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The Factors that Influence Motivation, Mindset, and Life Satisfaction

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The Factors that Influence Motivation, Mindset, and Life Satisfaction
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Wuenschell, Emily R.
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People's goal achievement is impacted by whether they believe their intellectual and cognitive abilities can grow with time and effort vs. that they are fixed (a concept known as mindset; Dweck, 2006). The growth mindset means believing intelligence and abilities are malleable and is associated with increased goal achievement, whereas the fixed mindset, belonging to those that believe intelligence is a stagnant attribute, is associated with decreased goal achievement. The aim of this study was to assess whether aligning smaller, academic goals with a students' life goals through STEAM training increases growth mindset, motivation, and life satisfaction. Study participants who completed the training had reported significantly higher levels of trait intrinsic motivation than control group participants, and the effect was moderately large (d = 0.39). However, they reported significantly lower state intrinsic motivation, and this was a very large effect size (d = 0.91). The data also reveal a moderately-large difference between conditions in academic motivation (d = 0.38, p = .052), with STEAM training associated with higher academic motivation than controls. There were no statistically significant group differences in growth mindset or life satisfaction. Taken together, these findings suggest that undergoing STEAM training was not very enjoyable compared to completing Big Five personality scales, but that the result of STEAM training was more general and academic intrinsic motivation. ( en )
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Awarded Bachelor of Science, magna cum laude, Major: Psychology, and Bachelor of Science, cum laude, Major: Criminology, on May 8, 2018.
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College or School: College of Liberal Arts and Sciences
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Advisor: Martin Heesacker. Advisor Department or School: Psychology

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University of Florida
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Copyright Emily R. Wuenschell. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Running head: MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 1 The Factors that Influence Motivation, Mindset, and Life Satisfaction Emily Wuenschell University of Florida

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 2 Abstract People's goal achievement is impacted by w hether they believe their intellectual and cognitive abilities can grow with time and effort vs. that they are fixed ( a concept known as mindset ; Dweck, 2006). The g rowth mindset means believing intelligence and abilities are malleable and is associated wi th increased goal achievement, whereas the fixed mindset belonging to those that believe intelligence is a stagnant attribute is associate d with decreased goal achievement The aim of this study was to assess whether aligning smaller, academic goals with a students' life goals through STEAM training increases growth mindset, motivation, and life satisfaction. Study p articipants who completed the training had reported signific antly higher levels of trait intrinsic motivation than control group participants, and the effect was moderately large ( d = 0.39) However, they reported significantly lower state intrinsic motivation, and this was a very large effect siz e ( d = 0.91). The data also reveal a moderately large differen ce between conditions in academic motivation ( d = 0.38, p = .052), with STEAM training associated with higher academic motivation than controls. There were no statistically significant group differences in growth mindset or life satisfaction. Taken together, these findings suggest that undergoing STEAM training was no t very enjoyable compared to completing Big Five personality scales, but that the result of STEAM training was more general and academic intrinsic motivation. ( 201 words)

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 3 The Factors that Influence Motivation, Mindset, and Life Satisfaction Growth Mindse t Carol Dweck's theory of intelligence is based on the idea that you can cultivate knowledge through belief and effort. Her fixed versus growth mindset theory has inspired a successful book Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, that has been cited by over 6000 articles and papers (Dweck, 2006) Dweck explain ed that whether a person believes that they can directly affect their own intelligence and abilities dictates whether or not they actually can. People with a fixed mindset b elieve that qualities and capabilities are set and cannot be improved. This mindset leads to people feeling as though they have to prove themselves again and again. On the other hand, people who embrace a growth mindset understand knowledge as expandable. As a byproduct of th i s growth mindset, people are often motivated to constantly develop instead of reassuring themselves and others that they are capable (Dweck, 2006, pp. 6 7). This theory has spawned studies focused on bu sinesses, relationships, and schools. This study is particularly focused on how a growth mindset influences motivation and life satisfaction for academic goals and in academic settings. Students with a growth mindset about intelligence had better academic achievement than students with a fixed mindset In a study of math students, starting in the 7 th grade and continuing f or the next two years, Blackwell, Trzesniewski, and Dweck (2007) found that those with a growth mindset increased their grades over the time period while the grades of those with a fixed mindset actually decrease d The authors attributed these results to a couple of factors found in the students with a growth mindset. These students more often had a goal of learning, not just receiving a good grade. They were also more likely to believe that the effort they put into studying an d learning would promote improved ability.

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 4 Persistence also differed between the groups as c hildren with a fixed mindset were more likely to withdraw, give in, cheat, and view their abilities negatively than children with a growth mindset Students who exhibit a growth mindset are also more likely to persist in the face of adversity. Dweck (2009) described the impact of a growth mindset athletes developing through childhood and adolescence Dweck d escribe d the major difference between the two mindsets as those with a fixed mindset want to look good while those with a growth mindset want to get better. This difference is crucial when considering success in the long run. The children wh o have developed a growth mindset and believe that their talent is something that can develop and increase are more likely to be better equipped to deal with setbacks. These children tend to see failure as a challenge and a chance to learn in stead of a shameful end of the road. There is also support for a relationship between a growth mindset and an overall contentment with life. A study conducted on gifted Chinese students considered the difference between healthy and unhealthy perfectionism and its connection to happiness and life satisfaction. The authors reported that the unhealthy perfectionists, while scoring the highest, were the unhappiest and the lea st satisfied with their li ves These students also had a higher rate of fixed mindsets. On the other hand, the healthy perfectionists, who also scored very high, were the happiest, most satisfied, and had the highest rate of growth mindsets. (Chan, 2012, p. 231) This study suggests that the students who want to learn and grow are happier with their academic success than the students whose goal it was to do well and complete the goal. It seems the most pleasure comes for those who are successful in their goal of knowledge than those who are successful at making high marks.

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 5 As there is evidence of a positive connection between growth mindset and academic motivation, overall life satisfaction, and success, this study represents an attempt to cultivate this mindset in undergraduate populations. STEAM Analysis Dr. Brian P. Higley began working with individuals and organizations in 1999 to promote education and excellence. Stemming from his research, Higley has created a training program as g uide for people to gain the "ability to get meaningful things done with high levels of quality on or before the deadline and to facilitate that in others." (Higley, 2014, para. 2) Higley's STEAM training consists of 7 steps, each tailored to enhance a pers on's control of their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. This control is cultivated by focusing on each of the five letters in the acronym STEAM: social support, time availability, accessibility, enjoyment, and motivation. The 7 step training that Dr. Higley has copyrighted focuses on direct techniques for analyzing one's own behavior and modifying it to be more efficient. The training starts with a questionnaire about the participant's attention to important and less important activities. Next, part icipants are asked to consider their primary roles and priorities. Participants then check the allocation of their time spent on activities, important and not, throughout the day. Step 4 is for goal setting, learning to make and complete appropriate goals. The next two sections focus on being physically and psychologically able to complete your goals through positive health planning and compassionate self talk. The final step in the STEAM training is reflecting on the goals impact on future. The fo cus of STEAM training on goal creation and manipulating one's environment makes it a n appropriate intervention for this study Higley 's approach inform s and aid s participants in their effort s to streamline and focus their goal creation process and to ensure time

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 6 is being allocated appropriate ly This intervention can be applied to all kinds of goals including academic, personal, and business goals Motiv ation Motivation is defined as the reason a person act s in a particular way. According to Dennis, Phinney, and Chuateco (2005) th e motivation that students feel to go to college, complete their work, and participate in their college careers is more important than external factors such as pa rental expectation s Their study focused on adjustment to college life among ethnic minority, first generation college students They found that the most significant factor s in college outcomes ( defined as college commitment, GPA, and college adjustment) were personal/career motivation and the lack of peer support. Their personal/career motivation subscale is based on the personal interest, career attainment, and intellectual curiosity. Dennis et al failed to find a significant correlation between the family expectation drive motivation scale an d any college outcomes. Thus inspiring intrinsic general and academic motivation in college students through the use of STEAM training became the focus of this study Self determination theory is a promising source for measuring general intrinsic and academic motivation Black and Desi (2000) conducted a study focused on whether the reason students said they selected a course predicted the outcomes of that course. The authors found that students who reported cho o s ing to take the class for relatively autonomous reasons had higher perceived competence and enjo yment, lower anxiety, and fewer grade oriented goals than their less autonomous peers The Relative Autonomy Index (RAI) which is used in th is study has been used in educational settings and is linked to engagement, positive affect, enjoyment, effective coping, and conceptual learning (Grolnick & Ryan, 1987; Miserandino, 1996).

