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How does Web Accessibility affect the User Experience of Users with Disabilities?

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How does Web Accessibility affect the User Experience of Users with Disabilities?
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Ball, Amanda Nicole Lee
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There are multiple goals for this research: to raise awareness of the disabilities field and the laws that come with it, to describe the current problems in the world because of web accessibility, to increase the knowledge of web accessibility with the current guidelines: WCAG 2.0. The main goal of the research is to propose a test questioning how changing the level of web accessibility will affect the user experience (UX), specifically, the UX of users with visual impairments. ( en )
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Awarded Bachelor of Arts in Digital Arts and Sciences, magna cum laude, on May 8, 2018. Major: Digital Arts and Sciences. Emphasis/Concentration: Media and Storytelling
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College or School: College of the Arts
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Advisor: Kyle Bohunicky. Advisor Department or School: Phillip Klepacki

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Copyright Amanda Nicole Lee Ball. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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1 How does Web Accessibility affect the User Experience of U ser s with Disabilities ? By Amanda Nicole Ball An undergraduate thesis presented to the University of Florida College of the Arts Digital Worlds Institute Under the supervision of Kyle Bohunicky In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the designation of magna cum laude Bachelor of Arts in Digital Arts and Sciences May 2018

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2 AB STRACT There are multiple goals for this research : t o raise awareness of the disabilities field and the laws that come with it t o describe the current problems in the world because of web accessibility t o increase the knowledge of web accessibility with the current guidelines: WCAG 2.0. The main goal of the research is to propose a test questioning how changing the level of web accessibility will affect the user experience (UX) s pecifically, the UX of us ers with visual impairments. Keywords: ADA, web accessibility, technology accessibility user experience, WCAG 2.0

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3 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT .....................................................................................................................................2 Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION................................................................................................. ........................ 5 Americans with Disabilities Act.........................................................................................5 Legal Issues.................................................................................................................... .. 7 Significance of Research........................................................................................... .........9 2 LITERATURE REVIEW................................................................................... .......... ............ ...... 1 1 What is Web Accessibility? .............................................................................................1 1 Assistive Technology............................................................................................1 2 Accessibility Implementation...............................................................................1 3 Few examples of web accessibility..................................................................................1 5 Alternative Text for Images.................................................................................1 5 Keyboard Input....................................................................................................1 5 Transcripts for Audio...........................................................................................1 6 WCAG 2.0 Guidelines......................................................................................................1 6 Perceivable..........................................................................................................1 7 Operable....................................................................... .......................................1 7 Understandable ..................................................................................................1 7 Robust..................................................................................................................1 8 What is User Experience? ..................................... .......................................................... 1 9

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4 3. METHODS ................................................................................................................................ 22 Usability Testing.........................................................................................22 The Test ............................................................................................................... 2 3 Survey Analysis ....................... ..........................................................................................2 4 Participants. ....... ...........................................................................................2 5 4. CONCLUSION ....................................................................................................................... ..2 7 WORKS CITED .......................................................... ...................... .......................................... .....2 8

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5 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Americans with Disabilities Act In 1990, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was passed to stop discrimination of disabilities in areas of employment, public accommodations, public services, transportation and telecommunications ( Schiff ) Before this act many public places and opportuniti es werent accessible for those with disabilities. B uildings and public facilities such as shopping centers, libraries, parking lots, airports, and parks were not accessible M ass transportation such as buses, trains, airplanes, taxis and other public transportati on systems w ere not accessible T elecommunications services such as phone services for those with speech or hearing impairments, or closed captioning for federally funded announcements were not accessible Bef ore t he ADA these places and services were not required to be accessible to US citizens with disabilities ther efore, they were not able to fully participate in public activities B efore the ADA wheelchair users couldnt access public buildings that did not have ramps Now a fter the ADA ramped entrances into buildings h a ve become the rule rather than the exception, (Jr. Robert ). Under Title III of the ADA the law states [n]o individual shall be discriminated against on the basis of disability in the full and equal enjoyment of the goods, services, facilities, priv ileges, advantages, or accommodations of any place of public accommodation ( Schiff ). This law means that a ll publ ic places services and pu blic accomodations need to be accessible to anyo ne reguardless of disabilit y T he ADA further de scribe s what a public accommodation is, and provides a list of twe lve categories in which a public accommodation can fall under Th e

