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The Effect of Social Desirability on Self-Reports about Female Orgasm

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The Effect of Social Desirability on Self-Reports about Female Orgasm
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Kravitz, Rebecca
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Despite the length of research done on female orgasm, self-report studies investigating heterosexual women's experiences with pleasure have made divergent conclusions about female orgasm. For example, Herbenick et al. (2018) found about 55% of women are able to orgasm from penile-vaginal intercourse, or thrusting alone. Alternatively, Mintz (2018) found only about 4% of women can orgasm from thrusting alone, and the vast majority of women actually need clitoral stimulation in order to reliably orgasm. The study conclusions, while completed in the same year, found widely different conclusions about female orgasm. Additionally, The Hite Report (1976) found about 86.5% of women pleasure themselves by stimulating the clitoris, which is mechanically dissimilar from penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI). The purpose of this study was to replicate the Mintz (2018) and Herbenick et al. (2018) questions to assess if question semantics impact conclusions in self-report surveys on female orgasm. Another goal was to test whether or not survey respondents are answering questions in a socially desirable manner if they answer PVI is enough to orgasm. Finally, this study expanded on Hite's (1976) data on the different ways women pleasure themselves. This study found very similar results to Mintz's (2018) and Herbenick et al.'s (2018) replicated questions, indicating the way questions are asked about female orgasm impact the way women report their experiences. While not significant, the mean social desirability scores of women were higher if survey respondents indicated PVI was enough to orgasm for both Mintz's (2018) and Herbenick et al.'s (2018) questions. A majority of women also reported they practice clitoral stimulation when pleasuring themselves, which is similar to Hite's (1976) findings. ( en )
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Awarded Bachelor of Science, Major: Psychology, and Bachelor of Arts, cum laude, Major: Women's Studies, on May 8, 2018.
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College or School: College of Liberal Arts and Sciences
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Advisor: Gregory Webster, Laurie Mintz. Advisor Department or School: Psychology

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Copyright Rebecca Kravitz. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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! "#$$%$&'()*+,'-./012'34-0"1502067'183'94:124'.";1: The Effect of Social Desirability on Self Reports about Female Orgasm Rebecca Kravitz University of Florida

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: Abstract Despite the length of research done on female orgasm self report studies investigating heterosexual women's expe riences wi th pleasure have made divergent c onclusions about female orgasm For example, Herbenick et al. (2017) found about 55% of women are able to orgasm from penile vaginal intercourse, or thrusting alone. Alternatively, Mintz (2017) found only about 4% of women can orgasm from thrusting alone, and the vast majority of women actually need clitoral stimulation in order to reliably orgasm. The study conclusions, while completed in the same year, found widely different conclusions about female orgasm. Additionally, T he Hite Report (1976) found about 86.5% of women pleasure themselves by stimulating the clit oris, which is mechanically dissimilar from penile vaginal intercourse (PVI). The purpose of this study was to replicate the Mintz (2017) and Herbenick et al. (2017 ) questions to assess if question semantics impact conclusions in self report surveys o n female orgasm. Another goal was to test whether or not survey respondents are answering questions in a socially desirable manner if they answer PVI is enough to or gasm Finally, this study e xpand ed on Hite's (1976) data on the different ways women pleasure themselves. This study found very similar results to Mintz's (2017) and Herbenick et al. 's (2017) replicated questions, indicating the way questions are asked about f emale orgasm impact the way women report their experiences. While not significant, the mean social desirability scores of women were higher if survey respondents indicated PVI was enough to orgasm for both Mintz's (2017) and Herbenick et al. 's (2017) quest ions. A majority of women also reported they practice clitoral stimulation when pleasuring themselves, which is similar to Hite's (1976) findings.

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: # The Effect of Social Desirability on Self Reports a bout Female Orgasm Studies attempting to understand th e complexities of female genital anatomy and female pleasure, while varied in their approach and statistical conclusions, are not new to academia. For years, researchers have explored the female orgasm, or lack thereof, in relation to penile vaginal interc ourse (PVI) Conclusions have found female orgasms to be a variable and complicated phenomenon, with cultural and social dynamics increasing its complexity (Fahs 2014). The Hite Report (1976), which was the first nationwide (U.S.) study of female sexuality concluded that only about 30% of women are able to regularly orgasm during PVI This statistic has been widely cited, in both academic and popular articles. Nevertheless, critics of the Hite Report have pointed out the original qualitative survey questio ns did not differentiate participants who were able to reach orgasm during intercourse from thrusting alone from those who were able to reach orgasm during intercourse due to accompanying clitoral stimulation (Lloyd 2005). Interestingly, though, when two r ecent quantitative surveys made the distinction between orgasm during PVI from thrusting alone or coupled with clitoral stimulation, both reported that only about 15% of women have orgasms from thrusting alone (Joannides, 2017; Wallen & Llloyd, 2011). Acco rding to Mintz (2017), this percentage decreases further when women are asked about "their most reliable route to orgasm," with only 4% reporting that it is penile thrusting alone. In short, both the original Hite report (1976) and more recent studies (i.e ., Mintz, 2017; Joannides, 2017; Wallen & Llloyd, 2011), have concluded that the vast majority of women need clitoral stimulation to reach orgasm. Additionally, many highly acclaimed books by top sex educators and therapists underscore this same conclusion about the centrality of the clitoris to wom en's orgasms (e.g., Kerner, 2004 ; Mintz, 2017; Winston, 2009).

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: $ A recent study of women's experiences with genital touching, sexual pleasure, and orgasm, however, called these conclusions into question. In a nationwide survey of women, 36.6% of women reported that while they do not need clitoral stimulation to orgasm during intercourse, it enhanced orgasmic experience (Herbenick et al. 2017). Another 18.4% answered that they did not need any clitoral sti mulation to reach orgasm at all (Herbenick et al. 2017). In essence, then, this study concluded that about 55% of women report PVI alone is sufficient for orgasm (Herbenick et al. 2017). This study also reported that 29% of women are able to orgasm at leas t 75% of the time without any clitoral stimulation (Herbenick et. al, 2017), a finding also in opposition to prior research and writings. In considering what might account for these disparate findings, two related possibilities emerge. The first i s the cultural pressure that women are under to orgasm during intercourse and the second is the wording of the questions that may influence socially desirable responding based on these cultural pressures (Lloyd 2005; Sherazi et al. 2017). Popular culture ( e.g., magazines, TV shows, movies and pornography) commonly depict women having orgasms from thrusting alone (Mintz 2017). Several scholars ( Bryan 2001; Fahs & Swank 2011, 2014; Frith, 2013; Kerner, 2004; Mintz, 2017; Nagoski, 2015; Wade, Kremer, & Brown, 2005) point out strong cultural expectation of female orgasm during intercourse and a related labeling of women who do not orgasm during intercourse as abnormal. Scholars also point out that our predominant cultural script for sex includes the notion that the man is responsible for his female partner's orgasm and that he gives' her one by lasting long and thrusting hard (Kerner, 2004; Mintz, 2017; Salisbury & Fisher, 2014). Indeed, in a qualitative study exploring college students' beliefs regarding to fe male orgasm during intercourse, female study participants vocalized the