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 7 Due to the preceding literature, it was the goal of this study to fin d an increase in the growth mindset, intrinsic motivation, academic motivation, and life satisfaction ratings of the experimental group when compared to the controls. I believe that the STEAM intervention would increase these factors as they have shown to be connected, particularly in educational settings. Method Participants and Procedures Participants were 128 undergraduate students attending classes at the University of Florida Of these, 89.1% (n=114) finished the survey so their data were included in data analysis. Participants' age ranged from 18 to 26 years old, with a mean age was 20.34 ( SD =1.53) years. Race was reported as 63.9% (n=85) white, 9.6% (n=11) African American, 16.6% ( n =19 ) Asian, and 6.2% (n=8) other. Participants were given the option to select multiple racial identifications The majority of study participants reported being non H ispanic (75.5%, n=83) with 24.6% (n=27) reporting they were H ispanic or L atino. Eighty two percent (n=91) reported being female and 18.0% (n=20) reported being male. Course instructors were contacted and asked if they would offer the survey in return for extra credit in their class. Students received a link to a Qualtrics survey After giving informed consent to participate they were randomly assigned to the experimental or control condition. Measures The experimental condition consist ed of a 20 minute STEAM session, which w as developed from Higley's original training. This session prompts participants to analyze academic goals on the se five aspects: social support, time availability enjoyment accessibility and mot ivation. This includes allocating time to high priority activities, concentrating on the positive

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 8 payoffs of achievement, and brainstorming helpful resources. An important part of the training is the step in which participants are instructed on how to change their perspective regarding their goals. The participants are asked to record an academic goal they are struggling to achieve. The intervention then guides participants to dissect the goal and rework it until the participant has set a goal that is specific, measurable, aligned, realistic, and time bound. The control group complete d a 20 minute Big Five Personality evaluation. The survey instructs participants regarding how to score themselves on the sub scales of O penness to Experience C onscientiousness, E xtraversion, A greeableness, and N euroticism. The session wa s designed to be relax ing and roughly parallel in time to the treatment Upon completion of the inter vention, participants were asked to complete a three part analytical battery. Mindset wa s measured through Dweck's eight item Growth Mindset Survey which evaluates participants on a scale of 1, a fixed mindset, to 6, a growth mindset (Dweck, 2006, p. 1 3). Life Satisfaction is measured through the Diener et al. Satisfaction with Life Scale, a five question battery rated on a 5 point Likert scale (1985). State intrinsic motivation is measured through the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory, a 29 item questio nnaire rated on a (McAuley, Duncan, & Tammen, 1989). Academic motivation is measured through the Self Regulation Questionnaire 's Relative Autonomy Index ( RAI, Ryan & Connell, 1989). This RAI is a 24 question scale, measured on a 4 point Likert scale that is subdivided into four subscales: external regulation, introjected regulation, identified reg ulation, and intrinsic motivation. The subscales are then computed in the formula, 2(intrinsic motivation) + identified regulation introjected regulation 2(external regulation), where each subscale is assigned a positive or negative weight de pending on their effect on relative autonomy. The intrinsic motivation

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 9 subscale, a 5 item questionnaire measured on a 4 point Likert scale, was used as a trait measure of overall intrinsic motivation Results All variables were initi ally tested for kurtosis and skewness and all variables were sufficiently normal Correlations between variables were analyzed and five significant findings were discovered. First, academic motivation and trait intrinsic motivation are positively correlated ( r =.720, p <.05). Also significant are the negative correlations between mindset and state intrinsic motivation ( r = .230, p <.01), state and trait intrinsic motivation ( r = .342, p <.05), and academic motivation and state intrinsic motivation ( r = .349, p <.05). Finally, life satisfaction is negatively correlated with trait intrinsic motivation ( r = .285, p <.05). All other correlations were insignificant: mindset and life satisfaction ( r =.010, p >. 05), mindset and academic motivation ( r =.084, p >.05), mindset and trait intrinsic motivation ( r =.126, p >.05), life satisfaction and academic motivation ( r = .176, p >.05), life satisfaction and state intrinsic motivation ( r =.115, p >. 05 ). Independent t te sts were performed for each of the four variables: mindset, life satisfaction, intrinsic motivation, and academic motivation. The difference between the experimental and control groups were statistically significant for trait intrinsic motivation ( t (108) = 2.036, p = .044, d = .394) and state intrinsic motivation ( t (109) = 4.786, p = .000, d = .916). Academic motivation ( t (108) = 1.967, p = .052, d = .382) was just shy of being statistically significant. The other variables, mindset ( t ( 108) = 1.532, p = .129, d = .294) and life satisfaction ( t (109) = 1.289, p = .200, d = .249) were statistically insignificant. Discussion

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 10 The negative correlation between state intrinsic motivation and mindset, trait intrinsic motivation, and academic motivation as well as the negative correlation between life satisfaction and trait intrinsic motivation differ from results from publish ed research The positive correlation between academic motivation and trait intrinsic motivation is expected due to the relation of the trait intrinsic motivation measure as a subscale of the relative autonomy index being used to measure academic motivation. The group that completed the STEAM training, recorded a significantly higher trait intrinsic motivation as compared to those that completed the personality control evaluation. Academic motivation was almost significantly hi gher for the experiment group T he interesting point of this statistic is that both groups were still negative on the relative autonomy index (RAI). The formula for this index is, 2(intrinsic motivation) + identified regulation introjected regulation 2(external regulation), so the fact that both groups reported a negative RAI means that the effect of introjected regulation and external regulation outweigh the positive effects of intrinsic motivation and identified regulation. Interpretations and limitations There were five major findings in this study that reflected the outlook of current und ergraduate students. The first of which was the negative correlation between state intrinsic motivation and the three variables: mindset, academic motivation, and trait intrinsic motivation; all of which should have been positive. My investigation for why this may have occurred raises a limitation to the STEAM training as a whole. The questions asked in the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory revolved around the activity recently engaged in. For example participants were asked to rate whether they agree with the statements, "I enjoyed doing this activity," "I would describe this activity as very interesting," and "I thought this activity was quite enjoyable." The wording

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 11 of these questions leads the participants to describe why they completed the activity accordi ng to their interest and enjoyment levels. This means that, according to the responses of participants, the personality assessment that was given as the control was more interesting and enjoyable for participants that the STEAM training. This finding also meant that I needed to look to another measure for information regarding the participants overall intrinsic motivation. Since the trait intrinsic motivation subscale in the Self Regulation Questionnaires' RAI measured intrinsic motivation as it related to classwork, class participation, and effort towards school work it was used as the measure for the participants' overall intrinsic motivation regarding their academic goals. The second major finding is that the experimental group has rated significantly hig her in trait intrinsic motivation. This means that the STEAM training has the desired effect of motivating students to reach their goals. The section of the training that may have had a major impact in motivation is the time allocation section. This sectio n shows participants that there really is time during the day to complete all the things they need to do. By showing participants where they focus a lot of time and where they can spare to dedicate more time on serious, long term goals the training inspire s them. The third is the negative correlation that exists between life satisfaction and intrinsic motivation. The best explanation for this finding is in the life satisfaction questions themselves. Three of them, "In most ways my life is close to my ideal ", "The conditions of my life are excellent", "I am satisfied in my life", have to do with where the participants are in their lives. It may speak to the mind of these participants that they are currently seeking a degree to reach their goal of a better li fe. These participants are using their low life satisfaction as fuel for their intrinsic motivation to complete their degree and reach their ideal lives.

