2 3 The Chaplain Corps Journal is a semi-annual publication of the United States Army Chaplain Corps and the U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School. Editor-in-Chief The Commandant of the U.S. Army Chaplain Center andSchool Managing Editor Chaplain (Col.) Peter Sniin, Deputy Commandant of the U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School Senior Editor Chaplain (Lt. Col.) Michael A. Milton, USAR Editor Ms. Julia Simpkins Editorial Board of Review Chaplain (Col.) Mark Nordstrom, Chairman Chaplain (Col.) Jerey Voyles, Chaplain (Lt. Col.) Brian P. Crane, Book Review Editor, Chaplain (Lt. Col.) Shmuel Felzenberg, Chaplain (Maj.) Renee Kiel, Chaplain (Maj.) James Fisher, Mr. Steve Hoover Design Mr. Shane Whatley Photographic Support Sgt. 1st Class Jonathan Watters The Chaplain Corps Journal: The Professional Bulletin for Religious Support (ISSN 1542-8907) is the oicial professional journal of the U.S. Army Chaplain Corps. The Chaplain Corps Journal is a digital publication (http://www.tinyurl.com/CHJOURnal or http://cdm16040.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/landingpage/collection/p16040coll4) archived at the Combined Arms Research Library at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas and produced by the authority of the Chief of Chaplains of the United States Army and under the command of the United States Army Chaplain Center and School at Fort Jackson, South Carolina. The Chaplain Corps Journal is a peer-reviewed professional journal following a double-blind method of peer-review. The Chaplain Corps Journal presents professional information, but the views expressed herein are those of the authors, not the Department of Defense or its elements. The content does not necessarily reflect the oicial U.S. Army, the U.S. Army Chaplain Corps, or the U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School positions, and does not change or supersede any information in other oicial U.S. Army publications. Authors are responsible for the accuracy and source documentation of material they provide. The Chaplain Corps Journal reserves the right to editmaterial. This medium is approved for the oicial dissemination of material designed to keep individuals within the Army knowledgeable within their areas of expertise for the purpose of enhancing professional development. The Chaplain Corp Journal follows the Associated Press Stylebook for militaryabbreviations. Distribution restriction: Approved for public release. By order of the Secretary of the Army: Raymond T. Odierno General, United States Army Chief of Sta Oicial: Gerald B. OKeefe Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army
Army Chaplains at WarU.S. Army Chaplain Corps recipients of the Distinguished Service Cross and Silver Star.The Chaplaincy in War 08Who takes care of the Chaplain?Examining Chaplain Wellness 16The Sacrifice of the Four Chaplains in Context.22 The Future of Chaplain Ministry in the United States Armed Forces.The Future of the Chaplaincy 32Chaplain Moellering addresses the shis in Chaplain Corps doctrine throughout the last 20 years.Casualty of Combat: Garrison Doctrine 38Chaplain Berger addresses the intersection of faith and ethics as a Military Chaplain.Professionalism in the Chaplaincy 43An adaption of a graduation speech by Chaplain (Col.) Mark Nordstrom.The Virtuous Chaplain 54A Case Study of a Chaplain Ministry in a U.N. Peacekeeping Mission.Beyond the Pulpit 60 Book Reviews 66 Content16 60 43 32 08 14 38
What is the role of the Chaplain in war: past, present, and future? The answer ... will always include the critical role of the ChaplainAssistant. 6 7 We welcome you to this Summer issue of The Chaplain Corps Jour nal. The theme of Chaplaincy in War: Past, Present, and Future has provided some good responses for this publication. Writers in our corps have contributed peer-reviewed articles on this theme ranging from the tacticalthe presence of the Chaplain in combat patrol teamsto the strategicarticles on the future of Chaplains in war and the cultural shis that impact our work in todays environment. We are honored to have a guest writer for this issue, Eric Patterson, a subject matter expert on religion in foreign policy and Dean of the School of Government at one of our leading universities. As we publish this issue, there are two items that I want to address in my column relative to our journal and its possible usefulness to you and our colleagues in the Army Chaplain Corps (and in respective sister-service Chaplain Corps). First, I want to draw your attention to the fact that we are now providing digital publishing for archived editions of our journal. These editions were known by dierent names (e.g., East or conducting mass in a chapel at JROTC, or any of the many other places we do our ministries, the Army Chaplain Corps conducts religious services for our Soldiers and their families. Thinking about that role and reflecting on it professionally is important and will be our Journals mission next time. You will be receiv ing a call for papers from our senior editor in the coming weeks. I hope that you will consider contributing to the Chaplain Corps Journal. Pro Deo et Patria! The Military Chaplain Review), but represent an unbroken tradition of thoughtful, engaging, professional publications by and for our corps. I hope you can check them out at our digital shelf on the Combined Arms Research Library at Fort Leav enworth. The other thing that I want to share with you is how our journal is coordinating with other initiatives in our corps and USACHCS to sup port the Chief of Chaplains mission. Beginning in our next issue we will be spotlighting an article written by one of our Chaplain Captains Career Course (C4) students. This article will have been selected by our C4 cadre as the outstanding contribution from that particular course. We really look forward to bringing you the reflec tions and insights of Chaplains from that stage of the career progression. We believe that hearing from our Chaplain captains is essential for creating a well-rounded Journal that reflects the generations in community in our corps. Our next issue will be focusing on the Chaplaincy and worship. Whether leading in worship from a vehicle in an area of operation in the Middle The mission of bringing God to Soldiers and Soldiers to God is fundamentally a team eort in the Army and in our Chaplain Corps. Thinking about how to make that team work eectively to meet the commanders intent and, thus, how to serve Soldiers and their families more completely, calls for constant reflection. At the center of this paradigm is the role of the Chaplain Assistant. Some questions you may consider in your reflections about that pivotal relationship might include: Are we taking the time to build our Unit Ministry Team and getting to know each other personally and pro fessionally (Team Building)? Have I delineated clear roles, responsibilities, job de scription, and expectations of my Chaplain Assistant? Have I taken the time to explore my Chaplain Assis tants strengths, weaknesses, talents, skills, abilities, and experiences? Am I serving as a conduit for my Chaplain Assistant to grow and develop into the Soldier, leader, and NCO that he/she is called to be? Am I empowering my Chaplain Assistant to make de cisions and take initiative when I am not present? Are there other areas of training and development that I can professionally support our Chaplain Assis tant? If I cant provide, can an NCO on our technical chain make it happen? Who is mentoring and coaching your Chaplain Assis tant to become a successful NCO and future leader in our Corps? Does my public ministry demonstrate the value of the UMT or not? As I read through this issue of our Chaplain Corps Journal, I am made even more aware of the significant role Chaplain Assistants play in ensuring success for the UMT both in peace and war. This is not a self-aggrandizing or self-justifying statement. Rather, it is a living reality. What is the role of the Chaplain(s) in War: Past, Present, and Future? The answer to that question, our theme for the issue, will always include the critical role of the Chaplain Assistant. Just ask a Chaplain who has been there for them through thick and thin, and they will tell you. Welcome to the issue. Read deeply! Think critically and apply the lessons learned to serving Soldiers and families in your own ministry. Pro Deo et Patria!Commandants WelcomeChaplain (Col.) Lamar GriinU.S. Army Chaplain Center & School CommandantCommand Sgt. Maj. Boris BolaosU.S. Army Chaplain Center & School Command Sergeant Major CSMs Welcome
France, 1918 Chaplain Julius J. Babst is the only member of the Chaplain Corps to receive the Distinguished Service Cross with Oak Leaf Cluster. Photo courtesy of the Archival Collection of the Naper Settlement, Naperville, Illinois.8 9 The Chaplaincy in War:U.S. Army Chaplain Corps Recipients of the Disiniguished Service Cross and Silver StarThe belated, posthumous awarding of the Medal of Honor to Korean War-era Chaplain Emil Kaupan, in April 2013, sparked renewed interest in Chaplain Corps recipients of Americas highest award for valor. Kaupan and his seven comrades who received the Medal of Honor occupy a revered place in the Chaplain Corpss pantheon of members who have been decorated in combat. But that pantheon of valor consists of many more Soldiers than just the corpss eight Medal of Honor recipients. From the Armys operations in the Philippines at the turn of the last century and continuing through the World Wars and the wars in Korea and Vietnam, no fewer than 280 other members of the Chaplain Corps (277 Chaplains and 3 Chaplain Assistants) have received the Distinguished Service Cross or Silver Star, Americas secondand third-highest awards for valor under fire. Something that has been sadly lacking in the archives of the Chaplain Corps is a consolidated and authoritative list of Chaplain Corps recipients of these two honors. This article is a first step toward rectifying that short coming, although much work remains to ensure all awardees are accounted for. What follows is a narrative that provides information on the status of research and highlights some notable recipients (of the Distinguished Service Cross first, followed by the Silver Star), a table that details the number of awards received by conflict, and finally a by-name list of award recipients.No fewer than 280 other members of the Chaplain Corps (277 Chaplains and 3 Chaplain Assistants) have received the Distinguished Service Cross orSilver Star, Americas secondand thirdhighest awards for valor under fire. Mark W. Johnson, Ph.D.Historian, U.S. Army Chaplain CorpsChaplain Corps Recipients of the Distinguished ServiceCrossBarring any unforeseen errors, the by-name list of Chaplain Corps Distinguished Service Cross recipients is complete and accurate. The Department of Defense maintains an oicial list of American service personnel who have earned the DSC.1 Performing a search in the list for the keyword Chaplain reveals that 48 members of the Chaplain Corps have been awarded a total of 49 DSCs. The first member of the Chaplain Corps to earn the DSC was Chaplain George D. Rice, regimental Chaplain of the 27th Infantry; his was also the corpss first award for valor subsequent to the four Medals of Honor that Chaplains earned during the Civil War. During an engagement in Mindanao, Philip pine Islands, on May 2, 1902, Chap lain Rice received the DSC for aiding the wounded under heavy fire from the enemy, all the while with utter disregard for his personal safety.2The dierence between 48 DSC awardees and 49 DSC awards is due to a Chaplain in World War I receiving 3 June 1944 Chaplain Lawrence Deery, recipient of three Silver Stars, conducts services aboard USS Ancon (AGC-4), the command ship for the assault on Omaha Beach (Major General Clarence Huebner, CG of the 1st Infantry Division, is seated third from le). Three days aer this photo was taken, Derry landed in the first wave at Omaha with the 16th Infantry Regiment. Photo courtesy of the National Archives. not one but two DSCs. Chaplain (1st Lt.) Julius J. Babst, assigned to the 23d Infantry Regiment of the 2d Division,3 earned his first DSC in June 1918 at Chateau-Thierry, France, as he displayed exceptional bravery and devotion to duty by repeatedly going out from the first-aid station of his battalion to care for the wounded, and voluntarily exposing himself to
10 11 Chaplain Corps Recipients of the Silver StarCurrent research into Silver Star recipients is a work in progress. The Department of Defense maintains an oicial roster of Silver Star recipients only for awards earned in the post-9/11 era. The Military Times in its Hall of Valor maintains the most extensive list of Silver Star recipients available online today,12 but even this collection of data is far from complete. Aer searching through Hall of Valor (again using a keyword search for Chaplain), sorting through the newly digitized Chaplain Corps archives, and check ing other online and print resources, I have identified 138 awardees. These results may be close to complete for Silver Star recipients of World War I and the Korean War, but thus far have netted only about one-third of all Silver Star recipients who earned the award during service in World War II, and about 60 percent of the awar dees who served in Vietnam. The best estimate at this point is that members of the Chaplain Corps have earned a total of 271 Silver Stars. At least eleven of these awards were be stowed posthumously: nine in World War II (undoubtedly more since the roster of WWII names is far from complete), and one each in Korea and Vietnam. Two Chaplain Assistants earned the Silver Star: Technician 5th Grade William A. Vaughn, of the 42d Infantry Division during World War II, and the 2d Infantry Divisions Pfc. Jack J. Dewitt, in Korea. A number of Chaplains received the Silver Star on multiple occasions. Nine times during World War II, and once each in Korea and Vietnam, Chaplains received the Silver Star with Oak Leaf Cluster. One of the double Silver Star awardees is also the highest-ranking Chaplain ever to be decorated for valor, Chaplain (Lt. Col.) John K. Borneman, who was the regimental Chaplain of the 60th Coast Artillery Regiment (Anti-Aircra) during the desperate defense of the Philippines, in 19411942. His first Silver Star resulted from actions on April, 1942, when a Japanese artillery barrage caused heavy casualties at the west portal of Corregidors Malinta Tunnel. Chap lain Borneman carried one of the wounded to the hospital, and then led a rescue party with nine litters back to the portal. There he assisted in the search for casualties while the shelling continued unabated. Re turning to the hospital, he aided the over-worked medical sta by prepar ing casualties for treatment and administering anesthetics to the most painfully wounded, working steadily until the following morning. The final sentence in Bornemans award citation sums it up nicely: By his gallantry in rescuing and caring for the wounded, Chaplain Borneman upheld the finest traditions of the Corps of Chaplains. He earned a second Silver Star on May 6, 1942 for similar actions, and it was noted that Borneman made a memorable contribution to the gallant defense of Corregidor.13 Corregidors de fense did not last much longer than Bornemans second round of heroics, for the island fortress surrendered that same day. Borneman then endured the Bataan Death March and spent the long remainder of World War II as a prisoner of war, alongside The civilian was Murray Bartlett, a Harvard graduate and holder of a doctor of divinity from the University of Rochester; he had also served as dean of the Protestant Episcopal Cathedral in Manila (1908-1911) and as the first president of the Univer sity of the Philippines from 1911 to 1915.6 Bartlett wanted to serve as an Army Chaplain in World War I, but his application was denied because the 46-year-old Bartlett was beyond the maximum age. He found another route to military service due to the fact that the Army was woe fully short of Chaplains during World War I. A number of civilian agencies, such as the Red Cross and Salvation Army, took up the slack by arranging for volunteer civilian clergymen to provide religious support to Soldiers, primarily at stateside posts and in hospitals.7 In January 1918, Bartlett was posted to France as an overseas secretary of the Y.M.C.A., another organization that assisted the Army with religious and morale support activities. He worked closely with the 1st Division, and was eventually made acting Chaplain of the 18th Infantry Regiment. His moment in a military spotlight came at the Battle of Soissons: Voluntarily assuming the duties of Chaplain, 18th Infantry, Mr. Murray displayed conspicuous bravery in caring for the wounded and burying the dead of his regiment under intense enemy fire, working constantly with the advanced elements of the command until 22 July 1918, when he terrific artillery and machine-gun fire to administer the last sacraments to the dying. At imminent risk to his own life, he worked to improve the conditions at the aid station, and fearlessly conducted burial services under fire.4 Babst did not stop there; he earned an Oak Leaf Cluster for his DSC four months later during action near St. Etienne: Chaplain Babst showed magnificent courage in car ing for the wounded under heavy fire, having personally administered to over 50 of ficers and men; also assuring their evacuation. He showed remarkable devotion to duty by refusing an opportunity to attend Chaplains school, preferring to accompany his regiment into battle, where he labored unceasingly for seven days, during which time he performed many acts of bravery.5 While I would not want Chaplain Babsts example to end up inspiring other Chaplains to likewise refuse an opportunity to attend Chaplains school, his repeated courage under fire was nonetheless remarkable. Twenty-seven contemporaries of Babst earned the DSC during World War I. That number includes two posthumous awards (Coleman E. OFlaherty and Charles D. Priest), an award to a Chaplain Assistant (Cpl. Greene W. Strother, the only Chap lain Assistant recipient of the DSC), and an award to a civilian minister. Chaplain Emil KapaunFather Emil Kapaun celebrating Mass using the hood of a jeep as his altar, October 7, 1950 was seriously wounded while in close proximity to the front line. His cheerful, heroic energy and indierence to personal danger exerted a profound eect upon the morale of the men of his regiment and inspired them to many deeds of gallantry and supreme devotion to duty.8 Murrays application to become a full-fledged Army Chaplain was finally approved in November 1918, but the Armistice occurred before his status could become oicial. I consider by all odds the best thing I ever did was trying to enlist in the Army, Murray later recalled. The only really unpleasant feature was my inability to enter the service in the regular way. I tried every possible way of getting a Chaplaincy, and finally when I succeeded, the armistice intervened. I lost out by one week.9 Ending up with a Silver Star and Purple Heart alongside his DSC, a case can be made for Bartlett Mur ray being the most decorated civilian in American history.10 Eighteen Chaplains received the DSC during service in World War II, six posthumously (The Four Chaplains of Dorchester, along with Aquinas T. Colgan and Neil J. Doyle). The most recent Chaplain to earn the DSC, and the only recipient in the post-WWII era, was Chaplain (Capt.) Herman G. Felhoelter, who was killed in action during the infamous Chaplain-Medic Massacre of the Korean War.11
Mark W. Johnson, Ph.D.Historian U.S. Army Chaplain Corps Mark Johnson is the branch historian for the U.S. Army Chaplain Corps. He is a 1986 graduate of West Point and retired from the Army in 2012. He holds a Ph.D. in history from the University at Albany, State University of New York, and teleworks from his home in Casper, Wyoming. Johnson is married to the former Elyse Howard and has two children.12 13 Eleven Chaplains earned both the Silver Star and the DSC: seven in World War I, three more in World War II, and one Chaplain, August F. Gearhard, who earned the DSC in World War I and then the Silver Star in World War II. Among this select group is the intrepid Julius Babst. While briefly at tached to the 30th Infantry Regiment of the 3d Division, Babst earned the Silver Star on June 15, 1918 for car ing for the wounded and comforting the dying under heavy shell fire.17 The most famous Army Chaplain of World War I, Chaplain Francis P. Duy with his statue in Times Square, is oen identified as the most highly decorated Chaplain to emerge from The DoD list is located at http://valor.defense.gov. http://projects.militarytimes.com/citations-medals-awards/recipient.php?recipientid=16210 The DoD list is located at http://valor.defense.gov. http://projects.militarytimes.com/citations-medals-awards/recipient.php?recipientid=16210 Ibid. Michael Tan, Three American Presidents of UP, Philippine Daily Inquirer, 22 January 2008, http://opinion.inquirer.net/inquireropin ion/columns/view/20080122-114113/Three-American-presidents-of-UP. lains, Department of the Army, 1977), pp. 206-213. http://projects.militarytimes.com/citations-medals-awards/recipient.php?recipientid=15742 Harvard College Class of 1893: Supplement to the Sixth Report, Together with the War Record of the Class (Cambridge, Massachu setts: Crimson Printing Company, n.d.), p. 77. After the war Bartlett was the president of Hobart and William Smith Colleges (Geneva, New York) from 1919 to his retirement in 1936. He died in 1947. David Shavit, The United States In Asia: A Historical Dictionary (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1990), p. 32. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ChaplainMedic_massacre http://projects.militarytimes.com/citations-medals-awards/ http://projects.militarytimes.com/citations-medals-awards/recipient.php?recipientid=100045 http://projects.militarytimes.com/citations-medals-awards/recipient.php?recipientid=70285 Ibid. http://projects.militarytimes.com/citations-medals-awards/recipient.php?recipientid=15614 Duffys Wikipedia entry (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_P._Duffy) goes one step further and makes the dubious claim that Duffy is the most highly decorated cleric in the history of the United States Army. Babst continued his military career after World War I, rising to the rank of colonel prior to his death in 1943 from a heart attack while serving as the command Chaplain, 9th Service Command, at Fort Douglas, Utah. Chaplain Babst, Veteran of Two Wars, Dies at 63, The Observer (Dioceses of Rockford, Illinois), 17 October 1943, p. 7. with combat operations against the enemy while serving with Headquarters, 16th Infantry Regiment, 1st Infantry Division in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations during World War II.15 Even less is known of the details on Walshs earning of three Silver Stars in Korea, other than his second Oak Leaf Cluster being received for organizing the evacuation of the wounded under wither ing fire, personally carrying many of themhimself.16 36 other Army Chaplains who were also captured in the Philippines. The Chaplain Corpss individual record for number of Silver Stars awarded is three, a distinction that Chaplain (Capt.) Lawrence E. Deery, Chaplain (1st Lt.) Cormac A. Walsh, and an as-yet unnamed Chaplain from World War II share. Assigned to the 1st Infantry Divisions 16th Infantry Regiment, Deery earned his first Silver Star in Algeria on November 9, 1942, D-day of Operation TORCH: Despite heavy enemy machine gun and small arms fire, Chaplain Deery pro ceeded to the front lines and returned with two wounded Soldiers, aer crossing sev eral fields covered by heavy enemy fire. Later, Chaplain Deery, on his own initiative and with unsurpassed bravery, proceeded through enemy lines and succeeded in carrying water to the men of the 3d Battalion, 16th Infantry Regiment. Chaplain Deerys courage and hero ism, displayed in the face of enemy fire, were an inspiring example to the oicers and men of this battalion.14 Sadly, the full citations of Chaplain Deerys second and third Silver Stars are not available. Although general orders published by the 1st Infantry Division confirm his receipt of the two subsequent awards, all that is known is that he received them for gallantry in action in connection that conflict,18 but that is clearly not the caseat least not in terms of awards for valor. Duy earned a DSC (and a non-valorous Distinguished Service Medal) during his service in France with the 42d Division, but no Chaplains valor resume from the Great War can match that of Chaplain Babst, recipient of two DSCs and a Silver Star.19 Indeed, no member of the Chaplain Corps has ever been decorated for valor on more than three separate occasions.The Way AheadWhile this article and the accompanying table and list are steps in the right direction, they are not the final wordnot even for the list of DSC re cipients. Although searching for the word Chaplain in rank designations and award citations has been use ful, there are many Chaplains whose status as such is not noted in online databasesthis is particularly the case with a number of incomplete entries in the Hall of Valor database from Military Times. This omission of Chaplain Corps status undoubtedly occurred for an unknown number of decorated Chaplain Assistants, since the enlisted members of the corps did not have an identifiable MOS before the 1950s. A circular published by the Chief of Chaplains in 1947, notes that Chaplains earned 156 Silver Stars in World War II, yet as of now only 52 recipients from that conflict have been positively identified.20 The volume of the Chaplain Corps History Series that covers the war in Vietnam notes that Chap lains earned 26 Silver Stars in that conflict.21 Thus far, however, I have been able to account for only 16. If anyone has information that would add to or correct the information 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21NOTES in this article, in particular anyone knowing of a Chaplain who earned the Silver Star during World War II or the Vietnam War whose name is not on the accompanying list, please contact me at email@example.com.