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6 ADA is essential in allowing those with disabilities equal opportunity, but since its release in 1990 there have been issues surrounding the internet, the disabled communities and the laws specifically whether or not a website is considered a public accommodation and therefore be accessible. The ADA was passed in the 90s before the growth and popularity of the internet. Therefore, the ADA did not set rules or regulations referring to the internet. O nce the internet became popular, a few regulations about web accessibility were made through updating the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. The Rehabilitation Act is not the same as the American with Disabilities Act. The Rehabilitation Act prohibits the government and federally funded programs from discriminating against handicapped citizens. The R ehabilitation Act was update d with Section 508 which m andate s that Federal agencies have their electronic and information technology accessible to everyone (GSA) It is required for all government or federal websites and all their respective technologies be accessible, however, there are no rules or regulations for public websites in either the Rehabilitation Act or A merican with D isabilities A ct Although the U.S. Department of Justice has announced plans (to be expected in 2018) to implement ADA regulations, for the internet (Deflorian). Nothing has happened in the year thus far. Many of todays websites, mobile applications, and relative technologies are n o t accessible, because there were never any laws mandating that these technologies need to be accessible In recent years there have been many lawsuits surrounding this topic of web and mobile accessibility, all with differing results The following sections will describe these lawsuits, and how the courts have come up with mixed outcomes A look into these lawsuits will question why the ADA has yet to include regulations for today s internet technologies. Further research on web

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7 accessibility will be explained in depth within the Literature Review. This is important because it sets up all the information needed for the Methods section, which will test the user experience of a visually impaired participant b ased on levels of web accessibility Legal Issues In Disability Rights in the Age of Uber: Applying the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 to Transportation Network Companies Rachael Reed goes over the multiple lawsuits Uber has against them Uber has a newer business model which features ride share technology and allow users to get rides for a much cheaper price than most taxis. Traditional taxi services were made accessible by the ADA. I ndividual plaintiffs and accessibility groups have sued Uber for multiple actions of discriminating against the disabled Uber claims they do not fall under the ADAs Title III as a public accommodation, because Uber is a technology company not a transportation company, they shouldnt be held to the same s tandard as a Taxi company (Reed). The courts have yet resolve the issue. In Equal Access in Cyberspace: On Bridging the Digital Divide in Public Accommodations Coverage through Amendment to the Americans with Disabilities Act Laura Wolk goes over discrepancies with laws and lawsuits around accessibility and whether websites should be considered public accommodations (Wolk). A few cases established that a commercial website which had a physical location or store attached to it needed to be accessible becaus e the website w ould be considered a service provided from its physical location or store and therefore fall within public accommodation. This type of thinking may not branch from all court

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8 cases/judiciaries and t his is significant because the interpretation of the ADA Title III p ublic accommodation varies from court to court. Carly Schiff proposes in Cracking the Code: Implementing Internet Accessibility through the Americans with Disabilities Act a content analysis test which can help courts come to an agreement about cases involving the internet and other modern technologies. This test should allow for uniform decisions and avoid inconsistent results, (Schiff). Schiff breaks down multiple lawsuits and describes inconsistency b etw een each. For example, in the case Access Now v. Southwest Airlines there was a virtual ticket counter that was supposed to be convenient for Southwest .com users. A blind individual argued that the virtual ticket counter was inaccessible. The court decided that the virtual tick et counter was not a place of public accommodation under ADA Title III because there was no connection between the website and a t icket counter s geological location. I n the case National Federation of the Blind v. Target Corp, a blind indiv id ual argues th at Targets website was inaccessible. The court found a portion of the website to be a public accommodation under ADA Title III because of its attachment to a physical location, but found the other services attached to Target.com not be a public accommodati on (Schiff) Clearly, accessibility within website s and other mobile technologies are causing an uproar within the disabilities and civil rights fields Outcomes of mixed rulings among courts have been causing problems If websites were considered a place of public accommodation in the ADA many of these lawsuits could be resolved. T he ADA hasnt been amended for web accessibility yet one day the ADA will. Even though the law doesnt require the web to be accessible, web accessibility is still very important for the inclusion of everyone regardless of

