Kristina Conste Bahar Armaghani April 25, 2018
Table of Contents Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 3 Clinical and Translational Research Building ................................ ................................ ......................... 4 The WELL Building Standard ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 4 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 6 Methods of Research ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 6 WELL Preconditions: Air ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 7 WELL Preconditions: Water ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 18 WELL Preconditions: Nourishment ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 23 WELL Preconditions: Light ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 36 WELL Preconditions: Fitness ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 41 WELL Preconditions: Comfort ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 45 WELL Preconditions: Mind ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 51 Necessary Retrofits and Cost Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 55 Anticipated Return on Investment ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 57 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 58 References ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 59
Introduction When the United States Green Building Council created LEED it showed that humans ar e capable of designing and constructing buildings that are healthy for the environment. Five years ago the WELL Building Standard was created, which demonstrated that humans are now capable of designing and constructing buildings that can optimize the wellbeing of humans When both of these building rating syste ms are applied to a building, an organization is able to advance environmental, s ocial, and economic efficiency and effectively target all three pillars of sustainability. This research project explored the feasibility of achieving a WELL certification for a building that is already LEED Platinum certified in order to create a space that is sustainable in every sense of the word. Th e Clinical and Tr anslational Research Building, located on the University of Florida campus is the building of focus for this project since it is already LEED Platinum certified and focuses on researching human health The building is already healthy for the environment, but this project researched how this building could also be improved for human health and wellbeing. The overall goal of this project was to conclude the feasibility of achieving a WELL certification, at the minimum level of silver, for the Clinical and Translational Research Building. In order to do this, each feature was individually researched to determine its feasibility. If a feature was discovered to not already be met, a retrofit to meet that specific feature was determined with a cost estimate with it. Following that, a cost analysis was done to calculate the costs of retrofits that are needed i n order to achieve WELL silver. The total cost analysis was a combination of the costs of the WELL registration and certification, as well as the necessary retrofits. In order to understand how the Clinical and Translational Research Building would benefit from the WELL certification, an analysis of possible return on investments was explored.
Clinical and Translational Research Buil ding The Clinical and Translational Research Building was completed on the University of Florida campus in June 201 3, with the purpose of being the headquarters for translational and clinical science for the University of Florida and the whole state o f Florida 1 The overall goal of the building was to create a space where innovative medical research could be conducted so that it could be translated out to the public. When the building was designed, it was designed with the goal of creating a space that optimized environmental stewardship and the health and well being of occupants The Clinical and Translational Research Building was able to quantify its dedication to being sustainable for the environment by pursuing a LEED certification. The building ended up earning a total of 92 points out of a possible 110 points, which equated to a LEED Platinum certification. However, at the time it was built, there was no metric that could measure how healthy the environment was for the building occupants. Many of the elements that were included in the design and construction of the Clinica l and Translational Research Building capitalized on creating a place that stimulated the health and well being of building occupants, but there were no actual way of measuring the Now, the building has the opportunity to see exact ly how healthy it is for occupants by using the WELL Building Standard. The WELL Building Standard The International WELL Building Institute was established only five years ago with the mission of creating spaces that enhan ced human health and wellbeing. 2 The WELL Building Standard is a rating 1 Clinical and Translational Research Institute 2 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 3.
system that is supported by scientific studies that aim to optimize human health and well being within a building. 3 It is the first building rating system of its kind that puts the priorities and needs first. The WELL Building Standard is split into seven concepts t hat all contain features that quantify occupant health into metrics that could be achieved by a building design team. These seven concepts are Air, Water, Nourishment, Light, Fitness, Comf ort, and Mind. 4 Within each concept are a number of preconditions and features that add up to a total of 100 features in total between all of the concepts. In order to be qualified to achieve any type of WELL certification, all 41 preconditions need to b e achieved. These features are displayed below in a graphic of the WELL Certification Matrix. A project can achieve a WELL Building Standard at three different levels: sil ver, gold, and platinum. 5 To get a silver certification, a project team must successively design and construct a project that achieves all 41 preconditions. To achieve a gold certification, the project must achieve all 3 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 3. 4 Ibid., 5. 5 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 5. F IGURE 1 : WELL C ERTIFICATION M ATRIX HTTPS :// WWW WELLCERTIFIED COM
preconditions plus 40% of the optimizations, which are the other features on the matrix that are not preconditions. Lastly, to achieve platinum, the project must achieve all preconditions plus 80% of the optimizations. 6 This project analyzed just the preco nditions of WELL in pursuit of trying to determine if it was possible for the Clinical and Translational Research Building to achieve WELL Silver. R esearch Questions For this research project, the main question that was researched was: What is the feasibility of achieving a WELL Silver certification at the Clinical and Translational Research Building? After the feasibility was determined, the next question that was researched was: What would be the overall cost of the WELL certification (including registration, certification and retrofits)? Once those two questions were answered, the last question that was researched was: What would be the potential return on investment for pursuing a WELL certification at the Clinical and Translational Research Building Methods of Research The first step for conducting the research for this project was to research the WELL Building Standard to get a better understanding of how the rating system works, and what would be the best way about beginning this project. Once there was a decent under standing of the rating system, the LEED (2009) checklist for the Clinical and Translational Research Building was cross referenced with the WELL Building Standard to see how many preconditions could be met just because of the LEED certification. During th is step, it became clear that there was a lot of overlap between the two rating systems. 6 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 5.
After that step was complete, whatever preconditions that were not met because of the LEED certification were analyzed to see how they can be tested and/or achieved The remaining preconditions were researched through site visits, air testing, measurements, online research, and consulting with until all the data was successfully researched. From there, conclusions were made about what preconditions were not already met, so that needed retrofits could be determined. Once solutions were determined for the preconditions that needed to be addressed, a cost analysis was created. At the end of the research, all of the costs of the retrofits were added to the cost of registration and certification fees to conclude the total cost of achieving WELL Silver at the Clinical and Translational Research Building. To better un derstand the benefit of implementing the WELL Building Standard and the needed retrofits, a return on investment was researched for each individual retrofit as wells as the WELL Building Standard itself. From there, all of the aggregated information from the rese arch was compiled into this docu ment to demonstrate the findings of this research project. WELL Preconditions: Air Clean air is one of the most important qualities to have in a building for it to be considered healthy. Inside of buildings, the ai r quality can be affected by everything from the HVAC system to the type of adhesives that are used in the carpeting. It is important to maintain good indoor air quality, because the quality of the air is directly correlated with human cognitive function In a Harvard study, three different office environments were tested for how they affect human health and well being. The highlights of the study are shown in the
graphic. 7 After the test was concluded, it was found that participants performed 61% highe r in green building conditions and 101% higher in enhanced green building conditions. The purpose of the Air Concept is to quantify the metrics that go into creating an interior space with optimum air conditions through 12 preconditions. 8 All of these preconditions have a common goal of creating a space with high air quality, but they all go about achieving this goal in a different way. A few of these preconditions focus on the operation and maintenance of the HVAC system while others focus on how the materials in the building affect air quality. 01: Air Quality Standards The intent of this precondition is to ensure high indoor air qu ality in the building or project 9 As stated in the study that was mentioned earlier, air quality drastically effects the performance of building occupants. Also, t he presence of substances like formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds carbon monoxide, particulate matter, ozone and radon in the air are known to affect human health When suspended in the air, these substances can trigger headaches, asthma, nausea, allergies and other respiratory related symptoms. 10 This precondition is split into three parts that are used to measure for the 7 "The Impact of Green Buildings on Cognitive Function." Sustainability at Harvard. July 06, 2017. 8 WELL Bu ilding Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 23. 9 The WELL Building Standard: V1 with Q4 2017 Addenda (International WELL Building Institute), 27. 10 Ibid. Figure 2 : "The Impact of Green Buildings on Cognitive Function." Sustainability at Harvard. July 06, 2017.
substances listed above. In order to meet the standards of this precondition, the air in the building must be tested using tools that are designed to measure for each material listed in the precondi tion. The first part of this standard measures for Volatile Substances, including formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds. Measuring formaldehyde can be a costly thing to do on your own, but it is only prevalent in new construction projects or areas with smokers. Most of the time, formaldehyde is present in the form of Urea Formaldehyde (UF) resin. 11 In an article written about the construction of CTRB, it was stated that no Urea Formaldehyde resin was used in the interior of the building. 12 Therefore, it is safe to assume that the formaldehyde levels in CTRB would be less than 27 ppb. Health and Safety, the amount of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in the air was measur ed using the ppbRAE 3000, a handheld VOC meter. Several readings were taken in separate areas of the building, and all of them measured 0 g/m 3 Carbon monoxide was measured in this buildin g using the Ventis MX4, which was provided by the University o Environmental Health and Safety. Measurements concluded that there was 0 ppm of carbon monoxide in the air. 11 "Fact Sheet: Formaldehyde." May 2008. Accessed April 7, 2018. 12 "Sustainable Construction and Built Environment at University of Florida (UF) & Institute on Aging."