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: % importance of female orgasm to preserve their male partner's ego and feelings of being a competent sexual partner. Similarly, male students reported a lack of female orgasm to be distr essing, predominantly affecting their self esteem as a sexual partner (Salisbury & Fisher 2014), a finding also reported in a recent vignette study by Chadwick and van Anders (2017). Clearly, both women and men judge themselves harshly if female orgasm is not achieved through thrusting alone (Salisbury & Fisher 2014). It is no wonder, then, that a significant number of women report faking orgasm during heterosexual encounters that involve intercourse. On average, women fake orgasms during 20% of their het erosexual encounters and over half of women have faked an orgasm during at least one sexual encounter (Fahs 2011; Bryan 2001 ). The reasoning for faking orgasms is related to cultural beliefs about intercourse based orgasms being the ideal including feeli ngs of abnormality and consideration of a sexual partner's feelings. (Bryan 2001 ; Fahs 2011, 2014 ; Firth 2013). If women believe they should be having orgasms during intercourse and justify faking orgasms because of social implications, then it is equally possible women are answering survey questions about orgasms in what they believe to be a socially desirable way. That is, it is possible that if women are asked questions about how often they orgasm during intercourse, they will feel compelled t o exaggerate their response (i.e., overreport orgasm due to intercourse) due to the social desirability of orgasming during intercourse. Bolstering this hypothesis is the fact that when Mintz (2017) asked over 500 women a question about "their most reliabl e route to orgasm," very few (i.e., only 4%) answered "intercourse alone whereas 34% answered direct clitoral stimulation and 43% answered intercourse plus direct clitoral stimulation. These percentages are quite lower than the 55% reported by Herbenick et al. (2017) when questions

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: & asked about "orgasm during intercourse." This study will ask respondents both questions : Mintz's intercourse absent or "most reliable route to orgasm" question and Herbenick's question about "orgasm during intercourse while also assessing for socially desirable responding. This study will also ask participants about their masturbation habits, or more specifically, how often penetration is or is not included in their self pleasure. This question was asked in the qualitative s tudy included in the Hite Report (1976), with Hite reporting that only 1.5 percent of respondents pleasured themselves solely by putting something inside their vaginas, and another 12 percent sometimes or always put something inside their vaginas while sim ultaneously stimulating their external genitals. The rest (i.e., 86.5 percent) reported pleasuring themselves by focusing exclusively on stimulating their external genitals. While there have been studies asking women what motions they use to stimulate thei r external genitals while masturbating (Herbenick et al., 2017), we could find no studies asking self pleasure questions in accordance with the categories laid out by Hite. In sum, the purpose of this study is to ferret out effect s of social ly desirable responding in studies on women's orgasms during intercourse, as well as to ask women how they masturbate using the categories reported in the Hite (1976) report. The first goal of this study is to examine if the semantics of questions on female orgasm (i.e ., a question focusing on intercourse vs. a question focusing on most reliable route to orgasm) result in differing percentages reported of orgasm during intercourse ( cf. Mintz [ 2017 ] vs. Herbenick [ 2017 ] ), and if this disparity can be accounted for by soc ial desirability. The second goal is to obtain more data on women's penetrative versus non penetrative habits during masturbation, which can potentially shed more light on the cultural pressures to orgasm during intercourse since, as many authors have astu tely

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: ' pointed out (e.g., Kerner, 200 4; Llloyd, 2005 ; Mintz, 2017), women know how to pleasure themselves when alone but often forgo this pleasure during partner sex, due to cultural pressures for orgasm during intercourse. It is hoped that this study will f urther elucidate these cultural pressures and importantly, their effects on sexuality research. Method Participants Participants were 181 women; 81 were recruited from introductory psychology classes at the University of Florida, and 100 from Amazon's Mech anical Turk (MTurk), an online marketplace for paid research. Within each of these subsamples, roughly half of the women answered items that closely replicated either Mintz (2017) or Herbenick et al. (2017) All participants were asked to complete a demogr aphic survey, the Hite (1976) replication question, and the Balanced Inventory for Desirable Responding ( BIDR 16 ; described below) Women's ages ranged from 18 to 63 years ( M = 28.55 SD = 11.45). The respondents included in the survey sample were women wh o had participated in PVI In terms of race and ethnicity, participants self identified as follows: 1 Asian American/Pacific Islander (0.5%), 2 American Indian/Native American (1.1%), 16 Asian/Asian American (8.8%), 17 Hispanic/Latin American (9.4%), 25 Af rican/African American/Black (13.8%), 134 White/European American/Caucasian (74%). Regarding social class, participants identified as follows: 5 Lower Class (6.1%), 27 Working Class (32.9%), 43 Middle Class (52.4%), 6 Upper Middle Class (7.3%), and 1 Upper class (1.2%). Regating education women in the MTurk sample consisted of 11 High school graduates, diploma or equivalent (i.e. GED) (12.6%) ; 22 Some college credit, no degree (25.3%) ; 3 Trade/technical/vocational training (3.4%) ; 14 Associate's degree (16 .1%) ; 31

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: ( Bachelor's degree (35.6%) ; 5 Master's degree (5.7%), 1 Doctorate degree (1.1%). In the University of Florida subsample 48 identified as first year s (55.8%), 28 as second year s (33.7%), 5 as third year s (6%), and 2 as fifth year s (2.4%). Measures Demographic q uestionnair e Each s urvey participant completed a 15 question demographic questionnaire that consisted of questions about women's : ( a) age ( b) sex ( c) gender identity ( d) race/ethnicity ( e) sexual orientation ( f) education level ( g) soci al class and ( h) family social class. If a person did not identify with any of the options presented for each question, then they had the opportunity to select "other" and elaborate. The demographic questionnaire can be found in Appendix C Herbenick et a l. (2017) o rgasm d uring i ntercourse" q uestion The question replicated from the Herbenick et al. (2017) study was, "Which of the following best describes your experience with orgasm and penile vaginal intercourse?" The responses provided were, "I need my clitoris to be stimulated in order to have an orgasm during intercourse," "Although I don't need my clitoris to be stimulated in order to have an orgasm during intercourse, my orgasms feel better if my clitoris is stimulated during intercourse," "Vaginal p enetration is enough to help me have an orgasm (I don't need my clitoris to be stimulated in order to have an orgasm during intercourse)," "N/A I don't have orgasms during intercourse," and "Other (Please describe)." The Herbernick et al. (2017) question s can be found in Appendix E Mintz (2017) m ost r eliable r oute to o rgasm" q uestion The question replicated from the Mintz (2017 ) study was, "During partner sex, the most reliable route for me to reach orgasm is." The responses provided were, "Penile vagi nal intercourse alone (thrusting penis only),"