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 12 The fourth major finding from this survey is the increase in academic motivation r ating from the control to the experiment group. Though the effect fell just shy of significance, t he STEAM training was successful in inspiring participants to feel more relatively autonomous with regard to their academic goals. The section on goal settin g and self mastery sections were probably most influential as they focus on making the goal more accessible and building confidence. Training participants to make their goals specific, measurable, aligned, realistic, and time bound gives them a roadmap of what needs to get done and how it needs to be completed. The self mastery portion shows participants where their priorities currently are and how much life's distractions are influencing the completion of their goals. The STEAM training is showing particip ants that their goals can be manageable and they have the ability to complete them if they adjust their focus and the the resources around them. The fifth major finding was the lack of a connection between the STEAM training and growth mindset, which lea ds into the limitations of this study. There is a very slight increase in the averages of growth mindset between the groups (control group mean = 3.22, experimental group mean = 3.44), however the result is insignificant. I believe this may be attributed t o the first of two major drawbacks of this study, online versus in person training. It has been noted in past studies that SMART goal assessment is difficult to teach through online only information and is even difficult for those who have received face to face training (Sandlin, LaRosa, & Heesacker, 2017). The results of the state intrinsic motivation t tests also shows that participants enjoyed the personality assessment significantly more than the STEAM training. It may be the case in this particular sur vey that the directions were not clear enough or the training not entertaining enough to have gotten the attention of the participants and held it enough to truly impact their mindset and life satisfaction.

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 13 The second limitation that may have plagued thi s study is the participant pool. There were 114 participants scored, the majority of whom were white and the female T his number could have been bigger and the demographics more diverse Also, our participants were already fairly high achieving people, who may have not been paying particularly close attention to the training as we would have liked. Another potential reason for insignificant data is the preexisting growth mindset held by the participants. It can be assumed from the ratings of the control group ( M = 3.22 SD = .734 ) and the population studied, that the participants were already reporting a growth mindset. It may be the case that STEAM training can foster a growth mindset for those that do not have one, but isn't efficient at raising someon e's mindset further. Future studies There are many interesting ways that future studies could be built off of this work. Two of which should start with addressing the limitations we faced. Conducting the training in person could potentially help participa nts better understand and focus on the material. This could also make the material more enjoyable and interesting as the person or group could lead the discussion to what matters most to them. Overall, while the online survey is efficient and widespread, i t may be too lackluster and less helpful when compared to an in person seminar. Other studies should also consider the issue of population. Pulling participants from a wide range of backgrounds, social statuses, and majors may widen the understanding in what ways STEAM training is most effective. Future studies could also use these results to create new hypotheses. We now know that participants who complete the training have more intrinsic motivation, but we asked participants to focus on academic goals Hypotheses regarding personal and career goal creation could be created, as well as looking at goal achievement over a long term time frame. More work should

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 14 be put into figuring out what parts of this training are most effective online as compared to in person. We have proven that there are positive results that come from completing STEAM training, but there is definite room for improvement.

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 15 References Black, A. E., & Deci, E. L. (2000). The effects of instructors' autonomy support and students' autonomous motivation on learning organic chemistry: A self) 0.2 (determination theory perspective. Science education 84 (6), 740 756. Blackwell, L. S., Trzesniewski, K. H., & Dweck, C. S. (2007). Implicit theories of intelligence predict achievement across an adolescent transition: A longitudinal study and an intervention. Child development 78 (1), 246 263. Chan, D. W. (2012). Life satisfaction, happiness, and the growth mindset of healthy and unhealthy perfectionists among Hong Kong Chinese gifted students. Roeper Review 34 (4), 224 233. Dennis, J. M., Phinney, J. S., & Chuateco, L. I. (2005). The role of motivation, parental support, and peer support in the academic success of ethnic minority first g eneration college students. Journal of college student development 46 (3), 223 236. Diener, E. D., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of personality assessment 49 (1), 71 75. Dweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success Random House Incorporated. Dweck, C. S. (2009). Mindsets: Developing talent through a growth mindset. Olympic Coach 21 (1), 4 7. Higley, B. P. "The Building Blocks to Excellence Mission, Vision, and Values." Busine ss and Personal Excellence The Building Blocks, 2014, www.thebuildingblockstoexcellence.com/history.php. Grolnick, W. S., & Ryan, R. M. (1987). Autonomy in children's learning: An experimental and individual difference investigation. Journal of Personal ity and Social Psychology, 52

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 16 977 1077. McAuley, E., Duncan, T., & Tammen, V. V. (1989). Psychometric properties of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory in a competitive sport setting: A confirmatory factor analysis. Research quarterly for exercise and sport 60 (1), 48 58. Miserandino, M. (1996). Children who do well in school: Individual differences in perceived competence and autonomy in above average children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88 203 214. Ryan, R. M., & Connell, J. P. (1989). Per ceived locus of causality and internalization: examining reasons for acting in two domains. Journal of personality and social psychology 57 (5), 749. Sandlin, A. C., LaRosa, M. C., & Heesacker, M. (2017). Specificity in goal achievement. Poster presente d at the annual meeting of the Association for Psychological Science, Boston, MA.

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 17 Appendix A STEAM Training Presented to Participants Welcome to the study! Informed Consent Protocol Title: Factors that Influence Motivation, Mindset, and Life Satisfaction IRB201701499 Please read this consent document carefully before you decide to participate in this study. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine if the factors that influence motivation, mindset, and life satisfaction. What you will be asked to do: Participants will be asked to complete one survey including four scales to measure growth mindsets (Growth Mindsets Scale), general motivation in college (Self Regulation Questionnaire), intrinsic motivation (Intrinsic Motivation Inventory), and overall life satisfaction as well as general demographic questions. Time requirement: The survey will take a pproximately 20 minutes to complete. Risk and benefits: There are no direct benefits for participating in this study. There is a minimal risk that security of any online data may be breached, but because Qualtrics uses several layers of encryption and fi rewalls, the participant's data will be secure. And your data will be removed from the server soon after you complete the survey. So, a security breach of online data is unlikely and there is little risk of any adverse consequence to you. You may read the Qualtrics privacy policy here: https://www.qualtrics.com/privacy statement. Compensation: Participants will be compensated with course credit, at the discretion of their course instructors, up to 1% of the total points in the course. Confidentiality: You r identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law. Your name will not be associated with your survey responses. Your survey responses will be reported only as group averages. Right to voluntary participation: Your participation in these t wo surveys is completely voluntary. You have the right to withdraw from any of the two surveys at any point with no negative consequence for that survey. If you decide not to begin a survey, you will not earn credit for participating in that survey. You mu st at least access each survey to receive compensation. Questions: If you have any questions about this study, please contact Emily Wuenschell, Casey Cherolini, Jade Dario, and Stephanie Voight at MindsetsStudy@gmail.com, or Dr. Heesacker, at P.O. Box 112 250, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32608, (352) 273 2136. You also may

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 18 contact: IRB02 Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. By clicking "I consent, begin the study", you are acknowledging that you have read the a bove information and are agreeing to participate voluntarily in the study. o !"#$%&'%()"*'+,%"(-'"&(./0" " Page Break STEAM Training Do you know some people who seem "stressed out" or "frenzied" or feel like this yourself more often than you'd like to? This all to common experience can be explained by the fact that so many people have never been trained in the science and art of value s cantered persistence. STEAM Training provides you with customized instructions focused on increasing individual persistence with the critical activities that create a more productive and satisfying lifestyle. All STEAM Trainings are based on decades of experience and research in the areas that separate those that "do" from those wh o only "wish" they could do. STEAM Training focuses on how to enhance your influence on your thoughts, feelings, and behaviors by helping you gain more control over your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age Break