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9 disabilities This research is a step in pushing towards the making web accessibility public knowledge, and something that shouldnt be required by law, but necessary by humankind. Significance of Research A significant percentage of the population is being left out when certain websites and technologies arent accessible. Nearly 20 percent of the population in the United States has [some sort of] disability (Espino). If designers had more knowledge o f the ADA and current issues within the disability civil right acts, many technologies would be able to expand and reach more of the population. This study could influence art schools/universities to add design for accessibility or inclusion with in their curriculum. It could also expand other technologies and other fields, like social media, etc. T his study could impact more designers or creative thinkers to create more accessible technologies. For example, think about the untapped market for creating mobile games for those who are blind. The study Turn Off the Graphics: Designing NonVisual Interfaces for Mobile Phone Games takes an in depth approach and explores the idea of non visual games for more accessibility with blind users ( Luis ). This way of thinking could allow designers to create a brandnew genre of mobile gaming and on top of that it could be life changing to those whove never been able to fully participate in mobile gaming before. If designers knew about accessibility or any other issues within the disabilities field maybe it c ould inspire them to create more types of accessible mobile games, websites etc. The re are multiple goal s for this research : t o raise awareness of the disabilities field and current accessibili ty issues with todays internet technologies t o increase the knowledge of web accessibility with the current guidelines : WCAG 2.0 and l astly to test how altering web

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10 accessibility will affect the users experience of users with disabilities specifically, users with visual impairments

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11 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW What is Web Accessibility? The World Wide Web was created by Sir Tim Berners Lee in 1989. In 1990, one year after the birth of the internet, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was passed (Schiff). The ADA did not include internet technologies to be accessible because t he internet then was not nearly as popular as it is today. T he growth in popularity of the internet and the fact the in ternet was not required to be accessible left many users behind. Approximately eight years later, the main international organization that produces web standards, the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), launched the Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) (Feingold). WAI is an important movement and an effort towards improving web accessibility The W3C also is responsible for developing the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) The WCAG are a set of guidelines that outlines what developers can do to make we bsites and mobile applications accessible to certain degrees. The most current set of guidelines are the WCAG 2.0. Figure 1 W3C Logo (W3C). M any legal issues have surrounded th e topic of web accessibility Only a few industries have been mandated by law to have their online presence be accessible. For example, government official websites. Dozens of high profile brands and institutions have been hit with

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12 sizable lawsuits in recent years, including Fordham University, Foot Locker, Brooks Brothers and more, (Deflorian). These and many other lawsuits have shifted many companies views on making their technologies, mobile apps and websites accessible. Web accessibility is important to the User Experience (UX) because without it there would be no experience, or at least the experience would be terrible For example there is a web user who is deaf, hes trying to watch a video. Sadly, the video contains no closed captions, no transcripts, or anything the user is left with only being able to see the video S ince he is deaf without captions or transcripts to read this information is inaccessible to him How does an instance like this affect his UX? His UX is probably quite terrible, he cant interact with the v ideo information, and he leave s feeling bad about the website interaction and its brand. Assistive Technology Assistive technologies are hardware and software that help those with disabilities. Assistive technologies allow many people with disabilities to access information on the web, and independently navigate through the web. For example, a screen reader can read written text from a website aloud so a user who many not have sight can hear what is written on the screen. Assistive technologies can also mag nify the screen to make graphics and font size s larger, create braille outputs, provide shortcuts for navigation, and even have voice recognition software to scan, switch, type and command.

