An outline of a grammar of the Mashona language

Material Information

An outline of a grammar of the Mashona language
Hartmann, A. M
Fortune, George ( former owner )
F.Y. St. Leger (Firm) ( publisher )
Place of Publication:
Cape Town
F.Y. St. Leger
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
vii, 69 p. : ; 19 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Shona language -- Grammar ( lcsh )
Imprint -- South Africa -- Cape Town -- 1893
non-fiction ( marcgt )


General Note:
Ownership plate of George Fortune.
General Note:
Includes index.
Funding from Title VI grant and UFAFRICANA.
Statement of Responsibility:
by A.M. Hartmann.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
UF Special Collections, Rare Books
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Resource Identifier:
026842361 ( ALEPH )
37875216 ( OCLC )

Full Text


Jq- 0 T-T rr T--, I &D 3

V14rV73tst" of 7moEtIVIA
SpeeWCoflections IA

1. General Notes ... ... ... ... ... ... 1
II. Orthography and Accent ... ... ... ... 4
1. Vowels ... ... ... ... ... 4
2. Consonants ... ... ... ... ... 5
3. Accent ... ... ... ... ... ... 6
I. General Notes ... ... ... ... ... 6
II. Paradigm of the Ten Classes of Substantives with their
respective Personal and Possessive Pronouns ... ... 8-9
III. Remarks and Explanations of the Paradigm ... ... 10
1. The Ten Classes in their Singular and Plural ... 10
Classes I. and II ... ... ... ... 10
The Chi-Zwi Class ... ... ... ... 10
The I-Tai Class ... ... ... ... 10
The'Ri-Xa Class ... ... ... ... 12
The Ga-Tu Class ... ... ... ... 13
The Ru- Class ... ... ... ... 13
The O, U- Class ... ... ... 14
The Pa- Class ... ... ... ... 14
The Gu- Class ... ... ... ... 14
IV. The Genitive-ase ... ... ... ... ... 15
1. The Genitive of Nouns ... ... ... 15
2. The Genitive of Possessive Pronouns ...i.. 18
3. The Genitive of the Interrogative Pronoun ... 19
4. The Genitive after Prepositions ... ... ... 20
A. The Genitive after Nouns with simple Prepositions ... ... ... ... ... 20
B. The Genitive after compound Prepositions ... 20

I. Adjectives used in the Positive as Epithets and Predicates ... 23 1. Adjectives used as Epithets ... ... ... 23
a. In the Affirmative sense ... ... 23
6. In the Negative sense ... ... ... 24
2 Adjectives used as Predicates ... ... ... 25
a. In the Affirmative sense ... ... ... 25
b. In the Negative sense ... ... ... 25II. Comparative of Adjectives ... ... ... ... 26II. Superlative ... ... ... ... ... ... 27
I. The Cardinal Numerals ... ... ... ... ... 29,
II. The Ordinal Numerals ... ... ... 30
III. The Adverbial Numerals ... ... ... ... 80,
I. Prefixal and Emphatic Pronouns ... ... ... ... 81
A. In the Affirmative sense ... ... ... ... 31
Table of Pronouns ... ... ... .. 32-83B. In the Negative sense ... ... ... ... 34
IL Demonstrative Pronouns ... ... ... ... 85.
III, Relative Pronouns ... ... ... .. ... 36A. In the Affirmative sense ... ... ... ... 86.
1. As Subject-(Nominative) ... ... ... 36
2. In the Dative, Accusative, Locative case, and in
connection with a Preposition ... ... 88.
a. In the Dative and Accusative case ... ... 38
b. In the Locative case... ... ... ... 88
c. With a Preposition ... ... ... ... 39
B. Relative clauses with a Negative ... ... ... 40,
a. Relative clauses with a Negative, the Relative
Pronoun of which stands in the Nominative ... 40 b. Relative clauses with a Negative, the Relative Pronoun of which stands in the Aecusative case, or is governed by a Preposition ... 40,
IV. Interrogative Pronouns ... ... ... ... ... 41-

The Prepositions used in ChiZwina ... ... ... 42-44
I. Conjugation of the Simple Verb in the Affirmative sense ... 45 II. Conjugation of the Simple Verb in the Negative sense '.. 52 Remarks on the Negatives ... ... ... ... 54
III. Formation of the Passive Voice ... ... ... ... 54
IV. Derivative Verbs ... ... ... ... ... 55
1. Objective Verbs ... ... ... ... ... 56
2. The Reflexive form of Verbs ... ... ... 57
3. Causative Verbs ... ... ... ... ... 58
4. The Intensive form of Verbs ... ... ... 58
5. The Subjective Verb ... ... ... ... 59
6. Reciprocal Verbs ... ... ... ... 59
The Verb guwa, to be ... ... ... ... ... 60
The Verb to have ... ... ... ... ... 61
I. Adverbs in the form of Auxiliary Verbs ... ... ... 61
II. Adverbs Proper ... ... ... ... ... ... 62
1. Adverbs of Time ... ... ... ... 62
2. Adverbs of Place ... ... ... ... 63
I. Interrogative ... ... ... ... 63
Il. Absolute ... ... ... ... ... 64
3. Adverbs of Manner ... ... ... ... 64
Conjunctions ... ... ... ... ... 64
Intersections ... ... ... ... ... 66

The reader is kindly requested to correct the following errata:
30 32 III. Adverbial Numerals.
40 1 B. Relative clauses with a Negative.
44 1 Gwa, ma, pa.

1. Object and Method.-In compiling this sketch of a Chizwina-Grammar, the practical object of enabling any one to
-acquire a fair knowledge of the native language of Mashonaland has been kept in view. The treatment of the matter, therefore, is not strictly scientific, and consequently repetitions could not be avoided, as many points are touched on before their proper place. After the principles have been laid down, they are illustrated by examples, which have generally been chosen ,with the view to their being found useful in daily conversation. To help those who are altogether unacquainted with any of the South African Native Languages, explanations of the examples .are sometimes given in brackets. Since the coming of white people into this country many foreign words have been introduced into Chizkwina. These words have been avoided in the Outline ; but they are included in the Vocabulary and marked as foreign elements.
2. The Name of the Mashoas and their Language.-There
exists no name amongst the people themselves for the Mashonas

taken collectively, each tribe having its own name, e.g. Makoni's, people are called Wamangwe; those of Motoko, Wabudsha ;Chidamba's at the Mazoe, Wagoba; those of Mangwende, Wanowe ; those of Umtegeza at Mount Wedza, Waera; Gambiza's, Wanchancha, &c., &c.
As the Matabejle call themselves abantu, i.e. "people," "men," so the Mashonas say : Tiriwanu = "we are men."?'
The Matabele style them maholi, i.e. slaves, or abematsheni = those on the rocks, or abentabeni = those on the hills.
However, from hearing the name Mashona constantly applied to themselves some have come to adopt a word Mazwina (filth or dirt), which in deference to the white man's appellation, they occasionally apply to themselves. And hence the technical term Chizwina has been formed representing the name of the language.
3. The Territory over which Chizwina extends.-Dialects.,
-The Chizwina language is spoken over a wider extent of territory than is commonly supposed. If we take Salisbury asa centre, the radius within which it is spoken would extend at the very least to a hundred and thirty miles. Some have imagined that nearly every tribe has its own peculiar dialect. This is an error arising from defective knowledge of the country and of its inhabitants. It has not unfrequently happened that natives, who have worked with the white man at Salisbury, or on a farm or on the veld. have picked up from him expressions in Zulu, Sindabele, Sechwana, Xosa, &c., &c., and from a love of novelty or out of a motive of vanity, repeat them in their own homes. By degrees these words have been adopted by some of the inhabitants of the kraal, and they are reproduced before white men, who wrongly suppose they are of genuine Chizwina origin. But this supposition is afterwards shaken, when it is found that in other kraals these expressions are not known. Hence again arises further confusion, and it is wrongly concluded, from the facility with which one is understood at one kraal though not understood at another, that different dialects are spoken in different localities. So far as our experiencegoes, this is not the case. One common language is spoken within the sphere above indicated. Still it must be admitted that certain variattons are to be found in some parts of Manicaland ; but these variations are verbal only; there is no essential difference in grammatical constructions. Another principle also

should be borne in mind, viz., that the more we can enter into the habit of thought of natives, the more perfectly we shall speak their language. Words are the external expression of mental conceptions. The more exactly, then, we can represent to ourselves the ideas of the natives, the greater will be the precision with which we shall express our thoughts in their language. This principle is, of course, not peculiar to the acquisition of the languages of South Africa. Any student of the classical languages of Greece and Rome, as also of modern languages will know, that for purposes of composition, the more he can throw himself into the habit of thought of Greeks or Romans or of the modern nation whose language he is studying, the more perfectly will he express himself in those languages, whether viva voce or in written composition.
A few examples will show, how differently natives express their ideas from us.
4. Ex.: How many have arrived? wagazwiga wariwangani? (lit. They have arrived, they are (they) how many ?).
Five, wariwashanu (lit. They are (they) five).
Leave me alone, for I have got a bad leg, diregetse, dinegumbo (lit. Make me, to leave alone (every thing) I (am) with a leg).
I want nothing! andina chandinoebaga (lit. Not I with which I am searching for).
I have not a single ox, ngombe andina tsosse (lit. Oxen not I with all).
This is the wrong road, insira iyi inoramba (lit. It refuses).
So, you have got a knife ? chibanga deehaunacho ? (lit. A knife, it is which you with it ?).
What have you not got ? auneyiko ? (lit. Not you with what ?).
So, you have (got) no knife ? chibanga dechausina ? (lit. The knife, it is, which you not with ?).
I come to you, dinouya gwauri (lit. I come, where you are).
The present moon, mguetsi urigudeaka (lit. The moon, which is in heaven).
I have been taken on for work, dadawirgwa. (lit. I have been answered favourably).
What is the name of this tree ? moti uyo sita rawo unonsyi ? (lit. The tree this, the name of it, it sounds what ?).

5. General Rule.-Pronounce vowels as in Italian or German, consonants as in English.
Note.-There are a few sounds, which it is necessary to indicate by a special letter, the pronunciation of them being quite different from any sound in English.
6. A. The single vowels are: a. e, i, o, 0, u.
a = a in remark, rassa marara, throw the rubbish away.
e = e in there, ditebere, follow me.
i = i in skin, dimirire, wait for me.
0 = o in mosi, besO mOtO, make a fire.
S= o in low, Obfu, native meal; this is a very open o,
nearly a u.
u = u in rude, munyu, salt.
Rule.-Pronounce each vowel separately.
aa = aa in Balaam, aauoona, he does not see.
ae = a-e, guraeridsa, to direct one to a person, a place
or to work.
ai = a-i, amai wanku, my mother.
ao = a-o, maoko, arms; dambanudsa maoko ako, stretch
out your arms.
au = a-u, Nemauyo, the name of the lion god in
Motoko's -ountry.
ea = e--a, imba eanku eakoromoga, the plaster of my
hut is fallen down.
ee = e-e, unodshga nensebe eembeba, he eats even the
ear of the mouse.
ei = e-i, wagauya neiko ? What have you brought ?
(lit. You have come with what?

eo = e-o, mosgwe weowai, the tail of the sheep.
eu = e-u, guteura, to pour out.
ia = i-a, imbia, a cup; sia, leave behind.
ie = i-e, imvura ineierera, the water flows.
ii = i-i = ei in reiterate, I watsimba wanovima rit ?
(or rini ?) when do the hunters hunt ?
io = i-o, insara inondionesa, the hunger (famine) makes
me thin.
oa = o-a = oa in coalesce, waoansa gutora, thou hast
taken too much.
7. All the consonants of our alphabet are used except c, q, and x.
b is pronounced softly, sometimes even approaching the W;
badsa, a native hoe; basa, work, labour.
g is hard as g in go and gift, never soft as in ginger;
gugona, to know ; tagono guridse bfuti, we know,
how to shoot (lit. To make to sound the gun).
Note.-In some cases, when preceded by m or n, the g is hardly heard. We indicate this by the letters mg, ng, mguetsi, the moon ; nganga, a doctor ; mge, one, or other ; imbutsi imge chete, only one goat.
h is strongly aspirated as ek in Scotch loch ; inehw3, a
r, when not standing as the first consonant of the word,
is a sound midway between r and I, e.g. ari, a pot.
dsw. This combination represents a peculiar sound,
which can hardly be described, the s sibilating, after which a vowel sound is heard closely resembling that
of w, umdswairo, broom ; gudswaira, to sweep.
ds is almost the same sound, gudsa, to burn.
zw is a similarly sibilating sound as dsw, zwino, now;
zwino zwino, now at once; zwigaro, chairs; zwaganaga, it is nice.

8. Rule.-The accent rests on the penultimate: chimbitsa, hurry; kurumitsa, make haste; zwaganiga, it is nice; shamuiri, friend.
9. Exceptions :-1. i'mb6ga, dog ; shamb6ga. misfortune.
2. The particle "ga indicates emphasis and signifies "then," "of course," and is joined to the word, which it emphasises, but leaves the accent unchanged, whereas the interrogative particles "ko" and su" alter it, so that the rule concerning the penultimate remains in force, tambirga, accept it then ; chindliga,. then go now ; ng6mb6ga, an ox, of course ; Un6yi ? What have you got ? (lit. You with what?) = Uneyiko, wangaiya = wangauyissu ? have they come ?
10. In Chizwina" there is neither the article nor any gender.
Each substantive consists of two parts : first, a syllable or a vowel expressed or understood, which changes and which is called the prefix; secondly, the root, which is unchangeable, e.g. mo-nu, a man or the man; mo is the prefix, nfu is the root; wa-nu, men, or the men.
11. The substantives are divided into ten classes. The prefix determines to which class a substantive belongs. We call the classes according to their singular prefixes, the Cli, i ri, &e., classes, making an exception for the two mu classes and calling them respectively the 1st and 2nd classes.
It is indispensable for acquiring an exact knowledge of the language to know and understand the prefixes well. An example will show the significance of them through the whole language:
These three boys of our chief are fine.
Wakomana watatu awo washe Wedu waganaga (lit.
the boys three, these of the chief our they are fine).

