1 Capstone Project Report: Community Analysis Yedan Niu Mentor: Bahar Armaghani Spring 2018
2 Table o f content s 1. Abstract 3 2. Introduction 2. 1 Background and o bjective s 2. 2 M ethodology 2. 3 Home weatherization 8 2.4 C ommunity Weatherization Coalition 16 3. Data analysis 3.1 Source 19 3.2 Design of the methodology 20 4. Result 4.1 Household #1 4.2 House hold #2 4.3 Household #3 4.4 Overall Results 5 N ew documentations 30 6 Conclusion 35 38
3 1. Abstract Buildings consume more than 40% of the total primary energy consumption in the world and even more than 50% in some countries ( Department of Energy DoE ) In the United States, more than half of the energy consumption in buildings come from residential bui ldings, in increase the energy efficiency of residential buildings became increasingly critical for sustainability in the built environment. There are many organi zations, profit orientated and non profit, provide weatherization services for American homes to save energy and money. Community Weatherization Coalition (CWC) is one of the non profit and government funded organizations that help low income families weat herize their homes in Gainesville, Florida. This project will develop and deliver an introduction to the general home weatherization process in the United States, a cost benefit analysis based on local pre and post weatherization utilities data from different households in Gainesville, Florida and ups.
4 2. Introduction 2.1 Background and Objectives United States is one of the most developed and urbanized countries in the world with urban population accounts for over 80% of the total population ( U.S. Census Bureau ) Most cities in the U.S. share a very prevalent urban planning strategy and inhabitation patterns, suburbanization. Single family housing is the most common type of housing for the mass middle class Americans. The majority of residential building constructi on were located tens of miles away from urban centers with expressway access. Suburbanization became the mainstream of housing after the World War II and it is still the dominant residential option in the country as shown in this chart in 2017 (U.S. Bureau of the Census). U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and U.S. Census Bureau
5 Additionally, those fastest growing cities in the United States tend to have lower urban population percentages within the city limits. The numbers below only represent the population patterns within the city limits. In reality, there is plenty of suburban housings outside of the city limit in New York and Chicago. This trend is telling us that the suburb is still growing together with the unsustainable practices such as heavy reliance on cars, appliances for every singe house, and large amount of condition ed space per person. Suburbanization lifestyle, heavy reliance on automobiles, and single family housings make residential buildings account for more than twenty percent of all energy consumption ( DoE) While United States being one of the largest energ y consumer in the world, making American homes more energy efficient will be critical for the environment. The savings on utility bills and green jobs generated in this business can benefit economy. There are also b enefits for social equality since poor people pays the highest percentage of their incomes on utilities. In reality, a lot of American want to improve their homes including better insulation conditions and appliance efficiency to save money and energy.
6 Number of homes received energy efficiency improvement. 2011 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and U.S. Census Bureau The federal, state, county, and city governments realized the importance and potential savings and benefits that home weatherization can bring to households and the environment. There are many local, non profit, government funded organizations throughout the country wanting to improve the conditions of American homes for low costs or no costs. The goal of this movement i s to promote sustainability in the three most important aspects, environmental, social, and economic. Community Weather ization Coalition (CWC) is one of them wanting to help.
7 2.2 Methodology For this project, the methodology includes five different sections, evaluation, analysis, energy tune up program, help improve the existing documentations, and ma ke recommendation. The first part is to study CWC, learn how the organization works and what they do. The second part is to analyze the issues they have and what can be done to improve the effectiveness of the program. I have communicated with the program coordinator of CWC to discuss what they think they need help with together with my past working and volunteering experiences with CWC to best benefit the organization. The third part is to design the data analysis, from data sourcing, calculation, comparis ons, and results presenting. Additionally, the design phase includes the existing unsatisfying documentations and information materials of CWC and this project will provide new paperwork in digital forms. Then, the project will develop a final product and display the results from data analysis. The fifth part, also the most important part, is to implement products from this project into real life, to benefit the organization and people living in Gainesville, Florida better understand the home weatherization process and what they can do to save energy.