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13 Figure 2 Examples of Assistive Technologies (Sulopa). A ssistive technologies are extremely helpful, however, many web technologies are not designed in a manner that is compatible with assistive technology or are otherwise inaccessible to individuals with disabil ities, ( Briggs). I f assistive technologies cant completely access the web, this may prevent possible educational or professional opportunities. It could also prevent social activities and inclusion. How would the user feel about those missed professional opportunities or th ose missed possibilit ies for social inclusion? Accessibility Implementation The Department of Justice (DOJ) ha ve already enforced action to websites that lacked accessibility. However, the DOJ has ignored mandating the laws to require websites be accessible. The DOJ has only enforced actions upon companies and institutions that were sentenced in lawsuits about accessibility The DOJ recommended following the WCAG 2.0 guidelines with a minimum level of AA as a baseline for compliance with the statute in enforcement actions, (Espino).

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14 Table 1 Example of what defines the WCAG 2.0 levels for Live Con tent, and Pre Recorded Audio/Video Content (Ai Media). I mplementing accessibility into an already built website can face challenges. It is easier to plan out accessibility from the start of the websites development. Even though it isnt required that all industries have accessible websites by law, it would be smart to use WCAG 2.0 minimum level AA when developing a website before lawsuits take place or the law changes to mandate web accessib ility In the M ethods section, four websites with the same website content will be tested Website 1 will fulfill WCAG 2.0 level A. Website 2 will fulfill WCAG 2.0 level AA standards Website 3 will fulfill WCAG 2.0 level AAA standards And Website 4 will not purposely fulfill any type of a ccessibility standards This test will examine how different levels of accessibility can change the user experience of a user with disabilities

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15 Few examples of web accessibility Alternative Text for Images Within HTML code, which is the code to build w ebsite s it is important that images include alternative text (alt text). Alt text should describe the image, if an image doesnt have alt text it is not accessible. For example, a blind person relying on assistive technology such as a screen reader to read the information on the webpage aloud would completely skip the image that doesnt have alt text. The blind user would be unaware of the images presence on that website therefore possibly missing vital information There are other uses for alt text, i f a users website image content cannot upload, the alt text would become available. In this instance, t he alt text would show and replace the image that couldnt load Vital information within the alt text could also be used for search engines and SEO (W3 C Web Accessibility Initiative). Keyboard Input It is important for websites to be able to be controlled from keyboard input. Website shouldnt only rely on a mouse for web access. Some people physically cant use a mouse, either due to limited fine motor control or age. Assistive technologies such as a speech to text input could mimic the keys from the keyboard and allow users with disabilities the access to use the keyboard via assistive technology, therefore accessing the website.

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16 Transcripts for Audio The way in which alternative text on images are there for those who cant see, is similar to how transcripts for video or audio files are there for those who cant hear. Making transcripts accessible for people who are hard of hearing or deaf is import ant in allowing them access to the content. The information that appears within a transcript could also be used for search engines and SEO opportunities (W3C Web Accessibility Initiative). These differ ent forms of web accessibility are important to identify because within the M ethods section, these forms of accessibility alt text, keyboard input, transcripts and more will be altered with in e ach of the websites depending on the WCAG 2.0 level change. WCAG 2.0 This resource is a free highly technical guideline written for web developers. WCAG 2.0 provides a detailed standard for what accessibility should be for any web content (Espino). Following the se guidelines should make website material accessible for those using assistive technologies. Listed t here are 12 guidelines, that fall into 4 main categories: perceivable, operable, understandable, and robust. Each guideline contains a level of A, AA, and AAA, which measure the overall accessibility. Level A being the minimal amount of what is considered accessible, and level AAA doing everything it takes to make the site completely accessible. The Department of Justice required companies who have been sued due to their lacking website to follow the AA criteria or receive penalties.