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 19 STEP 1: THE STEAM ASSESSMENT INSTRUCTIONS: Fill out the assessments belo w as accurately as possible. A. Factors Associated with Self Mastery How much I experienced last month: @$%'"A"B" C" D$1'"A"E F G"4$("A"H D$#,34"&.55 $2(" 9$2",15$2(3%(" 3#(,6,(,'& o o o o o I ,1'"9$2" ,15$2(3%(" 3#(,6,(,'& " o o o o o J%7$0 1'%("$9" ,15$2(3%(" 3#(,6,(,'& " o o o o o G##'&&,*,4 ,(0" ($",15$2(3%(" ,%9$213(,$% o o o o o K$(,63 (,$%"9$2" ,15$2(3%(" 3#(,6,(,'&" " o o o o o " Sum your total by adding together the numbers you chose for each of the 5 factors. The generated sum equals your STEAM Focus Score. Please write your Focus Score in the box below. LLLLLLL" !.548'9:;
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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 20 B. Self Mastery Distractions How much I experienced last month: @$%'"A"B C D$1'"A"E F G"4$("A"H D$#,34"&.55$2("9 $2"4'&&" ,15$2(3%("3#(,6,(,'&" o o o o o I,1'"9 $2"4'&&" ,15$2(3%("3#(,6,(,'&" o o o o o J%7$01'%(" $9"4'&&" ,15$2(3%("3#(,6,(,'&" " o o o o o G##'&&,*,4,(0"($" ,%9$213(,$%M13('2,34&" 2';., 2'/"9$2"4'&&" ,15$2(3%("(3&N& " o o o o o K$(,63(,$%"9 $2"4'&&" ,15$2(3%("3#(,6,(,'&" o o o o o " Sum your total by adding together the numbers you chose for each of the 5 factors. The calculated sum equals your STEAM Distraction Score. Please write your Distraction Score in the first box below. Then calculate your Overall STEAM Score by subtracting your Distraction Score from your Focus Score. Please write your Overall Score in the second box below. An Overall STEAM Score of at least 15 is ideal. It's recommended that you keep working unti l you can achieve this score. LLLLLLL" !.548'>?!.=4;.?:@'!;:=5 " LLLLLLL" :A5=4BB'!.548'!;:=5'C9"#)('!#"+0'/$6)('>$(,+%#,$"6'!#"+0D " Page Break

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 21 STE P 2: Living Your Priorities INSTRUCTIONS : Please think of all the major activities that take up your time and energy during your average week (e.g., worrying, eating, TV, internet, phone). Then, categorize activities that take up the most time into three levels of importance: (A) Critical, (B) Important, (C) Not critical. List these activities below. Mini mize time spent on Category C to ma ke more time for Category A. After listing your 5 activities, calculate the total number of hours you spend a week engaging in these activities. A. Critical o BO"" LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL o CO"" LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL o EO""" LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL o FO"" LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL o HO"" LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL o I$(34"%.1* '2"$9"-$.2&"&5'%("5'2"<''NP"" LLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL " B. Important o BO"" LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL o CO"" LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL o EO"" LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL o FO"" LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL o HO"" LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL o I$(34"%.1* '2"$9"-$.2&"&5'%("5'2"<''NP"" LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL "

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 22 C. Not critical to my life o BO"" LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL o CO"" LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL o EO"" LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL o FO"" LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL o HO"" LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL o I$(34"%.1* '2"$9"-$.2&"&5'%("5'2"<''NP"" LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL " INSTRUCTIONS : Now, chose one activity in Category C (Not critical to my life) that takes up most of your time and list it below. Then chose one activity from Category A (Crit ical) that would benefit you the most but is most commonly neglected and list that down below. o Q3('+$20"Q"G#(,6,(0"" LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL o Q3('+$20"G"G#(,6,(0"" LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL "

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 23 STEP 3: Increasin g Time Spent on Critical Activities (Part 1) INSTRUCTIONS: Please list the non critical (category C) activity you just chose. Underneath this activity list the 2 or 3 most important reasons why you believe that you do engage in that activity even thoug h it is non critical to you (for example, too tired to do other things, habit, it's what my girlfr iend/boyfriend likes to do). Finally, estimate how much time per week you spend engaging in this activity. Non critical Activity: ________________________________________________ Reason (1) ________________________________________________ Reason (2) ________________________________________________ Reason (3) ________________ _______________________________ Numb er of hours s pent per week: ________________________________________________ Increasing Time Spent on Critical Activities (Part 2) INSTRUCTIONS: Please list the critical (category A) activity you just chose. Underneath this activity list the 2 or 3 most i mportant reasons why you believe that you would like to engage in that activity more frequently (for example, I truly enjoy this, it energizes me, it will help me live my priorities more effectively). Finally, estimate how much time per week you want to spend engaging in this activity. Make more time for this activity by minimizing time spent on the non critical activity you previously identified. Critical Activity: ________________________________________________ Reason (1) ______________________ _________________________ Reason (2) ______________________________ _________________ Reason (4) ________________ _______________________________ Number of hours yo u'd like to spend per week: ________________ ______________________

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 24 Page Break STEP 4: The 6 Essential Steps to Expert Goal Setting (Parts 1 5) INSTRUCTIONS: Identify an academic goal that you are struggling to achieve. This goal can be related to any class, assignment, or exam. Your Target Goal: _____________________________ ___________________ 1. Check out the Negatives: Take time to identify those disturbing or discouraging elements that you feel may be associated with the pursuit of your goal. Then, rationally check into how true these negative associations are in your l ife now: Possible negative 1: ________________________________________________ Is this negative necessaril y true? (Yes, No, or Maybe) ________________________________________________ Possible negative 2: ________________________________________________ Is this negative necessarily true? (Ye s, No, or Maybe) ________________________________________________ 2. Concentrate on the Positives: Take time to idenitfy the most important positive payoffs that you feel may be associated with achievement of your goal. Positive Payoff 1: ________________________________________________ Positive Payoff 2: ________________________________________________

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 25 Now, look o ver 1. (Check out the Negatives) and 2. (Concentrate on the Positives) and decide if the positives outweigh the negatives If they do, continue on: 3. SMART Goal Setting INSTRUCTIONS: Is your Target Goal set in a SMART way? RJD" @S" D5'#,9,#P"T$'&"(-,&"+$34"#$%(3,%" &5'#,9,#3440"<-3("0$."<$.4/" 4,N'"($"3##$154,&-U"T$'&"(-,&" +$34"('44"-$<"0$."<,44" 3##$154,&-"(-,&U" o o K'3&.23*4'P"!&"(-'2'"3"<30",%" <-,#-"0$."#3%"1'3&.2'"0$.2" &.##' &&",%"#$154'(,%+"(-,&" +$34U" o o G4,+%'/P"!&"(-,&"+$34"34,+% '/" <,(-"0$.2"1,&&,$%"3&"3" &(./'%(U"!&"(-,&"+$34"34,+%'/" <,(-"(-'"#$154'(,$%"$9"3%" ,15$2(3%("(3&NU"!&"(-,&"+$34" 34,+%'/"<,(-"0 $.2",%/,6,/.34" #$2'"634.'&U" o o V'34,&(,#P"!&"(-,&"+$34"3% /",(&" (,1'"9231'"2'34,&(,#U" o o I,1'"W$.%/P"X36'"0$." ,%#4./'/"3"(,1'"9231 '",%"<-,#-" (-,&" +$34"%''/&"($"*'" #$154'('/U" o o "

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 26 If you answered NO for any of the factors listed above, your goal is not set in a SMART way. Rewrite it on the lines below until it is. Specific more specific: ________________ _______________________________ M easurable how to measure: ________________________________________________ Aligned all stake holders in: ________________________________________________ Realistic more realistic: _________________________________ _______________ Time Bound deadline: ________________________________________________ Here is an example of two goals being rewritten to become SMART. Example 1: I am going to try and not procrastinate on my next assignment. This goal has iss ues with specificity, measurability, and time bound. It could be rewritten as follows: I am going to schedule 1 hour to complete my assignment the day before it is due. Or as: I am going to complete my next assignment the day before it is due. Both of these new goals give you the opportunity to complete something specific, by a certain time, in a measurable way. *A good rule of thumb is to stay away from setting goals to not do something. It is much harder to measure a goal for not doing something than setting a goal to complete a task. Example 2: I want to do well in all my classes this semester. This goal has issues with specificity, measurability, realism. It could be rewritten as follows: I am going to get at l east a B in my (specific class) class this semester. Or as: I am going to finish this semester with a 3.5 GPA this semester. Both of these new goals give you the opportunity to complete a specific, realistic goal (getting all As in one college s emester is not realistic) in a certain time frame.