Particulate matter measurements for PM 10 Health & Safety depar tment from when they conducted indoor air quality tests for the LEED certification for the Clinical and Tr anslational Research Building. Below, are the levels of the PM 10 measured in the building, and all of the values are compliant with the WELL Building Standard. Ozone was also not tested during the indoor air quality testing, nor was a meter to test ozone readily available for this research project. However, an article provided by the Berkel ey stated that ozone is less apparent in buildings that are air conditioned and closed windows like the Clinical and Translational Research Building. 13 Therefore, it is plausible that ozone levels would not be a threat for this build ing. Radon can be tested using a radon air test, but it is too costly to purchase to conduct this research. However, to the right, is a map composed by the EPA that depicts the threat of radon, by county, in the state of Florida. 14 The Clinical and Trans that the EPA predicts that radon readings in this area would be between 2 to 4 pCi/L. The WELL Building 13 "Increases in Ozone." Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Scientific Findings Resource Bank (IAQ S FRB). 14 "Building a New Home, Have You Considered Radon?" EPA. April 20, 2017. Accessed April 07, 2018.
Standard requires buildings to have radon readings less than 4 pCi/L. true, then the Clinical and Translational Research Building would have radon levels that are compliant with the WELL Building Standard. 02: Smoking Ban The intent of this credit is to ensure that building occupants and visitors are protected from the harmful effects of smoking and secondhand smoking. The use of tobacco products is well known for having extensive negative effects on health, so it is necessary to ban it in a healthy building. Banning smoking on the premises of the project prevent s people from being af fected by seco ndhand smoke, and it a lso deters people from smoking or using tobacco products that can harm them. An indoor smoking ban is already implemented, because smoking is not allowed indoors according to Florida state regulation 386.202, which is also known as 15 The implementation of this state regulation means that, by law, people are prohibited from smoking indoors. Therefore, no further action needs to be taken in order to achieve this precondition. 15 Figure 3 : "FLORIDA EPA Map of Radon Zones." Digital image. EPA. Accessed April 7, 2018. https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2014 08/documents/florida.pdf.
Also, an outdoor smoki ng ban is already in place because on the University of Florida campus, the use of any sort of tobacco products is prohibited because of the UF Tobacco Free Policy. 16 Signage is present throughout the campus, and they can easily be seen from entrances into the campus. 03: Ventilation Effectiveness The intent of this precondition is to provide building occupants with a healthier environment through cleaner air. 17 Increased ind oor environmental quality can have dramatic effects on the productivity and cognit ive behaviors of building occupants, so it is important for a building to make sure that the ventilation system is working efficiently. Since the Clinical and Translational Research Building has a LEED Platinum certification the building already meets the standards of ASHRAE 62.1 201 3, which outlines standards for ventilation effectiveness. In all meeting areas of the Clinical and Translational Research Building, the ventilation system is demand controlled to ensure that carbon dioxide levels are below 800ppm. At the time of the site visit, the carbon dioxide of the meeting room was holding steady at 600ppm, which is well below the standard that WELL demands. Also, b efore the Clinical and Translational Research Building was occupied, the HVAC system un derwent balancing, and is serviced on a monthly basis to ensure high indoor environmental quality. By doing this, the building is able to maintain a slightly positive pressure 16 UF Tobacco cofree.ufl.edu/downloads/tobaccopolicy.pdf 17 The WELL Building Standard: V1 with Q4 2017 Addenda (International WELL Building Institute), 29.
04: VOC Reduction Volatile organic compounds have extensive health repercussio ns that have been proven through scientific studies. Exposure to volatile organic compounds for a short amount of time can cause dizziness, headaches, and stimulation of asthma symptoms. If a person works in an environment with high levels of volatile or ganic compounds for a lifetime, he or she is at risk of developing cancer, liver and kidney damage, and central nervous system damage. 18 Since the Clinical Translational Research Building received the point for the LEED Emitting Materials Pa the California Air Resources Board (CARB) 2007, Suggested Control Measure (SCM) for Architectural Coatings which is what the WELL Building Standard requires. 19 T he Clinical and Translational Research Building also contains adhesives and sealants that have VOC limits that comply with the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Rule 1168 for VOC content. 20 For flooring, the building meets the standards that are pu t forth by the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) Standard Method v1.1 2010, meaning that they contain very low or no VOC content. The LEED certification also ensures that the VOC emissions from the insulation meet the standards of the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) Standard Method v1.1 2010. 21 Lastly, all of the furniture and furnishings is compliant with the ANSI/BIFMA e3 2011 Furniture Sustainability Standard sections 7.6.1 and 7.6.2 for VOC content. Because of all of these elements, VOC content is very low within the Clinical and Translational Research Building. 18 Volatile Organic Compounds in Your Home, http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/eh/indoorair/voc/ 19 "California Air Resources Board (ARB) Suggested Control Measure for Architectural Coatings." Air Resources Board. 20 "Rule 1168 for VOC Content." South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). 21 Ibid.
05: Air Filtration In order to maintain a healthy indoor air quality, efficient air filtration is needed. The intent of this precondition is to use air filtration to eradicate indoor and outdoor airborne contaminan ts. 22 If air filtration is not proficient in a building, occupants have a higher risk of breathing in air that can cause adverse health effects. Some of the elements that help the Clini cal and Translational Research Building meet these standards are the MERV 15 filters that are used to filter outdoor air. Also, the ventilation system is maintained on a monthly basis to make sure that everything is functioning properly. 06: Microbe and M old Control The presence of mold within a building could create numerous health issues among building occupants Mold spores are known to activate asthma, allergies, headaches and other respiratory issues. 23 The intent of this precondition is to limit t he amount of bacteria and mold growth inside the building. 24 To achieve the first part of the precondition, ultraviolet lamps need to be used on the cooling coils and drain pans of the mechanical system supplies. 25 The second part of this feature requires the inspection for mold within the building by looking for signs of water damage, pooling, discoloration and mold on various interior building materials. 26 During multiple site visits, no sign of moisture was obse rved within the building. 07: Construction Pollution Management 22 The WELL Building Standard: V1 with Q4 2017 Addenda (International WELL Building Institute), 32. 23 The WELL Building Standard: V1 with Q4 2017 Addenda (International WELL Building Institute ), 33. 24 Ibid. 25 Ibid. 26 Ibid.
The intent of this precondition is to protect indoor air quality from construction related pollutants and to shelter the building products from degradation. 27 During construction, many particu lates and other pollutants become air borne and can remain in the interior of the building if proper precautions are not taken. All parts of this precondition are met because of the Indoor Air Quality Management Plan that was utilized during constructio n. Therefore, since the building received the credit for the LEED certification for having an Indoor Air Quality Management Plan during construction, the building is also able to meet this precondition for the WELL certification. 08: Heal thy Entrance A healthy entrance is needed to protect occupants from harmful contaminants that can be brought inside the building by other occupants. Not only do the occupants bring contaminants indoors with them but leaving the entry doors to the building open could le ad to polluted air coming inside the building. 28 The intent of this precondition is to limit the amount of pollutants that come indoors through building entrances. 29 In order to meet this precondition, a n entryway system that includes grates between the vestibule and a rollout mat in front of the interior door meets the requirement of a 10 foot long entryway walk off system. Also, an entryway air seal is present at the Clinical and Translational Research Building, which prevents polluted air from entering the building with occupants. 27 The WELL Building Standard: V1 with Q4 2017 Addenda (International WELL Building Institute), 34. 28 The WELL Building Standard: V1 with Q4 2017 Addenda (International WELL Building Institute), 35. 29 Ibid.
