescent; leaflets about i i, opposite, sub-opposite or alternate, more or less obliquely ovate, elliptical or oblong, usually bluntly pointed but with the point recurved, 2-2"5 c.m. long, i c.m. wide, with a petiole 2 m.m. long. Panicle diffuse, terminal and axillary 10-20 c.m. long, nearly as wide. Flowers i c.m. wide, scented. Growth-buds, inflorescence, calyx, ovary and fruit all finely rustypubescent. Sim 6141.
PLATE XXVI. I, Branch ; 2, Panicle; 3, Flower, x 5 ; 4, Tree, general habit (reduced) ; 5, IFruit.
SUB-FAMILY II.-CAESALPINIE)E.
Stamnens so or fewer. Cylyx 5-fid, or by union of the upper two, 4-fid. Corolla regular, irregular, or absent; petals free, equal or unequal, not papilionaceous, imbricate, the upper petal within the others; stamens io or fewer, free, or more or less connate. Leaves alternate, 2-lobed, pinnate or bi-pinnate. Mostly tropical or sub-tropical trees and shrubs.
107. PELTOPHORUM. Represented in Africa by only one species.
P. africanum, Sond. Vern. name--5, Nzeza; no name in Maputa though present. A small unarmed tree, usually 3-5 metres high, with abruptly 2-pinnate leaves;
terminal racemes of yellow flowers, and flat indehiscent winged pods. All young parts densely brown-pubescent, which pubescence is gradually reduced in quantity with age, but even mature leaves are somewhat pubescent above, and silky pubescent below. Leaves alternate, abruptly 2-pinnate, with 5-8 pairs of pinnae each with o10-20 oblong sessile mucronate leaflets. Stipules 6 m.m. long, linear, and like the growth-buds densely rusty-pubescent. Racemes terminal 8-io c.m. long, many flowered. Sepals 5, nearly equal, with a short tube. Petals obovate, wavy; stamens io, free ; filaments hairy below; ovary with 2 or more ovules. Pods 6-8 c.m. long, 2 c.m. wide, oblong, acute, flat, indehiscent, somewhat winged on both sides, 1-2 seeded, glabrous or minutely canescent, striated. Seeds albuminous.
Frequent in the Lebombo Range and seen sparingly elsewhere in extra-tropical districts. Also found in West Africa. An ornamental tree, worth cultivation as such.
Sim 6266.
PLATE XLIX. B.
o8. CAESALPINIA. Represented in this Province by only one species C. Bonducella, Roxb., which being barely of shrub size, and of no practical use, is hardly worth
mention here. It has large 2-pinnate leaves 30-45 c.m. long; recurved prickles on the stem, rachis and inflorescence; many flowered bracted racemes; nearly regular, yellow flowers; and oblong, prickly, somewhat compressed pods 5-7 c.m. long, 3-4 c.m. wide. It is frequent near the coast or tidal rivers throughout the
Province, and children use the pods as rattles.
C. pulcherrima, Sw. (= Poinciana pulcherrima, L.), is common in cultivation and is the street tree of Quelimane (where it is called Acacia), but is hardly naturalised
anywhere. Its beautiful foliage, scarlet flowers, flat crown and long pods make it a marked feature, but somehow its beauty is not appreciated where it grows easily.
og. CASSIA. A very large genus of trees, shrubs and herbs, represented in this Province by io or 12 species of useless half-ligneous shrubs or shrublets of no importance
except such as is attached to them in native medicine and superstition. They have paripinnate leaves, and axillary racemes, clusters, solitary flowers, or terminal panicles of yellow flowers. Calyx deeply 5-parted, the segments often unequal, imbricate. Petals 5, hardly equal; stamens 5, 7, io, in the latter case the upper 3 often smaller and effete, all basifixed and dehiscing by terminal pores. Ovary elongate; ovules many; legume terete or flattened, many-seeded, dehiscent or
indehiscent.
Named after Major Frere d'Andrade, Governor-General of the Province of Mozambique, whose active interest in the development of the Province and its resources has, among its other results, been productive of this book.
SA. arborea. (Sp. nov.) Arbor magna; foliisalternis, imparipinnatis, 7-so c.m. longis, 4-5 c.m. latis, primo ferrugineis, demum glabrescentibus; foliolis circiter II, plus minus oblique ovatis ellipticis vel oblongis, plerumque in mucronem obtusum reflexum productis, 2-2'5 c.m. longis, I c.m. latis, stipite 2 m.m. longo praeditis; panicula diffusa, apicali vel axillari, 10-20 c.m. longa, et tantum non lata; floribus i c.m. latis, odoratis; gemmis, inflorescentia, calyce, ovaio et fructu pubescentia ferruginca subtili vestitis. Per provinciam frequens, praecipue in parte australi. Sim 6141. Tab. XXVI.




48 Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
iio. BAUHINIA. Trees or climbing shrubs easily recognised by the leaves which appear to be simple and 2-lobed, but are formed of 2 leaflets connate along their upper edges. Flowers are axillary or terminal on i, or few-flowered or racemose peduncles. Calyx-tube various, its limb either of 5 free segments, or split at one side only and reflexed as a single spathe. Petals 5, clawed, nearly equal, white, red, or purplish. Stamens io or fewer, perfect or some imperfect, with free or almost free slender unequal filaments, and versatile anthers dehiscing longitudinally. Ovary stalked, several or many-ovuled. Pod flat, woody, dehiscent or indehiscent, several-seeded; seeds flattened, albuminous. A large tropical genus, widely dispersed. i tree, T shrub, and 3 sub-scandent shrubs are included in the Flora of Tropical Africa," as from Mozambique district. The tree I found in abundance in the tropical districts, together with what appeared to be only 2 species of straggling shrubs, all passing under the one name Masi-kesi; in the extra-tropical districts only r species was observed, a small straggling shrub used for cordage and known as, 6, Batela; 15, Umtelem, in the M'Chopes and Lebombo, but as all except the tree were without flowers or fruit, they were not in condition
for identification.
B. reticulata, D).C. Vern. name-ro, ii, Masikesi. A medium-sized or small tree, seldom over 15 metres high and 30 c.m. diameter of stem, usually rather crooked
and gnarled, and though of good nearly black timber, seldom of size and form to be of use. Leaf 8-12 c.m. long, 12-18 c.m. wide, glabrous above, velvety below, about 9-veined. Young growth rusty-tomentose. Petiole and inflorescence tomentose. Raceme terminal or opposite a leaf, branched. Calyx-lobes free, or sometimes cohering. Petals white or nearly so, obovate and clawed, equal, pubescent outside. Stamens io. Pod 8-20 c.m. long, 2-5-5 c.m. wide, with a 3 c.m.
gynophore, a long point, and a dense coat of dark velvet. Seeds several. "The bark yields a tough fibre; it is also astringent and used in Medicine." Abundant
from the Zambesi northward, showing preference for open glades, though sometimes found in thick forest.
PLATE XLIII. I, Fruiting branch ; 2, Medium-sized pod ; 3, Tree, general aspect, reduced.
III. BERLINIA. Unarmed trees, with abruptly pinnate leaves; panicled racemes of handsome white flowers; and long flat coriaceous dehiscent legumes. Sepals 5; petals
5, unequal; Stamens io, all perfect, connate at the base, except one. Ovary shortly stalked; ovules 6-8; buds enclosed between a pair of bracteoles. Several
species, all Tropical African.
B. acuminata, Sol. Unknown to me, but recorded with a doubt from Rovuma in "Flora of Tropical Africa." It is described as a tree 7-20 metres high, almost
glabrous, with simply pinnate leaves, 3-6 pairs of oval leaflets 8-24 c.m. long, 4-12 c.m. wide. Flowers in terminal simple or usually corymbosely panicled hoary racemes; posterior petal ample, 4-8 c.m. long, clawed, with cristate margin ; other petals small, linear, dilated or auricled below. Legume 24-30 c.m. long, 5 c.m.
wide, flat, with the ventral suture thickened and laterally ridged.
112. AFZELIA. Trees with abruptly pinnate leaves, terminal racemes of curiously irregular flowers, and thick woody oblong pods containing several black seeds, each set in
a scarlet or yellow aril. Only one species is known to belong to this Province.
A. quanzensis, Welw. Vern. names-i, Mahogany; 2, Ompow; 4, 15, Hlafuta, or Chaputa; (Benguelle? at Manhica); 5, 6, 7, 8, Inchenu, Insena, Sina, or Xina;
io, Musacosse, or Momba periwede; i, Mugoberere. A medium sized or large tree in accordance with locality, I5-20 metres high, 40-60 c.m. diameter of stem, with a good bole and a spreading gnarled crown, perhaps regularly deciduous, but the trees vary in their leafless season. Leaves glabrous, dark green, shining, paler below, 20-30 cm. long, with about 4 pairs of leaflets which are elliptical, rounded or bluntly pointed at the apex, shortly petiolulate, undulate and with a slender rachis, swollen at the base. Flowers in racenimes, terminal on short leafy branches, 6- 2 flowered. Sepals 4, 1'5-2 c.m. long, convex, finely canescent, the upper smaller. Vexillumn 4 c.m. long, narrow below, widening upward and with a sharply widened lip 2'5 c.m. wide. Other petals absent. Stamens 7, of which 3 are longer than the others. Lower 2 occasionally but not regularly transformed into a club-shaped petaloid form. Pistil longer than the stamens, 4-5 c.m. long.
Pod 8-20 c.m. long, 4-5 c.m. wide, 12-20 m.m. thick, dehiscent, firmly woody, 3-8 seeded, the seeds black, each set in a cavity in the shell, and having a scarlet cupshaped aril at the base. Occurs throughout the Province, nowhere in great abundance, but always forming a factor in forestal calculations. Yields a valuable
timber, and the seeds form a marketable commodity as a curiosity. A. Petersiana, Klotzsch in Peters' Mossamb. Bot. 19.
PLATE XLV. I, Leaf; 2, Flowering shoot, in bud (leaves removed) ; 3, Flower ; 4, Pod 5, Seed ; 6, Aril; 7, Pistil, nat. size; 8, Occasional petaloid modification of lowest pair of short stamens 9, Tree, general aspect, reduced,
On the Lebombo mountains near Estatuene what appears to be another species of Afzelia occurs as a shrub 1-2 metres high with a large rootstock and more rounded
leaflets (= 15, Ndlebe-in-hlovu), and in the kloofs below another bush 3-4 metres high (4-15 Umseq), but neither of these were found in flower or fruit.




Synoptical and Specific Descriptions. 49
13. BRACHYSTEGIA. Unarmed trees with abruptly pinnate leaves, flowers rather small in terminal simple spicate dense racemes or axillary paniculate confluent glomerules. Flowers in bud enclosed by 2 bracteoles. Calyx reduced to several minute scales; petals absent; stamens 10-13; filaments somewhat connate at the base; ovary 5-8 ovulate; pod oblong, compressed, dehiscent, woody, with a wide ventral suture. Seeds several, compressed, exalbuminous. A Tropical African genus, having fibrous bark largely used by the natives for water-boxes, drums, &c., and when beaten out and chewed it is the only cloth available in many places; it also contains tannin worth commercial attention. By the descriptions I cannot separate B. appendiculata, Benth., which is recorded from the Northern districts
by Drs. Miller and Kirk from B. spicaeformis.
B. spicaeformis, Benth. Vern. names-5, 6, Tzontzo, Tondo; 7, 8, M-tamba; io, Marotta, ii, Macarara. The timber is known with several other timbers as,
2, Pau-ferro (= ironwood), and the fibre as (2) Casca-pano. A tree 10-15 metres high, 20-40 c.m. stem diameter, with a rounded spreading crown where space allows. Young growth minutely pubescent, soon glabrous. Rachis to c.m. long; leaflets usually 4 pairs, 4-5 c.m. long, shortly petiolate or almost sessile,
obliquely ovate, rounded at the point and often with about 3 veins from the base. Stipules linear, caducous. Leaves on coppice shoots twice as large, sometimes acute, and with falcate stipules 15 m.m. long, sometimes with a transverse reniform leafy appendage or auricle at the base of each. Flowers subsessile in terminal, simple, very dense, feruginous, spiciform, ovoid or oblong ovoid racemes I or 2 inches long, much exceeded by the leaves. Involucral bracteoles obovate or elliptical J-A inch long. Perianth usually reduced to 2 linear or lanceolate ciliate scales about one line in length, alternating with the bracteoles; occasionally a few additional minute scales are present. Stamens 10- 13, unequally and distinctly monadelphous, glabrous. Ovary laxly or substrigose-pilose on a stipes of its own length; ovules 7-8." Pod 15 c.m. long, firmly woody, dehiscent, at first densely velvety, sharply and obliquely pointed, compressed, sharp one side, but 7-1o m.m.
wide, with a more hardened and furrowed edge on the other. Seed flat, 2 c.m. long, oblong, exalbuminous. Though not a large tree this is perhaps the most important tree in the Province under its present circumstances; the natives in the northern districts make all their cloth from the bark of this and other species of this genus; the natives of M'Chopes make all their water-baskets, beer vessels, grain drums and cordage from its bark, and only use another tree for cloth because that is more easily prepared; throughout the Province, north of the Limpopo, they use the bark of this only for making cradles, coffins and beehives, and the timber is hard and durable and takes a part in all domestic woodwork construction. The water-basket, an implement of immense utility in the sandy districts where water is only obtainable at distances of several miles, is made by ringing the tree at two places, 4-5 feet apart, cutting down one side and removing the piece of bark intact, the two incurved sides are kept apart and in place by skewers, the ends are doubled up and the met edges sewn together at the corners, and the cross ends sewn to the skewer nearest to each, the sewing being done with fibre made of itself. These baskets last well and do not leak, and though the removal of the bark kills the tree, that is of little consequence where trees are abundant. I saw water brought up out of a well 20 metres deep by a half-inch rope of the twisted bark of the branches, which is also used for hinges and wherever fibre can be used, and a piece subjected to a strain of 400 lbs. did not break, but, of course, stretched out considerably. The bark also contains about 18 % of tannin, and as there is a vast quantity of it available, I consider that an extract might be made on the spot and shipped out with considerable profit, though I fear the shipment of the bark itself cannot be done profitably. The seed is also said to be edible. The M'Chopes country is in many places almost a pure forest of this, especially where extensive cultivation was abandoned after Gungunhamas raid, 12 years ago, and where now a dense forest of seedling trees of this species, 6-8 metres high and 15 c.m. diameter, is already in possession and ready for first thinning. The utilization of this bark is a forest problem of equal importance with the utilization of all the timber in the Province, and well deserves skilled management, and may some day bring a large revenue. The tree is abundant from the Limpopo to Inhambane, and frequent in the forests further north. It was not noticed in Lourenzo Marques district, and if present at all is scarce there. The large beans have not so far been experimented on, but will, I think, be found to contain a lot of tannin, and are produced in enormous quantities and weigh well. The regrowth is excellent everywhere, and the tree is inclined to monopolise
suitable districts. Found also in Zanzibar and Angola.
PLATE XLII. I, Branch with pod; 2, Section of pod ; 3, Seed; 4, Section of same; 5, Water-basket, made of bark (reduced); 7, Ring of bark, as used (reduced); 8, Half of pod, with seeds.
B. oblonga. (New species), Vern. name-io, Mondi (not Moondi). A medium-sized tree common around Arenga and elsewhere in Magenja da Costa, 15-20 metres
high and with stem diameter of 30-50 c.m. Rachis 15 c.m. long, slender, furrowed, somewhat pubescent, with about 8 pairs of sessile oblong glabrous leaflets 4
Brachystegia oblonga. (Sp. nov.) Arbor 15-20 m. alta; caule 30-50 c.m. diam. ; rachi 15 c.m. longa gracili sulcata subpubescente ; foliolis circa 8-jugis, sessilibus supra atro-viridibus nitidis
infra pallidis glabris oblongis 4 c.m. longis 15 m.m. latis, basi oblique rotundatis, apice rotundatis vel subquadratis, lateribus ex equo distantibus; venis pinnatis, vena inferiore in facie inferiore aliis majore; stipulis falcatis auriculatis. Inflorescentia haud visa. Fructu cuneato, basi I-5 c.m. lata, apice 4 c.m. lato, oblique rostrato, altero margine tenui altero I c.m. lato acute bicarinato. Species cognoscenda foliorurn forma. Magenja da Costa. Sim 5574.
G




50 Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
c.m. long, 15 m.m. wide, obliquely rounded at the base, the sides parallel and rounded or somewhat square at the apex. Stipules falcate and auricled. Venation pinnate, but the lower vein on the lower side stronger than others. Leaflets dark green and shining above, pale under. Inflorescence not seen. Pod cuneate 1"5 c.m. wide below, 4 c.m. wide at top, obliquely rostrate, set at right angles to the stalk, narrow on i margin but i c.m. wide and sharply 2-edged at the other.
Distinguished from the other species by the leaf form which in this is very constant. Bark used for same purposes as that of B. spiceformis. Sim 5574.
B. tamarindoides, Welw. Vern. name--io, Mtagata or mutagata. A nearly glabrous tree o10-15 metres high, with 30-45 c.m. stem diameter and a branched spreading
crown. Young growth pubescent. Rachis 1 5-20 c.m. long with 15-20 sessile lanceolate-obtuse leaflets, gradually narrower upward, rounded or pointed, 5-6 c.m.
long, 8-12 m.m. wide with an unequal base, the lower lobes overlapping on the rachis. Venation, 2-3 veined on the lower side, pinnate on the upper. Leaflets pale on under surface. Flowers not seen, but described as "Subsessile, in short dense ferruginous racemes or glomerules in the upper axils or more or less confluent in terminal oblong panicles of i or 2 inches, scarcely overtopping the leaves. Bracts ovate, concave -iIf lines long. Involucral bracteoles rotundate, concave, about 2 lines long. Perianth reduced to about 5 obovate or oblong ciliate scales, i line or less in length. Stamens io, glabrous; filaments connate in a very short ring at the base. Ovary subsessile, densely villous; ovules about seven." Pod 10-12 c.m. long, 4 c.m. wide, oblong, pointed, with one thick edge and about 3 seeds; 2 c.m. long, 15 m.m. wide, flat, and dark brown. Coppice shoots show leaves 45 c.m. long, leaflets up to 9 c.m. long and 3 c.m. wide, but still with the same form,
and have extraordinary development of the auricle of the stipule, with or without a widely falcate foliaceous stipule 2 c.m. long. Frequent in the forests of
Magenja da Costa and Nhamacurra and the bark is used for all the purposes stated for B. spicaformis. Sim. 5675.
B. pectinata. (New species.), Vern. name-io, Messina. A large tree 20 metres high, with straight clean white stem 30-45 c.m. diameter; densely pubescent twigs
and rachis; and pectinate leaves, 1o-i5 c.m. long, having 25 to 35 pairs of lanceolate acute nearly glabrous leaflets 10-12 m.m. long, 2 m.m. wide at the oblique base, and tapering to the acute point. Leaves numerous. Axillary buds (inflorescence ?) enclosed in short brown pubescent imbricating scales. Inflorescence not seen. Pods as in B. tamarindoides but smaller, 7-10 c.m. long, 2-5-3 c.m. wide, 5-6 m.m. diameter at wide edge. Timber used for Marimbas (Native pianos), doors,
&c. Magenja da Costa and Nhamacurra, not common. Sim 6099.
114. TAMARINDUS. Large unarmed almost glabrous trees, with evergreen abruptly pinnate, multifoliate leaves, flowers in simple or panicled racemes, and terete somewhat beaded (throug/z abortion) pods containing an edible pulp. Monotypic, widely diffused through tropical countries, probably often by cultivation, but apparently
indigenous in this Province as well as in other parts of Tropical Africa.
T. indica, Linn. Vern. names-i, Tamarind; 2, Tamarindeiro; io, Egamsela, Umqwembe and Mamieba. A large or very large tree, often i metre diameter of stem
and 20 metres high, with dense umbrageous canopy. Leaves 8-o0 c.m. long, 2'5 c.m. wide, abruptly pinnate, with 10-12 pairs of oblong leaflets 2 c.m. long, 5 m.m.
wide, rounded and mucronate at the apex, rounded but oblique at the base, and pale under. Racemes terminal and lateral. Flowers yellowish ; Calyx-tube funnelshaped, with 4 imbricate segments; petals 3 as long as the calyx and 2 minute. Stamens 3, connate below, alternating with minute staminodia. Ovary stalked; Ovules many. Pod 2-12 cm. long, 1-5 seeded, somewhat constricted between the seeds, or much constricted where a seed has aborted; mucronate, terete, fleshy, indehiscent, the flesh acidulous and edible; seeds somewhat flattened, 4 angled, contained in a skin or aril, exalbuminous. Frequent in the forests of Magenja da Costa and Nhamacurra, usually on ant heaps, and strangely, the natives there did not know its pods to be edible till I showed them, when they took to them readily.
Cultivated and naturalised but not indigenous at Inhambane.
PLATE XLVII. I, Tree, general aspect (reduced) ; 2, Branch, with leaves and fruits; 3, Section of pod; 4, Seed.
IT15. SCHOTIA. Trees with paripinnate leaves, and short dense cymose axillary panicles of crimson flowers, each flower i c.m. or more long. Calyx-tube various, its limb
of 4 often unequal segments imbricated in aestivation. Petals 5, almost equal, regular, rising from the mouth of the calyx-tube, imbricate. Stamens io, free or almost so, perigynous, of two lengths, each alternate shorter; the filaments slender, the anthers dehiscing by longitudinal slits. Ovary stalked, many-ovuled, with a long subulate style and small capitate stigma. Legume oblong, flat, woody, tardily dehiscent, i-several seeded, the margin keeled or somewhat winged, the seeds
flat, exalbuminous, usually with an aril. Stipules small; bracts and bracteoles usually caducous.
Brachystegia pectinata. (Sp. nov.) Arbor magna, 20 m. alta, caule recto mundo albo 30-35 c.rn. diam.; ranmulis et rachi dense pubescentibus ; foliis permultis, foliolis pectinatis 25-35-jugis, lanceolatis acutis IO-12 m.m. longis, basi obliqua 2 m.m. lata, in mucronem acutLum productis; inflorescentia haud visa; fructibus iis B. tamarindoidis similibus nisi minoribus, 7-o10 c.m. longis, 2'5-3 c.m. latis. Magenja da
Costa and Nhamacurra. Sim 6o99.




Synoptical and Specific Descriptions. 51
S. capitata, Bolle. V'rn. namlle- 4, Mfofof. A shrub or small tree, frequent in Lourenzo Marques and Maputa, and extending north to Inhambane. Leaves 5-7 c.m.
long, with a distinctly winged rachis and 4-7 pairs of glabrous, shining, sessile, obovate oblong leaflets 1-2 c.m. long, r c.m. wide or less. Flowers numerous in dense compact panicles; sepals, petals and stamens crimson. Ovules about o10. Pod 5-6 c.m. long, 3 c.m. wide, elliptical, 5-8 seeded, the seeds each set in a
yellow aril, the valves breaking away and leaving the keeled circumference carrying the seeds.
S. brachypetala, Send. Vern. names-i, Boerbean ; 2, Boer-boon ; 4, Mfofof; 13, Umgxam ; 15, Shimnum-yaan. A medium sized tree, 7-o10 metres high, with stem
30-45 c.m. diameter, and rough dark bark. Leaves alternate, 10-14 c.m. long, 7-io c.m. wide, with about 4 pairs of ovate or obovate nearly sessile leaflets 3-5 c.m.
long, 3 c.m. wide. Panicles axillary and terminal, many flowered, calyx crimson; petals smaller than calyx-lobes; stamens exserted, monadelphous. Pod obliquely oblong, 5-10 c.m. long, 4 c.m. wide, nearly flat, beaked, margined on both sides, about 6-seeded, with red aril round the base of each seed. Seeds
varying in form with available space. Frequent in the Lourenzo Marques district, especially on the Lebombo Range.
PLAT. LV.
16. TRACHYLOBIUM. Trees, with the branches often ending in single or branched spines, 2-foliate leaves, terminal panicles of small flowers, and 1-2 seeded berry-like
fruits.
T. mossambicensis, Klotzsch (in Peters' Mossamb. But., 21, t. 2). Vern. namnes--4-8 and 15, Lulu or Nulu, and Mahla-banquenze; to, Napige. An erect tree,
10-15 metres high, with a spreading rounded crown and a stem 45-60 c.m. diameter. Exceedingly variable in regard to pubescence, sometimes densely grey-pubescent on all young parts, sometimes quite or almost glabrous. Twigs zigzag at the nodes; in some conditions of growth the branches mostly abort into spines, either simple or more frequently 2-spined (apparently dichotomous), or sometimes several-spined. Leaves 3-5 c.m. long, 2-4 c.m. wide, ovate or ovate elliptical, bluntly pointed, oblique at the base, the outer side longest; petiole r-3 c.m. long, petiolules 4-6 m.m. long. Calyx tube short, with 4 imbricate segments; 3 petals rounded and clawed, other 2 minute. Stamens io, free or almost free ; ovary surrounded by a hairy ring at the base; ovules 4-5. Fruit on a pedicel i c.m.
long, not compressed, 4 c.m. long, 2-2'5 c.m. diameter, 4-5 furrowed, berry-like, 1-2 seeded, indehiscent, and said to be edible, though it did not seem so to me.
Stone (or seed) 4 c.m. long, '5 c.inm. diameter, bony. A tree with valuable hard timber; frequent in the extra-tropical districts; present but less common in the
northern districts.
This is included as a synonym under T. Hornemannianum, Hayne, in the Flora of Tropical Africa," but is quite distinct from the tree cultivated under that name, in having shorter, wider leaflets, always somewhat glaucous, often canescent, and in the presence of spines. T. Hornemannianum is credited with yielding
part if not all of the Copal of East Tropical Africa.
PLATE LVI. I, Fruiting branch; 2, Vigorous young branch, with spines ; 3, Stone, cleared of flesh ; 4, Section of fruit.
117. COPIAFERA. Closely allied to Trachylobium, but differing in having no petals, the calyx divided to the base, and fewer ovules. The leaves are 2-foliate, and the
flowers axillary, solitary or in small racemes. Seeds sometimes arillate.
C. gorskiana, Benth. (= Gorskia conjugata Bolle in Peters' Mossamb. Bot., i6, t. 3). Vern. name-4, Nulwane. Seen only as a small tree, but said to grow large,
much branched, and the twigs pubescent and often ending in simple, dichotomous, or branded spines similar to those of Trachylobium. Leaves 2-foliate, the leaflets ovate, very oblique, coriaceous, glaucous, glabrous, 3 c.m. long, 2 c.m. wide. Inflorescence axillary, or in small axillary or terminal racemes; flowers small, greenish ; legume oblong, terete, i-seeded, 3 c.m. long, 2 c.m. diameter, yellow when ripe, said to be edible. Seen only at Umbelusi, Lourenzo Marques district,
but recorded from Zambesia by Drs. Peters and Kirk; the latter states that the tree affords a good hard timber.
C. Mopane, Kirk. Vern. name-i6, Mopane. Unknown to me, and not seen in the lower Zambesi forests. "A fine forest tree, the trunk often 2 ft. in diameter;
extremities glabrous. Leaflets unijugate, sessile, elongate-semi-ovate, outer margin nearly straight to the narrowed obtuse apex, at right angles to the basal margin or semicordiform, coriaceous, glandular-dotted and minutely glandular-crenulate, 7-9 nerved, reticulate, 2-3 in. long, i-i in. broad at the base; petiole i in. more or less. Stipules oblong or ovate, 1-2 lines, deciduous. Inflorescence not seen, but probably in short axillary racemes. Pedicels (- in. Legume flat, thinly coriaceous, rather obscurely reticulate, in outline obliquely semi-circular or resembling a somewhat lengthened nautilus from the rounded gibbosity beyond the scar of the style; 4-2 in. long; gynophore o, or very short. Seeds reniform or oblong, testa deeply convolute-corrugate with large resinous glands; cotyledons contortplicate, thin, not resiniferous. Near Bumbo, Angola, Dr. Welurtsch Lupata, Zambesi, Dr. Kirk Dr. Kirk's note appended to our specimens says that this is