These three ebairs of our chief are fine.
ZWigaro ZiWtatu izwi zwashe wedu gagaaga.
These three horses of our chief are fine.
Mabiza matatu aya ashe wedu aganaga.
These three arrows of our chief are fine.
Misebe mitatu lyi eashe wedu eaganaga.
These three little spears of our chief are fine.
Tubfumo tutta utgo tgwashe wedu tgwaganaga.
1Vote.-Some substantives are used in the plural-form only: ,mandarira, chain ; mazawa, strong white calico; masosoro, resting place ; maganga, spring time ; inshere, cleverness ; minsgwa, thorn; maropa, blood and others.

Substantive. _____Persona. Possessive.
Class. I Prefii. Root. ignifiaat. Nom.- Accus. Genitive Case.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
=0 u man
L. mu nyai slave a, u mu-rn ke his, her
urn rungu white man he, she him, her
j m o ti Itree
Il. mnu nyu [salt u- wo its,
urn kuma. a shrub
chi clii garo chair ci cho
i i mba. hut i yo
ri [Ti] banga. knife ri ro .
ga ga mbutsi little goat ga 90g
ru ru oko arm ru rgo
6 0 bfu meal 6, u = wo ,
pa pa se earth pa, = p
gu gu chema the orying gu = go
I. Person di =I ndi =me nku = my
IL u, u=thou gu =thee ko= thy
111. ,, u m, mu ke = his, her=he, she -him her

Substantive. Prnus
Personal. Possessive.
Prefix. Root. Significat. Nor. AcouS. Genitive Case.
9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.
nu men
wa nyai slaves wa wo their
rungu white men
ti trees
mi nyu sortsofsalt i yo
kuma shrubs
zwi garo chairs zwi z wo
i or tsi mba huts tsi tso
ma panga knives a o ,
tu mbutsi little goats tu tgo ,
ma* oko arms a (tsi) o (tso) ,,
I. Person ti we ti us idu our
II. ,, mo you mo = you inyu your
III. ,, wa = they wa = them wo = their
Some Substantives of this class have the Prefx tsi.

1. The Ten Classes in their Singular and Plural.
Classes I and 11.
12. Substantives with the Singular-prefix mo, mu, urn, belong to Class I, if they signify a person, e.g. morumne, a husband; muroyi, a wizard; umritsi, owner, to Class II, if they signify a thing, e.g. moto, fire; umtsago, a native pillow.
Note 1.-Forms as umba, in the house; umzango, in the veld are, locatives instead of momba,-mozango.
Note 2.-mguetsi, the moon, a month; mgea, the air, spirit; mgenshe, a lamp, belong to Class II; their plural is mimguedsi, mgea mishinshi (many spirits) ; mgenshe
mishinshi (many lamps).
Note 3.-mgana, child, belongs to Class I, and forms the plural irregularly: wana, children.
The Chi-Zwl Class.
13. This class forms its Plural by the peculiar sound zwi, as indicated in Note 7; this zwi is the prefixal pronoun for the
-neuter pronoun "it" in English ; zwinonaga, "it is nice.
The I-Tsi Class.
14. 1. To this class belong nouns, the root of which commences with one of the following letters :-a-m-n--o-sh-t-u.
Ex.: lama, jackal ; im b6ga, dog : insira, road, footpath;
Owai, sheep; ishiri, itsgwanda, basket; uni, firewood.
2. Some nouns belonging to this class have no Singularprefix expressed, but their real and hidden prefix is "i 1," e.g. ansu, coat; ari, pot; meni, lightning; numbi, utensil, thing; owai, sheep; owe, fish; shumba, lion.
3. The Plural-prefix tsi is in many cases neglected; numbi tsanku, my utensils, especially, when it is clear from the context, which number is meant, e.g. oku tsinofa, the fowls are dying (lit. the fowls they are dying).
4. Mondoro, lion or lion god; muno, nose; murn, calf; anuro, thrashing stick; muri, household ; moga, game ; mozwa,

fault, guilt, debt, accusation, belong to this class; mo and mu constituting the first syllable of the root, not bhe prefix of the IInd Class; mota, pimple; motune, spitmouse, belong to the Ti class; maruparo, the main rafter of a native hut; manda, fork of a branch ; mandara, marriageable girl ; mansa, forehead, belong also to the 1 class.
15. 5. The following is a list of nouns, which have a two-fold character :
,a. When standing alone, they apparently belong to the "i"
or "ri" class, whereas
b.. When used in composition with other words, they require
to be considered as belonging to the Ist Class only, and consequently require the words dependent on them
to be inflected accordingly.
Singular. Plural.
tnambo, chief wamambo
ishe, induna washe
baba, father wababa
shamuari, friend washamuari
amai, mother watsimai
ambuya, mother-in-law watsimbuya
dangwe, first-born child wadangwe gotgwe, last-born child wagotgwe
Ex.: mambo anovima ummango, the chief hunts in the
veld ; ishe anorima guminda, the induna works (the
ground) in the gardens.
dangwe wanku wagaroyiwa, my first-born child has
been bewitched.
6. Amai, mother, and ambuya, mother-in-law, are construed, as if they were Plural-substantives; amai wanodswairo umba, the mother sweeps the hut (lit. the mother, they it sweep the hut); ambuya wanorevetega, the mother-in-law is quarreling.
16. The prefix "i," when preceded by a verb ending with a or e, is contracted with it into "e," and the two words are pronounced as one: dagupenyama, I gave the meat (da-gupa-inyama (lit. I did thee give meat); mupenyama, give him meat; mu-pe-inyama (lit. him give meat).

The "i is pronounced in the beginning, or when a special stress is laid on the noun; e.g. imvura inouya, the rain is coming ; wagairoba imboga, he has beaten the dog.
The hidden prefix 1'ri has the same effect on the preceding a of the verb, e.g. unochage basa? do you want work? (unochaga (ri)basa ?).
17. Examples of the "i class : ibate ku tiibaye, catch the fowl, we slaughter it (lit. it catch the fowl, let us it slaughter) ; isse ari pachoto. put the pot to the fire-place (issa (i)ari).
Shambise ansu, wash the coat (shambisa(i)ansu) ; meni inobaya wanu, the lightning strikes the people ; tore tsgwanda unenda nayo gumrungu, take the basket and go (carry it) to the white man.
Insara inondiruma, I have great hunger (lit. the hunger me bites); imba tsinodona, the huts are leaking; shumba inodsoba, the lion roars.
The RI-MA Class.
18. To this class belong nouns, of which the root commences with one of the following letters: b, d, f, g, r, 8s, z.
The prefix ri never appears? but is understood. In some instances the "i of the prefix ri forms the prefix, such as ibende (originally ribende), tooth-hole ; isiso or iso, eye ; isino, tooth ; ibge, stone, &c.
Examples: badsa, a native hoe; danka, cattle kraal;
futse, hair; gomo, mountain; ronda, sore; sadsa,
porridge; Zuba, sun, day.
Note 1.-Nouns, whose initial letter is b or d in the Singular, change these letters respectively into p and t, in the Plural.
Ex.: I)enka, roof ; matenka, roofs ; banga, knife ;
mapanga, knives.
Exceptions buri, hole in cloth or wood ibge, stone ;
dare, iron ; dimuro, hatchet; donshe, yarn ; do not
change the initial letters b and d.
Note 2.-Isoso or iso, eye, forms the Plural meso; isino, tooth, takes meno or masino.

Note 3.-Shisha, leaf ; shanshe, the fruit of the Mahobohobo tree, belongs to this class.
banga rinopinsa, the knife is sharp (lit. goes in well).
wanorodsa mapfumo, they sharpen the spears.
anorirodse dimuro pabge, he sharpens the hatchet on
the stone.
magore aparara, the clouds disappeared.
tadisa maturi ogudsurise zwio, look at the wooden
mortar to stamp corn with.
disungire mazwinga euni tsanku, tie for me the bundles
of my fire-wood.
sadsa richapisa, the porridge is still hot; ronda
rinowawa, the sore is itching; doro rinowawira,
the beer is sour ; zuba radoga, the sun is setting.
The GA-TU Class.
19. In the formation of diminutives, the Prefixes ga-tu are used. Ex.: gambutsi, a little goat; tumbutsi, little goats.
Nouns of the second class retain their prefix mu-mo after ga-tu; gamudswairo, a little broom; tumudswairo, chitaga, liver; gataga, little liver ; tutaga, little livers ; rugwako, a spoon; gagwako, a little spoon; tugwako, little spoons.
20. There are a few words, which form their diminutives by suffixing ana or nana : 6kwana (the u of 5ku changed into w), a chicken ; imboganana, a pup.
The Ru- Class.
I Tsi Cas
21. Some words of this class form their Plural by the Prefix
-ma, whilst others form it by that of tsi; the ts is in most cases dropped ; ruoko, arm ; maoko, arms ; runyanka, horn ; tsinyanka or inyanka, horns; rukowa, river, and rugukwe, mat, drop respectively the k and g in the Plural; tSiowa or .owa, rivers; tsiukwe or ukwe, mats; rugwiriko, shaft of an assegai, takes as its Plural tsiriko ; rutsi, family, species, sort, kind, forms tsirutsi.

The O, U- Class.
22. This arid the two following classes have no Plural of their own ; when a Plural is required, it is supplied for thisclass by putting the adjective 5shinshi, many, or a numeral after it ; usiko ubiri, two nights ; usiko ushinshi, many nights, or it takes the Prefix ma; masiko matatu, three nights ; utati, bow; matati, Oswaswi, net, maswaswi, drop the initial vowel 5, u.
Ex.: Mosha wagadso usiko, the kraal has (been) burnt
down in the night time; wanoruga 5Swaswi, they plait the net; umgatsi unoguyo 5bfu, the woman
grinds meal.
The PA- Class.
23. Pase panodedera, the country is in fear (lit. it trembles) gane bfumo rinouya, when the enemy is'coming.
The GU-- Class.
24. The nouns of this class are nothing but the Infinitive of Verbs. Dipe gUdshga gwanku, give me my food.
2. Notes and Explanations on the Use of the Nouns and
Prefixal Pronouns, contained in the table, pages 8 and 9.
25. There is no proper declension in Chizwina. Nominative, Dative, Accusative and Vocative are the same.
The Dative case precedes the Accusative.
Indarama inoeherergwa nawarungu, the gold is dug out by the white men (lit. the gold is dug for by white men).
Wanu wanomupa umrunga indarama, the natives give the gold to the white man.
The Verb stands in the construction of a sentence between the Subject (Nominative) and the Object (Dative, Accusative, or Locative case), e.g., Amai wanogatsire ari pachoto, the mother puts the pot on the fire.
26. The columns 5 and 12 of the Paradigm, 6 and 13 contain the Prefixal Pronouns Singular and Plural for the Subject

(columns 5 and 12) and Object (columns 12 and 13) of the Verb.
E.g. Munyai anotagure bango, the slave carries a pole (lit. the slave, he carries a pole).
Wakomana wanofutsa mabiza, the boys herd the horses(lit. the boys, they herd the horses).
Banga rinopinsa, the knife is sharp (lit. the knife, it enters well).
Wanoriziwa, they know it (the horse, biza).
Wanorida, they like it (the beer, doro).
Wanotsibaya, they slaughter them (the goats, tsimbutsi).
27. At the bottom of the Paradigm the Personal pronouns, are given, the use of which may be seen from the following instances :
dinoguda, I love thee; dinoda = I love.
unondida, thou lovest me; unoda = thou lovest.
anomroba, he beats him ; anoroba = he beats.
tinomosema, we hate you; tinosema = we hate.
monotisema, you hate us ; monosema, = you hate..
wanowauraya, they kill them; wanouraya = they kill.
ngombe inomotunga, the ox pokes him.
anoirobe ngombe, he beats the ox (lit. he, it beats the ox)..
wanoruziwa, they know it (viz. the language, rurimi.)
When the Object of the Verb is a Personal-Pronoun, this Personal-Pronoun stands immediately before the Verb-root.. e.g., ama inoidshga, the jackal eats it (viz. the meat, inyama).
The Personal-Pronoun can even stand before the Verb-root when the Substantive (Accusative) is expressed in the sentence, e.g., amai wanomroba mokomana, the mother beats (him) the boy.
IV. The Genitive-case.
1. The Genitive of Nouns.
28. In the formation of the Genitive-case, both the governingand dependent noun must be kept clearly in view.
Rule 1.-Put after the governing Substantive its Genitive

The Genitive Particles are:
Class. Singular. Plural.
I. mu wa wa
II. mu wa ea
chi cha zwa
i ea tsa
ri ra a
ga ga tgwa
ru rgwa tsa
5 WRa
pa pa
gu gwa
mu m
mo um
2. Change the a of the Genitive Particle into 0 or e respectively according as the vowel in the Prefix of the governed Substantive is an 0 sound (0, 0, or u) or i; but leave it
-unchanged, when that vowel is a.
Ex.: runyanka rgwa, the horn of; runyanka rgwengombe, the horn of the ox; (the a of rgwa changed into e on account of the hidden Prefix i of
the governed Substantive: ngombe).
molibo wa, the medicine of; Imolibo wo-muroyi, the
medicine of the wizard (WO on account of the U in
impinyi ea, the handle of ; impinyi ea-madimuro, the
handle of hatchets (a of ea unchanged on account
of the a in madimuro).
mananga a, the pumpkins of; mananga 0 monu, the
pumpkins of the native (a changed into 0 on account
-of the 0 in monu).