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: ) "Penile vaginal intercourse coupled with clitoral stimulation by myself or a partner," "Something that focuses solely on my clitoral stimulation such as oral sex or manual stimulation (separate from intercours e)," "Can't answer because I rarely if ever orgasm during partner sex," and "I have never had partner sex as described above." The Mintz (2017) question can be found in Appendix F Hite (1976) m asturbation q uestion The question created for this study, bas ed on the data reported in The Hite Report (1976) was, "What best describes what you do when you pleasure yourself?" The responses provided were, I focus completely on stimulating external genitals," I focus on stimulating my external genitals while some times simultaneously inserting something into my vagina," I focus on stimulating my external genitals while always simultaneously inserting something into my vagina," I insert something into my vagina and do not stimulate myself externally," and Other ( Please describe)." The Hite Report (1976) masturbation questi on can be found in Appen dix G. The Balanced Inventory for Desirable Responding (BIDR 16) The Balanced Inventory for Desirable Responding assesses socially desirable responding in self report su rveys (Hart et al. 2015). In self report surveys, it is imperative for respondents to report honest information for researchers to make accurate study conclusions. Social desirability scales are therefore widely used to determine whether respondents are a ccurately reporting their experiences related to survey questions or if social desirability is a contributing factor (Hart et al. 2015). Originally, the BIDR was a 40 item questionnaire with 20 questions pertaining to each of two factors: impression manag ement and self deceptive enhancement. Impression management is a bias toward pleasing others or a tendency to give inflated self reports for others.

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: *+ Self deceptive enhancement is excessively positive responding in order to perceive oneself more positively (Hart et al. 2015). Despite the reliability of the BIDR, some researchers are concerned by the length of the 40 item questionnaire. Long questionnaires added to an already long survey can cause the survey to be vulnerable to other measure errors from inattentive and bored respondents (Hart et al. 2015; Schmitt, Le, & Iles, 2003). Therefore, Hart, Ritchie, Hepper, and Gebauer (2015) introduced the short form of the BIDR, known as the BIDR 16. The BIDR 16 is a 16 item questionnaire that consists of 8 questions for the same two factors: impression management and self deceptive enhancement. Survey respondents are presented with 16 statements where they can disagree or agree with a statement by selecting a number on an 8 point scale (1= totally disagre e to 8 = totally agree ). An example of a n item is, "I have not always been honest with myself." Some items are reversed scored, and the higher a participant's score for the impression management and self deceptive enhancement questions, the more they are r eporting in a socially desirable manner for those factors. Hart et al.'s (2015) study compared the BIDR 16's reliability and validity in four different sub studies and found the BIDR 16 to be a sufficient replacement to the 40 item BIDR. The reliability of self deceptive enhancement and impression management were tested for reliability for the purposes of this study. Both self deceptive enhancement ( = .80) and impression management ( =. 77 ) show adaquate reliab ilities The BIDR 16 is shown in Appendix H Procedure H eterosexual women who are currently having sexual relations (including intercourse) with heterosexual men were recruited for two different samples. The first sample was University

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: ** of Florida undergraduate students, who were recruited via SONA, an online database of surveys where undergraduate students can participate in research surveys in exchange for course credit. Student s who participated in the survey received one course credit for their time. While there were 81 survey respondent s, the participants who had not yet participated in PVI had to be removed from this sample ( n = 58) The second sample was a nationwide sample of U.S. women who were recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) which is an online marketplace where qualifi ed workers are paid for participating in various project s Participants were paid US $1 f or participating in the survey. Each survey was internet based, hosted on Qualtrics, and advertised as a questionnaire about experiences with heterosexual intercourse, orgasm, and masturbation for heterosexual women. Women participating in the survey first read and agree d to an informed consent form. The informed consent form for each sample were slightly different and can be found in Appendi ces A and B. The fir st questionnaire for every participant was the demographic questionnaire followed by a labeled picture of female genitals and an explanation for subsequent questions. The description explained, "Some of the next questions will be about different ways of to uching yourself and having sexual relations with a partner. To make sure we are using the same words for the same parts, here is a diagram of what we mean." The diagram labeled two parts of the female genitals relevant to the subsequent questions: the clit oris and vaginal opening (see Appendix D ) The next section of the survey was randomized, where half the participants were given the replicated questions from the Herbenick et al. (2017) survey about experiences with orgasm during intercourse while the oth er half of participants were given Min tz's (2017) survey about their most reliable route to orgasm. The next survey questions were identical for

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: *! each participant and included Hite' s (1976) masturbation questions and the BIDR 16 (Hart et al. 2015), shown in that exact order for all participants. Both SONA and Amazon MTurk participants were given a randomized ID code when participating in the survey and were granted compensation once the survey was completed and approved by the researcher. At the end of the M Turk survey were given a code to enter (i.e. R999) in a prescribed box to indicate they completed the survey. If a participant provided the correct code in the box, then they were granted US $1. On SONA, a list of participants who completed the survey was provided for the researcher to grant credit. Results As presented in Tables 1 and 2, the results of the Herbenick et al. (2017) "Orgasm D uring Intercourse" question were similar to th e original study. After combining the UF and MTurk data, about 42% of respondents reported that they need ed clitoral stimulation to orgasm during intercourse, whereas 46.9% of respondents reported that they did not need clitoral stimulation to orgasm during intercouse (i.e., responded that either they do not need clitoral s timulation, but it enhances orgasmic experience or that vaginal penetration is enough to orgasm). The original study found about about 36.6% of women need clitora l stimulation to orgasm while 55 % of women are able to orgasm from vaginal penetration alone (Herbenick et al. 2017). The results of this study resemble the Herbenick et al. (2017) results even more closely when restricting the samples to include only women who answered the first three answer choices. Therefore, only women who were able to orgasm were tested, as show n in Table 2. After making this adjustment about 54.2% of women report ed they could orgasm during intercourse from thrusting alone.