52 Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
'the Ironwood tree of the country, abundant in dry clay plains, forming large monotonous shadeless forests, . . Wood in the heart dark, heavy and very durable, difficult to work. Leaves folding up at the junction of the leaflets, and turning down at the articulation with the stem; they are thus shadeless during the
dry season at noon.' The fruit falls in September."
C. coleosperma, Benth. A large glabrous tree, with 2-foliate petiolate leaves, the leaflets falcate-ovate, 5-7 c.m. long, 2-3 c.m. wide, with pinnate venation ; flowers in
panicles; legumes much compressed, semi-orbicular, glabrous, 2-3 c.m. long; seeds arillate. Recorded from Zambesia by Sir John Kirk, who states that in some localities this tree has been planted at least ioo years ago," and that the red aril is used in preparing a nourishing drink. Not seen by me in the coast districts.
Miss Gibbs, in recording this from Victoria Falls, says "Evergreen tree, wood red. Seeds ex-arillate in this specimen ; popular name 'Rhodesian Teak.'"
Si8. ERYTHROPHL(EUM. Unarmed trees with 2-pinnate leaves having alternate petiolulate leaflets; flowers in short dense racemes; and oblong follicular legumes
containing 5-8 compressed albuminous seeds. Flowers small, sub-regular. Calyx campanulate, 5-fid; petals 5.
E. guineense, Don. A large tree 12-30 metres high. Pinnae 2-4 pairs 15 c.m. long, each with 6-1i ovate-elliptical oblique leaflets 4-12 c.m. long; flowers crowded;
legumes 6-12 c.m. long, 3-4 c.m. broad, follicular. "The bark is powerfully poisonous, and is administered by native tribes in widely remote regions as an ordeal."
Boror, Zambesia, Dr. Peters. Not seen by me though I collected in Boror. Occurs also in Senegambia and Sierra Leone.
SUB-FAMILY III.-MIMOSEjE.
Flowers regular, usually 5-merous, often minute, in dense heads or spikes. Calyx tubular below; petals valvate in aestivation ; stamens io or many, free or connate ovary multi-ovulate; leaves bi-pinnate. A large and widely dispersed group, well represented in this Province, mostly by trees and shrubs.
Ii9. PARKIA. Flowers 5-merous congested in large numbers into dense velvety pear-shaped heads terminal on the long branches of a paniculate terminal inflorescence.
Calyx tubular with short 5-lobed limb, somewhat 2-lipped. Stamens To, free from one another but adnate to the petals and calyx-tube. Pod oblong, compressed
or sub-terete, tardily 2-valved; woody. Seeds set in pulp, exalbuminous. Leaves bi-pinnate, leaflets numerous.
P. filicoidea, Welw. Vern. name-io, Mundi or Moondi (not Mondi). A very large tree 25-30 metres high, and up to 2 metres diameter of stem, almost evergreen,
the new leaves and flower-buds appearing a week or two after the old ones fall. Leaf 2-pinnate, 30-45 c.m. long, 20-30 c.m. wide, with about 6 pairs of pinnae, each having a terminal point on its rachis, and 12-20 pairs of opposite oblique oblong leaflets 1'5-2 c.m. long, 5-6 m.m. wide. Rachis with 2 glands below the lowest pinnae. Paniculate inflorescence 15 c.m. or more long, with the flowers congregated in large numbers in congested pear-shaped fascicles 7 c.m. long, 5 c.m.
wide, which are at first enclosed in velvety bracts. Calyx i c.m. long; petals 5, narrowly strap-shaped, red; stamens so, free; pistil shorter than stamens; ovules in 2 rows about io in each; fruit not seen, described as "Smooth, compressed, though not so much as in the other African species, or scarcely subterete, io-18 in.
long, in. broad, on stipes of 2 in. more or less ..... The mealy contents of the legumes are eaten, and the crushed seeds are used in native cookery."
At Arenga, and through Magenja da Costa and Nhamacurra; also in the Shire Valley and in West Africa. A highly ornamental tree with beautiful foliage and
curious inflorescence.
PLATE XLIV. I, Leaf; 2, Panicle; 3, Congested inflorescence; 4, Flowers, x 5 ; 5, Stamen, x 5; 6, Pistil, x 8; 7, Section of same, x lo; 8, Petal, x5.
120. ENTADA. Climbers or shrubs with 2-pinnate leaves; spicate inflorescence; 5-merous flowers; io stamens; many ovules in each ovary; and coriaceous or woody pods,
in some species very large, which break into indehiscent i-seeded pieces leaving the persistent margin entire. Seeds compressed, exalbuminous, with a central
mark.
E. scandens, Benth. Vern. names-i, Sword bean; To, Mutagusi; ii, Mtaburi. An extensive creeper, growing near water and to the top of the highest trees.
Leaves 2-pinnate, with 2 pairs of pinnae and usually a tendril as termination of the rachis. Leaflets on the pinnie 2-4 pairs, ovate or obovate, oblique, glabrous, 5-7 c.m. long, or the lower ones smaller. Spike axillary, 20-30 c.m. long, pubescent; flowers bracted; bean many-seeded, about i metre long, 8-io c.m. wide, with
wavy margins and nearly square pieces. Seed 3-4 c.m. across, I c.m. diameter. M'Chopes and Magenja da Costa. The liber is used for rough cordage.
"Flora of Tropical Africa," II. 315.




Synoptical and Specific Descriptions. 53
E. Wahlbergii, Harv. A glabrous climber; leaves with 2 pairs of pinned, each with 4-18 pairs of linear oblong leaflets 1-2 c.m. long. Inflorescence in axillary or
terminal spikes or these together forming a panicle. Flowers red. Pod flat, io-r5 c.m. long, 3-4 c.m. wide, with constrictions at the margins between the seeds.
Rovuma River.
E. Kirkii, Oliver. A glabrous climber, with about 4 pairs of pinna, each with 10-12 pairs of oblong leaflets 2 c.m. long, 6-7 m.m. wide. Flowers white, in dense spikes.
Pod 40-60 c.m. long, 7-9 c.m. wide, the joints broader than long, the valve swollen over the seed. Zambesia, from the coast to Tete. Dr. Kirk.
E. sudanica, Schw. A bush with leaves 30 c.m. long, 5-8 pairs of pinnae, 14-20 pairs of oblong glabrous or thinly pubescent leaflets 2-2"5 c.m. long. Spikes 6 to 15
c.m. long, flowers yellowish, almost sessile. Pod 20-35 c.m. long, 3-5 c.m. broad, constricted on both margins between the seeds; seeds many, 1-1-5 c.m. diameter,
the sections of the pod much wider than long. Zambesia.
E. natalensis, Benth. Vern. names-4, i-kano, and Kakatlwaan. A vigorous climber, the stems and petioles armed with hooked prickles; leaves with 5-7 pairs of
pinna each with about 12 pairs of oblong leaflets. Pod 12-15 c.m. long, 3 c.m. wide, glabrous, many-seeded. A forest weed, making such a dense mass as to kill
the trees on which it hangs, and most difficult for a person to get through if near the ground. Frequent in the extra-tropical parts of the Province.
121. TETRAPLEURA. Trees with alternate, bi-pinnate, glabrous leaves, spicate inflorescence, stamens io, anthers with an apical gland and 4-sided indehiscent legumes.
Several species are West African, as is also the following:T. obtusangula, Welw. M.S.S. ("Flora of Tropical Africa," II,, 331). Vern. name-io, Mseriale. An erect tree 10-15 metres high, with stem 30-45 c.m. diameter,
and abundant glaucous fernlike foliage, as seen from below. Leaves 2-pinnate, with 3-4 pairs of pinna, each having about 8 leaflets on each side, alternate, shortly petioled, obovate or elliptical, I"5-2 c.m. long, 1-1-5 c.m. wide, green above, glaucous below, the rachis and petiole slender, wiry, brown, glabrous; the secondary rachis swollen at the base. Inflorescence not seen. Pods 7-12 c.m. long, 2-2"5 c.m. wide, 4-sided or somewhat 4-ridged, pointed brown, firmly leathery, several-seeded, and showing a nearly square section. Frequent in the forests of Magenja da Costa and Nhamacurra, highly ornamental, and said to have a hard,
black, useful timber.
PLATE LVII. I, Leaves; 2, Pod; 3, Section of same.
122. PROSOPIS. Trees with hi-pinnate leaves, spicate inflorescence, and subterete indehiscent pods with septa between the seeds. Mostly American; the pods of some
used as cattle-feed.
P. (?) Kirkii, Oliv. Unknown to me; described in "Flora of Tropical Africa" as "A large tree; extremities unarmed, glabrous or obsolete-puberulous, slightly furrowed
when dry, with pale ashen bark. Pinna 6-7 jugate, with a sessile gland between the pinna, rachis puberulous above. Leaflets 10-17 jugate, subsessile, oblong, obtuse, minutely pubescent, 1 inch long, i line, more or less broad. Flowers in solitary axillary spikes 4-6 in. long (apparently insect-punctured in our specimens). Legume 5-8 in. long, i in. broad, flat, coriaceous, circinate, with a short hooked apiculus. Seeds compressed, ovate, with a shining testa and
faint areole on each side, separated by narrow interposed cellular partitions of the endocarp. Albumen o. Shire River, Zambesi-land; Dr. Kirk."
123. DICHROSTACHYS. Flat-topped trees or shrubs, closely resembling in general appearance species of Acacia, and having axillary single spines often present,
2-pinnate leaves, numerous small sessile leaflets, spicate inflorescence, the upper flowers hermaphrodite, the lower flowers barren, and the pods twisted, linear, flat,
indehiscent or opening irregularly; seeds albuminous.
D. nutans, Benth. Vern. name-4, Sasana. A small tree 2-4 metres high, having solitary axillary straight slender spines 5 c.m. long on the larger branches, and
occasionally short hooked stipulate prickles in pairs on the slender twigs. Leaves hi-pinnate, 3-5 c.m. long, 3-4 c.m. wide; pinna 3-5 pairs, leaflets 7-12 pairs, each 3-5 m.m. long, linear. Spike 7-o10 c.m. long, lower part nearly an inch wide, with pink filaments, upper part narrower, fertile, yellow. Pods numerous in clusters, much twisted, i c.m. wide, 5-12 c.m. long. Abundant in the thorn-veld of the southern part of the Province, extending also through Natal; in the northern part of the Province it is present, but less abundant, and it occurs widely distributed through Tropical Africa. Timber very hard and dark, but too small to be of other use
than fuel. Bark very rough, dark grey, deeply fissured, and more or less netted in deep ridges; foliage deep green.
PI. ATE XXXVIII. A. I, Branch ; 2, Cluster of pods; 3, Flower spike; 4, One pod ; 5, Tree, general habit (much reduced) ; 6, Seed.




54 Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
D. major. (New species.)' Vern. name-4, Tanga. A tree 3-6 metres high, with rather a flat crown. Branches set with stout single axillary leaf-bearing spines 3-5
c.m. long; leaves 15 c.m. long, 7 c.m. wide; rachis pubescent, with a gland at each pair of pinned; pinne about 6 pair, 4-5 c.m. long, leaflets 10-12 pairs, oblong, 7-10 m.m. long, 2-3 m.m. wide. Stipules pubescent, very caducous. Spike fertile at the top only. Pods numerous, much twisted, 8-bo c.m. long, i'5 c.m. wide, flat.
Frequent in the thorn-veld of Lourenzo Marques and Maputa up to the Lebombos. Sim 6248.
PLATE XXXVI. A. I, Leafless branch, with spines; 2, Leaf; 3, Spike, after flowering; 4, Fruit fascicle ; 5, Stipule, X 2. ["Index Kewensis" also retains D. Forbesii, Benth. and D. Kirkii, Benth (in Trans. Linn. Soc. XXX., 1875, 383), as Tropical African. The former is said in Fl. Trop. Afr. to he from Delagoa Bay
and to be "nearly allied to D. nutans, differing in the fewer pinned of the leaves and one or two other characters of doubtful constancy," while of the latter I have no information.]
124. ACACIA. Trees, shrubs or climbers, usually prickly or spine-bearing, having bi-pinnate leaves and clusters or spikes of small yellow, often polygamous flowers, either axillary or arranged in terminal panicles. Calyx-tube very short, or sepals free. Petals 5 or fewer, more or less connate. Stamens numerous, free. Ovary several or many-ovuled. Pod compressed or flat, dehiscent or indehiscent. A vast genus, present in most warm countries, but most numerously represented in species in Africa and Australia. The bark and pods of many species are rich in tannin; others yield gums, while from various species valuable firewood and timber are obtained. The Australian "Black Wattle" (a decurrens) is now largely cultivated in Cape Colony and Natal for its bark and timber. In several Australian species
the pinned and leaflets are suppressed, and the main rachis modified into a leaf-like phyllode.
A. albida, Delile. Vern. names-4, Newapf, and Bolela. A large tree, r5-25 metres high and with stem up to 6o c.m. diameter. Spines in pairs, stipular, straight, stout
below, 1-3 c.m. long. Foliage and bark light grey, leaves 7 c.m. long, pinned 4-5 pairs, leaflets 8-12 pairs; leaflets oblong, 5 m.m. long, I15 m.m. wide, ultimately
glabrous. Inflorescence spicate; spikes 7 c.m. long, axillary, single, or 2 together on short branchlet; flowers very light yellow or nearly white. Petals free nearly to the base, much longer than the calyx. Pods Io-12 c.m. long, 2'5 c.m. wide, flat but much twisted and bent, mucronate at the rounded apex; base oblique; peduncle 1-2 c.m. long. Bark light grey, woody or corky, with a general smooth appearance; timber grey, light, coarse-grained, fit for fuel only, and not good for that. Seedlings canescent or light grey puberulous, very much branched horizontally, and set with stipular straight sharp prickles 1-2 c.m. long. Frequent at
Umbelusi and throughout the alluvial deposits in the thorn-veld south of the Limpopo (extra-tropical); less common in Zambesia.
PLATE XXXIV. I, Branch ; 2, Pods ; 3, Spike ; 4, Flower, x 5 ; 6, Tree, general aspect (much reduced). Prof. Oliver (Fl. Trop. Afr.) doubtfully refers to this the A. mossambicensis of Bolle (Peters' Mossamb. Bot. 1-5) with the remark-" I do not observe any character in the published description by which it differs, excepting in the absence of spines. This however occurs occasionally in A albida."
A. nigrescens, Oliv. Vern. names-3, Knopjesdoorn ; 4, Mkaia. A glabrous tree 6-15 metres high, with straight stem 20-30 c.m. diameter; thorns in pairs, stipular,
10-12 m.m. long, hooked, always present, growing with age into knobs 3 c.m. deep, each with the sharp hooked thorn on top. Leaves glaucous, 5-8 c.m. long; rachis with one gland near the base; pinne usually 3 pairs; leaflets I pair on each, I'5-2 c.m. long, i c.m. wide, very oblique (or on coppice shoots 2'5 c.m. long and wide and less oblique). Inflorescence spicate. Spikes 5-8 c.m. long, axillary, or 3-4 together on special short branches. Flowers numerous, light yellow. Pod 7-1o c.m. long, 2 c.m. wide, flat, with I c.m. point; seed I-5 c.m. wide, flat. This differs from the western A. detinens, which is very similar in foliage, in its spicate
inflorescence. This tree covers large stretches of country in Maputa, Lourenzo Marques, Marracuene. and part of Gaza, usually as almost pure open forest with bare stems and grass underneath, forming splendid cover and grazing for game and stock. The tree is the most valuable forestal asset in the southern part of the Province, having a valuable durable dark hardwood which has been in demand for Transvaal mining purposes since the railway was opened through; on this account the tree has been almost cut out in so far as it is easily obtainable near the main line of railway, but a very large quantity still remains along the Swaziland railway and in the back country, which may assist to get development lines put down there at some future time. Meantime the Government has issued a proclamation
prohibiting the felling of this kind for the present; a wise step until it is in a position to collect license fees, or royalty, upon the timber so used.
The tree must have an unusual power of withstanding fire, for the grass is burned through the whole district every year, and I presume this burning is the cause why other species are not present. It seems to do best upon flat dry alluvial plains, and is absent from moist spots or river-sides. A variety has been separated under the name A. nigrescens, var pallens, Benth., and has since been raised to specific rank, as A. pallens, Rolfe; what its distinguishing characters are I have not learned, but Mr. J.
')ichrostachys major. (Sp. nov.) Arbor 3-6 m. alta, ramis ramulis validis acutis folia gerentibus 3-5 c.m. longis in axillis foliorum armatis; foliis 15 c.m. longis, 7 c.m. latis; rachi pubescente, ad
bases pinnarum glandula praedita; pinnis circiter 6-jugis, oppositis, 4-6 c.m. longis; foililis 0-12 jugis, oblongis, 7-o10 m.m. longis, 2-3 m.m. latis; stipulis pubescentibus caducis; inflorescentia spica, apicem versus
fertili ; leguminibus multis, contortis, 8-Io c.m. longis, 1"5 c.m. latis, planis. Frequens in dumetis aculeatis, Lourenzo Marques et Maputa ad Lebombos. Sim 6248. Tab. XXXVI. A.




Synoptical and Specific Descriptions. 55
Burtt-Davy, in his "Notes on Some Transvaal Trees and Shrubs,"' says:-"Acacia pallens, Rolfe (A nigrescens var. pallens, Benth.) The type specimens, both of A. nigrescens and of var. pa//lens, are from' Zambesia, and in each case they are very incomplete. Additional material from the Transvaal enables Rolfe to separate the latter as a distinct species to which all our material so far collected appears to belong. I have incomplete winter specimens from Topsi, Bechuanaland, which may belong to A. nigrescens, but it is impossible to say definitely until foliage has been collected from the same locality. This is one of our most important timber trees, and is largely cut for mine-props under the name Knopjies-doorn or um-kai. The prickles persist for many years on the main trunk, and branches, effectually arming the tree, though to what advantage is not evident. The type of 'var. pa//lens' is from opposite Pita, near Senna, Zambesia, April, i86o, Kirk, 201, a tree 30 feet, very hard heavy wood, used for clubs." I did not find this species in Zambesia, but may not have been far enough up-country for it, and in the thorn-veld of the south I saw only one form, except in so far as differences occur through vigorous or poor growth, coppice shoots, &c.
PLATE XXXIII. B. I, Branch; 2, Pinna of Coppice shoot; 3, Pod; 4, Thorn; 5, Seed.
A, Welwitschii, Oliv. Vern. names-3, Aapjesdoorn; 4, Mkaia. A glabrous tree 5-1o metres high, 20-30 c.m. diameter of stem. Thorns in pairs, apparently stipular,
always present, i-i"5 c.m. long, hooked, stout. Leaves 7-8 c.m. long; pinned 3-4 pairs; leaflets 5-7 pairs, lax, 7 m.m. long, 4 m.m. wide, elliptical; rachis with a
gland below the lowest pinna. Inflorescence spicate; spike 5 c.m. long, axillary, or panicled at the end of a branch. Pod 10-12 c.m. long, 2 c.m. wide, rounded at the base, rounded and bluntly pointed at the apex, nearly flat, about 6-seeded, very shortly stalked. Seeds oblong, i c.m. long. Frequent in the thorn-veld, mixed with A. nigrescens, and enjoying the same native name and reputation for its timber, which also is used in mining. About Machava the tree seems more vigorous than further inland, and has frequently up to 7 pairs of pinne. It is recorded from Zambesi, below Tete, but I did not find it in the lower Zambesian districts.
Miss Gibbs, in recording it from Victoria Falls, where it is the only Acacia mentioned by her, says:--" Large tree, with flat crown. Flowers pink, with pink rachis to raceme." Although hardly in flower during my visit I believe the flowers to be yellow.
I'LATE XXXVII. B. I, Fruiting branch ; 2, Spike; 3, Tree, general aspect (much reduced).
A. glaucophylla, Steud. Vern. name-io, Egamosena, which name is used for several thorny Acacias. A large tree in the forests of Magenja da Costa, without
branches below. Younger parts finely pubescent, older parts glabrous. Spines in pairs, apparently stipular, 5 m.m. long, recurved. Leaves with about 6 pairs of pinne, each with about 12-16 pairs of leaflets. Leaflets about i c.m. long, 2 m.m. wide, very oblique at the base, and with the vein near the upper margin.
Inflorescence spicate; spikes axillary, 4-5 c.m. long. Pods variable in outline, usually o10-12 c.m. long, 2-2"5 c.m. wide, rounded and suddenly pointed, sometimes
more narrow or with a waved margin, about 6-seeded, flat, coriaceous, reticulated, glabrous when mature. Seeds i c.m. wide, nearly circular, compressed.
PLATE XL. B. I, Fruiting branch ; 2, Pinnule, x 4.
A. purpurea, Bolle in Peters' Mossamb. Bot., 1, 6. Unknown to me, but described as "a small tree from Zambesia, with green-grey tomentose, or thickly pubescent
extremities. Leaf-rachis pubescent, with concave sessile glands between the pinned, which are in 8 pairs; leaflets 12 jugate, very shortly petiolulate, oblong, obtuse, thinly pilose, 3 lines long, i lines broad. Spikes equalling the leaves, dense, pilose. Flowers purple. Calyx hairy, with finely pointed teeth. Petals free nearly to the base. Legume not seen. I do not know this plant, nor have I identified it among Dr. Kirk's collections. Dr. Bolle puts it in Mr. Bentham's section
Vlgares-Diacanthae."
A. rostrata. (New species.)3 Vern. names-3, Aapjesdoorn; 4, Mkaia. Usually a much-branched shrub 2-4 metres high ; occasionally a tree of considerable size.
Two hooked thorns 5-o10 m.m. long, apparently stipular, tend upward; i larger thorn up to 1'5 c.m. long, somewhat hooked, tends downward below the bud. This is consequently one of the worst Acacias for detaining passengers, as upward and downward thorns both catch. Leaves 7-1o c.m. long; the rachis pubescent, with 2 or more glands toward the base; pinned about 7 pairs; leaflets about 14 pairs, 4-7 m.m. long, I'5 m.m. wide. Inflorescence spicate. Spike 5 c.m. long. Pod 7-1o c.m. long, 2-2'5 c.m. wide, the middle part oblong, tapering to the narrow base, and also tapering to the 1-2 c.m. beak, flat, with thin reticulated valves and 1-5 seeds. Frequent in the thorn-veld of Lourenzo Marques and Maputa, usually in moist depressions; when large used along with other kinds known as Mkaia and
not distinguishable in its timber from them Sim 6263.
PLATE XXXVII. A. I, Fruiting branch ; 2, Spike; 3, Tree, general aspect (much reduced).
Kew Bulletin No. 4, 1908, page 159. Prof. Oliver in "Flora of Tropical Africa," II., 343.
3 Acacia rostrata. (Sp. nov.) Frutex ramosus, 2-4 m. altus, nonnunquam arbor magna, stipulis hamatis acutis, altero 5-mo m.m. longo sursum flexo, altero majore I'5 c.m. longo deflexo aculeata; foliis 7-Io c.m. longis ; rachi pubescente glandulis 2 vel pluribus basin versus predita; pinnis circiter 7-jugis, foliolis circiter I4-jugis, 4-7 m.m. longis, I"5 m.m. latis ; inflorescentia spica 5 c.m. longa; legumine 7-o
c.m. longo, 2-2'5 c.m. lato, plano, reticulato, media parte oblonga, I-5-spermo. Frequens in dumetis aculeatis, plerumque humidis, Lourenzo Marques et Maputa. Sim 6263. Tab. XXXVII. A.