3. Join the Genitive Particle so transformed to the governed Substantive.
e.g., runyanka rgwengombe, the horn of the ox.
29. Note.-Drop the U of the Prefix um (I and II Class) of the dependent noun, and also the i of the "i and ri class, when it is expressed.
e.g., imba eo-umrungu = imba eo-mrungu imba eomrungu, the house of the white man; umritsi we-ingoro = umritsi we-ngoro umritsi wengoro, the owner of the wagon; magumbo e-irise = magumbo e-rise magumbo erise, the feet of the scorpion.
80. Examples: denka remba, the roof of the house (denka ra-imba re-mba remba).
tumbia tgwomossigana, the little cups of the girl.
(tumbia tgwa-mossigana tgwo-mossigana tgwomossigana).
gambia gomossigana, the little cup of the girl.
gambia gawassigana, the little cups of the girls.
gambia gemandara, the little cup of the girl.
meno amapfene, the teeth of the monkeys.
miti eezango, the trees of the veld.
inyanka tsagambutsi, the horns of the little goat.
gupenya gwemeni, the flashing of the lightning ; gupenya, to flash; (i)meni, the lightning.
31. 1. The words mambo, ishe, baba, &e., which are given above, n. 15, leave their Genitive Particles unchanged; ishe, chief, drops the i; amai, mother, and ambuya, mother-in-law, contract the a of the Genitive Particle with their initial a into one a.
Ex.: inyika eamambo,'the country of the chief.
sita rashe, the name of the induna.
ingoro eashamuari wanku, the wagon of my friend.
chirongo chamai, the pitcher of the mother.
milibo eambuya, the vegetables of the mother-in-law.

2. Names of persons also leave the a of the Genitive Particle unchanged.
Ex.: umromo wembutsi tsa Chindamora, a flock of goats
of Chindamora.
5she wa Mtoko, the reign of Mtoko.
misha ea Inyandoyo, the kraals of Inyandoro.
2. The Genitive of Possessive Pronouns.
32. Possessive Pronouns stand in the Genitive, dependent on their noun, and are placed after it.
The roots for the Possessive Pronouns are given in Table I, pages 8 and 9, columns 7 and 14.
Rule.-The Genitive Particle of the governing noun is joined to the root of the Possessive Pronoun. The roots idu, our, and inyu, your, contract the a of the Genitive Particle and the initial i into e.
Examples : monda wanku, my garden ; minda eake, his or
her gardens ; ingoane eako, thy hat ; ingoane tseda, our hats ; tsunda eawo, their needle ; tsunda tsenyu, your needles ; wakomana wawo, their boys ; munwe wako, thy finger ; chibfuwa chayo, its breast (of the ox, ngombe) ; runyanka rgwayo, its horn (of the sheep, owai); inyanka tsatso, their horns (of the goats, imbutsi); zwingaingai zwaro,
its fire flies (of the veld, zango).
33. Expressions, such as zwanku, zwako, wake, zwayo, &c., which are continually heard, and which always follow a Verb, are idiomatic and convey sometimes the notion of : for my, thy, his part, e.g. dinenda zwanku, I for my part go; sometimes simply, merely, only, and sometimes they are used for emphasis: indeed, truly, of course, &c.
34. When our, your, their have the signification of coming from our, your, their country, home, land, &c., then the Possessives are : gwedu, gwenyu, gwawo, and are treated as Nouns with the Prefix gu; e.g., mopunga ogwedu, rice from our country (ogwedu, irregular, instead of wogwedu) ; oku tsogwawo, fowls from their country = their bteed; dorgweyiko ?
(of) what sort is it ? (lit. it is of what ?) viz., rusaro, thread ; dorgwogwawo, it is a sort from their country.

35. Usse, isse, entire, whole, all stands in the Genitive, and changes the 11 with the a of the Genitive Particle into O, and the i into e.
e.g mokaka Wosse, all the milk, or mokaka wesse; rugukwe rgwosse, or rgwesse, the whole mat; numbi tsosse,
-or tsesse, all the utensils or goods; inyika eosse, the whole .,country ; passe posse, the whole earth.
All of us, all of you, all of them, &e,, are rendered by tosse, mosse, wosse.
When stress is laid on them, then they are reduplicated, wana wosse 'wosse, all the children together.
All taken indefinitely is expressed by zwose, zwosse:ZwosSe.
Gwosse or gwossegwosse = gwesse, gwessegwesse, signiifies everywhere."
Monotsia umba messemesse, it is hot in the whole house 4(messe ma-isse).
All five, all six of them went away, wagafamba wosse wariwashanu-wariwatanatu (lit. they went away all, they are
-five, they are six).
3. Genitive of the Interrogative Pronoun.
36. Rule. -In the formation of the Interrogative Genitives, whose ? of whom ? (ani, who ?) the Genitive Particle coalesces with the initial a of ani into one a.
e.g., banga, rani ? whose knife?
With regard to the formation of the Interrogative Genitive of what" ? (inyi ? what ?) the general rule holds good.
e.g., 5bfu wa-inyi =i= abfu wenyi ? meal of what ? what sort of meal ? bfu wamapfunde, meal of Kaffir eorn.
37. To express "whose is it" ? place the Indefinite Pronoun do, de, da before the Interrogative Genitive.
do is used when the Prefix of the Noun, on which the Possessive Pronoun depends, contains an o sound (O, O or u) : de when it contains an i, and da when it contains an a.
Ex.: dorgwani ? whose is it ? (rugwaro, the book).
dorgwanku, it is mine, it belongs to me.
dotgwaui ? whose are they ? (tumbia, the little cups).

dotgwako, they are thine.
deani ? (instead of deeani) whose are they? (miehonga,the medicines).,
dechani ? whose is it ? (ehigaror the ehair), deehedu,..
it is ours.
4. Genitive after Prepositions.
38. A Genitive after Nouns with simple Prepositions.
The simple Prepositions are : mo, m U, UmI, in, to;: gu, in, to, at, towards, from ; pa, at, to, in.
Note.-These Prepositions are joined to the Noun; when a, Noun commences with a vowel, this vowel is dropped, e.g., pamba,. at the house (instead of pa-imba).
Rule.-The simple Prepositions, standing before Nouns,when the latter are followed by a Genitive, act as Prefixes in forming the following Genitive case, The respective GenitiveParticles are: ma, gwa, pa.
Ex.: umba manku, in my house; umba momrungu, in the
house of the white man; umba mawarungu, in,
the house of the white men.
gurutsito gwomosha, towards the fence of the kraal..
padanka pembutsi, at the kraal of the goats.
pamosha pani ? at whose village? pamosha pedu,.
at our village.
meminda mawo, in their gardens.
39. Note 1.-When mO = in, stands before a Plural of theII Class, it may be changed into me, for the sake of euphony,.. warimeminda mawo, they are in their gardens.
Note 2.-The regular form of the Genitive may be heard, occasionally : aripangoro eomrungus he is at the wagon of the-r white man, instead of aripangoro pomrungu.
B. Genitive after Compound Prepositions.
40. Compound Prepositions are:
moatsamba ( pamsoro, above.
mondogutsa along, beneath, Y pamberi, in front.
mochinga near by, at the side passi, under, beneath..
monyasse J panse, gunse, outside,
moshure, behind sere, behind.

The Genitive Particle of the Prepositions which are composed
-of mo, is ma; of those, which are composed of pa is pa;
-sere, behind, and gunse, outside, take the Genitive Particle .gwa.
Rule.-When Compound Prepositions precede a Noun, they ,govern it in the Genitive.
Ex.: monyasse meehoto, at the side of the fire-place.
pamsoro pegomo, at the top of the mountain.
pamberi pemba, in front of the hut.
gunse gworutsito, outside the fence.
41. When a Compound Preposition precedes a Personal Pronoun, this Personal Pronoun is construed in Chizwina by the Possessive Pronoun.
Ex.: pamberi panku, before me; pamsoro pake, above
him; sere gwaro (gomo), behind it (the hill); passi patso, beneath them (numbi, the things);
pause pargo, outside of it (rutsito, the fence).
42. To express the purpose, to which something is to be =applied, the Infinitive is used, and it is treated as a Genitive, governed by the preceding Noun.
e.g., donso rogufambisa, a walking stick (lit. a stick to help ito walk or to make to walk); ibge rogugwesa, a grinding stone (a stone to grind corn with); tisgwa wogugurusgwa. grass to-be
-cleaned; mapfunde ogupurgwa, native corn to be thrashed.
Notice the Passive-form in the two last examples, indicating what is to be done with the thing in question.
43. When, in addition to the purpose to which a thing is applied, the ,idea of locality is introduced, then the Verb stands ,in its Relative-form.; imba eogubigira, kitchen (lit. a house, ,where to, cook).
44. Adverbs may also be treated as Genitives.
e.g., isiku wanasi, the night of to-day; 5siku wanesuro, the last night (the night of yesterday); wanu wezwimge, the ,people of elsewhere; rutsia rgwamasikati, the heat of noon; dhando chamangwana, the morning frost.

45. When a Noun governs two Genitives, the first only is put in the Genitive, the second is connected with the preceding by the Conjunction na = and, or the Preposition with,"r e.g., imba eababa namai, the hut of the father and of the mother ; umritsi wamabiza nembutsi, the owner of the horses and of the goats.
Note.-The Conjunction na = and, and the Preposition, na = with, change the a into 0, when the vowel of the Prefix, before which they stand, contains 0, o, r, into e, when it contains i, and remains unchanged when it contains a.
e.g., morume nomgatsi, the husband and the wife; mapfuta nomokaka, butter and milk ; zuba netsinyanetsi, the sun and the star ; denka napase, heaven and earth; wauya nemb6ga eani ? Whose dog have you brought ? dauya neamai (instead of neeamai), I brought that of the mother ;. dauya namai, I came with the mother.
46. In Chizwina the Adjectives are few.
guru, big, large, tall. digidigi or dugudugu, small, little.shinshi, much. shoma or shomashoma, few, little..
lefu, high, deep. bfupi, short.
gobfu, thick. tetetete, thin
chena, white. tema, black, blue.
tsugu, red. bfumlu, yellow.
nyoro, soft. gugutu, hard.
doa, new. gare, old.
bunumungyu, naked. pengyu, alive.
bishi, uncooked, unripe. gwesse, blunt. pami, thick, stout. npani. how many.

1. Adjectives used as Epithets.
a. In the Affirmative sense.
47. Rule.-Adjectives used as Epithets take the Prefix of their Noun and stand after it. But the Prefix for Adjectives standing after Nouns of the ri class in the Singular is not ri, but i ; banga ibfupi, a short knife. monu moguru, a tall man. wanu waguru, tall men.
monda modugudugu, a little minda midugudugu, little
garden. gardens.
ruoko rulefu, a long arm. maoko malefu, long arms. bango igobfa, a thick pole. mapango magobfu, thick poles.
Changes, which take place in some Adjectives, when used after Nonus of the i and ri class.
48. Guru, big, drops the g; e.g., imb6ga uru, a big dog; tsimb6ga uru, big dogs.
digidigi-dugudugu, little, small, inserts n before both d, imbeba indigindigi, a little mouse; biza idigidigi, a small horse; migodi midigidigi, little sticks (for stirring the porridge).
lefu, long, high, changes the 1 into nd, imba indefu, a high hut.
gobfu, thick, drops the g, tsunda iobfu, a thick needle.
tetetete, thin, changes the first and third t into n, shinda inetenete, a thin thread.
When it belongs to a Noun of the ri class in the Singular, it changes the first and third t into d, sadsa idetedete, thin porridge.
tema, black, changes the t into n, ngombe inema, a black ox.
When it belongs to the ri class, it changes t into d, bfumo idema, a black assegai.
pengyn, alive, changes the p into m, ama imengyu, a live jackal.
When it belongs to the ri class, it changes the p into b, irise ibeneyu, a live scorpion.

bishi assumes m before the b, inyama imbishi, uncooked meat.
pami changes the p into m, when standing after a Noun of the i class.
Alone, only, oga, ega.
49. The various forms for this Adjective are :
doga, dega, dirindoga, dirindega, I alone, I only, by myself.
dauya ndoga, I arrived alone; or dauya ndirindoga.
oga, urioga, thou alone ; oga, arioga, he alone.
toga, tiritoga, we alone ; moga, morimoga, you alone.
woga, wariwoga, they alone.
The forms for the classes are : II. oga, eoga ; chi, choga, Zwoga ; i, eoga, tsoga; ri, roga ; ru, hoga; o, oga; ga, goga; tu, tgwoga or thogs ; pa, poga; gu, gwoga.
Ex.: tande biza roga, drive away the horse only.
gagatshgoga gambia goga, only the little cup got
The want of proper Adjectives is supplied by:
50. 1. Nouns, mobfumi, a rich man; mambo mobfumi, a rich chief; rombe, a poor mati ; mokomana rombe, a poor boy; irema, a fool; mochembere irema, a stupid old woman.
2. A Genitive of a Noun, basa ramazuba, daily work (work of days).
3. The Preposition na with a Noun, e.g., wana wanenyota, thirsty children (lit. children they are with thirst).
monu anamazimba, a strong man (lit. a man, he is with strength).
mgana uneasha, an angry child (lit. a child, it is with anger).
monu unenungo, a lazy man (a man, he is with laziness).
4. Verbs, e.g., donso raganaga, a nice stick; imb6ga eaganaga, a fine dog; banga rinopinsa, a sharp knife; mokaka wagatuvira, sour milk; doro rinobaba, bitter beer.
b. In the Negative sense.
51. When Adjectives are used as Epithets in the Negative sense, the construction is as follows :
1. The Prefixal Pronoun; 2. The Negative Particle Si;

3. The Substantive Verb (be) ri; 4. The Prefix with the Adjective.
e.g., wana wa-si-ri-wa-guru, children, who are not tall (lit. children, they-not-are-they-tall).
imokomana a-si-ri-moguru, a boy, who is not tall.
.miti i-si-ri-mi-lefu, trees, which are not high.
wanu wa-si-nenyota, people who are not thirsty.
imb6ga isingarume, a dog, which does not bite.
2. Adjectives used as Predicates.
a. In the Affirmative sense.
52. Rule.-When Adjectives are used as Predicates, two ,constructions may be employed.
1. That, which is used, when an Adjective is treated as an Epithet; this construction is more common.
e.g., imba uru, the house is big.
2. The Prefixal Pronoun with the Substantive Verb ri is inserted between the Noun and its Adjective.
e.g., mambo a-ri-moguru, the chief is tall.
u-ri-mdigidigi, thou art small; ti-ri-washinshi, we are many; mo-ri-wangani ? how many are you ? tsuru tsi-ritsintatu (or tsirinatu), the hares are three; mapango a-rimalefu, the poles are long; zuba rinopisa, the sun is hot; biza rinamazimba, the horse is strong (lit. is with strength) ; warungu wanenshere, the white men are clever.
b. In the Negative sense.
53. Rule.-When Adjectives are used as Predicates in the Negative sense, a double Negative is used in Chizwina, and the construction is as follows :
1. The Negative a; 2. The Prefixal Pronoun; 3. The Negative si; 4. The Substantive Verb ri; 5. The Adjective with its Prefix.
e.g., mgana a-a-si-ri-m'-guru, the child is not tall.
miti a-i-si-ri-mi-lefu, the trees are not high.
rugwaro a-ru-si-ri-ru-chena, the book is not white.
a-ndi-si-ri-m-dugu, I am not little.