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: *# Further analysis of Tables 1 and 2 show ed that the individual MTurk and University of Florida samples had similar findings to that of Herbenick et al. (2017). Tables 3 and 4 present the findings for the replicated Mintz (2017) "Most Reliable Route to Orgasm" question. The results of this study were also similar to that of the original study with the exce ption of the percentage of respondents who can orgasm from PVI alone I n the original study, Mintz (2017) found around 4% of women orgasm from PVI alo ne, 43% orgasm reliably from PVI with clitoral stimulation, and 34% orgasm from direct clitoral stimulatio n. In the combined sample (i.e. University of Florida and MTurk) around 17.8% of women orgasm from PVI alone, 38.4% orgasm from PVI with direct clitoral stimulation, and 34.2% of women orgasm reliably from direct clitoral stimulation. In sum, Mintz (2017 ) found 77% of women need at least some clitoral stimulation to orgasm and the present study similarly found about 73% of women need at least some clitoral stimulation to orgasm. The present study supported the large disparity observed between Herbenick et al. 's (2017) and Mintz 's (2017) findings in the percentage of women able to orgasm during intercourse. While 17.8% of women reported relaibly being able to orgasm during intercourse in comparison to Mintz's (2017) 4% the actual number of women who report ed this was small ( n = 13). The individual Univeristy of Florida and MTurk samples in Tables 3 and 4 also show similar findings to that of Mintz (2017). Table 5 includes the results from the o riginal Hite (1976) study and t he individual and combined sampl e results from this study. The Hite Report (1976) found about 1.5% of women pleasure themselves solely by insertion. The MTurk and University of Florida sample found 1% and 2.5% of women pleasure themselves by insertion, respectively. However, when the sam ples were combined, about 1.7% of women were found to pleasure themselves by insertion, which is

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: *$ almost identical to Hite's (1976) findings. However, Hite (1976) found about 86.5% of women masturbate solely by external genital stimulation whereas the comb ined sample found 48.6% of women pleasure themselves this way. While the percentage of women who pleasure themselves by external gential stimulation alone was remarkably smaller in the present study, the percentage of wo men who pleasure themselves with s om e sort of external genital stimulation still accounts for a majority of respondents in both The Hite Report (1976) and the present research To test whether survey respondents who answer PVI is enough to orgasm in either the Herbenick et al. (2017) or Mint z (2017) questions had significantly higher mean social desirability scores, an independent samples t test was run by separating answer choices into one variable with two levels : with clitoral stimuatlion (coded as 0) and without clitoral stimulation (code d as 1). For example, answer choices, "Although I don't need my clitoris to be stimulated in order to have an orgasm during intercourse, my orgasms feel better if my clitoris is stimulated during intercourse," and "Vaginal penetration is enough to help me have an orgasm (I don't need my clitoris to be stimulated in order to have an orgasm during intercourse)," for the Herbenick et al. (2017) repl ication question were coded as 1 Women who reported needing clitoral stimulation reported slightly lower self de ceptive enhancement scroes ( M = 4.84, SD = 1.46) than women who reported not needing clitoral stimulation ( M = 5.05, SD = 1.51), but this difference was non significant, t (46) = 0.51, p = .61. This trend was consistent for both the Herbenick et al. (2017) and Mintz (2017) questions, as shown in Tables 6 and 7 A Pearson r correlation was conducted to investigate the strength of the association between impression management and self deceptive enhancement scores to Herbenick et al. 's ( 2017) and Mintz 's (2017 ) answer choices. Specifically, the Pearson r correlation test anaylzed if

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: *% survey participants who answered they do not need clitoral stimulation in order to orgasm had higher impression management and self deceptive enhancement scores. A negative r value shows an existing correlation for the Mintz (2017) question, while a postive r value shows an existing correlation for the Herbenick et al. (2017) question. In the community (MTurk) sample, the correlations between answering PVI is enough to orgasm for the Herbenick et al. (2017) question and social desirable responding were positive but non significant for both self deceptive enhancement ( r [ 50 ] = .034, p = .81 ) and impression management ( r [ 50 ] = .23, p = 11 ) The correlation s between answering PVI is enou gh to orgasm for the Mintz (2017) question and socially desirable responding were also non significant for both self deceptive enhancement ( r [50] = .36, p = 80) and impression management ( r [ 50 ] = 0 .72, p = .23 ) In the University of Florida sample, the c orrelation s between answering PVI is enough to orgasm in the Mintz (2017) question were marginally significant for both self deceptive enhancement ( r [24] = .40, p = .052) and impression management ( r (24)= 40 p = .0 54 ) The correlation s between answerin g PVI is enough to orgasm in the Herbenick et al. (2017) question and socially desirable responding were non significant for both self deceptive enhancement ( r [ 25 ] = 27 p = .19 ) and impression management and r (25) = .23, p = 27 In the combined sample, the correlation s between answering PVI is enough to orgasm in the Herbenick et al. (2017) question and social desirable responding were non significant for self deceptive enhancement ( r [ 73 ] = .13, p = 26) but marginally significnat for impression manageme nt ( r [ 73 ] = .2 3 p = .052 ) The correlation s between the Mintz (2017) question and socially desirable responding were marginally significant for self deceptive enhancement ( r [ 69 ] = .2 4 p = .0 49 ; see Figure 1 ) but not for impression management ( r [ 69 ] = 0. 12 p = .34 )

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: *& Discussion The purpose of this study was to ask women questions about their experience with orgasm, including orgasm with and without penetration, and the role that social desirability may play in the responses they give. Even more specifi cally, the purpose was to determine if question semantics (i.e., a question asking about orgasm during intercourse versus a question asking about one's most reliable route to orgasm) would resul t in differing percentages of respondents reporting reaching o rgasm from penetration alone, and whether such differences might be related to social desirability. Another purpose of this study was to ask participants about t heir method of self pleasure (e.g., external stimulation alone; internal stimulation alone), si nce as far as we could determine, no study has provided such data since the The Hite Report (1976) I ndeed, by asking questions about both orgasm method during solo and partner pleasure, a goal was to determine if, as Mintz (2017 ) contends, there is a dis connect between the way women pleasure themselves to orgasm and the way they report reaching orgasm during partnered sex. The two types of questions asked (i.e., regarding orgasm during intercourse and regarding most reliable route to orgasm) wer e identical to those asked in prior research (i.e., Herbenick et al. 2017 and Mintz 2017 for intercourse based questions and most reliable route questions, respectively). It is thus interesting and important to compare the results of this study to those original studies. Using a nationwide survey, Herbenick et al. (2017) found that only 9% of women stated that they do not orgasm during intercourse. Another 36.6% of women reported that while they do not need clitoral stimulation to orgasm during intercour se, it enhanced orgasmic experience. Finally, another 18.4% answered they did not need any clitoral stimulation to reach orgasm at all (Herbenick et al. 2017). In essence, then, this study concluded that about 55% of