56 Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
A. Catechu, Willd. Vern. names-io, Moroga and Nematonga. A large or medium-sized tree, having short, stout, recurved thorns usually present in pairs. Leaves
12-18 c.m. long, the rachis somewhat pubescent, with a sessile gland near the base and several between the pinned; pinnme many; leaflets many, smaller than those of A. caffra. Inflorescence spicate; spikes axillary, 5-10 c.m. long, petals much longer than the calyx. Pod flat, linear, about 6-seeded, o10 c.m. long, 2 c.m. wide.
Zambesia, scarce. Mr. Burtt-Davy, speaking of this species in the Transvaal says :-" Our largest species of Acacia, forming a handsome and striking tree on the river banks of the eastern middle veld, between 2000 and 2500 ft. alt. .... called 'White Thorn . . tall trees with trunks up to i and 2 ft. diam."
A. caffra, Willd., var. rupestris. (New variety.), Vern. names-4, 13, Tole; 15, Mutholwane. Small tree with leaf 15 c.m. long; about 14 pairs of pinna ; about 30
pairs of leaflets to each ; rachis with gland near base and between one or more of the upper pairs. Stem somewhat angular, with recurved prickles 3-7 m.m. long, scattered on its surface. Inflorescence spicate. Spike 7-o10 c.m. long, seldom panicled. Pod 10-12 c.m. long, 1"5 c.m. wide, pointed, tapering to both ends, flat.
The whole tree pubescent. Probably corresponds with A. eriadenia, Benth., but is not specifically distinct from A. caffra. The type of A. caffra was not noticed in the Province ; it is a larger tree, usually near water, less pubescent and more panicled. The present form is frequent on and below the Lebombos, in Maputa and
Marracuene, less common nearer Lourenzo Marques, and not seen in other districts. It occurs in the Transvaal, Natal and Cape Colony. Sim. 6235.
PLATE XXXIX. B. I, Leaf and spike ; 2, Pod.
A. Burkei, Benth. Unknown to me ; described by Harvey, as:-" Young twigs and petioles patently hispid; prickles in pairs just below the nodes, recurved; petiole
unarmed or armed, and with a petiolar gland below the pairs; pinna 3-6 jugate; leaflets 5-8 jugate, obliquely oblong or obovate, obtuse or mucronulate, the younger villous at the margin; spikes tufted, loose, peduncled, rather longer than the leaf. Legume? Bark dark ashey-brown, rugged. Leaflets drying pale,
4 lines long, Ij-2 lines wide, the uppermost largest and obovate. Spikes 2-3 inches long." 2
Mr. Burtt-Davy, who calls this Aapjies-doorn cites, along with Transvaal localities, "Manganja hills, Zambesia, fine tree, 30-40 feet high; wood not hard, but tenaceous, used by natives for hoe handles, &c., AMe/ller 9 in Herb Kew."
A. delagoensis, Harms. Concerning this species I know nothing beyond Mr. Burtt-Davy's record, 3 viz. :-" Umbolosi, Schlechter, 11,718, in Herb Lurich. Probably
extends into the low veld of the Transvaal, apparently near to A. Burkei."
A. lasiopetala, Oliv. Unknown to me, described by Prof. Oliver as:-" Extremities uniformly softly hoary-tomentose. Stipular spines, straight or subrecurved,
pubescent nearly to the apex. Young leaves, especially on the rachis, silky tomentose; pinna in 14-22 pairs; leaflets 20-30 pairs, probably often more numerous, not wholly developed in our specimens; gland sessile near the base of the rachis. Peduncles in pairs or solitary from the lower axils, pubescent, 1-2 inches long.
Bracts obsolete. Flowers capitate. Calyx pilose pubescent, lobes ovate obtuse. Petals externally silky, cohering ( or 2 their length, about half as long again as the calyx. Ovary subsessile, glabrous, subtruncate above, with an obliquely inserted filiform style. Fruit unknown. Foot of Impemba Peak, Shire River, Dr.
Kirk." 4 Mr. Burtt-Davy, who has compared Transvaal specimens with those from the Zambesi (Buchanan's), says :-" In foliage and pubescence it is much like A. Rehmanniana, Schinz, but the legumes are large and woody, in shape a little approaching those of A. hebeclada, but longer, glabrous and shining. The bark is
quite different from that of A. Rehmanniana, being pale yellow, soft and papery, at length flaking off."
A. pennata, Willd. Vern. name-4, Inekwa. Scandent by nature, erect when support is absent. Prickles scattered round the stem and between the nodes, often
numerous, not stipular, recurved, i c.m. long. Leaf 12-18 c.m. long the rachis often bearing prickles on its lower surface, and a gland on its upper; pinna 10-15 pairs, or not regularly opposite, leaflets 15-30 pairs, 7 m.m. long, 2 m.m. wide. Inflorescence capitate in axillary and terminal panicles. Axillary abortive branches set with numerous small recurved prickles, and with tendril nature assist the scandent habit, but where there is no support the plant assumes erect habit 4-10 feet high, much branched, and with the inflorescence in lax terminal panicles, with numerous capitate heads and eventually 30 or more pods in a panicle. Pod 10o-15 c.m. long, 2-2"5 c.m. wide, thinly coriaceous, flat, many-seeded. Seeds oblong, 7 m.m. long, dark brown. A bad forest weed. Umbalusi; Lourenzo Marques, &c.
PLATE XXXVIII. B.
Acacia caffra, Willd., var. rupestris. (Var. nov.) Arbor parva pubescens; cauli paullo angulato aculeis recurvis 3-7 m.m. longis sparsis armnato ; foliis 15 c.m. longis, pinnis circiter 14-jugis, foliolis
circiter 30-jugis; rachi glandula prope basin caeterisque paucis inter pinnas predita; inflorescentia spica 7-o10 c.m. longa, raro paniculata; legumine o10-12 c.m. longo, 1'5 c.m. lato, acuto, piano. Frequens in Maputa et Marracuene, minus frequens versus Lourenzo Marques. Verisimiliter A. eriadenia Benth. Sim 6235. Tab. XXXIX. B.
"Flora of Tropical Africa," II., 282. 3 Kew Bulletin No. 4, 1908, 157. 4 Flora of Tropical Africa," II., 347.




Synoptical and Specific Descriptions. 57
A. retinens. (New species.)' Vern. names-4, Insibebe or behe; 15, Mshakwe. A shrub 2-3 metres high, or occasionally a small tree, gregarious to the exclusion of
other kinds. Stipular spines 5-10 m.m. long, strong, sharply hooked, often altered by insect parasites into hard swollen spines 3-4 c.m. long, I c.m. diameter with the points sharp and hooked. Leaves 2-5-4 c.m. long, with 5-7 pairs of pinna, each with 12-14 leaflets which are 2 m.m. long, linear, pubescent and ciliate. All young parts densely pubescent, including spines, twigs and pods; with age these become nearly glabrous. Inflorescence nearly capitate on 2-3 c.m. peduncles bracted below the middle. Pod 2'5-4 c.m. long, i c.m. wide, straight, flat, dehiscent, with about 4 compressed brown seeds with a cordate spot bordered white on each. Umbelusi and Lebombo (extra-tropical). A most adherent Wacht-em-bitje" said by Mr. Stem to be highly valuable for the rough cordage from the bark, which is too dear for commerce but for durability is not excelled. The curious gall-spines are constantly present and are a curious development; galls of the
same nature also occur occasionally on A. horrida, and more regularly on the exotic A. cornigera. Sim. 6391.
PLATE XL. A.
A. arabica, Willd. Vern. names-4,Tchanga or Chenga; 6, Shangaira and Chicai; 15, Isitwete; io, Mungu-m-chen and E. gamo-sena. In this Province a flat-topped tree
3-6 metres high with a rugged black stem, and usually well supplied with straight white stipular spines 5 m.m. to 7 c.m. long, the larger spines up to 7 m.m. diameter at base. I.eaves 7-10 c.m. long; pinnme 6-8 pairs; rachis pubescent; leaflets 10-12 pairs, 6 m.m. long, 2 m.m. wide, linear-oblong. Peduncles clustered, axillary, 3-7
c.m. long, bracted rather below the middle, with capitate or sub-spicate inflorescence and often a few flowers at the bracts; occasionally spicate and capitate inflorescences occur on the same branch. Pod 15 c.m. long, i c.m. wide, stipitate, straight, moniliform, glabrous or pubescent. The type of this species belongs to North Africa; the South African form is var. Kraussiana characterised by long spines and deeply crenate but scarcely moniliform, tomentose pods. Seldom gregarious, but more generally distributed throughout the Province, as also throughout tropical and sub-tropical Africa than any other species. Abundant in Maputa and Natal; seldom of timber size, but it makes first-rate fuel. "On the Upper Nile this species attains a large size, the trunk measuring 8 or io feet in girth. The wood is used in boat-building, and the astringent pods are largely used in tanning." From some of the forms of this tree the gum arabic of commerce is obtained.
The pod is known as, io, Messieo or Issaeii or Ensio.
PLATE XXXVI. r, Branch, showing spines; 2, Pod; 3, Seed; 4, Tree, (much reduced); 5, Flowering branch. A. horrida, Willd. Vern. names-i, Thorn-tree, Mimosa; 4, Mungu; 13, Umnga; 14, Doornboom (Cape Colony); Zoet-doorn (Transvaal). A glabrous flat-topped
tree usually spreading more than its height. Pinna 2-4 pairs, leaflets 8-12 pairs, linear-oblong. Inflorescence capitate; peduncles many together in axillary clusters, or by the absence of leaves forming terminal panicles, bracteate below the middle; flowers bright yellow, sweet scented. Pods 5-12 c.m. long, 6-12 m.m. wide, straight, falcate, or more or less twisted, thinly coriaceous, glabrous, dehiscent, acute, many-seeded, compressed, not or hardly constricted between the seeds. Spines in pairs, stipular, straight, acute, from 1-12 c.m. long, white. This is the most common species in Cape Colony, Natal, and Transvaal, but is less common in this
Province, and in the low tropical districts absent. For illustration and uses see "Forest Flora of Cape Colony," p. 2 I 1, Plate LXI.
Var. t-ansvaalensis, Davy, differs in being pubescent on its younger parts.
A. seyal, Delile. A small tree 3-5 metres high, usually growing in straggling fashion in dense impenetrable masses, and occupying more or less wet ground. Spines 2-5
c.m. long, slender, white; leaves 5 c.m. long; pinnM 3-4 ; leaflets 8-20, 5-7 m.m. long, 2 m.m. wide or less; peduncles axillary, several from an axil, 2-5 c.m. long;
flowers capitate; pods 8-12 c.m. long, 6 m.m. wide, much constricted between the seeds; valves thinly coriaceous. Too near A. horrida, from which the more constricted pods form the best distinction, and still with a considerable indescribable difference which any native can recognise. Frequent in Maputa and
Marraquene.
PLATE XXXV. B. I, Fruiting branch; 2, Flower-head ; Flower, x 3.
A. natalitia, E. Mey. Concerning this species which Mr. Burtt-Davy collected on the Komati River, he says:-" Nearly related to A. horrida, but apparently a valid
species, distinguished by the much narrower leaflets and characteristically pale bark, as compared with the dark-brown, almost black, bark of A. horrida."
A. hirtella, E. Mey. Vern. names-4, Mungu-manzi; io, Egamosena. A very robust tree, densely pubescent on the younger parts, with heavy dark-green foliage.
Spines in pairs, apparently stipular, r-5 c.m. long; pinnie about 5 pairs; leaflets 10-15 pairs, 5-7 m.m. long, 2 m.m. wide. Inflorescence capitate, peduncles several
'Acacia retinens. (Sp. nov.) Frutex 2-3 m. altus, vel arbor parva, densissime gregaria, armata stipulis spinosis 5-10o m.m. longis validis hamatis, vel saepe in gallas insectorum 3-4 c.m. longas I c.m.
diam., apicem versus hamatas mutatis; foliis 2-5-4 c.m. longis, pinnis 5-7-jugis, foliolis 12-14-jugis 2 m.m. longis, linearibus, pubescentibus ciliatis; partibus junioribus (ramulis, spinis, fructibus inclusis) pubescentia
densa vestitis, demum subglabris ; inflorescentia sub-capitata ; pedunculo 2-3 c.m. longo, infra medium bracteato ; legumine 2"5-4 c m. longo, I c.m. lato, recto, plano, circiter 4-spermo, dehiscente, seminibus fuscis compressis, macula cordata albomarginata notatis. Unmbelusi et Lebombo. Sim 6391.
H




58 Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
from one axil, 2-5 c.m. long; bracted below the middle. Pod somewhat falcate, 10-15 c.m. long, 1'5 c.m. wide, 5-6 m.m. diameter, with convex leathery valves
and 6-9 seeds, which hang out after the pod opens. Pod tapering to the base, roundly pointed at the apex. This tree agrees with Harvey's description ("Flora Capensis," II., 281), but A. hirtella of my "Forests and Forest Flora of Cape Colony" is different, and is probably a still unnamed species, which was not seen in Portuguese territory. The present species is abundant in Lourenzo Marques, Maputa and Marraquene, and it also occurs throughout the districts (tropical and extra-tropical) explored by me, often as a fringe just above the mangroves on saline mud flats. Along with other thorny species it shares the name Mungu-m-chen
(i.e., prickly-thorn).
PLATE XXXV. A. I, Flowering branch; 2, Pod, open; 3, Section of Pod.
A. Xanthophloea, Benth. Vern. names-r, Fever-tree; 4, Kamba, Camba, Shi-kamba, and Mhlafunga. Lofty tree, up to 30 metres high, with stem to I metre
diameter; growth mostly on top, and on a few scattered branches. Stipular spines usually present, in pairs, 1-4 c.m. long, slender, straight, acute, white. Bark of the stem glaucous green, smooth. Leaves 5-15 c.m. long, 4 c.m. wide or less, 2-pinnate; rachis variable from terete to sulcate, and usually with one oblong gland near the base; pinne 4-7 pairs, leaflets 0o-i5 pairs, 6 m.m. long; the leaves and young growth at first scaly-pubescent, but soon almost glabrous. Inflorescence capitate, heads globose; peduncles 3 c.m. long, 3-bracted near the middle ; many from I axil, the peduncles and small leaves produced on abortive axillary branchlets. Specimens frequently occur where (by fungoid fasciation ?) the inflorescence becomes abnormal, produced into a scattered raceme 5-7 c.m. long, or paniculate through the production of secondary racemes from the axils of the bracts. Pods numerous from i flower, not seen at maturity. Several writers have commented on this tree not bearing fruit. I think it probably ripens rapidly and falls without being woody, as I saw no trace of old fruit, though flowers and young fruits were abundant. A stately tree with a ghastly hue on the stem, growing usually on flat clay soils, hence often co-present with malarial fever, and known as fever tree. The timber seems sound when cut, but soon cracks badly and decays, and is useless for most technical purposes, and subject to insect-boring almost as soon as cut. Frequent at Umnibelusi, Matolla, &c., and seen at Chai-chai, Manjikesi (scarce and only near the panis), Mutambe, Inhambane (extra-tropical), Quelimane and Nhamacurra, but not in large quantity altogether. Occurs also in the Transvaal low veld, Rhodesia, and further north, and in Northern Nigeria.
"The bark of the main trunk and branches exfoliates leaving a layer of new bark of yellow colour and powdery surface, as though covered with a lichenoid
growth Said to produce gum, but this is not a noticeable feature.
PLATE XLI. I, Flowering branch, with normal inflorescence ; 2, Glandon petiole ; 3, Abnormal inflorescence ; 4, Young pods; 5, Tree, general appearance (much reduced).
Several other species of Acacia are on record, unknown to me and concerning which my information is insufficient. Among these are :A. Petersiana, Bolle in Peters' Mossamb. Bot. I. 4, concerning which Prof. Oliver, in Flora of Tropical Africa," states that so far as he can judge it "must be very
near A. spirocarpa. The fruit however is unknown. The leaves are described as hairy, not exceeding one inch in length, with 1o pairs of pinne, leaflets very small, linear, in 6-20 pairs. The involucel is inserted in the lower part of the peduncle." But Burtt-Davy (Kew Bulletin No. 4, 1908, p. 16o) doubts if A. spirocarpa, Hochst, occurs so far south as the Transvaal, and refers his Transvaal specimens to A. spirocarpoides, Eng1., of which I have no description. A. spirocarpa is
characterised by exceedingly twisted pubescent pods and capitate inflorescence.
A. Rovumm, Oliv., with spicate inflorescence, from Rovuma Bay. See "Flora of Tropical Africa," II. 353.
A. s species, with spicate inflorescence, from Manganya Hills, Zambesi-land. See Flora of Tropical Africa," II. 353.
A. sambesiaca, Schinz, mentioned by Mr. Burtt-Davy in Kew Bulletin No. 4, 1908, p. 159.
125. ALBIZZIA. Flowers mostly hermaphrodite; inflorescence in capitate heads on peduncles axillary on special short branches or on terminal branches. Calyx tubular,
5-toothed; teeth equal. Corolla tubular, with a half-spreading limb of 5 equal lobes; stamens indefinite, 15-30, more or less connate round the pistil in hermaphrodite flowers. Central flowers sometimes different, with short staminal sheath. Legume dry, dehiscent or indehiscent, several-seeded. Leaves bi-pinnate. Trees
or shrubs with or without spinous branches.
A. Forbesii, Benth. A spreading tree, 3-7 metres high, much branched, bushy or flat. Twigs rigid; stipules 6 m.m. long, lanceolate; inflorescence axillary on the
young shoots. Leaves 5-7 c.m. long and wide; pinnte 2-4 pairs, leaflets 7-12 pairs, at first obliquely oblong, 7 x 2 m.m., afterwards linear through revolute margins; the main vein parallel to and near the upper margin. Rachis with a gland below the lower pair and between the upper pair of pinned; rachis, veins and margins of Burtt-Davy in Kew Bulletin No. 4, 1908.




Synoptical and Specific Descriptions. 59
young leaves pubescent, as also the peduncles which are 2-4 c.m. long, and many-flowered. Petals united I their length. Staminal tube nearly as long as the petals.
Pod 8-15 c.m. long, 3-4 c.m. wide, flat, thin, dry, membranous, indehiscent, transversely streaked, with many hard brown seeds in separate sections, each seed with
a scar on each side near the base. Abundant near Lourenzo Marques, seldom if ever of timber size. See Flora Capensis" (Harv. & Sond.) II. 284.
PLATE XXXIX. A. i, Flowering branch; 2, Fruiting branch; 3, Leaflet, x 3 ; 4, Flower, x 2; 5, Corolla, opened out, x 3; 6, Pistil, x 2 ; 7, Anther, x 4; 8, Seed ; 9, Staminal column and stamens ; io, Tree, general aspect.
A. umbalusiana. (New species.)' Vern. names-4, 15, Nala-nyaca, or Nala. Shrub 2-4 metres high, nearly or quite deciduous, with numerous sharp spines 5-1o c.m.
long, bearing leaves and peduncles; or sometimes a bushy tree 7-1o metres high with fewer spines. Stipules 3 m.m. long, hardly prickly. Leaves 5-8 c.m. long and wide, rachis with a gland near the base, pinn~e 2-3 pairs, leaflets 2-5 pairs 7-10 m.m. long or gradually larger upward to 2 c.m. long, obliquely elliptical or more or less trapeziform, rounded or somewhat pointed. Peduncles I'5-3 c.m. long, 6-12 flowered; pedicels 3-5 m.m. long; calyx 2 m.m. long; corolla 5 m.m. long, divided
at the top only; staminal tube included; filaments i'5-2 c.m. long, pods 8-12 c.m. long 1"5-2 c.m. wide, rounded to a point, tapering somewhat at the base, thin, flat, 3-5 seeded, dehiscent. Seeds round, compressed, 7 m.m. wide. Bark smooth. Roots used for stomach medicine. Frequent in Lourenzo Marques and Maputa
districts in the thorn-veld and up to the Lebombos. Sim 6200.
PLATE LV. A. I, Flowering branch; 2, Pods; 3, Flower, x 2; 4, Staminal tube and stamens; 5, Anther; 6, Pistil, x 2; 7, Upper leaflets (occasional size).
A. mossambicensis. (New species.)2 Vern. name-4, Impesha. A large tree 12-20 metres high, and 6o-ioo c.m. diameter of stem with useless timber and rough bark
used as ashes with snuff. Leaves 2-pinnate, rachis 15 c.m. long pubescent, with a sessile gland near the base; pinnte 3 pairs 7-10 c.m. long, each with rachis swollen at the base; leaflets 3-4 pairs, the upper the larger, 3-5 c.m. long, obliquely elliptical, ovate or obovate, usually rounded or bluntly pointed at the apex, tapering to the 2-3 m.m. petiole on the lower side but parallel with the rachis or nearly so on the upper side, and finely tomentose on the lower surface, but soon glabrescent on the upper. Peduncles axillary, with 10-15 sessile flowers on top. Calyx tubular, 4 m.m. long, with short equal teeth; corolla longer by half, with short lobes; peduncle, calyx and corolla densely pubescent; staminal tube included, filaments 2 c.m. long. Pods 12-18 c.m. long, 2-3 c.m. wide, shortly pointed, rounded at the base to the I-1"5 c.m. stipe, flat, membranaceous, 8-to seeded, and with a distinct margin on each side. Frequent throughout the Province, semi-deciduous, flowering
in early summer. Sim 6392.
PLATE LX. I, Leaf; 2, Pods; 3, Inflorescence.
Between Arenga and Bajou, Magenja da Costa were trees leafless when seen, and with red pods, and known locally as gamaranga or Mukratabo, which appear to belong to this species but may be a different closely allied one.
A. fastigiata, E. Mey. Vern. names-1, Flatcrown ; 4, Goine; 5, M-bezwa; 6, Mo-esu, or O-heso; io, Maranga; 13, Umhlandhloti and Nebelele. A tree 7-20
metres high, 30-60 c.m. diameter of stem, having a clear bole and widely expanded, flat crown 12-15 metres diameter. Leaves usually deciduous, and the white twigs are conspicuous during winter. Leaves alternate, bi-pinnate, 15-25 c.m. long, 15 c.m. wide; rachis up to 15 c.m. long with a sessile gland near the base pinnm 5-6 pairs, leaflets 6-12 pairs, each leaflet 12-18 m.m. long, 6 m.m. wide; upper pair rather smallest. Heads corymbose toward the end of the branch, axillary with or without produced leaves, 2-10 in an axil, 3-4 c.m. wide, with 50 or more flowers, each flower sub-tended by an acute involute rusty bract; the flowers subsessile, and mostly hermaphrodite, but i or more are staminate in each head. In the hermaphrodite flowers the stamens are indefinite (15-30), the filaments united for about 3 c.m. and free and sub-erect for i c.m., while the slender pistil extends i c.m. beyond the top of the staminal tube. In the central staminate flower or flowers the pistil is absent, the To-toothed calyx is larger, the corolla shorter, the staminal tube wide and full of nectar, and shorter than the corolla which is hid by
SAlbizzia umbalusiana. (Sp. nov.) Frutex 2-4 m. altus, caule laevi, ramis multis foliiferis et floriferis acutis armatus, vel arbor fruticosa 7-1o mi. alta, spinis paucioribus armata ; foliis omnino vel paene deciduis, 5-8 c.m. longis et latis, rachi basin versus glandula praedita; pinnis 2-3-jugis; foliolis 2-5-jugis, 7-10o m.m. vel 2 c.m. longis, oblique ellipticis, vel plus minus trapeziformibus, sursum latioribus,
obtusis vel subacutis; pedunculis 1 5-3 c.m. longis, flores 6-12 gerentibus; pedicellis 3-5 m.m. longis; calyce 2 m.m. longo; corolla 5 m.m. longae lobis brevibus; tubo staminali incluso, filamentis 1-5-2 c.m.
longis; leguminibus 8-12 c.m. longis, I'5-2 c.m. latis, apicem versus rotundatis, submucronatis, tenuibus, planis, 3-5-spermis, dehisc-ntibus; seminibus rotundis compressis, 7 m.m. latis. Frequens in dumetis
aculeatis; Lourenzo Marques, Maputa, Lebombos. Sim 6200. Tab. LV. A.
-A. mossambicensis. (Sp. nov.) Arbor magna, 12-20 m. alta, subdecidua, caule 6o-Ioo c.m. diam.; foliis duplopinnatis; rachi 15 c.m. longa, pubescente, glandula sessili basilari praedita; pinnis
3-jugis, 7-10 c.m. longis, costa basin versus tumefacta; foliolis 3-4-jugis, superioribus majoribus, 3-5 c.m. longis, oblique ellipticis, ovatis, vel obovatis, apice rotundata vel subacuta, omnibus versus stipitem 2-3 m.m.
longum angustatis; pagina inferiore tomento tenui vestita, superiore mox glabrescente; inflorescentia axillari, floribus 10-15 sessilibus ex apice pedunculi ortis; pedunculo calyce et corolla pubescentia densa vestitis; calycis tubo 4 m.m. longo, in dentes aequos breves producto; corolla calyce dimidio longiore, petalis brevibus tubo staminali incluso, filamentis 2 c.m. longis; leguminibus 12-18 c.m. longis, 2-3 c.m. latis, breviter mucronatis, hasi rotundatis, versus stipitem I-r'5 longum planis, membranaceis, 8-o spermis, marginibus manifestis. Frequens per provinciam. Sim 6392. Tab. LX.