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17 Perceivable The user can perceive information from the website and use interface components with their available senses. For example, this could mean adding alt text, providing captions and transcripts for video. Sign language could even be added for audio content, (Espino). Developers should think about how they can present content in diverse ways, without losing the contents meaning Website HTML should be organized and constructed properly, so assistive technologies can read it clea rly Color should not be the only way of presenting information or establishing content. Fonts and text should resize up to 200% without losing information. Operable The website should be able to operate by using assistive technology. The user should be able to use the keyboard to access the entire content. Either by using the Tab key to tab across the content or connecting assistive technologies to control the keyboard. For example, a program that simulates keyboard functionality through speech to text. The user should also be able to pause cer tain sections if they need more time , and developers should ensure pages are clearly labeled so that users can keep track of where they are on the website, (Deflorian). It is important to note to avoid designs and videos with unnecessary flashing lights to help epileptic users avoid seizures. Understandable The content should be understandable, and the navigation through the pages should be understandable. Make sure all text is legible and the language is clear. Definitions for unusual

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18 words or abbreviations should be provided. The navigation should always appear in the same place for each page. Error messages should always suggest to the viewer how to correct the error. Users should also be able to review, correct or reverse submissions (Espino). Robus t Content should be robust and should be able to be accessed by a wide variety of differing assistive technologies. Developers should maximize compatibility with current and future user tools by ensuring that page mark ups can be reliably interpreted by ass istive technologies and by providing name, role, and value for nonstandard page features, (Espino). Its important to explain the WCAG 2.0 s main categories, and the levels of accessibility, because this will be the measure for making the 4 different webs ite s with the same content. Following these guidelines will standardize the websites accessibility with its level being the only thing that differs: no grade, A, AA, or AAA. How will the same website change when its levels of accessibility change ? Will the changes be visible, if any ? In Implementing Recommendations from Web Accessibility Guidelines: A Comparative Study of Nondisabled Users and Users with Visual Impairments Sven Schmutz compare s the effects of WCAG 2.0 accessibility levels for both nondisabled users and users with visual impairments. Schmutz points out that most of the time the WCAG 2.0 is labeled as a tool to make web content accessible for only those with disabilities Th e results show o pposite ; the WCAG 2.0 support users with an d without visual impairments the same and mak es web content both accessibile an d user friendly for all. Schmutz s study is important beca use it aims to understand possible advantages and disadvantage s the WCAG 2.0 may have when it comes to

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19 different types of users. T h i s research opens the question of whether or not diff erent grades of ac cessibil y outlined in the WCAG 2.0 wi ll have any effect on a users experience. What is User Experience? User Experience (UX) is how a user feels from using a product, system or service ( UserTesting) There are many aspects to UX Peter Morville breaks down the user ex perience with his UX honeycomb: useful, usable, desirable, findable, accessible, credible, and valuable Figure 3 Peter Morville's UX honeycomb (UserTesting). E ach aspect is important in building the overall user experience. Useful : the product or service is useful to the user. Usable : the user can use the content. Desirable : the users emotions are evoked by the design. Findable : the user can find what they need, or the content can be navigated easily Accessible : everyone ca n access the content regardless of disability Credible : the user believes and trusts in the content. Valuable : the product or service has added value in the users life. It is important to note these aspects of UX because these aspects will be examined by the examiner during the Usability Test within the M ethods section.