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: *' women report PVI alone is sufficient fo r orgasm (Herbenick et al. 2017). The results we found when asking this same question was remarkably similar. Spe cifically, in the community (MT urk) sample, 52% reported PVI alone is sufficient for orgasm (i.e., 42% reported while they do not need clitoral stimulation to orgasm during intercourse, it enhanced orgasmic experience and 10% reported PVI alone is sufficient for orgasm). Similarly, in the college sample, after removing non PVI experienced respondents, 52% reported PVI alone is sufficient for orga sm (i.e., 44% reported while they do not need clitoral stimulation to orgasm during intercourse, it enhanced orgasmic experience and 8% reported PVI alone is sufficient for orgasm). When combining samples, 53.4% said that PVI is sufficient for orgasm. In e ssence, then, our results are strikingly similar to Herbenick's (2017) results, leading to the conclusion that over 50% of women can orgasm from intercourse alone. However, when looking at the responses to a different question (i.e., one about "most relia ble route to orgasm"), the conclusion drawn would be drastically different. Since this is the same questions asked by Mintz (2017), it is thus also interesting and important to compare the results of that study to her study. Mintz reported the following re sponses to the question, "What is your most reliable route to orgasm?": 4% intercourse alone, 34% direct clitoral stimulation, and 43% intercourse plus direct clitoral stimulation. The results we found were quite similar. In the community sample, responses were as follows: 18% intercourse alone, 42% direct clitoral stimulation, and 42% intercourse plus direct clitoral stimulation. In the college sample, responses were as follows: 20% intercourse alone, 38% direct clitoral stimulation, and 42% intercourse pl us direct clitoral stimulation. Of note, however, these percentages may be inflated due to the small sample size. For example, the 18% in the community sample who indicated PVI alone was

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: *( sufficient to orgasm was actually only eight respondents, which may b e why the actual percentages of those reporting PVI alone was sufficient for orgasm was higher in our samples (i.e., 19% in the combined sample) than in the Mintz sample (i.e., 4%) Nevertheless, the conclusion fr om our study and the Mintz (2017 ) study is the same and that is, that the vast majority of women do not orgasm from intercourse alone. Thus, speaking directly to the purpose of this study, it appears that question semantics about female orgasm make a difference in conclusions drawn. When asking a question about orgasm during intercourse, one would conclude that more than half of women do not need clitoral stimulation to orgasm, yet when asking a question about most reliable route to orgasm (i.e., not mentioning intercourse), one would conclude that only a small percentage (i.e., about 20%) of women do not need clitoral stimulation to orgasm. The possible reason for such differing results was another focus of this research, and our hypothesis was that this would be related to socially desirable respo nding. While we did indeed find that, across both samples, survey participants who responded they do not need clitoral stimulation had higher social desirability scores than those who responded that they needed clitoral stimulation, these results did not reach significance A Pearson r correlation test was run to test whether or not higher self deceptive enhancement and impression management scores are correlated to respondents who report PVI is enough to orgasm. The combined sample found the correlation t o be significant for self deceptive enhanement only for those who responded to Mintz's (2017) question This provides some support of our hypothesis that social desirability is a factor in self reports about female orgasm, but it is possible that a study w ith a larger sample would result in significant findings across samples and different questions It is also possible that the cultural pressure to

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: *) orgasm from intercourse is not sufficiently captured by a measure of social desirability Perhaps a scale me asuring endorsement of cultural myths and pressures regarding sexuality would be more related to survey responses. In short, while this study did demonstrate that question semantics specifically the inclusion of the word intercourse or not do result in di ffering responses, it is still unclear as to what underlying construct accounts for this difference. While we believe that this construct is the cultural pressure women feel to orgasm during intercourse, it is unclear just what measure might capture this p ressure. This is a topic for future research. Another question addressed in this research was women's self pleasure techniques. The questions used in this part of the study came directly from Hite's (1976) study (i.e., we used her categorization of self pleasure methods based on her qualitative study and turned them into our quantitative question), and our results were similar to hers in some respects and different in others. In terms of respondent who pleasure themselves solely by putting something insi de their vaginas, Hite (1976) reported 1.5% and we found 1.7%. In terms of respondents who sometimes or always put something inside their vaginas while simultaneously stimulating their external genitals, Hite (1976) reported 12% and we found 40.9%. Final ly, in terms of respondents who pleasure themselves by focusing exclusively on external stimulation, Hite (1976) reported 86.5% and we found 48.6%. Thus, while similar to Hite (1976) we found very few women stimulate themselves by vaginal insertion alone, we found many more women than did Hite who stimulate themselves by simultaneous clitoral stimulation and penetration. It is unclear why our results differ so much in this regard from Hite's and one is the timeframe of the studies. Specifically, Hite's stu dy was conducted prior the recent attention in popular media of both G spot orgasms and vibrators that provide simultaneous clitoral and vaginal stimulation (i.e. the "rabbit vibrator"

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: !+ portrayed in the show Sex in the City ), whereas ours was conducted afte r such attention. A study that could shed light upon this issue might be one examining different generations of women in terms of their masturbation habits, including their use of vibrators that focus on simultaneous internal and external stimulation. St ill, despite the fact that our results and Hite's results differed in terms of percentages of women focusing on e xclusive clitoral stimulation or combining clitoral stimulation and penetration differed, of note is the fact that in both studies only a very small percent (less than 2%) pleasured themselves by insertion alone This provided eviden ce that, as noted by Mintz (2017 ) there seems to be a disconnect between the way women orgasm alone versus with partners, and this reported disconnect is greatest wh en asking questions that include the word intercourse. Specifically, in this study, while less than 2% say they pleasure themselves by penetration alone, 53% said that when with a partner they orgasm from penetration alone and 19% said that their most reli able route to orgasm is penetration alone. Such results provide weight to Mintz's (2017) argument that women feel pressure to orgasm from penetration alone during partnered heterosexual sex. While th ese results provide striking evidence of the dis connect between women's self and partner pleasure methods and expectations, the study suffered from some methodological limitations. First, the sample size was small, particularly because the college sample had to be adjusted to only include women who have had PVI However, additional data in the University of Florida sample is being collected and this might change the results both generally and in terms of social desirability effects in specific.

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: !* Another limitation to the study was the lack of div ersity within the sample. A majority of the survey participants were White, highly educated, and middle class. The sample of university students was also limited to the geographic location of Gainesville, where the University of Florida is located. The stu dents who participated in that sample were also a majority first and second year students, which is perhaps why a there were many participants in the sample who had no experience with PVI A study with a more diverse sample would be of great use. Despite t hese limitations, this study provides ample evidence that the way we ask questions about female orgasm and pleasure matte rs This is important for researchers to consider when creating self report surveys about experiences with female orgasms and PVI It is also important for sex educators and therapists to keep in mind when asking students and clients questions about sexual pleasure and orgasm. Finally, these results have cultural implications as well Specifically, it seems that this study in many ways r eflected the cultural pressures that women are under to orgasm during intercourse, or what Kerner (2004) has called "the intercourse discourse." If we did not have such a pervasive discourse, or pressure on women to orgasm during intercourse, we hypothesi ze both that question semantics would not yeild differing results and that women's self and partner pleasure would be more in line with one another.