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 27 4. Activities & 5. Rewards INSTRUCTIONS: Now, break your goal up into smaller activities (something that can be completed in under 30 minutes), and think about rewards for the completion of each activity. Activity # 1 ________________________________________________ Reward for Activity # 1 ________________________________________________ Activity # 2 ________________________________________________ Reward for Activity # 2 ________________________________________________ Activity # 3 ________________________________________________ Reward for Activity # 3 ________________________________________________ Page Break

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 28 The 6 Essential Steps to Expert Goal Setting (Part 6) INSTRUCTIONS: Activate your Reticular Activating System by doing the exercises below. 6. Have a "most things are possible" attitude: Don't give up on a goal too easily; keep your eyes and ears constantly open for all kinds of routes to success. "RAS Brainstorm" : Think of some people, activities, places, and/or media sources (books, CD's, movies) that may be helpful to pursuing your goal: Person #1 who can help: ________________________________________________ Person #2 who can help: ________________________________________________ Activity #1 that can help: ________________________________________________ Activity #2 that can help: ________________________________________________ Place #1 that can help : ________________________________________________ Place #2 that can help: ________________________________________________ Medi a #1 that can help: ________________________________________________ Media #2 that can help: ________________________ ________________________ Page Break

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 29 Other Helpful Hints For an Impactful Experience Think small first, then imagine bigger as you get more expert in the concepts Goal set to make the techniques that you learn a regular part of your life (not only during the cour se of this training program) Recognize when others are using the techniques discussed in the training program, and when they could benefit from using the techniqu es Understand that with some practice, you can use the techniques discussed in this workbook to tap into your immense ability and energy Gently encourage yourself to strengthen your abilities in the areas we cover in the training program and CE LEBRATE THE SMALL VICTORIES!!!! 56E'"F'G&"#H-'5I*0+$/06,

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 30 Appendix B The Big Five Personality Test Presented to Participants Welcome to the study! Informed Consent Protocol Title: Factors that Influence Motivation, Mindset, and Life Satisfaction IRB2017 01499 Please read this consent document carefully before you decide to participate in this study. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine if the factors that influence motivation, mindset, and life satisfaction. What you will be asked to do: Participants will be asked to complete one survey including four scales to measure growth mindsets (Growth Mindsets Scale), general motivation in college (Self Regulation Questionnaire), intrinsic motivation (Intrinsic Motivation Inventory), and overall li fe satisfaction as well as general demographic questions. Time requirement: The survey will take approximately 20 minutes to complete. Risk and benefits: There are no direct benefits for participating in this study. There is a minimal risk that security of any online data may be breached, but because Qualtrics uses several layers of encryption and firewalls, the participant's data will be secure. And your data will be removed from the server soon after you complete the survey. So, a security breach of on line data is unlikely and there is little risk of any adverse consequence to you. You may read the Qualtrics privacy policy here: https://www.qualtrics.com/privacy statement. Compensation: Participants will be compensated with course credit, at the discre tion of their course instructors, up to 1% of the total points in the course. Confidentiality: Your identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law. Your name will not be associated with your survey responses. Your survey responses will b e reported only as group averages. Right to voluntary participation: Your participation in these two surveys is completely voluntary. You have the right to withdraw from any of the two surveys at any point with no negative consequence for that survey. If you decide not to begin a survey, you will not earn credit for participating in that survey. You must at least access each survey to receive compensation. Questions: If you have any questions about this study, please contact Emily Wuenschell, Casey Cherol ini, Jade Dario, and Stephanie Voight at MindsetsStudy@gmail.com, or Dr. Heesacker, at P.O. Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32608, (352) 273 2136. You also may

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 31 contact: IRB02 Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. By clicking "I consent, begin the study", you are acknowledging that you have read the above information and are agreeing to participate voluntarily in the study. o !"#$%&'%()"*'+,%"(-'"&(./0" " Page Break The Big 5 Personality Theory Several types of personality tests exist. One form is the Trait Models of Personality tests, which aim to pinpoint the major traits of personality that are the inner drives to people's behavior. One of these scientific models of personality that has amasse d an impressive body of research evidence is called "The Big Five" or "The Five Factor Model" of personality. The Big Five/FFM was developed by Paul Costa, Robert McCrae, and their collaborators (Costa & McCrae, Widiger) to represent as much of the va riability in individuals' personalities as possible, using only a small set of trait dimensions. The Big Five emerged from factor analyses of trait terms in dictionaries and works of literature. Many personality psychologists agree that its five domains ca pture the most important, basic individual differences in personality traits and that many alternative trait models can be conceptualized in terms of the Big Five/FFM structure. The five factor model of personality (FFM) is a set of five broad trait dimensions or domains, often referred to as the "Big Five" or OCEAN: Openness to Experience sometimes just called "Openness" open people tend to be intellectually curious and unconventional; Conscientiousness conscientious people tend to b e careful and responsible; Extraversion extraverted people tend to be social and lively; Agreeableness agreeable people tend to be sociable and easy to get along with; and Neuroticism neurotic people tend to be tense and moody. You will be completing the following 50 question survey in order to supply you with your personal results on how you measure in each of these 5 traits. Please answer as honestly and accurately as possible. Page Break

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 32 Openness To Experience T,&3+2''"A"B" K$&(40" T,&3+2''"A"C" @'.(234"A"E" K$&(40"G+2''" A"F" G+2''"A"H" !"-36'"3"2,#-" 6$#3*.4320O" o o o o o !"/$"%$("-36'" /,99,#.4(0" .% /'2&(3%/,%+" 3*&(23#(",/'3&O" o o o o o !"-36'"3"6 ,6,/" ,13+,%3(,$%O" o o o o o !"31" ,% ('2'&('/",%" 3*&(23#(",/'3&O" o o o o o !"-36' '?#'44'%(" ,/'3&O " o o o o o !"-36'"3"+$$/" ,13+,%3(,$%O" o o o o o !"31" ;.,#N"($" .%/'2&(3%/" (-,%+&O" o o o o o !".&'"/,99,#.4(" <$2/&O" o o o o o !"&5'%/"(,1'" 2'94'#(,%+"$%" (-, %+&O" o o o o o !"31"9.44"$9" ,/'3&O" o o o o o " Calculate your score by adding together the numbers you chose for each of the 10 statements. For example, if you chose "Agree = 5" for each of the 10 statements, then your score would equal 50. The higher you score, the more open to experience you are. Indicate your score on the scale below. BY BH CY CH EY EH FY FH HY

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 33 !#"+0'F"+':*0660((',"'5I*0+$06#0" " Openness to Experience "Openness to Experience vs. (close mindedness) describes the breadth, depth, originality and complexity of an individual's mental and experiential life" People who score high in O have broad intellectual and aesthetic interests. These people are usually quite curious, imaginative, and reflective. They experience deep personal feelings, and they welcome challenge and change. Scorin g high in O is also associated with experiencing emotional and cognitive alterations. In other words, one who scores high in this dimension may be more susceptible to hypnosis, having out of body experiences or experiencing naturally occurring, altered st ates of consciousness. One who scores low in O is likely to practice routine and value tradition. Not only do they conform to rules and social norms, they do not question or challenge them. They do not favor abstract art and entertainment. They fav or familiarity. Low scorers are usually not very introspective.