oku atsinenyota, the fowls are not thirsty (lit. are not with thirst).
oku tsisinenyota, fowls, which are not thirsty.
54. In Chizwina there is no proper Comparative; yet it may be expressed in a variety of ways, the most used of which are :
1. The Adjective, followed by the Prepositions gu, pa, guna, pana.
Note.-Gu and pa are used before Nouns; guna and panct before a. Pronouns ; b. the irregular Nouns, such as mambo, ishe, amai, &c,; c. proper names ; d. Adjectives ; e. Verbs.
Ex.: mokomana arimguru gumossigana, the boy is taller
than the girl; imba irindefu parutsito, the hut is higher than the fence ; insou tsinamazimba panema, the elephants are stronger than the rhinoceros ; zuilba ririgudenka gunamguedsi, the sun is higher than the moon ; Umtasa anamazimba guna Mangwende, Umtasa has more authority than Mangwende; imbutsi inema iriuru panechena, the black goat is bigger than the white one (pane is contracted from pana-ichena); ingoane idsa earurama paneeasagara, a new hat is better than an old one; inindirimotema panewe ( pana-iwe), I am blacker than thou art; inyoga iyi irindigindigi paneyo (paneyo = pana-iyo),
this snake is smaller than that.
2. Verbs, which signify to surpass in anything, such as gupinda na, gugunda, gugurira, to overpower by; gusia, to leave behind.
Ex.: Gatsande wagampinda Mnshonga noslefu wake,
Gatsande is taller than Moshonga (lit. G. he has him surpassed Moshonga by his length) ; gamoti gako gagasia ganku no6guru wago, thy rod is bigger than mine (thy rod has left behind mine by its tallness); gureba gunogunde numbi, speaking is better than goods ; warungu wanowapinda wanu watema noishinshi wawo, the white population is.
more numerous than the black (lit. the white men
surpass the blacks by their multitude).

Eximples, which show other ways of expressing the Comparative.
55. Imbada irindugu monyasse meshumba, the tiger is smaller than the lion (lit. is small at the side of the lion).
ibfuti eako eagasarira pansira, thy gun is shorter (lit. thy gun has stopped behind on the road) ; dagapindwa naye noSlefu wake, I am shorter than he is (lit. I have been surpassed by him by his length).
lVote.-Oftentimes the comparison is made more clear by an explanation, e.g., in the above instance it may be said, dagapindwa naye no6lefu wake, gana iye arimlefu, inindirimbfupi, I am shorter than he is, since he is tall, and I am short.
bango iri ragasia paneiri-ishomanana, this pole is a little shorter than that one; insou tsagasiana nenema gumeno, the elephant has stronger teeth than the rhinoceros ; diye arimobfumi gundipinda, he is richer than I am (lit. he is a rich man, to surpass me); imboga inema inoruma gunechena, the black dog bites more than the white one; unoda mokaka wagatonorera panawasurugs ? do you like fresh milk better than sour?
56. The Comparative is expressed by the Positive in case like this : dipe ririilefu, give me a longer one (pole, bango).
The Adverb "too qualifying an Adjective is expressed by the Positive only, e.g., it is too bitter (beer) ragawawa (lit. it is bitter).
57. The Superlative degree is formed by either
1. Adding the Adjective all, osse, to the Comparative,,
or by
2. Adding the Verb surpass." gupinda, gunanya.
a. either in the Infiaitive
b. or in the Perfect Tense.
Ex.: inson iriuru pamoga tsosse, the elephant is the biggest
of the wild animals (game), (lit. the elephant is big amongst all the game)-; insou inotsipinde moga tsosse (lit. the elephant it them surpasses all the game); inindirimbfupi panawosse, I am the shortest (lit. I am short amongst all) ; iwe urimlefu gunanya.

thou art the tallest ; iwo urimlefu wagapinda, thou
art the tallest (lit. thou art tall, thou hast surpassed)
iye anoreba pan awosse, he speaks best of all; iye wagananya gureba gwazwogwazkwo (lit. he has
surpassed to speak very well).
Note.-Gwazwogwazwo signifies veryry" veryy much," ;after an Adjective and a Verb, mabge maguru gwazwogwazwo,
-very huge stones ; wanotamba, gwazwogwazwo, they play very 1:much.
"Very," veryy much is also expressed by
a. Inserting izwo before the Verb-root, or before the
Personal Pronoun, e.g., wanezwoda, they love very much ; wanu wauezwoide nyama, the natives
like it,-,the meat very much.
b. The intensive Verb, imb6ga, earurama, a fine dog;
imboga earuramisa, a very fine dog.
-58. 1. potsi (mge). 21. magumi mabiri anechipotsi.
2. pini (bini). 22. anechibini.
3. tatu 30. ,, matatu.
4. chinna (na). 40. ,, maua.
5. sbanu. 50. ,, mashanu.
6. tanatu. 60. ,, matanatu.
7. chinomge(nomge). 70. ,, manomge.
8. rusere (sere). 80. ,, masere.
9. bfumpamge. 90. mabfumpamnge.
10. gumi. 100. isana.*
11. gumi, rinecbipotsi. 101. ,,rinechipotsi.
J12. ,,rinechibini. 110. ,, inegumi.
13. ,, ineehitatu. Il. ,, ineehipotsi.
14. ,,rinechinna. 120. ,, rinamagumi
,20. magumi inabiri. mabiri.

122. isana rinamagumi mabiri anechibiri.
200. masana mabiri.
222. ,, anamagumi mabiri anechibiri.
1,000. masana gumi.
2,000. masana magumi mabiri.
10,000. masana isana.
20,000. masana masana mabiri.
30,333. masa'na masana matatu anamasana matatu anamagumi
matatu anechitatu.
40,976. masana masana mana anamasana mabfumpamgeanamagumi mauomge anechitanatu. 1,000,000. masana masana isana.
1893. masana gumi anamasana masere anamagumi ma-bfumpamge anechitatu.
59. The Numerals, as given in 58, are only used in counting.
As Cardinal Numbers, they are treated as Adjectives.
It must be observed, that 1, 2, 4, 7, 8, when used with Nouns, take the form mge, biri, na, nomge, sere.
biri, tatu, na, tanatu, when belonging to a Noun of the
ci" lass, have some peculiarities :
1. m is inserted before the root biri = mbiri, tatw
becomes natu, na is changed into R a, tanatu
changes into nanatu.
2. natu, nna, nanatu, take the Prefix i instead of tsi,
tsere stands instead of tsisere.
Note.-Chete, or petsi = only is commonly joined to mge = one.
e.g., isiso rimge chete, one eye only, instead of isiso rimge.
moti momge chete, one tree.
mge standing before its Noun signifies the other, another,. other, others.
e.g., rimge bangs, another knife ; banga rimge, one knife.
mimge mishonga, other medicines.
meso mabiri, two eyes ; meso arimabiri, the eyes are two.
madshira matatu, three shirts; inguo innatu, three blankets ; ibfuti inna, four rifles ; man inanatu, six ostriches.
60. The following idiom is noticeable, e.g., I cut three trees, dateme miti, daite mitatu (lit. I cut trees, I made three) ; go and

cut four poles, ienda unoatema mapango nite mana (lit. go, you them cut poles, that you make four).
When the natives in counting arrive at ten, they usually say: gumi razwiga = ten has arrived.
Instead of saying, e.g., owe igumi, ten fish, they say gumi reowe, ten of fish.
Any number above ten to twenty, is expressed by ten, which has one, two, three, &c., e.g., 12 chairs, zwigaro gumi rine zwimbiri (or gumi nezwimbiri), 49 mats, ukwe magumi mana anetsibfumpamge.
inyanka tsensou, tsandauya natso guti tsirimagumi mabiri nembiri, I have brought 22 ivory tusks (lit. the tusks of elephants, which I have come with them are 22).
How many children ? wana wangani or wariwangani ? four, wariwana (they ar four).
61. Ordinal Numbers in the Singular are treated as Genitives. The first, wachipotsi, the second, wabiri, the third, watutu, the fourth, wachinna, &c.
When used in the Plural pa is inserted between the Genitive particle and the root of the Numeral, wapambiri, the first (lit, that are in front), wapabiri, the second, &.
The last one, the last ones, (i) metsiso, mutsivo mopetsiso, is also construed with the Genitive ; the last boy (in a line), mokomana wemetsiso or womutsivo, or wagatsiviritsa = he closed the line.
Or it is expressed by gutsivira = to close up, in the Geniti ve, the last cattle, ngombe tsogutsivira.
Or it may be rendered by the following sentence:
iyi (imbutsi) eapetsa guwerenga gwatso, this one finishes the counting of them.
42. By putting ga, pa, chi before the Cardinal Numbers, Adverbial forms are obtained.
gapotai, once ; gabiri, twice; gatatu, three times; gachina, four times.
papotsi, in the first place; pabiri, in the second place; Tparusere, in the eighth place.
Ohipotsi, the first time ; chiehina, the fourth time.

A. In the Affirmative Sense.
63. The first column shows the Prefixes of the 10 classes of Nouns. A comparison instituted between the first, second and third columns makes it clear, that there is very little difference between the Prefixes and Prefixal Pronouns, both in the Nominative and Accusative.
1. di, I, me takes n before it, when preceded by a vowel.
2. The Accusative for the second Person, Singular (thee),
is gu.
3. The Prefixal Pronoun for the third Person, Singular,
is a or u in the Nominative; mu or m in the
4. The Prefixal Pronoun for the II. Class in the Singular
is u, both in the Nominative and Accusative : in the Plural it is i, both in the Nominative and Accusative.
5. The Prefixal Pronoun for the ri class is a in the
Plural, both in the Nominative and Accusative.
A few examples will illustrate the use of the Prefixal Pronouns.
andiziwi guti ndinofamba nassi, I do not know if I am going away to-day; anondiroba, he beats me; dipe mvura, give me water; diswrurire, open to me; unochema, thou art crying; wanoagutanda, they drive thee away; tinomogia, we leave you behind; wanombaya, they stab him; mongora unoora, the marrow is getting rotten; tinoudshga mongora, we eat the marrow; shumba inotsidshge ngombe, the lion devours cattle; Mazwina anoapetsa mapfunde awo, the Mashonas are finishing their corn; mumba munotsia, it is hot in the house.

Pronoun. Demonstrative Pronomi,
Pers6rs. C3
9 111. IV.
z -4 pq Aq
1. 2. 8. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.
Persons. t-4)
1. di 'ini nku dinam
u gu iwe ko dionni
3. a,'u mum iye ke uyo 6yo oy6 noyoyoyo wa diani upi (which?)
1 t- issu idu disani
2 mo imi inyu dimani
3. P4 wa iwo wo awa 6,wo &W6 nawawawo, wa dawanani
inyi, what?
mo u io wo uyo 6yo o7o noy oyo wa upi which ?

chi chi icho cho ichi icho ich6 nechechtcho cha chipi
i i iyo yo iyi fyo iY6 neyeyeyo ea ipi
ri A fro ro iri fro ir6 nererero ra ripi
ga igo go aga Sgo ag6 nagagago ga gapi
rul 'ru irgo rgo urg& 6rgo org6 norgorgorgo rgwa rupi
ibho wo ubgo 6bgo ubg6 nobgobgobgo, wa api
pa pa To po' apa Apo ap6 napapapo pa papi
gu gu igo go ugo 6go og6 nogogogo gwa 9upi
ml 1 IYO yo iyi fyo iY6 neyeyeyo ea ipi w
zwi zwi iZwo Zwo izwi Jzwo iZw6 neZ*eZweZwo zwa zwipi
tsi t8i itso tso itsi Itso its6 netsetsetso tsa tsipi
ma a io 0 aya Ayo ay6 nayayayo a api
ta tu itgo tgo utgo 6tgo otg6 notgotgotgo tgwa tupi
mo, mu momu ulao mo umo 6mo om6 nomomomo ma mupi

The Emphatic Forms of the Personal Pronoun.
64. The Emphatic forms of the Pronoun are more frequently used for persons than for things, e,g., inindinofamba, iwe unogara, I go away, thou remainest behind.
They are used
1. When a Pronoun stands without a Verb, e.g.,
wagapind' ani, who has passed by ? ini, I; anodai
ani ? who says so ? iwe, thou.
wagandirob' ani ? who has beaten me ? lye, he.
2. In expressions, such as, dost thou mean thyself?
in such cases iye is placed before the Emphatic; iyeini, dost thou mean me? iyeiwe, dost thou
mean thyself ? iye issu, iye iwe, &c.
3. In expressions, it is I, it is thou, &c. ; in these cases
d (instead of di) is put before the Emphatic ; dini, diwe, diye, it is I, thou, he ; diye mambo?
is he the chief ? diye, it is he; dirgo rugwaro ?
is it a book ? dirgo, it is; dizwo ? is it this ?
dizwo or dizwozwo, it is this ; diwo Madswiti ?
are they Matabele ? diwo, they are; diwo amai wako ? is she thy mother ? diwo. she is ; ditso
imbutsi ? are they goats ? ditso, they are.
diwe Shogogwa, art thou Shogogwa ? dini Shogogwa,
I am Shogogwa.
B. In the Negative Sense.
65. Expressions, such as, it is not I, it is not thou, &c., can be rendered in a twofold manner.
1. By putting
a. the Negative a ; b. the Prefixal Pronoun ; c. the
Negative si; d. the Substantive Verb ri (be) ;
e. the Emphatic Pronoun.
Ex.: a-ndi-si-ri-ni (ni = ini), it is not I.
a-u-si-ri-we (we iwe), it is not thou.
a-a-si-ri-ye (ye = iye), it is not he.
a-ti-si-ri-ssu (ssu = issu), it is not we.
a-mo-si-ri-mi (mi = imi), it is not you.
a-wa-si-ri-wo (weo = iwo), it is not they.