60 Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
the deflexed and more numerous filaments. Stipules caducous, on flowering parts conspicuous, r c.m. long, pubescent. Pod straight, flat, reticulate, 12-15 c.m.
long, 2-3 c.m. wide; seed 7-1o m.m. long, oblong flat. Abundant throughout the Province, as also in Natal and in West Africa. Much used in Natal for naves and other wagonwood purposes, but as it is practically cut out there and in demand in Cape Colony and Transvaal for these purposes, there is an opening for export
from this Province, where the material is abundant and good. See "Forest Flora of Cape Colony," page 213, Plate LXII.
PLATE LVIII. I, Flowering branch ; 2, Flower; 3, 4, Central flower, x 2 ; 5, Stipule, x 2 ; 6, Seed ; 7, Section of same ; 8, Tree, general aspect (much reduced) ; 9, Pod ; Io, Section of same.
As the species of Albizzia are more or less regularly deciduous and several may have been without leaves, flowers or fruit during my visit to Zambesia, I introduce here the following species included in the Flora of Tropical Africa" as belonging to the Province, though not found in recognisable form by me:A. anthelmintica, A. Brogn. "A shrub or small tree (in Zambesi-land occasionally with a trunk 3-4 ft. in diam.) wholly glabrous or extremities petioles and peduncles in
the Zambesi plant minutely pubescent. Leaf rachis -3 in. long, usually with minute glands; pinne 2-3 (1-4) jugate; leaflets 2-3 (-5) jugate, the upper larger, obliquely obovate or obovate elliptical, obtuse, mucronate, glabrous, glaucescent, reticulate, paler or glaucescent beneath, the upper varying to if inch in length, usually smaller, petiolule j line or less. Peduncles fascicled or solitary in the upper axils or from leafless nodes on the older wood, about inch long. Flowers 'whitish,' sub-sessile, on pedicels "- in. Calyx infundibuliform, denticulate, at length irregularly split, half as long as petals which are connate 2. United base of
the filaments included. Legume 2-6 in. long, few-seeded, narrowed at the base, often sinuous from abortion of seeds, L! in. broad in our specimens.
Shire River, Zambesia (Dr. Mleller!). The bark is used as an anthelmintic in Abyssinia. 'Wood hard, and used in canoe-making in Zambesi-land' (Dr. Aeller)."
A. glabrescens, Oliv. "A large tree; extremities minutely rusty-pubescent, early glabrous or nearly so, lenticellate, dark reddish brown. Leaf rachis 1-3 in., glabrate,
eglandular (in our specimens); pinnae 2-1 jugate ; leaflets 4-6 jugate, shortly petiolulate, oblique or sub-falcate, oblong-rhomboidal or ovate-lanceolate, obtuse, the uppermost pair largest, glabrous or midrib puberulous above, shining, reticulate, with the lower lateral nervure prolonged half the length of the leaflet, varying to 2 in. in length, the lower frequently not half as long; petiolule line long. Peduncles one inch, fascicled in the nodes, and racemosely or corymbosely crowded on leafless shoots 2-3 in. in length. Inflorescence pubescent more or less. Pedicels equalling the calyx or flower. Calyx tubular campanulate, 5-dentate, i line long.
Petals united {, twice as long as the calyx. United base of the filaments included. Zanzibar; and Kongone, Zambesi, growing in open spaces between the lines
of mud creeks; Dr. Kirk."
A. Lebbek, Benth. "Tree; extremities wholly glabrous or puberulous. Leaf rachis 3-9 in., with a large sessile gland near the base, with usually one or more inter-jugal
glands; pinna usually 2-4 jugate; leaflets 3-9 jugate, elliptic-oblong, or the upper more oblique and obovate-oblong, very obtuse or retuse, sub-sessile, glabrous, reticulate, 1-2 in. long, -a in. broad. Peduncles 2-4 in., fascicled from the upper axils or corymbose; flowers glabrate or puberulous, capitate, on pedicels of 1-3 lines. Calyx I-2 lines long, with short deltoid teeth. Free extremities of petals ovate-lanceolate. United base of the filaments included. Legume 2-i ft. long,
r-il in, broad, . . (Upper Guinea and NVi/e-land.) Mossambique district, near the coast-line, Dr. Peters."
A. Petersiana, Bolle, in Peters' Mossamb. Bot., i, t. i. "Shrub, wholly glabrous or young extremities obsoletely puberulous. Leaf rachis 1-2 in. long, with a sessile
gland near the base; pinned 2-4 jugate; leaflets 3-6 jugate, sub-sessile, obovate-rhomboidal, obtuse glabrous, I to little over I in. in length; the upper sometimes nearly I in. long, and over I in. broad (Bolle). Peduncles i-i in. long, slender, fascicled from leafless nodes, forming short corymbs. Flowers 'purple,' glabrous.
Calyx tubular campanulate, dentate, about i line long. Petals united 1-4, five times longer than the calyx, forming a tubular corolla dilated at the throat. Staminal
tube slender, far exserted. Legume not seen. Zambesi, Dr. Peters; Rovuma River, 28 miles from the coast, Dr. seller /"
FAMILY XXIX,-ROSACEj..
A very large Family of trees, shrubs and herbs, having widely different characters, but as it is represented in the ligneous flora of this Province by only 2 species, the characters of those species are all that are required here, alike for the Family and genera. 126. PYGEUM africanum, Hook, f. Vern. names-i, Red Stinkwood; Bitter Almond; 14, Roode Stinkhout. A large evergreen tree, 15-25 metres high, 50-00
c.m. diameter of stem, with heavy glossy foliage resembling Portugal Laurel. Leaves alternate, simple, elliptic-oblong, acute, tapering to both ends, 8-1o c.m. long, 3-4 c.m. wide, thinly coriaceous, glabrous, crenate-serrate, the lower pair of teeth glandular; the venation reticulate, with a distinct midrib in continuation of the channelled petiole of 3-4 c.m. length. Stipules minute, caducous. Flowers in racemes 5-7 c.m. long, axillary singly on the lower parts of the young shoots, or on




Synoptical and Specific Descriptions. 61
special side-shoots. Racemines 15-30 flowered; inflorescence and calyces glabrous. Flowers i c.m. across, hermaphrodite; calyx with 5 short teeth; petals and stamens evidently perigynous, petals white, 6 m.m. long, softly hairy and somewhat fringed. Stamens numerous, perigynous, longer than the petals, spreading in a circle. Ovary superior, sessile, short, free, consisting of a single carpel with a terminal style, a capitate stigma and 2 pendulous collateral ovules. Fruit leathery, transversely oblong or somewhat 2-lobed, i-seeded, green, I c.m. long, 15 m.m. wide. Cotyledons twisted. An important timber tree for wagon-wood wherever obtainable, as it is in Cape Colony, Natal, and West Tropical Africa, while Sir J. Kirk found it in Mozambique district at the foot of Mount Tschiradzura, 3000 feet, and near Munguzi. This tree is easily recognised, and I did not see it in the Province, but think it probably extends along the western border. For uses and
illustration see "Forest Flora of Cape Colony," 215, Plate LXIII.
127. PARINARIUM, Mabola, Oliv. Vein. names-i, Hissing-tree (Miss Gibbs); 16, Mola or Mabola Plum, Dr. Kirk; Mkuna (Miss Gibbs). A large evergreen tree,
having alternate, coriaceous, entire, simple, oblong, obtuse leaves, tomentose on the under surface; terminal and axillary panicles of cymose flowers; sepals and petals 5; stamens 7-8, perigynous; ovary sessile in the mouth of the calyx-tube, more or less 2-celled, with i ovule in each. "Drupe sub-globose or plum-like, with
a thick bony 2 or i-celled putamen; pulp strawberry-like in flavour." Found in Zambesia by Sir J. Kirk. Other species occur northward and westward.
FAMILY XXX.-SAXIFRAGACE.E.
A large Family with considerable range of characters and as it is represented in the ligneous flora here by only r aberrant species the characters of that will suffice.
128. BREXIA, madagascariensis. Bot. Reg. t. 730. A very variable glabrous shrub, 3-5 metres high, growing among mangroves on tidal mud from Delagoa Bay northward.
Leaves alternate, obovate, coriaceous, 8-i5 c.m. long, 5 c.m. wide, toothed or sub-entire; cymes axillary, few-flowered; flowers 3 c.m. across, greenish, 5-merous; stamens 5, sub-hypogynous; ovary superior with a single style, 5-celled, with numerous ovules. Fruit drupaceous, woody, oblong pointed, 7 c.m. long, 3 c.m. wide,
i-celled, many-seeded.
CALYCIFLORIE. GROUP II. SECTION 2.
Ovary usually inferior, 2 or several-celled (except Combretaceae). Seeds exalbuminous (except Weihea). Style undivided. Stamens numerous, or twice as many as the petals.
FAMILY XXXI.-COMBRETACEJE.
Flowers perfect or polygamous; inflorescence in terminal or axillary spikes or racemes, (or these when terminal and axillary forming a panicle,) or sometimes capitate. Calyx-tube adnate with the ovary, spreading above and 4-5 parted. Petals 4-5 small or minute, or absent, rising from the margin of the calyx-tube. Stamens as many or twice as many as the petals. Ovary inferior, i-celled, with 2-5 pendulous ovules. Style single; fruit angled or winged. Seed exalbuminous, solitary pendulous. Trees, shrubs, or scandent trailers, with simple, entire, exstipulate leaves.
129. COMBRETUM. Flowers perfect or polygamous; inflorescence in spikes, racemes, or panicles. Calyx attached to the narrow ovary, and spreading, cup-shaped, above.
Flowers 4-5 merous; petals very small, stamens 8-io in 2 rows. Style protruding; ovary i-celled, ovules several. Fruit 4-winged, i-celled, i-seeded, indehiscent.
Leaves simple, entire, opposite, verticellate or alternate, exceedingly variable on one tree and at different stages of growth. Trees, shrubs, or climbers, widely
distributed, and forming a large proportion of the ligneous flora in some parts of this Province.
C. constrictum, Laws. (= Poivrea mossambicensis, Klotzsch in Peters' Mossamb. Bot. 78, t. 13.) Climbing shrub with 5-merous flowers, obovate-elliptical pointed
leaves 6-io c.m. long, almost glabrous, dotted white, above petiole bases remaining hardened as spines; flowers large, in racemes mostly terminal; petals fringed.
Mozambique. Dr. Peters.
C. pentagonum, Laws. "Tree. Young branches round, hairy. Leaves opposite, shortly petiolate, oval or obovate, 5-8 in. long, 3-3 in. broad, glabrous above, hairy
beneath. Flowers ? . . Fruit roundly-oblong, i} in. long, i in. thick, with 5 rounded angles. Rovuma River, Dr. Meller."
Another climbing shrub with bright red secund flowers, possibly the West African C. grandiflorum, Don, or a new species, is abundant in the Umbelusi Valley, Lourenzo Marques, covering trees with its vigorous climbing growth, and making a bright display in early Spring.




62 Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
C. lomuense. (New species.)' Flowers sessile in spikes arranged as a terminal panicle, each flower subtended by a lanceolate bract, each spike in the axil of a leaf or
large bract; younger parts densely villose or canescent, older foliage varying from villose to glabrescent on the upper surface, hairy on the veins beneath. Leaves sub-opposite or occasionally alternate, 2-4 c.mn. long, I-25 c.m. wide, shortly elliptical, with a petiole 3 m.m. long and a minute point; opaque on the upper surface; the many and reticulated veins in relief on the under surface. Flowers 7 m.m. long, the ovary densely hairy, the tube very slender, and the calyx-limb open, 4-toothed, glabrous within, but with an annular disc densely hairy on its inner surface. Petals 4, unequal, plaited, rising from the mouth of the calyx, the limb wider than deep and narrowed suddenly into a narrow claw; stamens 8, 4 rising from below the petals and 4 alternate with them, all outside the disc, incurved when young, finally much exserted. Pistil slender, pointed; ovary i-celled with 2 ovules; the tube breaking off above the ovary at an early stage. Fruit unknown.
Sent from Mozambique together with Weihea (?) sub-peltata, evidently mismated, as "Mocurusse;" presumably this was scandent on or growing intermixed with the Weihea, which, as shown by the attached timber specimens, owned the native name. No further information is to hand as to its habit or habitat. Sim 6393.
Plate LXI. B. I, Part of panicle ; 2, Leaf-shoot ; 3, Section of flower, x 3 ; 4, Flower, x 3 ; 5, Stamen, x to; 6, Pistil, x o ; 7, Ovary and sections, x 3.
C. elaeagnoides, Klotzsch (in Peters' Mossamb. Bot., 73.) A small tree with pubescent virgate branches and silvery grey bark. Leaves opposite, petiolate, 12 c.m.
long, 3 c.m. wide, glabrous above, pale and lepidote below. Inflorescence racemose, lepidote. Flowers small. Style without glands. Fruit orbicular 2-2'5 c.m.
long. Tete, Zambesi, Dr. Kirk.
C. truncatum, Welw. Vern. names-4, Mondu, and Mondu-n-hlovu. A very large spreading tree 20-30 metres high, 30-o100 c.m. diameter of stem, covered with silvery
grey scales, and with deeply fissured and cross-cracked light grey bark in squares 5 x 2 c.m. or less. Vigorous young growth, lepidote, squarrose and spinescent, the spines axillary, 2-8 c.m. long, and either with or without leaves. Leaves 3-10 c.m. long, 1-2'5 c.m. wide, lanceolate or obovate, tapering to an acute point or rounded and mucronate, lepidote, and with slender petioles 3-10 m.m. long. Inflorescence spicate; spikes axillary and terminal on short side branches; flowers small; style covered with glands; fruit 15 m.m. long, ro m.m. wide, 4-winged, tipped by the style, covered with scales. Tree silvery grey from the scales, rigid, erect and squarrose, and much like an Eleagnus when young, a very large tree when old, with rather brittle and most durable timber, so hard that before the advent of iron hoes this was used instead. Frequent in Lourenzo Marques, Maputa and Marracuene; present also but not frequent from the Limpopo to Inhambane.
North of Quelimane it was not noticed, except in one place between Mucuba and Nhamacurra, but there it was abundant for half-a-mile, and no other tree mixed
with it except a small Protea.
"This species may be readily distinguished from all other African Combreta by its glandular style. The wood is described as being exactly like that of lignum-vitae. The native name for it in the Mozambique country is A1ozamnbiti." I
PLATE LXII. B. I, Fruiting branch ; 2, Shoot of coppice or young tree ; 3, Frequent size and form of leaf; 4, Young leaf showing scales ; 5, Section of fruit ; 6, Portion of leaf (magnified) showing scales.
C. arengense. (New species.)3 Vern. name-io, Katumba. A tree with opposite elliptic-obovate or elliptic-lanceolate leaves 10-15 c.m. long, 5-9 c.m. wide, narrowed
to the blunt point, rounded at the base, shortly petiolate, firm, glabrous but set with minute silvery scales on the lower surface; main and cross veins in strong relief.
Spikes axillary to the lower leaves, 5 c.m. long; fruit I'5-2 c.m. long, 4-winged, at first rusty-ferruginous, the wings afterwards glabrous and shining. Sim 5916.
Magenja da Costa.
PLATE LXIII. B3. I, Leaf; 2, Portion of same, showing white scales; 3, Fruit.
Combretum lomuense. (Sp. nov.) Inflorescentia spicarum in axillis foliorum in panicula apicali dispositarum ; partibus junioribus dense villosis vel canescentibus, foliis demum in pagina inferiore subvillosis vel glabrescentihus, paginae inferioris venis reticulatis prominentibus hirsutis, foliis sub-oppositis vel alternis, 2-4 c.m. longis, I-2"5 c.m. latis, late ellipticis, petiolo 3 m.m. longo, apice breviter mucronato; floribus sessilibus, 7 m.m. longis, ovario dense hirsuto; calycis tubo angustissimo, limbo patente, 4-dentato, intus glabro nisi disco annulari pilis dense vestito ; petalis 4, inaequalibus, plicatis, e tubo calycis ortis, petali lamina lata, ungui angusto ; staminibus 8 in seriebus duabus alternatim dispositis, junioribus incurvis, demum longe exsertis; pistillo gracili, acuto ; ovario I-loculari, ovulis 2 fructibus haud visis, E. Mozambique missa cun Weihea (?) subpeltata, super quam verisimiliter scandet. Sim 6393. Tab. LXI. B.
I Flora of Tropical Africa," II., 427.
3 Combretum arengense. (Sp. nov.) Arbor; foliis oppositis elliptico-obovatis vel elliptico-lanceolatis, o-1i5 c.m. longis, 5-9 c.m. latis, apice obtusis, basi rotundatis, breviter petiolatis, firmis, in pagina
superiore glabis, in pagina inferiore pills argenteis squamosis tectis, venis prominentibus; inflorescentiis in axillis foliorum inferiorum sitis, spicatis, 5 c.m. longis; fructibus I'5-2 c.m. longis, 4-alatis, primo robiginosis, alis demum glabris nitidis. Magenja da Costa. Sim 5916. Tab. LXIII. 1.




Synoptical and Specific Descriptions. 63
C. bajonense. (New species.)' Vern. name-io, ii, Katumba. A small tree with leaves opposite, oval to elliptical, 7 c.m. long, 4-5 c.m. wide, rounded at the base and
apex but shortly pointed and with petiole 15 c.mn. long, glabrous and shining above, minutely pubescent below; the cross veins not prominent. Spike axillary 2"5-5
c.m. long; flowers not seen; fruit 4 c.m. long and wide, 4 winged, rusty-ferruginous. Magenja da Costa. Sim 5715.
PLATE LXIII. C. I, Leaf; 2, Fruit.
C. ellipticum. (New species.)" Vern. n7ame-io, I i, Inama. A small tree with leaves usually opposite, elliptical, 10-15 c.m. long, 4-5 c.m. wide, rounded below, rounded
and bluntly pointed or sometimes acute at the apex, the upper surface woolly or pubescent, the under surface densely canescent; petiole 4-7 m.m. long. Leaves of coppice shoots often in threes, 15-20 c.m. long, obovate and acute. Spikes axillary, 3-5 c.m. long, and like the young wood white with soft short hairs. Fruit 2 c.m.
long, 4-winged, at first foxy, afterwards with yellow glabrous wings. Flowers not seen. Magenja da Costa. Sim 6o68.
PLATE LXIII. D. I, Leaf; 2, Fruit.
C. microphyllum, Klotzsch (in Peters' Mossamb. Bot., 74). Vern. names-4, Hlaba-konkonya; 15, Mhlalavan. A small tree, 3-6 metres high; young growth pubescent ; leaves opposite, alternate or 3-4 whorled, pubescent when young, glabrous or glabrescent when old, shortly obovate, 3-5 c.m. long, 2-3 c.m. wide, shortly pointed. Spikes axillary, numerous, 5 c.m. long, pubescent. Flowers yellow, 4-nate. Fruit 2 c.m. long. Abundant at Umbelusi and Lebombo (extra-tropical).
Timber hard and durable, but stem usually gnarled and often unsound.
PLATE LXII. A. i, Young foliage; 2, Old leaves ; 3, Inflorescence ; 4, Flower, x 3 ; 5, Fruit.
C. Kraussii, Hochst. Vern. names-4, 15, Shuanduan or Chivondwana Kakutu; 6, Chicacute; 13, Umdubu-we-hlati. A large tree. Twigs, younger growth and
inflorescence puberulous or minutely pubescent. Leaves mostly opposite, obovate, bluntly pointed, tapering to the short petiole. Spikes oblong, axillary, 2-3 c.m.
long, on 3 c.m. peduncles, many-flowered, pubescent. Fruit I'5 c.m. long and wide, widely winged. Bark thin, smooth, green on young wood, dark and furrowed on old stems. Foliage red in autumn and winter, while the fruits are yellowish-white and look like flowers from a distance. This large species which is frequent in Pondoland and Natal extends more sparingly through Maputa, Marracuene, Gaza and M'Chopes, the stem sometimes i metre in diameter. For illustration see
" Forest Flora of Cape Colony," p. 222 and Plate LXIX. The vernacular names of several somewhat similar species of Combretum are more or less transferable.
C. holosericeum, Sond. Ven. name-4, 15, Mbondo-m-nyama. Tree 4-8 metres high with extremities and young parts silky-pubescent, and with rugged black
bark from which it takes its native name. Leaves ovate or obovate from a rounded or sub-cordate base, bluntly pointed, 6-9 c.m. long, 5-7 c.m. wide, tomentose below, pubescent above, and with petiole up to i c.m. long. Spikes axillary, or more usually axillary to bracts on short young branches from the lower axils of last year's wood, these flowering branches having foliage crowns, and -at least sometimes growing into leafy branches. Flowers 4-nate. Fruits 2 c.m. long, somewhat pubescent. Timber very hard and durable but gnarled and unshapely, and seldom of large size. Abundant on and below the Lebombos in Maputa and Marracuene (extra-tropical); also present in the Transvaal.
PLATE LXII. C. I, Flowering branch ; 2, Leaves (medium or small) ; 3, Flower, x 3 ; 4, Fruit.
C. Zeyheri, Sond. Vern. name-4, 15, Mbondo-m-hlope, which name is shared with C. salicifolium. A small tree, with densely tomentose branches and younger
parts, and with nearly white old bark from which it takes its native name. Leaves opposite, elliptic-lanceolate, o10 c.m. long, 5 c.m. wide, acute, rounded below, rigid, glabrous above, almost glabrous on the petiole and veins, minutely pubescent on the under surface, and with petiole up to i' 5 c.m. long. Spikes axillary.
Fruits 3-5 c.m. long, wings 7-10o m.m. deep, glabrous. Timber hard, durable, gnarled. Frequent on the Lebombo Range in Maputa and Marracuene; occurs also
in the Transvaal.
PLATE LXIII. A. I, Branch with leaf and fruit; 2, Young inflorescence ; 3, Flower, x 4 ; 4, Petal, x 8.
C. apiculatum, Sond. Unknown to me; included in Flora of Tropical Africa" among those having the leaves sparingly lepidote, at least when young, and the fruits
large, and described thus:-" Small tree. Branches round, glabrous. Leaves opposite, shortly petiolate, elliptic or elliptical-oblong, 2 -3 inches long, i{-ti inches
'Combretum bajonense. (Sp. nov.) Arbor parva; foliis oppositis, ovalibus vel ellipticis, 7 c.m. longis, 4-5 c.m. latis, utrinque rotundatis nisi apice subacuto, petiolo 1'5 c.m.longo,in pagina superiore glabris nitidis, in pagina inferiore pubescentia tenui vestitis, venis transversis non conspicuis ; inflorescentiis axillaribus spicatis, 2'5-5 c.m. longis; fructibus 4 c.m. longis et latis, alis 4 robiginosis praeditis. Magenja da Costa. Sim 5715. Tab. LXIII. C.
SCombretumrn ellipticum. (Sp. nov.) Arbor parva; foliis plerumque oppositis, ellipticis, 10-15 c.m. longis, 4-5 c.m. latis, basi rotundatis, apice tantum non obtusis vel interdum acutis, in pagina superiore lanosis vel pubescentibus, in pagina inferiore dense canescentibus; petiolo 4-7 m.m. longo. Ramorum in virgultis foliis saepe ternis, 15-20 c.m. longis, obovatis, acutis ; inflorescentiis axillaribus, spicatis, 3-5 c.m. longis, albis, pilis mollibus brevibus vestitis; fructus 2 c.m. longi alis 4, primo rufis, postea fulvis glabris. Magenja da Costa. Sim 6o68. Tab. LXIII. D,




64 Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
broad; reflexed at the apex, glabrous. Flowers in solitary spikes as long as the leaves. Calyx-limb campanulate. Petals minute, obovate, fringed with hairs, yellow. Fruit cordate-ovate, 1-1 in. long, 9 lines broad, lepidote, golden yellow; pedicels 3-6 lines long. . Between Tete and the sea. Zambesi;
Dr. Kirkle."
C. myrtifolium, Laws. Vern. name-io, M'duro. One of the most common and valuable trees in the forests of Quelimane, Magenja da Costa and Nhamacurra,
glabrous except on the youngest growth. Leaves 5-8 c.m. long, r5-2"5 c.m. wide, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, acute, on slender petioles 10-15 m.m. long.
Inflorescence axillary to the upper leaves, with slender peduncles 2-3 c.m. long, and with fruits 5-7 in an umbel ; fruits 15 m.m. long, 2-3-4 winged on 15 m.m.
pedicels. Trunk used for dugout boats (Mandeas).
PLATE LXIV. C.
C. salicifolium, E. Mey. Vern. names-i, Bush Willow; 4, 13, Umdubu; 4, Mbondo-m-hlope; io, Ne-onya. A tree 4-10 metres high, always growing near
water, and having very light-coloured smooth bark, and the young growth finely pubescent. Leaves opposite, alternate or whorled, 7-1o c.m. long, 1-2"5 c.m. wide, increasing in size and changing in form with age, bluntly lanceolate, shortly petioled, deciduous or semi-deciduous, becoming red before falling. Spikes axillary, on peduncles 2'5 c.m. long; flowers polygamous, dimorphic, capitate spicate. Fruit 2 c.m. long, i'5 c.m. wide, wings glabrous. Frequent on the rivers of Maputa and Marracuene, present also in M'Chopes (extra-/ropical), and on the Lecungo River, Magenja da Costa (tropical) ; also abundant in Cape Colony and Natal. For
illustration, &c. see "Forest Flora of Cape Colony," page 222, Plate LXIX.
Three other species collected on the Zambesi by Sir John Kirk are shrubs or climbers, with fruits an inch long or more, and appear to be of little forestal importance, viz. :C. Kirkii, Laws. A climber, somewhat lepidote on young parts. Leaves obovate, 7-o10 c.m. long, 2-5-3 c.m. wide; flowers in spikes; fruit 5 c.m. long, 4 c.m. wide,
including the decided wings.
C. tetragonum, Laws. Shrub, with oval or elliptical pubescent leaves 7-12 c.m. long, 3-6 c.m. wide, hairy on the veins beneath and with the spaces between lepidote.
Fruit 3 c.m. long, 2 c.m. wide, angled but not winged.
C. tomentosum, Don. A villose climber, not lepidote. Leaves oblong-elliptical, 3-5 c.m. long; flowers in long woolly spikes; fruits winged, 2'5 c.m. long, finely
red-pubescent.
130. TERMINALIA. Flowers perfect or polygamous, small, greenish, in axillary spikes. Calyx constricted above the ovary, 5-toothed; teeth deciduous. Petals absent.
Stamens io, in 2 rows; ovules 2-3, pendulous. Fruit compressed or samaroid, i-seeded. Trees or shrubs; branches sometimes rigid or spinose. Branches often leafless below, leaves simple, entire, alternate. T. Catappa, Linn., an Indian deciduous species, is frequently cultivated in the Province as an ornamental tree and
for the sake of its fruit-kernels, which are edible; other exotic species yield dyes and Lans from the fruits or bark, including the well-known Myrabolans of trade.
T. sericea, Bruch. Vern. name-.4, Cunona. A silvery-grey evergreen tree 5-25 metres in height, with a dense round crown and abundant foliage. Whole tree finely
canescent, except the grey or decorticated stems. Twigs spreading, leafless below; leaves crowded upward, 7-10 c.m. long, 2-3 c.m. wide, oblanceolate or narrowly obovate, usually pointed, sometimes rounded, very shortly petioled. Spikes lateral, 3-5 c.m. long; flowers bracted; fruits much compressed or somewhat 2-winged, 3 c.m. long, 2 c.m. wide, tapering to both ends. A useful timber tree with a yellow timber used for felloes, &c. Abundant on certain strata throughout the extratropical part of the Province; seen also, but less abundantly, north of the Zambesi (tropical).
PLATE LXIV. A. I, Fruiting branch, and showing gall common on branches; 2, Leaf of young vigorous tree or coppice shoot ; 3, Transverse section of fruit. T. prunioides, Laws. Unknown to me, but collected near TFete by Sir John Kirk and distinguished by having spine-like shoots bearing fascicles of leaves at their tips;
leaves 2'5-5 c.m. long, obovate, glabrous above, covered beneath with long silky adpressed hairs. Samara stalked, elliptic or oblong, 5 c.m. long, 4 c.m. wide;
wings puckered at the margins, purple, glaucescent.
T. Brownii, Fresu. An Abyssinian species found near Tete by Sir John Kirk, having leaves 7-15 c.m. long, broadly lanceolate or elliptic, acuminate, glabrous above,
puberulous beneath and on the I2 m.m. petioles. Samara broadly lanceolate or elliptic, variable in size, 3-7 c.m. long, purplish-red, glaucescent.