8 2.3 An Introduction to Home Weatherization What A home weatherization includes a complete house inspection, appliance replacement, building envelop insulation, and an education session. The house inspection session is very similar to an energy audit for a commercial building. It is the assessment of the e nergy needs and efficiency walls, doors, and windows conditions, ages and types of the given house The primary function of the inspection is to identify the need to receive professional house retrofitting The scale and scope of building retrofitting var y depending on the conditions of the building and the level of energy waste reduction the household desires. What CWC usually do is to take notes on as many things as the volunteers can and come back to fix the major issues they are having later with coope ration with other non profit organizations. Appliance replacement session varies largely due to different budgets and different expectations of the property owner. This could involve essential appliances replacement such as the HVAC system, ductworks, and even the entire ceiling insulation. For low budget
9 households, which is the most common case for CWC, energy auditors usually change the pre existing inefficient incandescent light bulbs with the LED bulbs that consume less and last longer. Additionally, there are water saving appliances such as aerators and shower heads to replace the old, leaky, inefficient, and broken ones. Efficient water fixtures do not only help save water, but also save the electricity waste for unnecessary water heating. Building envelop insulation is another important sector of the overall efficiency ratings of the buildings. The biggest energy consumption in residential building goes into space heating and space cooling. Having a best insulated house means less heat gained from outside air during summer times and less heat loss to outside air during winter times which could lead to big change in energy consumption. Home weatherization includes fixing the air leak in houses which is actually very common in older houses. Air holes can exist in the utility rooms, floor, ceiling, rooftop, and power outlets. Home weatherization requires the auditor to fix those leaks by installing air strips, draft stopper, insulation pipe in appropriate locations to increase the overall efficiency. The e ducation session is usually achieved by the interactive communication between the trained volunteers and residents The volunteers will need to show the resident what they have done to their houses and how that will increase the energy efficiency. At the end of the home weatherization process, volunteers would have a review of the house and make recommendations on how to further save utilities by changing daily behaviors. This will include a short lesson with the provided energy saving tips sheet with feasible actions at low costs or
10 no costs. Residents are also asked to commit themselves actually put one or more tips into practices as an effort to save utilities. Just having more efficient home is not good enough, people need to be more considering when they are using different appliances. Who A home weatherization process is usually performed by professionals with engineering or construction backgrounds in a commercial activity. However, for the non profit and complimentary services funded by city government, it is most often performed by volunt eers who have been trained for ten hours or so. Those training sessions would teach the volunteers the proper knowledge and skills to analyze and improve the energy efficiency of buildings. There are many good reasons for households to weatherize their homes. For example, the home weatherization includes an energy audit which analyzes consumption which allows households to visualize how much energy their building uses and how it can be decreased. It also reduces the e nergy consumption and thus reduces the carbon footprint which will contribute to a cleaner environment. In addition, the recommendations made by trained volunteers on house operation will help the residents increase the lifespan of different appliances suc h as HVAC system and light bulbs which can significantly reduce the operation costs.
11 Home weatherization is widely available throughout the country and save s a lot of energy and money. A ddition ally less peak load demand increases grid reliability. Tools and appliances The tools of the trade are imperative to a successful home weatherization process For a commercial energy audit, more professional and accurate tools are required and those are usually very expensive for non profit organizations. One example is the flow hood. The flow hood is placed over the return and supply air ducts and measures the cubic feet per minute of air from the ducts. The purpose of this measurement is to determine the working condition of the current HVAC system and if they are working as they are supposed to. The HVAC system could be running inefficiently due to many reasons and most building occupants will not notice anything but pay an extra amount of electricity bill.