a-ri-si-ri-ro, rawagatora, it is not that which he has
taken (e.g., the knife, banga).
a-ru-si-ri-rgwanku, it is not mine (rugwako, spoon).
a-tsi-si-ri-tsengombe, they are not of an ox (tsinyanka,
the horns).
2. By the idiom, whose general formula is a-zwa-ti zwi-ri-zwo = a-zwi-ri-zwo = it is it not.
The formula consists of : a. the Negative a; b. the Verb qguti, say, do, in the Imperfect tense; e. the Prefixal Pronoun; 4-. the Substantive Verb ri ; e. the Emphatic Pronoun.
Examples: andati ndirini, it is not I.
awati uriwe, it is not thou.
at' ariye, it is not he, she.
aat' arimambo, he is not the chief.
atati tirissu, it is not we.
amati morimi, it is not you.
awati wariwo, it is not they.
ausiribgo 5tati, it is not a bow.
= awati uriatati.
66. After na = and, with, the Emphatic Pronouns are used for persons, but the Possessive form for things.
neni, newe, naye, with me, thee, him; nessu or naissu nemi, nawo, with us, you, them.
nawo, nayo, nacho, nazwo, nayo, natso, &c., with it, with ,them; e.g., wauya nacho, he brought it (lit. he came with it).
67. Four principal forms of Demonstrative Pronouns are in ,use (I, II, III, IV, columns 6, 7, 8, 9).
The forms of column 6 signify this, those of column 7 signify that, and those of column 8 signify that yonder.
The forms in column 9 are used, when this is connected ,with that, or vice versa.
e.g., 6ku iyi, this fowl; aku iyo, that fowl; 5ku iy6, that fowl yonder ; aku iyi neyeyeyo, this fowl and that one; bango iro nererero, that pole and this one.

When it is meant that the object which stands in the second place is at a distance, then the form in column 8 is put after that in column 9, e.g., gomno iri nererero ir6, this hill arnd that one yonder.
Expressions in the Locative case, such as "in the house here," "towards the house here," "at the house here," we rendered by : muno mumba, guno gumba, pano- pamba, or umba omo, gumba oko, pamba ape.
Yet when the emphasis rests on this, then it is rendered by : muneyi mumba, guneyi gumba, panegi pamba, dirangitse mupi mumba magafira she, show me the house in which theinduna has died.
zwinomutsia umba mosse, it is hot in the whole house (mu in zwinomutsia is the Locative object) (lit. it is inside hot,. i.e., in the house); unopadswaira padanka,. you are sweeping at the cattle kraal (pa in unopadswaira is the Locative object).
68. Here, there, yonder, he, she, it is, they are, can be rendered in a twofold way :
1. By putting the Demonstrative Pronouns I, H1, I1 beforeand after the Noun, e.g., ugo monu uyo, here is the man ; itso inson itso, her3 are the elephants; ay6;
mabiza ay6, yonder are the horses.
2. By repeating the Demonstrative Pronoun without theNoun, uyo-u1o, here he is : icho-icho, there it is;
its6-its6, yonder they are.
1. As Subject-(Nominative).
A. In the Affirmative Sense.
69. Rule.-When the Relative Pronoun who, which, that is~ used as Subject, then it is the same as the Prefixal Pronoun, e.g., monu anofamba, a man who walks away (lit. a man, hewalks away) ; insgwe dare rinorira, hear the bell, which rings (lit. hear the bell, it rings); insgwe dare rinowashebetsa warungu rinoti awadshge, hear the bell for dinner (lit. hear the bell, which them calls the gentlemen, it says, let them eat) ; monu wagaba wagambata, they have seized the native who has stolen (lit. the native, he has stolen, they have seized him).

Note 1.-By adding to the chief clause the Indefinite Pronoun d joined to the Emphatic, the Relative clause becomes .clearer.
do may take the place of the Indefinite Pronoun joined to the Emphatic.
Ex.: Idswiti ragangaramira pamromino pengoro, ragaba, the
Matabele who stood in front of the wagon has
been stealing.
Clearer.: Idswiti ragaugaramira pamromo pengoro
diro ragaba or doragaba.
Note 2.-When the Subject of the chief clause is< different from that of the Relative clause, the chief clause is to be .converted from the Active voice to the Passive.
Ex.: Monu wagaba, wagambata (Active), monu wagaba
die wagabatgwa, the native, who has stolen, has
been seized.
arabga eagaba, diyo eagatisa, the old man, who has
stolen, has run away.
warungu wanoribate biza ragatisa, the white men
catch the horse, which has run away ; biza ragaratisa diro rinobatgwa nawarungu, the horse, which has run away, has been caught by the
white men.
wanotisa dowanobatgwa, those, who run away are
caught; imbafa, eawansa, deasunqirgwa pabango,
the thief, who hid himself, was tied to a pole.
Note 3.-To emphasize the Relative clause still more, a Demonstrative Pronoun with or without the Indefinite Pronoun is put after the chief clause ; e.g., wanu, wanezwobata. .dowanezwotusgwa diwaiya, natives that work well, get well paid; midswairo, eaganagisa diyo eagadsa iyaiya, the brooms, which were very good, have been burnt ; chirubi chagaguurgwa anemepo dicho chagaoira passi chiya, the top bundle (of the roof), which has been blown away by the wind, has fallen down;
-dimuro ragarassiga, diro ragaoniwa dirori, the hatchet, which was lost, has been found.
Note 4.-This Demonstrative Pronoun may sometimes be translated by "the -very," especially when it stands before the

Relative clause, e.g., dotsiya, itso tsandinofitsa, those are the very ones (cows) which I herd ; dertya, randagagurangita that is the very one (knife, banga) which I have shown. you.
2. In the Dative, Accusative, Locative ease, and in connection.
with a Preposition.
a. In the Dative and Aecusative ease.70. Rule.-In sentences, in which the Relative Pronoun occursin the Dative or Accusative case, the forms of it, given in column 10, are used.
Ex.: nganga, eandinoziwa diyo irorgwansiwa, the doctor,
whom I know, is sick p amai waindangad dowagafa, the mother, whom IL loved, is dead; wanu wandinoona dowanorgwassu ? the natives,.
whom I see, are they fighting ? moshonga wamonomga, unowawassu ? is the medicine, which you drink, bitter ? Idswiti ratagareba rinofiro umba maro, the Matabele, whom we have beaten, isdying in his hut; rukoba rgwatinoyambuka rusere, the river, which we cross, is- full ; unoriziwa biza ranku rawachireba riya ? do you know my horse, about whieh they are talking ?
biza ranku riya rawauchireba~, ragarassiga, my horse, about which you were speaking, has been lost; gambutsi gaya gatinobays dogagaonda, the little goat, which we slaughter, is thin ; monu.
uya, wawauchireba die anotinetsa, the man, of whom you were speaking,- annoys us ;. sadsa rapora dorandodshga dirori, should I eat cold porridge ?' (lit. porridge, which has got cold, is- it the one,.
which I should eat ?).
b. In the Locative case.
71. Bule.-In sentences, in which the Relative Pronoun occurs in the Locative case, the Locative Pronoun ma, "in, which," "where" ; gwa, "to which," "where to" ; pa, "at which, where at," are used.
Ex.: diratitse mosha mawagafiro umrungu, show me the
kraal in which the white man has died..

Note 1.-In such cases the Prepositions mo, gu, pa may be placed even before the Noun ; diratitse mimosha mawagafiro umrungu.
iendo gumosha gwatinende issu, go to the kraal, where we are going to.
amopaziwi pamosha pawagere ? do you not know the kraal, where they live?
Note 2.-Napo may be put after such Relative expressions, unopaona pamoti parinofurire biza napo ? do you see the tree, near which the horse grazes ?
c. Relative Clauses with a Preposition.
72. Rule.-In Relative clauses with a Preposition the forms of column 10 are used ; the Preposition, however, is placed after the Verb, and the Emphatic Pronoun is joined to it for persons, whilst the Possessive Pronoun is joined to it for things.
Ex.: wanu, watinogara nawo, people, with whom we
live; tsunda eaunosona nayo, a needle, with which you are sewing; tsunda eazwinosonesgwa nayo, a needle, with which is sewn; muutse mokomana wawagasangana naye guti auye gwandiri, tell the boy, whom you have met, that he comes to me; wana, wandinobate basa nawo, dowandinoda, I like the men, with whom I work; ibfuti eandinobfura nayo, diyo eandagapirgwa nababa, the gun, with which I shoot, has been given to me by my father ; monu wawanganchireba uya die anorgwara, the man, about whom you were speaking, is sick; biza riya riya doram'noreba riya, the horse, that is it, which you are speaking about; dozwamonoreba zwiya, that is it, what you are speaking about;
chamam'chireba chiyi? about what were you
speaking? (lit. what you spoke, what is it ?).
ohachichirebge chiyi ? what has been spoken? =
gwaguchirebgeyi ? gurima guyaguya gwaguchirebga guya, there was a talk about ploughing; dineendiro tunumbi tgwanku, dotgwandineendiro tguya, I go for my little things, that's it, what I
go for.

3. Relative Clauses with a Negative.
a. Relative Clauses with a Negative, the Relative Pronoun of
which stands in the Nominative.
73. Rule.-The Negative singa is inserted between the
Relative Pronoun (Prefixal Pronoun) and the Verb root, the final vowel of which is changed into e.
Ex.: Monu asingatise, a man, who does not run away;
bfumo, risingapinse, an asssgai, which is not sharp ; diro hiza risingabfure, that is a horse, which does not kick ; monu asingandide, a man, who does not like me; andinomoda monu asingaribate basa, I do not like a man, who does
not work.
6. Relative Clauses with a Negative, the Relative Pronoun
of which stands in the Accusative case, or is governed
by a Preposition.
74. Rule.-When the Relative Pronoun stands in the Accusative case, then the construction is as follows :
1. The Noun.
2. The Pronoun in the Accusative form (column 10).
3. The Prefixal Pronoun.
4. The Negation singa.
5. The root of the Verb with the final vowel changed
into e.
Ex.: Banga randisingade, rassiga, the knife which I do
not like is lost ; imbada eausingaone, the tiger, which you do not see ; wanu wasingabate neni dowandisingade, I do not like people who do not work with me (lit. people, who do not work with me, are those, whom I do not like) ; wanu wandisingabate nawo dowasingandide, people, with whom I do not work, do not like me ; chauneite chiyi ? that you do, what is it ?
andinechandineita, I have nothing to do (lit. 1 am not with what I do); unochageyi ? what do you want ? andinechandinochaga, 1 want nothing (lit. I am not with, what I want) ; unomkumbire

chibagwe chaanacho, you ask him for some mealies, which he has got; unomkumbire chibagwe ohaasina, you ask him for mealies which he has not got (notice si instead of singa) : apana chaasina, there is nothing, that he has not got ; apana paasiri, there is no place where he is not ; uneyiko chandisina, what have you, that I have
75. The following examples will show the use of the ,Interrogative Pronouns :
Inindinani ? who am I? iwe dioani ? who art thou ? Aye diani ? who is he ? ichi chagaitgwa nani ? by whom has this been done ? wagait'ani ichi ? who has done this ?
,unodar'ani ? who says so ? inindinani ? with whom am I ?
Note.-To avoid ambiguity in these expressions inindinani,
who am I, and inindinani, with whom am I, the latter sentence =ay be expressed by: iyendiani wandinaye (lit. he is who, whom I am with him); andina wandinaye osse, I have got nobody at all; issandisani, who are we = dissu wanani; iminadimani = dimiwanani, who are you? iwondawanani, who are they ?
76. Whose, whose is it ?
Chigaro chani ? whose chair ? chake, his chigaro ndichani ? whose chair is it ? dechashe, it is the chief's.
iwe uriwani ? whose (boy) are you ? (who is your master ?).
iwe uriwawanani, whose (people) are you = (who are your masters).
77. The Interrogative Pronouns, as given in the Table, column 11, have the following meaning :
ani = who, inquiring for the person or the name.
pi = which, for description.
inyi = what, for nature or description.

Ex.: Iwe dioani ? who are you ? inishe, I am the
sita rako dioani, what is your name ? (lit. as for
your name you are who ?).
titore ari ipi ? which pot should we take ?
Note.-pi is not to be confounded with the Interrogative particle pi ? where, which takes the Substantive Verb ri before it with the Prefixal Pronouns ; mabiza aripi ? where are the horses ? mabiza api ? which horses ?
Note 2.-Pi takes generally the Indefinite Pronoun do, when standing alone; e.g, uya nomdswairo, bring the broom; doupi ? which one ?
When inquiring: what is this ?" chinyi chichi isused.
chinyi ? what is it ?
"what is that ?" chinyi chicho ?
"what is that yonder ?" chinyi chocho ?
What is a book ? rugwaro ohinyi ? or runansi rugwaro chinyi ? or rugwaro inyi ?
78. When an Interrogative Particle or Pronoun ends with i,. then ko may be added to them. Ex.: Doupi or doupiko,
(referring to the I or II Class), which man ? aripi or aripiko, where is he; ichi chinyi or chiniyiko ? what is that ? unorebeyiko, what do you say ? bfumo ragaswiga rinyiko ?' when has the impi arrived ?
Verbs take sometimes the syllable SSu as a suffix, in, order to emphasise the question ? wagabayassu have they slaughtered ?
The following are the Prepositions used in Chizwina : 79. Moatsamba, under beneath. moshure, sere, behind.
mondogutsa under, below. pamsoro, above.
mochinga, at the side. passi, under.

monyassi or panyassi, at pansi, gunse, outside.
the side. pamberi, in front.
mogati, within. pamiri, this side, or the other
pagati, between, side.
parutiwi, at the side. pansimnbo, instead of.
mzsri, this side, or the other gussi, beneath, among.
side. gu, guna, to, towards, &c.
mu,mo, urn, muna, in, &c. na, with.
pa, pana, at.
As for their treatment, ef.n. 38, 40.
mu, mo, uMn, in, into; gu, to, towards ; pa, at, are the forms for Nouns.
muna guna, pana, those for:
1. Some Nouns, such as baba, amai, cf.n. 15, page 11.2. Proper Names of Persons.
3. Adjectives.
4. Pronouns.
5. Numerals.
6. Expressions, which take the place of Adjectives
Ex.: umba or momba, in the house; mulari, in the pot.
Note.-Substantives, the Prefix of which commences with a vowel, drop this vowel, when used with mo, gu, pa.
momba, in the house (mo-imba) ; gumba, to the house (gu-imba); pamba, at the house (pa-imba); gunashe, to the chief ; panashe, at the chief.
muneyi umba, in this house (muneyi = muna-iyi).
panaUdebge at Udebge; aripaneurn, he is at the big one (chief, ishe).
panawanamazimba, at those, who have authority;
miunawaganagisa, in the good ones; iripanorgwagurussgwa, it is (the goat, imbutsi) at the cleaned (reeds, rutsunga).
gu, guna, signifies: to, into, towards, from, among, on, up.
pa, pana, signifies : at, in, over, on, through, &c.