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: !! Table 1 Frequencies for Herbenick et al. (2017) "Orgasm During Intercourse" Question Response Herbenick N % MTurk N % UF N % MTurk + UF N % 1= Clitoral stimulation 347 36.6% 22 44% 12 38.7% 34 42% 2= Do not need clit oral stimulation, but enhances orgasm 341 36% 21 42% 11 35.5% 32 39.5% 3= Vaginal penetration enough 174 18.4% 5 10% 1 3.2% 6 7. 4% 4= Do not have orgasms 71 7.5% 0 0% 6 19.4% 6 7.4% 5= Other 122 1.5% 2 4% 1 3.2% 3 3.7% Table 2 Frequencies for Herbenick e t al. (2017) "Orgasm During Intercourse" Adjusted 1 3 Response MTurk N % UF N % MTurk + UF N % 1= Clitoral stimulation 22 45.8% 12 48% 34 46.6% 2= Do not need clitoral stimulation, but enhances orgasm 21 43.8% 11 44% 32 43.6%

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: !# Table 2 Continued Response MTurk N % UF N % MTurk + UF N % 3= Vaginal penetration enough 5 10.4% 2 8% 7 9.6% Note. The percentages reflect when the sample was adjusted to only include women who have experience with orgasm, which are the respondents who answered responses 1 3. Table 3 Frequencies for Mintz (2017) "Most Reliable Route to Orgasm" Question Response Mintz N % MTurk N % UF N % MTurk + UF N % 1 = PVI only 14 4% 8 17.4 % 5 18.5 % 13 17.8 % 2= PVI + direct clitoral stimulation 141 43% 18 39.1 % 10 37 % 28 38.4 % 3= Direct clitoral stimualtion 112 34% 17 37% 8 29.6 % 25 34.2 % 4= Rarely, if ever, orgasm during intercourse 64 19% 3 6.5 % 3 11.1 % 6 8.2 % 5= Do not have partner sex 0 0 % 1 3.7 % 1 1.4 %

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: !$ Table 4 Frequencies for Mintz (2017) "Most Relia ble Route to Orgasm" Question Adjusted 1 3 Response MTurk N % UF N % MTurk + UF N % 1 = PVI only 8 16 % 5 18.5 % 13 18. 8 % 2= PVI + direct clitoral stimulation 18 36 % 10 37 % 28 40.6 % 3= Direct clitoral stimualtion 19 38% 8 29.6 % 27 40.6 % Table 5 Frequencies for Hite (1976) Masturbation Question Hite N % MTurk N % UF N % MTurk + UF N % 1= External genitals 86.5% 48 48 % 40 49.4 % 88 48.6 % 2= External genitals + insertion somtimes 39 39 % 24 29.6 % 63 34.8 % 3= External genitals + insertion always 9 9 % 2 2.5 % 11 6.1 % 4= Solely insertion 1.5% 1 1 % 2 2.5 % 3 1.7 % 5= Other 3 3 % 13 16 % 16 8.8 % No te. The N for Hite was unavailable.

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: !% Table 6 Herbenick et al. (2017) Question Independent Sample t T est Results With Clitoris M SD Without Clitoris M SD t p MTurk Self deceptive Enhancement 4.84 1.46 5.05 1.51 0.51 .61 Impression Management 4.75 1.44 5.35 1.40 1.46 .15 UF Self deceptive Enhancement 4.31 1.21 4.82 0.77 1.25 .22 Impression Mangement 4.28 1.22 4.80 1.32 1.02 .32 Combined MTurk+ UF Self deceptive Enhancement 4.65 1.38 4.98 1.30 1.03 .31 Impression Management 4.58 1.37 1.37 5.17 1.81 .08 Note. Answer choice "I need my clitoris to be stimulated in order to have an orgasm during intercourse," is considered "With Clitoris" in this table. Answer choices, "Although I don't need my clitoris to be stimulated in order to have an orgasm duri ng intercourse, my orgasms feel better if my clitoris is stimulated during intercourse," and "Vaginal penetration is enough to help me have an orgasm (I don't need my clitoris to be stimulated in order to have an orgasm during intercourse)," are considered "Without Clitoris" in this table. Table 7 Mintz (2017) Question Independent Sample t T est Results With Clitoris M SD Without Clitoris M SD t p MTurk Self deceptive Enhancement 4.72 1.39 5.31 0.90 1.15 .26 Impression Management 4.75 1.52 5.80 1.30 0.08 .9 4 UF Self deceptive Enhancement 4.09 1.15 4.88 0.87 1.41 .17

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: !& Table 7 Continu e d With Clitoris M SD Without Clitoris M SD t p Impression Mangement 4.13 0.91 4.95 0.76 1.85 .08 Combined MTurk+ UF Self decpetive Enhancement 4.51 1.34 5.14 0.88 1.64 .11 Impression Management 4.54 1.37 4.86 1.09 0.77 .442 N ote. Answer choice "Penile vaginal intercourse alone (thrusting penis only)," is considered "Without Clitoris" in this table. Answer choices "Penile vaginal intercourse coupled with clitoral stimulation by myself or a partner," and "Something that focuses solely on my clitoral stimulation such as oral sex or manual stimulation (separate from intercourse)," are considered "With Clitoris" in this table.

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: !' Figure 1 Correlation Between Self Deceptive Enhancement and Responding PVI is Enough to Orgasm Note The numbers on the x axis indicate the responses provided by survey respondents for the Mintz (2017) question, "During partner sex, my most reliable route to orgasm is," and the y axis indicates the respondent's scores for the self deceptive enhancement subscale. On the x axis, "1" is for respo nse "Penile vaginal intercourse alone (thrusting only)," "2" is "Penile vaginal intercourse coupled with clitoral stimulation from myself or a partner," and "3" is answer choice, "Something that focuses solely on my clitoral stimulation such as oral sex or manual stimulation alone (separate from intercourse)."