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20 In Exploring the Relationship Between Web Accessibility and User Experience the researcher, Amaia Aizpurua focus es on explor ing connect ions between the UX and web accessibility F o r this research A izpurua an alyzes two different t y pe s of web accessibility : the users perceived web accessibility and the gu ideline s outlined in the WCAG 2.0 Aizpurua tested a user s experience using four different restaurant websites shown in figure 4 Figure 4 The four restaurant websites tested. Each website has a different standard of web accessibility: low or high. Each website has different UX stimulation attribute : traditional or innovative. ( Aizpurua ). For A izpurua s study all the partic i pan ts were visually impaired and use d assistive technologies, such a s screen reader s The participants were asked to complete an interview about the mselves for demographics t hen they were asked to complete certain navigation tasks on the given website. Lastly, the participants were asked to complete an int erview and questionnaire about their experie nce with the website The results of A izpurua s study revealed that most UX attributes are significantly correlated with perceived web accessibility because UX attributes

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21 (examples such as interested, disappointed, or annoyed) are more familiar terms to the participant than the technical terms that are found in WCAG 2.0. Aizpurua s experi emental a pproach and techniques are importa nt to note beca use certain aspects from Aizpurua s ap proach will be reformed in the M ethods section for this research proposal In the M etho d s section, t he UX of users with disabilities will be research ed and collected This study will test how altering web accessibility will affect the UX of users with visual impairments The same content will be presented in four different website s E ach website will h av e a certain grade of accessibility : none, A, AA, or AAA. Overall th is research q uestions how various levels of web accessibility wil l change the user experience of a user with disabilities

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22 CHAPTER 3 METHODS The following sections will contain information on how th e usability testing and survey analysis to investigate user experience will be conducted. Usability Testing This test will be maintained and supervised by the examiners The focus of this test will be collecting research on how the User Experience (UX) of users with disabilities change depending on the accessibility levels of a website. This research is important because web accessibility is not mandatory through laws su ch as the ADA yet It also emphasize s how important web accessibility is to users with disabilities even though web accessibility isnt required by law Usability testing will allow designers to see their designs in action fac ing problems with designs and hav ing other perspectives of the usability of their designs (NDA). This research is intended to make web accessibility become the rule rather than the exception, (Jr. Robert). There are four main categories of disability: visual, auditory, physical and cognitive. But there can be a great amount of variability within each category. For example, color blindness is much different from low vision or total blindness (Deque) T he large amount of variability within each category wi ll be taken into consideration when testing participants. For this study we be target ing users with disabilities from th e visual category so users who are visually impaired

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23 The Test The same website content will be designed in four separate ways each w ith different accessibility levels as outlined in WCAG 2.0 standards. Website 1 fulfill s accessibility standards: WCAG 2.0 level A Website 2 fulfill s accessibility standards: WCAG 2.0 level AA Website 3 fulfill s accessibility standards: WCAG 2.0 level AAA Website 4 does not purposely intend fulfill any accessibility standards Participants will navigate through all four of these websites, with given action s An example of a given action would be N avigate to the blog post and leave a comment , or I nteract with the video information on the about page . An examiner will supervise this usability test. The examiner will record the participants use of each website per the given actions The examiner will focus on errors related to accessibility and watch for potential barriers to access rather than general usage, (Deque). How long it takes for the participants to complete the given action will not matter. If the participants do not complete the given action this will affect the UX The UX will happen during the supervised usability testing Following this usability test the participant will be asked to complete an online survey about their experiences, how they feel about the website and its overall usability. We will let the them know that we want to hear their personal opinions about the website The participants will be told that there are no wrong answers. The survey will give insight on how they feel about their experience with the website.

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24 Survey analysis This survey is intended to collect data from the participants on how they feel towards the website right after they have completed the usability testing. The survey will include in the form of multiple choice a scale to measure how much the participant agrees or disagrees with the statements provided. Examples of statements include I am satisfied with this usability of this website . or I would recommend this website . The multiple choice answers are as followed : 1 strongly agree, 2 agree, 3 neit her agree nor disagree, 4 disagree, 5 strongly disagree The last few survey questions will be open ended. An example of this type of question would be W hat could we do to make your experience more enjoyable ? This survey will give insight to how the user feels about the website and its overall accessibility. The survey data will take into consideration whether the participant completed the given action and be analyzed as so. The data will be collected via an accessible internet survey right after one website usability tests are performed. There are four websites, so there will be four usability tests and four surveys. If necessary, an examiner can administer the internet survey and help the participant in submitting it by, for example, reading aloud the choices, and choosing the participants answer. The internet survey will be hosted by Survey Gizmo. We have found that S urvey Gizmo easily provide s web accessibility for their surveys Survey Gizmo provides free online survey software, there is however a cap at three surveys at a time, the number of questions per survey and 100 responses total (SurveyGizmo) Survey Gizmo s unlimited survey, question, answer subscription is $25 per month and includes other things such as sending email invitations, and