12 Another example is the micromanometer. The air pressure and air flow are very crucial indicators of the indoor air quality and occupant comfort. In addition, buildings should have a slight positive pressurization for the best energy efficiency T hermometers are important to determine the wo rking conditions of the air condition units and if they are working at the most efficient levels. Nowadays, most energy auditors use digital thermometers for better accuracy and convenience. Different types of air conditioning units have different most ef ficient working power factors. Community Weatherization Coalition provides a kit full of appliances and tools necessary for an energy audit. There is a numerical
13 thermometer to testing the hot water temperature to analyze the heat loss of the hot water pip e from the water heat to different aerators indoor. There is also a digital thermometer for testing the air temperature of the return and supply fans on ceiling or walls. In the energy audit kits provided by Community Weatherization Coalition, there are twelve A19 LED bulbs that consume 6w or 9w which are suitable for most lightings in American homes. There are additionally four smaller LED bulbs, the candelabra for smaller applia nces. In most cases, this number of bulbs are enough to replace all the pre existing frequently used incandescent light bulbs in the households. The LED bulbs work for so much less electricity and last a lot longer than those old fashioned incandescent bul bs. They also have a higher candle footage and color identification closer to natural sunlight. These light bulbs are usually most appreciated by the households since they are usually a lot brighter than the old ones and much more energy efficient at th e same time. The amount of heat emitted is minimal compared to the incandescent bulbs. In most cases, one new LED
14 bulb is good enough to enlighten a medium size bathroom. Community Weatherization Coalition also provides additional bulbs if the resident nee d more and usually leave a couple if they need to replace some of them. In addition, Commun ity Weatherization Coalition provides free water saving fixtures such as efficient shower heads, kitchen sink aerators, bathroom sink aerators, and toilet water tank bank. Those new shower heads and aerators are produced by the most advanced technology fir ms with better performances on cleaning and pressurization with half of the water consumption per minute compared to the old ones that are prevalent in contemporary American homes. Bathroom sink aerators can be working as low as 0.5 gallon per minute while most existing ones are 1.5 gallon per minute. These appliances will work perfectly fine for resident ial buildings and can save tons of fresh water
15 Another appliance provided by CWC is the carbon monoxide detector. Volunteers will help install those for the households with gas units present in their homes for free. These detectors work as an air quality monitor indoor to send alert when there is gas leak in the unit. Additionally, it is very common to not have a working smoke detector in low income famil ies which is not legal according to federal law and is a serious fire safety concern. The volunteers can help the residents obtain a new working smoke detector for free from governmental agencies. During the energy tune up, it is very common for the volunteers to insulate the pipes with hot water flowing through to prevent heat loss. These insulations can be installed near the water heater or outside near the compressor unit to help air conditioning units work more efficiently. Different types of air leak stoppers are included as well. Volunteers install outlet gaskets on exterior wall to insulate the conditioned space from outside air and seal the house.
16 2.4 Community Weatherization Coalition Community Weatherization Coalition (CWC) is a non prof it organization and a grassroots community coalition founded in 2007. It is a relatively small, local coalition in Gainesville, Florida. Its goal is to improve home weatherization conditions and energy efficiency for low income families in Alachua County. The organization works through education, volunteer work projects, and community building. CWC has partnership with many local organizations such as UF IFAS, Rebuilding Together North Central Florida, Gainesville Regional Utility ( GRU ) United Church of Gainesville and many others. The operation funding of CWC come primarily from those partners and donors all over the country. The amazing volunteers mostly operate the organization. Actually, there is only one paid full time staff member which is impressive. V olunteers are mostly university students and retired professionals in many different related fields that have passions on energy efficiency and the well beings of the community. V olunteers are donating their hours to make CWC happeni ng and to help the community in social and cultural aspects of sustainability.