09: Cleaning Protocol To maintain a healthy indoor environment, regular cleaning must be practiced. In order for a building to truly be healthy for humans, the cleaning products that are used in the building cannot contain harmful ingredients that could have adverse effects on human health. Therefore, the intent of this feature is to reduce building occupants f rom being exposed to pathogens and harmful cleaning chemicals 30 To attain this feature, the Clinical and Translational Research Building must provide a cleaning plan that uses compliant cleaning equipment and training, a list of approved cleaning products, a list of high touch surfaces, a cleaning schedule and date d cleaning logs. 31 Since the building achieved the LEED innovation credit for green cleaning, all of these standards are already met. An example of one of the cleaning logs that was posted in a bathroom within the building is shown to the left. 10: Pesti cide Managemen t The use of toxic pesticides within the project can have negative health effects on building occupants. Also, the runoff from pesticides can contaminate the groundwater that can later be used as drinking water. The intent of this precondition is to minimi ze the number of pests within the building while reducing the amount of harmful chemicals that occupants are exposed to. 32 30 The WELL Building Standard: V1 with Q4 2017 Addenda (International WELL Building Institute), 36. 31 Ibid. 32 The WELL Building Standard: V1 with Q4 2017 Addenda (International WELL Building Institute), 37.
This feature is achieved by, creating a pest management plan that uses hazard ranked pesticides. In the adjacent table are the approved chemicals on t he University of Florida campus, provided by University of Florida Facility services, along with their hazard ranking according to the Pesticide Research 33 One of the chemicals used does not have a hazard ranking yet so if the building decides to pursue WELL certification, the remaining chemicals m ust be searched again to see if it has a rank. 11: Fundamental Material Safety The intent of this feature is to be present within the project from building materials. 34 All of the materials listed above can have tremendous effects on human health that could affect the cardiovascular, respiratory, and nervous systems of the human body. & Safety ensures that these materials are limited or not included in the building. 35 33 PRI Pesticide Product Evaluator." Pesticide Research Institute. October 02, 2015. 34 The WELL Building Standard: V1 with Q4 2017 Addenda (International WELL Building Institute), 38. 35 "Programs." UF Environmental Health and Safety. NAME ACTIVE INGREDIENT EPA # Hazard Tier ADVION ANT GEL BAIT INDOXACARB 100 1498 3 ADVION ROACH GEL BAIT INDOXACARB 100 1484 3 ADVION FIRE ANT BAIT INDOXACARB 100 1481 3 BITHOR SC IMIDACLOPRID 83923 2 1 DEKKO SILVERFISH PAKS BORIC ACID 70313 1 1 DELTA DUST DELTAMETHRIN 432 772 1 DEMAND CS LAMBDA CYHAOLTHRIN 100 1066 1 GENTROL HYDROPRENE 2724 351 3 NIBOR D DISSODIUM OCTOBORATE TETRAHYDRATE 64405 8 1 PRECOR 2000 PLUS PERMETHRIN 2724 490 1 PT565 PLUS PYRETHRIN 499 310 NOT IN SEARCH PT WASP FREEZE D TRANS ALLETHRIN 499 362 1
12: Moisture Management The intent of this precond ition is to limit mold growth through the capture of moisture inside oud outside of the building. 36 The only thing that the Clinical and Translational Research Building needs to do to achieve this feature is to provide the International WELL Building Insti tute with narratives that explain what the building does for Exterior Liquid Water Management and Int erior Liquid Water Management. WELL Preconditions: Water In order for a society to be healthy, it is imperative that the people have access to clean and safe drinking water. The water delivered to a building is potentially the most used source for drinking water by building occupants, so it is important to regulate the water supplied to a building to ensure the health of everyone in the building. The w ater quality of the surface water in the United States is reliant on The Clean Water Act of 1974, which puts forth thresholds for the maximum number of contaminants allowed in potable water. 37 Standards for clean water are created with potential health risks in mind. For instance, some contaminants that are linked with the development of cancer or e coli infections are limited or prohibited in drinking water. 38 The WELL Building Standard work s to enforce these standards and also add more standards that focus on ensuring the health of people inside WELL certified buildings. to make sure that all of the levels optimize human health and wellbeing. During the performance 36 The WELL Building Standard: v 1 with Q4 2017 Addenda (International WELL Building Institute), 40. 37 The WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Adeenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 62. 38 Ibid.
verification of the certification process, the WELL assessor takes samples of the water sourced in a building and sends it out to a lab for testing. 39 Although getting water samples tested in a lab would be the best way to research if the Clinical and Translational Research Building meets the WELL Building Standard thresholds, it was impossible since there was no funding for this project. To make educated assumptions the GRU water r eport was used to calculate the standards of the water being provided to the building. 30: Fundamental Water Safety The intent of this precondition is to limit the number of water borne pathogens and sediments in potable water within the building. The fir st part of the precondition tests for sediments throug h a measurement of turbidity; h aving a large presence of turbidity in water creates a higher risk of providing food and shelter for germs. 40 The second part of the precondition tests for microorganisms, specifically coliforms, in potable water delivered to the building. For a building to achieve this precondition, the water sample must have turb idity levels less than 1.0 NTU. As stated above, high levels of turbidity in water can cause the perfect con ditions for the growth of pathogens that could be harmful for human consumption. According to Water, Wastewater, & Reclaimed Water System Standards provided by Gainesville Regional Utilities, turbidity curtains are used in order to combat turbidity in its water. 41 There are no specific measurements for turbidity in the Gainesville Regional Utilities (GRU) Water Report, but judging from the aesthetic of GRU water, it is safe to assume that the turbidity in its water is under the threshold given by the WELL Building Standard. 39 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 16. 40 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: Internatio nal WELL Building Institute, 2017), 64. 41
The p water report. Below, is a screenshot of the portion of the water report that measures the total coliform ated below, the Total Coliform level meets the standards of the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL). In another part of the Water Report, Fecal coliform and E. coli are listed under the list of potential contaminants that were not detected in the GRU water su pply. 42 31: Inorganic Contaminants The intent of this credit is to limit the presence of inorganic contaminants in water that could be consumed by building occupants. 43 In order to achieve a WELL certification, water samples must have limited amounts of dissolved metals like lead, arsenic, antimony, mercury, nickel and copper. Drinking water with metals like lead and mercury can put the consumer at risks of development al delays and learning disabilities in chi ldren, and they can also cause k idney problems and high blood pressure in adults. The maximum level of lead permitted in the water sample is 0.01 mg/L, or 1ppm. As seen in the photo below, the 90 th percentile re sult of lead was 1.40 ppb, which is significantly lower than the limit of 0.01 mg/L. Copper also has the same maximum threshold of 0.01mg/L. Also stat ed in the picture below, the 90 th percentile result of copper in GRU water was 0.016ppm, which is well below the standard of 1mg/L. 42 43 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 65. GRU Water Report WELL Standard Lead 0.0014 ppm 1 ppm Copper 0.016 ppm 1 ppm F IGURE 4 : W ATER Q UALITY R EPORT G AINESVILLE R EGIONAL U TILITIES 2016.
The rest of the dissolved metals, which are arsenic, antimony, mercury and nickel were all listed in the list of potentia l contaminants that were not detected in GRU water. 44 Although all of these dissolved metals are naturally occurring, it is important to note that they can cause unhealthy effects in people that consume high amounts of them. 32 : Organic Contaminants The intent of this feature is to limit the number of organic contaminants that are present in drinking water within a WELL certified building. The organic contaminants that are being researched for this feature are styrene, benzene, ethylbenzene, polychlo rinated biphenyls, vinyl chloride, toluene, xylenes and tetrachloroethylene. Organic contaminants are usually found in small amounts within ground and surface waters. Some of these items have been linked with health effects like the development of cancer immune deficiencies and dis ruptions in the nervous system. 45 Fortunately, GRU tests for all of the above organic pollutants. In the latest water report, all of these items were under the list of potential contaminants that were not detected in the GRU w ater supply which is pictured to the right 46 33: Agricultural Contaminants The intent of this credit is to reduce the number of agricultural contaminants that are present in drinking water. 47 Agricultural contaminants often find their way into all water systems from storm water runoff and can be found in almost every stream. 48 Being exposed to the items listed above have been associated with kidney, gastrointestinal, thyroid and reproductive effects. 49 44 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 65. 45 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WEL L Building Institute, 2017), 66. 46 Ibid. 47 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Adeenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 67. 48 Ibid. 49 Ibid.