14 15 Chaplain (Capt.) Robert P. Taylor Chaplain Dominic Ternan* Chaplain (Capt.) Ottomar H. Tietjen Chaplain (Capt.) John B. Tye Chaplain (Capt.) Marvin E. Utter (with Oak Leaf Cluster) T/5 William A. Vaughn Chaplain (Capt.) John J. Verret* Chaplain (Capt.) Henry Wall Chaplain (1st. Lt.) Robert B. Wylie Chaplain Clair F. YoheVietnam Silver StarsChaplain Don L. Bartley Chaplain Corbin L. Cherry (with Oak Leaf Cluster) Chaplain Charles T. Clanton Chaplain Donald L. Crowley Chaplain (Capt.) Kevin A. Devine Chaplain Joseph E. Galle, III Chaplain Ambrosio Salazar Grandea Chaplain Samuel L. Hoard Chaplain Henry C. Hilliard, Jr. Chaplain (Capt.) John P. McCullagh Chaplain (Capt.) Edward Dominic Moretti Chaplain Ernest B. Peck Chaplain Michael J. Quealy* Chaplain (Capt.) Harvey Shaer Chaplain (Capt.) Conrad N. Walker Chaplain (Capt.) Joseph G. Esser Chaplain August F. Gearhard Chaplain Clarence J. Hagen* Chaplain (1st. Lt.) Arlin M. Halvorsen Chaplain (Capt.) David C. Hamm Chaplain (1st. Lt.) Herman L. Heide Chaplain (Capt.) Elmer W. Heindl Chaplain (Capt.) Albert J. Homan Chaplain (Capt.) Stephen W. Kane Chaplain (Capt.) Thaddeus J. Koszarek Chaplain (Capt.) Delbert A. Kuehl Chaplain Kenneth Lynch Chaplain Lawrence Lynch* Chaplain (Capt.) Kenneth C. Martin Chaplain Ignatius Materowski* Chaplain (Capt.) John J. McDonnell Chaplain (Capt.) Thomas E. McKnight* Chaplain (Capt.) Raphael H. Miller, Jr. (with Oak Leaf Cluster) Chaplain Owen T. Monaghan Chaplain (Capt.) Donald J. Murphy Chaplain Fintan A. Murphy Chaplain (1st. Lt.) James Walter OBrien* Chaplain William V. OConnor Chaplain Miles F. OToole* Chaplain Gerald A. Quinn Chaplain John W. Scannell (with Oak Leaf Cluster) Chaplain Thomas J. Scecina (with Oak Leaf Cluster) Chaplain (Capt.) Joseph C. Sharp Chaplain (Capt.) Edgar H. Stohler Chaplain (Capt.) William C. TaggartPhilippine Insurrection Distinguished Service CrossChaplain George D. RiceWorld War I Distinguished Service CrossChaplain (1st. Lt.) Julius J. Babst (with Oak Leaf Cluster) Acting Chaplain Murray Bartlett Chaplain David T. Burgh Chaplain (1st. Lt.) George R. Carpentier Chaplain (1st. Lt.) Ora J. Cohee Chaplain (1st. Lt.) Charles C. Conaty Chaplain John B. de Valles Chaplain (1st. Lt.) Francis Patrick Duy Chaplain (Maj.) Patrick Richard Dunigan Chaplain (1st. Lt.) Thomas J. Dunne Chaplain (1st. Lt.) William J. Farrell Chaplain (1st. Lt.) August F. Gearhard Chaplain (1st. Lt.) James Matthew Hanley Chaplain (1st. Lt.) Francis A. Kelly Chaplain (Capt.) James Norman King Chaplain (1st. Lt.) John Carroll Moore Chaplain (1st. Lt.) Coleman E. OFlaherty* Chaplain (1st. Lt.) William E. Patrick Chaplain (1st. Lt.) Charles D. Priest* Chaplain (1st. Lt.) Winfred E. Robb Chaplain (1st. Lt.) George W. Sadler Chaplain (1st. Lt.) Aristeo V. Simoni Chaplain (1st. Lt.) Thomas G. Speers Cpl. Greene W. Strother Chaplain (Capt.) Thomas E. Swan Chaplain (1st. Lt.) Royal K. Tucker Chaplain (1st. Lt.) John C. Ward Chaplain (1st. Lt.) Earl H. WeedSilver StarChaplain (1st. Lt.) Julius J. Babst Acting Chaplain Murray Bartlett Chaplain John W. Beard Chaplain James M. Blaise Chaplain Albert W. Braun Chaplain Duncan H. Browne Chaplain James Cannon, III Chaplain Michael J. Corr Acting Assistant Chaplain Edward Cross Chaplain Walton S. Danker Chaplain William F. Davitt Chaplain John B. de Valles Chaplain Alfred James Dickinson Chaplain (1st. Lt.) William J. Farrell Chaplain Cliord P. Futer Chaplain Lee N. Hainer Chaplain (1st. Lt.) James J. Hallihan, Sr. Chaplain William A. Hayes Chaplain Jacob D. Hockman Chaplain Russel T. Hume Chaplain John W. Ischy Chaplain (1st. Lt.) Benjamin R. Lacy, Jr. Chaplain Carl F. Lauer Chaplain Patrick J. Lydon Chaplain George H. McClelland Chaplain (1st. Lt.) John Carroll Moore Chaplain (1st. Lt.) John L. ODonnell Chaplain Oscar Lee Owens Chaplain (1st. Lt.) William E. Patrick Chaplain (1st. Lt.) Orville A. Petty Chaplain Dryden L. Phelps Chaplain (1st. Lt.) Richard R. Rankin Chaplain Edward F. Rice Chaplain George F. Rixe Chaplain Lyman Rollins Chaplain Howard R. Sisson Chaplain Theodore S. Smylie Chaplain Gustave Stearns Chaplain William E. Sullens Chaplain James B. Turner Chaplain James P. Sherry Chaplain Daniel S. Smar Chaplain Joseph H. Sutherland Chaplain Barrett P. Tyler Chaplain Earl D. Weed Chaplain Roberts Williams Chaplain (1st. Lt.) Joseph L. N. Wolfe Chaplain Ernest W. Wood Chaplain Thurman G. VickersWorld War II Distinguished Service CrossChaplain (Capt.) Ralph W. D. Brown Chaplain (Capt.) Aquinas T. Colgan*Chaplain Corps DSC and Silver Star RecipientsChaplain (Capt.) John L. Curran Chaplain (1st. Lt.) Eugene Lewis Daniel Chaplain (1st. Lt.) Neil J. Doyle* Chaplain (1st. Lt.) George L. Fox* Chaplain (1st. Lt.) Alexander D. Goode* Chaplain (Capt.) Edward H. Harrison Chaplain (Capt.) Elmer W. Heindl Chaplain (Capt.) Benedict A. Henderson Chaplain (1st. Lt.) Albert J. Homan Chaplain (1st. Lt.) Joseph R. Lacy Chaplain (1st. Lt.) Joseph Verbis LaFleur Chaplain (Capt.) John S. Maloney Chaplain (Capt.) Tildon S. McGee Chaplain (1st. Lt.) Clark V. Poling* Chaplain (Capt.) Francis L. Sampson Chaplain (1st. Lt.) John P. Washington*Silver StarChaplain (Capt.) Fred E. Andrews Chaplain Thomas J. Barrett Chaplain (Capt.) Joseph D. Barry Chaplain (Lt. Col.) John K. Borneman (with Oak Leaf Cluster) Chaplain (1st. Lt.) Cosmas J. Boyle Chaplain (Capt.) John G. Burkhalter Chaplain Terrence Brady* Chaplain (Capt.) Richard E. Carberry (with Oak Leaf Cluster) Chaplain (Capt.) Cliord C. Cartee Chaplain (Capt.) Johan B. Dahlen Chaplain (1st. Lt.) Eugene Lewis Daniel Chaplain (Capt.) Lawrence E. Deery (with two Oak Leaf Clusters)
16 17 TAKING CARE OF CHAPLAINS IS TAKING CARE OF SOLDIERS AND FAMILIES. Who Takes Care of the Chaplain? By Chaplain (Maj.) James F. Fisher, Jr.Ask any command team what a Chaplain does and a myriad of answers surface. Paramount among what Chaplains do is give care; pastoral nurture is the common denominator. The Chaplain is a first-responder, taking on the tasks of triaging and facilitation. Such Chaplain opportunities inevitably impact the one giving care. Accordingly, any discussion of caring for caregivers must include Chaplains.1 As the Chaplain branch vigilantly cares for its ministerial fruit, others are clearly visible and engaged in the agricultural metaphor. This tending demands a multi-touch approach from those within the concentric circles of the Chaplains life and influence. Chaplains must allow others to assist in honest evaluation, proper motivation, and healthy integration. It is diicult to be vulnerable, but the Giver of giedness is worthy of ones very best. Isolation is a choice that only breeds loneliness, self-centeredness, and inevitable heartache. The corollary must not be missed taking care of Chaplains is taking care of Soldiers and Families. Recognizing the Need for CareBeyond the professional roles and responsibilities of a Chap lain exists a person. The being of the person precedes the doing of ministry. The professional is buoyed by the per sonal. Pastoral identity is substantively anchored within the soul, not simply adorned with vestments. Further, the Army Values flow internally to the external, not vice versa. They must be embraced by the heart, engaged by the head, and exemplified through the hands in service to others. Focusing only on the doing with a disregard for the being inevitably leads to personal bankruptcy, negat ing quality ministerial withdrawals. How many have fallen because the doing was not fortified by the being? While the fall appears to have been from a high place, does anyone Chaplain WellnessExamining
Physical Fitness Spiritual Fitness Regular Exercise Spiritual Exercise Regular Diet Spiritual Diet Regular Elimination Confessions Regular Vacations Celebration and Thanksgiving Regular Checkups Spiritual Inventory18 19 dare ask how low and long the poor living actually was? The systemic issue is identifying when care is needed. To do so, one must recognize maladies or disease among Chaplains and do so through a holistic lens. Compassion fatigue, spiritual insensitivity and physical exhaustion are generally recognized by others, yet there are other innumerable manifestations of healthy ministry inhibitors. Understanding wellness is beneficial to identifying those in need and providing paths to healing.Defining WellnessThe issue of wellness has taken center-stage in the culture, becoming a part of common vocabulary. While definitions for wellness will vary across the spectrum, it is a term that gathers many facets of the human experience in a holistic approach of striving to maintain balance between the physical and the spiritual. The term is credited to Halbert L. Dunn, M.D., first appearing in his 1961 book let, High Level Wellness. Dunn, chief of the National Oice of Vital Statis tics (1935-1960), viewed wellness as a lifestyle approach for pursuing elevated states of physical and psychological well-being, underscoring wellness as a disciplined commit ment to personal mastery that is also described as multidimensional, centered on personal responsibility and environmental awareness.2 It is further defined as a lifestyle ap proach for realizing your best pos sibilities for well being, including particular attention to the range of actions under your control, such as eating, exercise, and the manage ment of stress.3 The wellness nexus of the physical and the spiritual can be seen in the eruption of various interrelated issues. Theologian and pastoral ministry professor William Willimon emphasizes this symbiotic reality:4 Many times, emotional or relational problems have their roots in the neglect of the physical body. A host of studies show that the physical activity can greatly reduce levels of stress. Gener ally speaking, the more cerebral the work, the more we need to nurture our bodies. We are not all brains, not disembodied souls. We are people, creatures, animals who are psychosomatic in all we do. We forget our physicality to our own peril. nasium. Any eort of discipline will require a plan and exertion to work out.6 Inspiration and perspiration are not mutually exclusive. The disciplines in the physical realm include areas such as nutrition, rest, exercise, etc. Comparatively, spirit ual disciplines include prayer, reading, fasting, solitude, etc. Embracing such disciplines is a means to holis tic wellness. When physical health improves it is usually apparent with such results as weight loss, strength increase, flexibility/mobility gains, etc. Is there a similar manifestation with spiritual wellness? Physician Harold Paul Adolph underscores the connection between the physical and the spiritual in his book Holyistic Attitudes:7 Despite our collective preoccupation with liing weights, playing tennis, and swimming into oblivion, it seems that many of us have failed to recognize one fundamental truth: to experience true physical wellness, we cannot concentrate solely on exercise and diets. We must develop our spiritual health, as well. The fact is, a direct relationship ex ists between the health of our spirits and the well-being of our bodies. Aer nearly thirty years as a practicing physician and surgeon, Ive found that people who are experiencing fellowship with God-whose spiritual lives are grounded in Him-can enjoy a significantly improved degree of physical health. Connecting Physical Wellness and Spiritual WellnessNoted author Dallas Willard address es wellness, by discussing the connection between physical wellness and spiritual wellness.5 Given our history and cultural context, it is all too easy to believe that the spiritual life may be a life opposed to the body or even, at its best, a totally disembodied mode of existence. Without the physical capability, the spir itual is an impossibility. Conversely, without the spiritual reality, there is no physical vitality. The spiritual is inside-out; the physical is outside-in. Since wellness is a both/and proposition of physical and spiritual, what are the tools in achieving a homeo static state? While varied, there are disciplines which must be engaged, providing a means toward a desired state or destination. The etymology of the word discipline reveals connected words like gym and gym-Measuring WellnessSpiritual and physical interconnectiv ity raises the means of assessment. Physical wellness is commonly evaluated by measuring height, check ing body weight, monitoring blood pressure, and a host of laboratory tests. The measurement of spiritual wellness is obviously not as common, nor as simple. Factoring in various faith traditions, personal giedness, and doctrinal convictions/confes sions seems to complicate any eort of diagnosis. However, there may be some common ground approaches: Self-search. A salient element of leadership is leading self. Can someone teach/model spiritual wellness long-term without actually beingwell? Marital Monitoring. A spouse pro vides insight like no one else. As a partner in the many seasons of life, a ministers in the hospital, brigade, etc, can provide encouragement andexhortation. Pastoral Peers. Chaplains know others beyond their immediate context in similar ministry settings and vocational paths. Such a commonality can provide a sense of shared commitment and a safe place to oerobservations. Discipling Directors. Connecting with mentorship via spiritual guides, per sonal coaching, etc., brings a formality and accountability for growth. Investigative Instruments. Faith groups and various ministry-related organizations oer statistical analysis of self-reported spiritual wellness. My Own ResearchMy Ph.D. in Leadership included a dissertation on pastoral wellness, The Relationship of Selected Disciplines of Physical Wellness and Spiritual Adolph highlights five habits that must be practiced for the body to function eectively. As well, each of the functions has spiritual fitness cor ollaries as seen in the table below:8 spouse knows context and the clear est means of communication. Communal Camaraderie. Chaplains serve in various communities. Fellow MultidimensionalChaplain (Capt.) Demetrius Walton navigates the confidence climb obstacle of a confidence course at Fort Dix, N.J. The confidence course is meant to build camaraderie between and confidence within Soldiers. The course is also very physically challenging making safety extremely important.
20 21 ness disciplines of substance use and coping/stress. 6. There is no relationship between the corporate and the physical wellness disciplines of exercise andnutrition. An emphasis upon the selected disciplines of physical wellness and spiritual wellness can increase holistic wellness among Chaplains. This is particularly highlighted in the relationship between the spir itual disciplines (inward, outward, and corporate) and the physical wellness discipline of stress/cop ing. A commitment to spiritual disciplines provides the pastor with healthy resources in addressing ministerialstressors. Exhorting Chaplaincy WellnessThose who do not connect the physical and the spiritual may short-circuit long-term eectiveness in ministry by neglecting the temple and inner sanctum. Lest one forget, the reality of leadership is that people may ac tually follow and emulate. Examples are set, whether intentionally or not. Influential Chaplains model service to others and to self. Attention to personal maintenance may extend longevity in the privileged position of caring for others. As Chaplains perpetually strive to be members of the holistic care giving team, they must embrace the reality of regularly receiving care. Nourishment of all areas within the Chaplains life is necessary for true influence. Balance Much of this article is taken from the authors Ph.D. dissertation, The Relationship between Selected Disciplines of Physical Well ness and Spiritual Wellness among Southern Baptist Pastors, Copyright 2006, The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary. Ibid. Harold Paul Adolph. Holyistic Attitudes: Gods Prescription for Your Good Health (Hannibal, MO: Hannibal Books, 1986), 5-6. Ibid, 6-9. I created a survey for the selected spiritual disciplines, based on Richard Fosters, The Celebration of Discipline. Portions of The Chaplain Fisher is a Career Course Instructor at the U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School and Leadership SME. He and his wife Tracy have been married for 29 years and have threechildren.James F. Fisher, Jr., Ph.D. (The Southern Baptist TheologicalSeminary) Chaplain (Maj.) Embracing changes today will produce healthier Chaplains tomorrow. 2. There is no relationship between the inward disciplines and the phys ical wellness discipline of exercise. 3. There is a relationship between the outward disciplines (simplicity, solitude, submission, and service) and the physical wellness disciplines of exercise, nutrition, and coping/stress. 4. There is no relationship between the outward disciplines and the physical wellness discipline of sub stance use. 5. There is a relationship between the corporate disciplines (confession, worship, guidance, and celebration) and the physical wellWellness among Southern Baptist Pastors. The purpose of this re search was to explore the relationship between selected disciplines of physical wellness and spiritual wellness among Southern Baptist pas tors. This was accomplished via two mailed surveys: (1) self-reporting on spiritual disciplines and (2) selfreporting on physical disciplines.9 I have listed the research summary statements, below: 1. There is a relationship between the inward disciplines (prayer, meditation, fasting, and study) and the physical wellness disciplines of nutrition, coping/stress, and substance use (caeine, alcohol,smoking and drugs). 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9Chaplain (Maj.) Abdullah HulwePhoto by Sgt 1st Class Jonathan WattersNOTES and priority demand fervent recall: to be a leader, one must first be led; to be a teacher, one must first be a student; to be a shepherd, one must first be a sheep. Evaluating the totality of ones own wellness will lead to personal adjustments and may aect the same quality change in those who are led. If a Chaplains wellness is a predic tor of personal peace and ministe rial longevity, it must be engaged by family, friends, parishioners and supervisors. The opportunities are limitless, the time is present, and the impact is more than generational it is simplyeternal.