17 The projects CWC does for homeowners are called energy tune ups, it is a complete house or apartment inspection of the weatherization conditions and damage s of the buildings Trained energy coaches will also replace the inefficient appliances such as incandescent light bulbs and high flow showerheads Additionally, t hey re pair air leaks that is making Air Conditioning units inefficient and insulate pipes to prevent energy loss on transportation. At the end of the tune ups, they will give the residents an educative course on energy saving tips and knowledge about th eir utility bills. They also ask the household s to commit doing one energy saving tip such as adjusting the air conditioning settings Volunteers are trained by the training sessions that happen twice a year to become energy coaches and help householders. Water and electricity conservation is very impo rtant in the sustainability movement, CWC is starting from the smaller things in houses that can make a big difference in the long terms. The initial incentive of CWC is that People are paying way too much for their utilities because of inefficient appl iances and a lack of knowledge on how to save energy. Promoting sustainability in the neighborhood is an important category of community design. People need help from the society, especially low income families that are paying two hundred dollars every mon th for utilities. CWC targets people that are struggling with their bills and cannot afford new appliances to make their lives better off. Even though major repairing and renewable energy facilities installing is not feasible due to the budget, small thing s can add up to a decent saving
18 on the bills. Those savings are fairly significant for seniors and disabled people that live on social securities. The energy tune ups use a variety of knowledge from energy auditing, home construction, appliances efficiency, building weatherization, and many other fields. Energy coaches can use interdisciplinary knowledge and skills to r etrofit and weatherize homes. C WC would like the households that received help from CWC to pass on the message to their neighbors and friends to build the sustainable connections between families and create a culture of sustainability in environmental, social and cultural aspects. CWC i s also on multiple social medias and very active in local events to advertise the organization and help more people in need. CWC is a great organization that help people in need. The numbers of people they helped are growing every year. It reached ten year old last year and greater development in the future is waiting for CWC to accomplish.
19 3.Data analysis 3.1 Source To conduct a scientific, unbiased, and reliable cost benefit analysis, there are several groups of datasets needed to be collected. The economic benefits of home weatherization come primarily from monthly savings of the utility bills as a result of increas ed energy efficiency of houses or apartments. consumption by months in different periods, before the home weatherization process and after the home weatherization process. In order to limit the variables between different seasons, both of the datasets should contain at lease twelve months of utility data because utility consumption fluctuate significantly in different seasons of a year. In this project, those utility data includes meter ed consumption of water and electricity every month, actual bill amount, and corresponding taxes and fees. The datasets come directly from the utility providing government owned company, Gainesville Regional Utility (GRU). The other necessary data for this project is the estimated costs associated with the home weatherization process. Even though the services provided by Community Weatherization Coalition is completely complimentary, it is necessary to estimate all costs associated with the home weatherizat ion to determine whether it could be profitable and beneficial for both the households and commercial organizations providing similar services. The cost sector includes new energy efficient appliances, labor, insurance, transportation, administration fees and all other possible
20 costs. Community Weatherization Coalition estimated t he number as an evaluation of their services. 3.2 Design of the analysis For the cost benefit analysis, this project will calculate the specific numbers on savings on electrici ty and water bills in a month and a year. Results will include the amount of utility, kilowatt hour (kwh) of electricity and thousand gallons (kGals) of water saved on average monthly basis and annually. The datasets include the past GRU bills of three hou seholds in the last three years from April 2015 to March 2018. The home weatherization processes of these three households were done by CWC around March 2017 so we have two years of utility data before the weatherization and one year of data after. The amo unt of actual bills will be calculated based on the utility bill calculator sheet provided by GRU for different months and full years which can be found in appendix page. To make the results more appealing, a calculation on the percentages change in consum ption and bills and charts of different datasets will be included. A calculation of the return on investment (ROI) will be included at the end of the results to figure out how many months or years it will take to replenish the initial cost of a home weathe rization process based on the average savings from three different households. Other data sources and analysis done by CWC and other organizations will be referenced to formulate a stronger argument on the ROI.
21 4. Results 4.1 Household #1 The results of all three household will be presented separately and together with both electricity data and water data. There are many variables that cannot be controlled in this project, such as number of residents in different time periods, climate diffe rences, or new appliances. Relying on one dataset from one household is not realistic or reliable. To decrease the uncontrolled variables, we need to average the savings of three household compared to the average levels of two different years to make the r esults more reliable. Before analyzing the utility datasets, it is critical to learn about the basic information of houses and what specific actions volunteer did for the house. To start with the first household, the date of the home weatherization is Apri l 1 st 2017. The house is in northeastern Gainesville with all utilities provided by GRU. The resident is a homeowner of the single family house about sixteen years old. The house has two bedrooms and two bathrooms, and the approximate size is over two tho usand square feet. According to the inspection form filled out by the volunteer, he weatherization process lasted four hour, they i nstalled new water saving aerator s in kitchen and bathroom s. They also installed water tank displacement bag in the toilet ta nks and insulated water heater pipe (the hot side). As for the appliances, they i nstalled thirteen LED bulbs in the house and the resident made a commitment to unplug appliances not in use and turn off ceiling fans to save energy.