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25 data reports. This unlimited plan, at just $25 a month, will allow us to make the four surveys based on the four different websites, collect an unlimited number of responses, and pre compile the survey data. The survey analy sis will conclude the UX testing. Participants The sample population we are focusing on are web users that have disabilit ies in the visual category The participants will be treated with care and respect. These surveys will be held within a n accessible location a research lab The participants should feel safe and secure during the duration of this research. T hey will be asked to fill out an informed consent form Participant personal data and information will also be kept private. When the data is published participants real names will be replaced with fake ones f o r confidentiality There will be an incentive for participating in this research such as a gift card or other type of reward We want to test and survey at least 5 00 people. We will reach out to organizations for specific disabilities, local senior centers and university programs to collect participants (Deque). Out of this pool, we will randomly select our participants. The population should be considered stratified because we are o nly taking a population with certain disabilities that pertain to their sense of sight, although it may not be stratified because all people have different disabilities. We could test those who are blind but some participants who are blind could also hav e another type of disability and could represent another population We expect a margin of error +/ 4 % with a sample size of 500 assuming a 95% level of confidenc e We estimate that the sample will answer conservatively and respond 50% in any given way. This testing research will take a few months to a year to complete.

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26 For this test we are asking a participant to test usability of four websites, and then take four surveys, one for each website tested. We do not want to stress the participant with back to back website testing We want the participant to have free time or some time to relax before conducting the next set of website test and surveys. We may also just have one user test one website a day. Again if a participant needs help with the internet survey an examiner can administer the internet survey and help the participant submit it We want the participant to feel welcomed and have all the tools necessary to fully participate in the research. Assistive technologies will be provided. For the consistency of this research, it is vital that the same assistive technologies are used. If a participant uses their personal assistive technologies this could possibly skew data, because not all assistive technologies are made the same way, they also may not analyze websites in the same manner.

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27 CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSION We expect to find that increased web accessibility will lead for a better UX for participants with visual impairment disabilities a lthough this might not be the case at all. We might find that there is no correlation and that the UX remains the same even though the accessibility has changed. We might find that a websites functionality due to website accessibility could relate to the amount of time a visually impaired user spen ds on the website. This research ha s the possibility to find any type of co nnectio ns between design, accessibility, and UX. We ensure that the results are beneficial because the result of this research matters. There is a push towards making web accessibility mandatory. The results of this research could help push towards a better tomorrow. This research is applicable for furthering research within the disability studies field. We could expand our study one day into a different field of disability. Other f uture studies could replicate ou r methods and expand into an entirely different disability as well. For this study w e focused on visual impairments within the disability visual category Future stud ies could focus on different impairments in different disability categories such as physical cognitive or auditory More research in this field will improve web accessib i l it y and the user experience for the user with disabilities