Synoptical and Specific Descriptions. 65
T. obovata. (New species.), Vern. name-io, Mumbariba. A tree 6-12 metres high. Leaves more or less crowded toward the end of twigs, which are leafless below;
leaves 7-15 c.m. long, 4-6 c.m. wide, obovate to elliptical, bluntly pointed, tapering below, pubescent below, ultimately glabrescent above. Petiole o10-15 m.m. long.
Fruits 3-4 c.m. long, 2 c.m. wide, 2-winged, tapering to the apex and tapering to the i c.m. peduncle. Frequent in Magenja da Costa. Sim 5672.
PLATE LXIV. B.
131. LUMNITZERA. One African species, as under:L. racemosa, Willd. Vrn. namc-io, Mormoni. A saline or mud mangrove, shrub or tree up to 10-12 metres high, with alternate, succulent, leathery, obovate,
crenate leaves 3-5 c.m. long, 3 c.m. wide, tapering to the short petiole. Spikes axillary, 3-8 c.m. long, 5-o flowered. Ovary 1-2 c.m. long, 4 m.m. diameter
compressed, somewhat curved, surmounted by the 5 short deltoid calyx-teeth, i-celled, with 5 pendent ovules, and supported at the base by an attached bract on each side. Petals 5, 5 m.m. long, bluntly pointed, concave, white. Stamens io, exserted, as long as the conical pistil. Seeds 5, linear. Abundant among mangroves on tidal mud from the Zambesi northward, usually much-branched, bushy, and brittle.
PLATE LXVII. I, F1 lowering and fruiting branch ; 2, Flowers, x 3 3, Calyx, x 3; 4, Section of calyx and ovary, x 3 ; 5, Section of flower, x 6 ; 6, Petal, x 10 ; 7, Seed, x 6 ; 8, Section of ovary, x 4; 9, Section of tube of calyx showing 3 of the pendent seeds, x 5; io, Anther, x Io; II, Pistil, x 6; 12, Tree, general aspect.
FAMILY XXXII.-RHIZOPHORE}E.
Glabrous trees or shrubs, often confined to tidal mud, with opposite or ternate simple leaves, axillary perfect, regular flowers, inferior or more or less superior 2 or morecelled ovaries, and ovules 2 in each cell, pendulous from the top. Stipules interpetiolar, caducous. Stamens 2-3 times the number of the petals. A small group, some members of which are present on most tropical shores ; others occur in forests away from as well as on the coast.
132. RHIZOPHORA. Flowers leathery. Calyx-tube short, bracted, limb 4-palted. Petals 4, entire; stamens 8, almost without filaments, perigynous, the anthers long,
many-celled. Ovary inferior, 2-celled; cells with 2 pendulous ovules. Fruit leathery, i-celled, i-seeded, germination taking place before the fruit drops. Leaves
opposite, leathery, with caducous interpetiolar stipules. Represented by one variable species or several species, on all tropical shores.
R. mucronata, Lam. Vern. names-i, Red Mangrove; 2, Mangle (which applies also to other mangroves) ; 4, Stobani or Shi-thlo-bani ; Staak ; io, Infise. A tree
8-12 metres high, confined to tidal mud. Leaves opposite, elliptical, bluntly pointed, petiolate, 7-10o c.m. long, 4-6 c.m. wide. Stipule intra-axillary, 7-o10 c.m. long,
sheathing. Cymes few-flowered, bracted. Calyx 4-fid, inferior ; segments 15 m.m. long; petals shorter and smaller, and with 2 sessile lanceolate stamens opposite each. Fruit oblong, leathery, at length pierced by the radicle of the germinating embryo which continues to grow downward, sometimes for 30 c.m. before the fruit drops, and then on dropping pierces the soft mud and continues separate existence. Yields the mangrove bark of commerce, an article of export for tanning purposes, but often adulterated with other kinds. Frequently supported by adventitious roots from up the stem. Present on all tidal mud flats in the Province, but often only in young condition through the older material having been cut out for poles or bark. Now protected under Government regulation, and seeds are being
planted to increase the stock. Grows rapidly and yields sound durable poles of red timber up to 30 c.m. diameter, or sometimes more.
R. racemosa, Meyer. A Tropical American species mentioned in "Annuario de Mocambique," i908, is distinguished by having its flowers in paniculate divaricate
shortly-jointed many-flowered cymes, and is not so far as I know found in the Province.
PLATE LXIX. I, Branch with stipule, leaves, inflorescence and fruit ; 2, Tree, general aspect (reduced) ; 3, Flower, opened out ; 4, Petal and 2 stamens ; 5, Position of stamens and pistil.
133. BRUGUIERA. Glabrous leathery trees inhabiting tidal mud. Flowers leathery, 2-5 c.m. long and wide, the calyx-tube without bracts, and having the sunk ovary at
its base. Calyx-limb expanded, about 12-cleft; petals as many and of equal length, bifid, leathery, bearded along the margin, and with the lobes folded together enclosing the 2 stamens, which are set in pairs opposite each petal. Filament 12 m.m. long, anther i c.m. long; style 2 c.m. long, stigma 3-4 lobed. Ovary 2-4 celled, sunk in the calyx-tube. Fruit 12 m.m. long and wide, crowned by the calyx-lobes, and afterwards having the germinating embryo hanging 10-30 c.m. podlike below.
B. gymnorhiza, Lam. Vern. names are shared with Rhizophora mucronata, from which by natives and even by bark collectors it is not distinguished, the general
appearance being almost identical. Leaves opposite, 7-10o cm. long, 2-5-4 c.m. wide, elliptical, acute, and tapering to the petiole. Calyx-tube embracing the ovary
Terminalia obovata. (Sp. nov.) Arbor 6-12 m. alta; ramis infra nudatis, apicemrn versus foliosis; foliis 7-15 c.m. longis, 4-6 c.m. latis, obovatis vel ellipticis, subacutis, pagina inferiore pubescente,
pagina superior postremo glabrescente ; petiolo 10-15 rn.m. longo ; fructibus 3-4 c.n. longis, 2c.m. latis, sursunm et deorsum fastigatis, alis duabus preditis. Magenja da Costa. Sim 5672. Tab. LXIV. B,




66 Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
or partly united with it, segments free, lo-12, lanceolate, 12-15 m.m. long, firmly leathery, green. Petals as many as the sepals, 2-fid, with a terminal hair between, and with 2 hairs to each point, glabrous-brown in front, hairy on back, and each enclosing 2 stamens. Ovary partly free, with a subulate style, and 3-4 fid stigma.
Fruit i-celled, r-seeded, the seed germinating on the plant. Abundant in all tidal mud in the Province, often well inland; extends also to Natal and Cape Colony.
Described under the name B. cylindrica, Blum. in Flora of Tropical Africa," but I cannot separate two forms.
PLATE LXX. i, Fruiting branch, showing leaves and stipule; 2, Calyx; 3, Petal, x 3 ; 4, Section of flower ; 5, Petal and stamens, x 2 ; 6, Style and stigma, x 4 ; 7, Anther, x 4 ; 8, Tree, general aspect (reduced).
134. CERIOPS. One African species, as under:C. Candolliana, Amrn. Vern. namnes-4, Chitwabane (which corresponds closely with the name of Rhizophora); 1o, Mucandara; Nkandella. Shrub or tree 1-7 metres
high, usually much branched, and confined to tidal mud. Branches somewhat angled, leaves opposite, entire, obovate, rounded at the apex, 2'5 c.m. wide, 7-8 c.m.
long including the 2 c.m. petiole. Inflorescence axillary, peduncle 3-4 c.m. long, 5-10o flowered; flowers almost sessile, i c.m. long, mostly in pairs, bracted. Calyx cup-shaped, with 5 oblong-lanceolate segments ; petals 5, oblong, 3-fid at apex and connected near the base by hairs from a gland each side of each. Stamens io, of 2 lengths, the longer as long as the petals and pistil. Ovary conical and pointed, surrounded at the base by a ring of 2-fid glands, 1-celled, and having 5 pendent ovules, of which only i fertilizes. The seed germinates within the fruit on the tree, producing a green somewhat flattened and warted radicle 15-30 inches long, 6-12 m.m. wide, at the upper end of which the plumule grows inside a scarlet tube 12-25 m.m. long, produced from the fruit as the radicle grows. Frequent in
tidal mud from Delagoa Bay northward.
PLATE LXVI. I, Flowering branch, with I fruit ; 2, Flower, x 5 ; 3, Flower, with calyx and corolla removed, x 8; 4, Same, with stamens also removed ; 5, Petal, x Io; 6, Stamen, x 30; 7, Section of ovary, x 5 ; 8, Section of ovary, transverse; 9, Section of ovary, after fertilization ; io, Fruit, with radicle growing out ; I I, Top of radicle, showing plumule starting inside scarlet tube.
135. WEIHEA. Glabrous trees with opposite simple leaves, opposite twigs, and axillary flowers, the pedicels rising from a 2-bracted base. Calyx-tube adhering more or less
to the base of the ovary, its limb 4-5 parted. Petals fugaceous, lacerated at the apex. Stamens about 20, inserted in i row. Ovary not quite free, 3-celled ;
ovules 2 in each cell, pendulous. Berry 3-celled, 3-seeded ; seeds albuminous. A small order belonging to Africa and its islands and to New Zealand.
W. madagascariensis, Spreng. A small tree 5-7 metres high, with twigs very regularly opposite, usually blackish. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, evergreen, finally thinly
coriaceous, 8-r5 c.m. long, 3-4 c.m. wide, varying from almost entire and rather blunt to strongly-toothed and acute. Pedicels I or several, rising from a bracted cup in the axils of the younger leaves, 2 c.m. long, i-flowered, but jointed near the top. Calyx outwardly pubescent ; limb 5-parted. Petals very fugaceous, i c.m.
long, cuneate, divided into 8-12 linear divisions at the point. Pistil as long as the calyx-lobes, 3-lobed at the apex. Ovary hairy, 3-celled ; berry less hairy, 3seeded. Stipules small, intrapetiolar, caducous. For illustration see Forest Flora of Cape Colony," page 224, Plate LXX. Occurs occasionally but nowhere in
abundance, throughout the Province; also in Cape Colony, Natal and Madagascar. Not confined to the coast.
W. (?) subpeltata. (New species).' Vern. names-4, Umbitzan ; i i, Mocurusse ; 15, Bekungu. A large tree, up to 30 metres in height and 90 c.m. diameter of
stem, gregarious, and making a dense pure forest. Leaves opposite, entire, 5-7 c.m. long, 4-6 c.m. wide, ovate, rounded at the apex, widely rounded at the base, and connected with the petiole 4-7 mn.m. inside the lamina, from whence rises the midrib as well as 4 other veins not more prominent than the irregularly-disposed veins leaving the midrib further up. Leaves glabrous above, at first densely woolly below, afterwards glabrescent, petioles 1-2 cm. long, slender, woolly, especially at the base. Stipules interpetiolar, flat, connate, 2'5-3 c.m. long, 7-10 m.m. wide, rounded at the apex, pubescent at first, striated longitudinally and with thickened connate margins; early deciduous. Flowers and fruit unknown. Bark grey, fissured both ways, red under the cortex, thin. Sent from Mozambique in connection with an application by the Railway Department as to its suitability for sleepers; also collected by me in dense pure thickets in kloofs on the Lebombo Mountains (extra-tropical) where its timber is well known, but not seen elsewhere. In the absence of flowers and fruit the genus of this tree cannot be definitely decided, but the stipules afford a strong key to the Family. No trace of flowers or fruit was found in the Lebombos, where however I was informed separately by all my informants, English, Dutch, Kafir and Swazi, and unknown to one another, that bees nesting in this tree made poisonous honey. Whether this was caused by
,Weihea (?) subpeltata. (Sp. nov.) Arbor grandis, gregaria, 30 m. alta, caule 90 c.m. diam. ; cortice tenui in longitudinem et in transversum diffisso, eano, intus rubro ; foliis oppositis, integris, ovatis, apice basique rotundatis, 5-7 c.m. longis, 4-6 c.nm. latis, petiolo I-2 c.m. longo, lamina subpeltata pagina superiore glabra, pagina inferiore primo dense lanosa, postremo glabrescente; stipulis cito deciduis inter petiolos connatis, obtusis, planis, 2'5-3 c.m. longis, 7-1o m.m. latis, primo pubescentibus, in longitudinem striatis, marginibus crassis; floribus et fructibus haud visis. Mozambique et mont. Lebombo. Sim 6387. Tab. L.XI. A.




Synoptical and Specific Descriptions. 67
contact with the timber or by the source of supply no one knew, but it is the only tree, so far as I know, which has such a reputation. I saw no outwardly damaged
tree, though I saw all ages, fine, clean, straight stems in every case; but I was informed that the very large trees are usually hollow. Sim 6387.
PLATE LXI. A.
136. CASSIPOUREA. Glabrous trees with opposite or verticillate entire leathery leaves, caducous intrapetiolar stipules, axillary inflorescence, superior 3-4 celled ovary with
filiform style and 2 pendulous ovules in each cell. Calyx campanulate, shortly 5-7 lobed; petals 5-7, small, fimbriate at the apex, and inserted on a crenulate disc at the base of the calyx-tube ; stamens 10-14, with filiform filaments, united below. Ovary 2-celled, cells 2-ovuled. Fruit ovoid, ultimately dehiscent; cells iseeded ; seeds arillate; albumen fleshy. A small genus into which Dactylopetalum might be merged.
C. verticillata, N. E. Brown. A small evergreen tree, with ternate and opposite (or sometimes 4-nate) oblong coriaceous entire or almost entire leaves, io c.m. long, 4-5
c.m. wide, axillary flowers, many crowded together, and dehiscent fruits I c.m. long, resembling those of Gymnosporia, and with similar yellow arillate seeds, rather
conspicuous on the tree for a time. Present but not common through Maputa, Marracuene, Gaza and M'Chopes. For illustration see Natal Plants," Plate 276.
FAMILY XXXIII.-MYRTACE-E.
Trees or shrubs with simple, entire, leathery exstipulate leaves, often with pellucid dots ; paniculate or axillary inflorescence, hermaphrodite flowers ; inferior ovary sepals and petals 4-5 ; stamens numerous, free ; ovary 2-3 celled ; ovules few or many in each cell, from or near the base, style simple, filiform ; fruit a berry or a dry dehiscent capsule. Seeds few, exalbuminous. A large Family, well known by such representatives as the Australian Eucalypts (Gum-trees), the Guava, Rose-apple, Jambolan, Brazilian Cherry, Cloves, Allspice, Myrtles, Australian Myrtles, Pomegranates and Bottle-brushes. I am not aware that the Clove (Caryophyllus) comes within the limits of the Province, though it occurs on the coast and islands further north.
137. EUGENIA. Calyx-tube short, flat, and disc-like or cup-shaped, limb 4-5 parted; petals 4-5, inserted with the numerous stamens on the edge of the calyx-tube. Ovary
inferior, 2-celled. Fruit a fleshy berry, crowned by the calyx-lobes, usually i-seeded. Seed, round, hard, stone-like. Trees or shrubs with pellucid dotted, simple,
entire, glabrous, shining, opposite leaves, and terminal paniculate or axillary inflorescence. Principally a Central and South American genus.
E. cordata, Laws. Ve-n. names-i, Water-tree; 2, Water-boom; 4, 15, Much6, Muhlu, or Munchlo; 13, Umswi and Umdoni; i5, Mkose. A medium sized, roundtopped, glaucous tree, with opposite, nearly sessile, widely eliptical, bluntly pointed and somewhat cordate, entire, glabrous, coriaceous, sub-glaucous leaves 5-10o c.m.
long, 2-5 c.m. wide, and paler on the under than the upper surface. Panicle terminal, cymose, many-flowered, with angular glabrous branches, trichotomously forked, all forks and flowers subtended by linear deciduous bracts, or the lower by leaves. Calyx-tube cup-shaped, with blunt shallow lobes. Petals united into a calyptra and breaking off at the base. Stamens numerous, at first inflexed, afterwards spreading, the numerous anthers forming the showy white part of the flower.
Pistil cylindrical, as long as the stamens. Berry 12 m.m. long, oblong, acidulous, more or less edible, usually i-seeded. All the younger wood quadrangular. Stem up to 6o c.m. diameter; usually grows near water; seldom found in dense forest, but often where grass fires clear off all other kinds. Frequent in the extra-tropical parts of the Province, almost the only tree in the M'Chopes pans, and present also though less frequent in the tropical districts. Abundant in Cape Colony and Natal, and in writing of "Plant association at the Victoria Falls," Miss Gibbs arranges the local flora there in 3 groups, the first of which is the open veld, and concerning the others she says:-" The second region seems to be limited to the immediate banks of the Zambesi River and islands above the Victoria Falls in which the dominant plant is Euigenia guineensis. The third would include the bog edge of Livingstone Island and that of the opposite Rain Forest, with the famous Rain Forest proper, and Knife Edge, where Eugenia cordata predominates."' To make its timber durable, water-seasoning is necessary. For illustration see
"Forest Flora of Cape Colony," p. 226, Plate LXXI. fig. 3.
E. guineensis (=Syzygium guineense, Guill & Perr, Fl. Seneg. 1. 315, t. 72). Vern. names-6, Kurre or Mkurre; io, Muti kurru or Mokosa; ii, Morimonico. A
large glabrous glaucous tree, 10-i5 metres high and up to i metre diameter. Leaves ovate-acuminate, petiolate, not cordate, usually tapering to the petiole.
Panicle 15-25 c m. across, many-flowered, terminal. More common than E. cordata in the tropical districts and often found inside the forest near streams; in the
extra-tropical districts it is present but less common. The general habit is similar to E. cordata, but the leaf-form is different. = E. owariensis, P. Beauv.
Linn. Soc. Jour. Botany, XXXVII., Nov. 19o6.




68 Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
E. Zeyheri, Harv. Vern. names-4, Kangela; 13, Isiduli-we-hlati. A small evergreen forest tree, with numerous somewhat scented, opposite, elliptic, entire, coriaceous,
shining leaves, 25-4 c.m. long, slightly dotted, at length quite glabrous, but at first very sparingly pubescent. Peduncles axillary, opposite, i-flowered, arranged toward the base of the young shoots, or through the partial or complete abortion of the twig apparently ranged on a short 6-12 flowered raceme. Sepals 4-5 more or less unequal. Petals white, usually 4, with occasionally several smaller ones extra. Stamens about 20, as long as the petals, in a circle. Ovary inferior, bedded in a flat cushion-like disc, which is set with white hair-scales. Fruit 1-2 c.m. long, globose, cherry-like, crowned by the calyx-lobes, and either purplish or bright red, acidulous and edible, though containing too large a stone. Present but not frequent from Maputa to M'Chopes, much more frequent in Cape Colony and Natal.
For illustration see Forest Flora of Cape Colony," p. 226, Plate LXXI. fig. i.
E. capensis, Harv. Vern. namne-- 4, Ngoba. A shrub I-2 metres high, usually on or near the sea-dunes, and standing on the sandy dune faces down to high-water
mark. Leaves shortly elliptical, obovate or sub-orbiculate, rounded at the point, rounded or cordate at the base, coriaceous, glabrous, shining, 15-25 m.m. long, 8-6 m.m. wide, very shortly petioled, and opposite or occasionally in threes. Peduncles 10-12 m.m. long, axillary, 1-3 together, i-flowered, produced on old or young wood. Petals white. Fruit purplish, I c.m. long, oblong crowned by the 4 distinct calyx-lobes, not edible. Of some importance as a dune-protector, but of no other known use. See Forest Flora of Cape Colony," page 227, Plate I.XXI. fig. 2. Abundant on the sea dunes up to Inhambane; frequent also on the
Cape Colony and Natal coasts.
138. BARRINGTONIA. Only one species, as under:-
B. racemosa, Blume. Vern. names-4, Singwaan; 6, 7, Geroma; io, Mlulu, M-togo-togo, i-tobo-tobo, or Mu-tabo-toba; ii, Mutof. A conical or spreading tree, 7-10o
metres high, with dense heavy foliage and long pendent racemes, and always growing in or near water, which may be either fresh or somewhat saline. Leaf like that of the Loquat, 15-30 c.m. long, 5-10 c.m. wide, widely-lanceolate-oblong, tapering below, bluntly pointed, and bluntly toothed on the margin. Raceme 50-75 c.m. long, many-flowered; flowers in opposite pairs; calyx-tube ovoid, limb 4-lobed; petals 4 ; stamens many, connate at the base, forming a ring, and with white spreading filaments 4 c.m. long; ovary 2-4 celled; fruits produced several on i raceme, shortly peduncled, 4-5 c.m. long, 2'5-3 c.m. diameter, bluntly 4-sided, ovate, and crowned by the persistent 4 sepals and 5 c.m. pistil. Seed solitary, but pendulous from a strap-shaped placenta rising from the base and bearing several other abortive ovules. Frequent in swampy localities and along fresh or nearly fresh rivers throughout the Province. The bark is used for cordage. Timber white, soft,
light, seldom used.
PLAT ; LXVIII. I, Leaf; 2, Raceme ; 3, Fruit ; 4, Section of fruit ; 5, Placenta, with ovules ; 6, Tree, general aspect (reduced).
FAMILY XXXIV.- LYTHRACEAE.
Trees, shrubs or herbs; calyx-lobes valvate, with or without intermediate teeth. Petals often corrugated in bud; stamens definite or indefinite; ovary free or partly adherent to the calyx-tube, several or many-celled; cells usually with many ovules. A heterogenous group, including only one tree in the Province, so far as I know.
139. SONNERATIA. A departure from the type of the Family in having indefinite stamens and the ovary partly adherent to the calyx-tube. Only one African species
as under :-S. acida, Linn. Vern. names-o, Mucatanga, Mevate. A shapely glabrous evergreen tree or bush, inhabiting tidal mud, frequent from Beira northward, and having
opposite, decussate branches swollen at the nodes; opposite oval leaves 7-o0 c.m. long, 5 c.m. wide, tapering somewhat to the base, and firmly coriaceous; and large terminal flowers, solitary or 3 together, at first shortly bracted. Calyx leathery, 6-7 fid, lobes 3-4 c.m. long, I c.m. wide ; petals absent in the flowers examined, probably caducous, described as "strap-shaped, ( length of the lobes of the calyx." Stamens numerous, inflexed in bud; ovary adherent to the calyx-tube at its base only, flattened, many-celled; ovules numerous in each cell. Style slender, 4 c.m. long, usually bent, and with a flat rayed stigma. Fruit 5 c.m. diameter, 3-4 c.m.
deep, woody, set in but free from the persistent calyx and tipped by the persistent style. Fruit bursting irregularly from the base, leaving the central axis attached
to the calyx. Seeds 6-7 in each cell, radiating from the centre of the fruit. Cotyledons oily."
PLATE LXV. I, Flowering branch; 2, Flower, opening; 3, Pistil; 4, Anther, x 5 ; 5, Stigma, x 5 ; 6, Ovary, x 2 ; 7, Section of same ; 8, Fruit; 9, Ovule, x io ; io, Seed ; ii, Seed broken across, showing germ; 12, Tree, general aspect (reduced).
Another evergreen tree belonging, I believe, to this Family, grows on the sand dunes along the coast north of the Polana bathing station, apparently indigenous; neither flowers nor satisfactory fruits were seen, but I believe it to be a Lagerstr6mia; if so it is probably a naturalised alien.




Synoptical and Specific Descriptions. 69
CALYCIFLOR)E. GROUP II. SECTION 3.
Calyx-tube adnate to the base of the ovary, or free. Ovary i celled; stamens isomerous and opposite the petals, or more numerous.
FAMILY XXXV.-SAMYDACE}E.
Trees or shrubs with alternate distichous simple leaves, dotted with spots or pellucid glands, racemose or crowded inflorescence and hermaphrodite flowers having the characters described for the Section. A mixed group, of which only 2 ligneous species are known to occur in the Province.
140. CASEAREA. Trees with alternate distichous simple dotted leaves. Calyx 4-5 merous; petals none. Stamens io fertile and io alternate staminodes; filaments united
below into a tube. Ovary free, i-celled ; style simple ; ovules numerous. Stipules minute. Flowers tufted, small.
C. gladiiformis, Mast. A tree found at Shupanga, Zambesi, by Sir John Kirk, having lanceolate leaves 12-15 c.m. long, 5 c.m. wide, oblique at the base and with a 2 c.m.
petiole. Flowers in sessile lateral clusters. Filaments united half-way; fertile filaments glabrous; staminodes downy.
141. BIVINIA. A shrub with alternate distichous stipulate stalked entire leaves, axillary racemose inflorescence ; sepals 5-6 ; petals absent, stamens numerous, in bundles
alternating with the sepals; disc produced to 5 lobes opposite the sepals. Ovary free, 3-lobed, i-celled; ovules numerous on 4-6 parietal placentas. Styles 4-6.
Capsule 4-6 valved; seeds hairy, albuminous.
B. Jauberti, Tulasne. Shrub. Young branches downy; leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 7-10 c.m. long, 3 c.m. wide, crenate-dentate, petiolate. Racemes axillary,
erect ; flowers numerous. Ovary globose, downy; capsule 3-lobed, downy, dehiscent, valves terminated by 2 awns from the splitting of the styles. Rovuma River.
CALYCIFLORYE. GROUP II. SECTION 4.
Ovary inferior. Ovules solitary in each cell. Seeds albuminous. Styles free. Stamens isomerous and alternate with the petals.
FAMILY XXXVI-- U M BELLIFERZE.
Flowers 5 merous, regular or the outer petals larger; stamens 5 ; ovary 2-celled, inferior; styles 2 ; ovules solitary, pendulous; carpels dry, 2-seeded, separating into 2 indehiscent i-seeded carpels, which remain attached to the top of the halves of a split central axis. Albumen fleshy, abundant. Leaves alternate, sheathing at the base of the petiole. Inflorescence in regular umbels. Stems usually hollow. Petals inrolled during aestivation, often emarginate, usually white. A large group of mostly herbaceous plants, of which only i local species assumes tree form.
142. HETEROMORPHA. Umbels compound; calyx-limb represented by 5 teeth. Petals 5, entire, inserted near the top of the ovary. Stamens 5, alternate to the petals.
Fruit smooth, the 2 mericarps unequal, I having 3-winged ridges and the other only the 2 side ridges winged. The genus contains only I variable species.
H. arborescens, Ch. & Sch. Vern. names-6, Nutchaka; 1i, Mororonge; 13, Umbangandhlala. An exceedingly variable plant; often a small shrub or almost an
herbaceous plant with simple ovate or oblong entire blunt leaves; other plants have lanceolate acute leaves ; others 3-foliate leaves with obovate-crenate leaflets, and in others the leaves are many-foliate, and the plant quite tree-like. The timber is however always soft and useless. All the varieties mentioned occur in the
Province as also in Cape Colony and Natal, and the species occurs also in the Upper Nile and Abyssinia.
FAMILY XXXVII.-ARALIACEE.
Floral characters almost as in Umbellifere, but flowers constantly regular, petals valvate in aestivation, fruit more or less fleshy, and the stipulate leaves digitately 5-7-9 foliate, while the inflorescence is often not umbellate.
143. CUSSONIA. Rather small trees having soft-wooded somewhat succulent stems of large diameter for their height, spicate racemose or umbellate inflorescence, small
green regular 5-merous hermaphrodite or polygamous flowers, inferior 2-celled ovaries with pendulous single ovules, 2 styles, and somewhat fleshy 2-celled fruits.
Leaves digitate or repeatedly so, usually crowded at the points of the branches. The habit of Cussonia is very distinctive among African trees and it is often
mistaken for a Palm though very different.