The story is a familiar one: four U.S. Army Chaplains gathered together on the deck of the sinking U.S. Army Transport Dorchester during World War II. In the aermath of a torpedo attack from a German submarine and seemingly oblivious to the chaos unfolding around them, the fourChaplains George Fox, Alexander Goode, Clark Poling, and John Washingtoninspired their fellow passengers through their calm demeanors and encouraging words. When eventually the supply of available life preservers became exhausted, the Chaplains all gave their preservers to Soldiers who had none. The ship slipped beneath the waves a few moments later; the last time anyone saw the Chaplains, they were standing with linked arms and praying with other passengers who could not escape. Nearly seven hundred men lost their lives during the sinking, and the four Chaplains were among those who perished. The story is indeed familiarcertainly to most members of the U.S. Army Chaplain Corps, but also to many other Americans. Through the years, the saga of what came to be known as The Four Chap lains has been commemorated in many ways. In 1944, the Army awarded the Chaplains the Distinguished Service Cross, Americas second highest award for wartime heroism. The U.S. Postal Service issued a 1948 commemorative stamp in their honor. President Truman dedicated Philadelphias Chapel of the Four Chaplains in 1951. THE SACRIFICE OF THE FOUR CHAPLAINS IN CONTEXT By Mark W. Johnson, Ph.D. Historian, U.S. Army Chaplain CorpsChaplains atArmyWAR
24 25 One can view stained glass windows honoring the Four Chaplains in the Pentagon and at military chapels located at West Point, Carlisle Barracks, Fort Bliss, and a number of other posts; Washingtons National Cathedral also sports a window that features the Four Chaplains. Two dierent non-profit organizations work to perpetuate Somewhat missing from most accounts detailing the heroism of the Four Chaplains is the context in which their sacrifice took place, other than mentioning that a German submarine attacked and sank Dorchester, bound for Greenland, on the morning of Feb.3, 1943. One of the most extensive holdings of documents pertaining to the Four Chaplains resides in the archives of the U.S. Army Chaplain Corps Museum at Fort Jackson, S.C. Even this collection is long on commemoration and short on context. It is not my intention to add to this list another commemoration of the sacrifice of the Four Chaplains. Instead, I want to examine these events from a broader point of view and explore some of the contextual aspects of the incident: Why was Dorchester heading for Greenland? How did a German U-boat slip through the screen of protective escort ships to deliver Dorchester a fatal blow? The transport was part of a multi-ship convoy, but why did it take so long for rescue ships to arrive on the scene, which resulted in the majority of potential survivors freezing to death in the icy waters of the Labrador Sea? And why was an interdenominational team of four Chaplains on board Dorchester in the first place? First, a brief look at the big picture. By the winter of 1942-1943, American troops moving across the Atlantic were bound for one of four destinations: the British Isles, Iceland, North Africa, and Greenland. All did so in relative safety, even though German submarines (commonly known as U-boats, short for Unterseeboot) sank some 3,000 Allied merchant ships during World War II. This is certainly an impressive number, but only a handful of U-boat victims were ships such as Dorchester, a pas senger liner that primarily transported people instead of cargo. Troopships, as they were called, were the most heavily guarded vessels plying the Atlantic. Shortly aer Americas entry into the war, the U.S. Navy decided that troopships would have priority over other vessels when it came to allocating scarce naval escort ships. The Navys reasoning was that shiploads of cargo were easier to replace than large contingents of trained Soldiers.1 To make troopships as safe as possible, they were always positioned in the middle of their convoys. The convoys other merchantmen served to screen and protect the the Four Chaplains legacy: the Four Chaplains Memorial Foundation, in Philadelphia, and the Immortal Chap lains Foundation in Minnesota. The Four Chaplains were nominated for the Medal of Honor, but the Army disap proved the bestowing of Americas highest award for valor since the Chaplains heroic act did not technically take place under fire. Congress later passed legislation, in 1961, that authorized a special Four Chaplains Medal to honor the sacrifice of Fox, Goode, Poling, and Washington, a unique award that has not been bestowed on anyone since. In 1988, Congress designated the date of Dorchesters sinking as Four Chaplains Day. A common theme running through all of these commemo rations is the interfaith nature of the Four Chaplains: Washington was a Roman Catholic priest, Goode a Jewish rabbi, and Fox & Poling were both Protestant ministers of dierentdenominations.Stained glass window honoring the Four Chaplains in the Pentagon George L. Fox Alexander D. Goode John P. Washington Clark V. Polling
26 27 valuable troop carriers, thus providing another layer of protection in addition to the eorts of naval escorts. Many of the Soldiers bound for Great Britain had the easiest transit of all. Fast luxury liners of the pre-war era were converted into troopships for wartime service. These ships usually sailed alone and without escort; their sus tained speeds were so much faster than even the fastest U-boat that German submarines posed little threat. Just three large passenger linersthe Queen Elizabeth, Queen Mary, and Aquitaniatransported to Britain an astonishing total of more than two million American and Canadian Soldiers during the war. Iceland played an important role in the Battle of the Atlantic, serving as both a staging area for Arctic convoys bound for Soviet ports, and as a base for ships and aircra patrolling the North Atlantic shipping lanes. The first American overseas deployment in World War II was Operation INDIGO, the movement of a brigade of U.S. Marines to Iceland during June 1941. The four troopships transporting the Marines had an escort of two battle ships, a pair of light cruisers, and thirteen destroyers. Ships bound for Iceland throughout the war did so as part of large convoys heading to Britain; when the convoy arrived at a point due south of Iceland, ships bound for that island broke o from the main group for a sprint to their destination, escorted by naval ships based out ofReykjavk. Operation TORCH, the invasion of North Africa in November 1942, included a transatlantic convoy of troopships whose escort included four aircra carriers, three bat tleships, a number of cruisers, and nearly 40 destroyers. Other convoys of troopships bound for the Mediterranean enjoyed similarly heavy escorts throughout the war.2With hundreds of thousands of American troops heading to Britain and Africa, Greenland was probably the last place any of the passengers on Dorchester thought they would be destined for as they boarded that ship at Pier 11, Staten Island, New York, in late January 1943. If there was ever a place that could be called a forgotten back water of the Battle of the Atlantic, Greenland was it. The Danish colony did not play a prominent role in World War II, but the vast island was critical for a number of reasons: it was one of the worlds richest sources of the rare mineral cyrolite, which played a key role in the manufacture of aluminum (a metal the wartime American aircra industry consumed in massive quantities); Greenland was home to two American airbases near Narsarssuak, vital refueling stops for aircra self-deploying from America to Britain; and finally, weather stations in Greenland provided key information to meteorologists in Britain, who in turn were able to provide accurate forecasts to military planners. There had been an American military presence in Greenland since the summer of 1941. Numbering anywhere between 1,000 and 2,000 personnel at any given time, there were no military Chaplains stationed there through 1942.3 In early 1943, the Army determined to correct this oversight. With a routine rotation of Greenland-based personnel scheduled for February, oicials at the New York Port of Embarkation were instructed to assign four Chaplains to the manifest of the troopship Dorchester.4 Each of the four was to be of a dierent denomination, thus enabling the Chaplains to provide the greatest pos sible extent of pastoral care in Greenland. There were a number of Chaplains designated for overseas assignment then marking time at Camp Miles Standish near Boston. Orders soon when out for Chaplains Fox, Goode, Poling, and Washington to report to New York. The four had all volunteered for deployment, and in their own ways were looking forward to the challenges of service in a war zonebut none of them were overly thrilled about being assigned to an outof-the-way place like Greenland. Dorchester slipped its mooring and headed into the crowded waters of the harbor of New York City on Jan. 23, 1943. It joined a convoy of 64 other ships and was soon heading northeastward along Americas eastern seaboard. When dawn broke four days later, troops on Dorches ter noticed that they had parted ways with the large convoy during the night. The bulk of the convoy had headed out into the Atlantic, bound for Iceland and England. Just two other ships remained with Dorchester, the small Norwegian-flagged steam freighters Lutz and Biscaya. With a Royal Navy corvette as escort, the runt convoy arrived at the harbor of St. Johns, Newfoundland, on Jan. 28. St. Johns was the staging point for all Greenland-bound convoys, it being the closest North American port to the American airbases near Narsarssuak. The troops on Dorchester spent the night ashore as the ship took on fuel. The troopship departed St. Johns the next day, again accompanied by Lutz and Biscaya, the three now oicially designated ConvoySG-19. Three cutters from the United States Coast Guard pro vided escort for the run to Greenland: Tampa (WPG-48), Comanche (WPG-76), and Escanaba (WPG-77). The Coast Guards contribution to the American war eort remains one of the more historically underappreciated aspects of World War II. Among its many taskings, the Coast Guard was responsible for the waters in and around Greenland. Being experts at Arctic navigation and maneuvering through ice, Coast Guardsmen were much better suited to escort convoys to Greenland than were their U.S. Navy counterparts.5 For the 1,000-mile journey across the Labrador Sea from St. Johns to Narsarssuak, the ships of SG-19 arranged themselves with Dorchester in the middle (standard practice for a convoy containing a troop ship), with Lutz and Biscaya flanking her on either side at a distance of 600 yards. The heavy, 240-foot USCGC Tampa, the largest of the three escorts and the vessel in overall command, was ahead of her three charges, about 3,000 yards in front of Dorchester. The smaller cutters Comanche and Escanaba, 165-foot cra that had served as icebreakers on the Great Lakes during more peace ful times, protected each flank: Comanche about 5,000 yards from Lutz on Dorchesters port side, and Escanaba a similar distance from Biscaya to starboard. With this arrangement, Dorchester had good protection to its front and both flanksbut not to the rear. Exacerbating the situation was a severe winter storm that kicked up shortly aer SG-19 departed St. Johns. The small cutters out on the flanks could make barely six knots headway through the rough seas, and the entire convoy had to slow down. SG-19 was thus a small, slow, vulnerable convoy that contained a troopship, the most valuable type of American vessel afloat. Still, the Soldiers, Sailors, and Coast Guardsmen of SG-19 actually had little about which to be concerned. The desolate Labrador Sea between Newfoundland and Greenland was an area that was not worth
28 29 a U-boat captains eort; there were just not enough ships plying those waters to make patrolling there worthwhile. During the entire course of the war U-boats sank only seven Allied vessels north of the Island of Newfoundland6, and thus far there had been no attacks in the open waters of the Labrador Sea southwest of Greenland.7 The crowded shipping lanes emanating from New York and Halifax, along with the waters between Greenlands Cape Farewell and Iceland, was where the action was. Except in this case, the action unfortunately came to Dorchester. A misunderstanding caused a U-boat to cross paths with SG-19. On Feb. 1 in the mid Atlantic southwest of Iceland, a wolf pack of six U-boats attacked convoy Halifax 224, a fast group of 58 merchantmen and seven warships. An American Liberty Ship and two British oil tankers were sunk. A U-boat picked up a survivor in the aermath of the attack, the chief engineer from one of the tankers. He carelessly revealed to his captors that a slow convoy was scheduled to follow in the wake of Halifax 224, the theory being that the first convoy would clear out all threatening U-boats and thus enable the slower ships to proceedunmolested. At about this same time a lone Type VIIc U-boat, U-223 under the command of Oberleutnant zur See Karl-Jrgen Wchter, was stationed on the far western flank of another wolf pack that was stalking the U-boat hunting grounds between Greenland and Iceland. Wchter re ported distant sound contact with a slow convoy, and Uboat fleet headquarters in Paris (Befehlshaber der Unter seeboote, or BdU) assumed Wchters convoy was the one it expected to follow Halifax 224. Wchter was ordered to close with and shadow the convoy while reinforcements, a total of 13 additional boats, started to head his way. But Wchter had not detected a big convoy out of Halifax bound for Europehe had stumbled across Dorchesters diminutive SG-19. The U-boat captain later sent another message, correctly stating that his prey was apparently a local convoy heading to Greenland that consisted of only about a half-dozen vessels. BdU reduced the reinforcing boats to four while instructing Wchter to continue to stalk the convoy.8 The storm abated somewhat on Feb. 2, and by that aernoon the ships of SG-19 knew they were being watched. Captain Joseph Greenspun on Tampa signaled to the convoy a warning of Submarine in the vicinity, Tampa having detected something, most likely a U-boat, on its sonar. Tampa dropped depth charges periodically throughout the aernoon and into the evening, hoping to discourage the approach of any U-boats in the vicinity. The merchant ships and Dorchester made what preparations they could, above all else hoping their luck would continue to hold. A heavy fog blanketed the rough seas as night fell on Feb. 2. Sometime that evening, Oberleutnant Wchter decided that he had to strike sooner rather than later, even though his reinforcing U-boats had not yet arrived; Wchter knew the Allied escorts were alert to his pres ence, for his boats sound-detecting equipment had heard the explosions from Tampas depth-charges. With the seas becoming calmer and the convoy beginning to pick up speed, U-223 would have to surface soon and close to within firing range or risk losing the convoy due to the U-boats extremely slow submerged speed.9 Shortly aer midnight, U-223 surfaced and approached the unsuspect ing American ships. Wchter could discern two or three vessels through breaks in the fog, but he wasnt sure of their types. Obviously, though, one was larger than the others. That was his target. At a distance of 1,000 yards, the U-boat captain fired his four forward torpedo tubes. He quickly spun his boat around and fired the single stern tube as well. With his five Aals (eels) in the water, U-223 submerged to await the outcome. U-223 had approached SG-19 from the right rear (star board quarter in naval parlance). He thus obtained a clear shot on Dorchester along the only vulnerable ap proach in the convoys formation. Fortune also smiled on Wchter that night in that the Coast Guard cutter responsible for security on the starboard side of the convoy, Escanaba, was the only escort not equipped with radar (if the cutter had been so equipped, U-223 would have been detected as soon as it had surfaced). Dark ness, fog, lack of technology, and luck combined to seal Dorchestersfate. Her fate was sealed at 55 minutes past midnight. One, possibly two, torpedoes exploded directly under Dorches ters stern, wrecking the engine room, killing scores of passengers and crewmen, and causing the ship to imme diately lose power. Although everyone on board Dorches ter knew instantly they had been hit, none of the other ships in SG-19 observed or heard the torpedo strike. Most likely, U-223 had fired torpedoes equipped with magnetic pistols (fuses). These were designed to explode when they encountered a target ships magnetic field under neath the vessel. The explosion was much greater since the water contained its force (as opposed to a contact pis tol, which exploded by impacting the side of a vessel and thus had much of its force dissipated into the air), and the sound of the subsurface explo sion was somewhat muled. With no visible or audible cues of the attack, the other ships in the convoy did not immediately dis cern that Dorchester had been hit. The remaining ships of SG-19 sailed on. Dorchester came to a fast stop. The loss of power meant the stricken ship could not send out a dis tress call, and in the ensuing panic none of the crewmen thought to use visual signals for help. A few precious minutes ticked by before lookouts on other vessels noticed that something was amiss. Once the escorts had figured out that Dorchester was in trouble, Captain Greenspun ordered Comanche and Escanaba to hunt for the U-boat. Greenspuns decision has caused some controversy through the years, for by giving priority to oensive action instead of search and rescue, the likelihood of survival for anyone on Dorches ter, who ended up in the 34-degree water, decreased exponentially.10 His decision is understandable in that it was standard procedure to hunt U-boats first and worry about survivors later. Although escort commanders were allowed to use discretion is this type of situation, the prevailing thought was to prevent additional ships from being hit instead of immediately being concerned with a vessel that was already in peril. Greenspun probably also assumed that most of Dorchesters survivors would be in lifeboats, not floating in the water. That assumption was wrong, even though Dorchester had more than enough lifeboats and ras to accommodate everyone on board. The stricken vessel began to severely list to starboard as it took on water, which prevented the use of lifeboats made fast on that side of the ship. As for the port-mounted boats, some were damaged in the explosion and others were stuck in a thick coating of ice. This, plus a combination of panic and lack of training in lifeboat drills, resulted in most of the available boats remaining unused. Some of the cra that were safely launched quickly became overcrowded and either cap sized or swamped in the rough seas. And there was just not much time. Dorchester went down a scant 25 minutes aer being hit.
Mark W. Johnson, Ph.D.Historian U.S. Army Chaplain Corps Mark Johnson is the branch historian for the U.S. Army Chaplain Corps. He is a 1986 graduate of West Point and retired from the Army in 2012. He holds a Ph.D. in history from the University at Albany, State University of New York, and teleworks from his home in Casper, Wyoming. Johnson is married to the former Elyse Howard and has two children.30 31 U-223 had submerged and went deep aer firing on Dorchester. Content with his kill and not wanting to push his luck, Wchter had no intention of tangling with escort ships.11 The combined eorts of Comanche and Escanaba to locate and attack the submarine were fruitless; at 1:43 a.m. minutes aer Dorchester went underCap tain Greenspun ordered Escanaba to start picking up sur vivors. Comanche later joined in the rescue eort while Tampa continued on to Greenland with the remaining two ships of the convoy. Between the two cutters, 225 men from Dorchester were savedmostly those who had managed to get aboard a seaworthy lifeboat or ra, although rescue swimmers from Escanaba also managed to save a number of survivors floating in the water.12 As the night wore on, the dismayed Coast Guardsmen found that most of the men they encountered from the sunken Dorchester had already perished, victims of hypothermia. Hundreds of other bodies were never recovered, they having gone down with the ship.13 final moments that so many of the survivors later noted this ministry of presence. When searching for an inspirational example of Chaplains at war, look no further: in the storied history of the U.S. Army Chaplain Corps, the Four Chaplains stand out as exemplars of selflessness and devotion to the needs of others. Their courage has been equaled by few, exceeded by none. Understanding the context in which the Four Chaplains sacrifice took place makes their actions all the more noteworthy. Dorchester met her demise only through the convergence of a series of extremely unlikely events: the storm causing the convoy to slow, the chance detec tion and misidentification of the convoy, Escanabas lack of radar. This convergence resulted in Dorchester being probably the most vulnerable American troopship ever to venture away from American shores during World War II. But as mentioned earlier, it was extremely rare for a U-boat to sink an American troop transport. On that very short list of U.S.flagged troopship disasters, the great est loss of lifeby a wide marginoccurred during the sinking of Dorchester.14 Although none of the Chaplains who perished on Dorchester had been enthused with their pending assignments in Greenland, I am sure that if somehow they had been able to see that list of troop ship sinkings ahead of time and were asked to indicate upon which vessel should an interdenominational team of Chaplains be placed, all four would have pointed to Dorchester without hesitation. With the clarity of hindsight, it is safe to say that service on that doomed vessel was one of the most critical duty assignments any Chap lain received during the Second World War. Commemorative stamp issued May 28, 1948, honoring Four ChaplainsFor a thorough analysis of American convoy practices during the early phase of the Battle of the Atlantic, see Clay Blairs Hitlers UBoat War: The Hunters, 1939-1942 (New York: Random House, 1996). Samuel Elliot Morrison, History of United States Naval Operations in World War II: The Battle of the Atlantic, September 1939-May 1943 In researching the assignments of WWII-era Chaplains in the Chaplain Corps archives, I found no references to any Chaplains being stationed in Greenland prior to the assignment of Fox, Goode, Poling, and Washington. Dan Kurzman, No Greater Glory: The Immortal Four Chaplains and the Sinking of the Dorchester in World War II (New York: Random House, 2005), pp. 32-33. The Coast Guard at War: Greenland Patrol (U.S. Coast Guard, 1945) (http://www.uscg.mil/history/articles/USC GatWar-Green landPatrol.pdf), p. 2. In an attack on convoy SC-52 eighty miles east of Belle Isle on 3 November 1941, U-202 and U-203 sank the merchantmen Flynder borg, Gretavale, Everoja, and Empire Gemsbuck. On 27-28 August 1942, U-165 and U-517 attacked convoy SG-6 at the north end of the narrow Belle Isle Straight (the waters between the island of Newfoundland and mainland Canada), sinking the oiler Arlyn and the transport Chatham (fortunately there were only 14 deaths among the 528 on board the latter vessel). On 22 January 1943, U-413 sank the unescorted Mount Mycale a straggler from convoy SC-117, about 170 miles east of Belle Isle. Data on all sinkings comes from the exhaustive database of Allied vessels sunk by U-boats located at www.uboat.net. Dan Kurzmans statements in No Greater Glory that Americans serving in Greenland were only those lucky enough to survive the U-Boat attacks on troop transports taking them there (p. 6) and that Allied ships seldom escaped attack en route to Greenland (p. 96) are incorrect. Actually, the threat to Greenland-bound convoys was virtually nonexistent compared to what convoys in other areas of the Atlantic faced. The attack on convoy SG-6 mentioned in the previous note was the sole attack on Greenland-bound ships prior to the attack on Dorchester, and Dorchester was the only other Greenland-bound ship that was sunk during the war. Clay Blair, Hitlers U-Boat War: The Hunted, 1942-1945 (New York: Random House, 1996), pp. 178-180. Maximum speed of a submerged Type VIIc U-boat, running on battery power for propulsion, was about seven knots; on the surface, where it could use its diesel engines, it could make almost eighteen knots. Kurzman, No Greater Glory, p. 134. The luck of U-223 ran out on 30 March 30 1944, when British destroyers sank it in Mediterranean waters north of Sicily. Wchter was no longer in command of the boat when it sank, and he survived to the end of the war (http://uboat.net/boats/u223.htm). The Coast Guard at War: Greenland Patrol, p. 72. Morrison, The Battle of the Atlantic, pp. 331-334. The Escanaba also did not survive the war. On 10 June 1943, the cutter struck a mine and was lost will all hands save two; see Dr. Robert M. Browning, Jr., The Sinking of the USCGC Escanaba, U.S. Coast Another of the few American troopships to fall victim to a U-boat while transiting the Atlantic was USAT Henry R. Mallory, which sank near Iceland on 7 Februaryjust a few days after the loss of Dorchester. Ironically, Mallory and Dorchester were both mem bers of the 64-ship convoy that departed New York on 23 January. Five Chaplains were on board Mallory, and all were among the that week the deadliest in the history of the U.S. Army Chaplain Corps. The Germans also sank a few American troopships during the course of the war using surface vessels and aircraft, and some others went down as a result of collisions with other vessels, but the loss of life on all these other ships was never greater than what had occurred on Dorchester. Hundreds of additional Americans were Chaplains Fox, Goode, Poling, and Washington were among the missing. The panic that gripped passengers and crew as Dorchester went under contributed to the heavy loss of life, and it was at that moment that the Chaplains discerned their duty more clearly than prob ably anyone else on board: come what may, it was time to do whatever possible for the aid, comfort, and spiritual and emotional needs of their fellow Soldiers. The Chap lains remained on Dorchester not due to panic or fear, but rather because they made the conscious decision to do so, attempting to calm, inspire, and assist otherseven though by doing so they were knowingly sealing their fates. It is a testament to the Chaplains impact in those 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14NOTES
32 33 Forces. The reflections are set in the context of divine revelation in the Old Testament Book of Ecclesiastes.Nothing New Under the Sun: The Unchanging ChaplaincyQoheletthe Preacher of Ecclesias tesbegan his theological reflections with a famously somber note that set his insights in a larger, cosmic and historic perspective: What has been is what will be, and what has been done is what will be done, and there is nothing new under the sun. Is there a thing of which it is said, See, this is new? It has been already in the ages before us (Ecclesiastes 1:9, 10 ESV).1 This is not a statement of fatalism, but a stark reminder that while circumstances change some things, like human nature, as well as certain aspects of the natural world, remain and will remain unchanged until the end. The reader may be (indeed, it appears to be the authors intent) inclined to agree with the commentary by Charles Bridges, The whole treatise has a sad character about ita mournful commentarymainly a book of confession. The brighter exercis es of Evangelical repentance are but dimly exhibited.2 Appropriately applied this doesnt mean that the preacher is necessarily adopting a cyclical view of history, but rather that the Hebraic linearThere is no future in forecasting. That said with tongue-in-cheek, there are unchanging issues and responses that Chaplains face and will face in the United States military. There are also emerging signstrends, if you willthat could be pointing to a future already here. This paper will reflect on a few of these certainties and signs that could impact future Chaplain ministry in the U.S. Army and by inference, in the U.S. Armed teleological understanding of history has certain predictable factors. His tory, for the preacher in Ecclesiastes, is a moving circle. This revelation car ries both comforting (familiar) and disturbing implications for the Armed Forces Chaplaincy. Soldiers have needsIt may be an exercise in stating the obvious, but the most pressing unchanging feature of Chaplain minis try in the United States Army will be the needs of Soldiers (and by way of application, Airmen, Guardsmen, Marines, Merchant Mariners, and Sailors). Young recruits in basic training will still miss parents, spouses, and loved ones. Deploying noncommis sioned oicers and company grade oicers will still wonder about the meaning of true leadership as their unit deploys into a theater of operation. Families will still grieve over inevitable losses in our Army family. Retirees will always seek to make sense of the past and try to navigate a pathway into a future that came faster than they expected. Gods grace resounds in our lives like a staccato. Only by retaining the seemingly disconnected notes comes the ability to grasp the theme.3 Chaplains will need to be there to help read the disconnected notes and help them, all of them, locate Gods grace in the activities of their lives. Chaplains will need to be there to assure them that there are The Future of Chaplain Ministry in the United States Armed Forcesby Chaplain (Lt. Col.) Michael A. MiltonU.S. Army ReserveNurture the Livingby Sgt. Maj. (Ret.) Steve Carter, a former Chaplain Assistant. Commissioned in 2010 by the Army Chief of Chaplains for the Armed Forces Chaplaincy Center Memorial Garden at Fort Jackson, S.C. Phot o Illustration by Sgt 1st Class Jonathan Watters.
