Citation
Development of Vocabulary and Phonological Skills in Children with Normal Hearing and Cochlear Implants

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Title:
Development of Vocabulary and Phonological Skills in Children with Normal Hearing and Cochlear Implants
Creator:
Smythe, Heather Lynn
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Notes

Abstract:
Problem Statement: Children with hearing loss experience both degraded sensory inputs and diminished experiences with language, making language learning difficult. Two important kinds of language structure are vocabulary and word-internal phonemes. For children with normal hearing, the lexical restructuring model is usually posited as explaining the relationship between the acquisition of these two levels of language structure. According to this model, children's earliest vocabularies consist of whole word units, rather than sequences of phonemes as adult vocabularies do. As the child's vocabulary grows and their auditory attention to acoustic details in the speech signal improves, they begin to attend to those acoustic details that define phonemes. Thus, vocabulary and phonemic acquisition progress in a scaffolded manner, each supporting the development of the other. But does that happen for children with hearing loss who lack both experience and refined acoustic representations? If so, what is the primary direction of influence? And finally, does literacy acquisition support the development of either vocabulary or phonemic structure to a significant extent? These were the questions addresses in this study. Upon reviewing the available literature, we predicted that phonological skills would most strongly influence vocabulary development for children with cochlear implants (CIs) Participants: Children from a longitudinal study of language acquisition participated. Twenty-eight of these children had normal hearing (NH), and 28 had severe-to-profound hearing loss and used CIs. Otherwise, these children were well matched on age and socioeconomic status, two factors that account for language abilities. Methods: Data on vocabulary skills, phonemic awareness, and word reading were collected from these children when they were 14 years of age. Data collected at younger ages from these children and others in the same longitudinal study were also used. Cross-lagged correlational analyses were performed to investigate patterns of significant impact among variables. Results: Outcomes showed significant relationships only at young ages. Although there were some cross-lagged relationships between vocabulary and phonemic acquisition, the onset of literacy accounted for a lot of the development in both vocabulary and phonemic structure observed for these deaf children with CIs in those early elementary grades. Conclusion: Early literacy activities can significantly impact language acquisition for deaf children who have CIs. ( en )
General Note:
Awarded Bachelor of Health Science, summa cum laude, on May 8, 2018. Major: Communication Sciences and Disorders
General Note:
College or School: College of Public Health & Health Professions
General Note:
Advisor: Susan Nittrouer. Advisor Department or School: Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences

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University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
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Copyright Heather Lynn Smythe. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Full Text

PAGE 2

Abstract Problem Statement: Participants: Methods:

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Results: Conclusion:

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Introduction Review of the Literature

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Present Study

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Methods p

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p Table 1. NH ( =28) CI ( = 28)

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Results TABLE 2. Expressive vocabulary, phonemic awareness, and word reading scores for NH and CI groups. NH CI N N t p d .008 .025 <.001 <.001 <.001 <.001 .041 .019 .022 t p

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p

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Figure 1.

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Figure 2. Figure 3.

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Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6.

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Discussion and Conclusions

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Acknowledgements

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References Newborn Hearing Screening. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 43 Journal of Communication Disorders, 44 Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 21 Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test Fourth Edition. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 60, Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research, 59 Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 108,

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Journal of Child Language, 38 Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 33 Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17 Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 56, Memory & Cognition, 14 WRAT 4: Wide range achievement test (Professional manual). Pediatrics