70 Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
C. spicata, Thunb. Vern. names-r, Cabbage Tree; 6, Tsichonga; io, Nenungo; 13, 15, Umsenge. A tree 6-1io metres in height, 30-45 c.m. diameter, often branched
from the base or branched considerably above. Leaves crowded toward the points of the branches, dark-green, glabrous, digitately 5-9 leaved, the leaflets exceedingly variable in form, sometimes simple, lanceolate and toothed, but more frequently with foliaceous winged toothed petioles 7-15 c.m. long, the leafy part 3-7 c.m.
wide at the top, ending abruptly and surmounted by 1-3-5 secondary lanceolate or obovate petiolate leaflets, and sometimes this is repeated. Spikes 10-20 forming a common umbel, each spike naked below but with 8-15 c.m. of dense many-flowered rachis, 2-5 c.m. or thereby in diameter (flowers included). Calyx-teeth minute ; petals 5, epigynous ; stamens 5, alternate to the petals ; styles usually 2, spreading ; ovary usually 2-celled. Seen occasionally, but rarely, in M'Chopes and in Magenja da Costa, more frequent in the Lebombo Range, and plentiful in Natal and Cape Colony. For illustration see "Forest Flora of Cape Colony,"
page 230, Plate LXXIV.
C. Kirkii, Seem. A tree up to 9 metres high, with 7-9 foliate digitate leaves, "the leaflets narrowly oval-lanceolate, acuminate or cordate at the apex, cuneate to a sessile
base, crenulately serrulate, 9-16 c.m. long. Spikes 20 c.m. long, slender, numerous from among the leaves; axis of spike densely covered with small flowers near
the top, less dense downward, and absent from the base, scattered with small branched hairs; Moramballa. 100-3000 ft. alt. Dr. Kirk."
SERIES III.-COROLLIFLOR/E.
Calyx and Corolla usually both present; petals united into a gamopetalous corolla, either hypogynous or epigynous. Stamens usually springing from the corolla, but occasionally hypogynous.
COROLLIFLORIE. GROUP I. Ovary inferior.
FAMILY XXXVIII.-RUBIACEJE.
Trees, shrubs, or herbs, with opposite, or verticillate entire, simple, stipulate leaves. Inflorescence various. Flowers regular, bisexual, polygamous or dicious. Ovary inferior, usually 2-celled (I-celled in Gardenia, more than 2-celled in Vangueria); ovules i or more. Calyx-limb 4-6 lobed, corolla monopetalous, 4-6 lobed, epigynous. Stamens inserted in the corolla-tube, alternate with its lobes, and equal in number. Anthers free. Style single below. Fruit various. Seeds albuminous. A large Family, of which the herbaceous species belong mostly to the temperate regions and the trees to the tropics and sub-tropics. Quinine, Coffee and Ipecacuan are among the products of the Family and such garden plants as Gardenia, Ixora, Bouvardia, Rondeletia, Manettia, Burchellia, Pavetta, Webera, &c., belong to it. It is not much noted for timbers, and the local representatives with the exception of Adina and Gardenia are mostly shrubs rather than trees ; as they hardly deserve mention here from their forestal importance they are only mentioned with synoptical descriptions.
144. ADINA. Flowers arranged in pedunculate axillary compact or confluent globular heads, each head on a common bracteolate receptacle. Fruit a 2-celled capsule,
bursting apart either from below or above, the central placenta remaining in position supporting the remains of the flower; seeds many, small, winged at both ends.
Only I African species.
A. microcephala, Hiern. Vern. names-i, Wild Oleander; 3, Mingerhout; 4, Mhlume; io, Mahonhe. A large and valuable timber tree, always growing near streams,
and so like Oleander in foliage as to lead to the common name. Leaves in whorls of 4, shortly petioled, 15-30 c.m. long, 2-5-3"5 c.m. wide, lanceolate, glabrous, with prominent midrib, and numerous side veins. Stipules intra-petiolar, 4 united below, and dehiscing in a ring. Head 12 m.m. diameter on a 5 c.m. peduncle, many-flowered, congested, the common receptacle hairy, each flower set between 5 club-shaped bracts which are hairy below; the calyx with a short tube, and 5 longer lanceolate segments; the corolla with a longer tube and 5 short segments. Stamens 5, inside the corolla-tube. Style twice as long as the corolla, with a club-shaped stigma. First-rate wagon-wood for spokes, beams, &c. ; stem sometimes 3 metres diameter in Swaziland and Eastern Transvaal, in creeks and gullies on white granite. Frequent in Magenja da Costa and Nhamacurra (Tropical); seen also Umbelusi and in the Lebombo kloofs near Estatuene, Maputa Div. (Extratropical). Occurs also in Nile-land. Mr. Burtt Davy writes (Kew Bulletin No. 4, 1908) :-" The Transvaal material at Kew so named is now referred to A. Galpini,
Oliv.," of which I have no further information.
PLATE XXXI. I, Fruiting branch 2, Flower; 3, Floral bracts ; 4, One floral bract ; 5, Capsule, opened from below ; 6, Capsule, opened from above.




Synoptical and Specific Descriptions. 7 1
145. CROSSOPTERYX. Unknown to me but described as a bushy tree or shrub having dense corymbosely paniculate terminal inflorescence, calyx short, with 4-6
deciduous lobes; corolla salver-shaped, with 4-6 lobed limb; stamens 4-6, inserted at the throat of the corolla ; disc annular; ovary 2-celled; style filiform ; stigma clavate, bi-lobed; cells with several ovules peltately attached. Capsule globose, 2-celled, loculicidal. Seeds several, peltate, compressed, with cut membranous wings.
C. Kotschyana, Fenzl. Leaves broadly oval, ovate or elliptical, 2-5-20 c.m. long, i'5-7 c.m. wide, shortly petiolate. Panicle 5-10 c.m. diameter. Corolla I c.m. long,
white, fragrant. Capsule i c.m. diameter. Senna; Sir John Kirk; and widely distributed in Tropical Africa. The bark is said to be employed as a febrifuge.
146. HEINSIA. Shrubs with opposite shortly petiolate leaves, and fragrant flowers in lax terminal cymes. Corolla imbricated in bud. Ovary 2-celled, cells many-ovuled.
Fruit dry, indehiscent, many-seeded, seeds small, roundly angular.
H. jasminiflora, I). C. A nearly glabrous shrub 2-5 metres high, found from the Zambesi northward. Leaves elliptical, 3-10 c.m. long, 1-4 c.m. wide; corolla-tube
pubescent, 2 c.m. long, limb white, 2-6 c.m. diameter with yellow hairs and wavy petals. Berry I-I'15 c.m. diameter.
147. TARENNA. Shrubs or trees with opposite shortly petiolate leaves and white flowers in terminal or sub-terminal cymes. Flowers 5-6 nate; calyx open in aestivation.
Corolla salver-shaped, style long, clavate; ovary 2-celled. Placentas large and fleshy, albumen uniform.
T. mossambicensis, Hiern. Vern. name-16, Goocoo. A tree with broadly oval leaves 3-5 c.m. long, 3-4 c.m. wide, glabrous above, pale under, and pubescent on
the veins below. Cymes few-flowered. Flowers 5-merous, i c.m. long; corolla pubescent outside, glabrous inside; ovary pubescent, 2-celled; ovules 4 together,
bedded in the fleshy placentas. Zambesia.
T. nigrescens, Hiern. Leaves lanceolate or oval, tapering below, 3-7 c.m. long, 15-3 c.m. wide, glabrous; flowers 4-5 merous, i c.m. long; cymes many-flowered.
Ovules 3 together. Zambesia.
148. ENTEROSPERMUM. A glabrous rigid coast shrub with opposite leaves, and terminal corymbose panicles of small white flowers. Flowers 5-nate; calyx open in
aestivation; corolla funnel-shaped; style exserted, clavate; ovary 2-celled; ovules 2-3 together, collateral; placentas inconspicuous. Fruit globose, i-seeded.
E. littorale, Hiern. A leafy coast shrub, up to 4 metres high, with decussate oval or obovate leaves 3-9 c.m. long, 1-4 c.m. wide, with hairy tufts in the axils of the veins.
Flowers 4-6 m.m. long. Fruit 6 m.m. diameter. Along the coast in the tropical districts.
149. RANDIA. Shrubs or trees with opposite or whorled leaves, and sparingly cymose or solitary inflorescence, axillary or terminal on short branches. Calyx open in
aestivation, corolla usually 5 (4-7) lobed, of various form. Ovary 2-celled; ovules numerous, immersed in the fleshy placentas. Berry nearly dry, 2-celled, manyseeded.
R. rudis, E. Mey. Vern. names-io, Um-totoro; 13, Nsindi. A much-branched compact spreading shrub 1-2 metres high if growing in the open, but more erect and
straggling if growing among other bushes. Leaves opposite on strong shoots, clustered on abortive branches, obovate, coriaceous, evergreen, entire, almost glabrous, shortly petiolate; when fully exposed smaller and nearly round. Flowers axillary or on the abortive twigs, peduncles short, i-flowered. Calyx-tube short, the 5 lobes longer, rounded, green. Corolla-tabe 1-5 c.m. long and wide above, narrowed downward, yellowish with 5 oblong lobes. Style single, stigmas 2; fruit a coriaceous, sub-globose lo-ribbed black berry 12 m.m. long, 2 yelled, many seeded, and crowned by the calyx-limb raised on a short tube. Frequent in the extratropical districts; present but scarce in Magenja da Costa and other tropical districts. Frequent also in Cape Colony and Natal, never of timber size. See "Forest
Flora of Cape Colony," p. 236, Plate LXXXIV. fig. 4.
R. dumetorum, Lam. Vern. name-4, Cherole. A pubescent or hairy or ultimately glabrescent shrub 1-4 metres high, sometimes somewhat spinose, and having
obovate leaves 3 c.m. long, 2 c.m. wide, tapering to the base, inflorescence axillary or terminal on branchlets, abundant, at first white, afterwards yellow, 2 c.m.
across, and i c.m. long. Ovary 2-celled, many-seeded, oblong, 2 c.m. long, ]'5 c.m. wide, not edible. Frequent throughout the Province; also in Natal and
Abyssinia. For illustration see "Natal Plants," Plate 392.
150. OXYANTHUS. Shrubs or trees with rather large opposite simple stipulate leaves and long white flowers in axillary racemes or panicles. Flowers 5-nate, calyx-lobes
open in aestivation, corolla salver-shaped with a long slender tube, the long linear segments twisted in bud. Ovary 2-celled, style slender, stigma 2-lobed ; ovaries
numerous, not immersed ; fruit a leathery or fleshy berry, seeds usually numerous.




72 Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
O. Gerrardii, Sond. Vern. name-4, Chifilana. A virgate shrub or small tree with straight slender stems. Leaves 10-20 c.m. long, opposite, shining, coriaceous, entire,
elliptic-lanceolate, pointed, glabrous, but bearded in the axils of the veins on the under surface, shortly petiolate. Inflorescence axillary, shortly paniculate, I2-20 flowered. Tube of the corolla 2'5-4 c.m. long, slender, with spreading lanceolate lobes I'5-2 c.m. long. Fruit coriaceous, stalked, somewhat pear-shaped, 4 c.m.
long, crowned by the calyx-teeth, 2-celled, many-seeded. Found occasionally throughout the Province. For illustration see "Forest Flora of Cape Colony," p. 235,
Plate LXXXII. Occurs also in Cape Colony and Natal.
O. natalensis, Sond. Vern. name-6, Madungnadwaan. Small tree with ovate-lanceolate glabrous leaves 15-20 c.m. long, 7 c.m. wide; loose axillary cymes; corollatube 7 c.m. long, slender with spreading lobes, and nearly globose fruit 2-3 c.m. long, 2-celled, many-seeded. Maputa, Gaza and M'Chopes. For illustration see
"Natal Plants," Plate 26.
O. latifolius, Sond. Vern. name-io, Masabelemo. Leaves ovate-cordate, cuspidate, 15-20 c.m. long, o10-12 c.m. wide, with a petiole i c.m. long; inflorescence lax;
corolla-tube 7 c.m. long. The leaves, branches, &c. are described by Sonder as quite glabrous, but I find them pubescent at first, the upper surface of the leaf
glabrous or glabrescent with age. Maputa, M'Chopes and Magenja da Costa; an upright shrub 3-6 metres high.
151. GARDENIA. Trees and shrubs, mostly tropical and sub-tropical, with opposite or occasionally whorled leaves and branches, connate stipules, and solitary or occasionally
cymose sub-terminal inflorescence, and large white scented flowers. Calyx tubular above the ovary, 5-lobed or parted, or spathaceous. Corolla salver-shaped, funnel-shaped or bell-shaped, with a tube longer than wide and 5-10 parted limb, the segments twisted in bud. Stamens as many, almost sessile, inserted in the throat of the corolla-tube. Anthers linear, more or less twisted. Style as long as the tube or longer, stigma clavate, 2-fid. Ovary i-celled with several incomplete septa. Fruit woody or fleshy, i-celled, many-seeded, indehiscent. Seeds large, flat, with horny albumen. A large genus, containing several species which are
garden favourites.
G. Rothmannia, Linn. Vern. names-i, Candlewood; o10, Mataba; 14, Aapse-kost. A tree often 12-15 metres high, 20-40 c.m. diameter, with a straight unbranched,
grey or nearly white trunk, and a sparingly branched crown near the top only. A forest tree, loving a moist spot, and not known outside the forest. Leaves almost sessile, elliptical-acute, entire, glabrous, 7-10o c.m. long, 2'5 c.m. wide, distinctly veined, and with pockets at the junctions of the veins. Flowers terminal, solitary, sessile, showy and sweetly scented, but usually inaccessible. Calyx ribbed, hairy within, and with 5 linear segments 2"5 c.m. long. Corolla white, 5-7 c.m. long, widening upward, and with a spreading 5-fid limb 7 c.m. across. Pistil clavate, longer than the tube, 2-fid at the apex. Fruit i-celled, 2 inches long, at first 5-angled, afterwards io-ribbed, many-seeded, green; the flat seeds separated by pith. Rind hardly woody, not edible. Timber very hard and close-grained, but short in the grain. For illustration see "Forest Flora of Cape Colony," p. 234, Plate LXXIX. Occurs in Maputa on the Lebombo kloofs and in M'Chopes (extratropical), as also in Magenja da Costa near Macubella, and in Nhamacurra (tropical).
G. Thunbergia, Linn. Vern. names--i, Wild Katjepiering ; 3, 14, Buffelsbal ; 4, Chiselala and Imbalangwe; 10, Nepaia and i-tirigo; 13, Umkangaza; 15, Vala
sanguin (Kaffraria) and Um-valasangwaan (Natal). A small much-branched tree 3-5 metres high, with smooth white unarmed stem up to 30 c.m. diameter, and rigid opposite or ternate branches and branchlets, or sometimes prostrate or mostly subterranean. Leaves very variable, lanceolate on seedlings for the first few years, afterwards ovate, obovate, or widely elliptical, tapering to the base, rounded or acute, entire or with one or more irregular lobes or teeth, glabrous, veined, and bearded in the axils of the veins. Leaves opposite or 3 together, shortly-petioled. Flowers terminal, solitary, strongly scented, usually 8-merous, large, white and attractive. Calyx green, foliaceous, 4-5 c.m. long, cleft on i side, and with 5-10io shortly-stalked, unequal, leaf-like lobes. Corolla salvershaped, 8-lobed, the tube 8-1o c.m. long, r c.m. diameter, the limb 7-10 c.m. across, pure white and regular. Stamens about 8, exserted, twisted; stigma exserted, 2-lobed. Fruit woody, very hard, oval or oblong, 5-10 c.m. long, 5 c.m. diameter, many-seeded, crowned by the large calyx-scar and with about 5 (or sometimes up to io) imperfect dissepiments. The fruits remain on the trees for several years, increasing in size, and finally are either smooth or rugose, but usually white. An exceedingly variable species, possibly including several species, though I have not noticed what I should consider specific differences either in Cape Colony, Natal, or this Province, in all of which it is widely distributed, but nowhere plentiful. In the Journal of the Linn. Soc., Botany, Vol. XXXVIII., No. 268, Feb. 1909, I)r. Otto Stapf and Mr. J. Hutchinson give a monograph of the forms included in the group which has hitherto passed as this i species; they make it into 15 species and say finality has not yet been reached. About half of these species are recorded from this Province, but the monograph arrived too late to allow me to use it on the fresh plants, consequently no attempt is made to divide this species here. The forms mentioned as




Synoptical and Specific Descriptions. 73
belonging to this Province are G. subacaulis, S. & H. ; G. Jovis-tonantis, Hiern; G. Thunbergia, Linn. (with limited characters); G. Saundersie, N. E. Brown, in Kew Bull. 1906, p. o104 ; G. asperula, S. & H. ; G. cornuta, Hehnlms. in Hook. Icon. P1. t. 2809; G. spathulifolia, S. & H. For illustration see "Forest Flora of
Cape Colony," p. 234, Plate LXXVIII.
G. resineflua, Hiern. From Lake Nyassa and the Zambesi, is described as an hispidulous or scabrid bush of 4 metres height with resinous secretion ; branches often
ternate ; leaves obovate, cuspidate 2'5-6 c.m. long, 2-3 c.m. wide. Flowers solitary, terminal, about 25 c.m. long, 5-merous; calyx I c.m. long, with sub-globose
tube; corolla salver-shaped, fragrant ; lobes oval, r c.m. long, white turning yellowish; fruit globose, 8-12 m.m. diameter with 2 placentas.
G. manganje, Hiern. A glabrescent shrub from Zambesia with elliptical sub-acuminate leaves 7-10 c.m. long, 2-5-5 c.m. wide; solitary flowers 5-7 c.m. long, on short
lateral branches ; funnel-shaped corolla shortly hairy on both sides ; the corolla-limb 3-5 c.m. diameter. Placenta solitary.
G. Annie (P. Wright) var. Moramballke, Hiern. Leaves elliptical-acuminate, 7-13 c.m. long, 2-4 c.m. wide, with a wedge-shaped base and bearded vein-axils. Flowers
about 7 c.m. long, solitary, sub-sessile, scented ; calyx 2 c.m. long, glabrous, shaggy inside; corolla funnel-shaped, tube hairy inside, limb 5 c.m. across; ovary
oblong with 2 placentas. Zambesia.
G. (?) Zanquebarica, Heirn. Described as a glabrous shrub with elliptical, sub-acuminate, shortly-petiolate leaves, 7-12 c.m. long by 3-4 c.m. wide, ovate-acuminate
stipules i c.m. long, covering a ring of hairs inside the base, "flowers more than inch long, sub-sessile, a few together, in terminal and quasi-axillary short clusters.
Calyx-limb 5-partite, J in. long; lobes lanceolate, acuminate. Ovary i-celled; placentas 2." This tree or shrub was described from further north, but a common small tree in the forests of Magenja da Costa of which my material is insufficient may belong to it, or to an allied undescribed species. It has the inflorescence rusty pubescent, in short 10-20 flowered cymes terminal on side branches; leaves as described above but pubescent on the veins underneath ; calyx in bud with 5 subulate erect segments 2 c.m. long; fruit globose, 3-4 c.m. diameter scurfy-brown, I-celled, many-seeded, the seeds bedded in pulp and showing in the mature fruit no indication of how many placentae are present; the fruit crowned by the persistent calyx-tu-be and segments, then wider and less subulate than when young.
evwrn. names- io, iI, Masabwe, Nasaque or Naseka, Egamsago, and Nemagubula. Sim 6069. The timber is used by natives for making plates, &c.
Another shrub, known at L.ourenzo Marques as Nyamafaan, is probably also a Gardenia, but was not seen in flower or fruit.
152. ZYGOON. A shrub from Zambesia unknown to me but described as having opposite elliptical shortly-petiolate rather velvety leaves, ovate apiculate-acuminate stipules,
and white, odorous, sub-precocious, small sessile hermaphrodite flowers crowded in dense lateral clusters. Calyx campanulate-turbinate, 5-lobed ; corolla funnelshaped, glabrous outside, bearded at the throat ; ovary 2-celled, ovules 2-3 together, collateral, pendulous from the apex; style filiform wider and undivided or
bidentate at the tip.
Z. graveolens, Hiern. Young parts rather velvety; leaves 3-4 c.m. long, i"5 c.m. wide, turning blackish-green when dry; flowers 4 m.m. long, corolla-lobes 4 m.m. long.
153. TRICALYSIA. A group characterised by opposite stipulate, entire, evergreen leaves, axillary cymose inflorescence, 4-5-6 merous flowers, corolla funnel-shaped or
salver-shaped ; style with 2 branches, ovary globose, 2-celled with few ovules in each, and baccate globose mostly 2-seeded fruits. Within this group are included the following sub-genera, viz. :-Diplospora, flowers 4-merous ; Kraussia, flowers 5-merous, and Tricalysia, flowers 6-merous. They are mostly erect or straggling shrubs 1-3 metres high, known as Wild Coffee and closely resemble Coffee in habit; there are many species of no technical value, and these are therefore not described separately here. In the Flora of Tropical Africa" 2 1 species are described ; in Flora Capensis" other 4, and there are others besides. In "Forest Flora of Cape Colony illustrations are given on Plate LXXXV. of Diplospora africana, Sim (fig. 3); Kraussia lanceolata, Sond. (fig. i), and Tricalysia capensis
(fig. 4). Native names included in this group are:-4, Nakaranga or Nukajanga; 6, Rutatsakanye; io, Ugatadwe and Manyeba-gorewa; 15, Patankos.
154. PSYCHOTRIA. Shrubs or small trees, having opposite entire leaves, corymbose-paniculate terminal inflorescence, 5-merous flowers, stamens included in the tube,
2-celled ovary with solitary erect ovules, and globose 2-seeded fruits, the seeds flat on the adjacent faces, and with more or less ruminated horny albumen. A large
genus, represented in most tropical and sub-tropical countries.
P. capensis, Vatke. Vern. names-4, Kumukuwa and Indulwane; 13, Gono-gono (Kaffraria), i-boquongo (Natal). Usually a shrub, sometimes a tree up to 3-5 metres
height with 7-15 c.m. stem diameter and with crooked and forked timber. Leaves evergreen, shining above, paler below, widely lanceolate, elliptic or obovate-oblong, 7-15 c.m. long, 1'5-4 c.m. wide, shortly petioled, distinctly veined, rounded at the apex or bluntly pointed, glabrous above and either glabrous or pubescent below,




74 Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
Panicles few or many-flowered, terminal, trichotomously forked, 2'5-10 c.m. across. Flowers dimorphic on different trees. Calyx-tube short, minutely 5-toothed.
Corolla yellow, shortly tubular, with 5-parted limb and a hairy throat. Stamins in the throat of the corolla-tube, with shortly oblong anthers. Pistil bifid. Berries numerous, reddish, 6 m.m. diameter with only a scar where the calyx has been. Stipules shortly ovate from a broad base, bluntly pointed. For illustration see "Forest Flora of Cape Colony," Plate LXXXV. fig. 2. Frequent in the southern portion of the Province, as also in Natal and Cape Colony. What was taken for the same species was also seen in Magenja da Costa, but as it was without flower or fruit it may have belonged to one of the other species, which are all unknown
to me and of which the descriptions are extracted from the "Flora Capensis."
P. obtusifolia, Poir. Glabrous. Leaves obovate, thickly coriaceous, concolorous, 7-13 c.m. long, 3 x 5 c.m. wide; stipules caducous, deltoid, 4 m.m. long; flowers in
dense pedunculate corymbose terminal panicles of about 4 c.m. diameter; calix-limb small, very shortly 5-dentate, not ciliate; corolla lobes ovate; anthers shortly
oblong, exserted; fruit oval, 4 m.m. long, ribbed, 2-celled; seeds striate. Mozambique. Forbes.
P. zambesiana, Hiern. Nearly glabrous; answering the general description of P. obtusifolia except that the leaves are smaller (6-9 c.m. long, 2-5 c.m. wide), the calyx
teeth ciliate, and anthers nearly included. Kongone mouth of the Zambesi. SirJohn Kirk.
P. abrupta, Hiern. Nearly glabrate. Leaves elliptical, narrowed to both ends, 5-18 c.m. long, 2-7 c.m. wide, or smaller; stipules ovate, undivided, 3 m.m. long.
Flowers about 4 m.m. long, on very short pedicels, several together, in small, terminal, sub-capitate heads; common peduncles very short when in flower, lengthening afterwards to 4 c.m. Calyx sub-truncate; corolla-lobes 5, throat bearded; stamens exserted. Zambesia.
P. Kirkii, Hiern. Corresponds with P. abrupta except that it is more or less pubescent, has smaller leaves (2'5-1o c.m. long, 1-3 c.m. wide) and has the calyx shortly
toothed. Flowers dimorphic. Moramballa.
P. pumila, Hiern. A shrublet with ovate or oval leaves 6-9 c.m. long, 3-6 c.m. wide, and terminal ebracteolate umbellate heads i c.m. diameter. Moramballa.
P. zanguebarica, Hiern. A small glabrous lucid shrub, with oval leaves 3-io c.m. long, 2-3 c.m. wide. Flowers 5-merous 12-16 m.m. long, with a rather curved corollatube, and in little clusters arranged in terminal cymes of 2-5-5 c.m. diameter. Rovuma Bay.
155. GUETTARDA. Shrubs or trees with opposite leaves, intrapetiolar deciduous stipules, and axillary cymose inflorescence. Calyx campanulate, truncate; corolla salvershaped, white, 4-9 lobed, imbricate in aestivation. Stamens 4-9, included or nearly so. Ovary 4-9 celled, cells i-ovuled, style filiform, stigma slightly lobed. Fruit
globose, drupaceous, woody, 4-9 celled.
G. speciosa, Linn. A handsome coast shrub, well worth cultivation in coast localities on account of its beautiful white scented flowers. Leaves rounded or obovate,
10-25 c.m. long, 6-15 c.m. wide; flowers 3-4 c.m. long, 3 c.m. across; fruit 2-3 c.m. long. Seeds exalbuminous. Along the coast at Bazaruto, Bartholemew Dias,
Quelimane, &c.
156. POLYSPHAERIA. Shrubs with opposite elliptical or rounded leaves, supra-axillary stipules, and small flowers sessile in dense axillary clusters. Calyx short, truncate
or 4-toothed; corolla funnel-shaped, bearded in the throat, 4-lobed; stamens 4, included; ovary 2-celled; ovule solitary, pendulous. Berry small, globose,
coriaceous, 1-2 seeded, albumen ruminated.
P. multiflora, Hiern. A glabrous shrub with oval leaves 3-10 c.m. long, 2-3 c.m. wide. Calyx truncate, glabrous. Rovuma.
P. lanceolata, Hiern. A glabrous shrub with lanceolate leaves 4-9 c.m. long, i'5-3 c.m. wide; calyx with 4 short teeth. Zambesia.
157. PLECTRONIA. (=Canthium, as used in the "Flora of Tropical Africa.") Trees, shrubs or stragglers, sometimes spinose, with evergreen entire stipulate leaves,
axillary cymose infloresence, usually 5-merous flowers, valvate in aestivation, capitate stigma, and 2-celled ovary with a single pendulous ovary in each cell. Corollatube more or less hairy inside or with a ring of hairs. The branches are often but not regularly spinescent. A group of shrubs of no forestal importance, of which P. Gueinzii is a scandent or trailing shrub common in the southern part of the Province, while several of the other Cape species extend along the Lebombos, and 4 other species are included in the "Flora of Tropical Africa (under Cantzkium) as belonging to this Province. For illustrations see "Forest Flora of Cape
Colony," Plate LXXXVIII., LXXXIX., XC. Vern. names are--6, Ndondambile; io, Mtagaraga; 4, 13, 15, Umnyushulube.