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: !( Appendix A Informed Consents of Amazon Mechanical Turk Participants Please read this consent document carefully before you decide to participate in this study. You are invited to particip ate in a research study that involves collecting data regarding women's masturbation methods and orgasms during heterosexual partnered sex. Before you agree to take part, please read this carefully and make sure you understand what is involved in participa ting in the study. Nature and Purpose of Study: Previous studies have conflicting conclusions on orgasm and heterosexual partnered sex. The purpose of this study is to investigate how masturbation and heterosexual sex habits relate to experiencing orga sm, and if heterosexual women answer questions regarding orgasm in a straightforward manner. What you will be asked to do in this study: If you agree to this informed consent, you will complete a questionnaire regarding your demographic characteristics masturbation methods, heterosexual partnered sex experiences related to orgasm, and questions about your personality. Time Required The questionnaire should only take about 10 15 minutes to complete. Expected Benefits There are no expected benefi ts to participating in this study aside from helping researchers understand more about women's attitudes and practices regarding orgasm and masturbation. Possible Risks The overall expected risk is minimal. You may be uncomfortable answering questions about your sexual experiences and masturbation. Your identity and participation will be confidential to the extent provided by law. We will not reveal to anyone that you are participating in this study (e.g., employers, family members, faculty members). However, as with any study, your participation may be somehow inadvertently revealed (e.g., someone sees you answering the survey), and you may face discomfort as a result.

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: !) If you experience any problems as a direct result of being in the study or hav e questions about research participants' rights, please contact the UF Institutional Review Board at (352) 392 0433. Voluntary participation: Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating. You may a lso decline to answer any question you don't wish to respond to. Right to Refuse or Withdraw from the Study Participation is purely voluntary. You have the right to refuse to take part in this study or to withdraw from the study (i.e., stop taking the survey) at any time. Confidentiality You will not need to provide your personal information to complete the survey, therefore the data you provide is completely anonymous. Your information provided through M Turk will not be linked to the responses in the survey. Your responses will be used for research purposes only. You will not be identifiable in any publication or presentation, which may arise from this research. The researchers will never reveal the identity of anyone who participated in this stu dy. Compensation Every participant will be compensated $1.00 USD for participating in the study via M Turk. Whom to contact if you have questions about the study: Rebecca Kravitz Student, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, University of Florida rebeccakravitz9@ufl.edu Gregory Webster Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Florida gdwebs@ufl.edu Laurie Mintz Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Florida mintzl@ufl.edu Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study:

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: #+ IRB02 Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 2250 (352) 392 0433. Agreement: By clicking the button below you are indicating that you have read the informed consent statements above, you ar e at at least 18 years old and agree to participate.

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: #* Appendix B Informed Consent for University of Florida Participants Please read this consent document carefully before you decide to participate in this study. You are invited to participate in a research study that involves collecting data regarding women's masturbation methods and orgasms during heterosexual partnered sex. Before you agree to take part, please read this carefully and make sure you understand what is involved in participating in the study. Nature and Purpose of Study: Previous studies have conflicting conclusions on orgasm and heterosexual partnered sex. The purpose of this study is to investigate how masturbation and heterosexual sex habits rel ate to experiencing orgasm, and if heterosexual women answer questions regarding orgasm in a straightforward manner What you will be asked to do in this study: If you agree to this informed consent, you will complete a questionnaire regarding your demo graphic characteristics, masturbation methods, heterosexual partnered sex experiences related to orgasm, and questions about your personality. Time Required The questionnaire should only take about 10 15 minutes to complete. Expected Benefits There are no expected benefits to participating in this study aside from helping researchers understand more about women's attitudes and practices regarding orgasm and masturbation. Possible Risks The overall expected risk is minimal. You may be uncomforta ble answering questions about your sexual experiences and masturbation. Your identity and participation will be confidential to the extent provided by law. We will not reveal to anyone that you are participating in this study (e.g., employers, family mem bers, faculty members). However, as with any study, your participation may be somehow inadvertently revealed (e.g., someone sees you answering the survey), and you may face discomfort as a result.

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: #! If you become distressed while completing the study and n eed to talk to someone, you can contact the University of Florida Counseling and Wellness Center, (352) 392 1575 if you are a university student or employee. Regardless of if you are a student or not, you can contact the Alachua County Crisis Center, (352) 264 6789. If you experience any problems as a direct result of being in the study or have questions about research participants' rights, please contact the UF Institutional Review Board at (352) 392 0433. Voluntary participation: Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating. You may also decline to answer any question you don't wish to respond to. Right to Refuse or Withdraw from the Study Participation is purely voluntary. If you are a UF em ployee or student, then participation in this research is in no way connected to academic or personnel requirements. You have the right to refuse to take part in this study or to withdraw from the study (i.e., stop taking the survey) at any time. Confide ntiality You will not need to provide your personal information to complete the survey, therefore the data you provide is completely anonymous. After the completion of the survey, however, you will be asked to provide information in order to be compensat ed for your participation. Your information will not be linked to the responses in the survey. The surveys you will complete are hosted on Qualtrics (http://www.qualtrics.com/privacy statement). There is a minimal risk that security of the data you provi de in these online surveys may be breached, but since (1) no identifying information will be collected directly with your survey responses, (2) the online host uses several layers of encryption and firewalls (specifically, transport layer security, TLS and encryption, HTTPS). Thus, it is unlikely that a security breach of the online data will result in any adverse consequence for you. Your responses will be used for research purposes only. Study findings will be based on aggregate group data only. You wil l not be identifiable in any publication or presentation, which may arise from this research. The researchers will never reveal the identity of anyone who participated in this study. Compensation Every participant will be compensated with one (1) resea rch credit in SONA class credit.

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: ## Whom to contact if you have questions about the study: Rebecca Kravitz Student, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, University of Florida rebeccakravitz9@ufl.edu Gregory Webster Associate Professor, Department of Ps ychology, University of Florida gdwebs@ufl.edu Laurie Mintz Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Florida mintzl@ufl.edu Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study: IRB02 Office, Box 112250, University of Fl orida, Gainesville, FL 32611 2250 (352) 392 0433. Agreement: By clicking the button below you are indicating that you have read the informed consent statements above, you are at at least 18 years old and agree to participate.

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: #$ Appen dix C Demographic Questionnaire 1. What is your age? ________ 2. What was your assigned sex at birth? Male Female Intersex Other (Please describe) 3. How would you identify your gender? You may select more than one option. Man Woman Tran sgender/Transsexual Other (please describe): _______________ 4. How would you describe your race/ethnicity? Please select the one best descriptor, or use the "Biracial/Multiracial" option to specify further. African/African American/Black American In dian/Native American Arab American/Middle Eastern Asian/Asian American Hispanic/Latina/o American Pacific Islander White/European American/Caucasian Biracial/Multiracial (please specify): ___________________________ Other (please specify): ________________ ___________ 5. How would you identify your sexual orientation? Please select the one best descriptor. Exclusively Heterosexual Mostly Heterosexual Bisexual Mostly lesbian or gay Exclusively lesbian or gay Asexual Other (please describe): ____________ ___ 6. Are you in an undergraduate college/university? 7. What year are you in college? Freshman Sophomore