22 As shown in the chart, the blue columns represent the monthly electricity consumption from April 2015 to March 2016, the red columns represent the monthly electricity consumption from April 2016 to March 2017. The home weatherization was delivered then and a nother twelve months of electricity consumption after the weatherization are represented by the green columns. The average monthly consumption in three years are 650 kwh, 717 kwh, and 704 kwh. The post weatherization consumption increased by 8.3% compared to 2015 which has a result of additional 648 kwh used in one year. However, when compared to 2016, the average monthly consumption decreased about 2% and saved 156 kwh annually. Overall, the monthly electricity consumption increased 3.2%. In terms of the a ctual electricity costs, according to weatherization from CWC.
23 As for the water consumption, the results are actually more positive. While the consumption data in some months increased, the average consumption went down and had saved the resident some money. The average monthly water consumption in the past three years are 2.25 kGals, 2.42 kGals, and 1.83 kGals. There is an average savings of 20% of water consumption which had saved the resident over six thousand gallons of water and $52.62 on their water bills in one year. Overall, due to the increase in electricity bills, the household actually paid $7 more in 2017 compared to the average of 2015 and 2016. The reason of this is not clear but maybe related to household behaviors and change in number of residents. To
24 4.2 Household #2 T he home weat herization process for this house was delivered also on April 1 st 2017. The house is in Northeastern Gainesville and about nineteen years old. The resident is a homeowner of this single family house. GRU is their utility provider. The audit lasted three and half hours and some findings the volunteers took notes are exi sting 64 gal garbage which costs $27 a month and missing A/C air filter This circumstance is very common in American homes since many people do not know how much they pay for the large garbage bin every month and how air filter are essential for indoor ai r quality. The volunteers i nstalled a new carbon monoxide detector and kitchen sink aerator. They c leaned the fridge foil which will increase the efficiency of refrigerator. They also i nstalled new water saving s hower head s and insulated water heater pipe on the hot side. There were incandescent bulbs present, so they replaced fifteen of them. The power factor of a working bulb decreased from 60w to 6w. In addition, they i nstalled nine outlet gaskets to stop air gaps on exterior walls and better weatherize the house In the end, they also r eviewed specific recommendation s and resident committed to purchase air filter and replace the leaking toilet
25 As shown in the chart, the electricity consumption does not reflect a positive change for the environment or the resident. The average monthly electricity consumption in the past three years are 503 kwh, 737 kwh, and 916 kwh. The monthly consumption has been increasing in the past three years even after the home was weatherized by CWC volunteers. It increased ab out 24.3% compared to the average level from 2015 to 2017 and a total of additional 2148 kwh was consumed in the year after the weatherization. In terms of the bills, the resident spent $509 more than the past two years on electricity. Many variables canno t be controlled in this study and t he reasons of th e increase in consumption are unidentified.
26 In terms of water consumption, we can clearly see the two extremely high consumption in October and November 2016. These two outliers are because of a severe leak and it was fixed afterwards. The effect is immediate after the home weatherization. The avera ge monthly water consumption in the past three years are 4.75 kGals, 11.83 kGals, and 3.58 kGals. The improvement on water fixtures is obvious. The twelve months after the home weatherization had saved the planet over 56 thousand gallons of fresh water and saved the resident $561.6 annually on water bills. If we combine the water and electricity data, overall, the post weatherization twelve months saved the resident $ 52.1 in total which is helpful.