themes, there is meaning, and, in meaning, there is hope. Chaplains are Spiritual PhysiciansMedical Service Oicers are not trained for spiritual work of sort ing through the boxes of broken dreams and unfulfilled longings of human beings. Judge Advocate General oicers fulfill many necessary functions in our Soldiers lives, but handling the signs and seals of eternity-in-time is not part of their law school training. The Pastor as Minor Poet,4 as Dr. Craig Barnes of Princeton Theo logical Seminary has called our workis uniquely called, trained, and granted a unique societal role (and, thus, a community expectation) of helping people dis cover God in the presenting issues of life. That work will remain the same in the future, because human beings will not change. Our Soldiers will be young. They will age. They will see happy times and sad times. Helping them to claim the divinely bestowed dignity as humans in the midst of it all will be the Chaplain. This will not change. And this unchanging nature of things may be comforting to Chaplains, in the sense that such things are familiar.War Changes EverythingThe disturbing application of Gods revelation through the preacher of Ecclesiastes is that Chaplains will continue to bring Soldiers to God and God to Soldiers as human beings kill each other. Soldiers exist because the eral George Washington in 1775, also know this and know it, supposedly, in a most theologically visceral way. The Chaplain that answered the call in the past to tend the moral injuries of Soldiers who survived Yorktown, also was there to speak peace to the spirits of Marines in the sweltering heat of Iwo Jima, and support Merchant Mariners (as the Navy Chaplain is called to do) as they carried troops across the U-boat infested North Atlantic. Chaplain (Col.) David Peterson was there to equip Coalition Forces Chaplains to minister in Desert Storm as Chaplain (Brig. Gen.) Donald Rutherford was there to guide Army leadership at Camp Victory, Baghdad, and as one of our Chaplains today will be there in a campaign yet named and a war yet fought. Some things will not change as we anticipate the Chaplain Corps future. Some things will not change because nothing is new under the sun. And Chaplains will be there. Or should this airmation actually be a question? Lo I Tell You a Mystery: Possible Challenges for the Future Chaplaincy Anyone coming upon the question on the future of the Chaplaincy in the armed forces will likely think of the well-publicized challenges facing clergy-in-uniform. We might catego rize these challenges into existential and environmental.ExistentialThe Chaplaincy, as a division of cler gy practice, will always be concerned, if not consumed, by the very nature of calling in the context of military service. The Chaplain who questions her calling as a vocational peace maker, while she encourages those who go to war, will not go away. His existential angst may, in fact, grow as the years collect and more sophisticated weapons of war are invented to (seemingly) help deny the inevitable, irreducible reality of war: one human being killing another. The Chaplain who struggles beneath the demands of sta oicer requirements that seem to be at odds with his vocation will continue. Indeed, it might be said that the value of a Chaplaincy in the armed forces is that someone, at least someone, is struggling with the existential questions of life in the face of a gruesome, but necessary, task of warfare. Yet, the challenge is not that there is such a struggle, but whether the priestly, prophetic, pastoral ing importance of the Chaplaincy, or internal memos to each other on strategies for maintaining our impor tance to the military, and especially not in advertising literature, web sites, and other such promotions. Rather, the airmative response to the question of the need for Army, Navy, and Air Force Chaplains will come from those who are served. Soldiers and other service members and their families will rise to testify. And the grateful voice of a wife of a Marine who was injured in battle, and whose family knew the power of the ministry of presence of her Chaplain, will always be more eective than the general before a congressional committee. Her voice is authentically convincing. Yet she will only speak according to the ministry she and her family experienced. We are reminded, at this point, of Abraham Joshua Heschels statement: There are no final proofs for the existence of God, Father and Creator of all. There are only witnesses.5 exist or may exist in society at-large, that impact the role and work of theChaplaincy. It may be argued that we live in an age of institutions in conflict. As older western civilization cultural norms give way to modern West European and North American Enlightenmentdriven ideals, the conflicts will continue. It may be argued that, on the one hand, those that resist the changes in attitudes (e.g., towards marriage and human sexuality) will be less contemptuous as much as curious. As moderns drive into the rural areas of Pennsylvania to view the Amish they dont go to show derision, argue, protest, or seek to dismantle the religion. Rather they go to see something of a living museum exhibition, black horse-drawn carriages and all. Similarly, future moderns6 (or Postmoderns, if you prefer) in the Department of Defense or its armed services, might think of those who hold to sanctity of mar riage as relics from another era. If such a phenomenon were to happen to, say, conservative Christian and Jewish groups in the Chaplaincy, their ministries would be arguably marginalized to the point of inef fectiveness. In this we see significant challenges to the Chaplaincy. On the other hand, it could be argued that the great wave of immigration from the southern hemisphere and the east will bring about what Philip Jenkins foresees:7 a revitalization of traditional values in the next Christendom in North America. If these new American populations can, indeed, become enculturated The future of the Chaplain Corps rests with witnesses to its presence.identity of a clergyman will continue to be valued in the armed forces. The answer to that question will dictate the future of the Chaplaincy in the Army, Navy, and Air Force. The hope of a yes to the future of armed forces Chaplaincy will not be located in self-aggrandizing testimonies before Congress about the continu-EnvironmentalThe existential challenges related to vocation and identity are coupled with, if not overwhelmed by, the environmental challenges. In speaking of future environmental challenges to the Chaplaincy of the armed forces we mean those forces, that human nature is exactly predictable at this very point. In the Olivet Discourse, Jesus of Nazareth said, And you will hear of wars and rumors of wars. See that you are not alarmed, for this must take place, but the end is not yet. For nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom, and there will be famines and earthquakes in various places (Matthew 24:6; see, also, Mark 13:7; and Luke 21:9 ESV). Soldiers know this. Chaplains, as clergy-soldiers established by Gen-34 35
to the point of providing ordained, educated clergy to the Armed Forces those Chaplains will naturally bring their traditional values with them. Whether this rise of immigrant newolder-values (e.g., traditional Ro man Catholics and Anglicans) would bring moral, cultural conflict with the outnumbered Enlightenment-based Western European Postmoderns or ascendancy of the immigrant traditional valuesthrough their numerical majorityremains to be seen.8 Even more challenging could be a scenario where the oicer ranks of the Army, Navy, and Air Force are comprised, in a new majority, by the new-immigrant-Americans with their more conservative and traditional expressions of faith being served by an Enlightenment-influenced old-line Western European-North AmericanChaplaincy. Both arguments point to continued (happening more rapid than we can predict) cultural froth that can potentially obscure the role of Chaplains. Chaplains ordinarily accentuate the societys resistance to change as religion is the de facto repository of a cultures ideas, stories, and customs. If the new immigrant groups enter the military then this fact will play well for the future of the Chaplaincy. If not and the post-Enlightenment, secular Western European ideas continue to dominate culture the Chaplaincy of the Armed Forces will face, perhaps, the greatest test of itshistory. Yet, again, the future of the Chaplaincy, in the midst of these environmental challenges, will depend on the eectiveness of Chaplains to practice authentic cooperation without compromise9 in providing spiritual care for Soldiers and their Families. In the end the spiritual care of Soldiers and Families by competent, caring, and faithful Chaplains trumps any other device of undoing that antagonists of the Chaplaincy can wield.Back to the Future: Some ResponsesThis paper has sought to outline a few expectations for the future of the Armed Forces Chaplaincy in the United States. We have considered how the Chaplaincy might remain the same and how it will undoubt edly face certain crises that threaten even its existence as a distinct corps. Even as Ecclesiastes is unsettlingly pessimistic in its treatment of human nature, it is simultaneously hopeful in its concluding words: And moreover, because the preacher was wise, he still taught the people knowledge; yea, he gave good heed, and sought out, and set in order many proverbs. The preacher sought to find out acceptable words: and that which was written was upright, even words of truth. The words of the wise are as goads, and as nails fastened by the masters of assemblies, which are given from one shepherd. And further, by these, my son, be admonished for the making many books there is no end; and much study is a weariness of the flesh. Let us hear the conclusion of the whole matter: Fear God, and keep his commandments: for this is the whole duty of man. For God shall bring every work into judgment, with every secret thing, whether it be good, or whether it be evil (12:9-14 ESV). Thus, we who care for the Army Chaplaincy and the other Chaplaincy ministries in sister services (and in Coalition allied nations), can do something in the face of so many changes. According to this passage Chaplains can: practice sound judgment to wards all as we conduct our ministries (the preacher was wise); if we suer let us suer for righteousness, not for our own thoughtless actions; be unceasingly productive in spir itual formation ministries to ser vice members and their families (he still taught the people); our unique place at the table is our work as spiritualphysicians; be consistently careful about words that heal and words that hurt and use our gis and education in communicating to build others up in hope and faith; ministry must be conducted for the sake of the elect, as St. Paul wrote to Timothy;10 be studied and faithful scholars of Sacred Text in the service of God and our Armed Forces communities (The preacher sought to find out...that which was written was right); we are the living vessels of the confes sions and creeds of the faiths of our endorsing agencies and our future ministries depend on Gods use of our present faithfulness instudy; be fruitfully balanced in our studies and in our practice as Chap lains ( ... be admonished: of making many books there is no end; and much study is a weariness of the flesh); and, finally, critically, and most importantly to all of the above: be faithful and leave the future to God (Let us hear the conclusion of the whole matter: Fear God, and keep his commandments: for this is the whole duty of man. For God shall bring every work into judgment, with every secret thing, whether it be good, or whether it be evil). And that is the undeniable Biblicalbottom-line: I may not know the future of the Chaplaincy, but I know the One who holds the future. Hope in God and leave the rest to Him may sound quaintly out-of-style, if not shallowly axiomatic. Yet, in that ancient truth, there is great hope for our future. Pro Deo et Patria. Milton earned his Ph.D. through the University of Wales, Trinity Saint Davids College. He is a Subject Matter Expert in homiletics and a faculty member of the U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School. An author, writer, and musician, Milton is also engaged in studies at the School of Government, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (Master of Public Administration). He lives with his wife and son in Matthews, North Carolina.Michael A. Milton, Ph.D.U.S. Army Reserve, Chaplain (Lt. Col.)36 37 Scripture quotations are from The Holy Bible, English Standard Version, copyright 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a division of Good News Publishers. Used by permission. All rights reserved. Charles Bridges, Preface, in An Exposition of the Book of Ecclesiastes (New York: R. Carter & Brothers, 1860), x-xi. Abraham Joshua Heschel and Susannah Heschel, No Time for Neutrality, in Moral Grandeur and Spiritual Audacity: Essays (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1996), 137. See M. Craig. Barnes, The Pastor as Minor Poet: Texts and Subtexts in the Ministerial Life (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Pub., 2009). Abraham Joshua Heschel and Susannah Heschel, Moral Grandeur and Spiritual Audacity: Essays (New York: Farrar, Straus & Gir oux, 1996), 300. For a discussion of modernity and postmodernity divisions see, e.g., Jrgen Habermas, 1999. Modernity versus Postmodernity. Modernity Critical Concepts 4: 5-16. Philip Jenkins, Gods Continent: Christianity, Islam, and Europes Religious Crisis (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007); and The Next Christendom: The Coming of Global Christianity (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002). A contemporary case-in-point could be the Episcopal Church in the United States and the continuing Anglican movementthe Anglican Church in North America, the Anglican Mission in the Americas, and others, the latter having received its catalyst from archbishops and bishops in the global south and the global east. See, e.g., Miranda Katherine Hassett, Anglican Communion in Crisis: How Episcopal Dissidents and Their African Allies Are Reshaping Anglicanism (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007). See, e.g., Michael A. Milton, Cooperation without Compromise: Faithful Gospel Witness in a Pluralistic Setting (Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2006). Therefore I endure all things for the elects sakes, that they may obtain the salvation which is in Christ Jesus with eternal glory (2 Timothy 2:10 ESV).1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10NOTES
Chaplain (Col.) James Palmer, Jr.Photo by Sgt 1st Class Jonathan Watters38 39 Casualty of Combat: Garrison DoctrineWe dont do anything notionally. Chaplain (Capt.) Edward Tolliver For we do not wrestle against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against the authorities, against the cosmic powers over this present darkness, against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly places. (Ephesians 6:12 ESV) By Chaplain (Maj.) Chris Moellering To be a Chaplain is to be at war. The physical environment that we are in has little to do with this reality. Soldiers and Families struggle with deep questions, hard choices and making life work. Addiction, depression, abuse, and neglect are present on and o the field of physical battle. Our mission does not change with the presence or ab sence of incoming hostile fire. We provide and advise. We conduct religious services, bury the dead, comfort the alicted, and at times, alict the comfortable. Unfortunately, our doctrine does not reflect this reality. The Chaplain Corps has taken their doctrinal cues from the Maneuver, Fires and Eects side of the Army. We all understand there is a significant dierence between infantry, armor, artillery and garrison and combat. The former consists of training and preparation, the later of carrying out that mission to engage and destroy the enemies of the United States of America in close combat. As Chaplains, we have the same mission wherever we areprovide religious support, advise the command. The prayers we pray in a worship service in garrison are as real as the prayers we pray in a foxhole. The counsel we oer a struggling Soldier during a training rotation is as sincere as counsel oered during a convoy to resupply a forward operating base. We are always on the front lines of religious support.