Various types of herbicides and pesticides The most popular used pesticide, atrazine, is linked with cardiovascular difficulties and is thought to be an endocrine disruptor. 50 Also, glyphosate is an herbicide that is known to lead to kidney problems and problems with the reproductive system. 51 Fortunately, all of these herbicides and pesticides are tested for in the GRU Water Report, and none of these items are detected in the GRU supplied water. 52 34: Public Water Additives The intent of this feature is to reduce the presence of disinfectants, byproducts of disinfection and fluoride in drinking water. 53 Disinfectants like chlorine and chloramine are used to ensure that contaminants are kept at a minimal level s o that the water is healthy for humans to consume. According to the GRU Water Report, the chlorine levels are detected at 0.71ppm, which equals 0.071mg/L. 54 The accepted amount of chlorine for the WELL Building Standard is 0.6mg/L, so the water supplied t o the Clinical and Translational Research Building meets the requirements for chlorine. After calling GRU, they informed that there is no chloramine present in the water sourced by GRU, because the chloramine is killed off by the chlorine in the water. T herefore, the levels of chloramine are definitely below 4ppm and meet the WELL Building Standard. Disinfectant byproducts like trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids are created as byproducts from disinfectants being added to the water. Both haloacetic 50 Ibid. 51 Ibid. 52 53 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 68. 54 GRU Water Report WELL Standard Haloacetic acid 0.01041 mg/L 0.06 mg/L Trihalomethanes 0.05468 mg/L 0.08 mg/L F IGURE 5 : W ATER Q UALITY R EPORT G AINESVILLE R EGIONAL U TILITIES 2016.
acids and trihalomethanes are measured by GRU in their annual water report. The haloacetic acid was detected at a level of 10.41ppb, which equals 0.01041 mg/L. 55 This level is safely below the accepted value of 0.06 mg/L. As for trihalomethanes, the GRU water report recorded the level of trihalomethanes to be 54.68 ppb, which is 0.05468 mg/L. 56 The accepted WELL Building Standard is 0.08 mg/L, so the Fluoride is purpo sely added to drinking water, but levels of it in water should remain under the safe limit in order to prevent the development of fluorosis in people consuming water with high concentrations of fluoride. The accepted value of fluoride is 4 mg/L, and GRU m easured fluoride levels to be 0.65 mg/L. 57 WELL Preconditions: Nourishment The nourishment of building occupants has a tremendous effect on their health and well being, as well as a large impact on their productivity throughout the work day. Most of the time, people at work turn to whatever food is the easiest, but that does not mean it is always the healthiest option. Currently, at the Clinical and Translational Building, the only available food for sale are two food vending machines and two beverage vending machines. The absence of nutritious options may play a role in the productivity of the employees at the building, and it also have a large effect on the health of the building occupants. Companies that do not make the nourishment of their employe es into account may see that they spend more money on healthcare because of the lack of preventative medical care being taken. 55 56 Ibid. 57 Ibid.
completely nutritious diet. 58 For instance, most adults consume more than 500 calories of added sugars every day. 59 Also, half of the United States population drinks over 200 calories of sugar sweetened beverages each day. 60 These faults in nutrition have the potential to lead to obesity a nd cardiovascular disease. 61 There are a total of 8 preconditions that make up this concept of nourishment. The goal of this concept is to trigger the nutrition of building occupants through a combination of features that include increasing access to fruits and vegetable s and limiting processed foods. 38: Fruits and Vegetables The intent of this precondition is to promote eating fruits and vegetables by making them more accessible to building occupants. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans promotes co nsuming at least 5 servings of vegetables and at least 4 servings of fruit every day. 62 Even though these are the recommended standards, it is disappointing that less than 10% of Americans meet these standards on a daily basis. 63 The goal of this precondit ion is to lessen the amount of unhealthy foods that building occupants are exposed to in the workplace by replacing the majority of them with fresh fruits and vegetables. 58 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Adeenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 74. 59 Ibid. 60 Ibid. 61 Ibid. 62 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Adeenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 77. 63 Ibid.
This precondition focuses on making fruits and vegetables more accessible to buildi ng occupants. The WELL Building Standard requires that at least 2 varieties of fruits and at least 2 varieties of vegetables are sold on a daily basis. 64 Also, 50% of the available food options are fruits and/or vegetables. 65 However, this is one of the f ew preconditions that the Clinical and Translational Research Building does not already meet. At the moment, there are only four vending machines present in the building. Both of the vending machines carrying food are packed with very unhealthy, processe d foods. Since this is the only food that building occupants are exposed to in the workplace, they are more likely to make unhealthy decisions since the bulk of the food items that are sold in these vending machines are not vey nutritious. Right away, it is obvious that the current situation does not meet the standards of this precondition because there are not even any fruits or non fried vegetable options available for consumers to purchase. In order to achieve this precondition, a retrofit would need to take place so that the Clinical and Translational Research Building could introduce more fresh fruits and vegetable choices for their employees to choose from. An easy and cost efficient solution that could be used to remedy this situation is to introd uce a fresh food micro market to the Clinical and Translational Research Building. 66 The great thing about these markets is that they are completely customizable, so it is easy to tailor the available food choices to meet the standards that WELL calls for. Also, this retrofit is completely free for the Clinical and 64 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Adeenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 77. 65 Ibid. 66 "Fresh Healthy Vending Rolls Out Fresh Micro Market Powered by EMobilePOS in Office Break Rooms."
Translational Research Building to install. The company that manufacturers the fresh food micro markets are responsible for maintaining the machine and making sure it stays stocked with fresh food. The only cost that the Clinical and Translational Building would be charged for this implementation is the energy that is used to power the vending machine, but since it is an energy star reference, it will not consume a significant amount of energy Actually, having this vending machine in the building is actually a profit maker for the Clinical and Translational Building not only because of its nutritious value to building occupants, but the building also makes an average commission of 15% of all foo d and beverage items that are sold from it. 67 Therefore, implementing a fresh food market would not only just be healthier for the building o ccupants, but it will also contribute money to the building itself. By installing this retrofit, the Clinical and Translational Building will be able to reach the first part of the precondition. 39: Processed Foods The intent of this precondition is to reduce the amount of highly processed foods and ingredients that are available to building occupants throughout the day. 68 Most of the time, the highly processed foods tend to be the worst for consumers when it comes to nutritional value. 69 When processed foods are the only food option that is provided for building occupants, the company is showing its employees 67 "Fresh Healthy Ven ding Rolls Out Fresh Micro Market Powered by EMobilePOS in Office Break Rooms." 68 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 78. 69 Ibid. "F RESH H EALTHY V ENDING R OLLS O UT F RESH M ICRO M ARKET P OWERED BY EM OBILE POS IN O FFICE B REAK R OOMS ." EM OBILE POS. HTTP :// WWW EMOBILEPOS COM / FRESH HEALTHY VENDING INTERNATIONAL ROLLS OUT NEW FRESH MICRO MARKET RUNNING EMOBILEPOS IN OFFICE BREAK ROOMS /.