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 34 Do you feel your score on Openness to Experience is an accurate representation of your personality? Why or why not? LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL L LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LL " Page Break

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 35 Conscientiousness T,&3+2''"A"B K$&(40" T,&3+2''"A"C @'.(234"A"E" K$&(40"G+2''" A"F G+2''"A"H !"31"34<30&" 52'532'/O" " o o o o o !"/$"%$("4'36'" 10"*' 4$%+,%+&" 32$.%/O" o o o o o !"530" 3(('%(,$%"($" /'(3,4&O" " o o o o o !"31"6'20" %'3(O" o o o o o " +'("#-$2'&" /$%'"2,+-(" 3<30O " o o o o o !"232'40"9$2+'(" ($"5.("(-,%+&" *3#N",%"(-',2" 52$5'2"543#'O" o o o o o !"4,N'"$2/'2O o o o o o !"/$"%$(" %'+4'#("10" /.(,'&O " o o o o o !"9$44$<"3" &#-'/.4'O" " o o o o o !"31"/,4,+'%(" ,%"10"<$2NO" o o o o o " Calculate your score by adding together the numbers you chose for each of the 10 statements. For example, if you chose "Agree = 5" for each of the 10 statements, then your score would equal 50. The higher you score, the more conscientious you are. Indicate your score on the s cale below. BY BH CY CH EY EH FY FH HY

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 36 !#"+0'F"+';"6(#$06,$")(60((" " Conscientiousness "Conscientiousness describes socially prescribed impulse control that facilitates task and goal directed behavior, such as thinking before acting, delaying gratification, following norms and rules, and planning, organizing, and prioritizing tasks." People who score high in C approach tasks in a systematic and orderly fashion. They are rarely late for meetings and almost never miss class. Highly conscientious people plan their lives carefully and meticulously. They are reliable and loyal in their deal ings with other people. High scorers in this dimension also tend to provide concise answers to questions. They abide by the rules and avoid risky, dangerous behavior. They tend to engage in behaviors like exercise a nd avoid alcohol/drug use. Of the Big 5 Traits, C was the one that consistently predicted success across different organizations, jobs, and situations. Possible explanations for this are people are in C are better organized and more efficient. They prioritize tasks in a way that maximizes prod uctivity. People high in C also play by the rules. They're principled and honest, and they value integrity. Above all, they're extremely hard workers. The best predictor of educational achievement is probably one's intellectual aptitude. However, conscient iousness still plays an important role. Recent studies show that high levels of C predict higher grade point average and academic achievement in college. One who scores low in C is spontaneous and impulsive. They lack will power. They're usually quit e lazy and carless. They struggle greatly in focusing their attention on a single task. You can't depend on them to keep their promise, accomplish a goal, or complete a task at hand. They are likely to engage in destructive or dangerous behavior without re garding the consequences.

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 37 Do you feel your score on Conscientiousness is an accurate representation of your personality? Why or why not? LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL " Page Break

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 38 Extraversion T,&3+2''"A"B K$&(40" T,&3+2''"A"C @'.(234"A"E" K$&(40"G+2''" A"F G+2''"A"H !"31"(-'"4,9'"$9" (-'"532(0O " o o o o o !"(34N"3"4$(O" " o o o o o !"9'' 4" #$19$2(3*4'" 32$.%/" 5'$54'O" " o o o o o !"/$%Z("4,N' ($" N''5",%"(-'" *3#N+2$.%/O" o o o o o !"&(32(" #$%6'2&3(,$%&O" o o o o o !"-36'"3"4$("($" &30O" o o o o o !"(34N"($"3"4$(" $9" /,99'2'%(" 5'$54'"3(" 532(,'&O " o o o o o !"4,N'" ($"/23<" 3(('%(,$%"($" 10&'49O " o o o o o !"/$%Z("1,%/" *' ,%+"(-'" #'%('2"$9" 3(('%(,$%O" " o o o o o !"31"( 34N3(,6'" 32$.%/" &(23%+'2&O" o o o o o "

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 39 Calculate your score by adding together the numbers you chose for each of the 10 statements. For example, if you chose "Agree = 5" for each of the 10 statements, then your score would equal 50. The higher you score, the more extraverted you are. Indicate y our score on the scale below. BY BH CY CH EY EH FY FH HY !#"+0'F"+'5I,+%10+($"6" =B> " Extraversion "Extraversion implies an energetic approach toward the social and material world and includes traits such as sociability, activity, assertiveness, and positive emotionality." Extraverts direct energy outward to the social world. They "recharge" or are stimulated from interacting with others. One who scores low on extraversion is considered an introvert. Introverts direct energy inward toward private thought. Their energy is extracted from solitude. Social situations can be incredibly draining for an an introvert. Those who score high on extraversion are more sociable, energetic, and lively. They're usually outgoing, and they get excited and enthusiastic about things. Being impulsive and reckless are also characteristic of high scorers. They are mo re likely to gamble and have more sexual partners compared to an introvert. They also are more likely to make eye contact and have firmer handshakes. Extraverts tend to excel in occupations that involve dealing with people (sales, marketing, teaching, etc) Their learning style is described as "speed over accuracy". They process material at a high speed with low accuracy. At times they'll gamble and make guesses. Those who score low on extraversion are more inhibited, quiet, and contemplative. They'r e usually withdrawn and shy. They exhibit low risk taking behavior. They'd rather read a book or watch a movie with their dog than go to wild party. Introverts tend to prefer more solitary occupations (artists, mathematics, engineering, etc.). Their learni ng style is described as "accuracy over speed." They process information at a low speed with high accuracy, avoiding making any potential mistakes.

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 40 Do you feel your score on Extraversion is an accurate representation of your personality? Why or why not? LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL " Page Break

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 41 Agreeableness T,&3+2''"A"B K$&(40" T,&3+2''"A"C @'.(234"A"E K$&(40"G+2''" A"F" G+2''"A"H !"9''4"3 4$("$9" #$%#'2%"9$2" $(-'2&O" o o o o o !"31" ,%('2'&('/",%" 5'$54'O " o o o o o !"31"#3 2'9.4" %$("($",%&.4(" $(-'2&O" o o o o o !"&0153 (-,['" <,(-"$(-'2&Z" 9''4,%+&O " o o o o o !"31" ,%('2'&('/ ,%" $(-'2"5'$54'&Z" 52$*4'1&O " o o o o o !"-36'"3"&$9(" -'32 (O" o o o o o !"(3N'"3 4$("$9" ,%('2'&(",%" $(-'2&O" o o o o o !"(3N'"(,1'"$.(" 9$2"$(-'2&O " o o o o o !"9''4"$(-'2&Z" '1$(,$%&O" " o o o o o " 13N'"5'$54'" 9''4"3("'3&'O" o o o o o " Calculate your score by adding together the numbers you chose for each of the 10 statements. For example, if you chose "Agree = 5" for each of the 10 statements, then your score would equal 50. The higher you score, the more agreeable you are. Indicate your score on the scale below. BY BH CY CH EY EH FY FH HY

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 42 !#"+0'F"+'4J+00%2&060((" =B> " Agreeableness "Agreeableness contrasts a prosocial and communal orientation towards others with antagonism and includes traits such as altruism, tender mindedness, trust, and modesty." Those who score high in A are trustworthy, affectionate, and easy to love. They won't betray you. In fact, they'll prioritize your needs over their own. High scorers avoid fights and resolve conflict in friendships. They maintain harmony and peace in their relationships. They're cooperative, ethical, and warm. They tend to volunteer in their community and continuously contribute to society in a positive way. Effective parenting is associated with high levels of agreeableness. Being an agreeable parent contributes to high levels of positive mood, and thereby, to high levels of cognitive stimulation and low levels of ne glect in interactions with children. One who scores low in A puts their own interests before others. They are not very friendly or sympathetic. They're usually competitive and argumentative. They sometimes employ intimidation or aggressive strategies to prove superiority. One who scores extremely low in A is spiteful. They can be manipulative or cruel to get their way.