Synoptical and Specific Descriptions. 75
158. VANGUERIA. Shrubs or trees having opposite leaves and axillary cymose inflorescence; calyx-limb of 5 free segments; corolla-tube shortly cylindrical, with a ring of
reflexed hairs in the throat; limb rotate, of 5 lobes, valvate in bud. Stamens 5, erect, on short filaments, exserted when the corolla limb is spread. Anthers oblong, pointed. Pistil exserted, style slender, stigma capitate. Ovary 5-celled, with i ovule in each cell, attached half up the central axis. Fruit large, containing 5 or by abortion fewer hard bony pyrenes. A difficult group of almost useless shrubs, requiring to be well known in the fresh state as they change the size, form, and
pubescence of leaf, as well as general appearance, with age.
V. infausta, Burch. Vern. names-4, 13, 15, Umfilwa, in-faylo Um-vilo or Mavelo; Penu. A small tree 2-3 metres high, with few and rather thick branches. All
younger parts densely tomentose, the upper surface of the leaves becoming scabrid with age. Leaves 5-15 c.m. long, 5-10io c.m. wide, ovate, ovate-elliptical or suborbicular, bluntly pointed, and having petioles I"5 c.m. long. Cymes axillary, forked, many-flowered, 8 c.m. across. Flowers green, calyx-lobes short, triangular, tomentose, caducous, and absent from the fruit. Corolla-tube much longer, tomentose externally, with spreading 5-fid limb. Stamens in the throat of the corolla, erect, oblong, on a subulate filament. Ovary 5-celled, 5-ovuled ; fruit about i inch diameter, globose, glabrous when nearly ripe, usually some ovules abortive.
Abundant throughout the Province; the fruit is eaten by hungry natives. For illustration see Forest Flora of Cape Colony," Plate LXXXVI. fig. 2.
V. edulis, Vahl., which is somewhat similar except that it is almost glabrous and has the leaves acute at both ends, occurs in other parts of Tropical Africa, including
Rhodesia and Transvaal, and may occur here though not found by me, or recorded.
V. venosa (as used in "Forest Flora of Cape Colony," page 244, Plate LXXXVII. fig. i). Vern,. names-4, Mehofelwane; o10, Mseturu and Mjululu; 13, Umvilo-wehlati. An erect shrub 2-5 metres high; leaves 3-8 c.m. long, green above, pale below, usually with scabrid white-pubescent petioles, veins, stipules, and young twigs.
Cymes 3-7 flowered, sparingly and irregularly pubescent, as also is the calyx. Calyx-tube 2 m.m. long, lobes 10-12 m.m. long, 2 m.m. wide in flower, wider in fruit.
Corolla tube 5 m.m. long, glabrous externally, and with a ring of reflexed white hairs 2 m.m. long on the inner surface below the stamens. Lobes triangular, twisted in aestivation into long narrow points. Ovary 5-celled, ovules mostly fertile. Stipules linear from a deep ring which has long white hairs inside. The fruit is considered edible by the natives. Frequent throughout the Province.
V. euonymoides, Schw. A nearly glabrous shrub 3-7 metres high, with oval leaves 2-7 c.m. long, i-3 c.m. wide; cymes few-flowered; calyx truncate; fruit 3-5 celled,
i c.m. diameter. Lourenzo Marques.
V. velutina, Hiern. A tomentose shrub, having oval leaves 3-8 c.m. long, 2-4 c.m. wide; flowers in very condensed panicles, tomentose outside, crowded in lateral
clusters. Fruit fleshy, globose. Zambesia.
Several other small shrubby species of Vangueria or Fadogia (which differs only in having whorled leaves) occur in the Province.
159. IXORA. Glabrous shrubs or small trees with opposite evergreen leaves, terminal corymbose panicles, and coriaceous berries with i or 2 seeds. Flowers 4-merous, corolla
salver-shaped with slender tube, anthers partly included, ovary 2-celled, style slender, 2-branched at the apex, ovules solitary, peltate; seeds convex on the back,
concave on the front, albuminous.
I. odorata, Hook. "Leaves oval oblong, acutely acuminate, coriaceous, the lower ones 4-8 by i-21 inches or more, and rounded at the base or narrowed into the
robust petiole of in., the upper ones as well as the bracts smaller, ovate rounded or emarginate at the sessile base, lateral veins about 9-12 pairs, inconspicuous; stipules ovate, apiculate, appressed, connate at the base, 1-1 in. long. Flowers white, fragrant, three together, sub-sessile, 2-3 in. long, many, in terminal dense trichotomous corymbose panicles of 4-10 in. diam. bibracteolate at the base; bracteoles subulate, small, the uppermost at the base of the calyx; peduncle 1-3 in.
long bearing 1-2 pairs of foliaceous bracts. Calyx glabrous, in. long urceolate; teeth ovate. Corolla-tube slender; limb about i inch diam. ; lobes oval, obtuse,
glabrous. Anthers partly included. Style exserted to half the length of the corolla lobes, bifid at the tip. Fruit -j in. diam. Mozambique. Forbes."
16o. PAVETTA. Shrubs or small trees, with opposite entire evergreen leaves, and corymbose or corymbose-paniculate terminal inflorescence of white 4-merous flowers.
Calyx-tube cup-shaped, with long or short segments. Corolla with a long slender tube and 4 spreading segments, twisted in bud. Stamens 4, sessile, in the throat of the tube. Style longer than the tube, with clavate emarginate stigma. Fruit 2-celled, 2-seeded, dry, black, globose, crowned by the calyx-lobes. Inflorescence
terminal on main and axillary branches.




76 Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
P. lanceolata, Eckl. Vern. names-i, Christmas Tree; io, Mtelagua and Nemavegwe; 13, Umdhlesa; 15, Leza-n-kozasane. A small glabrous tree 7 metres high and
up to 20 c.m. diameter; leaves lanceolate or widely lanceolate, 5-10o c.m. long, 2-3 c.m. wide, glossy above and often with bearded pockets underneath in the axils of the veins. Panicle diffuse, corymbose, terminal or on side branches, many-flowered. Calyx-lobes very short, bluntly rounded. Corolla-tube 2 c.m. long. Fruit 5 m.m. diameter. Bark grey; timber white, hard, close-grained. For illustration see "Forest Flora of Cape Colony," p. 237, Plate LXXXIV. fig. i. Frequent
throughout the Province, less abundant in the northern flats.
Several other small shrubby Cape species occur along the Lebombo Range, and in the north two small species are described, viz. :-P. macrosepala, Hiern, with oval glabrous leaves, and P. gracilis, Klotzsch, with elliptical more or less pubescent leaves.
A curious shrub 2-7 metres high, with thick rigid branches, long croton-like lanceolate leaves 10-40 c.m. long, 2-3 c.m. wide, terminal paniculate inflorescence, and round fruits 6 m.m. diameter, occurs in the Lebombo range in Maputa and Marracuene, and also in the more inland portions of Magenja da Costa and
Nhamacurra, and appears to belong to Pavetta, but my material is insufficient for determination. It is known locally as (15) Hlangushan.
16i. COFFEA. Shrubs or small trees with opposite leaves and branches, intrapetiolar stipules, axillary or terminal solitary or clustered white fragrant hermaphrodite flowers,
and oblong i-2 seeded berries. Calyx-tube short, toothed, not accrescent; corolla salver-shaped, 5-7 merous, lobes twisted in aestivation; stamens 5-7, partly or wholly exserted. Ovary 2-celled; style filiform, 2-fid; ovules solitary, peltate; berry oblong, pyrenes usually 2, convex on the back, furrowed on the face. Albumen
horny. Bracteoles connate into a cup.
C. stenophylla, G. Don. Veirn. name-i, Inhambane Coffee. A glabrous shrub 2-5 metres high, with opposite leaves and branchlets. Leaves lanceolate, elliptic, or
obovate, bluntly pointed or varying to candate-acuminate, sub-coriaceous, 5-io c.m. long, 1-3 c.m. wide. Flowers axillary, 1-3 together, shortly pedunculate; corollatube 6 m.m. long, lobes 6-8, oblong; the flower 2-2'5 c.m. across; anthers exserted. Berry oblong, i5 c.m. long, black. Frequent in moist parts of the forest from M'Chopes northward, often cultivated, cultivation being started either by moving young plants from the forest, or by burning down the forest when the Coffee is the first tree to start again. C. stenophylla has been regarded as a West African species; the East African plant differs slightly in having more distinctly lanceolate leaves, hut I think is not specifically distinct. Inhambane Coffee is not however entirely the product of this bush, as other exotic species are cultivated for their seeds, and the distinctive flavour of Inhambane Coffee is probably due as much to treatment as to species. Though less subject to coffee disease than the exotic kinds, the local species is not proof against it, and with the forests full of nearly related Rubiaceous trees all more or less subject to that or closely related fungoid diseases, coffee culture can hardly be regarded as a promising branch of agriculture unless future developments show some easy and cheap method of keeping the
pest in hand.
Other species said to be indigenous in the north are:-C. Zanguebarie, Lour., having oval or obovate thin leaves, axillary flowers, and the berries longitudinally nerved; and C. racemosa, Lour., having ovate-lanceolate leaves and sub-terminal erect racemes. The cultivated coffee is mostly C. arabica, Sim, having
oval or elliptical leaves and axillary clusters of flowers.
162. TRIAINOLEPIS. Shrubs with pubescent or glabrescent opposite leaves, small tricuspidate stipules, and hermaphrodite small, 5-7 merous flowers having 5-7 celled
ovary and solitary erect ovules; the flowers arranged in terminal corymbose cymes.
T. africana, Hook. f. Pubescent. Leaves ovate or elliptical, pointed, 6-io c.m. long, 2-4 c.m. wide; flowers i c.m. long, 1-I'5 c.m. across. Rovuma Bay.
A small tree in the forests of Magenja da Costa, known as io, ikalago, of which I have not seen the flowers, appears to belong to Rubiaceie and to be not previously included herein, but my material is insufficient for full determination. It has opposite obovate-acuminate leaves 7-12 c.m. long, 3 c.m. wide, firmly pubescent above and on the veins below ; young wood pubescent ; stipules acuminate from a wide base; panicle o10 c.m. wide and long ; fruit globose 5-6 mm.
diameter, having a large areole with 5 short teeth on its margin ; fruit 2-celled with i peltate flat seed in each cell, each seed having several (4-6) large and beautifully fringed peltate scales upon its surface. These scales are oblong 2-3 m.m. long, and unlike anything of the kind I have seen elsewhere. Sim 6oi and 6053.
For Lepipogon obovatum, G. Bertol, an Inhambane shrub unknown to me, see Flora of Tropical Africa," III. 247.
FAMILY XXXIX.-COMPOSITAE.
Flowers in several-flowered or usually many-flowered heads, on a common receptacle, and surrounded by a common involucre; which heads are popularly regarded as separate flowers. Flowers 5-merous, regular or bilabiate, or the inner florets regular and the outer with strap-shaped corolla in the same head. Calyx adherent to the corolla,




Synoptical and Specific Descriptions.7
and with the limb absent or modified into few or many scales, bristles, hairs or feathered hairs, and known as the tappus when surmounting the fruit. Corolla either all tubular, all bilabiate, all strap-shaped, or the inner tubular and the outer strap-shaped in the same head, in the latter case the larger strap-shaped and often coloured outer florets making the resemblance of the head to a flower with these as petals the greater. Stamens 5, filaments distinct, anthers cohering round the style. Stigma bifid. Ovary inferior, i-celled, with i erect ovule, forming an indehisccnt i-seeded fruit, often crowned by a sessile or stalked pappus. Seed exalbuminous. Leaves usually alternate, exstipulate. Flowers perfect, monecious or dicecious ; perfect, female and neuter florets being often in i head.
The largest Family for the whole world and for most localities, usually represented by herbaceous weeds; in this Province only a very few attain shrub or tree size. Bitterness is the most common principle in the Family; a few, as the lettuce and the chicory, are edible under. certain conditions, and many are used in medicine. Garden flowers are numerous, including the I)aisy, Marguerite, Dahlia, Marigold, Cineraria, Senecio, Pyrethrum, Sunflower, Aster, Chrysanthemum and Helichrysum.
163. VERNONIA. Herbs, shrubs or small trees, with alternate leaves, cymose-panicled inflorescence, and usually many-flowered capitula of white, pinkish or purplish,
tubular, hermaphrodite flowers. Style branches slender. Pappus composed of numerous setae. Very diverse in habit and appearance.
V. senegalensis, Less. V7e-n. na ies-4, Pahla-pofu, Pahla-kapfa, Insumbalume, Shirangela-nguba; so, Mesagulo; 15, Nyatsele. A tomentose much-branched shrub
2-6 metres high, occasionally up to 30 c.m. diameter of stem. Leaves obovate-elliptical, tapering to both ends, sinuate or lobed, o10-15 c.m. long, 5-8 c.m. wide,
ultimately glabrescent. Panicle terminal, often 30 c.m. or more across ; heads r'5-2 c.m. diameter, involucral bracts blunt, corolla white or tinged with purple; pappus grey or rusty brown. Frequent throughout the Province; or it may be that several species of Vernonia having the same general appearance are taken
collectively under the common names given above.
PLATE LXXIIIt. A. I, Part of panicle, in fruit ; 2, Seed and Pappus, x 2 ; 3, Flower, x 2 ; 4, Hair of Pappus, x 5.
164. BRACHYLAENA. D)icecious. Heads discoid, many-flowered, in axillary or terminal racemes or panicles. Involucre of many dry imbricating scales; receptacle
naked; corolla tubular. Male flower-anthers exserted, tailed at the base; style simple, filiform; ovary abortive, hispid. Female flower-anthers abortive, separate; pistil exserted, bifid; achenes glandular-pubescent, with 2 rows of bristles as pappus. Leaves alternate, entire or toothed or 3-lobed, coriaceous, glabrous
on the upper surface, glabrous or tomentose below. A small genus of resinous shrubs, endemic to extra-tropical South Africa.
B. discolor, De Cand. Verli. ncanes-4, 15, Pahla, Impahla, or Intsombelo; 5, Bacha (Mugude); 6, Tsumbi; 13, i-pahla. A small grey tree 7-10 metres high, 30-45
c.m, stem diameter; leaves oval-obovate, obtuse, cuneate at the base, glabrous above; white tomentose beneath, 7-1o c.m. long, 3-4 c.m. wide ; panicles mostly terminal, shortly conical, up to 30 c.m. long, those of the male trees looser and fewer-flowered than the female. Flowers very variable in size; involucral scales woolly at the edges. Abundant around Lourenzo Marques and along the coast; present but less common inland, and not observed north of Inhambane; occurs
also in Cape Colony and Natal.
PLATE LXXIII. B. I, Panicle; 2, Flower-head, x 7 ; 3, Flower, x 4; 4, Empty receptacles, after seed has fallen ; 5, Seed and pappus, side view ; 6, Same, top view, showing single circle of long hairs.
165. TARCHONANTHUS. Dicecious. Florets all regular; heads few-flowered, arranged in lax terminal and axillary panicles. Involucre erect, close; receptacle hairy,
corolla tubular with short 5-fid spreading limb. Male flower--stamens exserted, ovary abortive with slender single style and large nectary. Female flowerstamens abortive; nectary absent; style exserted, bifid; achenes very woolly, but without pappus. An African genus, of 2 species.
T. camphoratus, Linn. V/crnZ. namnes-2, Arvore de Camphora; 14, Camphor-hout. Shrub or small tree, usually much-branched from the base and producing upright
virgate branches, but sometimes forming a clean stem 20-25 c.m. diameter and growing into a tree 5-7 metres high. Leaves lanceolate or obovate, bluntly pointed, shortly petioled, 7-15 c.m. long, I'5-4 c.m. wide, entire, coriaceous, reticulated, white-tomentose beneath, at first grey-tomentose above, afterwards glabrous. Leaves on coppice shoots wider, more oval, and often distinctly toothed. Panicles 15-20 c.m. long and wide, lax, but many-headed. Female flower-heads 3-5 flowered; involucral scales ovate; achenes very woolly. A hoary shrub, highly scented. Present on the sea-dunes near Lourenzo Marques, also occasionally, but rarely, in
the forests throughout the Province. For illustration see "Forest Flora of Cape Colony," p. 245, Plate XCI.




78 Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
COROLLIFLORE. GROUP II. Ovary superior.
COROLLIFLOR.E. GROUP II. SECTION I. Corolla regular.
FAMILY XL.-ERICACE2E.
Shrubs or shrublets having small linear whorled leaves, regular hermaphrodite flowers and often paniculate inflorescence. As represented here the characters are
Calyx 4-5 fid or parted. Corolla hypogynous, gamopetalous, usually tubular, 4-lobed. Stamens 4-8, opposite the corolla lobes when of the same number. Anthers usually opening by pores. Ovary superior, in the larger kinds usually 4-celled. Fruit dry, capsular, dehiscent.
166. ERICA. Calyx equally 4-parted or 4-fid; corolla usually longer than the calyx, often viscid. Stamens 8, on a hypogynous disc; anthers opening by pores; ovary superior, 4-celled; cells usually many-ovuled. Capsule 4-celled, loculicidal ; seeds minute, numerous. Leaves linear, usually whorled and less than 1-5 c.m. long, often ciliate. A large genus, mostly South African, represented here by a single species, probably E. arborea, which occurs on the poor wet sandy soil of the pans at Manjacaze (Gaza) and near Mutamba (Inhambane) and also in similar situations in Magenja da Costa, where it forms dense pure thickets 1-3 metres high, with
stems up to io c.m. diameter. Vern. name-io, Muzabo.
FAMILY XLI.-MYRSINE2E.
Trees or shrubs usually glabrous, with alternate, exstipulate, simple leaves, and flowers in axillary fascicles or panicles. Flowers regular, hermaphrodite or polygamodicecious, 5-merous; the calyx minute, 5-toothed; the corolla monopetalous; the stamens opposite the corolla-segments and inserted at their base; ovary usually superior, i-celled, with a free central placenta, and i or many ovules. Fruit I or many-seeded, small, globose. A large Family, mostly tropical, represented here very sparingly by i genus.
167. MYRSINE. Polygamous or dioecious evergreen trees or shrubs, having alternate, exstipulate simple leaves, and flowers in axillary fascicles or raised in clusters on axillary
warts. Calyx very small, 5 (or sometimes 4) toothed; corolla with a short tube and a rotate or erect 5 (or 4) fid limb, eachti segment bearing a sessile anther on its face; ovary globose with a short style, capitate stigma, and few ovules bedded in a peltate central placenta; fruit globose, i-seeded. Seed albuminous. A mostly
tropical genus, poorly represented here.
M. melanophleos, R. Br. Vern. name-i3, Isiquane-we-hlati. An evergreen timber tree 7-20 metres high, which enjoys exposure to sunshine. Leaves alternate, but
rather crowded to the point of the young twigs, and often absent from older wood, 7-15 c.m. long, 2-5-5 c.m. wide, entire, thick, coriaceous, glabrous, oblong or widely lanceolate, deep green and shining above, opaque green below, and with a stout petiole 10-12 m.m. long. Flowers shortly stalked, crowded in axillary clusters or on axillary warts, usually on the old wood, greenish, inconspicuous, 5-merous. Flowers dicecious, though apparently not so, and flowers sexually dimorphic on different trees. Petals ciliate and minutely downy along the margin on the inner surface, especially those of the male flower. Female trees seed abundantly; male trees bear no berries. Corolla gamopetalous, 5-lobed, each segment bearing a sessile stamnen on its face. Ovules about 4, bedded in a globose central placenta.
Fruit i c.m. diameter, globose, glabrous, i-seeded, the seed hard and horny. For illustration see "Forest Flora of Cape Colony," Plate XCIII.
Concerning the Abyssinian M. simensis, Hochst, Baker remarks, "differs from M. melanophleos mainly by its longer pedicels and more numerous flowers in a cluster," while his descriptions of M. querimbensis, Klotzsch, and M. melanophleos only indicate the sexual differences of the latter already referred to.
FAMILY XLII.-SAPOTACEJE.
Trees and shrubs, often with a milky juice in the bark. Leaves petioled, alternate, simple, entire, coriaceous, exstipulate, often rusty on the under surface. Flowers hermaphrodite, axillary or terminal, clustered or single, pedunculate or sessile, the pedicel and calyx often rusty-pubescent. Calyx-segments either 5 or 6-8 ; in the latter case they are in 2 rows, the outer long, the inner shorter and less firm. Corolla gamopetalous, deciduous, with as many or 2-3 times as many segments as the calyx, in i, 2 or 3 rows. Fertile stamens the same number as the calyx-segments, with or without intermediate staminodia. Ovary 5-8 celled, with axile placentation, and i ovule in each cell. Fruit pulpy, i or several-seeded, in some cases edible. A tropical and widely distributed Family, poorly represented here.




Synoptical and Specific Descriptions. 79
168. CHRYSOPHYLLUM. Trees with exstipulate entire leaves, and clustered small flowers in the axils or on older wood. Calyx campanulate, 5-fid, the segments
imbricating irregularly; corolla tubular, 5-fid; stamens 5, sessile, i on the face of each corolla-segment. Staminodes none. Ovary 5-celled with a short style; i
ovule in each cell. Berry fleshy, usually I-seeded. Seed albuminous. A large genus of tropical trees.
C. natalense, Sond. Vern. names-4-8, Mnwebe; io, I r, Mnewe; 13, Tungwane. A large and valuable evergreen timber tree, 10-20 metres high, and with stem up to
45 c.m. diameter, usually growing in the open or gregariously, and with much-branched bushy crown. Leaves 7-15 c.m. long, 2-4 c.m. wide, coriaceous, obovate or widely lanceolate, rounded or bluntly pointed, entire, shortly petiolate, at first rusty-pubescent or tomentose, afterwards glabrous and shining above, silvery on the under surface. Flowers numerous, almost sessile, in axillary clusters on old wood. Calyx 5 (-6) fid more than half-way, the segments erect, imbricate, ovate, pubescent. Corolla tubular, constricted about the middle, rather longer than the calyx, glabrous, limb of 5 sub-erect segments which are often irregularly 3-5 toothed at the apex. Ovary 5 (-6) celled, hairy, style short. Fruit 1-2 c.m. long, oblong, minutely pubescent, almost sessile, red or white, edible, usually i-seeded.
Abundant throughout the Province and extends to Natal and Pondoland. See "Forest Flora of Cape Colony," p. 252, Plate XCIV. ; "Natal Plants," Plate 378.
PLATE LXXIV. A. I, Flowering branch ; 2, Flower, x 3; 3, Flower, petals removed, x 5 ; 4, Corolla opened, x 5 ; 5, Ovary and pistil, x 5 ; 6, Tree, general habit.
C. magalismontanum, Send. Veirn. names-4, M-bovan-hlati; io, Mpudo. A large forest tree, very similar in general aspect to C. natalense, but with rather larger,
more distinctly obovate leaves, rounded or apiculate at the apex, not silvery underneath when mature. Flowers crowded, almost sessile, small, hard, pubescent.
Fruit edible. Frequent from Quelimane northward, and occasionally south to Maputa.
Other 2 species occur in Lourenzo Marques and Maputa which are almost certainly Chrysophyllum, but of which neither flowers nor fruit were seen. One of these (4, Ngwamba, Sim 6280) is a small spreading tree on the flats below the Maputa Lebombos, much branched with short rigid twigs of io c.m. length, leafy
at the point only. Leaves obovate, 2-4 c.m. long, emarginate, nearly sessile, finely veined, glabrous, not silvery, and often crowded on abortive warty branches.
The other (4, Ntana, Sim 5112), a small glabrous tree found at Matolla, has obovate petiolate leaves 4 c.m. long, rounded at the apex, not silvery, and confined to the upper part of the young branches.
169. SIDEROXYLON. Glabrous evergreen trees with simple entire exstipulate leaves and clustered axillary inflorescence. Calyx saucer-shaped, 5-partite, the segments
irregularly imbricate. Corolla with a very short tube and funnel-shaped or rotate 5-partite limb. Fertile stamens 5, inserted in the throat of the tube, I opposite to each corolla-segment, filament slender, anther ovoid, extrorse; staminodia 5, without anthers, alternate with the stamens, and inserted lower in the corolla-tube.
Ovary superior, globose, 5-celled, with a short linear style. Berry fleshy, by abortion i-seeded; seed albuminous. A tropical and sub-tropical genus, poorly
represented here.
S. inerme, Linn. Vern. names-i, White Milkwood; 4, Mabope; 13, Umqwashu; 14, Witte Melkhout; 15, Impusha. An evergreen tree, sometimes erect, spreading
and umbrageous, but more frequently branched and bushy from near the base. Leaves alternate, exstipulate, coriaceous, glabrous, glossy above, paler below, entire, elliptical, oblong or obovate, obtuse, shortly petiolate, 7-10 c.m. long, 3-5 c.m. wide, regularly distributed along the branches. Flowers disagreeably scented, axillary, in clusters of i-io, often raised on short warts; pedicels 6-t2 m.m. long; flowers 6 m.m. across. Calyx finely pubescent and ciliate; corolla with a very short tube and rotate limb; stamens longer than the corolla-segments; anthers dorsifixed, extrorse; staminodia lanceolate, petaloid, as long as the filaments. Ovary hairy, 5 or occasionally 4-3 celled, style short, obtuse. Fruit i-i5 c.m. diameter, globose, black, shining, and with white viscid juice; seed somewhat 5-lobed. A first-rate timber where large enough. Abundant along the Swaziland railway below the Lebombos, and in the Lebombo kloofs, usually as a spreading bush. Occurs also
sparingly north to Inhambane. For illustration see "Forest Flora of Cape Colony," p. 252, Plate XCV.
170. MIMUSOPS. Trees or shrubs, with milky latex in the bark, which from some species may be collected or expressed for caoutchouc. Leaves simple, evergreen,
exstipulate, alternate, entire, coriaceous, shortly petioled, often absent or scarce on the lower part of the branch; flowers axillary, on i-flowered peduncles or in small umbels. Calyx-segments 6 or 8 in 2 rows, the outer the larger and firmer; corolla cut nearly to the base into linear white segments, 2-3 times as many as the calyxsegments, and in 2-3 rows; at first forming an erect cone, afterwards twisting singly. Stamens much shorter than the corolla, 6-8 stamens perfect with short slender filaments and cordate pointed anthers, alternating in i row with an equal number of wider subulate staminodes without anthers; ovary superior, globose or subulate, hairy, 6-8 celled, with a simple style. Berry globose, oblong or ovate, pointed by the style, more or less edible, usually i-seeded. Seeds albuminous, horny,
flattened, with an obliquely basal hilum, usually only i or 2 in a berry, sometimes more.