that i t is not overly concerned with their nourishment. Providing healthier, less processed foods for employees can improve the behavior, mood and function of employees throughout the day. This is not only a benefit for the employees, but it can also improve t he profitability of a company by improving the productivity levels within the employees. In order to achieve this feature, all of the food and beverages sold on the premises of th e building grounds must meet the sugar and ingredient restrictions that the WELL Building Standard formed. The first standard that WELL establishes for this feature is that beverages cannot contain more than 30 g of sugar per container. 70 As seen in the picture of thee beverage vending machine, the beverages provided in the building are a combination of coffee based drinks, energy drinks, iced teas, sodas, sports drinks and water. The sugar content of each beverage can be seen below in the table. After looking at the sugar content of all of these beverages, it was determined that 10 of the 18 beverage choices have over 30 g of sugar per container. 70 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 78. Beverage Sugar Content per Container Starbucks Bottled Mocha Frappuccino Coffee Drink (13.7 oz) 31 g Starbucks Bottled Vanilla Frappuccino Coffee Drink (13.7 oz) 46 g Starbucks Doubleshot Energy Mocha Drink (15 oz) 26 g Starbucks Doubleshot Energy Vanilla Drink (15 oz) 25 g Starbucks Doubleshot Energy White Chocolate Drink (15 oz) 28 g Rockstar Energy Drink (16 oz) 62 g Rockstar Energy Drink Zero Carb (16 oz) 0 g Lipton Green Tea Citrus (20 oz) 32 g Lipton Peach Iced Tea ( 20 oz) 30 g Pepsi (20 oz) 69 g Diet Pepsi (20 oz) 0 g Mountain Dew (20 oz) 77 g Dr. Pepper (20 oz) 62 g Diet Dr. Pepper (20 oz) 0 g Lemon Lime Gatorade (20 oz) 34 g Cool Blue Gatorade (20 oz) 34 g Orange Gatorade (20 oz) 34 g Aquafina Bottled Water (20 oz) 0 g
However, the next standard that WELL requires is that 50% or more of the beverages need to contain 1 g of sugar or less per 16 mL. 71 This means that each beverage can only have 1.87 g of sugar p er fluid oz. After doing calcu lations for each container, 11 of the 18 beverage options meet this standard, which is over 50%. The third standard states that no non beverage food item can contain more than 30 g of sugar per serving. 72 Since the vending machine of food was the only purchasable food in the Clinical and Translational Building, this section was calculated by looking up the nutrition information for each item in the machine. By looking at the table to the below, it is clear to see that the o nly food item that is above 30 g per serving is the 3 Musketeers bar. However, if this standard was calculated by container, instead of by serving, most of these food items would not meet the standard. In theory, the only change that would need to be cha nged in order to meet this section of the feature is to remove the 3 Musketeers bars. The next requirement for this feature states that at least 50% of all items where a grain flour is the primary ingredient, a whole grain must be used. 73 Out of the foo d options available at the Clinical and Translational Research Building, five of them have a grain flour as a primary ingredient. Those five 71 Ibid. 72 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 78. 73 Ibid. Food Item Sugar per serving Cheez Its 0 g 2 g 10 g Rold Gold Pretzels tiny twists original < 1 g < 1 g Doritos Nacho Cheese 0 g 2 g Pop Corners Carnival Kettle 2 g 14 g Fritos Flavor Twists Honey BBQ 1 g Cheetos Crunchy <1 g Quaker Snack Mix 4 g 30 g Snickers 27 g Peanuts 25 g Munchies Peanut Butter 5 g Skittles 19 g Sour Skittles 18 g Butterfinger 24 g Nature Valley 11 g 22 g Almond Chocolate Bar 19 g 21 g Pay Day Bar 21 g Crunch Chocolate Bar 24 g KitKat Big Kat 21 g 3 Musketeers 36 g Kind Fruit & Nut 7 g Pop Tarts Strawberry 15 g 15 g Rice Krispies Treats Original 8 g Mixed Fruit 11 g
include the Cheez cookies, and Grandma or unbleached wheat flour. Therefore, 0% of the food items where a grain flour is the primary ingredient utilize whole grain flour. For the Clinical and Translational Rese arch Building to achieve this precondition all of the prior requirements have to be met with the addition that food served in the building cannot contain any Partially Hydrogenated Oils (PHOs), which are more commonly known as trans fat. According to the United States Food & Drug Administration, foods that are meant for human consumption must no longer contain trans fat by June 18, 2018. 74 After analyzing all of the nutritional value of the foods that are currently available at the Clinical and Translational Research Building, it is concluded that none of them contain trans fats. Between the many parts of this feature, it has been determined that this p recondition is not met by the Clinical and Translational Research Building at this time. In order for the building to achieve this precondition, the beverages that are over 30 g of sugar per container need to be removed and the 3 Musketeers Bar needs to b e removed from the vending machines. Also, 3 of the 5 food items that contain a primary ingredient of grain flour need to be replaced with options that have a whole grain flour as the primary ingredient. All three of these issues can easily be changed wi th no or very low costs involved since all that needs to be done is removal of some item s and replacement with others. 74 & Ingredients Final Determination Regarding Partially
40: Food Allergies The intent of this precondition is to make sure that occupants do not consume food items that they may be allergic to. 75 If building occupants are aware of the ingredients that are in each food item that they consume, then they are able to be confident that what they are eating will not give them an allergic reaction. The Clinical and Translational Research Building could achieve this precondition if all ingredients that are commonly known as food allergies must be labeled. Since the Clinical and Translational Research Building only offers food that is sold through vending machines, all of the processed food items in them clearly label the ingredients that are listed above in the WELL Building Standard feature. Also, all of the food labels from the available food are compliant with the defi nitions and rest rictions that are stated in C.F.R Â§101.91 set by the United States Food and Drug Administration. 76 These standards are met because none of the food items falsely claim to be gluten free. Without any retrofits needed, the Clinical and trans lational Research Building meets the criteria to earn this precondition. 41: Hand Washing The purpose of this feature is to provide sanitary hand washing amenities to limit the transmission of pathogens between occupants. 77 Some ways of doing this is to ma ke sure that the sink dimensions are big enough that an occupant can safely wash their hands, and also limiting contamination by using soap dispensers and disposable paper towels. Meeting these standards is important to the health of occupants because the y are less likely to get sick if they do not come in contact with as many pathogens while washing their hands. 75 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 79. 76 77 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 80.
The first part of this condition is important to ensure that building occupants have access to soap that is healthy for human use. 78 Part of the WELL requirements are met because of the LEED credit for green cleaning in the Clinical and Translational Research Building The next requirement demands that disposable paper towels are available in bathrooms, which is already present in the Clinical and Translational Research Building. This precondition also requires that either liquid soap is provide d, in dispensers that contain disposable and sealed soap ca rtridges, or bar soap is provided with a soap rack that allows for drainage 79 In the Clini cal and Translational Research Building, liquid soap dispensers are used. Inside each dispenser is a disposable and sealed soap cartridge, which meets the standards for Part 2. Having liquid soap dispensers allows for limiting the spread of pathogens bet ween occupants from using a common bar of soap that is not able to drain after each use. 78 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: Internatio nal WELL Building Institute, 2017), 80. 79 Ibid.
Hand washing standards also require that the sinks that are available in bathrooms and kitchens must meet certain dimensional requirements to ensure that it is a b ig enough area to wash hands. The WELL Building Standard sets a minimum that water columns in sinks must be at least 10 inches in length. 80 When the water column was measured at a sink in the Clinical and Translational Research Building, the column was me asured at 12 inches which is compliant with the WELL Building Standard. Also, the sink must be a minimum of 9 inches in width and length, and the sink at the Clinical and Translational Research Building measures 11.5 inches in width and 16 inches in lengt h 81 Without any retrofitting, the Clinical and Translational Research Building successfully meets all of the criteria that is required to achieve this precondition. 42: Food Contamination The intent of this precondition is to provide safe food storage i n refrigerators to restrict exposure to food borne pathogens. 82 If raw meats, fish, and poultry are stored along with other foods in the refrigerator, food borne pathogens can easily be transferred because of leaky packaging. The only safe way to store ra w foods is in an isolated area of the refrigerator that can easily be cleaned. 80 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 80. 81 Ibid. 82 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Bui lding Institute, 2017), 81.
To achieve this precondition, cold storage must be provided for raw meat, fish, or poultry that is prepared and/or stored on site. 83 This is done by having a removable drawer that be cleaned in the refrigerator that is clearly labeled for storing raw meats, fish and poultry. 84 The Clinical and Translational Research Building is exempt from this precondition, because no raw meat, fish, or poultry is prepared or stored in the building. However, even if a building occupant wanted to bring and store raw meat, fish, or poultry in the building, removable and cleanable drawers are available in the refrigerators in every break room. 43 : Art ificial Ingredients The labeling of artificial ingredients is important to try and deter occupants from consuming foods or beverages that contain artificial ingredients. 85 These ingredients include things like artificial colors, preservatives, and artifici al sweeteners. 86 If building occupants are more aware of the artificial ingredients that are in a food item, maybe they will make the decision to consume foods that do not contain these ingredients. To achieve this precondition, the WELL Building Standard requires that the artificial substances listed above are properly labeled on food items. 87 Since the only food that is available at the Clinical and Translational Research Building is the food provided in the vending machines, all artificial 83 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 81. 84 Ibid. 85 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 82. 86 Ibid. 87 Ibid.
substances are labeled on the food packaging. However, it could be beneficial for the building to make the lists of artificial ingredients more prominent in order to foster good nutrition decisions. 44: Nutritional Information The purpose of this feature is to help b uilding occupants make an informed decision of what foods and beverages they should consume. 88 Having access to the nutritional information of a piece of food can make the consumer think twice about what they want to eat. Every food item and beverage sold at the Clinical and Translational Research Building must be labeled with detailed nutritional information. 89 This information includes the macronutrients, sugar and total calories in each item that a buil ding occupant m ay consu me. Since the only food provided inside of the building is through the vending machines, all of the food that is presently sold has detailed nutritional information on the packaging it comes in. Although the Clinical and Translational Research Building a lready meets this criterion it would be helpful if the nutrition label could be read before the consumer purchases the food item. When a person buys an item from the vending machine, only the front of the packaging is seen which makes it difficult or impossible to see the nutrition information. It before purchasing the food or beverage. 45: Food Advertising Food advertising can have an influence ov er what type of food choices people make throughout the day. Any form of subliminal messages can lead consumers into choosing unhealthy or healthy foods, depending on the type of messages they are exposed to. In order to motivate people to make healthier 88 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 83. 89 Ibid.
choices, it is important to provide occupants with food advertising that promotes healthy food consumption decisions. The first part of this feature is to ensure that there are no advertisements for food and beverages that do not meet the WELL Building 90 At this time, there are no advertisements for any type of food throughout the building. The only advertisement is the Aquafina logo on the front of the beverage vending machine, but Aquafina water fits the criteria of the Processed Foods feature, so it is fine the way it is. The second part of the feature is to utilize nutritional messaging throughout the building in at least three instances. 91 These messages could be done through posters, visual media, bro chures, or other advertising material. 92 According to the WELL Building Standard, these messages either need to promote the consumption of healthy foods, or deter occupants from consuming highly processed, sugary, and unhealthy foods and beverages in place s where people eat or common areas. 93 At this time, there are no advertisements for food or beverages in the break rooms so this is a precondition that would need to be addressed in retrofits. An effective way of sending messages that would widely be se attention. Some examples of what could be purchased to fulfill this p recondition are shown in the adjacent pictures. 90 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017 ), 84. 91 Ibid. 92 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 84. 93 Ibid.