40 41 In this way, we are similar to the Army medical community. They practice actual medicine in the troop medical clinic and the battalion aid station. The Army medical community has an advantage. Their doc trine reflects this reality, at least to adegree.1 Doctrine informs the way we plan and what we consider our essential tasks to be. Religious support planning should occur no matter our environment. Yet, our doctrine focuses only on wartime and other forward actions. This is a serious oversight that causes significant problems for religious support and our corps. Consider the way our Corps is struc tured. Operational forces contain 63 percent of our Chaplain authorizations. Obviously, the generating (or institutional) force contains 37 per cent. However, look at the following chart. It is not that straight forward.2 The majority of field-grade Chaplains are contained within the generat ing force. Why is this significant to doctrine? Because doctrine is taught by field grade oicers. Doctrine is used by field grade oicers to create plans, evaluate courses of action and to shape operations. For the Canizations. This means the doctrine we do have is irrelevant to the primary users of it! Chaplain Authorizations (FY15)Operational Generating 83% 48% 37% 37% 17% 52 67% 67% O3 O4 O6 O5 Let us look at the history of the last 20 years. In 1995 FM 16-1 Religious Support was published. Chapter 4 Religious Support During Peace time contained a sub-heading Installation Religious Support. These five pages mostly covered installation support of the deploying force and the role of Reserve components in supporting this mission. In April 2003 Field Manual 1-05 Religious Support was published. Installation Unit Ministry Team Religious Support Operations now occupied an entire chapter. Fieen pages fleshed out the material covered by the previous FM 16-1. Why the new emphasis? It seems counter-intuitive when we think that this was published a month aer the invasion of Iraq and almost two years aer operations in Afghanistancommenced. This new chapter was included be cause something else significant hap pened as well in the first few years of this century. In October 2002, the Installation Management Agency was oicially activated. As most readers will know, this shi had significant implications for the way the Chaplain Corps stas and supervises religioussupport. It should be noted that the assertion made in the second paragraph of this article was doctrinal in this edition of the FM. The content of the religious support mission of the Chaplain and Chaplain Assistant is not dierent in the Table of Distribution and Allowances than the Table of Organization and Equipment; only the command context changes. (FM 1-05 2003 7-12) The following paragraph is even more important, and is quoted in itsentirety: The assignment instructions received by every Chaplain at the time of his/her receipt of per manent change of station (PCS) orders, contains the following statement: Chaplain will perform and/or provide direct and general religious support in accordance with Unit Religious Support Plan and Command Master Religious Program. The installation sta UMT establishes sta supervision and implements the CMRP. They supervise the training of UMTs for the CCH in cooperation and coor dination with tenant command UMTs. They supervise garrison re ligious support force structure for the commander, both active and civilian. On an installation or in a community, the sta Chaplain has overall sta responsibility for the religious support mission. In fulfilling that responsibility, the sta Chaplain will coordinate and use total UMT assets from both the TDA and TOE units. The installation Chaplain Assistant noncommissioned oicer in charge advises the Chaplain on Chaplain Assistant assignments, training, and other critical support issues. (FM 1-05 2003 7-55) Ten years later, we now have a new version of FM 1-05. Its four chapters do not mention installation religious support, area coverage in garrison, or the Command Master Religious Plan. What happened? Has doctrine for installation religious support become a casualty of war? This new disconnect between op erational and generating Chaplains creates and reinforces a divide that should not exist. What is the dier ence between a Chaplain in a brigade combat team and a training brigade? Both are charged to protect the free exercise of all the Soldiers in their units. Both supervise Chaplains who are providing and advising. Both ought to be engaged in both inter nal and external advisement. Both conduct worship services, administer rites, sacraments and ordinances. But, since doctrine views these two units dierently for religious support, we tend to view them dierently. Indeed, doctrine only addresses one of them at all. Then there are issues of area cov erage. It is inexcusable that some installation Chaplains have diiculty covering chapel services because tenant operational unit Chaplains do not see the need to take a part in the installation Command Master Religious Plan. Integrated doctrine would be a step toward remedying this situation. Internal and external advisement can and should happen in garrison. Interaction with indigenous clergy should be as routine in Killeen, Texas as in Kandahar, Afghanistan. It should not be a paradigm shi for us to go forward and engage host-na-
42 43 tion clergy. It should merely require some tweaks to our techniques. This leads us back to the conflict the warwhich this issue of the journal is based around. The omis sion in the most recent FM 1-05 is certainly traced in part to the ef fects of a decade of combat operationseverything has been about the deployment cycle. Garrison was a pit stop between deployments for many Soldiers, including Chaplains. However, the Installation Management Agency has become Installation Management Commanda command that accounts for roughly one-third of our major, lieutenant colonel and colonel positions within the Corpsa larger percentage of these ranks than any other command. We live in an agenot unlike ages be fore uswhere the role and necessity of the Chaplain is questioned and attacked. An age where religion is increasingly seen as a private matter that should not aect public actions. By not retaining integrated doctrine, and more importantly, an integrated vision of how religious support for Soldiers is a continuous mission from the first day in a reception battalion through the last retirement ceremo ny, we undercut our own relevance. If battalion Chaplains are not held to their Title X statutory responsibility to conduct weekly religious services for their Soldiers, but instead choose to attend worship o-post, we create a self-reinforcing cycle of destruc tion for the Chaplain Corps. As more Chaplains are o-post in worship, the quantity and quality of on-post op portunities decreases. Soldiers and family members then also increas ingly look o-post for these needs to be fulfilled. Chaplains become less relevant because they are not seen as fulfilling their mandate to lead communities of faith. Soldiers and family members who desire spiritual counsel, or need religious rites, will go where they worshipo-post. We do not have to worry about the Department of Defense civilianiz ing Chaplains. We are doing the job for them. We shirk our duties when we are not forward because we are blinded to the war around us. There are religious, spiritual and moral needs in garrison. Our doctrine ought to address this and reinforce it instead of ignoring it. Chaplain (Maj.) Chris MoelleringChaplain Moellering holds a Bachelor of Science degree from Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana and a Master of Divinity Degree from Ashland Theological Seminary, Ashland, Ohio, a Master of Business Administration and Executive Masters of Public Administration from Syracuse University. He is endorsed by the Anglican Church in NorthAmerica.1For example, see FM 4-02 Army Health System 2-15. August 2013 2Data pulled from FY15 documents on FMSWEB As ordained Chaplains, rabbis, ministers, imams, priests, and nuns, we are familiar with the idea that ministry is more than a jobeven more than a profession. It is a vocation. The Christian term associated with this vocation is a calling, although this ter minology is not commonly used in Jewish circles.1 In the Army, as in the other military services, we are first and foremost Soldiers. Our job requires us to live our values and inspire other Soldiers and build trust amongst those we serve. We are expected to embody and enact our values by the way that we livein common parlance, ethics.2 As a Chaplain, this topic is critical. With the recent publication of The Army Ethic White Paper, the Army defines the three core tenants which define the Army Ethic: Honor; Competency; and Stewardship. What it means to live an ethical life is oen unspoken andunexplored. Living an ethical life is more than just living a life of integrity. It is a faith journeymy faith journey. It is why I am a Chaplain.3 Faith, as defined by the Jewish mystics and Chasidic Masters, is the constant process of seeking and being engaged in the search for God. This paper explores that quest. How does the Chaplain Corps, and Chaplaincy in particular, embody the Army Ethic? What is the intersection between faith and ethics? In what way can ethics be understood as a journey of faith? How do ethics, lived out as a faith journey, constitute Avodat HaShem, Serving God, and in what way? by Chaplain (Capt.) Karyn B. BergerProfessionalismin the ChaplaincyNOTES
44 45 MethodologyThis paper uses a Jewish exegetical lens to explore ethics as it is ex pressed in faith. It does not seek to show how one creates an ethical life or teaches ethics. Rather, it assumes a firm intellectual grasp of the principles of the Army Ethicin this case, Honor, Competency, and Stewardshipalready exists. In particular, it explores how to deepen that under standing and meaning in the faith journey as a military Chaplain, more specifically as an Army Chaplain. In particular, I seek to explore this using scriptural content, as well as Jewish commentary and wisdom literature. In an attempt to fully encapsulate these ideas, I use Hebrew terms (though in transliteration), following the school of thought that language carries its own semantic values that cannot be translated.4 Traditional Jewish exegesis diers from that of Christian exegesis/her meneutics. The basis of all Jewish commentary is situated within the Tanakh (Torah, Neviim, and Ketuvim, or the Five Books of Moses, Prophets, and Other Writings). In Jewish tradition, however, revelation is an ongo ing process that must constantly be re-examined and made applicable to our daily lives. The way that this happens in much of the Jewish milieu is through the thoughts, words, and writings of our sages and rabbis. Their commentaries explore various aspects of life through the lens of the Tanakh. These texts, some of which are more than 2,000 years old, are part of Gods ongoing revelation, or Oral Torah.5 Its content holds as much weight and importance as the Tanakh.6 More, the dierent commentators, through their commentaries, as well as all those who study themeven moderns such as you and meare considered to be in an ongoing, continuous discussion that is neither linear nor limited by historic period. Thus, Rabbi Solomon ben Isaac (Rashi), who taught in the 11th and early 12th century, is understood to be in a dialog with Onkelos, who translated the Bible into Aramaic in the third century; and the writers of Pirke Avot in 100 BCE up to the 200 CE are seen as speaking with Moses ben Maimonides (Rambam), who wrote in the 12th century. We moderns are just the latestparticipants. In July 2014, the Center for the Army Profession and Ethic published The Army Ethic White Paper.7 It attempts to definitively establish the ethics which guide the Profession of Arms: The nature of Honorable Service for the Army, both as an institution and as a procession in the accomplishment of the mission. It expresses the standard and expectation for all of us to make right decisions and to take right actions in the conduct of the mis sion, performance of Duty, and in all aspects of our lives (The Army Ethic White Paper, p. ii). Living an ethical life inspires trust. As professionals, Soldiers are expected group. As a Rabbi, I specialize in serving Jewish Soldiers. When there is something that is unique to being Jewishlike life cycle ceremonies, or getting kosher food, or ensuring that Soldiers have matzah for PesachI ensure that these Soldiers needs are met. In Chaplaincy, we serve God by serving others. At the same time, I am not only serving, but also am deepening my relationship with God. The Hebrew term for this is AvodatHaShem.10 The Army Ethic of Honor, Compe tency and, Stewardship, directly cor responds with three similar values in Pirke Avot, Aphorisms of the Fathers: Godly Service, Honor, and Righteous Deeds, or Torah, Avodah, and Gimilut Chasadim: 11 12 Shimon the Righteous taught: The entire world stands on three things: [study of] Torah, the act of serving God, and performing Righteous Deeds.13 This quote directly refers to Isaiah 66:1. There we read that the earth is Gods footstool which sits in front of the Throne of Glory.14 Isaiah 66 speaks to the purpose of this throne. Understood historically, the verse refers to the Temple and reestablishing the cultic practice of sacrifice. Simon the Righteous, however, chooses to understand it metaphorically.15 He suggests that the world literally stands on three pillarsor in this case, three legs. Without one of the legs, the footstool cannot remain stable, and will collapse. It is not enough to only study Torah. It is not enough to only Pray. It is not enough to only do Righteous Deeds. We must do all three. Before going any farther, I need to take what seems to be a digression, but is actually a crucial part of this discussion. Theological and philosophical standing inevitably influences how we translate, and interpret, something. The original Hebrew text omits the verbs.16 InJewish tradition, the reader is expected to add these verbs back into the text. Adding verbs shis agency. Thus, it is not the words of Torah that matter (though they are significant), but engaging in Torah study; it is not sacrifice or service that matters, but making the sacrificial oering or service; it is not the deeds that count, but doing the deeds.17 The act, not the thing, is what counts. Moreover, in Jewish thought, the or der of words is particularly relevant. The relationship is hierarchical, with the most important idea first, followed by the second-most important idea, and so on.18 As such, studying Torah, Serving God, and Enacting Righteous Deeds, are neither synonymous nor equal. Studying Torah (Bible Study) is primary; then Service; and finally Righteous Deeds. This same hierarchy can be found in much of Jewish literature. Perhaps this is one reason why many sages declare that without Torah, the other two ele ments: Service and Righteous Deeds, make little dierence. A prime ex ample is found the dictum that, Lo am ha-aretz chassid, An ignoramus cannot be pious (BT Avot 2:5).19 to uphold these ethics and abide by them. However, for me, the Chap laincy speaks to a something larger than Ethics qua Ethics. It speaks to the dialectic of ethics and faith. Put simply, I am in the Army because it provides the opportunity to live out my ethics. That is the what. It describes the job.8 In much of normative Jewish thought, belief in God, is a priori. The issue is not why I seek God, but how I go about it. By this, I dont mean the specific details of the way I seek God, such as the number of times a day that I pray or the words that I use. Rather, I mean my ongoing search for, and deepening of, my relationship with God. This is a question ofFaith. Faith is not a matter of theology (though it is based on theological and philosophical understanding. The definition of Faith consists of how one engages in being in relationship with God. As framed by the Jewish mystics and understood in much of Jewish thought, it is described as a kind of hide and seek, in which we seek to find God; at the same time, God seeks us.9 Army Chaplains have three tasks: first, we ensure that Soldiers are guaranteed their First Amendment right to freedom of religion. Second, we provide religious services and meet the pastoral needs of Soldiers who request it. All Chaplains do this for all Soldiers, regardless of age, gender, race, or creed. Finally, we also serve Soldiers of our own faith No matter how good a person you are, no matter how charitable or magnanimous your deeds, without Studying Torah, there is, practically speaking, no way to fully engage in Avodat Hashem. Even as my work as a Jewish Chap lain is rooted in studying ethics (and more specifically, Torah), the Chaplaincy is anything but theoretical. Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel said when he marched with the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr., in Selma, Al., he was, praying with his feet. The Chaplaincy is similar. Working with Soldiersdoing what they do, sup porting them spirituallythe Chap laincy is, to a large degree, how one actively engages in Avodah, practical theology. With this in mind, we can understand why Jewish sages emphasize action as more important than study. One example of this warning occurs in the BT Avodah Zara 17B. Here we read a story of two rabbis: When Rabbi Eleazar ben Perata and Rabbi Hanina ben Teradion were arrested [by the Roman authorities], Rabbi Eleazar ben Perata said to Rabbi Hanina ben Teradion, Lucky you! You were arrested and charged for one crime. Woe is me! I was arrested and charged with five crimes. Rabbi Hanina replied: You should be happy! You may have been charged with five crimes, but you will be acquitted. Woe is me! I was arrested and charged with
46 47 only one crime, but I will not be cleared of charges and released. You engaged both in [the study of] the Torah as well as in acts of Loving Kindness. I, on the other hand, only studied Torah! His [R Haninas] words parallel those of Rabbi Huna. Rabbi Huna taught, He who only occupies himself only with the study of the Torah [Bible Study] is as if he had no God 21 As this story is told, we do not know why these two teachers were ar rested.22 Nor is it clear why Rabbi Hanina believes that studying Torah and engaging in Righteous Deeds will lead to his colleagues acquittal.23 The same is true for Rabbi Hunas statement: we do not know why studying Torah without an occupation is like having no God. However, the teachings of a 12th century commentator, Rabbi Solomon Ben Yitzchak, or Rashi, may provide some insight. He explains that if you only study Torah (Bible), you are missing the point. God revealed the words, but human understanding of words are not enough. You have to be able to hear the voice of God through the words.24 This is not speaking to memorization or rote repetition of the Bible verses. As stated by Rabbi Nissim ben Reuven,25 Reciting the Shema twice daily [praying] does not suice (Ran, Commentary on BT Nedarim 8a).26 Studying Torah yields intellectual understanding; but, that kind of understanding is incomplete, because it deals only in the realm of theoretical ethics. There are many levels of understanding. Knowing something in your head is distinctly dierent than understanding it in your heart or having the visceral experience of something through the prism of the physical body. As Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel puts it: The grasp, the understanding, comes with the deed and through the deed. When we fulfill a mitzvah and perform an ac ceptable deed, we grasp mans attachment to God. If it were pos sible to say so, God is revealed in our deeds, in the depths of our being we perceive the divine voices. (http://www.commentar ymagazine.com/article/faith-asthe-leap-of-action/the-theologyof-abraham-joshua-heschel/). Heschel is similar to the o quoted maxim that Chaplaincy is, Bringing God to Soldiers and Soldiers to God. This aligns with what Jewish Chasidic masters teach: Avodah brings the world and God closer together. As a Chaplain, this invites me to examine how I am with my Soldiers as well as with other people: Am I judgmental? Forgiving? Open hearted? Conde scending? Do I go to physical fitness training in the morning and do my best? While Torah study creates the spiritual and moral underpinnings of action, how I act in the world shows me where my heart, my true intentions, lies. To that end, we are taught that ramifications of our actions in the guarded formula in angelic realms that somehow was revealed to the Israelites.31 Acting provides access to new levels of revelation and under standing, elevating human beings to a level previously reserved to angels. Specifically, understanding comes through doing. It is not the other way around. This seems counterintuitive. But, it is also transformative. Serv ing God is not merely an act of head knowing. It is also a matter of heart. cles, suer blisters and overcome the mental challenges. Doing gives me a new understanding and sense of comradeship with my Soldiers. Naaseh VNishma encompasses a path through which I can draw closer not only to my Soldiers, but to God. Knowing something in a personal, intimate, emotional and experiential way can only be gained through experience in the world.32 world are greater than we might ever imagine. Indeed, the Rabbi Eleazar, one of the protagonists in the Zohar, teaches that:27 When God created the universe, He ordained that this world would be served through the pathways of the heavens. So it is that when people are virtuous and walk in the right path, God moves the life flow from the heavens [until the] blessings descend on all here below (Zohar, Vol 1: Genesis, 58b).28 Our actions bring God into the world. This suggests that we reinterpret our mechanistic understanding of Torah study enacting Avodah, and Performing Righteous Deeds to one that is humanistic (for lack of a better word). Rather than seeing each ac tion as equally important legs of foot stools, a better analog is a person with two arms outstretched to the heavens. One arm represents studying Torah. The other arm represents performing Righteous Deeds. By bringing the two together, the human embodies Avodah. Human beings bring the presence of God into the world, and thus sustain and uphold the world. In the words of many Jewish mystics, this brings to life the very famous verse from Job 19:27, Through my flesh, I see God.29 The Torah framework is simply a two word Hebrew clause in Exo dus: Naaseh VNishma, We will do and then we will understand (Ex. 24:8).30 As told in a Talmudic story, Naaseh VNishma was a carefully Moses stood there and prayed. God said to him, Now is NOT the time for lengthy prayers! The Israelites are trusting you to resolve their troubles! Convince the Israelites to go forward! Raise up your rod, stretch out your hand above the sea. The Israelites shall go on a path of dry ground through the sea.34 Rashis interpretation suggests that Moses cries are prayers. There are times that Avodah can be either Torah or action. As they stand on the shores of the Sea of Reeds, what God requires is not faith, but action. In eect, God is turning the reins of leadership over to Moses. Moses must discover that the essence of leadership is action. Leadership is not theoretical. He can only discover it through real world experience. It is only when he acts that Moses gains a deep understanding of what is neces sary in order to urge the Israelites onward. He moves from one state of understanding and relationship with God into another. Similarly, Army Chaplaincy is in the here-and-now. My job is tending to the spiritual state of well-being of people. Deepening my relationship with God is not an intellectual exercise. It is something that I can only gain through experiencing life. Thus, Chaplaincy is inherently, and intensely, personal. It is the work of the soul, but not limited to it. For me, it is more than doing the Will of God. In Chaplaincy, this is the field in the summer in unbearable Texas heat; in the struggles of Soldiers Photo by Sgt 1st Class Jonathan WattersIntellectual eort and physical action are inherently interdependent: study without applying it in the world ultimately leads to failure (because the real thing is not the same as our mental map). As a Chaplain, I know the truth of Rabbi Krumbeins teaching. For me, it is one thing to think about going on ruck march with a 35 pound pack; it is something else to go on the ruck march and experience sore mus This principle is evidenced in a commentary on Exodus 14:15-16.33 In this section of the Torah, Moses and the Israelites are standing on the shore of the Sea of Reeds. The Egyptians are in hot pursuit of the Israelites. The Israelites look up, see the Egyptians and cry out in fear to God. Rashis commentary casts an interesting light on the call to action by telling the reader what Moses was doing:
48 49 and their families, in the realities of constant and long deployments. This type of understanding is gained only as we muddle our way through life. Action comes first. Understanding, oen, comes later. Doing, Naaseh, is the means through which I gain Nishma, an understanding, of better understanding God. I become an active partner, and deepen my relationship, with God. Prima facia, this is an audacious claim. Yet, the Jewish sages insist that human beings have a role to play in the ongoing process of creation. One example occurs in a story in which the Roman governor, Rufus, encounters Rabbi Akiva: Once the evil [Roman governor] Tinieus Rufus asked Rabbi Akiva, Whose deeds are greater Gods ormans? Rabbi Akiva replied, Mans deeds are greater. He [Tinieus Rufus] then asked, Why do you circumcise your selves? Rabbi Akiva replied, I knew that that was the point of your ques tion, and therefore I answered in the first place that mans deeds are greater than Gods. Rabbi Akiva brought him stalks of wheat and some bread, and said, These grains of wheat are Gods handiwork, and the bread is the handiwork of man. Is the latter not greater than the former? (Midrash Tanchuma 19:3)35 As background, Quintus Tinieus Rufus was the Roman governor of Judea around the second century, C.E. Rabbi Avika ben Joseph was one of the leaders of the Jewish Academy. He was actively involved with a rebellion against Rome and had been imprisoned for illegally teaching Torah in public. During his incarceration, there are a number of instances in which Rufus challenges Rabbi Akiva to a debate in an attempt to discredit Judaism and its philosophy. This is one such time. Rufus first question is a setup to discredit the idea of circumcision; yet Rabbi Akiva, manages to side step the trap by making a daring state ment that mans deeds are greater than Gods. Still, Rufus wants to prove that the purpose of Jewish practice is to try and place humanity above God. For Rabbi Akiva, the role of mitzvoth are not to perfect what God created; rather, the raison-deetre of the mitzvoth is that they are actions that make it possible for us to become better people. Rabbi Akiva illustrates his point through this analogy: just as a stalk of wheat is inedible until the grain is separated from the cha, ground and made into flour, so, too human beings are incomplete and not fully useful to God. The mitzvoth help human beings refine themselves so that they can serve God. and body so that he does not become sickfor he is unable to serve the Lord when he is sick his sleep shall become a service of God. (Hilkhot Deot 3:2-3).37 Maimonides looks to transform everyday deeds into sacred acts of reverence. He advises us to infuse every act with mindfulness. We are to make everything an act in which we serve God. This is the only means to determine whether our service is Avodat HaLev--truly serving God-or whether we are serving only our own personal interests.38 This is how Naaseh VNishma translates into Chaplaincy: as a Soldier, everything that I do translates everyday acts into holy actions, whether I am by myself or with other Soldiers. Running is not just for exercising my body; nor is it something I do only because the Army ethic of honor demands that I do what my Soldiers do. I run because it is a way of honoring God and deepening my relationship with the Lord. Similarly, being able to follow commands and march in formation is more than solely demonstrating the ethic of competence. It is a way for me to understand, more deeply, Gods presence in every step that I take. This is not a question of understanding the impetus behind each action I takebut simply taking the action with the clear intent of Serving God. To be clear: Naaseh VNishma does not argue to what some call blind faith or acting without due consideration. To the contrary. It assumes that I have done the necessary work to establish a firm ethical foundation from which to act; and, that in achieving this, Avodat HaShem does not allow me to rest easy in that. This leads us to a comment that Rabbi Israel Baal Shem Tov makes in response to Duet 29:9-13, in which Moses calls upon the Israelites to recommit themselves to accepting the covenant and following the commandments in the Torah:39 The man who considers himself to be fulfilling the Will of Heaven, complete in all his ways, and with no shortages in his service to God, such a person is lost forever! There is no hope for him as long as he lives. It is certain that he has not even started serving God, and does not know the truth. (Sefer Baal Shem Tov, Nitzavim 10). Chaplaincy, as a mode of Avodat HaShem, is my ongoing quest. It requires constant work. Just as important, the Jewish sages teach us that this passage applies not just to the Israelites, but is an obligation inherent upon Jews in the present.40 As a Jew, this means that the Cov enant that my ancestors established is binding to me, as well. A paradigm for this is found in Genesis 12, in which God commands Abraham to leave his homeland and travel to an unknown place. Many understand this passage as a testament to Abrahams faith in God. The To serve God is to participate in the process of creation, taking raw materials and making them useful. However, you cannot be satisfied with merely cutting the wheat. You must go to the next step; and, once this is complete, to the next ... Unlike making bread, this can be done infinitumuntil the day that you die. To fully engage in Avodat HaShem is to continue the process of learning and engagement. That is the essence of what it is to be a Jewand it forms the backbone of what it is to be a Chaplain. Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel points out: A Jew is asked to take a leap of action to surpass his [or her] needs, to do more than he [or she] understands in order to understand more than he does. In carrying out the word of Torah he [or she] is ushered into the presence of spiritual meaning. Through the ecstasy of deeds he [or she] learns to be certain of the hereness of God. Right living is a way to right thinking (Heschel, 282).36 In everyday life, Rabbi Moses Maimonides speaks to how we might do this: A person must direct every single one of his deeds solely towards attaining knowledge of God. His sitting down, his standing up, and his speech should all be directed toward this goal. . Even when he sleeps, if he sleeps with the intention of resting his mind Sfat Emet, like many other Chasidic sages, reads this story as a paradigm for how we ought to lead our lives:41 One must always aim to extract oneself from habit, from the state of the normal. Even if one has reached a certain standard of Avodat Hashem (religious intensity and practice), that too becomes second nature aer a time and becomes the norm. Therefore, at all times one must renew ones soul and ones religious direction. (Sfat Emet, Lekh Lekha, 1967, p. 44)42 Avrams (later his name becomes Abraham) faith in God is already proven and needs no comment. Rather, Sfat Emet explains, it was crucial for Avram to leave his home land. Journeying serves as a metaphor for breaking habitual thinking patterns and paradigms in order to better serve God. This could not, and still cannot, happen by remaining in the same place, either physically, emotionally, or intellectually. I must engage in action in order to transcend to new levels of Avodat HaShem. Naaseh VNishma invites me to dig into the reality of life, the dirt and the muck of living, in order to gain meaning and to cre ate a deeper relationship with God through my relationship with my Soldiers. This may be one of the very reasons that many Jewish prayers begin with the words Keyn Yehi Ratzon, May it be your will, Oh God. ... This verbal formula reminds us, before acting,