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 43 Do you feel your score on Agreeableness is an accurate representation of your personality? Why or why not? LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL " Page Break

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 44 Neuroticism T,&3+2''"A"B K$&(40" T,&3+2''"A"C @'.(234"A"E K$&(40"G+2''" A"F G+2''"A"H !"+'("&(2 '&&'/" $.("'3&,40O" o o o o o !"3 1"3%?,$.&" 1$&("$9"(-'" (,1'O" o o o o o !"<$220"3*$.(" (-,%+&O " o o o o o !"232'40"9''4" 7$0O" " o o o o o !"31"'3&,40" /,&(.2*'/O " o o o o o !"+'(".5&'(" '3&,40O " o o o o o !"#-3%+'"10" 1$$/"3"4$(O" o o o o o !"-36'" 92';.'%(" 1$$/"& <,%+&O" o o o o o !"+'(",22,(3('/" '3&,40O" o o o o o !"$9('%"9''4" *4.'O " o o o o o " Calculate your score by adding together the numbers you chose for each of the 10 statements. For example, if you chose "Agree = 5" for each of the 10 statements, then your score would equal 50. The higher you score, the more neurotic you are. Indicate your score on the scale below. BY BH CY CH EY EH FY FH HY !#"+0'F"+'@0)+",$#$(/" =B> "

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 45 Neuroticism "Neuroticism contrasts emotional stability and even temperedness with negative emotionality, such as feeling anxious, nervous, sad, and tense." Those who score high in N have a greater tendency to experience negative emotions inducing sadness, anger, or guilt. They are emotionally unstable. They're usually very sensitive to criticism. They experience lot of anxiety, worry, and self doubt. They're also very insecure and lack self confidence. People high in N experience more daily stressful events. However, neuroticism causes stress. Stress does not cause neuroticism This is because highly neurotic people interpret ordinary stressors as being hopel essly difficult. They tend to enter a situation with negative expectations. They see themselves as having few resources and minimal support. They tend to adopt an "emotion focused" or avoidant coping strategy. In other words, rather than forming an action plan to fix the problem, high N individuals put their energy into calming their nerves or soothing their fear. Some avoid the problem entirely. Those who score low in N do not experience negative emotions frequently. However, this does not mean they constantly experience positive emotions. Low scorers are more emotionally stable than high scorers, but they are not necessarily happier. Low scorers are calm, relaxed, and even tempered. They don't overreact to stress. They are confident in their ability to accomplish their goals and pursue their dreams. They possess high self efficacy.

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 46 Do you feel your score on Neuroticism is an accurate representation of your personality? Why or why not? LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL 56E'"F'G&"#H-';"6,+"&

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 47 Appendix C Battery of Measures Presented to Participants

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 48 Please select the answer that best represents the degree to which you agree or disagree with the statements... \'20"K.#-" T,&3+2''" T,&3+2''" @',(-'2"G+2''" %$2"T,&3+2''" G+2'' \'20"K.#-" G+2'' R$.2" ,%('44,+'%#'",&" &$1'(-,%+" 6'20"*3&,#" 3*$.("0$."(-3(" 0$."#3%Z(" #-3%+'"6'20" 1.#-O" o o o o o R$."#3%"4'32%" %'<"(-,%+&)" *.("0$."#3%Z(" 2'3440"#-3 %+'" -$<" ,%('44,+'%("0$." 32'O " o o o o o @$"13(('2" -$<"1.#-" ,%('44,+'%#'" 0$."-36')"0$ ." #3%"#-3%+'",(" ;.,('"3"*,(O" " o o o o o R$."#3%" 34<30&" &.*&(3%(,3440" #-3% +'"-$<" ,%('44,+'%("0$." 32'O" o o o o o !9"0$."32'" 530,%+" 3(('%(,$% &'4'#(":G+2'':O" o o o o o R$."32'"3" #'2(3,%"N,%/"$9" 5'2&$%)"3%/" (-'2'",&"%$(" 1.#-"(-3("#3%" *' /$%'"($" 2'3440"#-3%+'" (-3(O " o o o o o

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 49 @$"13(('2" <-3("N,%/"$9" 5'2&$%"0$." 32')"0$."#3%" 3 4<30&"#-3%+'" &.*&(3%(,3440O" o o o o o R$."#3%"/$" (-,%+&" /,99'2'%(40)" *.("(-'" ,15$2(3%(" 532(&"$9"<-$" 0$." 32'"#3%Z(" 2'3440"*'" #-3%+'/O " o o o o o R$."#3%" 34<30&"#-3%+'" *3&,#"(-,%+&" 3*$.(" (-'"N,%/" $9"5'2&$%"0$." 32'O o o o o o " Page Break

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 50 Please select the answer that best represents the degree to which you agree or disagree with the statements... @$("(2.'" G("G44" K$&(40" ]%(2.'" ^3,240" ]%(2.'" D$1'<-3(" I2.' ^3,240" I2.'" K$&(40" I2.'" \'20" I2.'" !"'%7$0'/" /$ ,%+"(-,&" 3#(,6,(0"6'20" 1.#-O " o o o o o o o I -,&"3#(,6,(0" <3&"9.%"($" /$O" o o o o o o o !"(-$.+-(" (,&"<3&"3" *$2,%+" 3#(,6,(0O " o o o o o o o I-,&"3#(,6,(0" /,/"% $("-$4/" 10"3(('%(,$%" 3("344O " o o o o o o o !"<$.4/" /',*'"(-,&" 3# (,6,(0"3&" 6'20" ,%('2'&(,%+O" o o o o o o o !"(-$.+-(" (-,&"3# (,6,(0" <3&";.,('" '%7$03*4'O" o o o o o o o _-,4'"!"<3&" /$,%+"(-,&" 3#(,6,(0)"!" <3&"(-,%N,%+" 3 *$.("-$<" 1.#-"!" '%7$0'/",(O o o o o o o o !"(-,%N"!"31" 52 '((0"+$$/" 3("(-,&" 3#(,6,(0O" o o o o o o o !"(-,%N"!"/,/" 52'((0"<'44" 3("(-,&" 3#(,6,(0)" o o o o o o o

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 51 #$1532'/"($" $(-'2" &(./'%(&O " G9('2" <$2N,%+"3(" (-,&"3#(,6,(0" 9$2"3<-,4')"!" 9'4("52'((0" #$15'('%(O" o o o o o o o !"31" &3(,&9,'/" <,(-"10" 5'29$213%#'" 3("(-,&"(3&NO" o o o o o o o !"<3&"52'((0" &N,44'/"3(" (-,&"3#(,6,(0O" o o o o o o o I-,&"<3&"3%" 3#(,6,(0"(-3(" !"#$.4/%Z("/$" 6'20"<'44O" o o o o o o o !"5.( 3"4$("$9" '99$2(",%($" (-,&O " o o o o o o o !"/,/%Z("(20" 6'20"-32/"($" /$"<'44"3(" (-,&"3#(,6,(0O" o o o o o o o !"(2,'/" 6'20" -32/"$%"(-,&" 3#(,6,(0O " o o o o o o o !("<3&" ,15$2(3%("($" 1 '"($"/$" <'44"3("(-,&" (3&NO" o o o o o o o !"/,/%Z( 5.(" 1.#-" '%'2+0",%($" (-,&O" " o o o o o o o !"*'4,'6'"!" -3/"&$1'" #-$,#'"3*$.(" o o o o o o o