The posters that are pictured above can be found on the Nu trition Education Store website 94 Each poster costs roughly about $20 each, so if three posters need to be installed, then this precondition can easily be met with only a $60 i nvestment. WELL Preconditions: Light The lighting that is present in a workplace can have a drastic effect on the performance and mood of building occupants. The WELL Building Standard preconditions for the light concept make sure that the lighting of a WELL certified building optimizes the well being and productivity of occupants. One of the main things that the preconditions for this concept stress the most is the importance of circadian rhythm lighting. Humans and other animals register different levels of light that roughly 94 UTRITION P OSTER M OTIVATIONAL P OSTER N UTRITION E DUCATION S TORE
synchroniz e with the 24 hours of the day. 95 When the lighting levels match up with this 24 hour cycle, the process is called circadian photoentrainment. 96 However, this lighting does not just refer to sunlight, but all types of light that humans are exposed to. Als o, the presence of glare has the opportunity to When lighting is poor inside of a building it could disrupt the circadian photoentrainment of building occupants. If an inside space i s not well lit during the middle of the day, when humans are supposed to be exposed to the highest lighting levels, a drift in the circadian phase can be caused. 97 In order to maintain max productivity throughout the day, humans need to go through segments of brightness and darkness in the span of a day. 98 Therefore, providing a light environment during the day for occupants to work in could help them sleep better at night since their circadian rhythm is intact. 53: Visual Lighting Design The intent of this feature is to ensure that light levels are set to support visual acuity and also to make sure that luminance is balanced within different areas of the building. 99 Having adequate lighting at workstations is important so that occupants are able to be produ ctive throughout the day. Working in ensuring that there are not extreme differences in lighting levels between areas of the building prevents building o 95 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 93. 96 Ibid. 97 Ibid. 98 Ibid. 99 Ibid., 95.
The first part of this feature is designed to ensure that ambient lighting at workstations and desks are kept at a healthy level that will stimulate occupants Ambient lighting was to be measured 30 inches above the floor to ensure that the light intensi ty was at least 2015 lux. 100 All lighting levels were read using a Tasi Digital Datalogging Light Intensity Meter TA8133 which is pictured to the right. A sample of light readings that were taken at workstations throughout the Clinical and Translational R esearch Building are shown to the right. As the numbers state, the sample of workstations that were analyzed for ambient lighting all met the standard of 215 lux. Some areas were higher than others because some areas had more access to natural light than other w orkstation. The second part of this feature focuses on creating a brightness management strategy In order to achieve this feature, a professional narrative must be submitted to the International WELL Building Institute along with the other certification materials that clearly depicts the light management plan of the Clinical and Translational Research Building. 101 Some of the things that need to be included in this will be traveling between quickly. Having a plan to ensure that lighting does not differ too much between areas is important so that the sight of occupants is not strained or shocked when their eyes wander to different place s within the building. 100 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 95. 101 Ibid. Ambient Light Samples (lux) 624 410 578 273
54: Circadian Lighting Design As stated in the introduction for the Light Concept, it is important for a building to maintain the circadian rhythm of building occupants to ensure that they are most productive during th e work day. Providing an interior that is well lit during the daylight hours helps to optimize occupant performance, because they are the most productive during their peak hours in the middle of the day. Also, avoiding dark areas in the building helps to make s ure that the circadian photoentrainment is kept steady in building occupants. The intent of this precondition is to use light intensity to support circadian health. As stated in the previous feature, the sample of workstations had readings over 215 lux during the middle of the day, so it is safe to assume that they would be able to also reach the WELL Building Standard requirement of 200 melanopic lux during daylight hours. 102 The abundance of windows in the building provide plenty of daylight to offices and workstations. In fact, there is so much daylight present that most occupants do not even use the electrical lighting in their offices. A picture depicting the large amount of daylight in offices is shown to the right. 55: Electric Light Glare Control The intent of this feature is to help diminish glare from overhead and task lighting by setting limits on the intensity of lights. 103 Glare can be created from uneven levels of brightness that are not shielded, which can lead to eye strain, fatigue, and h eadaches. 104 102 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 97. 103 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 98. 104 Ibid.
All of the light in common areas is provided from either light fixtures in the cei ling or daylight from windows, both of which have their own sort of glare control. Light fixtures from the ceiling all had luminaire shielding as seen pictured to the right. This precondition also requires that task lighting that is 53 above the center of view from the occupant has glare shielding From all workstations that were observed during facility walkthoughts, none of them had task lighting that was 53 above the line of sight of the occupant. Pictured below are two examples of task lighting that was observed on workstations. 56: Solar Glare Control The intent of this feature is to dimish the amount of glare from the sun. 105 Daylight is a great feature to have a building, but overwhelming sunlight can lead to visual fatigue and discomfort. In order to meet this feature, interior window sh ading that is controllable by occupants helps to prevent glare. By doing this, the occupants are able to receive as much sunlight as they are comfortable with throughout the day. This can be seen in the top picture to the right. 105 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 99.
Also, in regularly oc cupied spaces, various shading techniques are used and can be seen in the pictures below In addition to the operable window shades, a wall of windows are made opaque to block sunlight and external shading systems are used to prevent glare. WELL Preconditions: Fitness In America, the majority of people lead sedentary lives and are physically inactive. 106 With the way that modern transportation is used and the nature of office jobs, most adults do not have to move at all during the day or exert mu ch energy throughout the day. On average, adults are only spending 6 to 10 minutes doing moderate to vigorous physical activity in a whole day. 107 Physical inactivity is causing many health problems among the population, and the only way to combat it is to participate in some sort of physical activity every day. 106 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 108. 107 Ibid.
The purpose of the Fitness Concept in the WELL Building Standard is to promote physical activity in building occupants through an active interior design and activity incentive programs. Currentl y, the Clinical and Translational Building capitalizes on creating an environment that can fairly be deemed an active interior design, but it lacks any form of an activity incentive program. If the preconditions that are required for the Fitness Concept w ere implemented at the Clinical and Translational Research Building, the building occupants could save UF Health a lot of money in health care costs due to preventative measures from getting sick. Also, the occupants will be able to lessen their chance of having a stroke, developing cardiovascular issues, obesity, and getting diabetes. 108 Also, if the building occupants of the Clinical and Translational Research Building participate in more physical activity, then studies show that they will be happier and more productive in the work place. 109 64: Interior Fitness Circulation Making stairs more accessible and aesthetic to building occupants could motivate them to take the stairs instead of taking the elevator. The intent of this feature is to do just that b y requiring that a staircase is very visible to occupants and that the design encourages sporadic spurts of physical activity to lessen sedentary behavior. 110 By promoting the use of stairs within the Clinical and Translational Research Building, occupant s will be able to participate in some physical activity even if it is only in small sections of time throughout the day. Over time, those small bursts of physical activity could add up to make a substantial difference in the health and well being of build ing occupants. 108 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 108. 109 Ibid. 110 Ibid., 110.
The first part of this feature states that in buildings that are in between 2 and 4 floors must have one common staircase that is widely accessible to building occupants. Also, there must be signs in each elevator bank that promotes the u se of stairs instead of taking the elevator during the day. 111 The first section of this part is easily met because of the beautiful staircase that is located in the main lobby of the Clinical and Translational Research Building. However, the second sectio n of this part is not met because in the elevator banks there are only signs that say to take the stairs in the case of an emergency. In order to meet the second section of this part, signs that promote taking the stairs can easily be downloaded off th e internet, printed out and posted in each elevator bank. Examples of this s olution are pictured below 112 The overall cost of this retrofit would be at most $20 to meet. 111 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 110. 112 "Move More Posters." Eat Smart, Move More NC. "M OVE M ORE P OSTERS ." E AT S MART M OVE M ORE NC.