50 51 to consider our personal motives for acting and working, to ensure that our acts and desires are aligned with Gods. Thus, I end this article with a story that I heard from someone a long while ago: Once, a long, long time ago in a land that was far, far away, there was a young boy named David. David loved to play. He loved to play tag and run around; he loved to skip rocks on the water; he loved to play hide and seek with his friends. But, he also had to go to school and learn Torahwhich meant, of course, that David (and his friends) could not play during the day. They had to study. Their teacher was Reb Michael. Reb Michael loved to learn Torah. He never let them play. Ever. Every day, David and his friends would come to school when it was still dark and they stay all day until it got dark again. One day, on a beautiful sunny day, David got his courage up and dared to ask Reb Michael during the middle of the lesson, Please, sir. Can we go out and play? Reb Michael looked up at David. What? Why would you want to do that? Every day, we come to school to learn Torah. It is the most fabulous thing to learn! In it we discover God and joy and the reason for life itself. What could be better than learningTorah? That was that. But David refused to give up. From that point on, every day, he would ask the same ques tion. And every day, Reb Michael would give the same answer. Until One day, just before they started to study, David asked the ques tion he always asked: Please, sir. Can we go out and play? He expected the same answer from Reb Michael. But out of nowhere, Reb Michael smiled and slammed his book shut. Come! He said. And he walked out the door with all the students following him. They walked to the middle of the town. Everyone was confused until Reb Michael pointed up to a space between two buildings. David saw a rope strung between two buildings. On the far side, a thin young woman stood. Then she began walking across the rope, holding a wooden bar in front of her. One foot, then the other. Slowly, carefully, until she reached the other side. Then back across. Then she got on a bicycle and started riding across the rope. They expected her to fall. But that did not happen. She rode to the other end and back. Then she did several other amazing things, juggling balls without dropping any, tossing fire without burning herself (or anyone else), and other amazing things. Everyone, including David, held their breath! What if she fell? Finally, the act was over. Eve ryone applauded and cheered loudlyincluding Reb Michael. He clapped and cheered the loudest of all, yelling, Brava! Amazing! No one could understand it. ... Then he and his students re turned to school. David could barely contain himself. When everyone finally got settled, he raised his hand to ask a question. Reb Michael called on David. Sir, I dont understand. ... He said. Every day, I ask if we can go play; and every day you say no. We have to study Torah because there is nothing more amazing or wonderful. But today, we went to the circus and didnt study Torah. You clapped the hardest of all and shouted loudest of all, Amazing! Why? Reb Michael gently smiled. David, you are right. Torah is the most amazing thing in the world for it brings us closer to God and God closer to us. But ... you know that acrobat on the rope? It is not easy to do what she did without dropping something or getting hurt. Every step, every movement takes the greatest of concentration. She could never lose her concentration for even Midrash and Talmud. Oxford Dictionary are the moral principles that govern a persons or groups behavior. It is sine qua non that there is something, a Source, which calls us into action. For me, this originates in what we call God. Whether that God exists, the form that God takes, and the legitimate source (whether scriptural or not) is material for another essay. For more on this, see Max Kedushins Organic Thinking: A Study in Rabbinic Thought This is not all encompassing. Some groups of Jews, most notably, the Karaites, hold that this commentary is not legitimate. say that many passages in the Torah are confusing and make no sense. Oral Torah makes it possible to negotiate these issues. There are any number of philosophical treatises and many hundreds of books, articles, and treatises that address this and methodology. http://www.torah.org/learning/ basics/primer/torah/oraltorah.html provides an excellent overview of this. ----. Army Ethic White Paper West Point, NY: Center for the Army Profession and Ethic, Mission Command Center of Excellence (2104). This article does not seek to justify my Chaplaincy based on a Biblical versethough there is a time and place for that discussion.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8one second. David We live our lives in the world without think ing about anything. What would it be like if we lived every minute concentrating on Torah like that acrobat must concentrate? What would this world be like if we lived every moment devoting our lives to deepening our relationship with God? What a place this world would be! Chaplain (Capt.) Karyn B. BergerChaplain Berger currently serves as the battalion Chaplain for Joint Task Force Odin in Afghanistan. The daughter of a retired Army Chaplain, Berger hails from Fort Sill, Ok. She holds two masters degrees in Jewish Studies and was accessioned as a rabbi in 2006. I pray that I live my Chaplaincy in the same way that Reb Michael wished everyone could live. May my life be lived through Naaseh VNishma, act ing and then understandingFaith, so that God and I may find our way to one another. That is true Avodat Hashem. May it be Gods will! Keyn Yehi Ratson! NOTES
52 53 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42In contradistinction, Belief is trust in God. The term Avodah or Divine Service can be traced to the Bible and is inextricably associated with the construct of the Temple and animal Avodah is mentioned in Torah in Numbers 4:23. the Psalms. By the 1st Century, B.C.E. (Before the Common Era), the terms Avodah and prayer were synonymous. Many translate Gimilut Chasadim Covenant of the Blood: Circumcision and Gender in Rabbinic Judaism (p. 122. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996), suggests that these are deeds that are literally sustain the worlds existence and prevent it from being destroyed. Thus, God says, The heavens are my Throne. The earth is my footstool. Where is the house you shall build for me? Where is the place that I shall rest? : This aphorism uses metaphor, as opposed to a simile or allegory. The difference between these literary tools is crucial to understanding how the Jewish sages transform Torah into a living document. For a beautifully written, and quite nuanced discussion of using metaphor as opposed to allegory and how that affects understanding of the text, see Daniel Boyarins text, Intertextuality and the Reading of Midrash (Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2001). By way of establishing historical contact. By 70 CE, the Temple was destroyed. By 120 CE, the Romans had thoroughly quashed the Bar Kokhba Revolution. Judaism as a whole required a paradigmatic shift if it was to survive. The brought about the rise of Rabbinic Judaism, to which we can trace its origins somewhere around 100 BCE. This movement embraces a messianic vision and actively works to substitute the cultic Grammatically this is a nominative sentence or clause. In addition, Hebrew, as is the case with Arabic, does not have time or tense, (e.g., past, present or future); rather, this is established exclusively by context. Jewish tradition; this leads to a different interpretation. The Babylonian Talmud was redacted somewhere around 711 CE, though some parts of it were written much later. The Roman government ostensibly arrested the rabbis they were engaged in supporting open rebellion against Roman Empire. The Talmud is a document that was written, redacted, and studied by, other rabbis and their students. It comes as no surprise that they omit this fact. Rabbi Moses ben Maimonides, or the Rambam, writes extensively about the theory of language in his seminal work, Guide to the Perplexed He suggests that even as the words of Torah are eternal and never changing, human understanding of words degrades and changes over time. Thus the challenge is to understand the true meaning of Torah The Guide for the Perplexed Maimonides, Rabbi Moses ben (Tr. Shlomo Pines). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1963). last of the great Spanish medieval Talmudic scholars. The Shema is a prayer that Jews recite at least 4 times a day. It consists of several paragraphs that are recited by rote memory. His statement, then, refers either to prayer as Avodah or to the fact that memorizing the prayer and being able to recite it is not the same as understanding its meaning and being able to explicate it to someone else. The Zohar, or The Book of Splendor believed to author it, though it is ascribed to R. Shimon Bar Yochai who lived in the 2nd Century, CE. This paradigmatic verse comes in response to a command from Moses: Then, he [Moses] took the Book of the Covenant and read it aloud to the people. In response, each person answered, All that God commands, we shall do and we shall hear. Thus the story of the rabbi who went to study with the Kotzker Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem Mendel of Kotsk. When the rabbi returned to his village, everyone asked what he had learned. I learned there is no place without God, he replied. They retorted, Everybody knows that! He answered, You may have learned it, but I KNOW it. 10. And when Pharaoh drew near, the people of Israel lifted up their eyes, and, behold, the Egyptians marched after them; and they were very afraid; 11. And they said to Moses,, There were no graves in Egypt Why have you taken us away to die in the wilderness? Why did you do this to use? Why did you take us out of Egypt? 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 ... .(BT Shabbat 88a) for us to serve the Egyptians than that we should die in the wilderness! Egyptians, who are now here, again. 16. Raise up your rod, stretch out your hand over the sea, and divide it. Then, Israelites shall go on dry ground through the midst of the sea. 17. I will harden the hearts of the Egyptians, and they shall follow them, I will conquer Pharaoh and his army, his chariots, and his horsemen. The Heschel, R. Abraham Joshua. God in Search of Man: A Philosophy of Judaism. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux: 1976. This is part and parcel of a Jewish methodology known as Musar person perceives the world and acts in it. It involves looking at ones inner traits and characteristics through the lens of Torah. Any trait that is not operating in an optimum way in effect occludes the light of the soul from shining into your life, and through you, into the world. who is an Israelite; 10. your infants, women and even those who are not tribal members that dwell within your camp, even the woodcutters and those who draw waterare here in order that That He may establish you as his people, today; and, so that He may be your God. For He promised this to you and he made a covenant with your ancestors, Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob. 13. It is not only with you I make this covenant and this oath, 14. but also with anyone who is standing here today, as well as with those who are not with us. Rashi also us that this means that this applies to all future generations [ ] perhaps based on Midrash Genesis Rabbah 28:6, which says: [The text that reads]... Those who are here standing with us today and those that are not here with us today can only mean those people who will be born in the future. They truly are not here [amongst us]. 2. I will make you a great nation, and I will bless you, and make your name great. You shall be a blessing; 3. I will bless those who bless you, and curse him who curses you; and in you shall all families of the earth be blessed. Sefet Emet : Part 1 (Hebrew). Asdod, Israel: Otzrot Hatorah. 1967. P. 44. ( .(
54 55 VIRTUOUSThe ChaplainNever before in the history of the world have so many people believed in so little.1 (Not in this room of course!) The cur rent cultural collapse reveals itself daily in everything from skyrocketing crime, that staggers the mind in its frequency and depravity, to music, film and art that celebrate the de struction of life and beauty, to an increasing ability of many to live beyond their own overwhelming needs and center their lives on commitment, sacrifice and love. Of course, every culture has gone through its tasteless and troubling times, but those who survived were able to draw on some inherent personal integrity and corporate character that seems strangely distant and unavailable to us even in our Army formations where we struggle with the demands of a professional ethic and the inculcation of Army values. Many harbor the fear that our culture has slid downhill far beyond the point of no return. The barbarians are inside the gate and we have no option but to witness, in ten thousand 24 hour news broadcasts, the gradual, irrevocable dismantling of life as we know it. As William Bennett remarked: It is an undeniable fact that something profound has disappeared from our culture and I add, our Army for mations in just the last few decades. There is a coarse ness, a callousness, a cynicism, a banality, and a vulgarity to our time. There are too many signs of a culture gone rottenthe unraveling of the social order.AN ADAPTION OF A GRADUATION SPEECH By Chaplain (Col.) Mark Nordstrom
56 57 And that is the world you are going out into. But wait: it gets worse. Its obvious to anyone who cares to think about it that Western culture has ceased to be motivated by Judeo-Christian ideals, or any religiously informed world view. And this is because the fundamental ideas percolating within the lives of people in that culture are fundamentally incompatible with religion. Our culture is not a virtuous culture. The truth is that not many believe in the idea of truth anymore. In the past, full-blown skepticism was safely cloistered and tolerated in the philosophical lecture halls of the universities but it has now poured out into the general culture, swamping the traditions and norms of the past. What was utterly unthinkable just a generation ago is todaycommonplace. Yet, this brave new world has not brought an upsurge of happiness. The monument of our age is the pathetic cable television talk show, celebrating the pooling of ignorance, and dedicated to every person having the right to be a deplorable, decadent fool. ONLY those who claim to know anything about how peo ple should live are reprimanded as judgmental, intolerant and wrong. TV talk shows, video gaming, and a debased social media are the social equivalent of barbarians sacking ancient cities. knowledge was seen as attainable, facts were objective in nature and there was universal truth based on the scientific method. In a postmodern age, the world is seen as mysterious, knowledge is not attainable, only what happens to me personally has any factual meaning, and there is no universal worldview everything is relative. So what does the Chaplaincy have to oer the Army? Well, if the Chaplaincy today seeks to recover the mystery of worship and to present a Theocentric worldview nothing makes Allan Bloom raised the problem of truth, and issued a stinging indict ment of the university in his book, The Closing of the American Mind, which claimed: There is one thing a professor can be absolutely certain of: almost every student entering the university believes, or says he believes, that truth is relative. And this is also the mark of our young Soldiers and their families. This is the crucial mark of our times. It is not always clear what people mean when they say that truth is relative, but this much is clearthere is no set of objective, independent facts which exist whether or not anyone believes in them or not. Relativ ism really means that the standards, assumptions and beliefs that one group or culture has are true for that group but might be false for another group. The important point here is that mere acceptance of ideas is as far as anyone can go. You can never find out what is really true, what really exists. The upshot here is that the claim truth is relative just means that there is no mind-independent truth. For example, just because I believe I have a full tank of gas in my car does not make that belief true. My belief is true if the tank is actually full of gas, and my belief is false under all other circumstancesthats why people run out of gas. Just because you be lieve you have gas in your car will not sense without God then we have an answer to the search for mystery. If we can reclaim and maintain the sense that true knowledge is ar rived at in community may I suggest our chapels and worshipping communities then we have a safe place of refuge to oer the confused and alone especially those suer ing moral injury and bearing other scars from battle. If we can love one another, we will know the truth, and not present just another unverifiable truth claim. In contrast to knowledge not being knowable, we have the tes timony of our sacred scriptures, the truth once delivered and passed on to us both in scripture and tradition. And in response to relativism, we see that our faith, rightly understood, embodies the only sure antidote to the poisonous strew of doubt, uncer tainty, and fear that mark this age. And here is where what you have to oer to Soldiers and Families as a push your car one inch further down the road. When people abandon truth mind-independent truth all they are le with are personal feelings expressed in indignant and selfjustifyinglanguage. So how are we then to live? For you graduates, Ive just described the for mations you are re-entering. For the rest of us, Ive described the streets outside this place. Every truth claim you hold dear, and especially the truth claims of your faith, is op posed, mocked and ridiculed. Its a toughworld. But wait: it gets better. It seems that culture all of Western civilization really is now in a time of transition from the modern world of science, where truth could be known, to an uncertain postmodern world. Indications of a postmodern worldview suggest that mystery, with its emphasis on complexity, ambiguity, community, and the visual, are all central to a new, emerging way ofthinking. And this is where it gets better. Its a great time to be a Chaplain! As the culture moves into this postmodern phase the Army Chaplaincy, rightly prepared, has exactly what our young Soldiers are looking for. Let me explain: the modern worldview, ushered in by the Enlightenment, now disappearing, was a pro foundly scientific world. Mechanics determined how the world worked, Chaplain is compelling. If I might borrow a point from my own tradition, Christianity started and flour ished in just such an environment as we live in today. An entire school of philosophy during the early age of the Christian era was known as Skep tics. Universal truth was mocked, and a mysterious world was addressed through the multiplication of gods. Decadence in sexual mores was elevated to a form of worship. The state was all powerful and even the rulers would be worshiped as a god. Into this world went the light of gos pel and faith flourished. The Church Fathers and men and women of faith of those early years understood our world intuitively. So we have much to look forward to! But how, in practice, to live as a Chaplain not just function as one in this post modern world? Its a great time to be a Chaplain! Chaplain (Maj.) Richard WinchesterPhoto by Sgt 1st Class Jonathan Watters
NOTES 58 59 Allow me to point to three neces sarypractices: First, practice the spiritual disciplines. This may take dierent forms for some of you. Again, from my tradition, yours may vary the early Church took the practice of keeping daily times of prayer from Jewish temple worship. This approach to keeping spiritually fit is sometimes referred to as keeping the hours times set aside in the morning, noon, and night for prayer and meditation in order to redeem the day and allow Gods word to sanctify you to change you. If you are not keeping up with your faiths spiritual disciplines then the challenges you will face with upcoming deployments and changes to our formations will overwhelm you and you will be swept along by a stream of relativism and you will lose whatever faith you now possess. Its thatserious. Second, prepare for hardships again. Many of you will deploy again and again in what remains of your career. Sorry. You know, when our children were young they would come complaining Mommy, Daddy, its not FAIR! I got so tired of hearing this complaint when something did not go their way and one of the other children was perceived as having an advantage they did not enjoy that I banned the use of the word. Now, they could substitute the word inequitable, but no longer could they say anything was unfair. which we decide what needs to be done; fortitude gives us the strength to do it. Temperance is the fourth and final cardinal virtue. While fortitude is concerned with the restraint of fear so that we can act, temperance is the restraint of our desires or passions. Food, drink, and sex are all neces sary for our survival, individually and as a species; yet a disordered desire for any of these goods can have disastrous consequences, physical and moral. Temperance is the vir tue that attempts to keep us from excess, and, as such, requires the balancing of legitimate goods against our inordinate desire for them. Our legitimate use of such goods may be dierent at dierent times; temper ance is the golden mean that helps us determine how far we can act on To this day if you ask my children, What is life?, they are more than likely to say, Life is unfair or inequitable. So, prepare for it. All of you may not reach your dreams or follow the path laid out for you. But thats OK people of deep faith would understand, and they, also facing all the uncertainty and challenges of their own age, would not for a moment change places with you. For it was in that crucible of challenge that their faith flourished, and gave them life. Finally, understand what makes for a flourishing life. Our culture teaches us that values are important but they are culturally determined values that change and shi and morph in response to whimsical desires or the powers of sin in our world. The same can be said for Army Values but thats another speech. In contrast, Aristotle showed us the Golden Mean, that proper path be tween lack and excess that produced a virtuous life. St. John Chrystostom taught us that the right instruction of a person comprises knowledge of God, and the right education directs the person to the path of piety, awak ening in her or him a striving for vir tues that represent a genuine treas ure, wisdom and adornment of the soul. St. Thomas Aquinas please excuse my reference to Christian theologians, but that is what shapes my thinking these two ranked prudence as the first cardinal virtue, because it is concerned with the intellect. Aristotle a non-Christian defined prudence as right reason applied to practice. It is the virtue our desires and to overcome those things which beguile the soul. These are what make for a flourishing life, and are unknown to our culture today. And for our Soldiers, if they do not know what makes for a flourishing life if they do not pursue virtue then you can be sure the everyday challenges of life will overwhelm them. Even more tragic, the trauma of combat will destroy them. But you know them, and wise you are to pattern your life on thesevirtues. Wise you are to embrace your calling as a Chaplain. Wise you are to love another, and thereby show the world what life is. Wise you are to nurture your faith in an unfriendly world through keep that allows us to judge correctly what is right and what is wrong in any given situation. When we mistake the evil for the good, we are not exercis ing prudencein fact, we are showing our lack of it. Our world, need I tell you, is not prudent. In fact, when you act prudently, you will be challenged as intolerant: How can you claim to know right from wrong, and just why would you act in accordance with such bigoted views? I will not re-instruct you in your philosophy, but will only remind you that the cardinal virtues are the four principal moral virtues. The English word cardinal comes from the Latin word cardo, which means hinge. All other virtues hinge on these four: prudence, justice, fortitude, and temperance. Ive mentioned prudence. Justice is the second cardinal virtue, because it is concerned with the will. As Fr. John A. Hardon notes in his Modern Catho lic Dictionary, it is the constant and permanent determination to give everyone his or her rightful due. Do not neglect the rights of others, and give them their due. The third cardinal virtue is fortitude. While this virtue is commonly called courage, it is dierent from much of what we think of as courage today. Fortitude allows us to overcome fear and to remain steady in our will in the face of obstacles, but it is always reasoned and reasonable; the person exercising fortitude does not seek danger for dangers sake. Prudence and justice are the virtues through ing the spiritual disciplines of your youth, preparing for hardships to come, and living your life is such a way that people who are confused and weighed down by anxiety about the future will have hope, as you give them something to hope for. Take your gis and calling and privileges and instruct our Soldiers and their family members in what makes for a flourishing life, help them swim against the cultural stream that debases them when not resisted, and may God Almighty bless you and keep you, strengthen you for the tasks ahead, and grant you success. Thank you for inviting me to speak toyou. Pro Deo et Patria Chaplain (Col.)Mark NordstromChaplain (Col.) Mark Nordstrom currently serves as the Director of Training and Leader Development, U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School, Fort Jackson, SC. He is a priest resident in the Jurisdiction of the Armed Forces and Chaplaincy, Anglican Church in North America. He has been in ordained ministry since 1987 and is a graduate of Dallas Theological Seminary in Dallas, where he earned a Master of Theology degree in Semitics and Old Testament Theology. He also holds a degree in Aviation Science and a Bachelor of Arts Degree in GeneralStudies. 1Many of the ideas expressed here, indeed some of the verbiage also, can be found in a paper written by Greg Jesson of The University of Iowa titled,
60 61 A Guest Article by Eric Patterson, Ph.D.sian military, police, and especially local armed militias resulted in the deaths of over a thousand people (of a population of just under 1 million), the destruction of private and public property, and the displacement of hundreds of thousands of people.3 Sexual violence, arson, and torture were commonplace.4 It took a UN-authorized intervention to quell the destruction. The Australia-led Intervention Force for East Timor (INTERFET), with a robust mandate acted muscularly. The rules This article will provide a case study of a Chaplain conducting religious support in a war-torn environment. Some final thoughts on will follow. Aer 25 years of severe rule by Indonesia, an UN-sponsored referendum in 1999 was supposed to settle the question about whether or not East Timor (Timor-Leste) should be independent and sovereign.1 That referendum ultimately led to nominal independence under a UN Transitional Administration for East Timor (UNTAET) until full sovereignty as Timor-Leste in 2002.2 The year of the referendum, 1999, was violent and chaotic. Jakarta supported a policy of intimidation, but 80 percent of the local populace nonetheless voted for independence. The violence perpetrated by the Indone -Beyond the Pulpit: A Case Study of a Chaplain Ministry in a UN Peacekeeping Mission Each issue the Chaplain Corps Journal seeks to include a guest article from a scholar in a field relevant to our corps. The following essay is by Dr. Eric Patterson, Dean of the School of Government at Regent University and Senior Fellow at the Berkeley Center at Georgetown University. of engagement allowed for greater use of force, curfews, forced disarmament and other measures that put to shame the toothless measures employed by UN peacekeepers at Srebrenica and Kigali. And the bulk of military forces were first-rate, modern combat troops from Australia supported by Thais, South Koreans, and othersnot barefoot privates from poor countries. James Cotton writes, INTERFETs relative success can be attributed to the rapid inser tion of overwhelming force in a context where the political ground had local citizenry traumatized, but many young soldiers were also deeply af fected by the gore and savagery. What was a Chaplain assigned with these military forces to do? In this unique case, the lead INTERFET Chaplain was a senior Australian Chaplain named Len Eacott. The role his team played went far beyond field worship services for friendly troops. The INTERFET soldiers, in addition to security and stabilization functions, had a mandate to assist the UN investigation of atrocities. This meant been very carefully prepared.5 That political ground refers to work at the UN and in national capitalsespe cially Canberraon the legal basis for and boundaries on the intervention.6 When INTERFET arrived, it found a Third World environment burned to the ground, thousands of possible perpetrators lurking on both sides of the border, and nearly half a million people having fled their homes. The environment was macabre: mass graves, burned out churches full of skeletons, defaced cemeteries, and victims everywhere. Not only was the USS Blue Ridge, 12 February 2000, Dili, East TimorAustralian members of International Forces East Timor (INTERFET), talk to a citizen in Dili, East Timor. (Photo by Petty Oicer 3rd Class Dan Mennuto).