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28 Works Cited Aizpurua, Amaia, et al. "Exploring the Relationship between Web Accessibility and User Experience." International Journal of Human Computer Studies vol. 91, 01 July 2016, pp. 13 23. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1016/j.ijhcs.2016.03.008. 10 Assistive Technologies for People with Disabilities. Sulopa Solutions 3 Sept. 2015, sulopa.com/10 assistive technologies for people with disabilities/. Briggs, Benjamin S. and Cynthia Sass. "Web Sites and Mobile Applications: Do They Comply with Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act?." The Computer & Internet L awyer no. 2, 2017, p. 7. EBSCO host lp.hscl.ufl.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsg ao&AN=edsgcl.477460792&site=eds live. "Designing for Inclusion." W3C Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) 7 May 2016, www.w3.org/WAI/use rs/ Deflorian, Adam. Is Your Hotel Website ADA Compliant? Here's Why It Matters. Forbes Forbes Magazine, 19 Dec. 2017, www.forbes.com/sites/forbesagencycouncil/2017/12/19/is your hotel website ada compliant heres why it matters/#29ec1d6f5be4 Espino, Meredith Mays. "Website Accessibility for Persons with Disabilities: The Why & How." Business Law Today Dec. 2016, p. 1. EBSCO host lp.hscl.ufl.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edb& AN=120595733&site=eds live.

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29 Feingold, Lainey. "Digital Accessibility and the Quest for Online Equality." Journal of Internet Law vol. 21, no. 4, Oct. 2017, pp. 312. EBSCO host lp.hscl.ufl.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=buh& AN=125412433&site=eds live. GSA Section 508 and Accessibility. GSA U.S. General Services Administration, 13 Aug. 2017, www.gsa.g ov/about us/organization/office of the chief information officer/office of enterprise planning and governance/gsa section 508and accessibility. How to Incorporate Users with Disabilities in UX Testing. Deque 18 Nov. 2014, www.deque.com/blog/incorporate users disabilities ux testing/. Jr., Robert L. Burgdorf. Why I Wrote the Americans with Disabilities Act. The Washington Post WP Company, 24 July 2015, www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2015/07/24/why the americans withdisabilities act mattered/?utm_term=.30053217e525. Luis, Valente, et al. "Turn off the Graphics: Designing Non Visual Interfaces for Mobile Phone Games." Journal of the Brazil ian Computer Society no. 1, 2009, p. 45. EBSCO host doi:10.1590/S0104 65002009000100005. Reed, Rachael. "Disability Rights in the Age of Uber: Applying the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 to Transportation Network Companies." Georgia State Univers ity Law Review vol. 33, no. 2, Winter2017, pp. 517551. EBSCO host lp.hscl.ufl.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=lft&A N=123747099&site=eds live.

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30 Schiff, Carly. "Cracking the Code: Implementing Internet Accessibility throu gh the Americans with Disabilities Act Null [Notes]." Cardozo Law Review no. 6, 2015, p. 2315. EBSCO host lp.hscl.ufl.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsh ol&AN=hein.journals.cdozo37.67&site=eds live. Schmutz, Sven, et a l. "Implementing Recommendations from Web Accessibility Guidelines: A Comparative Study of Nondisabled Users and Users with Visual Impairments." Human Factors vol. 59, no. 6, n.d., pp. 956972. EBSCOhost, lp.hscl.ufl.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost. com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsw sc&AN=000407582600006&site=eds live. Survey Software for Organizations. SurveyGizmo www.surveygizmo.com/. User Testing. NDA : National Disability Authority Centre for Excellence in Universal Design, universaldesign.ie/Technology ICT/Universal Design for ICT/User Testing/. Veal, Raven. How To Conduct User Experience Research Like A Professional. CareerFoundry CareerFoundry, careerfoundry.com/en/blog/ux design/howto conduct user experience research like a professional/. Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG). AiMedia, Action Innovation Media, www.ai media.tv/web content accessibility guidelines wcag/. What Is User Experience? UserTesting Blog 13 Jan. 2016, www.usertesting.com/blog/2015/08/ 13/what is user experience/.

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31 Wolk, Laura. "Equal Access in Cyberspace: On Bridging the Digital Divide in Public Accommodations Coverage through Amendment to the Americans with Disabilities Act [Notes]." Notre Dame Law Review no. 1, 2015, p. 447. EBSCO host lp.hscl.ufl.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsh ol&AN=hein.journals.tndl91.13&site=eds live.