The second part of this feature requires that in projects that are 2 to 4 floors, one common staircase 113 Also, the width of the stairs must be at least 56 inches between the handrails. 114 As seen i n the picture on the previous page, the main staircase is positioned in the center of the main lobby of the building. Also, during a site visit, it was measured that the width between the two handrails of the staircase was 60 inches. Therefore, the main staircase meets both standards for Part 2 of this precondition. The third part of this precondition demands that the common staircases implements two elements of aesthetic appeal that would motivate building occupants to utilize the staircase instead of t aking the stairs. The elements include artwork, music, daylighting, view windows, high light levels and biophhilic elements. 115 For the main staircase of the Clinical and Translational Research Building, occupants have access to floor to ceiling windows, a rtwork, daylighting, and extremely high levels of natural light. Using the light meter that was used for the Light Concept, a measurement of 1778 lux was measured by the staircase. The other mentioned elements are pictured to the right. 65: Activity I nce ntive Programs The intent of this feature is to motivate building occupants to pursue active lifestyles by implementing activity incentive programs that are available for all building occupants to participate 113 WELL Building Sta ndard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 110. 114 Ibid. 115 Ibid., 111.
in. 116 If the building occupants are given an in centive to lead an active lifestyle, then they will probably be more likely to increase their physical activity. Part 1: The Clinic al and Translational Research Building must implement two of the four options that are listed above. Below in the text boxes are two possible programs that could be implemented at the building. Every year, the total investment to reach this precondition would be $1,000. WELL Preconditions: Comfort Feeling comfortable in the indoor environment is very important in order to optimize well being within a space. The indoor environmental quality accounts for acoustics, ergonomic, olfactory and thermal comfort. 117 Making these elements a priority in indoor space s helps to avoid stress and enhance the well being and product ivity among building occupants. The preconditions in the Comfort Concept put forth standards that ensures that a WELL certified buil ding has optimum indoor environmental qualities. In order to obtain a WELL silver certification, the Clinical and Translational Research Building would have to achieve all 5 preconditions within the Comfort Concept. These 5 features focus on accessible d esign, ergonomics, noise within the building and thermal comfort. 118 116 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 112. 117 Ibid. 120. 118 Ibid. Program 1: If a full time employee bikes or uses mass transit for over 50% of the month, they are automatically entered into a semi annual raffle for $250. Program 2: If a full time employee goes to the gym or utilizes a physical activity program, at least 50 times within a 6 month period, they are automatically entered into a semi annual raffle for $250.
Many of the things that are covered under these comfort preconditions are elements that are often overlooked in a normal workspace. For instance, traditional office spaces usually have poor acoustic quality which leads to a loud and distracting environment for building occupants. Also, many office buildings keep the temperature of the interior space usually low which causes occupants to be uncomfortable. However, when a person walks i nto a space that maintains great thermal comfort and acoustics, they feel empowered to be more productive because they are comfortable in the space that they are in. As said in the WELL Building Standard, the Comfort Concept takes a holistic approach to c reating an environment that makes all occupants feel comfortable. 119 72: A ccessible Design A ccessible design is important to make an indoor space inclusive to people with all different backgrounds. By implementing accessible design, a building is able to ma ke people with disabilities feel comfortable in a space by providing them with all of the tools they need to feel equal with all other building occupants. The intent of this precondition is to encourage equity among all occupants by designing buildings that empower people through making everything user friend ly for individuals of all physical abilities. 120 119 Ibid. 120 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 122.
This feature requires that the building is compliant with the Current ADA Standards for Accessible Design. The Clinical and Translational Building is currently compliant with the latest ADA Standards for Acc essible Design. In the photo to the right, an ADA compliant shower within the building is displayed. The University of Florida, as a whole, is dedicated to equity for people of all physical abilities which is demonstrated by having an office within the D epartment of Environmental Health & Safety that is devoted to ADA Compliancy. 121 73: Ergonomics: Visual and Physical Sitting in the same chair at a workstation all day, every day, at work can result in the overuse of the same muscles and ligaments that ar e trying to adjust to immobile furniture. 122 This overuse can lead to discomfort and strain within the muscular system that could lead to decreased occupant comfort and focus. 123 The intent of this precondition is to limit the amount of strain that is put on the human body and to maximize ergonomic comfort. 124 The first part of this precondition is to require that all computer screens are adjustable so that they can move in terms of height and distance from the user. 125 All of the computer screens in the Clinica l and Translational Research Building are free standing and they can easily be moved to the preference of each individual building occupant. An example of a workstation with a movable computer screen is pictured to the above. 121 122 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 123. 123 Ibid. 124 Ibid. 125 Ibid.
The second part of this pr econdition requires that at least 30% of the workstations are able to switch between sitting and standing positions. 126 As of right now, there are 53 desks that can currently move between the sitting and standing position. Since there are roughly 400 full time employees that work at the Clinical and Translational Research Building, only about 13.25% of desks are able to move between sitting and standing. Originally, it was thought that 67 more stand up desks were going to have to be purchased in order to a chieve this precondition. This would have added roughly $25,000 to the overall cost of the retrofits for this building. However, since the Clinical and Translational Research Building has a policy that any employee is given a stand up desk as long as he or she requests one, the building is able to achieve this precondition without any needed retrofits or investments. The third part of this precondition requires that all chairs at workstations are compliant with the BIFMA G1 guidelines in terms of height and seat depth adjustability. The model of every workstation chair is the Steelcase Amia chair meets the standards of BIFMA G1 guidelines. 127 74: Exterior Noise Intrusion Noise intrusion from the outdoor environment can be very distracting to building occupants, especially in urban or loud areas. There is scientific evidence that people that are overly exposed to loud noises like traffic and aircraft noises have a higher r isk for developing hypertension. 128 There is also evidence that being chronically exposed to high traffic noises can put an individual at a higher risk of 126 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 123. 127 28, 2015, 16. 128 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 124.
developing diabetes or undergoing a stroke or heart attack. 129 The most minor and common symptom of bei ng in the presence of loud exterior noise intrusion is increased levels of annoyance. 130 In a building that wants to optimize occupant comfort, it is imperative that there are not substant ial amounts of exterior noise intrusion. This precondition requires that exterior noise does not exceed 50 dBA. The sound measurements were to be taken outside of normal business hours, but because of the nature of this study, the measurements had to be taken during business hours. However, even with the foot traffic i n the main lobby, the readings stayed constant at 48.9 dBA. This measurement is pretty close to the maximum allowed amount, but it is safe to assume that the readings would be much lower if they were taken outside of regular business hours. The tool that was used to conduct readings was the Quest 2900 Sound Level Meter, which is pictured to the right. 75: Internally Generated Noise The mechanical systems of a building and increased communal spaces have the potential to create unwanted noise that could dis tract occupants in the building. Studies have made conclusions that increased exposure to internally generated noise caused a decrease in concentration and mental arithmetic performance. 131 The intent of this precondition is to lessen the amount of distrac tions from internally generated noise. 132 129 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 124. 130 Ibid. 131 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 125. 132 Ibid.
The first part of this feature calls for an acoustic plan that clearly identifies the location of noisy equipment in the space and also identifies the locational difference between loud and quiet zones. This part co uld easily be achieved by formulating a report that depicts these things The second part of the feature measures for the noise caused by mechanical equipment. Noise readings were taken using the same tool as the previous feature in order to calculate the noise criteria (NC) of the area. To the right is an example of the noise criteria calculated in the lobby. The maximum noise criterion of this area is 40, and with the help of Environmental Health & Safety, a noise criteria of 36 was measured. 76: Therm al Comfor t The thermal comfort of an interior space can affect the mood, performance and productivity of building occupants. 133 One of the biggest challenges for a building manager is that thermal comfort is a highly subjective element that varies from person to person. 134 However, the goal of this precondition is to make the indoor thermal comfort optimum for the greatest number of occupants. 135 The first part of this feature requires that all mechanically ventilated spaces meet the standards of ASHRAE 55 2013 Section 5.3, Standard Comfort Zone Compliance. 136 Because of the LEED Platinum certification, the Clinical and Translational Research Building already meets this part of the precondition. 133 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 126. 134 Ibid. 135 Ibid. 136 Ib id.