8o Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
M. Henriquesiana. Vern. names-5, Menjela; 6, Banjela and Rungulo. A large or very large tree, sometimes 20 metres high, i metre stem diameter, with spreading
branches and abundant heavy foliage. Leaves crowded upward, variable in form from widely lanceolate, elliptical or obovate to nearly round, usually bluntly pointed, tapering to the 2-3 c.m. petiole, 5-7 veined on each side, glabrous and green. Flowers axillary, several together, the peduncles 2 c.m. long and like the brown calyx shortly pubescent. Floral parts 6-merous (seen in bud only); fruit oblong, 2 c.m. long, edible. Young growth set with scattered loose white hairs. A noble tree, with a thick rough bark containing a large quantity of Caoutchouc. Dr. Feriera on whose farm near Manjacaze, Lower Gaza, a large quantity of it grows, has had this latex expressed and sent to Europe, where it was considered suitable for many purposes and valued at 2/6 per lb. As the latex does not flow with sufficient force to allow of its being collected from the surface, expression is the only means of obtaining it, and I doubt whether under present conditions and for the value stated, this can be done with profit. The latex is there as it is in the other species of Mimusops, but till cheaper extraction can be devised or higher value obtained I fear it must remain there. The tree is frequent in Gaza, M'Chopes and Inhambane, and what appearad to be the same species was also seen in
Magenja da Costa.
PLATE LXXVII. A. I, Flowering branch; 2, Fruit.
M. Mochisia, Baker. Unknown to me; described as "a bush or low tree with the habit of Prunus spinosa, with the leaves with the umbels in their axils mostly in
dense lateral or terminal fascicles. Branchlets not at all tomentose." Leaf oblanceolate-oblong 2'5-5 c.m. long, 15-18 m.m wide, obtuse, cuneate at the base; flowers 6-merous, on slender glabrous pedicels 6-12 m.m. long. Fruit yellow, glabrous, the size of a bullace. Seeds 3-4 maturing." Zambesi-land at Senna and
Tete. Sir John Kirk.
M. Kirkii, Baker. Vern. name-o, Gamanewe. A large tree, producing abundant latex, and not uncommon in the forests of Magenja da Costa and Nhamacurra, and
recorded from the junction of the Shire and Zambesi, and from the Rovuma. Leaves roundly obovate-oblong, rounded and shortly apiculate at the apex, 4-5 c.m.
long 2-4 c.m. wide, glabrous, tapering shortly at the base, with fine veination, and with slender petiole 2-3 c.m. long. Flowers 8-merous, outer 4 sepals tomentose.
Fruit globose, 2 c,m. long, suddenly pointed by the style, yellow, edible.
M. obovata, Sond. Vern. names- Red Milkwood; 4-6, Nolle or Tole; 13, Umtunzi or Amasitole; 14, Roode Melkhout; 15, in-tembe. A deep-green upright
evergreen timber tree, up to 15 metres height and 6o c.m. stem diameter. Leaves fairly evenly distributed along the branches, but occasionally branches or twigs are leafless below. Leaves narrowly obovate, rounded or bluntly pointed at the apex, tapering below to the 6-12 m.m. petiole, soon glabrous, pale below, 3-7 c.m.
long, 12-25 m.m. wide. Flowers solitary or few in an axil, on brown-pubescent peduncles 12-18 m.m. long, 8-merous, 2 c.m. across; fruits 2-3 cm. long, I'5 c.m.
diameter, ovate or ovate-acuminate, usually tapering to the style. Occurs sparingly from Maputa to M'Chopes ; for illustration see Forest Flora of Cape Colony,"
Plate XCVI.
M. caffra, E. Mey. Vern. names-i, Red Milkwood ; 4, 5, 6, Tole or Chole; 13, Um-Nweba and Um-tunzi. A somewhat hoary or glaucous evergreen tree or shrub
forming a large proportion of the sea-dune vegetation, but also extending inland on sandy soils. On the dunes it grows down to the watermark, fully exposed to sea-winds, and is consequently usually dwarfed in stature and heavily branched from the base where these winds prevail. In shelter it gets up to about io metres and 30-45 c.m. diameter, but even there it is heavily branched and very gnarled and crooked and consequently yields first-rate knees, &c., for boat-building.
Branches, leaves and inflorescence abundantly rusty-pubescent when young, and retaining the pubescence or silkiness, at least on the under surface of the leaves and on the pedicels and calyces. Leaves 3-5 c.m. long, 2-5 c.m. wide, firmly coriaceous, widely obovate, often rounded or emarginate at the apex, tapering to the short petiole, and often with the margin reflexed. Flowers usually in clusters of 2-4 in the axils along the branch; peduncles 2-3 c.m. long. Flowers 8-merous, corolla usually in 2 rows, staminodia ovate, acute, hairy. Ovary 6-8 celled, hairy. Fruit 2 c.m. long, 1-5 c.m. wide, tapering to the point, red, edible by children,
i-seeded, the seed shining brown. Abundant along the coast and through M'Chopes; as also in Cape Colony and Natal.
PLATE LXXV. A. I, Branch ; 2, Sepals; 3, Pistil, x 2 ; 4, Petals and stamens, x 2; 5, Fruit ; 6, Seed. M. marginata, N. E. Brown. Vern. name-lo, Mooijanago. A large evergreen tree 6-20 metres high, with dense heavy foliage. Leaves crowded at the end of the
twigs and the flowers occur about 2 in the axil of each of the inner leaves, and in the axils of scales inside them, forming together a cluster of 12-20 flowers terminating the leafy twig, the bud from which growth is continued arising below the flowers. Leaves obovate or elliptic-obovate, acuminate, rounded at the base, glabrous, shining 10-20 c.m. long, 3-6 c.m. wide, with petioles 1-3 c.m. long. Pedicels 2-5 c.m. long, dense but minutely rusty-pubescent, as also are the scales, calyces and
young fruits. Flowers 8-merous. Petals 24, often fimbriated at the apex; filaments villous; staminodes hairy. Fruit elliptical 3-4 c.m. long, 2-5 c.m. diameter,




Synoptical and Specific Descriptions. 81
glabrous, purplish-red, edible. Expanded flower 4 c.m. across, dull white. Along streams in Magenja da Costa (tropical), also occasionally through the Province
and in Natal and Cape Colony. A fine tree, with a good fruit. For illustration see "Forest Flora of Cape Colony," p. 254, Plate XCVII fig. x.
FAMILY XLIII.-EBENACE}E.
Flowers dicecious or rarely hermaphrodite, regular. Calyx gamosepalous, 3-6 lobed, often accrescent in fruit. Corolla gamopetalous, 3-6 lobed, lobes contorted in bud. Stamens almost sessile, usually several times as many as the corolla-lobes, in one or more rows ; in female flowers abortive, few or absent. Anthers introrse, lanceolate. Ovary superior, several-celled, in male flowers rudimentary; ovules pendulous, anatropous, solitary or in pairs, usually twice as many as the styles. Fruit coriaceous or more or less fleshy, sometimes edible; seeds albuminous, horny. Hard-wooded unarmed trees, shrubs or shrublets, with exstipulate, alternate, opposite, sub-opposite or ternate, simple entire leaves, and axillary simple, racemose or paniculate inflorescence, and without milky juice. A tropical and sub-tropical group of little forestal value.
171. ROYENA. Flowers apparently hermaphrodite, often actually unisexual, or one sex weak. Calyx 5-fid or 5-partite, pubescent, sometimes enlarging after flowering.
Corolla with an urceolate tube, and spreading 5-fid limb which is twisted in aestivation. Stamens io, in i row, inserted on the base of the calyx-tube ; filaments very short, anthers oblong or lanceolate, hairy. Ovary pubescent ; style branches 2-4 ; cells twice as many. Fruit globose or ovoid, pointed by the style, coriaceous or fleshy, indehiscent or splitting. An African genus of shrubs or small trees, well represented in South Africa, of which several species extend along the Lebombos and through the M'Chopes, and one, R. pallens, Thun., is frequent in the inland parts of Magenja da Costa and Nhamacurra. None of these are tree or of timber size; several share with Euclea the Vern. name, 4, 15, Magitamus or Ketums, and one species is called, 4, Inthababane. Concerning several Royena-like
trees, see under Diospyros. For illustrations of the species see "Forest Flora of Cape Colony," p. 256, Plates XCVIII., XCIX., and CIII.
I72. EUCLEA. I)icecious. Calyx 4-5 lobed, not accrescent. Corolla bell-shaped, 4-5 fid or lobed, twisted in bud. Male flower with 10-32 stamens inserted on the base of
the corolla-tube, and having a rudimentary ovary; female flower with no stamens, but a 4-celled, 4-ovuled, usually pubescent ovary, and 2-lobed styles. Fruit globose, indehiscent, i-seeded. Evergreen trees or shrubs with alternate, sub-opposite, opposite or ternate, simple exstipulate leaves, and axillary racemes or panicles of small yellowish flowers. An African genus of shrubs or small trees, usually hard-wooded, and with very undecided characters. In Cape Colony there are at least 15 species (see "Forest Flora of Cape Colony," page 26o, Plates CI., CII., CIII., CIV.); several of these extend along the Lebombo range, and also along the sea dunes and through M'Chopes, and several similar if not identical species are present in Magenja da Costa and Nhamacurra. They are of no forestal importance or value; and the Verin. names overlap the species. Among these are, 4, Hlangula and Quetamunzi; io, Mlala or Mulalo; 4, 15, Magitamus or Ketums. Among
species belonging to this Province not included in the "Forest Flora of Cape Colony" are the 2 following, transcribed from the "Flora of Tropical Africa," viz. :" E. divinorum, Hiern, Monogr. Eben. p. 99. A shrub, nearly glabrous and somewhat glaucous; branches terete. Leaves opposite or sub-opposite, elliptical, narrowed
more or less from the middle towards each end, especially towards the base, obtuse, coriaceous, glaucescent above, reddish and somewhat farinaceous beneath, 1i-21 by -A in. ; veins inconspicuous; margins undulated; petiole about I inch long. Male flowers in crowded racemes or panicles, io or more together, 4-5 merous, hemispherical; cymes not more than by I in., usually erect; pedicels -, in. long, spreading, longer than the small caducous bracts. Calyx in. long; lobes short. Corolla deeply lobed; lobes rounded. Stamens 16 ; anthers oblong, hairy, longer than the glabrous filaments. Ovary rudimentary, represented by a
bunch of hairs. Female plant unknown. Victoria Falls, Kirke. Occurs also at Delagoa Bay, south of the Tropic and in Basuto-land.
"E. fructuosa, Hiern, Monogr. Eben. p. ioL. A small or arborescent shrub, with softly pubescent tawny terete branches. Leaves alternate or sub-opposite, obovateoblong, wedge-shaped at the base, coriaceous, quickly glabrescent or nitescent, 4-4) by -i in. delicately reticulated; margins reflexed; petiole -3 -1 in. long, pubescent. Male plant unknown. Fruiting racemes or panicles ranging up to i-in. long, with about 20 fruits, pubescent; pedicels short, thickened upward to the articulation with the calyx. Calyx 5-lobed; lobes deltoid, acute, small; tube consolidated in fruit. Corolla sometimes marcescent, apparently 4-5 cleft; lobes ovate. Fruits tawny-pubescent, {-in. diam. i-celled. Seed solitary; albumen uniform. Between Tete and the sea coast, Xi-k,! Luame, mouth of the Zambesi,
Kirk Dar Salam, Kirk !"
173. MABA. Dicecious. Calyx cup-shaped, increasing in size as the fruit advances, which at maturity resembles a small acorn set in its cup. Corolla short, 3-lobed; lobes
twisted to the left. Stamens in male flower 3-9, glabrous, hypogynous, separate; in the female flower abortive. Ovary in the male flower rudimentary, in the female flower 3-celled, cells 2-ovuled. Style 3-toothed. Fruit a dry or fleshy berry. Seeds albuminous. Hard-wooded trees with small alternate leaves and axillary
L




82 Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
flowers, represented by about 6o species, 6 of which are described in "Flora of Tropical Africa" from further north, while only i species, a Natal tree, is known to
extend into the Province.
M. natalensis, Harv. Vern. names--4, Tchintomane, Chintomane, or Mantomane; io, Mgunaritch; 13, Tchicwane; 14, Smalblad; 15, Velenda. A tree 7-15
metres high, with very horizontal densely foliaged branches. Twigs numerous, slender, pubescent when young. Leaves alternate, often distichous, oval, inch long, coriaccous, glabrous above, paler below, shortly petioled, and when quite young pubescent on the petiole, midrib and leaf-margins, but soon glabrous Growthbuds enclosed in hard brown ciliate scales. Flowers axillary, solitary or 2-3 together, almost sessile, inconspicuous. Calyx cup-shaped, without lobes, glabrous.
Corolla small, externally hispid, 3-lobed. Staminodia in fertile flower 6-9, separate, glabrous. Ovary glabrous, 3-celled; cells 2-ovuled. Fruit I'5 c.m. long, acornshaped in the green calyx-cup, yellow when ripe, rather succulent though hardly edible. Frequent in the Maputa Lebombos, usually as a shrub ; occurs also in M'Chopes (extra-tropical) and Magenja da Costa (tropical). In Cape Colony and Natal it is confined to the coast-belt, but in this Province it extends at least 50
miles inland. For illustration see Forest Flora of Cape Colony," p. 259, Plate C.
174. DIOSPYROS. Trees or shrubs, with alternate shortly petiolate leaves, and usually small axillary solitary or shortly cymose flowers. Calyx usually campanulate and
4-5 lobed, rarely 3 or 6-lobed, often accrescent in fruit. Corolla tubular or campanulate or rotate, usually 4-5 lobed; lobes usually spreading or recurved. Stamens 6-many, usually about 16 and more or less united by their base in pairs or otherwise, inserted at the base of the corolla or hypogynous, in female flowers absent or usually fewer than in the male and abortive; anthers linear or lanceolate; filaments usually shorter or almost obsolete. Ovary globose, ovoid or conical, 4 or 8celled, glabrous or hairy, in male flowers rudimentary; styles or style branches 2-4, stigmas usually emarginate ; ovules solitary. Fruit globose, oblong or conical, coriaceous or thin skinned, often pulpy inside and edible. Seeds r-8, oblong or hemispherical or globose ; albumen uniform or ruminated." I was singularly unfortunate in regard to this genus, for while it is believed to be fairly well represented in the Province, not one flower was found, and consequently the leaves, if found, must remain among my incognitae. The fruit alone is insufficient for identification, but 2 species collected by me appear from the fruits to be Diospyros,
viz. :
D. sp. (Sim 6251.) Fern. names-4, Toma or Um-toma; 3, Jakals-besje. A large tree, found mostly quite leafless, but with nearly globose, several-seeded, sessile
fruits 2 c.m. diameter still present, with 5-lobed pubescent calyx 12 m.m. across, having recurved undulate margins. Leaves in the first stage of development scabrid-pubescent, afterwards pubescent or glabrescent, widely lanceolate, elliptical or obovate, io c.m. long, 1-3 c.m. wide. Soft white sapwood; timber said to
make good felloes. May be D. mespiliformis, but I think not. Umbelusi and toward the Lebombos (extra-lropical).
D. sp. (Sim 6397.) A littoral much-branched shrub or small tree forming half of the dense bush vegetation at Bartholemew Dias (tropical). Bark white, younger
growth finely pubescent. Leaves 2-3 c.m. long, 1 '5-2 c.m. wide, oval or somewhat obovate, rounded at the apex and base, shortly petioled, glabrous, green above, pale below. Fruits almost sessile, depressed-globose, 2 c.m. diameter, I"5 c.m. deep, purplish, i-several seeded; calyx 2 c.m. across in fruit, apparently somewhat
accrescent, spreading, with 5 cordate or reniform puberulous segments and a disc i c.m. across. Seldom of timber size.
The following specific descriptions are mostly condensed from the Flora of Tropical Africa":D, mespiliformis, Hochst. A shrub or tree 6-6o feet high or more; wood compact, often black in the middle. Young shoots and inflorescence ferruginous-tomentose,
leaves oblong or elliptical 2-6 inches long, -2j- inches wide, at first pubescent. Flowers white, dicecious; inflorescence axillary, short. Male flowers few or many together 5 (or 4) merous; calyx hairy on both sides, lobes ovate or lanceolate; corolla urceolate-oblong; stamens io-i6, often in pairs; ovary rudimentary, hairy or wanting. Female flowers solitary or 3-1 together 5 (or 4-3) merous; staminodes 6-8 in i row, ovary ovoid or conical, silky, terminated by 2 short hirsute bilobed styles, 4 or 8-celled and ovuled. Fruit sub-globose 2-1 inch diameter, 4-5 seeded, edible. Albumen somewhat ruminated. Tete, Senna, Laputa, and other parts of Tropical Africa. Moraes (Manual Practico de Agricultura), who describes it as a small tree with excellent timber, gives its names in Angola as, 2, Silviera or
Musolviera; 17, Mulende, and in Zambesia, 16, Hourabassa.
Mr. Burtt Davy (Kew Bulletin No. 4, 1908) gives several Transvaal localities, as also Mathibis Kom inter Lourenco Marques et Komati River Drift, Aug., 1886, arbor 40-50 pedalis, Bolus, 7847," and states "Common in the Eastern middle veld of the Zoutpansberg; between 2000-2500 ft. alt. a conspicuously large tree with dark foliage, usually occurring on ant heaps in grey soil. Fruit eaten by Kaffirs." This probably yields part of the black-hearted timber produced in most
parts of the Province and known as Ebony, which should have an export value.




Synoptical and Specific Descriptions. 83
D. verrucosa, Hiern. A shrub; young parts densely pubescent. Leaves ovate-oblong, nearly glabrous above, paler and pubescent below, and rufous pubescent on the
veins on the under surface. Female flowers solitary, fruiting peduncles stout, i c.m. long; fruiting calyx spreading, 4-fid, I c.m. diameter. Fruit oblong or globose, roundly 4-sided, verrucose 2'5-3 c.m. long, 2-2-5 c.m. diameter, 4-celled, cells i-seeded. Albumen ruminated. The pulp of the fruit is eaten. Zambesia,
Rovuma River 20 miles up.
D. senensis, Klotzsch. Shrub or tree; young shoots pubescent. Leaves obovate-oblong, suddenly narrowed or acuminate or occasionally rounded at the apex, membranous, deep green above, yellowish-pubescent beneath, 5-18 long by 2'5-9 c.m. wide; petiole hairy, up to I c.m. long. Inflorescence axillary in short 1-5 flowered yellowish-pubescent cymes; flowers mostly diecious, yellowish-green, fragrant, 4-merous ; calyx shortly lobed, stamens 16, in pairs; absent from the female
flowers. Fruit 2'5 x 2 c.m. Albumen uniform. Senna, Zambesi and Shire.
D. squarrosa, Klotzsch. Vin. name-16, Mutshenje tuna tuna. Tree or shrub; young parts hispid; leaves elliptical or somewhat obovate, rounded at both ends,
with scattered pubescence above, and with more dense and brown pubescence below, 3-9 c.m. long, by 2-5 c.m. wide. Female flowers solitary, drooping, 4-merous.
Calyx deeply 4-lobed. Staminodes none. Ovary 8-celled, 8-ovuled. Fruit glabrous, somewhat 4-sidedly globular, i c.m. diameter ; fruiting calyx with pendent
lobes, not accrescent. Senna, Tete, &c., in Zambesia.
D. Loureiriana, G. Don. Vert. name-i16, Nhamodema (JPetlers). Shrub or tree; young parts pubescent. Leaves oblong or obovate-oblong, more or less acuminate
at the apex, obtuse, rounded or sub-cordate at the base, sub-membranous 2-10 c.m. long, i-6 c.m. wide; petiole 5-20 m.m. Flowers hermaphrodite or polygamous,
drooping, cymes 3-mnany flowered; calyx deeply 4-lobed, more or less accrescent. Stamens 8, in I row; abortive (as staminodes) in female flowers. Ovary
globose or ovoid-conical. Fruit globose, 2'5 c.m. diameter, 4-celled, 4-seeded. Albumen uniform. Senna; Rovuma; between Laputa and Tete, Quiloa, &c.
D. Kirkii, Hiern. A tree; young shoots ferruginous, tomentose-puberulous. Leaves oval or oval-oblong, rounded at both ends, coriaceous, velvety-pubescent on the
under surface 4-o10 c.m. long, 2-6 c.mn. wide. Flowers dicecious, axillary; the female flowers solitary, the male in very short several-flowered cymes. Flowers 4 (or 5) merous; corolla inflated-tubular; stamens 9-10o, unequal; in the female flower staminodes 8, glabrous. "Zambesia, above Tete; fruit good when made into
a cake, common. K ir-k."
Another small tree in the forests of Magenja da Costa has 5 accrescent oblanceolate calyx-lobes 3 c.m. long, pubescent, superior, globose fruit 2 c.m. diameter, elliptical-petiolate glabrescent leaves canescent below, and about 9 side veins on each side of the midrib, appears at first sight to belong to Ebenacae, but it has stipules and the fruit is i-celled with i round seed about 5 m.m. diameter. So far as I find it is undescribed, but in the absence of flowers there is nothing
to show whether it be to Thalamiflore, Calyciflore or Corollatflore that it belongs. Sim 6109.
The name, io, Nadente, belongs to a large tree in the forests of Magenja da Costa apparently belonging to Ebenacex, with dehiscent fruits and flat valves arranged in a star. Sim 5834.
FAMILY XLIV.-OLEACE/E.
Trees, shrubs or climbers, with opposite simple or pinnate leaves, hermaphrodite flowers and terminal or axillary paniculate inflorescence. Calyx and corolla hypogynous, 4-cleft or parted; stamens 2, inserted in the corolla-tube. Ovary superior, 2-celled. Fruit a drupe, a berry, or a capsule. A small Family, in which is included Jasminaces. Several members have medicinal properties, the Olive is cultivated for its oil, the Ash is a well-known and valuable European timber, Black Ironwood is a Cape timber, and among garden-flowering shrubs are the Lilac (Syringa), Privet (Ligustrum), Jesmine (Jasminum), &c.
175. OLEA. Trees or shrubs having opposite, exstipulate, simple, entire coriaceous leaves, paniculate axillary or terminal inflorescence, and regular hermaphrodite flowers.
Calyx 4-lobed ; corolla with a very short tube and 4-parted limb, the segments valvate in aestivation; stamens 2, with short filaments, but slightly exserted. Ovary superior, 2-celled; ovules pendulous; style short; stigma capitate. Fruit a fleshy drupe, with a hard i-seeded stone, and albuminous seed. A small genus belonging to the tropical and sub-tropical parts of Europe, Asia and Africa; better represented in South Africa than in this Province. The European Olive is the
most widely-known species.
O. verrucosa, Link. Vern. lizames-i, Wild Olive; 4, 15, Nguma; 6, in-saca-saca; 13, Um-quma. A tree 7-10 metres high, 30-45 c.m. diameter of stem, branched a
good deal and with little clean timber; sometimes much larger and more old and gnarled. Leaves lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 5-To c.m. long, i-ir5 c.m. wide, tapering somewhat to both ends, acute, coriaceous, shortly petioled, the under surface clothed with small flat scarious yellowish scales so closely adpressed as to give




84 Forest Flora of Portuguese East Africa.
the appearance of a glabrous yellow surface, the upper surface and the twigs sometimes similarly clad at first and afterwards glabrous, in other cases almost glabrous from the first. Panicles axillary, trichotomous, not much branched, rather shorter than the leaves. Bracts deciduous. Fruit an oblong dry drupe about 6 m.m.
long, shortly pointed. I cannot by the description in Flora of Tropical Africa" distinguish O. chrysophylla, Lam., from O. verrucosa, except that the leaves of the former seem to be more regularly and densely coated with scales on the under surface, and to taper more toward each end. Frequent in some parts of the
M'Chopes ; also in the Maputa and Marracuene Lebombos, and in Natal and Cape Colony, where its durability ensures its use as a fencing pole.
It is probable that other Cape species of Olea occur in the southern districts but they did not come under my notice.
PLATE LXXVII. C. ; and Forest Flora of Cape Colony," PLATE CV.
176. SCHREBERA. T'Frees or shrubs, with simple or imtparipinnate opposite leaves, paniculate inflorescence, and 2-celled, dehiscent, woody capsules with i-winged
pendulous seed in each cell. Calyx truncate or shortly toothed. Corolla rotate with a long tube ; stamens 2, almost sessile.
S. golungensis, Welw. Vein. namnes-ro, Nadora, Nyangweli and Imperiperi. A large or small tree, frequent in the forests of Magenja da Costa, Nhamacurra, and
up the Zambesi. Leaves opposite, exstipulate, obovate, elliptical or oblong, tapering to both ends, shortly petiolate, sub-coriaceous, glabrous ; panicle terminal, lax, flowers shortly pedicellate, 2-2"5 c.m. long. Calyx truncate; corolla-tube long, with short spreading limb. Capsule pear-shaped, 2-celled hard and woody, often spotted, 5 c.m. long, splitting loculicidally to the base into 2 valves, each cell containing 2 obliquely winged seeds and i unwinged (seed ?). Seeds pendulous,
straight on i side, shouldered and winged on the other, 3 c.m. long, i c.m. wide. Probably pubescent species also occur.
FAMILY XLV.-SALVADORACEE.
Shrubs or small trees, sometimes spinescent. Leaves opposite, coriaceous, entire. Flowers in panicles or axillary fascicles ; regular hermaphrodite, or polygamo-dicecious. Calyx 3-5 lobed, corolla 4-5 lobed or with 4-5 free petals, imbricate. Stamens 4, hypogynous. Ovary 1-2 celled; ovules 1-2 in a cell, basal, anatropous. Berry fleshy, i-seeded; seed exalbuminous.
177. AZIMA. Petals free; stamens free; branches spinose.
A. tetracantha, Lam. A spinescent dicecious shrub, 2 3 metres high, more or less drooping in habit with squarrose opposite simple leaves, and terminal and axillary
spikes or tufts of inconspicuous greenish flowers. Calyx 4-cleft, valvate in aestivation, petals 4, free, hypogynous. Male flower-Stamens 4, hypogynous, ovary rudimentary. Female flower-Stamens small, sterile; ovary superior, 2-celled ; ovules 2 in each cell, erect. Berry globose, white, pea-size, i-seeded. Seeds exalbuminous. Leaves ovate or obovate, rounded at the base, mucronate, usually glabrous, coriaceous 3 c.m. long, 2 c.m. wide, shortly petioled; spines slender, sharp, 2-3 c.m. long, rising i or 2 from each axil, consequently often 4 in a whorl, rather longer than the leaves; often absent from flowering branches.
Flowers numerous; axillary spikes r'5-2"5 c.m. long, terminal spikes o10-15 c.m. long, with leaves and bracts in the lower portion. Frequent throughout the
Province as also in Cape Colony and Natal. See Forest Flora of Cape Colony," Plate CIII. fig 8.
178. SALVADORA. Unarmed shrubs or trees with opposite entire coriaceous leaves and very small unisexual panicled flowers. Flowers 4-merous, corolla tube short.
Ovary ovoid, i-celled, ovule solitary, erect. I)rupe globose, seed globose.
S. persica, Garcin. A spreading small glabrous tree, with opposite oblong leaves 5-8 c.m. long. Panicles terminal and axillary, flowers minute; drupe globose 3-5 mm.
diameter. Zambesia and other parts of Tropical Africa; also "near Shepherd's, about 18 miles from Lourenzo Marques. Bolus, 9701."
FAMILY XLVI.-APOCYNACEE,
Flowers hermaphrodite, regular. Calyx 5-parted, imbricate; corolla gamopetalous, hypogynous, regular, tubular with a spreading 5-lobed limb, the segments convolute in bud; stamens 5, inserted on the corolla-tube, and alternate to its lobes. Ovary superior, 1-2 celled, or the 2 carpels separate, the styles confluent above, and stigmatose below the summit. Fruit 2 follicles or a berry or drupe; seeds with or without wings or tails, exalbuminous. Inflorescence terminal or axillary, few or many-flowered. Leaves simple, often exstipulate, opposite or whorled, entire. Trees, shrubs, climbers or herbs, often yielding milky latex or bitter poisonous juice; Landolphia, Clitandra, Kickxia and others yield valuable rubber. A large and widely distributed tropical and sub-tropical Family.