62 63 military personnel and uniformed doctors had a role in exhuming bodies, autopsies, assessing probable causes of death, and developing a database of their findings to aid potential investigations for trials addressing crimes-against-humanity. times, spaces, resources, and personnel to meet the spiritual needs of the troops from outside their own tradition. For example, a Methodist Chap lain might bring a civilian Catholic priest and a rabbi onto the installation to service Catholics andJews. Thus, preaching and all the other duties of clerical life belong to the Chaplain, including pastoral oices such as individual and family counseling and ceremonial obligations (e.g. providing invocations and benedictions at formal military events). At the same time as all of this, the Chaplain is a sta oicer supporting his commander. This means that the Chaplain not only participates in a variety of meetings and events, from weekly commanders meetings to grilling burgers at the annual base family day, but the Chaplain also has a role in providing counsel from his unique vantage point to military leaders. Chaplains advise commanders from the top of the chain of command down to subordinate leaders. And Chaplains also supervise lower ranking Chaplains from dierent faithtraditions. This makes for a busy life, whether on home station in the U.S. or abroad, on a Navy vessel or while deployed. All of this ministry is valuable, important, and interesting in its own right. Nonetheless, it is not the principle focus of this book. Rather, it is the new duties of Chaplains beyond the traditional roles and duties of religious ministry which is the focus in this volume, particularly with regards to deployments to combat record released to local churches, the nascent political leadership of Timor-Leste, the UN Transitional Authority for East Timor, and the international communityincluding jurists engaged in evaluating whether or not crimes against humanity had beencommitted. The 21st century ministry and ser vice represented in this case by the INTERFET Chaplains is quite a change from traditional pastoral care, the majority of which happens in garrison. Eacotts commanders expected him to be a world religions advisor and engage with local religious leaders, and these competencies are increasingly expected by Western commanders from their Chaplains. This essay introduces these issues, with a focus on Chaplains as peacebuilders, with reference to a new edited volume entitled Military Chaplains in Iraq, Afghanistan and Beyond. What this book is about: Particularly in the past decade, Western military Chaplains have been called upon to move beyond the pulpit to pro mote peace: by engaging with local religious leaders abroad, by advis ing combatant commanders and senior diplomats on the religious and cultural mores of their area, by serving local civilians in war-ravaged environments, and by being agents for peace in ways not conceived of by past generations of military Chap lains. This book reports on Chaplains as peacebuilders in real-world contexts from Iraq to Afghanistan to East Timor to Kosovo since the late 1990s. zones in places like Kosovo, Afghanistan, and Iraq. More specifically, this book looks at the work of contemporary military Chaplains in two key areas, religious leader engagement and religious advisement. These two concepts are at the heart of the expanding role of contemporary militaryChaplains. Religious leader engagement, some times called religious leader liaison, is a form of peacebuilding. Some Chaplains liaise or engage local citizens and/or local religious leaders (e.g. imams, mullahs) to provide charitable goods, prevent or correct misunderstandings, and advance peace and security. Religious advise ment formally means all of the prep arations necessary and the actual act of providing materials, briefings, reports, summaries, and counsel to warfighting commanders of the U.S. military and the role religion and culture play in a specific theater of operations. At times it means being, or becoming, the subject matter ex pert on matters of local religious and cultural context. Such information, as described in chapters by Hoyt, Cutler and others, is not intelligence gather ing. Collecting such information and oering advice need not violate the Chaplains non-combatancy status. What it does do is awaken a commanders situational awareness to the religious and cultural sensitive of local institutionsthe human geographyof a place and its inhabitants. Religious leader engagement and some elements of religious advise ment have been controversial, par -The Contemporary Military ChaplainAn American military Chaplain, like those in other Western militaries, is a trained religious professional who is also commissioned as a military oicer. The individual is qualified first as a civilian pastor through seminary and practice in ministry, and then voluntarily joins the U.S. military as a representative of a religious organization or denomination (endorsing agency). Contemporary Chaplains are typically considered non-combatants, yet they do go through the various levels of oicer commis sioning and military education like otheroicers. In terms of duties, Chaplains pro vide religious ministrations first and foremost. Their role in the military is, in part, recognition that military ser vice presents unique challenges for citizens to exercise their First Amendment rights when cloistered on a military base at home or deployed abroad. However, the existence of Chaplains also says something about the seriousness of the profession of arms, and the way that the ultimate questions of life are raised in situations of stress and violence. So, the first role of a Chaplain is to perform or provide religious ministry, both to adherents of his own tradition as well as to adherents of other traditions. Chaplains must ensure religious requirements are met for all members of the military community they can do so by opening their rites broadly or by facilitating venues, ticularly within the Chaplaincy itself, over the past decade.Beyond the Pastorate: Engagement and AdvisementMilitary Chaplains in Iraq, Afghanistan and Beyond brings two major areas into focus. Religious leader engage ment (or religious leader liaison), which means Chaplains encouraging understanding and peace with local religious interlocutors when deployed and religious advisement (briefing commanders on religious factors in the local and theater context). Chaplain Eric Keller (U. S. Army, retired) provides an overview of the scenario facing Chaplains in 2001: the military Chaplaincies prepared their members for pastoral service, not to be world religions experts or to engage with religious leaders of other faiths abroad. Keller helps us understand both the entrepreneurial spirit of Army Chaplains who tried to get things done and the bureaucratic hurdles they faced in terms of policy and doctrine. Interestingly, despite interest from the highest levels of government, such as Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz, it took until 2009 for substantive inter-service change to be codified as doctrine in Joint Publication 1-05, calling for Chaplains to be ready to provide religious advisement and religious leader engagement. Keller also describes good-faith eorts to develop relationships with Muslim re ligious leaders through an exchange program in the early 2000s, but such programs were poorly funded and ex In short, military personnel and UN civilians needed immediate pastoral care, as did multitudes of the East Timorese. In many cases, Chaplain Eacott and his colleagues provided Christian burials for local casualties (East Timor is overwhelmingly Catholic). This service was not merely a compassionate act; it was a demonstration of respect for the dead and their loved ones and a marker of the value of human life that spoke volumes to the local citizenry. The Chaplains went directly to houses of worship, usually ruined Catholic churches, and sought priests and lay leaders. Furthermore, the Chaplains developed trust with local people and oen became valued intermediaries between INTERFET and civilian community leaders. Perhaps the most lasting contribution from Chaplain Eacotts team was the development of a burial registry. Starting with an INTERFET injunction on procedures for processing de ceased persons, followed by a subse quent UN High Commissioner for Human Rights directive, the policy was to preserve evidence of the mass killings. It was also an important practical matter to keep a detailed record of the bodies exhumed from hasty graves or scenes of violence. The Chaplains maintained this registry. This burial registry became a public
64 65 ecuted between the Defense Depart ment and the Department of State. Canadian Chaplain Steven Moore provides case studies of Chaplains working for peace among warring religionists in the Balkans and in Afghanistan. But first, he locates the work of Chaplains as peacebuilders within a wider shi in security approaches in the past decade: from military-only to whole-of-government approaches. The past 20 years has seen a slow shi, accelerated by the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, to mobilize in a cooperative fashion the various areas of expertise and resources of national governments in pursuit of what is typically called stabilization and reconstruction operations. In practical terms, this means governments development, military, and diplomatic agencies working as partners to resolve and ameliorate the eects of conflict. Moore describes how Chaplains, oen working in coordination with diplomats and aid workers, can be agents for peace by bridging social capital. He provides examples such as the work by a Canadian military imam (in Kandahar) and a French military priest (in Kosovo), both of whom engaged religion as a strate gic social space within those socie ties as a critical lever for peace. Chaplain Jon Cutler was a Jewish rabbi assigned as the command Chaplain for the Horn of Africa, an area long known for its strife be tween Muslim and Christian populations. He begins with an important argument about the role of religion in ing Wahhabi and Deobandi madrassa leaders from Pakistan. The second major area that Military Chaplains in Iraq, Afghanistan, and Beyond focuses on is the expert advice Chaplains provide as special sta oicers (religious advisement). For instance, when a military commander arrives in a highly religious context such as Herat (fewer than 50 miles from Iran), Kandahar (birthplace of the Taliban), or Karbala (sacred to Shias), who is he to turn to for counsel about the religious context? This was not a critical issue for military commanders of the Cold War era running U.S. bases in Ok inawa, Seoul, and Bavaria, but it has been a matter of life or death for the past decade. The fact is that whether prepared or not, many Chaplains were called upon to provide religious advisement to commanders during deployments to Southwest Asia in the past decade. For those concerned about religious advisement, many argue that the U.S. government could African societies that is more widely applicable: religions structure meaning and purpose for billions of people around the world. Religions can serve for both ill and good, as a catalyst to violent conflicts and a po tent force for brokering reconciliation and sustaining peace Cutler goes on to report about his surprising, novel work across religious communities to increase understanding in the interest of peace from meetings of religious elites in Ethiopia to youth service projects in Kampala, Uganda. do this better by developing a separate religious advisory specialty in the military as well as other government agencies, most notably at U.S. Agency for International Develop ment and the Department of State. Both religious advisement and religious leader engagement are not without their critics inside the Chap laincy. Indeed, there has been a significant debate within the Chaplaincy about whether or not such eorts are appropriate: does advisement and/ or engagement jeopardize Chaplains non-combatant status, veer Chap lains o into doing intelligence work, and rob the troops of desperately needed pastors. Some of the nuances of this debate are reflected in the chapters of this book, particularly in that by Dayne Nix who looks at the dierent approaches each service Chaplaincy has taken. Nearly half of the chapters refer to a critical joint services publication (a document spanning the U.S. Air Force, Army and Navy) issued in late 2009, JP 1-05.8 West participated in religious leader engagement at an elite level, with the direct support of then-U.S. Central Command Commander Gen. David Petraeus. As West describes it, the initiative was multi-faceted, from bringing social scientific research to CENTCOM in order to better under stand the human geography of the region to engaging with religious clerics. West reports on those eorts, including outreach in the U.S. to universities, think tanks, and the State Department, as well as meetings abroad with religious leaders, includIn sum, Chaplains will continue to serve as pastors, role models, mentors, and counselors but both prac tice and doctrine suggest that some will also be called upon to engage local religious leaders abroad and advise their commanders on the multidimensionality of the local religiouscontext. It is time for a candid assessment of how well Chaplains have done this since 9/11 as well as employing real structures for excellencesuch as real coursework in these areas at the Chaplains schoolhousesto better prepare Chaplains for future service. Religious Leader EngagementCol. Jonathan C. Gibbs III, then command Chaplain of Third Army/U.S. Army Central Command, and Brig. Gen. Abdulaziz Hassan Al-Rayes, Director of Moral Guidance and Public Relations for the Kuwait Army, visit with each other before feasting on Arabic food during a cultural exchange and fellowship gathering between Third Army/U.S. Army Central Commands unit ministry teams, Islamic aairs oicers and Islamic aairs oicers and imams, or Islamic worship leaders, of the Kuwaiti Ministry of Defense. (U.S. Army photo by Sgt. Ashley M. Outler, Third Army/ARCENT) A UN report documenting the period of Indonesian rule records approximately 180,000 civilian deaths during the time, including many from deliber ate starvation policy. See UN Verdict on East Timor, The Australian, published January 19, 2006, www.yale.edu/gsp/east_timor/unverdict/html. Accessed March 16, 2009. For a more detailed history, see James Dunns Timor: A People Betrayed (Sydney: ABC Books, 1996). The UN and other documents can be found at East Timors Commission for Reception, Truth, and Reconciliation (http://www.cavr-timorleste.org/) and Yale Universitys East Timor Project (http://www.yale.edu/gsp/east_timor/). no. 841(March 31, 2001): 101-139. Available at http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/misc/57jqz2.htm. See Report of the International Commission of Inquiry on East Timor to the Secretary-General, UN Doc.A/54/726-S. posium/pdf/2002/sympo_e2002_10.pdf. Jarat Chopra, The UNs Kingdom of East Timor, in Survival 42(27) (2000), and Carsten Stahn, The UN Transitional Administrations in Kosovo Intelligence professionals call their analysis of human geography, particularly with regards to individual and collective notions of identity, culture, similar term in order to speak a lingo understood by their fellow service personnel. Joint Publication 1-05: Religious Affairs in Joint Operations, U.S. Department of Defense, November 13, 2009, http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/ new_pubs/jp1_05.pdf.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8NOTES
66 67 Bringing God to Men: American Military Chaplains and the Vietnam WarJacqueline E. Whitt Published by: Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2014. ISBN: 978-1469612942 312 pages Dr. Jacqueline E. Whitt (Ph.D., UNC-Chapel Hill), Associate Professor of Strategy at the Air War College, has written a very solid contribution to the history of the American military Chaplain in war. Her book, Bringing God to Men, was published in 2014 by the University of North Carolina Press. Dr. Whitt teaches the Foundations of Strategy course and the American Regional and Cultural Studies course for International Oicers. She, also, conducts research and teaching in the social and cultural history of Chaplaincy in that period. The Chaplain Corps was, thus, better equipped to face the post-modern landscape that emerged in the decades following. The book consists of seven chapters and a conclusion. The chapters are: Consensus and Civil Religion, Duty and Relationships, Conflict and Identity, Liturgy and Interpre tation, Discourse and Debate, Reflection and Reconciliation, and Dissent and Mission. The books conclusion ties together the readers experience of the Chaplains reflections about their roles and relationships and, then, seeks to give an interpretation. Her interpretation seeks to make a contribution to social history about the period, as well as larger institutional and cultural stories (241). Bringing God to Men is not just a book about the Chaplain in the Vietnam War. It is a book about the Chaplainand the Chap laincy, as a model for the larger Americanstory: Considered broadly, the Chaplaincy oers a site for scholars to study civil-military relations and the Church-state relationship in the United States (243). The book succeeds in its appar ent goals. Bringing God to Men is fair-minded, scholarly, but very readable and accessible book for the Army Chaplain Corps and, also, the pub lic. Dr. Whitt, employing lower historical methods of interviews, remembrances, and reflection on the role and work of the military Chaplain has made a very valuable contribution to not only the literature on the Vietnam War, but, also the Army Chaplain Corps. I believe that she, also, has given us a remarkable piece of American his tory in the eort. The book succeeds on numerous other levels, including her compelling writing. Consider her beginning to Chapter Four, Liturgy and Interpretation: Somewhere in Vietnam, in a bomb crater filled with water, Joseph Dulany baptized Soldiers, and in those moments, remnants of death and destruction be came founts for the symbolic waters of life (124). Powerful. And poignant. Whitt showed that The uncertainties of combat also seemed to amplify the significance of a Chaplains presence to administer sacraments. Chaplains recognize the experiential truth of her words, but readers from all backgrounds will appreciate the beauty of her art. This selection from the book is, indeed, illustrative of the superb craing of sentences that weaves together stories, remembrances, and the authors commentary. In the end the reader is presented with a compelling chronicle of heroism amidst human fears; sacrifice forged on the anvil of faith, and, yes, doubt; and a nation moving through horrific times to emerge with a renewed sense of hope that would help the Chaplain Corps to face the post-9/11 days that came with brutalsuddenness. The book is a brilliant presentation with arguably few areas of weakness. Her careful scholar ship and her interests in social and cultural history might tilt the book beyond the broader readership it should enjoy. This writer commends the book to military Chaplains, theologians, historiansarm chair and professionalas an extraordinary account of not only Chaplains in war, but a great nation shaped by the lives and ministry of individual heroes, who just happen to be ministers, priests, and rabbis, as well as Soldiers. Review by Chaplain (Lt. Col.) Michael A. Milton U.S. Army Reserve the American military. Her research interests and spe cialty prepared her well to write this book. Bringing God to Men is a book that employs remembrance, by Chaplains who served in Vietnam and the Cold War in the 1960s and 1970s (some of whom many of our readers will know). Their narrative about the work and role of the Army (and Navy and Air Force) Chaplain at war in those perilous days of the Cold War form a larger story. It is this meta-story that Dr. Whitt locates and seeks to illumine in this new book. The author sees the Vietnam War as an unintended, but real, staging area, that prepared Chaplains for the post-Vietnam Chaplain Corps challenges theyand we face today. Bringing God to Men seeks to demonstrate that a narrative theology, developed from existential forces, rather than traditional theological or doctrinal forces, re-shaped the Book Reviews