The second part of this precondition demands that all spaces in naturally conditioned projects meet the criteria of ASHRAE Standard 55 2013 Section 5.4, Adaptive Comfort Model. 137 Since the Cl inical and Translational Research Building is mechanically ventilated, it is exempt from this part of the precondition because it is not naturally conditioned. WELL Preconditions: Mind It is a common misconception that mental health and physical health are disconnected, but they are actually intricately connected. 138 Most of the physical activities humans do during the day cause certain hormones and chemicals to be released that affect mental health. 139 So far, most of the features that were reviewed in t his study pertained to physical health and well being, but every one of those features also drastically effects mental health of building occupants. The importance of being aware of mental health has become an innovative element to implement in design of buildings and interior spaces. Designing spaces that can optimize mental health is becoming a more popular idea, and the WELL Building Standard is able to quantify those elements in the Mind rall health and well being, a space that fosters a healthy mental state can play a tremendous role in psychological and physical health. 140 The preconditions featured in the Mind Concept help to create the optimal environment for mental happiness. Each precondition focuses on trying to trigger happiness and satisfaction within building occupants. The presence of beauty in art and biophilia c an help to put building occupants at ease and lessen their stress during the work day. Also, post occupancy surveys are helpful in making sure that the 137 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 126. 138 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 135. 139 Ibid. 140 Ibid.
building is performing up to the standards of the building occupants. The combination of all of these things help to create a space that promotes mental health and stability in the workplace. 84: Health and Wellness Awareness The intent of this feature is to help the building occupants get a better understanding of exactly what features a company pursued in order to achieve a WELL certification. 141 Having access to this information is good for building occupants, because it gives them a better understanding of how the built environment can affect their physical, mental and emotional health. The intent of this part of the precondition is to provide a guide that explains the WELL Building Standard features that were implemented into the project. If the Clinical and Translational Research Building pursued the WELL certification, this precondition could easi ly be met by formulating a guide that explains all of the features that the project achieved and how they affect occupant health and well being. The second part of this feature requires the formation of a health and wellness library. 142 Since this building is a medical research center, the building occupants already have access to more than the required amount of health and wellness reading material. 85: Integrative Design The best way to go about implementing the WELL Building Standard in a building is b y incorporating integrative design, just like when a building pursues a LEED certification. The intent of 141 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 138. 142 Ibid.
this feature is to foster collaboration between different team members to ensure that all goals pertaining to the WELL certification are met. 143 86: Post Occupancy Surveys The intent of this precondition is to give building occupants the opportunity to give feedback about how the building is performing. 144 As stated in the Thermal Comfort precondition, indoor environmental quality is one of those metr ics that is highly subjective that varies between each building occupant. Receiving feedback on surveys not only helps building operators get a better understanding of what the occupants want, but it also helps further the development of the WELL Building Standard. 145 Part 1: To achieve this part, 30% of the occupants must complete the Occupant Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) Survey from the Center for the Built Environment at UC Berkeley. 146 Since the University of Florida already possesses this survey, there is no cost associated with achieving this precondition. Part 2: After the surveys are taken, the results need to be reported to building owners, managers, occupants and the International WELL Building Institute. This precondition can easily be ac hieved if WELL was pursued at the Clinical and Translational Research Building. 87: Beauty and Design I Designing spaces that are aesthetically pleasing can improve the mood and evoke joy in building occupants. The intent of this precondition is to create spaces that thoughtfully express the culture of the organization that is occupying the building. 147 143 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 139. 144 WELL Building Stan dard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 140. 145 Ibid. 146 Ibid. 147 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 141.
In order to achieve this precondition, building design should express human delight, celebration of culture, celebration of spirit, celebration of place and meaningful integration of public art. 148 The Clinical and Translational Research building demonstrates all of the following in the artwork that is seen as soon as people walk through the main entrance. The mural along the back wall depicts macro organisms to micro organisms through the lens of a microscope. Since it is a medical research building, the mural is a perfect representation of a celebration of culture, spirit and place. Also, the mural was created by art students at the University of Florida, so it could be considered a meaningful integration of public art. Other pieces of art are also present throughout the building and grounds. 88: Biophilia I Qualitative In the built environment, it is easy for building occupants to lose touch with nature because of being in an indoor space. However, incorporating biophilia in a project can allow for individuals to feel connected to nature even inside the workspace. Nume rous studies show that being exposed to views, or even just images, of nature can aid in speeding up recovery time, stimulate positive feelings and reduce negative feelings. 149 The intent of this precondition is to foster the connection between humans and n ature within the project by implementing biophilia. 150 148 WELL Building Standard v1 wi th 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 141. 149 WELL Building Standard v1 with 2017 Q4 Addenda (New York, NY: International WELL Building Institute, 2017), 142. 150 Ibid.
Biophilia within the project can be witnessed in two separate spots. First, a green roof on the terrace is accessible by all building occupants. Also, the courtyard of the Clinical and Translational Research Building resembles a leaf, which incorporates Necessary Retrofits and Cost Analysis After researching all 41 preconditions, only 5 of them were not already met by the Clinical and Translational Research Building. The costs of the retrofits needed in ord er to meet these preconditions are listed below.
The total costs of the needed retrofits are depicted in the equation to the right. The fruits and vegetables feature and the processed foods feature are both met if the fresh food micro market is insta lled at the Clinical and Translational Research Building. The food advertising precondition is met by purchasing the posters that were depicted earlier in the paper. Interior Fitness Circulation is attained by printing out and posting the motivational po sters that promote taking the stairs instead of the elevator. Lastly, the Activity Incentive Program precondition is met with a total investment of $1,000 a year to fund the program. In order to meet all of the preconditions, the total investment would be $1,080 for the first year. In order to calculate the overall cost of the project, the WELL Fees Estimate for the project, that is pictured to the right, is added to the total costs of retrofits. When these numbers are added together, the total cost of the WELL certification for this building would be $68,885. This may seem like a lot of money at first glance, but when the amount of full time employees is accounted for, the cost comes out to be only $0.48 per person per day when the cost is divided over the course of a year. I NTERNATIONAL W ELL B UILDING I NSTITUTE HTTPS :// WWW WELLCERTIFIED COM
Anticipated Return on Investment It would be basically impossible to determine what the total return on investment for this project would be, but small returns on investments for each retrofit are noted below. For the fruits and vegetables precondition, having access to the fresh food micro market could A study showed that consuming more fruits and vegetables is associated with 27% lower odds of developing depression. 151 The retrofit for the food advertising precondition promotes people to make healthier food choices. When building occupants are presented with posters that promote eating healthier foods, 25% of adults are more likely to make healthier food choices. 152 Currently, there are no statistics available that can provide information if posting signs that promote taking the stairs, instead of the elevator, are effective. However, even if there were no positive results from this retrofit, which is unlikely, only a very small investment would be lost. The biggest return on investment was seen with activity incentive program. Among 22 differe nt studies that analyzed wellness programs and healthcare costs, the return on investment was 3.27. 153 This means that for every $1 spent on wellness programs, $3.27 was saved in healthcare costs. This return on 151 Friedman, Ron. "What You Eat Affects Your Prod uctivity." Harvard Business Review. December 30, 2015. 152 Story, Mary, and Simone French. "Food Advertising and Marketing Directed at Children and Adolescents in the US." The Internat ional Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 2004. 153 "5 Workplace Wellness Statistics Every Employer Should Know." WellSteps Blog. January 10, 2018.
investment does not even account for the mon ey that an organization would save due to employees having greater productivity during the day because of wellness programs. Conclusion Without doing anything, the Clinical and Translational Research Building already meets 36 out of the 41 preconditions that are needed to achieve a WELL Silver certification. This shows that the building is already a considerably healthy environment for the building occupants to work in. If the building were to pursue the WELL certification at this moment, it would be a very easy, non invasive process. Since the building already meets all of the preconditions in the Air, Water, and Light Concepts, any type of invasive and expensive retrofits are avoided. Instead, meeting the preconditions that need to be addressed in t he Nourishment and Fitness Concepts are fairly simple to fix. The costs of the retrofits, by themselves, is a very small number when the size of the building and the amount of full time employees is taken into account. Also, the returns on investments f or the retrofits prove to be beneficial enough to make the investment to meet the preconditions. However, pursuing the WELL certification itself seems very pricey, especially since the Clinical and Translational Research Building is already meeting the va st majority of these preconditions without having to do anything differently. At this point, the organization would to ask itself if the title of having the first WELL certified building in Florida would be worth the $68,885 investment. Even if the build ing does not pursue the certification itself, implementing the retrofits seems like a smart idea just so that the building can target the nourishment and fitness concepts and the return on investments associated with them.
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