80. These forms are used to indicate the place, kraal, country, district, of a paramount chief, e.g., maMtoko, in Motoko's kraal; gwaMangwende, to Mangwende's place; paChendamora, at Chpndamora's kraal.
Na signifies:
1. with, amai wagauya nomokomana, the mother has come with the boy.
2. by, of, warobga nawarungu, they were beaten by the white men *; wagafa nensara, they have died of hunger.
3. on, tagaenda neratatu (zuba), we have gone on the third day ; waenda neipi insira, on which path did they go ? unenda namakumbo, do you go on foot ?
4. along, watebera norukoba, they followed along the river.
Note.-Our Prepositions are in many cases expressed by Verbs, simple, either in their Objective form, or by a circumlocution.
e.g., gusedetsa, to bring near; gusudurutsa, to take away from; miti eagatsigwa eagakombere mba, trees have been planted around the house (lit. trees have been planted, they surround the house) ; dimirire, waitJfor me.
81. Examples on the use of Prepositions :
Issa moatsamba medara, put it under the bed; tande ngombe irisere gwemba, drive the ox away, which is behind the house; mogati meshisha bfumo ragaswiga, the impi arrived at the middle of the spring; ragaenda mogati meehirimo, and went sway at the middle of the summer; dinogupa banga pamsoro perembu, I give you a knife besides the calico ; moga tsishinshi tsirimiri gorukowa, there is a lot of game beyond the river; atsipo guneno miri corukowa, there is none this side of the river.

Active Voice.
lioniive: gu-sunga, to bind.
imperative: 2. Person, Singular: sunga, bind.
2. Person, Plural: sungai, bind ye.
Present Tense.
82. di-no-sunga, I bind. ti-no-sunga, we bind.
u-no-Sun ga,. thou bindst. mo-no-sunga, you bind.
a, or u no-sunga, he binds. wa-no-sunga, they bind. Prefixes: Prefixes:
mo, U-no-sunga, it binds. mi, i-no-sun ga, they bind..
chi, chi-no-sunga, ,,zwi, zwi-no-sunga,
i, i-no-sunga, ,,tsi, tsi-no-suaga,
ri, ri-no-sun ga, ,,Ma, a-no-sunga,
gal ga-no-sun ga.,, tu, tii-no-sunga,
in, ru-no-sunga, ,,Ma a ,o sung,,,
61, O-no-snnga, ti s
pa, pa-no-sunga, gu, gl.-no-sunga,
Present Past Tense.
83. d-a-sunga, I bind now, I t-a-sunga, we hind now, we
bound. bound.
w-a-sunga, thou bindest m-a-sunga, you bind now, you
now, thou boundest. bound.
w-a-sunga, he binds. now, w-a-sunga, they bind now,
he bound. they bound.
Prefix: Prefix:
mo, w-a-sunga, it binds mi, e-a-sunga, they bind,
now, it bound. now, they bound.
chi, cli-a-sunga, it binds zwi,.zW-a-sunga,, they
now, it bound. bind now, they bound..

Prefix: Prefix:
i, e-a-sunga, it binds tsi, ts-a-sunga, they bind
now, it bound, now, they bound.
ri, r-a-sunga, it binds ma, a-sunga, they bind
now, it bound, now, they bound.
ga, g-a-sunga, it binds tu tgw-a-sunga, they
now, it bound, bind now, they bound.
ru, rgw-a-sunga, it binds ma, a-sunga, they
now, it bound. tsi, ts-a-sunga binl
.0, w-a-sunga, it binds now, they bound.
now, it bound.
pa, p-a-sunga, it binds
now, it bound.
gu, gw-a-sunga, it binds
now, it bound.
84. d-anga-sunga, I was t-anga-sunga, we were bindbinding. ing.
w-anga-sunga, thou wast m-anga-sunga, you were
binding, binding.
w-anga-sunga, he was w-anga-sunga, they were
binding, binding.
Irefix : Prefix :
mo, w-anga-sunga, it was mi, e-anga-sunga, they
binding, were binding.
chi, ch-anga-sunga, it zwi,zw-anga-sunga, they
was binding, were binding.
i, e-anga-sunga, it was tsi, ts-anga-sunga, they
binding, were binding.
ri, r-anga-sunga, it was ma, a-anga-sunga, they
binding, were binding.
ga, g-anga-sunga, it was tu, tgw-anga-sunga, they
binding, were binding.
iru, rgw-anga-sunga, it ma, J a-nga suna
was binding. tsi, ts-angas ga
5, w-anga-sunga, it was they were binding.
pa, p-anga-sunga, it was
gu, gw-anga-sunga, it
was binding.

Present Perfect Tense.
8S5. d-a-ga-sunga, I have t-a-ga-sunga, we have bound.
bound. m-a-ga-sunga, you have
w-a-ga-sunga, thou hast bound.
bound. w-a-ga-sunga, they have
w-a-ga-su 'nga, he has bound.
]Prefix: Prefix:
mo, w-a-ga-sunga, it has mi, e-a-ga-sunga, they
bound. have bound.
chi, oh-a-ga-sunga, it has zwi, zw-a-ga-sunga, they
bound. have bound.
i, e-a-ga-suuga, it has t8i, t-a-ga-sunga, they
bound. have bound.
ri, r-a-ga-sunga, it has ma, a-ga-suuga, they have
bound, bound.
ga, g-a-ga-sunga, it has tu, tg'w-a-ga-sunga,they
bound. have bound.
ru, 'gw-a-ga-sunga, it ma, ja-ga
has bound. tsi, t--asns
.,w-a-ga-sunga, it has they have bound.
pa, p-a-ga-sunga, it has
*ga, gw-a-ga-sungm, it
has bound.
Pluperfect Tense.
,86. d-a-mvo-sunga, I had t-a-mvo-sunga, we had bound.bound. M-a-mvo-suuga, you had
w-a-mvo-sunga, thou bound.
hadst bound. w-a-mvo-sunga, they had
W-a-rnvo-sunga, be had bound.
L'refix:- Prefix:
mo, W-&.-nvo-sunga,. it mi, e-a-mvo-sunga, they
had bound, had bound.
chi, oh-a-invo-sunga, it zwi, zw-a-mvo.'sunga,
had bound, they had bound.
I, e-a-mo-sunga, it had tsi. t-a-mo-sainga, they
bound. had bound.

Prefix: Prefix
ri, r-a-invo-sunga, it had Ma, a-mvo-sungal they
bound. had bound.
ga, g-a-mvo-sunga, it had tu, tgw-a-mvo-sunga,
bound, they had bound.
in, rgw-a-mvo-sunga, it ma, j A-mvo ,ga
had bound. tsi, f --mv
63, W-a-mvo-snnga, it they had bound.
had bound.
pa, _p-a-mvo-sunga, it had
gu, gw-a-mvo-sunga, it
had bound.
87. Future Tense, like the Present Tense.
Present Potential Mood.
lNote.-Potential Mood expresses possibility.
88. di-nka-sunge, I might ,ti-nka-sunge, we might bind.bind. MO-nka-sunge, you might
u-nka-snnge, thou bind.
mightst bind. wa-nka-sunge, they might
a or u-nka-snnge, he bind.
might bind.
Prefix : Prefix:
mo, u-nka-sunge, it might mi, i-nhAa-sunge, they
bind, might bind.
chi, ohi-nka-sunge, it zwi, zwi-nka-sunge, they
might bind, might bind.
i, i-nka-sunge, it might tsi, tsi-uka-sunge, theybind. might bind.
ri, ri-nka-snnge, it Ma, a-nha-snnge, they,
might bind, might bind.
gal ga-nka-sunge, it tu, tu-nka-sunge, theymight hind, might bind.
ru, ru-nka-sunge, it m, a -nha-sunge,
might bind. tai I tI
r, ui-nka-sunge, it might they might bind.
pa, pa-nha-sunge, it
might bind.
ga, gu-nka-sunge,' it
might bind.

Present Conditional Mood.
N~ote.-The Conditional Mood is used in the principal ,clause of a conditional sentence.
.89. d-a-nga-nd-o-sunga, I t-a-nga-t-o-sunga, we would
would bind, bind.
'W-a-nga-W-O-sunga, M-a-aga-m-o-sunga, you
thou wouldst bind. would bind.
w-a-nga-a-o-sanga, he w-a-nga-W-o-sunga, they
would bind, would bind.
Fsefix .Prefix :
MO, W-a-nga-W-o-sunga, mi, e-a-nga-e-o-sunga,
it would bind, they would bind.
,chi, ch-a-nga-ph-o-sunga, zwi, zw-a-nga-zW-oit would bind. sunga, they would
ii, e-a-nga-e-o-sunga, it bind.
would bind. tsi, ts-a-nga.ts-o-sunga,
iri, r-a-uga-r-o-sunga, it they would bind.
would bind, ma, a-nga-o-sunga, they
ga, g-a-nga-g-o-sunga, it would bind.
would bind. tu, tgW-a-nga-tgW-oUI, rgW-a-nga-rg w-o- sunga, they would
sung, it would bind, bind.
;5, W-a-nga-W-o-sunga, ma, a-nga-o sn
it would bind. tsi, tS-a-nga-tS-o5"
Fa,7 p-a-nga p-o-sunga, it ga, they would bind.
would bind.
zu, gW-a-nga-gW-o-sunga, it would bind.'
Perfect Conditional Mood.
,90. d-a-ga-mga-nd-o-sunga. t-a-ga-nga-t-o-suga. we
I would have bound, would have bound.
W-a-ya-nga-W-o-sunga, m-a-ga-nga-M-o-sunga, you
thou W'ouldst have would have bound.
bound. W-a-ga-nga-W-o-sunga, they
W-a-ga-ng'-a-o-sunga, would have bound.
he would have bound.
Prefix: Prefix:
MOP w-a-ga-nga-w-o-sua- mi, e-a-ga-nga-e-o-sunga,
ga, it would have bound they would have bound.

Prefix: Prefix:
chi, ch-a-ga-nga-ch-o- zwi, zw-a-ga-nga-zw-osunga, it would have sunga, they would
bound, have bound..
i, e-a-ga-nga-e-ob-suu- tsi, ts-a-ga-mya-t-o-gunga, it would have ga, they would have
bound. bound.
ri, 1'-a-ga-nga-r-o-sunga, ma, a-~-g-&osna
it would'have bound. they would havega, g-a-ga-nga-g-o-suu- bound.
ga, it would have tu, tgW-a-gs-tza-tgWbound. o-sunga, they would
in, rgw-a-ga-n ga-rgw- have bound.
0-sunga, it would ma a-ga-*m"-a-o
have bound. tsi, tsagjng-so
6, -a-ga4'ga-W-o-sun- sun ga. .they wo Wd
ga, it would have have bound,
pa, p -a~g-719Aa-po-suflga, it would have
gu, gW-a-ga-nga-gW-osunga, it would have
Final Mood.lNote.-The Final Mood expresses a purpose..
91. di-sunge, that I bind. ti-sunge, that we bind'.
u-sunge, that thou bindst. m O-sunge, that you bind.
a-sunge, that he bind. Wa-sunge, that they bind, Prefix: Prefix:mo, U-suuge, that it bind. mi, i-sunge, that they bind..
chii, chi-sunge, that it zwi, zwi-sunge, that they
. bind. bind.
i, i-sunge, that it, bind.- tsi, tsi-sunge, that they,
ri, ri-sunge, that it bind, bind. '
ga, ga-sunge, that it bind, ma, a-sunge, that they bind.
ru, ru-sunge, that it bin d. tu, tu-sunge,thatthey bind,6, u-sunge, that ft bind. ma,.11 a ta h
pa, pa-sunige, that it bind. tsi, Q~-sunge, tathy
gu, gu-sunge, that it bind. bind.