68 69 to know God on a deeper level than his theology as an intellectual pursuit was able to take him. He participated in a six-week program at the Roman Catholic Benedictine Abbey Renewal Center in Pecos, New Mexico. There he learned about the Desert Fathers and Catholic mystics of the past, such as: John of the Cross, Francis of Assisi, Teresa of Avila and others. Dr. Demarest also became familiar with the modern Christian mystics, such as Richard Foster, Dallas Willard, Henri Nouwen and Brennan Manning, calling for a return to spiritual formation. Demarest also describes the struggle that he has as an evangelical reaching to the Christian mystics of the past to embrace a deeper relationship with God. His previous experience had taught him that sound doctrine and the ology were suicient to have a thriving relationship with God. Reaching to spiritual contemplation and meditation were a stretch for him. He writes this book with the assumption that he is not the only one who may have felt in their spiritual journey that there was a hunger for God not completely met by the intellect but a yearning of the heart to know God. In the Army context with Comprehensive Soldier Fitness and spiritual fitness being one of the five pillars this book provides a framework of a meaningful way to strengthen the pillar of spirituality in the lives of those who serve our nation in the Army. Admittedly it does not reach across all religious traditions, but no single resource will. However, it does provide a useful resource to help meet a need of spiritual fitness as we labor to heal physical, mental and spiritual wounds encountered during the war on terrorism. Two chapters in particular appealed to the care to the caregiver initiative of the chief of Chaplains, chapters seven and eight. In chapter seven Demarest describes the use of Spiritual Helpers (also known as mentors) who serve as guides and directors to others on their spiritual journey. He also describes the usefulness of redemptive counseling, pastoral care, in helping people recover from trauma. He confirms that theology and psychology can work together to foster healing in the lives of hurtingpeople. I believe this book can be a useful resource for Chaplains and those we serve as we labor to heal spiritual wounds. Review by Chaplain (Maj.) Troy Morken, Brigade Chaplain 66th Theater Intelligence Brigade Wiesbaden, Germany Review by Chaplain (Maj.) Michael Jeries U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School Family Life Instructor Satisfy Your Soul, Restoring the Heart of Christian SpiritualityBruce Demarest, PhD Published by: Colorado Springs: NavPress, 1999 ISBN: 1-57683-130-2 320 pages Bruce Demarest, longtime professor of theology and spiritual formation at Denver Seminary, has written this book as a guide for spiritual formation. Demarest discov ered in his vast study of the ology that there remained a lacking in his spirit for the presence of God in his life. Not a lacking for belief unto salvation, but a yearning Military Chaplains in Afghanistan, Iraq, andBeyondEric Patterson Published by: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2014 ISBN: 978-1442235397 242 pages In Bosnia, Iraq, Afghanistan, East Timor, and East Af rica, military Chaplains have stepped outside the wire to engage local religious leaders in the pursuit of peace, counseled military commanders on local cultural issues, and comforted the hurting including local populations. This is the tag line to the new book edited by Eric Patter son, Military Chaplains in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Beyond. Patterson is former associate director of the Berkley Center at Georgetown and now a research fellow with the centers Program on Religion, Conflict, and Peace. He is also dean of the School of Government at Regent Univer sity. The book includes chapters by many recognizable names; Chaplain (Col.) Eric Wester, Chaplain (Col.) Mike Hoyt (Ret.), Chaplain (Col.) Eric Keller (Ret.) and Chap lain (Maj. Gen.) Douglas Carver (Ret.) but also intro duces us to other voices we should know, such as; Ron E. Hassner, Associate Professor in International Relations at the University of California, Berkeley and Pauletta Otis of the Marine Corps Command and Sta College. Carter refrains from the womens rights issues of developed countries, like abortion. He simply and proudly recalls historical moments where the center partnered with others to eradicate or reduce debilitating and deadly diseases, encourage democracy, and resolve conflict in numerous countries since 1982. Although some might find his theological perspective o-putting regarding women and clergy, one can hardly argue with the positive impact of the Carter Center on the lives of people worldwide. Undoubtedly, the work challenges a wide array cultural norms. Chaplains and others who wish to open the mental aperture and be exposed to this tough topic should read the book. And although the issues addressed within the work can be overwhelming, as though one individual cant possibly make a dier ence, this work meets its goal and inspires a response to Carters call to action. A Call to Action: Women, Religion, Violence, andPowerJimmy Carter Published by: Simon & Schuster, 2014 ISBN: 978-1476773957 224 pages In a recent conversation with a colleague, we both agreed that President Jimmy Carter has been a significant force for positive change worldwide. Encouraged by others to write the book, A Call to Action depicts numerous ac counts of the Carter Center, a non-profit organization, involved with a particular issue and the resulting change. Chapter by chapter, Carter oers his overview of the se lected topic and usually how his organization addressed the real and complex problem. The books full title indicates the subject matter revolves around helping women, particularly in war zones or areas of poverty, but also from Scandinavia, India, China to the U.S. The statistics alone demand attention, for instance the unintended generational despair that occurs as a result of widespread and statistically supported murder of infant girls. Numerous times, Carter reflects on how his personal theology influences his views and subsequent actions. Although unashamedly Christian, he doesnt ignore other religious traditions, but quotes friends and scholars, ex pressing how they too align with the cause. Carters primary goal continually weaves in and out. Like a perfected speech, the work stimulates personal reflec tion, but more important, personal action. One oensive challenge, expressed repetitively, questions how fre quently leaders misquoted and abuse holy texts in order to exploit vulnerable women and girls. His disgust prods however, into potentially oensive territory when he highlights the common practice of barring women from the ranks of clergy. He gives the sense that this practice promotes the regression of gender equality. Apart from addressing the gender wage gap, women holding high government oices, and the sex trade,
70 71 Unlike Lennons broad usage of the term love, Jacksons definition is specific in meaning and origins. Jackson carefully refers to the Greek word, agape, which he further defines as strong agape. Agape is unconditional: an utterly selfless and sacrificial love, passionately concerned for the good of others, and alive through the Gospels. His understanding of love departs from that of other faiths. He sees love as proceeding from God, the Source, as both personal and supernatural. While upholding truths that can be understood from the teachings of other faith traditions, Jackson holds that only agape love is universally adequate as a touchstone for virtue (xvi). Agape supports, transcends, and governs other values and virtues, reminding us of our place, both publicly and privately, in the economy of grace (pg. 69). Jacksons introduction begins with a theological exposition of Scriptural reference as he lays out his argument. He quotes, among other Scriptures, from Matthew 22:38, (the greatest and first command,) and 1 Corinthians 13:13, (the greatest of these.) Jackson is influenced by many theologians, including Karl Barth, Soren Kierkegaard, Paul Ramsey, and Stanley Hauerwas. His under standing is revelatory, with a strong influence from Barth. Nevertheless, his understanding of agape is Christological and Triune, with a definite influence of Hans Urs von Balthasar. Balthasars is a Trinitarian love, revealed in the revelation and self surrender of Jesus Christ, experienced through the Holy Spirit, and communicated through the Church.2 Jackson quotes Balthasar when referring to Gods love as depicted in Jesus Christ as the Good Shep herd (pg. 10). Again, he quotes Balthasar on page 20 as he asserts that Gods central nature is love. Love is not just one of the divine attributes, any more than mans answering love is one of the Virtues.3 Jackson goes as far as equating human identification of love as the most universal name for God (pg.24), and seals the argument with 1 John 4:8: God is love. (pg. 25) Aer laying his foundation, Jackson focuses on the practical application of love in violence, punishment, and abortion. What most interested me was what he had to say about violence and war. My particular interest comes from my experiences as a former police oicer, infantry Soldier, and Army Chaplain. On many occasions as a po lice oicer I used violence to restrain, subdue, and control those suspected of crime. In combat, I have witnessed atrocity, death, and other horrors associated with war in Bosnia, Iraq and Afghanistan. Jackson covers the main points of Hauerwas and pacifism, Niebuhr and realism, Ramsey and just war, and Segundo and liberated ethics. There is an assumption of familiarization with the dierent positions. For example in just war, an understanding of terms like proportionality and noncombat ant immunity is assumed. Jackson favors just war theory. This is no surprise; Augustine uses divine love as the basis for the development of just war theory. Like Augustine, Paul Ramsey denotes that we are citizens of two worlds, one militant and one triumphant (pg. 109). Jackson does an excellent job of portraying Paul Ramseys theology of just war. Violence is portrayed at the political level as sometimes permissible to restrain evil. Love seems to be coercive in some instances and is used as a justification for this position. The question posed is, Does love ever categorically demand violence? Instead of attempting an answer, Jackson relates just war as permissible for Christians, rather than obligatory. Likewise, he frames pacifism in a similar light, as permis sible but not obligatory, and cautioning against an ethic of withdrawal. Still, the argument is apologetic and brings us to the paradox of killing for the goodsomething that is unsettling for almost all Christians. In one regard, there is room for a critique for Jacksons handling of Niebuhr. Niebuhr seems to favor justice over love when considering actions on the political scene. This does not appear to be what Jackson terms an agape-centered justice. Niebuhrs justice seems to be closer to the academy than the cathedral. Since Jackson is a student of Ramsey, who was a student of Niebuhr, I think he gives him a pass. In addition, Niebuhrs position is anachronistic in some ways. He does not have the advantage of the conversation between ethicists that has taken place since his time. Niebuhrs brilliance is in getting us this far. This is probably why Jackson does not focus as readily on his position. All in all, Jackson works in depth. Arguing point by point in specific detail, Jackson lays out reasoned, detailed, and compelling defense of his position of agape love as the prime virtue. He dely takes on Hauerwas, Hayes, and other theo logical perspectives in explaining why love is the virtue of specific priority over all others. Love is the personification of God, revealed to us in the life and death of Jesus Christ. Furthermore, he carefully pushes love to the position of supremacy over reason, justice, and all other virtues. In bringing his theory to practical application he adeptly interacts with modern moral dilemmas. His detailed knowledge of the subject matter and incredible versatility in explaining his position is both edifying and compelling. Review by Chaplain (Maj.) Sean Wead; Doctor of Ministry, Master of Theology, Master of Divinity Assistant Professor of Ethics at the Command and General Sta College Tom Jones discography. BBC Wales. 2009. S2009. H. Retrieved 27 November 2009. Mark Dyer, Christology From Within: The Structure of Balthar sarian Christology Dec. 2. 1997) Hans Urs von Balthasar, Love Alone: The Way of Revelation 1 2 3The Priority of Love: Christian Chairity and SocialJusticeTimothy P. Jackson Published by: Princeton University Press, 2009 ISBN: 978-0691144283 256 pages John Lennon intended that his classic song, All You Need is Love, be a gi for all humanity. The manager of the Beatles, Brian Epstein, put it this way, It was an inspired song and they really wanted to give the world amessage.1 Like John Lennon before him, Timothy P. Jackson wants to give the world a wake-up call about the nature and power of love. In his book, The Priority of Love, Jackson conveys this message by focusing on three things. First, he attempts to define the ethic of Christian love. Two, he refines the nature of Christian love through a considered judgment of its traditions. Three, he shows specifically how Christian love diers from competing ethical explanations (pg. 10). We will explore some of the issues of love presented in his book, ask questions, and pose criticisms in an attempt to digest and apply the thoughts explored by Jackson. The book captures the changes that have taken place as commanders have looked to Chaplains to help them understand the complex religious contexts of todays operations and even engage with local civilian clerics. The book highlights many of the successes of senior Chaplains who have not only helped their command make sense of the religious landscape but who have done real world peacemaking in extremely hostile situations This book is valuable to serving Chaplains because it tells many of the important stories of the last dozen years but it is also valuable to academics and foreign service professionals because it raises issues critical for national security policy and diplomacy. Review by Chaplain (Lt. Col.) Brian Crane U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School
72 73 Biblical Preaching: The Development and Delivery of Expository MessagesHaddon W. Robinson Published by: Baker Academic; 3 edition, 2014 ISBN: 978-0801049125 256 pages This is a book about expository preaching. Robinson writes that expository preaching is the communication of a biblical concept, derived from and transmitted through a historical, grammatical, and literary study of a passage in its context, which the Holy Spirit first applies to the personality and experience of the preacher, then through the preacher, applies to the hearers.Any single sermon should have just one major idea. The points or subdivisions should be parts of this one grand thought. Every sermon should have a theme, and that theme should be the theme of the portion of Scripture on which it is based. Preaching is the communication of a biblical concept. A sermon should be a bullet, not buckshot. Ideally, each sermon is the explanation, interpretation, or application of a single dominant idea supported by other ideas, all drawn from one passage or several passages of Scripture. Having selected the passage, we must first examine it in its context. The passage does not exist in isolation. As individual verses rest within a paragraph, the paragraphs are part of a chapter, and the chapters are part of the book. The text without the context is a pretext. The author explains that expository sermons consist of ideas drawn from the Scriptures, but the ideas of Scripture must be related to life. To preach eectively, therefore, expositors must be involved in three dierent worlds: the world of the Bible, the modern world, and the particular world in which we are called to preach. We should remember that we are not lecturing to people about the Bible. We are talking to people about themselves from the Bible. This statement, therefore, should be in fresh, vital, contemporary language. Some statements of the homilet ical idea may be identical to the statement of the exegetical idea. That is the case when you are dealing with universal principles that apply to anyone at any time. Other exegetical ideas, however, are turned into homiletical ideas when you make them more upto-date or personal. People need to be reminded as much as they need to be informed. Through a study of the passage, we should have determined the exegetical idea by stating clearly what the writer was talking about and what. In an eort to relate the exegesis to the contemporary audience, we then probed the idea with three developmentalquestions: What does that mean? Explain it! Is it really true? Prove it! What dierence does it make? Apply it! From this we framed a homiletical idea that relates the biblical concept to modern men and women. In addition, we established a purpose for the sermon. Introductions and conclusions have significance in a ser mon out of proportion to their length. Always important for hearers to like a speaker, it is particularly true today. Men and women in our culture value relationships, and they will make a judgment about you and your attitudes before they will give their attention to what you have to say. Not only does an introduction introduce you to the audience, but your introduction should introduce your audience to the subject of your sermon idea. The purpose of your conclusion is to conclude---not merely stop. The conclusion should produce a feeling offinality. I especially liked how the author emphasizes that a good sermon highlights the correct, historical understanding of the Bible. A good sermon understands the times the Bible was written in. Before sermon prior to first understand that what is written in the scripture. In other words, we need to understand that what we are talking about, then we need to speak with short sentences, very simple and clear, so that everyone can understand. It is important for modern preachers to connect the ancient text, written two thousand years ago, to us today. A good sermon answers the question, what did this mean for them? and, what does it mean for us? Overall this book is not only interesting, but also very use ful for good preaching. It contains all the instructions that are necessary for eective Biblical preaching. Review by Fr. Movses Sargsyan, Armenian Army Father Movses Sargsyan is an Orthodox priest for the Armenian Army. His review was written while he was a student at the Chaplain Captain Career Course at the U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School, Fort Jackson, SouthCarolina Review by Chaplain Major Hug Maraj, The Bangladesh Army Major Maraj was a visiting Islamic clergyman and student at the Chaplain Captains Career Course at the U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School, Fort Jackson, SouthCarolina. Communicating for a ChangeAndy Stanley and Lane Jones Multnomah Books; 1St Edition edition, 2006 ISBN: 978-1590525142 208 pages Andy Stanley and Lane Jones are on sta at one of Amer icas largest churches, North Point Community in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. This book is the result of their eorts to translate the work of homiletics into public speaking. The end result is that the reader make public speaking simple, easy, and even enjoyable, so that Gods messages will readily produce the life-changing results they should. Communicating for a Change is divided into two sections: Hows My Preaching? and Communicating for Change. The first half is a story about a man who learned to preach from a truck driver. In this story, the authors weave into the conversation the seven principles of Communicating for a Change. The sec ond half details the seven principles in a more straightfor ward way. In this highly creative presentation, the authors unpack seven concepts that teaches us how to engage and impact the audience in a way that leaves them want ing more. The seven steps are: Determine Your Goal Pick a Point Create a Map Internalize the Message Engage Your Audience Find Your Voice Start All Over Communicating for a Change is 196 pages of instruction, take-aways, and concludes with a question and answer time with the authors. The Reverends Andy Stanley and Lane Jones oer a unique strategy for communicators seeking to deliver captivating and practical messages.
The Chaplain conducts ministry publicly. This is an essential role that involves liturgy, prayer, ceremony, and ministry of presence. Questions arise as to how public ministry is best conducted. How can we be faithful to our respective faith traditions in a pluralistic setting? How does faith interact with the Chaplains role in ceremonies? How is liturgy changing? How is it the same? How do military environments impact the sacraments of the Church? How has Conservative Judaism expressed public worship in the recent war years? How about prison ministry and the sacraments? To facilitate this process of thinking critically and reflectively about these are other questions related to the Chaplains public ministry, the Chaplain Corps Journal will focus the AutumnWinter issue on The Chaplains Public Ministry: Liturgy, Worship and Ceremony in Todays Military. Proposals for papers are invited to address the issues announced in the conference call. Papers that explore the intersection between religion, theology, Army values, and practical ways to bring care to the Soldier and Family are particularly invited. The Chaplain Corps Journal will publish six to eight referred papers on the announced theme. In addition, the Journal will publish at least one inspirational article and six bookreviews.Format of abstract/proposal:Article should include an abstract, as well as a vitae, and be no more than 2,500 words and no fewer than 1,500 words, clearly indicating the title, proposer, institutional ailiation, plus 5 to 8 key words. Please follow the Author Submission Guidelines before submitting. Also, see the five-step peer review process employed to approve articles at the Chaplain Corps Journal. Communicate your abstract/article to Ms. Julia Simpkins.Deadline for proposals September 15, 2015Inquiries and assistanceFor inquiries and assistance, contact Ms. Julia Simpkins, Editor: Julia.firstname.lastname@example.org The Chaplain Corps Journal Commandant, U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School, 10100 Lee Road, 29207 Fort Jackson, SC Managing Editor, CH (COL) Peter Sniin: email@example.com Senior Editor, CH (LTC) Michael A. Milton: Michael.firstname.lastname@example.org Book Review Editor, CH (LTC) Brian Crane: email@example.comDownload the Author Submission Guide Here74 75 Peer-Reviewed Articles for Publication in the United States Army Chaplain Corps Journal The Chaplain Corps Journal is a bi-annual, peer-reviewed professional journal that provides a respectful, academically-rigorous forum for theological reflection, doctrinal discussion, personal encouragement and challenge, as well as book reviews particularly those that call the U.S. Army Chaplain Corps (and sister service Chaplains, coalition part ner Chaplains, theological students, academics, and practitioners in ordained ministry or religious service) to think critically and reflectively about religious support to Soldiers, other service members, and their Families. The Chaplain Corps Journal is archived at the Command and Research Library at Fort Leavenworth: http://www.tinyrurl.com/CHJournal Opportunity To contribute to the scholarly and professional body of knowledge of the U.S. Army Chap lain Corps by authoring an article on the Journal theme. To publish in a peer-reviewed professional journal that seeks to think critically and reflectively about the professional Chaplain ministering in the United States Army, Army Reserve, and National Guard.Author Qualifications U.S. Army Chaplains (AC, USAR, and NG) The Chaplain Corps Journal will, also, publish articles from U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy Chaplains (serving all of the sea services) Retired military Chaplains Special guests by invitationDate: Papers are due September 15, 2015. Send electronic version of Word doc to Ms. Julia Simpkins, Editor, The Chaplain Corps Journal: Julia.firstname.lastname@example.org The Chaplains Public Ministry: Liturgy, Worship, and Ceremony in the Military Setting Today Chaplain Corps Journal, Autumn 2015Call For Papers: Autumn 2015
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