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: #% Junior Senior Fifth year Other: _________________ 8. What is your level of education? No schooling completed Some high school, no diploma High school graduate, diploma or equivalent Some college credit, no degree Trade/technical/vocational training Associate's degree Bachelor's degree Master's degree Doctorate degree 9. Are you currently employed full time? Yes No 10. How would you identify your current social class? Please select the one best descriptor. Lower class Working class Middle class Upper middle class Upper class Other (please describe): _______________ 11. How would you identify your family's social class as you were growing up? Please select the one best descriptor. Lower class Working class Middle class Upper middle class Upper class Other (please describe): _______________ 12. What is your marital status? Single, never married Married or domestic partnership Relationship W idowed Divorced Separated

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: #& 13. How recently have you had a sexual encounter where you received oral sex? In the past week In the past month In the past year More than a year ago Never 14. How recently have you engaged in a sexual encounter where a partner touched your genitals? In the past week In the past month In the past year More than a year ago Never 15. How recently have you engaged in a sexual encounter that involved penile vaginal intercourse? In the past week In the past month In the past year Mo re than a year ago Never

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: #' Appendix D Labeled Picture of Female Genitals and Description Some of the next questions will about different ways of touching yourself and having sexual relations with a partner. To make sure we are usin g the same words for the same parts, here is a diagram of what we mean.

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: #( Appendix E Herbenick et al. (2017) Replication Question Which of the following best describes your experience with orgasm and penile vaginal intercourse? I need my clito ris to be stimulated in order to have an orgasm during intercourse Although I don't need my clitoris to be stimulated in order to have an orgasm during intercourse, my orgasms feel better if my clitoris is stimulated during intercourse Vaginal penetration is enough to help me have an orgasm (I don't need my clitoris to be stimulated in order to have an orgasm during intercourse) N/A I don't have orgasms during intercourse Other (Please describe).

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: #) Appendix F Mintz (2017) Repl ication Question During partner sex, the most reliable route for me to reach orgasm is Penile vaginal intercourse alone (thrusting penis only) Penile vaginal intercourse coupled with clitoral stimulation by myself or a partner Something that focuses solel y on my clitoral stimulation such as oral sex or manual stimulation (separate from intercourse) Can't answer because I rarely if ever orgasm during partner sex I have never had partner sex as described above

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: $+ Appendix G The Hite Report (1976) Replication Question What best describes what you do when you pleasure yourself? I focus completely on stimulating external genitals I focus on stimulating my external genitals while sometimes simultaneously inserting something into my vagina I f ocus on stimulating my external genitals while always simultaneously inserting something into my vagina I insert something into my vagina and do not stimulate myself externally Other (Please describe)

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: $* Appendix H The Balanced Inventory for Socially Desirable Responding 16 (BIDR 16) Please read the statements below, and indicate how much you agree or disagree with each one (1 = totally disagree 8 = totally agree ) Self deceptive enhancement: I have not always been honest with myself. ( r) I always know why I like things. It's hard for me to shut off a disturbing thought.( r) I never regret my decisions. I sometimes lose out on things because I can't make up my mind soon enough.( r) I am a completely rational person. I am very confident in my judgements. Impression management: I sometimes tell lies if I have to.( r) I never cover up my mistakes. There have been occasions when I have taken advantage of someone.( r) I sometimes try to get even rather than forgive and forget. ( r) I have said something bad about a friend behind his or her back.( r) When I hear people talking privately, I avoid listening. I never take things that don't belong to me. I don't gossip about other people's business.

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: $! References Bryan T. S. (2001) Pretending to experience orgasm as a communicative act: How, when, and why some sexually experienced college women pretend to experience orgasm during various sexual behaviors Unpublished doctoral dissertation University of Kansas, Lawren ce. Chadwick, S. B., & Anders, S. M. (2017). Do Women's Orgasms Function as a Masculinity Achievement for Men? The Journal of Sex Research 54 (9), 1141 1152. Fahs, B., & Swank, E. (2011). Social Identities as Predictors of Women's Sexual Satisfaction and S exual Activity. Archives of Sexual Behavior,40 (5), 903 914. Fahs, B. (2014). Coming to power: Women's fake orgasms and best orgasm experiences illuminate the failures of (hetero)sex and the pleasures of connection. Culture, Health & Sexuality,16 (8), 974 98 8. Frith, H. (2013). Labouring on orgasms: Embodiment, efficiency, entitlement and obligations in heterosex. Culture, Health & Sexuality,15 (4), 494 510. Hart, C. M., Ritchie, T. D., Hepper, E. G., & Gebauer, J. E. (2015). The Balanced Inventory of Desirabl e Responding Short Form (BIDR 16). SAGE Open,5 (4). Herbenick, D., Fu, T., Arter, J., Sanders, S. A., & Dodge, B. (2017). Women's Experiences With Genital Touching, Sexual Pleasure, and Orgasm: Results From a U.S. Probability Sample of Women Ages 18 to 94. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy,44 (2), 201 212. Hite, S. (1976). The Hite report: A nationwide study of female sexuality Joannides, P. (2017). Guide to getting it on: Unzipped! Oregon : Goofy Foot Press. Kerner, I. (2004). She comes first: The thinking ma ns guide to pleasuring a woman New York, NY: William Morrow, an imprint of HarperCollins.

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-./012'34-0"1502067' 183'94:124'."1;1-: $# Lloyd, E. A. (2005). The case of the female orgasm: Bias in the science of evolution Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Mintz, L. (2017). Becoming Cliterate: Why Orgasm Equality Matters And How to Get It Nagoski, E. (2015). Come as You Are: The Surprising New Science That Will Transform Your Sex Life New York: Simon & Schuster. Salisbury, C. M., & Fisher, W. A. (2014). "Did You Come?" A Qualitative Explorati on of Gender Differences in Beliefs, Experiences, and Concerns Regarding Female Orgasm Occurrence During Heterosexual Sexual Interactions. The Journal of Sex Research,51 (6), 616 631. Schmidt, F. L., Le, H., & Iles, R. (2003). Beyond alpha: An empirical exa mination of the effects of different sources of measurement error on reliability estimates for measures of individual differences constructs. Psychological Methods 8 206 224. Shirazi, T., Renfro, K. J., Lloyd, E., & Wallen, K. (2017). Correction to: Wom en's Experience of Orgasm During Intercourse: Question Semantics Affect Women's Reports and Men's Estimates of Orgasm Occurrence. Archives of Sexual Behavior,47 (3), 615 615. Wade, L. D., Kremer, E. C., & Brown, J. (2005). The Incidental Orgasm: The Presenc e of Clitoral Knowledge and the Absence of Orgasm for Women. Women & Health,42 (1), 117 138. Wallen, K., & Lloyd, E. A. (2011). Female sexual arousal: Genital anatomy and orgasm in intercourse. Hormones and Behavior,59 (5), 780 792. Winston, S. (2009). Women 's Anatomy of Arousal