Exhortative Mood.
92. This Mood is obtained by prefixing a before the Subjunctive Mood, a-di-sunge, let me bind ; a-ti-sunge, let us bind.
The Participle.
93. Note.-The Participle is always used with the Pronominal-Prefix.
94. di-chi-sunga, I binding; u-chi-sunga, thou binding; a-chi-sunga, he binding; ti-chi-sunga, mo-chi-sunga, wa-chisunga, we, you, they binding ; u-chi-sunga, i-chi-sunga, clhichi-sunga, swi-chi-sunga, &c., &c.
Annotations to the Conjugation of the Verb.
95. 1. There are several other forms in use besides the above.
e.g., Imperfect Tense: d-a-ndi-chi-sunga ; d-a-nga-nda-sungs ; d-a-nga-ndi-chi-sunga; d-a-nd-a-sunga.
Pluperfect: d-a-ga-nga-nd-a-sunga; d-a-ga-nga-ndi-chisunga.
Future Perfect: d-a-mvo-mu-gu-sunga.
Problematic Future: di-n-enge-ndi-no-sunga, I may perhaps bind.
Present Tense: di-ri-mu-gu-sunga.
2. di, d = I, me requires an 11 before it for the sake of euphony, when it is preceded by a vowel; e.g., unondida, you like me; dangandosunga, I would bind.
3. do40 is a contraction of di-no, and can be used for the Present Tense, but more frequently for the Future; it is also often used for the Subjunctive, dosunga = disunge? should I bind ?
4. Verb roots, which commence with e or i, change the no to ne, dineita = I do; dineenda = I go; insgwa, hear, either drops the i, or it inserts s before it, dinosinsgwa, ] hear, or dinonsgwa.
5. The final a of the Verb root is commonly changed into O, when followed by an o sound, dinorobo mokomana, I beat the boy ; when it is followed immediately by i, it is contracted with it into e, dinobaye mbutsi, I slaughter a goat; when it is

fooliwed by a Noun, the Prefix of which contains an j (mi, i, and ri class with hidden Prefix, tsi), it is changed likewise into e, unosinsgwe dare ? do you hear the bell?
6. Digere, disere, direre, dibete are irregular Iniperfects of the Verbs gu-gara, to sit, to dwell ; gu-sara, to be full; gu-rara, to lie ; gu-bata, to take, to touch.
96. Infinitive: gu-sa-sunga, not to bind.
Imperative : 2. Person, Sing.: rego gusunga, do not bind.
2. Person, Plur.: regai gusunga, do ye not bind.
Present Tense.
97. a-ndi-no-sunga, a-ndi-na-gu-sungs, a-ndi-sunge, I do not bind.
a-u-no-sunga, a-u-na-gu-sunga, a-u-sunge, thou dut' not bind.
a-a-no-sunga, a-a-na-gu-sungiL, a-a-sunge, he does not bind.
Present Past Tense.
98. a-nd- a-ti-nd-a-sunga, d-a-ndi-Si-na-gu-sunga,
I do not bind yet. I did not bind.
a-w-a-ti-w-a-sunga, w-a-u-si-na-gu-sunga,
thou dost not bind yet. thou didst not bind.
a-a-t'-i-sunga, w-a-si-na-gu-sunga,
be does not bind yet. be did not bind.
Imperfect Progress-ive Tense.
99. a-nd-anga-sunga, d-anga-ndi-Si-na-gu-sunga, I did not bind.
a-w-anga-sunga, w-anga-u-si-na-gu-sunga, thou didst not bind.
a-w-anga-sunga, w-ang'-a-si-na-gu-sunga, he did not bind.,

Perfect Tense.
100. a-nd-a-ga-sunga, d-a-ga-udi-si-na-gu-sunga, Ihave not
I a-w-a-ga-sunga, w-a-ga-u-si-na-gu-sunga, thou hast not
a-w-a-ga-sunga, w-a-g'-a-si-na-gu-sunga, he has not
Arote.-Also, a-ndi-na-gu-sunga, I have not bound, &c., &e.
Pluperject Tense.
.101; a-nd-a-mvo-sunga, a-nd-a-ti-nd-a-mvo-sunga, a-ndi-naga-mvo-sunga, d-a-mvo-ndi-si-na-gu-sunga, I had not bound.
a-w-a-mvo-aunga, a-w-a-ti-w-a-mvo-sunga, a-u-na-gumvo-sunga, W-a-mvo-u-si-na-ga-sunga, thou hadst not bound.
a-w-a-mvo-sunga, a-a-t'-a-mvo-sunga, a-a-na-gu-mvosunga, w-a-mvo-a-si-na-gu-sunga, he had not bound.
Present Potential Hood.
102. a-ndi-nka-sunge, I might not bind.
a-u-nka-unge, thou mightst not bind.
a-a-nka-sunge, he might not bind.
Present Conditional Mood.
103. a-nd-a-ti nd-a-ndo-sunga, I would not bind.
a-w-a-ti w-a-w-o-sunga, thou wouldst not bind.
a-a-tI a-o-sunga, he would not bind.
Perfect Conditional Mood.
104. d-a-ga-nga-ndi-singa-sunge, I would not have bound.
w-a-p-nga-u-Singa-sunge, thou wouldst not have bound.
w-a-ga-i3ga-a-singa-sunge, he would not have bound.
Final Mood.
105. di-singa-sunge, that I bind not.
U-Singa-sunge, that thou bindst not.
a-shiga-sunge, that he bind not.

106. di-singa-sunge, I not binding; u-singa-sunge, thou not binding; a-singa-sunge,. he not binding.
107. Attention is to be paid to the differences of the Negative in its forms and applications. The Negative is:
1. a in the Indicative, and it then stands invariably before the Prefixal Pronoun, and changes the final a into e, when it drops the no.
2. Si before the Infinitive, e g., mokomana wangatisa wake, inindisinogumroba, the boy ran away, although I did not beat him; dagandisinagumroba, I have not beaten him.
3. singa, in Relative clauses, in the Final Mood, and in the Participle, e.g, banga risingapinse, a knife which is not sharp; usingafambe, do not go away; mokomana anochema, inindisingamrobe, the boy cries, though I do not beat him.
108. Rule .-The Passive Voice is formed by changing the final Vowel a into wa.
Ex.: gufunga, to think; gufungwa, to be thought of.
gubiga, to cook; gubigwa, to be cooked.
guwiga, to hide; guwigwa, to be hidden.
gudana, to call; gudanwa, to be called.
109. Rule II.-Monosyllabic and Vowel Verbs take instead of wa, iwa.
Ex.: guda, to love; gudiwa, to be loved.
guna, to rain ; guniwa, to get wet by rain.
gupa, to give ; gupiwa, to be given.
gunwa, to drink ; gunwiwa, to be drunk.
gunsgwa, to hear; gunsgwiwa, to be heard.
zuumba, to form clay; guumbiwa, to be formed.

guenda, to go; guendewa (e on account of the
preceding e) ; gugoba, to distribute ; gukoa, to light; guroa, to bewitch, follow the same rule; gugobewa (e on account of the preceding 0), to be distributed; gukoiwa, to be Ht; guroiwa,
to be bewitched.
110. Rule 111.-When the Verb root ends with da or ra, g is to be inserted before wa.
Ex.:: gubfunda, to make a knot; gubfundgwa, to be made
a knot.
gutanda, to drive away ; gutandgwa, to be driven
gudimura, to ueat off ; gudimurgwa, to be cut off.
gusurura, to open (a door); gusururgwa, to be
gudaro, to say so; gudargo, to be said so.
111. Rule rV.-Verbs ending in ma change the a into ga, 4the g hardly being heard.
Ex.: gurima, to dig (in the garden); guriMnga, to be dug.
gusema, to hate; gusemga, to be hated (also
Exception: gugama, to milk; gugamiwa, to be milked.
112. Bule ,.-Verbs ending in sa, or ta, insert k before wa.
Ex : gubisa, to take away ; gubiskwa, to be taken away;
gubats, to hold, seize.; gubatkw, to be held,
118. From the simple form of the Verb, Derivative forms are obtained by changing the end vowel a into ira, era, Objective 'Verbs; iga, ega, Subjective Verbs; 188, egp, Causative VerlbM ana, Beciprocal Verbs.

1. Objective Verbs.
114. The form of the Objective Verb is obtained by changing~ the final a into ira, and if the Penultimate is e or 0, and not immediately followed by a, into era.
Ex.: gumira, to wait ; gumirira, to wait for; guenda, togo; guendera, to go for (a thing); guroba,
to beat; gurobera, to beat for (a fault).
115. The Objective Verb is used :
A. To express, that the immediate action of the Verb isdone for a certain purpose, in favour, or to the disadvantage of oneself or another. The Prefixal Pronoun (Accus. col. 3) is. put before the Verb root. This can be expressed. in English in a variety of ways.
116. a. By the Preposition for
Ex.: mobigire sadsa, cook for him porridge;: dinogumirira, I am waiting for thee; diehegere
mdonso, cut a stick for me.
Note 1.-The same form is used in the Passive voice.
Ex.: Nasi tatsivirirgwa nombfumbi, we are shut out
(from doing some work) to-day by the heavy rain; mgana wagafirgwa namai wake, the child was
bereft of its mother.
Note 2.- What for, why is expressed by the same form.
Ex.: unomrobereyi ? why do you beat him = for what
are you beating him ? (lit.. unomroberaiyi (inyi),.
you beat him for what ?).
Note 3.-Sometimes the direct object stands in the Locative case, where we should expect the Accusative.
e.g., sutre goni, open the door; isururire pagoni, open the door for it (imboga,. the dog), (lit.. open for it at the door)..

117. b. By the Prepositions against, after, upon.
Ex.: Tsisaririre (ngombe), close (the door) against them
(the cattle); tinozwitsivirira Madswiti, weprotect ourselves against the Matabele; wagandipotsera namatombo, they were throwing stones after me; ruzwingo rgwagamoira, the stone wall
fell upon him.
118. B. Before a Locative case, to indicate the direction in, at, to, into, towards. The Simple form is used, to express the motion from the place.
Ex.: Wagafiro umba make, he died in his hut ; waoiro'
umrukoba, he fell into the river ; ngombe eafira paruare, the ox died at the rock ; dinonyira gumosha gwanku, I come to my kraal; dinouya
gumosha gwanku, I come from my kraal.
Note.-If a Relative clause stands in the Locative case, the same form is used.
Ex.: dinoipassure mba eagafiro umrungu, I pull down the
hut, in which the white man died.
119. C. To indicate thepurpose to which something servesof. n. 42.
Ex.: imbia eogumwira, a drinking cup (to drink from).
amiro eogugamiro mokaka, a milking vessel.
ari eogubigira, a pot, to cook in; ari eaunobigira,
a pot, in which you cook; ari eaunobiga nayo,
a pot with which you cook.
120. Note.-If the direct action of the Verb is done for the benefit of the Subject, the Reflexive Pronoun zwi, self is put before the Verb root.
Ex.: unovimir'ani ? for whom do you hunt ? dinozwivimira, I hunt for myself; wanozwivimira, they
hunt for themselves.
2. The Reflexive Form of Verbs.
121. The Reflexive Pronoun zWi is put before the root of" the Simple Verb.
Ex.: Wangazwiuraya, he has killed himself (has com-mitted suicide).

3. Causative Verbs.
122. Causative Verbs show that the action of the Verb is caused by a person or thing.
Ex.: Gufamba, to go: gufambisa, to make to go.
guchema, to cry; guchemnesa, to make to cry.
insara inondiondesa, the hunger makes me thin
(guonda, to be thin).
123. In general the Causative form is obtairied by changing the final a into isa, or into esa, if the second last syllable contains O or e.
Ex.: Guda, to love; gudisa, to make to love.
gutora, to take; gutoresa, to make to take.
guchega, to cut; guchegesa, to make to cut.
124. Some examples of exceptions:
Gupera, to come to an end; gupetsa, to finish.
gusedera, to come near ; gusedetsa, to bring near.
gorema, to be heavy ; guremetsa, to make heavy.
gusara, to be full; gusadsa, to make full.
gusega, to laugh; gusetsa, to make to laugh.
gutambira, to accept; gutambitsa, to hand over.
gugwira, to climb up; gugwitsa, to make to climb up.
gukossora, to cough; gukossotsa, to make to cough.
gumira, to stand; gumisa, to make to stand, to stop.
gupinda, to enter; gupinsa, to put in.
gufanana, to resemble; gufananitsa, to compare.
guneta, to be tired ; gunetsa, to make tired.
4. The Intensive Form of the Verb.
125. The Intensive form signifies that a thing is doae with .great care, attention, or exertion ; it is the same form as the Causative, where the latter ends in sa (isa or esa).
Gudisa, to love much, to be fond of.
gusarisa, to be too full, or very full (from gusara, to be full). N.B. gusadsa, to make full.

Ex.: Pungura 6bfu, ari easarisa, take away some meal,
the pot is too full.
ibfuti isaririsa, the guns were resounding loudly.
N.B. guridsa, to make to sound (from gurira, to
Note.-Sometimes the Intensive form is reduplicated.
Ex.: gudisisa, to love very much.
zwaganagisisa, it is very good, nice.
5. The Subjective Verb.
126. This form shows, that a person or thing exists in a state or condition. The form is obtained by changing the final a into iga, or into ega, if the penultimate contains 0 or e.
Ex.: Gurassa, to lose ; gurassiga, to be lost.
ngombe tsagarassiga tsosse, all the cattle got lost.
guwerenga, to count; guwerengega, to be uncountable (to be innumerable).
mnisha aiwerengege, the kraals are innumerable.
gusarura, to open (a door) ; gusaruga, to stand open;
e.g., goni rasaruga, the door stands open.
gumedura, to break off a piece; gumeduga, to get
broken off; e.g., mguetsi wameduga, the moon
has a piece broken off (just after full moon).
gaparura, to tear; guparuga, to be torn; e.g., dshira
raparuga, the shirt is torn, or in shreds.
6. Reciprocal Verbs.
127. Reciprocal Verbs signify reciprocity, and are formed by changing the final a into ana.
Ex.: Gubata, to hold, touch; gubatana, to touch each
gutadisa, to look at; gutadisana, to look at each
Linotadisana, we are neighbours.
imba tsedu Isinotadisana netsenyu, our huts are
opposite to yours.