27 4.3 Household #3 This house received the service from CWC on March 11 th 2017, around the same time with two other houses. It is in Southeastern Gainesville and the building is a multi family structure about five years old. The audit lasted two hours and does not have a gas unit. The house hold is a homeowner and the utility are provided by GRU. During the Energy Tune up, the volunteers found inefficient bulbs outdoor and indoor and replaced them with sixteen LED bulbs. The apartment has two bathrooms. They also installed new sink aerator and outlet gaskets fo r air loss. The resident committed to clean a/c filter regularly. They also noted that the household need follow up plumbing repairs and sealing the windows and doors. For electricity, the chart has shown a very good trend with decreasing electricity consumption in the past three years. The average monthly electricity consumption are 936 kwh, m saved
28 about 50% of the consumption before. That adds up to about 4300 kwh of electricity in one year saved. In terms of the electricity bills, the estimated monetary savings of last year is around $632.9, a huge number for just electricity bills that cou ld have really helped the household financially. The water consumption chart of the third household has very simila r pattern with electricity, both are positive and helpful for the environment and residents. The average monthly water consumption in the past three years are 5.08 kGals, 3.33 kGals, and 2.58 kGals, a very clear descending number of the consumption. The percentage of the savings is about 38.6% compared to pre weatherization months. The monetary saving is also exciting, the residents saved $ 179.4 in the one year after CWC weatherized their apartment. Overall, with just one year.
29 4.4 Overall results To get a more accurate and reliable number, we averaged the different numbers of three household. The average saving of all utilities is about $285 in the first year after they up. What is even more exciting is that this saving is continuous and will likely keep growing in th e future considering the longer lifespan of those new appliances. The estimated costs of the home weatherization process based on the data provided by CWC and other scientific journals, is widely ranging from $80 t o $300. This means that the ROI, return of investment, in most cases is less than one year. Householders will see net benefits less than twelve months after they made their initial investment. This number coming from these three datasets is actually very similar with the data analyzed by CWC which is $250 annually saving for each family, 1200 kwh electricity savings, and over 6000 gallons of water.
30 5. New documentations One of the most effective strategies to reduce the energy consumption is through when not in use or using dishwasher for a few dishes. More sustainable behav iors can be achieved through education which I consider one of the most important sessions in a home weatherization process. There are surprising a lot of households do not know how utility bills work and what energy waste can be easily reduced. That infor mation can be very helpful for the residents and can have an even bigger impact than a new air handler. While communicating with the program coordinator of Community Weatherization Coalition, I learned that CWC also wants to improve the education session i n the Energy Tune up by upgrading the energy saving tip sheet and follow up survey. These are the second part of this project, the new documentations. These two photos are the pre existing questionnaire form and old energy saving tip sheet. They are lo ng and wordy with no graphic which make them not attractive for kids and
31 adults. The old energy saving tip sheet especially has too much information that is unnecessary and too much information can have the reverse effect on people, they may not read them at all. Additionally, some of the tips are very costly and time consuming which are not very feasible considering that CWC most commonly help low income families. Another disadvantage of this sheet is that it is not motivating enough. The most important mo tivation for people to follow the tips are money that they can save and the amount of energy they can save by following the instruction. This form does not emphasize the numbers. The goals of the new revised energy saving sheet are to increase participatio n, make residents committed to the instruction, put more numbers in monetary values as motivation, and make it simpler and more attractive with more graphics.
32 These two pages are the newly designed energy saving tip sheet that volunteers will leave with residents after they finish the home weatherization process. These two sheets will be printed in one page, front and back. Some advantages of th is new sheet are that they are simple, not wordy, and graphical which make it enjoyable to read for b oth kids and adults. In addition, the tips described on this sheet are specifically designed for lower income families as they are all low costs or no costs actions that everyone can make. As you can see on the sheet, every tip has emphasized a number for the amount of money, gallons of water, or kwh of electricity that they can save themselves by doing so. These numbers are from reliable sources, such as Department of Energy or local utility provider, Gainesville Regional Utility. These numbers will really specifically for all residents living in Alachua County with the real number of organizations they can obtain further help with. The sheet has a nice green color and some blue text which really resonate with the logo design of Community Weatherization Coalition. Making it colorful and pretty will encourage the residents to leave the sheet somewhere they can see everyday such as on the door of the refrigerator.