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 52 /$,%+"(-,&" 3#(,6,(0O" " !9"0$."32'" 530,%+" 3(('%(,$%" 54'3 &'"&'4'#(" :K$&(40" ]%(2.':O o o o o o o o !"9'4("4,N'",(" <3&"%$("10" $ <%"#-$,#'" ($"/$"(-,&" (3&NO" o o o o o o o !"/,/%Z(" 2'3440"-36'"3 #-$,#'"3*$.(" /$,%+"(-,&" (3&NO" " o o o o o o o !"9'4("4,N' !" -3/"($"/$" (-,&O " o o o o o o o !"/,/"(-,&" 3#(,6, (0" *'#3.&'"!" -3/"%$" #-$,#'O " o o o o o o o !"/,/"(-,&" 3#( ,6,(0" *'#3.&'"!" <3%('/"($O" o o o o o o o !"/,/"(-,& 3#(,6,(0" *'#3.&'"!" -3/"($O" " o o o o o o o !"*'4,'6'"(-,&" 3#(,6,(0" # $.4/"*'"$9" &$1'"634.'" ($"1'O " o o o o o o o !"<$.4/"*'" <,44,%+"($"/$" (-,&"3+3,%" *'#3.&'",(" -3&"&$1'" o o o o o o o

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 53 634.'"($"1'O !"*'4,'6'" /$,%+"(-,&" 3#(,6,(0" #$.4/"*'" *'%'9,#,34"($" 1' o o o o o o o !"(-,%N"(-, &" ,&"3%" ,15$2(3%(" 3#(,6,(0O " o o o o o o o " Page Break

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 54 Please select the answer that best represents the degree to which you agree or disagree with the statements... \'20"K.#-" T,&3+2''" T,&3+2''" @',(-'2"G+2''" %$2"T,&3+2'' G+2'' \'20"K.#-" G+2'' !%"1$&(" <30&" 10 4,9'",&"#4$&'" ($"10",/'34O o o o o o I-'" #$%/,(,$% &"$9" 10"4,9'"32'" '?#'44'%(O" o o o o o !"31"&3(,&9,'/" <,(-"10"4,9'O" o o o o o D$"932"!"-36'" +$(('%"(-'" ,15$2(3%(" (-,%+&",%"4,9'O" o o o o o !9"!"#$.4/"4,6'" 10"4,9'"$6'2)"!" <$.4/"#-3%+'" 341$&(" %$(-,%+O " o o o o o " Page Break

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 55 Please select the answer that best represents the degree to which you agree or disagree with the statements... Why do I do my classwork? \'20"(2.'" D$2("$9"(2.'" @$("6'20"(2.'" @$("3("344"(2.'" D$"(-3("('" ('3#-'2"<$%`("0'44" 3("1'O" o o o o W'#3.&'"!"<3%(" (-'"('3#-'2" ($" (-,%N"!`1"3"+$$/" &(./'%(O " o o o o W'#3.&'"!"<3%("($" 4'32%"%'<"(-,%+&O" o o o o W'#3.&'"!`44"*'" 3&-31'/"$9" 10 &'49",9",("/,/%`(" +'("/$%'O" o o o o W'#3.&'",(`&"9.%O o o o o W'#3.&'"(-3(`&" (-'"2.4'O" o o o o W'#3.&'"!"'%7$0" /$,%+"10" #43&&<$2 NO o o o o W'#3.&'",(`&" ,15$2(3%("($" 1'" ($"<$2N"$%"10" #43&&<$2NO" o o o o "

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 56 Please select the answer that best represents the degree to which you agree or disagree with the statements... Why do I try to answer the hard questions in class? \'20"(2.'" D$2("$9"(2.'" @$("6'20"(2.' @$("3("344"(2.' W'#3.&'"!"<3%(" (-'"$(-'2" &(./'%(&"($"(-,%N" !`1"&132(O" o o o o W'#3.&'"!"9''4" 3&-31'/"$9" 10&'49"<-'%"!" /$%`("(20O" o o o o W'#3.&'"!"'%7$0" 3%&<'2,%+"-32/" ;.'&(,$%& O " o o o o W'#3.&'"(-3(`&" <-3("!`1" &.55$&'/"($"/$O" o o o o I$"9,%/"$.(",9"!`1" 2,+-("$2"<2$%+O" o o o o W'#3.&'",(`&"9. %" ($"3%&<'2"-32/" ;.'&(,$%&O o o o o W'#3.&'",(`&" ,15$2(3%("($"1'" ($"(20"($"3%&<'2" -32/";.'&(,$%&",%" #43&& O " o o o o W'#3.&'"!"<3%(" (-'"('3#-'2"($"&30" %,#'"(-,%+&"3*$.(" 1'O" o o o o " Please select the answer that best represents the degree to which you agree or disagree with the statements...

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 57 Why do I try to do well in school? \'20"(2.'" D$2("$9"(2.'" @$("6'20"(2.'" @$("3("344"(2.' W'#3.&'"(-3(`&" <-3("!`1" &.55$&'/"($"/$O" o o o o D$"10"('3#-'2&" <,44"(-,%N"!`1"3" +$$/"&(./'%(" o o o o W'#3.&'"!"'%7$0" /$,%+"10"&#-$$4" <$2N"<'44O" o o o o W'#3.&'"!"<,44"+'(" ,%"(2$.*4'",9"!" /$%`("/$"<'44O" o o o o W'#3.&'"!`44"9''4" 2'3440"*3/"3*$.(" 10&'49",9"!"/$%`(" /$"<'44O" o o o o W'#3.&'",(`&" ,15$2(3%("($"1'" ($"(20"($"/$"<'44" ,%"&#-$$4O" o o o o W'#3.&'"!"<,44"9''4" 2'3440"52$./"$9" 10&'49",9"!"/$" <'44O" o o o o W'#3.&'"!"1,+-(" +'("3"2'<32/",9"!" /$"<'44O" o o o o " Page Break

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 58 What is your year of birth? LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL " What is the highest level of school you have completed or the highest degree you have received? o a' &&"(-3%"-,+-"&#-$$4"/'+2''" o X,+-"&#-$$4"+23/.3('"=-,+-"&#-$$4"/,54$13"$2"' ;.,634'%(",%#4./,%+"bJT>"" o D$1'"#$44'+'"*.("%$ /'+2''"" o G&&$#,3('" /'+2''",%"#$44'+'"=C 8 0'32>"" o W3#-'4$2Z&" /'+2''",%"#$44'+'"=F 8 0'32>"" o K3&('2Z&"/'+2''"" o T$#($234"/'+2''"" o c2 $9'&&,$%34"/'+2''"=dT)"KT>"" " Choose one or more races that you consider yourself to be: ) TjET Q q 0.24 0 0 0.24 107.2828 257.28 cm BT 116 0 0 116 0 0 Tm /TT5 1 Tf ( _-,('"" )Tj ET Q q 0.24 0 0 0.24 107.2828 225.6 cm BT 116 0 0 116 0 0 Tm /TT5 1 Tf( W4 3#N"$2"G92,#3%"G1'2,#3%"" ) Tj ET Q q 0.24 0 0 0.24 107.2828 193.92cm BT 116 0 0 116 0 0 Tm /TT5 1 Tf ( G1'2,# 3%"!%/,3%"$2"G43&N3"@3(,6'"" ) Tj ET Q q 0.24 0 0 0.24 107.2828 162cm BT 116 0 0 116 0 0 Tm /TT5 1 Tf ( G&,3%"" ) Tj ET Q q 0.24 0 0 0.24 107.2828 130.32cm BT 116 0 0 116 0 0 Tm /TT5 1 Tf ( @3(,6'"X3<3,,3%"$2"c3#,9,#"!&4 3%/'2"" )Tj ET Q q 0.24 0 0 0.24 107.2828 98.63999 cm BT 116 0 0 116 0 0 Tm /TT5 1Tf ( S(-'2"" LLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLL

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MOTIVATION, MINDSET, AND LIFE SATISFACTION 59 Are you Spanish, Hispanic, Latino or none of these? o D53%,&-"" o X,&5 3%,#"" o a3(,%$"" o @$%'"$9"(-'&'"" " What is your sex? o K34'"" o ^'134'"" End of Block: Battery