The Verb guwa, to be:
128. Guwa signifies to become, but it is frequently used for to be.
Ex.: Muro inowe uru, the ealf is (or becomes) big, tall.
mokomana anowo muguru, the boy is (becomes) tall.
iyi miti inowe miguru, these trees are (become) big.
maropa embutsi iyi anowa matetetete, the blood of
this goat is (becomes) thin.
imvura eawe shinshi, the rain became frequent.
129. The Verb to be is in some cases expressed by the auxiliary ri.
Ex.: Dirim'guru, I am tall.
andisirim'guru, I am not tall.
tiriwanu, we are men.
atisiriwanu, we are not men.
Past: dangandirimonu, I was a man.
daugandisirimonu, I was not a man.
Perfect: dagangandirimonu, I have been a man..
aganga'rimonu, he has been a man.
agang'aasirimonu, he has not been a man.
Ex.: Arati ririro, it is not this one = arisiriro.
uya nerimge, arati ririro rank, ririnderomrungu, S bring another one, it is not mine, it belongs to the
white man.
ragaririro ranku, it has been mine.
ragarisiriro ranku, it has not been mine.
rariripo, it was there.
chachiripi ? where was it (ehipanga, the knife).

changachisiripo, it was not there.
zwangazwisinempinyi, they (zwipanga, the knives)
had no handles.
.3. Note.-In the last example the ri is left out.
The Verb to have. 130. Chizwina has no proper Verb for "to have."
The Particle na = and, with is used.
Ex.: Dinamazimba, I have strength (I am with strength).
aanamazimba, he has no strength.
wanebfumo, they have a spear.
tinomoknmana, we have a boy.
monu asinomgatsi, a man, who has no wife.
N.B. The negative in clauses like the last is si.
Past: dangandinemboga, I had a dog.
dangandisinemboga, I had no dog.
Perfect: dagandinorugukwe, I have had a mat.
dagandisinorugukwe, I have not had a mat.
Still and no longer cha.
131. Some Adverbs are used as Auxiliary Verbs in Chizwina,
-such as still and no longer.
Ex.: Dichadshga, I am still eating.
andichadshga, I eat no longer.
dagandichafamba, I was still walking away.
dagandisafambe, I was not walking away anymore.
NB. Still before Nouns and Particles is ohi.

Ex.: Dichirimgana, I am still a child.
andiohirimgana, I am no longer a child~
uchiripano ? are you still here ?
Note the forms : aasisibo, he is not here anymore.
awasisibo, they are not here anymore.
Already-not yet. 132. The Auxiliary Verb guti is used in its Past tense, and the Principal Verb is joined to it.
Ex.: dati-ndofamba, I go already.
andati-adofamba, I do not go yet.
Soon, chimbitso. 133. Soon is expressed by putting chimbitso before the root of the Verb.
Ex.: ChimbitSotsoga, come back soon.
damwochimbitsobudiga umba easara, eaoira m'shure
manku, as soon, as I had left the house, it fell in
behind me.
Continually, guramba.
134. Continually is expressed by the Verb guramba and the Participle of the Verb.
Ex.: Wanoramba wachirima, they plough continually
(go on ploughing).
wanoramba wackikumbira, they are continually
1. Adverbs of Time.
135. These are in Chizwina either Particles or whole, Sentences.
Not long ago, mazuba achirimashoma.
When? rini or riyi?
Long ago, gare, garegare.
Some time ago, awa mazuba.

Some time back, tsawe namge.
Not long ago, mazuba achirimashoma.
Lately, mazuba aat' aoanda.
Quite lately, mhazula ano.
To-day, nasi.
To-morrow, mangwana or wedsa.
The day after to-morrow, gusgwerd wedsa..
Yesterday, nezuro.
The day before yesterday, marimgezuro.
Now, zwina.
Now at once, zuwino zwino.
After some time, tsatsimge namge.
After a considerable time, amazuba.
After a long time, gwawagare.
After a very long time, gwawagaregare.
This year,,naga uno, gore rnb.
Last year, rnagenyie.
This month, mgpietsi uno, mguets 'i urigudenka..
How long ? mazuba mangani ?
A long time, missi mishinshi.
How often, ganganiho.
Only once, pamgechete.
Rarely, gashomanana.
Sometimes, mazuba mam~ge.
Other times, mamge mazuba.
Daily, mazuba osse.
Never,Moruzwa oss9 *4rqe4J W 4
2. Adverbs of lace. L. Interrogative:
136. WhereF pi ? aripi ? where is he ?
To, where to ? pi, or gupi ? uneudoguipi ? where arer you going to ?
In ? mAupi ? gonzo ririmii, what place is the rat in?, At ? papi ? imboga iripapi ? where (at what place) is the dog ? iripapo, paadagaioa it is, where I saw it.

II. Absolute:
187. a. Used without a Verb, uko, there; ukouko, there yonder.
umo, inside; umoumo, (the very) inside.
apa, there (at that place).
apoapo, there (at the place) yonder.
b. Used with a Verb, ko, hare ; po, here (at); mo, inside.
ariko, he is here; aripo, he is here (at the place).
arimo, he is in (side).
c. With a Noun, ariumba, he is in the house.
3. Adverbs of Manner.
188. How ? seyi ?
So, daro (Verb); ita zwagadaro do so!
Like, as, sa; seni = as I; sewe = as you; saye as he; seissu = as we; semi or semio as you; saiwo = .as they.
Enough, zwozWO .; dizwoZWO, it is enough; wangandipe zwinogwana, you gave me enough (lit. you a ve me what is sufficient).
189. Other Adverbs are expressed by:
1. The Verb itself, gubansura, to split lengthwise.
2. A Substantive mith na, gagata namazimba, pull fast (lit. with strength).
8. A Relative clause, dinobata zwaganaga, I work nicely (lit. I work what is nice).
4. The Subjunctive, zunga zwizimbe, tie tight (lit. tie, that it may be strong).
140. And na ; baba nomokomana, father and son.
Botb, and na-na, R3ergombe nembutsi, both, cattle .and goats.

Also, na, anomroba nOm ru, he beats also the big one.
As well as, gunongoti-gati (or zwinongoti-zwati).
Ex.: Wosse wanofa, gunongoti umbfumi, gati rombe,
all die, the rich as well as the poor.
Without is expressed by a Negative Partiqiple.
Ex.: Wagafamba usinogundiutsa, you went away without
telling me.
Either, or, gana-gana.
Ex.: Ite zwaunoda, gana uchidsaire mba, gana
uchisagura momomda, do which you like, either
sweep the house or weed the garden.
Neither, nor, na-na with Negative Verb.
Ex.: Nababa namai awati'wauya, neither the father nor
the mother has come.
Then, at that time dopa.
Ex.: Pameni eagapansura moti dopandagarima, when the
lightning struck the tree, I was then working in
the garden.
In case, that, kunge, gana.
Therefore, dozwa before the Relative Verb.
Ex.: Wangaba, dozwawagabatirgwa, he has stolen, therefore he was taken up.
Because is expressed by the Relative form of the pre-ceding Verb, followed by
1. zwa and the Verb in its tense, or
2. the Infinitive.
Ex.: Andinogonera guona zwandinogu~atsgwa nesiso, I
cannot see, because I am hurt in the eye.
-mapolisa agambatira guba, the policemen have taken
him up, because he has stolen.
When, pa ; mossi, wa ; zuba, ra.
Ex.: Paragazwige bfumo, wagadswa mosha, when the
enemy came, the village was burnt down.
mossi, wawagafa mambo, wanu awati wagarima,
when the king died, people did not work in the

Since, 1. gubflra with Infinitive.
Ex.: gubflra gurgwara gwanku, andichinamazimba, I amD
no longer strong, since I was ill.
2. chingo, cha-bfira with Infinitive.
Ex,-: Chingo chandagabfira guuya, unoramba uchirevetega, you are constantly quarreling, since I came
In order that, guti with the Subjunctive of the Verb.
Ex.: Chinva moshonga, guti upone, drink the medicine,.
in order to get better.
If (whether), gana or guti.
Ex.: Andiziwi gana azwiga, I do not know, whether hehas arrived.
141. Of pain, as in sickness, yowe.
of approbation, eh.
silence I be quiet, ezwo.
of astonishment, maiwe, baba wanku, mgana ganiwe.
truly, certainly, zwogwadi.

A, as a prefixal pronoun for the third Big 22, 46.
person singular, 81, 68, 8. Bishi, 24, 48.
-, as a negative in the indicative Black, 22, 46, and 28, 47.
mood, 54, 107, 1 Blue, 22, 46.
-, nouns, the root of which commences Blunt, 22, 46.
with a belong to the i class, 10, Big, 44, 80, 2.
14, 1.
Aasisibo, he is not here any longer, Causative verbs, 58, 3.
62, 131. Class of substantives, Chi-Zwi, 10, 13..
Above, 48, 79. -, I-Tsi, 10,14-17.
Accent, 6, 8, 9. -, Ri-M 12, 18.
Adjectives, 22 46-57. -, Ga-Ta, 13, 19, 20.
-, list of, used in ChiZwina, 22,46. G- Ma,13 21
-, used as epithets, 28, 47-51. -, R ( Tsi, 13,21.
-, used as predicates, 25, 52, 53. -, O-U, 14, 22.
- comparative of, 26, 54---56. -, Pa, 14, 28.
-, superlative of 27, 57. -, Gu, 14, 24-27.
-, the want of, how supplied, 24, 50, Consonants, 5, 2.
Adverbs, 61, 181-139. D, nouns the root of which commences
-, treated in the genitive, 21, 44. with d belong to the ri class, 12, 18.
Alive, 22, 46, and 23, 48. Deep, 22, 46, and 23, 48.
All, 19, 35. Derivative verbs, 55, V, 118-120.
Alone, 24, 49. Digidigi, 22, 46, and 23, 48.
Along, 44, 80, 4. DiZwo, it is this, 84, 64, 3.
Already, 62, 182. Double vowels, how pronounced, 4, B.
Also, 65 140. DS, how pronounced, 5, 7.
Aman, plural, watsimai, 11, 15. 5, b. DSw, how pronounced, 5. 7.
-, construes the verb in the plural,
11, 6. EI, 66, 141.
A mnbuya, plural, watimbuya, 11, 15,5,b. Either-or, 65, 140.
-, construes the verb in the plural, Enough, 64, 188.
11, 6. EZwo, 66, 141.
And, 64, 140.
Another, 29, 59, note. F, nouns, the root of which commences
As well-as, 65, 140. withf belong to the ri class, 12,18.
At, 43, 79, and 68, 186. Few, 22, 46.
B, nouns, the root of which commences G, how pronounced, 5, 7.
with b belong to the ri class, 12,18. -, nouns, the root of which commences BRaba wanku, 66,141. with g belong to the ri class, 12,18.
lie to, 60. 128, 129. Ganiwe, 66 141
Because, 65, 140. Genitive of nouns, possessive pronouns,
Behind, 42, 79. &c., 15-19.
Below, 42, 79. Gobfu, 22, 46, and 23, 48.

Guna, 43, 79. -, adverb, 29, 59, note.
Guru, 22, 46, and 23, 48. Pa class 14 8.
Gwa 38, 71. Pa, at which, 38, 71.
GwaJwogwaZwo, 28, 57, note. Pami, 24, 48.
Pana, 43, 79.
Hard, 22, 46. Passive voice of the verb, 54, 108-112.
Have to, 61, 130. PeNGyu, 23, 48.
He, 31 62, 3, and 34 64, 1. Pi ? where ? 42, note.
He is here, 64, 137, b. ? which ? 41, 77.
Here, 36, 68, 1, 2, and 64, 137, b. Prefixes of substantives, 6, 10. High 22 46 Prepositions, 42-44.
How ? 64, 138. Pronouns, 31--42.
-, many ? 22, 46.
R, nouns, the root of which commences I, hidden prefix of the i class, 10, 14, 2. with r belong to the ri class, I = di, 31, 63, 1. 12, 18.
-, ini, 34,64, 1. Reciprocal verbs, 59, 6.
If, 66, 140. Red, 22, 46.
In case that, 65, 140. Reflexive form of verbs, 57, 2.
In order that, 66, 140. Ri-Ma class, 12, 18.
Instead of, 43, 79. Root of the substantives, 6, 10.
Intensive form of the verb, 58, 4. R. J Ma class, 13, 21 Inyi? = what? 41, 77. T class, 13,i21
It is not I, thou, he, &o., 34, 65, 1, 2.
8, nouns, the root of which commences
Ko, 42, 78. with s belong to the ri class, 12,18.
Sh, nouns, the root of which commences Large, 22, 46, and 23, 48. with sh belong to the i class,
l-fu, 22, 46, and 23, 48. 12, 18.
Like, 64, 138. Short, 22, 46.
Little, 22, 46. SiA not, 54, 107, 2.
-, not, 24, 51, 2, and 25, 53, 1. M, nouns the root of which commences Singa, not, in relative clauses, 40, 73,
with m belong to the i class; 10,14. and 54,107, 3.
Ma, in which, 38, 71. -, not, in the final mood and participle,
Many, 22, 46. 54,107,2.
Mu, muna, 43, 79. Since 66 140
Much, 22, 46. 8o, 6, 188.
Soft, 2, 46.
N, nouns, the root of which commences Soon, 62 133.
with n belong to the i class, 10, 14. Ssu, 42, 78. Na 44, 80, and 64 140. Still, 61, 131.
Naked, 22, 46, and 28, 48. Stout, 22, 46.
Negatives, remarks on them, 54, 107, Subjective verbs, 59, 5.
1, 2,3.
Neither-nor, 65, 140. T, nouns, the root of which commences
New, 22, 46. with belong to the i class, 10, 14.
No longer, 61, 131. Tall, 22, 46.
Nouns, 10, 14. Tema, 23, 48.
Numerals, 28-30. Teteete, 23,48.
Thee, 81, 63,2.
O, nouns, the root of which commences Then, 65, 140.
with a belong to the i class, 10, 14. There, 64, 137, a. O-L class, 14, 22. Therefore, 65, 140.
Objective verbs, 56, 1. Thick, 22, 46.
Old, 22, 46. Thin, 22,46.
On 44, 80. Thou, 34, 64, 1.
Only, adjective, 24, 48. "The very," 37, note.

U, nouns, the root of which commences Where? 63, 136.
with u belongs to the i class, 10, 14. White, 22, 46.
Uncooked, 22, 46. Whose? whose is it? 41, 76.
Under, 42, 79. Why? 66, 116.
Unripe, 22, 46. With, 44, 80, 1.
Without, 65, 140.
Verhs, 45-69.
Very-very much, 28, 57, note. Yellow, 22, 46.
Vowels, 4, 1. Yowd, 66, 141.
-, how pronounced ? 4, 6.
Z, nouns, the root of which commencesWhat for 66, 116, note. with z belong to the 4'i class, 12,18.
What is this ? 42, note 2. Zw, pronunciation, 6, 7, note.
When? 62, 185, and 65 140. Zwoqwadi, 66, 141.