33 This is how the old post energy tune up follow up survey looks like. This project will improve this form to better educate residents about energy efficiency of their homes. This improv ed. It did not ask how much they have learnt and gained from participating a home weatherization process and that should be one of the most important sections of the whole program. CWC need feedbacks on how much they learned and how well those volunteers t aught them to improve the interactive education session of the energy tune up. The form also asks several unnecessary questions that residents could hardly recall the details.
34 This is the new follow up survey for the residents to complete two weeks after they receive the home weatherization. This form is still back and white since it eventually goes to the office instead of leaving at households. This form asks for feedbacks of the interactive education session on how much they learned in different a spects of home efficiency. There are abundant options for the residents to choose from and can clearly demonstrate the level of their knowledge in given categories. Additionally, the answers are quantifiable and there will be a final score of their overall knowledge on home weatherization for the sake of simple comparison on how well the volunteers taught the residents. Furthermore, CWC can train their new volunteers specifically for the interactive education course with residents.
35 6 .Conclusion After the introduction, data analysis, and documentation recommendation in this project, it is not hard to draw the conclusion. The return of investment is very high which makes home weatherization a beneficial and profitable program that could be largely implemente d in American homes. The fundamental structure of American residential buildings can not be changed in few decades. As a result, even though we should keep pushing the development of sustainable housing, dense living urban space, and multi family structure s, large scale home weatherization would be the best solution right now to immediately reduce the mass energy consumption in the United States and reduce the carbon footprint contributed from American homes. Aerial view of southwest Gainesville, map.go ogle.com
36 Based on the data and literature review materials, we know there are tremendous amount of old and new constructions that have not received home weatherization. The potential positive impact of the large implementation of home weatherization is huge and can really make an impact. Federal, State, and City government should keep funding those non profit organizations and really devote even more energy into education of sustainable livings and how that will affect our world and climate change. They are proven t o be cost effective for both the organizations and the residents. The next step is to largely popularize the program to the entire country. Those organizations and their real life practices will benefit the society and the environment. As for the program of Community Weatherization Coalition, the most important recommendation for the energy tune keep following up with the residents until they see the monetary and environmental benefits themselves. The m ain reasons people do not follow along with the recommendations made by energy auditors are simply being lazy and uncertain about the outcomes. The scientific results are there for motivating them and CWC should really motivate the clients in that way.
37 P In conclusion, home weatherization is a field needs rapid development in the coming years. Due to the large benefits for the sustainability in social, environmental, and economic aspect, tremendous advances are expected in the short future. The large scale will need to further comprehend the potential benefits and support the countrywide home weatherization movement. As one of the most developed countries in the world, the United States should really catch up to become a leader in sustainability and help mitigate the negative impacts from anthropogenic climate change.
38 7. Appendix
39 Bibliography Moncef Krati for Existing Homes, Chapter 1, 2012, p1 26 Neyon Keynote Presentation. (n.d.). Retrieved December 04, 2017, from https://graphicriver.net/item/neyon keynote presentation/8923184 E. (2017, May 10). U.S. Energy Information Administration EIA Independent Statistics and Analysis. Retrieved December 03, 2017, from https://www.eia.gov/tools/faqs/faq.php?id=86&t=1 https://cfpub.epa.gov/roe/chapter/air/indoorair.cfm GRU https://www.gru.com/MyHome/ProductsServices/NaturalGas.aspx Follow up on Home Energy Audits? Resources for the Future Retrieved April 12, 2018, from http://www.rff.org/files/document/file/RFF DP 15 34.pdf Considine, Timothy, and Onur Sapci. 2013. The Effectiveness of Home Energy Audits: A Case Study of Jackson, Wyoming. Working paper. Laramie, WY: Center for Energy Economics and Public Policy Crabgras s Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States, Kenneth T. Jackson and published in 1985
40 Kolko, J. (2015, December 30). How Suburban Are Big American Cities? Retrieved April 02, 2018, from https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how suburban are big america n cities/ U.S. Census Bureau and U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, New Residential Construction, March 16, 2018. Additional information on the survey methodology may be found at United States Summary: 2010 (PDF). 2010 Census of Population and Housing, Population and Housing Unit Counts CPH 2 5. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC : U.S. Census Bureau 2012. pp. 20 26 Retrieved March 2013