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Effects Of Reunification On Lgbt Movements: Case Of Taiwan And South Korea

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Title:
Effects Of Reunification On Lgbt Movements: Case Of Taiwan And South Korea
Series Title:
19th Annual Undergraduate Research Symposium
Creator:
Yang, Jeshow
Language:
English
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Undetermined

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Center for Undergraduate Research
Center for Undergraduate Research
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Conference papers and proceedings
Poster

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Abstract:
I comparatively analyze the rates of LGBT mobilization in Taiwan and South Korea. I chose these countries because of relatively similar historical backgrounds. In 2017, Taiwan’s top court ruled in favor of same-sex marriage and issued that parliament has two years to amend laws for same-sex couples. This will make Taiwan the first Asian country to recognize same-sex marriage. While South Korea has not yet recognized civil unions or same-sex marriage, South Korea does prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation. Thus, this scholarship examines the different variables for variations of LGBT mobilization in Taiwan and South Korea. To examine the variations between the movements, I will be testing the structural, cultural, and economic differences in Taiwan and South Korea that led to the differences in mobilization. I find that international influence from neighboring countries largely affects LGBT mobilization. An image of a progressive democracy resonates strongly in Taiwan because those who are pro-independence would adopt LGBT policies to distance itself from a threatening China. While an image that separates South Korea from North Korea doesn’t push South Korea to adopt LGBT policies. As a result, this article contributes to the international aspect of social movement literature. ( en )
General Note:
Research authors: Jeshow Yang, Joseph Yi - University of Florida
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University Scholars Program
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Faculty Mentor: I comparatively analyze the rates of LGBT mobilization in Taiwan and South Korea. I chose these countries because of relatively similar historical backgrounds. In 2017, Taiwan’s top court ruled in favor of same-sex marriage and issued that parliament has two years to amend laws for same-sex couples. This will make Taiwan the first Asian country to recognize same-sex marriage. While South Korea has not yet recognized civil unions or same-sex marriage, South Korea does prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation. Thus, this scholarship examines the different variables for variations of LGBT mobilization in Taiwan and South Korea. To examine the variations between the movements, I will be testing the structural, cultural, and economic differences in Taiwan and South Korea that led to the differences in mobilization. I find that international influence from neighboring countries largely affects LGBT mobilization. An image of a progressive democracy resonates strongly in Taiwan because those who are pro-independence would adopt LGBT policies to distance itself from a threatening China. While an image that separates South Korea from North Korea doesn’t push South Korea to adopt LGBT policies. As a result, this article contributes to the international aspect of social movement literature. - Center for Undergraduate Research, University Scholars Program

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University of Florida
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Copyright Jeshow Yang. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Reunification Benefits for LGBT Movements Jeshow Yang, 1 1 1 Department of Political Science, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL Methodology References Introduction Preliminary Results sex marriage makes it the first country in Asia to have marriage equality. However, countries with similar cultures and similar governments have not yet guaranteed civil unions. To explore this phenomenon I examine Taiwan and South Korea, two North Eastern Asian countries with relatively similar cultures and relatively similar governments. And so, this research explores the structural, cultural and economic factors that led to different rates of LGBT mobilization in Taiwan and South Korea. Examine the master frame narratives Attitudes of reunification and views of themselves Compare resources for mobilization Civil society strength, number of LGBT organizations, and number of significant protests Analyze political opportunity structures Number of left leaning political allies, number of pro LGBT political allies, and laws toward minorities Investigate political culture measure of culture with the dimensions of survivalist/self expression and tradition/secularism Review economic development Gross domestic product and income per capita Resource Mobilization Although South Korea has a very strong social movement culture and many professional social movement organizations, South Kor ean LGBT SMOs lack the same amount of resources as other major SMOs. Taiwan, on the other hand, has less of a social movement cul tur e and far less professional SMOs, Taiwanese LGBT SMOs relatively more resources than other SMOs. Political Opportunity Structure ian s who are vocally pro LGBT rights are higher in Taiwan than South Korea. Thus, there are less elite allies for the LGBT movement in South Korea. Political Culture and Public Opinion On the cultural map of Inglehart and Welzel Taiwan and South Korea are relatively the same. Thus, we would not expect culture to strongly affect LGBT mobilization. However, public opinion toward the LGBT are more negative in South Korea than Taiwan. Whic h i n turn, would be expected to negatively affect the LGBT movement in South Korea. Economic Development oul d expect the same rate of mobilization if only concerning this factor. Framing provided the best possible explanation: Because China presents a large threat to Taiwan, Taiwan develops a democracy master uth Korea, South Nor th Korea. When examining the causes of higher LGBT mobilization, differences in POS and public opinion is not enough to explain the bro ade r picture of a more successful LGBT mobilization in Taiwan. Rather, framing appears to influence public opinion and the opennes s o f POS. Thus, once a movement builds on the master frame of the political environment, the movement will have favorable conditions fr om POS and the public opinion. 1. McAdam, Doug, John D. McCarthy, and Mayer N. Zald eds. Comparative perspectives on social movements: Political opportunities, mobilizing structures, and cultural framings. Cambridge University Press, 1996. 2. Benford Robert D., and David A. Snow. "Framing processes and social movements: An overview and assessment." Annual review of sociology 26, no. 1 (2000): 611 639. 3. Diani, Mario. "Linking mobilization frames and political opportunities: Insights from regional populism in Italy." American Sociological Review (1996): 1053 1069. 4. Inglehart, Ronald, and Wayne E. Baker. "Modernization, cultural change, and the persistence of traditional values." American sociological review (2000): 19 51. Arguments My Argument As a state increasingly adopts a democracy master frame, then the probability of LGBT mobilization success increases. Argument in Literature 1. If resources for mobilization increases, so will the probability of LGBT mobilization success 1 2. As the openness of political opportunity structures increase, so will the probability of LGBT mobilization success 1 3. As attitudes favoring the LGBT increase, so will the probability of LGBT mobilization success. 4. As economic development increases, shifts in cultural values favoring self expression and secularism increases the probability of LGBT mobilization sucdess 4 Acknowledgements 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 2016 2012 2008 2004 2001 2000 1998 1996 1995 1992 1989 1988 Right Wing Parties' Voteshare in South Korea and Taiwan Korea Taiwan 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 2016 2012 2008 2004 2001 2000 1998 1996 1995 1992 1989 1988 Left Wing Parties' Voteshare in South Korea and Taiwan Korea Taiwan Research Question How does a threatening neighbor state affect the LGBT mobilization of the threatened state? Framing Resource Mobilization Political Opportunity Structure Political Culture Public Opinion Economic Development Taiwan Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive South Korea Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative Positive